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Sample records for airport movement area

  1. Enhancing pilot situational awareness of the airport surface movement area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. R.; Young, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    Two studies are being conducted to address airport surface movement area safety and capacity issues by providing enhanced situational awareness information to pilots. One study focuses on obtaining pilot opinion of the Runway Status Light System (RSLS). This system has been designed to reduce the likelihood of runway incursions by informing pilots when a runway is occupied. The second study is a flight demonstration of an rate integrated system consisting of an electronic moving map in the cockpit and display of the aircraft identification to the controller. Taxi route and hold warning information will be sent to the aircraft data link for display on the electronic moving map. This paper describes the plans for the two studies.

  2. Airport Surface Movement Technologies: Atlanta Demonstrations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted in August 1997 at the Hartsfield Atlanta (ATL) International Airport as part of low visibility landing and surface operations (LVLASO) research activities. This research was aimed at investigating technology to improve the safety and efficiency of aircraft movements on the surface during the operational phases of roll-out, turnoff, and taxi in any weather condition down to a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system tested at ATL was composed of airborne and ground-based components that were integrated to provide both the flight crew and controllers with supplemental information to enable safe, expedient surface operations. Experimental displays were installed on a Boeing 757-200 research aircraft in both headup and head-down formats. On the ground, an integrated system maintained surveillance of the airport surface and a controller interface provided routing and control instructions. While at ATL, the research aircraft performed a series of flight and taxi operations to show the validity of the operational concept at a major airport facility, to validate simulation findings, and to assess each of the individual technologies performance in an airport environment. The concept was demonstrated to over 100 visitors from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the aviation community. This paper gives an overview of the LVLASO system and ATL test activities.

  3. 14 CFR 121.445 - Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports. 121.445 Section 121.445 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Qualifications § 121.445 Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports. (a)...

  4. Flight Demonstration of Integrated Airport Surface Movement Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Jones, Denise R.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes operations associated with a set of flight experiments and demonstrations using a Boeing-757-200 research aircraft as part of low visibility landing and surface operations (LVLASO) research activities. To support this experiment, the B-757 performed flight and taxi operations at the Atlanta Hartsfield International Airport in Atlanta, GA. The test aircraft was equipped with experimental displays that were designed to provide flight crews with sufficient information to enable safe, expedient surface operations in any weather condition down to a runway visual range of 300 feet. In addition to flight deck displays and supporting equipment onboard the B-757, there was also a ground-based component of the system that provided for ground controller inputs and surveillance of airport surface movements. Qualitative and quantitative results are discussed.

  5. Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery of Airports and Surrounding Areas: Denver Stapleton International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, Robert G.; Gineris, Denise J.

    1990-01-01

    This is the third in a series of three reports which address the statistical description of ground clutter at an airport and in the surrounding area. These data are being utilized in a program to detect microbursts. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were collected at the Denver Stapleton Airport using a set of parameters which closely match those which are anticipated to be utilized by an aircraft on approach to an airport. These data and the results of the clutter study are described. Scenes of 13 x 10 km were imaged at 9.38 GHz and HH-, VV-, and HV-polarizations, and contain airport grounds and facilities (up to 14 percent), cultural areas (more than 50 percent), and rural areas (up to 6 percent). Incidence angles range from 40 to 84 deg. At the largest depression angles the distributed targets, such as forest, fields, water, and residential, rarely had mean scattering coefficients greater than -10 dB. From 30 to 80 percent of an image had scattering coefficients less than -20 dB. About 1 to 10 percent of the scattering coefficients exceeded 0 dB, and from 0 to 1 percent above 10 dB. In examining the average backscatter coefficients at large angles, the clutter types cluster according to the following groups: (1) terminals (-3 dB), (2) city and industrial (-7 dB), (3) warehouse (-10 dB), (4) urban and residential (-14 dB), and (5) grass (-24 dB).

  6. Synthetic aperture radar imagery of airports and surrounding areas: Philadelphia Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, Robert G.; Gineris, Denise J.

    1990-01-01

    The statistical description of ground clutter at an airport and in the surrounding area is addressed. These data are being utilized in a program to detect microbursts. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data were collected at the Philadelphia Airport. These data and the results of the clutter study are described. This 13 km x 10 km scene was imaged at 9.38 GHz and HH-polarization and contained airport grounds and facilities (6 percent), industrial (14 percent), residential (14 percent), fields (10 percent), forest (8 percent), and water (33 percent). Incidence angles ranged from 40 to 84 deg. Even at the smallest incidence angles, the distributed targets such as forest, fields, water, and residential rarely had mean scattering coefficients greater than -10 dB. Eighty-seven percent of the image had scattering coefficients less than -17.5 dB. About 1 percent of the scattering coefficients exceeded 0 dB, with about 0.1 percent above 10 dB. Sources which produced the largest cross sections were largely confined to the airport grounds and areas highly industrialized. The largest cross sections were produced by observing broadside large buildings surrounded by smooth surfaces.

  7. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 113 - Airport Customs Security Area Bond

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Airport Customs Security Area Bond A Appendix A to... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Pt. 113, App. A Appendix A to Part 113—Airport Customs Security Area Bond Airport Customs Security Area Bond (name of principal) of and (name of surety) of are held...

  8. Clutter modeling of the Denver Airport and surrounding areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrah, Steven D.; Delmore, Victor E.; Onstott, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    To accurately simulate and evaluate an airborne Doppler radar as a wind shear detection and avoidance sensor, the ground clutter surrounding a typical airport must be quantified. To do this, an imaging airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was employed to investigate and map the normalized radar cross sections (NRCS) of the ground terrain surrounding the Denver Stapleton Airport during November of 1988. Images of the Stapleton ground clutter scene were obtained at a variety of aspect and elevation angles (extending to near-grazing) at both HH and VV polarizations. Presented here, in viewgraph form with commentary, are the method of data collection, the specific observations obtained of the Denver area, a summary of the quantitative analysis performed on the SAR images to date, and the statistical modeling of several of the more interesting stationary targets in the SAR database. Additionally, the accompanying moving target database, containing NRCS and velocity information, is described.

  9. 49 CFR 1544.231 - Airport-approved and exclusive area personnel identification systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport-approved and exclusive area personnel... AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.231 Airport-approved... carry out a personnel identification system for identification media that are airport-approved,...

  10. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  11. Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, David W.

    2007-01-01

    In this project final report, entitled "Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas," we provide a detailed description and model representation for the wireless channel in the airport surface environment in this band. In this executive summary, we review report contents, describe the achieved objectives and major findings, and highlight significant conclusions and recommendations.

  12. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prescribed under appendix A of 14 CFR part 150. Determination of land use must be based on professional... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of land uses in airport... RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  13. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prescribed under appendix A of 14 CFR part 150. Determination of land use must be based on professional... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of land uses in airport... RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  14. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prescribed under appendix A of 14 CFR part 150. Determination of land use must be based on professional... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of land uses in airport... RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  15. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prescribed under appendix A of 14 CFR part 150. Determination of land use must be based on professional... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of land uses in airport... RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  16. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prescribed under appendix A of 14 CFR part 150. Determination of land use must be based on professional... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of land uses in airport... RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  17. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 113 - Airport Customs Security Area Bond

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Airport Customs Security Area Bond A Appendix A to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Pt. 113, App. A Appendix A to Part 113—Airport Customs Security...

  18. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 113 - Airport Customs Security Area Bond

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Airport Customs Security Area Bond A Appendix A to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Pt. 113, App. A Appendix A to Part 113—Airport Customs Security...

  19. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 113 - Airport Customs Security Area Bond

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Airport Customs Security Area Bond A Appendix A to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Pt. 113, App. A Appendix A to Part 113—Airport Customs Security...

  20. Airport Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan Paluska/Flickr Denver Airport Security Screening Introduction With air travel regaining popularity and increased secu- rity measures, airport security screening has become an area of interest for ...

  1. Initial Concept for Terminal Area Conflict Detection, Alerting, and Resolution Capability on or Near the Airport Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David F.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for 2025 envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. The NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and deliver an overall system capacity up to 3 times that of current operating levels. In order to achieve the NextGen vision, research is necessary in the areas of surface traffic optimization, maximum runway capacity, reduced runway occupancy time, simultaneous single runway operations, and terminal area conflict prevention, among others. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) research to develop technologies, data, and guidelines to enable Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) in the Airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (ATMA) under current and emerging NextGen operating concepts. In this report, an initial concept for an aircraft-based method for CD&R in the ATMA is presented. This method is based upon previous NASA work in CD&R for runway incursion prevention, the Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS). CAAT research is conducted jointly under NASA's Airspace Systems Program, Airportal Project and the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project.

  2. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  3. Ground-water and surface-water elevations in the Fairbanks International Airport area, Alaska, 1990-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claar, D.V.; Lilly, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water and surface-water elevation data were collected at 52 sites from 1990 to 1994 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Fairbanks International Airport. Water elevations were measured in 32 ground-water observation wells and at 20 surface-water sites to help characterize the geohydrology of the Fairbanks International Airport area. From 1990 to 1993, data were collected in the vicinity of the former fire-training area at the airport. From 1993 to 1994, the data-collection area was expanded to include the entire airport area.

  4. 33 CFR 162.20 - Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area. 162.20 Section 162.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.20 Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area....

  5. 75 FR 19422 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San... as the Airport Mesa/Carrizo Creek shooting area located in eastern San Diego County, California. The closure order prohibits recreational shooting and target practice. The use of firearms will continue to...

  6. Airport-area airspace used in simulated operations with an experimental powered-lift STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsby, N. S.; Sawyer, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Simulation tests were made using an experimental powered-lift STOL airplane to help define airport-area airspace requirements for STOL operations. The operational feasibility and airspace used in take-offs followed by climbing turns, offset (bent localizer) approaches, missed approaches, and two-segment (bent glide-slope) approaches were studied. Flight-director guidance was provided for the approach maneuvers.

  7. The effect of airplane noise on the inhabitants of areas near Okecie Airport in Warsaw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koszarny, Z.; Maziarka, S.; Szata, W.

    1981-01-01

    The state of health and noise annoyance among persons living in areas near Okecie airport exposed to various intensities of noise was evaluated. Very high annoyance effects of airplane noise of intensities over 100 dB (A) were established. A connection between the airplane noise and certain ailments complained about by the inhabitants was demonstrated.

  8. Planning for airport access: An analysis of the San Francisco Bay area. Technological options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Current transportation technology and expected technological trends are reviewed. These technologies are assessed within the framework of the airport access system in the San Francisco Bay area. Four types of technological options are considered: (1) automotive systems, (2) commuter air systems, (3) automated guideways, and (4) water systems.

  9. Terminal Area Productivity Airport Wind Analysis and Chicago O'Hare Model Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes two results from a continuing effort to provide accurate cost-benefit analyses of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program technologies. Previous tasks have developed airport capacity and delay models and completed preliminary cost benefit estimates for TAP technologies at 10 U.S. airports. This task covers two improvements to the capacity and delay models. The first improvement is the completion of a detailed model set for the Chicago O'Hare (ORD) airport. Previous analyses used a more general model to estimate the benefits for ORD. This paper contains a description of the model details with results corresponding to current conditions. The second improvement is the development of specific wind speed and direction criteria for use in the delay models to predict when the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) will allow use of reduced landing separations. This paper includes a description of the criteria and an estimate of AVOSS utility for 10 airports based on analysis of 35 years of weather data.

  10. Initial Concept for Terminal Area Conflict Detection, Alerting, and Resolution Capability On or Near the Airport Surface, Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for 2025 envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. The NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and deliver an overall system capacity up to 3 times that of current operating levels. In order to achieve the NextGen vision, research is necessary in the areas of surface traffic optimization, maximum runway capacity, reduced runway occupancy time, simultaneous single runway operations, and terminal area conflict prevention, among others. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) research to develop technologies, data, and guidelines to enable Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) in the Airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (ATMA) under current and emerging NextGen operating concepts. The term ATMA was created to reflect the fact that the CD&R concept area of operation is focused near the airport within the terminal maneuvering area. In the following, an initial concept for an aircraft-based method for CD&R in the ATMA is presented. This method is based upon previous NASA work in CD&R for runway incursion prevention, the Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS).

  11. Indoor air quality at nine large-hub airports with and without designated smoking areas--United States, October-November 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-11-23

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes death and disease among nonsmoking adults and children. Adopting policies that completely prohibit smoking in all indoor areas is the only effective way to eliminate involuntary SHS exposure. Among the 29 large-hub U.S. airports, five currently allow smoking in specifically designated indoor areas accessible to the general public. In 2011, these five airports had a combined passenger boarding of approximately 110 million. To assess indoor air quality at the five large-hub U.S. airports with designated indoor smoking areas and compare it with the indoor air quality at four large-hub U.S. airports that prohibit smoking in all indoor areas, CDC measured the levels of respirable suspended particulates (RSPs), a marker for SHS. The results of this assessment determined that the average level of RSPs in the smoking-permitted areas of these five airports was 16 times the average level in nonsmoking areas (boarding gate seating sections) and 23 times the average level of RSPs in the smoke-free airports. The average RSP level in areas adjacent to the smoking-permitted areas was four times the average level in nonsmoking areas of the five airports with designated smoking areas and five times the average level in smoke-free airports. Smoke-free policies at the state, local, or airport authority levels can eliminate involuntary exposure to SHS inside airports and protect employees and travelers of all ages from SHS.

  12. 77 FR 68813 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San.../Carrizo Creek shooting area located in eastern San Diego County, California. The closure order prohibits recreational shooting and target practice. The use of firearms will continue to be allowed for...

  13. Recent movements of the earth crust: Composite geodynamic test areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanzhe, Iu. D.; Lilienberg, D. A.; Setunskaia, L. E.; Enman, S. V.

    This collection of papers summarizes studies of recent crustal movements on a number of test areas in the USSR in the framework of International Research Project No. 9, dealing with crustal movements in Central and Eastern Europe and Cuba. Particular papers are presented on the interpretation of movements in the Black Sea region in the light of plate tectonics; dynamic types of morphological structures of plains and low-mountain relief in Central Asia and Kazakhstan in vertical movements; horizontal movements and tectonic zoning of the earth surface on the southern Iakutsk geodynamic test area; the manifestation of crustal movements in mining regions; and movements on geodynamic test grounds in the Tiumen region.

  14. Ranging airport pseudolite for local area augmentation using the global positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartone, Chris Gregory

    The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is being developed to support precision approach and landing operations in and about the local area surrounding an airport. The LAAS Program is currently under development by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards for the LAAS being developed by RTCA, Incorporated. The LAAS uses differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and includes one or more airport pseudolites (APL) to increase the availability for certain installations. This dissertation addresses the addition of a differentially corrected, ranging APL into a LAAS. Prior to this work, no ranging APL has been integrated into a prototype LAAS and demonstrated in a real-time flight environment showing that an increase in LAAS availability is feasible. The APL requirements resulted in a prototype APL transmitting and receiving subsystem with a coarse-acquisition (C/A) code format that could be operated at any frequency within the L1± 10.0 MHz band. To investigate the major APL error the developmental approach was performed in two phases. Phase I implemented an APL operating at a center frequency off-L1 and concentrated on multipath limiting. The Phase II on-L1 APL architecture implemented a unique pulsing, automatic gain control (AGC) and GPS Blanker technique in the common reception path to maximize APL signal tracking and minimize electromagnetic interference to DGPS. To minimize ground multipath for the APL geometry, which is more severe than for GPS, a multipath limiting antenna (MLA) was designed, fabricated, and tested within a 4-month period. The implementation of this MLA concept was a first for APL applications and also contributed to the successful multipath limiting of ground multipath at the DGPS LAAS Ground Station. This effort successfully demonstrated that ground multipath can be limited (with low variance and no long-term bias) for the APL geometry and that suitable precision approach performance

  15. Ground-water and surface-water elevations in the Fairbanks International Airport area, Alaska, 1990-96, and selected geohydrologic report references

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claar, David V.; Lilly, Michael R.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water and surface-water elevation data were collected at 61 sites from 1990 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Fairbanks International Airport. Water-surface elevations were measured in 41 ground-water observation wells and at 20 surface-water sites to help characterize the geohydrology of the Fairbanks International Airport area. From 1990 to 1993, data were collected in the vicinity of the former fire-training area at the airport. From 1993 to 1996, the data-collection area was expanded to include the entire airport area. The total number of data-collection sites varied each year because of changing project objectives and increased understanding of the geohydrology in the area.

  16. Airport noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of airport noise at several airports and air bases is detailed. Community reactions to the noise, steps taken to reduce jet engine noise, and the effect of airport use restrictions and curfews on air transportation are discussed. The adverse effect of changes in allowable operational noise on airport safety and altenative means for reducing noise pollution are considered. Community-airport relations and public relations are discussed.

  17. Assessing the Impacts of Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport on Particulate Matter and Ozone in Atlanta Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Alper; Odman, M. Talat; Russell, Armistead G.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine, through modeling, the impact of aircraft emissions on regional air quality, especially in regard to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) as well as ozone and other pollutants. For this, we focused on Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport which is the busiest airport in the world based on passenger traffic (AIC, 2003). Hartsfield-Jackson serves the metropolitan Atlanta area where air quality does not meet national standards. Emissions from mobile and industrial sources (including several large electric power generating utilities) are the major contributors to the area's air pollution. In this study, we assessed the impact of Hartsfield-Jackson Airport on air quality around Atlanta, Georgia, and compared it to the impacts of other emission sources in the area. The assessment was built upon other, related air quality studies involving both field and modeling components. To achieve the objectives, first a detailed inventory was developed for aircraft and other emissions at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Then, air quality simulations were performed to relate these emissions to regional air quality around Atlanta. The Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) was used as the modeling platform. The period of August 11-20 2000 was selected as the episode to be modeled in this study. Prior modeling of this episode during the Fall Line Air Quality Study (FAQS) and availability of additional PM(2.5) measurements for evaluation played a major role in this selection. Meteorological data for this episode as well as emission data for sources other than aircrafts were already available from FAQS.

  18. 76 FR 27743 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Airport Traffic Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... visibility and improve safety of airport movement areas, have the capability to meet existing and future...-day public comment period at the following libraries: Champaign Public Library, 200 W Green...

  19. A double-risk monitoring and movement restriction policy for Ebola entry screening at airports in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Sheldon H; Yu, Ge; Jokela, Janet A

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an alternative policy for Ebola entry screening at airports in the United States. This alternative policy considers a social contact tracing (SCT) risk level, in addition to the current health risk level used by the CDC. The performances of both policies are compared based on the scenarios that occur and the expected cost associated with implementing such policies. Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify conditions under which one policy dominates the other policy. This analysis takes into account that the alternative policy requires additional data collection, which is balanced by a more cost-effective allocation of resources.

  20. Human area 5 modulates corticospinal output during movement preparation.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Tanner N; Bailey, Aaron Z; Mi, Peter Y; Tsang, Philemon; Jones, Christina B; Nelson, Aimee J

    2016-09-28

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests that human Brodmann area 5 (BA5) within the superior parietal lobule contributes to movement planning. However, a causal role for the contribution of BA5 to preparatory processes has yet to be reported. We used paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the influence of human BA5 on corticospinal excitability during movement preparation in the context of a GO/NO-GO task. Functional connectivity between BA5 and the ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) was investigated by probing corticospinal output to the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the right hand. Results indicate that BA5 influences M1 during movement preparation in a task-specific manner: motor-evoked potentials are suppressed in the context of a NO-GO versus GO task. These findings provide evidence that human BA5 participates in movement preparation and differentiates between whether a movement is withheld or executed. PMID:27508980

  1. Synthetic aperture radar imagery of airports and surrounding areas: Study of clutter at grazing angles and their polarimetric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, Robert G.; Gineris, Denise J.; Clinthorne, James T.

    1991-01-01

    The statistical description of ground clutter at an airport and in the surrounding area is addressed. These data are being utilized in a program to detect microbursts. Synthetic aperture radar data were collected at the Denver Stapleton Airport. Mountain terrain data were examined to determine if they may potentially contribute to range ambiguity problems and degrade microburst detection. Results suggest that mountain clutter may not present a special problem source. The examination of clutter at small grazing angles was continued by examining data collected at especially low altitudes. Cultural objects such as buildings produce strong sources of backscatter at angles of about 85 deg, with responses of 30 dB to 60 dB above the background. Otherwise there are a few sources which produce significant scatter. The polarization properties of hydrospheres and clutter were examined with the intent of determining the optimum polarization. This polarization was determined to be dependent upon the ratio of VV and HH polarizations of both rain and ground clutter.

  2. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Locations. The following areas are security zones: (1)...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Locations. The following areas are security zones: (1)...

  4. Progress on the Development of Future Airport Surface Wireless Communications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Budinger, James M.; Brooks, David E.; Franklin, Morgan; DeHart, Steve; Dimond, Robert P.; Borden, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Continuing advances in airport surface management and improvements in airport surface safety are required to enable future growth in air traffic throughout the airspace, as airport arrival and departure delays create a major system bottleneck. These airport management and safety advances will be built upon improved communications, navigation, surveillance, and weather sensing, creating an information environment supporting system automation. The efficient movement of the digital data generated from these systems requires an underlying communications network infrastructure to connect data sources with the intended users with the required quality of service. Current airport surface communications consists primarily of buried copper or fiber cable. Safety related communications with mobile airport surface assets occurs over 25 kHz VHF voice and data channels. The available VHF spectrum, already congested in many areas, will be insufficient to support future data traffic requirements. Therefore, a broadband wireless airport surface communications network is considered a requirement for the future airport component of the air transportation system. Progress has been made on defining the technology and frequency spectrum for the airport surface wireless communications network. The development of a test and demonstration facility and the definition of required testing and standards development are now underway. This paper will review the progress and planned future work.

  5. Time-lapse resistivity measurements combined with soil water sampling to characterize solute movement in the unsaturated zone at Oslo airport, Gardermoen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloem, E.; French, H. K.; Binley, A.; Schotanus, D.; Eggen, G.

    2010-12-01

    Pollution of soils is a widespread problem and is an important part of the still to be implemented Soil Directive (EU). To improve risk assessment, monitoring, and treatment strategies for natural attenuation, we require a better understanding of the effect of soil heterogeneity on contaminant movement and methods for monitoring the effects of this heterogeneity at contaminated sites. Geophysical methods provide indirect measurements of subsurface properties over larger volumes than tradition techniques, and are potentially cost-efficient. However, the usefulness of any individual set of geophysical measurements (akin to a snapshot at one point in time) is severely limited by the problem of non-uniqueness or ambiguity when used to study contaminated sites, where the attendant processes vary in space and time. To make progress on soil contamination assessment and site characterization there is a strong need to integrate quasi field-scale, extensively instrumented tools, such as the multi-compartment sampler, with non-invasive (geophysical) and invasive (soil sampling, soil water sampling) methods. We illustrate this approach in an application to solute transport at Oslo airport, Norway. The impact of annual infiltration of large quantities of de-icing chemicals at Oslo airport, Gardermoen, represents common challenge for all airports with winter frost. It is also similar to the challenge posed by de-icing salt application along roads. At the research field station at Gardermoen, a degradable de-icing chemical and an inactive tracer were added to the snow cover prior to snowmelt and to the surface during an irrigation experiment performed after the snowmelt. In order to link geophysical measurements to solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone, time-lapse cross borehole resistivity as well as surface resistivity measurements were conducted at the same time as soil water samples were extracted. Measurements of soil temperature, and tension were also carried

  6. 49 CFR 27.71 - Airport facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Access Act rules (49 CFR part 382) for carriers. (g) If an airport operator who receives Federal...). (c) The airport shall ensure that there is an accessible path between the gate and the area...

  7. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN) for efficient movement monitoring.

    PubMed

    Felisberto, Filipe; Costa, Nuno; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Pereira, António

    2012-01-01

    The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users' quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge database by using learning techniques, useful to infer abnormal behaviour. In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations. The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. Doing so, in an as ubiquitous as possible way, ensures that its impact on the users' daily actions is minimum. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. The proposed system creates movement profiles based on the data sent by the WBAN's nodes, and is able to detect in real time any abnormal movement and allows for a monitored rehabilitation of the user.

  8. Concentration of 1,4-Dioxane in Wells Sampled During 2002-2009 in the Vicinity of the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund Site, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D

    2010-01-01

    Extensive groundwater contamination resulting from industrial activities led to the listing of the Tucson International Airport Area as a Superfund Site in 1983. Early investigations revealed elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including the chlorinated solvents trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in wells in the area. Several responsible parties were identified and cleanup activities were begun in the late 1980s using technology designed for removal of VOCs. In 2002, the compound 1,4-dioxane was discovered in wells in the Tucson Airport Remediation Project (TARP) area. Since then, 1,4-dioxane has been detected throughout the TARP area, in some cases exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water advisory level of 3 ?g/L.

  9. Integrated Airport Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, S.

    1998-01-01

    The current air traffic environment in airport terminal areas experiences substantial delays when weather conditions deteriorate to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Research activity at NASA has culminated in the development, flight test and demonstration of a prototype Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) system. A NASA led industry team and the FAA developed the system which integrated airport surface surveillance systems, aeronautical data links, DGPS navigation, automation systems, and controller and flight deck displays. The LVLASO system was demonstrated at the Hartsfield-Atlanta International Airport using a Boeing 757-200 aircraft during August, 1997. This report documents the contractors role in this testing particularly in the area of data link and DGPS navigation.

  10. Magnetoencephalogram recording from secondary motor areas during imagined movements.

    PubMed

    Amo, Carlos; Criado, José R; Otis, Shirley M

    2006-06-01

    This study determined whether the activity of the secondary motor cortex (M2) could be recorded during imagined movements (IM) of the right and left hand using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Results during IM were compared with a somatosensory trial during a passive tactile stimulation in one subject. During the somatosensory trial, dipoles were detected in somatosensory (SS) and motor primary (M1) areas, scoring 94.4-98.4% for SS, 1.6-5.6% for M1 and 0% for M2. During the IM trial, dipoles were detected in SS, M1 and M2 areas, scoring 61.1-68.8% for SS, 2.6-9.3% for M1 and 28.6-29.6% for M2. These data support the hypothesis that M2 areas are activated during imagined hand movements. This study aims for the development of a diagnosis test for patients with motor deficits by evaluating the whole somatomotor network with specific interest in M2 areas.

  11. A Terminal Area Analysis of Continuous Ascent Departure Fuel Use at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Keenan; Robinson, John E., III

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft departing from the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) encounter vertical restrictions that prevent continuous ascent operations. The result of these restrictions are temporary level-offs at 10,000 feet. A combination of flow direction, specific Area Navigation (RNAV) route geometry, and arrival streams have been found to be the biggest factors in the duration and frequency of a temporary level-offs. In total, 20% of DFW departures are affected by these level-offs, which have an average duration of just over 100 seconds. The use of continuous descent approaches at DFW are shown to lessen the impact arrivals have on the departures and allow more continuous ascents. The fuel used in a continuous ascent and an ascent with a temporary level-off have been calculated using a fuel burn rate model created from a combination of actual aircraft track data, aircraft manufacturer flight operations manuals, and Eurocontrol's Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) simulation tool. This model represents the average aggregate burn rates for the current fleet mix at DFW. Continuous ascents would save approximately seven gallons of fuel out of 450 gallons used to climb to a cruise altitude of 31,000ft per departure.

  12. Flight demonstration of integrated airport surface automation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.

    1995-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted to address airport surface movement area capacity issues by providing pilots with enhanced situational awareness information. The demonstration showed an integration of several technologies to government and industry representatives. These technologies consisted of an electronic moving map display in the cockpit, a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) receiver, a high speed VHF data link, an ASDE-3 radar, and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS). Aircraft identification was presented to an air traffic controller on AMASS. The onboard electronic map included the display of taxi routes, hold instructions, and clearances, which were sent to the aircraft via data link by the controller. The map also displayed the positions of other traffic and warning information, which were sent to the aircraft automatically from the ASDE-3/AMASS system. This paper describes the flight demonstration in detail, along with preliminary results.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2001-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the remediation activities performed and the results of verification sampling conducted at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box. The CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1) and consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 22-03-01- Sewage Lagoon (CAU 230); and 22-99-01- Strainer Box (CAU 320). Included with CAS 22-99-01 is a buried Imhoff tank and a sludge bed. These CAUs will be collectively referred to in this plan as the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. Site characterization activities were done during September 1999. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) indicated that only the sludge bed (CAS 22-99-01) contained constituents of concern (COC) above action levels and required remediation (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2000a).

  14. Noise zoning around airports in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, F. W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The situation in the Netherlands with respect to noise abatement is dominated by a steadily increasing activity both at the political and the administrative level. A new law with respect to the designation of noise zones around existing and future airports and military airfields was enacted on 1 October 1978. A comprehensive new noise nuisance act was signed by the Queen on 16 February 1979. Both laws were accepted by Parliament unanimously. This article describes the new regulations with respect to noise zoning around airports. To maintain the habitability of the environment around airports, a demarcation will be made between the interest of the people living there and those of aviation. A noise zone will be designated outside which the noise load from aircraft movements may not exceed a fixed maximum. Within this area, where a noise load above the fixed maximum is allowed, planning and building design measures will have to be taken. Although the exclusion of new housing within the noise zone is an essential element, the area will be used for other purposes by exchanging previously intended developments with those from areas outside the zone. The Minister in charge of physical planning will issue directives concerning the contents of local development plans and will indicate how such plans, once amended, should be put into effect. Termination of the use or habitation of existing buildings is possible as well as soundproofing of buildings. The costs of measures taken to prevent undesirable new developments and measures taken to improve the existing state of affairs are borne by the central government. But a charge has to be paid by the users of the airports to defray the costs.

  15. Flight Demonstration of Integrated Airport Surface Technologies for Increased Capacity and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.; Wills, Robert W.; Smith, Kathryn A.; Shipman, Floyd S.; Bryant, Wayne H.; Eckhardt, Dave E., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted to address airport surface movement area capacity and safety issues by providing pilots with enhanced situational awareness information. The demonstration presented an integration of several technologies to government and industry representatives. These technologies consisted of an electronic moving map display in the cockpit, a Differential Global Positioning system (DGPS) receiver, a high speed very high frequency (VHF) data link, an Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) radar, and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS). Aircraft identification was presented to an air traffic controller on an AMASS display. The onboard electronic map included the display of taxi routes, hold instructions, and clearances, which were sent to the aircraft via data link by the controller. The map also displayed the positions of other traffic and warning information, which were sent to the aircraft automatically from the ASDE-3/AMASS system. This paper describes the flight demonstration in detail, along with test results.

  16. Surface Movement Incidents Reported to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.; Hubener, Simone

    1997-01-01

    Increasing numbers of aircraft are operating on the surface of airports throughout the world. Airport operations are forecast to grow by more that 50%, by the year 2005. Airport surface movement traffic would therefore be expected to become increasingly congested. Safety of these surface operations will become a focus as airport capacity planning efforts proceed toward the future. Several past events highlight the prevailing risks experienced while moving aircraft during ground operations on runways, taxiways, and other areas at terminal, gates, and ramps. The 1994 St. Louis accident between a taxiing Cessna crossing an active runway and colliding with a landing MD-80 emphasizes the importance of a fail-safe system for airport operations. The following study explores reports of incidents occurring on an airport surface that did not escalate to an accident event. The Aviation Safety Reporting System has collected data on surface movement incidents since 1976. This study sampled the reporting data from June, 1993 through June, 1994. The coding of the data was accomplished in several categories. The categories include location of airport, phase of ground operation, weather /lighting conditions, ground conflicts, flight crew characteristics, human factor considerations, and airport environment. These comparisons and distributions of variables contributing to surface movement incidents can be invaluable to future airport planning, accident prevention efforts, and system-wide improvements.

  17. Airport Surface Delays and Causes: A Preliminary Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, David K.; Goldberg, Jay; Tang, Tammy

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes FAA Program Analysis and Operations Research Service (ASD-400)/Lockheed Martin activities and findings related to airport surface delays and causes, in support of NASA Langley Research Center's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. The activities described in this report were initiated in June 1995. A preliminary report was published on September 30, 1995. The final report incorporates data collection forms filled out by traffic managers, other FAA staff, and an airline for the New York City area, some updates, data previously requested from various sources to support this analysis, and further quantification and documentation than in the preliminary report. This final report is based on data available as of April 12, 1996. This report incorporates data obtained from review and analysis of data bases and literature, discussions/interviews with engineers, air-traffic staff, other FAA technical personnel, and airline staff, site visits, and a survey on surface delays and causes. It includes analysis of delay statistics; preliminary findings and conclusions on surface movement, surface delay sources and causes, runway occupancy time (ROT), and airport characteristics impacting surface operations and delays; and site-specific data on the New York City area airports, which are the focus airports for this report.

  18. Measuring ground movement in geothermal areas of Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, B. E.

    1974-01-01

    Significant ground movement may accompany the extraction of large quantities of fluids from the subsurface. In Imperial Valley, California, one of the potential hazards of geothermal development is the threat of both subsidence and horizontal movement of the land surface. Regional and local survey nets are being monitored to detect and measure possible ground movement caused by future geothermal developments. Precise measurement of surface and subsurface changes will be required to differentiate man-induced changes from natural processes in this tectonically active region.

  19. Supersonics--Airport Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2007-01-01

    At this, the first year-end meeting of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, an overview of the Airport Noise discipline of the Supersonics Project leads the presentation of technical plans and achievements in this area of the Project. The overview starts by defining the Technical Challenges targeted by Airport Noise efforts, and the Approaches planned to meet these challenges. These are fleshed out in Elements, namely Prediction, Diagnostics, and Engineering, and broken down into Tasks. The Tasks level is where individual researchers' work is defined and from whence the technical presentations to follow this presentation come. This overview also presents the Milestones accomplished to date and to be completed in the next year. Finally, the NASA Research Announcement cooperative agreement activities are covered and tied to the Tasks and Milestones.

  20. Whiffing the Airport Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David

    2008-01-01

    An airport interview is an initial interview for a senior administrative position conducted at an airport hotel not too far from the campus in question. Meeting at an airport enables a search committee to interview a large number of candidates in a short period of time with a degree of confidentiality. At the conclusion of the airport interviews,…

  1. Airport technology international 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiorcopulo, George

    The present survey of developments in airport technologies and their management discusses airport extensions and upgradings, airport developments in China, polluter penalization, airport effects on environments, European ground-handling methods, ATC in Europe, EC duty-free sales at airports, and the privatization of airport security. Also discussed are airport advertising, new alternatives in air-cargo handling, ATC training, taxi-guidance systems, and the reduction of fuel consumption and emissions on the ground. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  2. Secondary sensory area SII is crucially involved in the preparation of familiar movements compared to movements never made before.

    PubMed

    Beudel, M; Zijlstra, S; Mulder, Th; Zijdewind, I; de Jong, B M

    2011-04-01

    Secondary sensorimotor regions are involved in sensorimotor integration and movement preparation. These regions take part in parietal-premotor circuitry that is not only active during motor execution but also during movement observation and imagery. This activation particularly occurs when observed movements belong to one's own motor repertoire, consistent with the finding that motor imagery only improves performance when one can actually make such movement. We aimed to investigate whether imagery or observation of a movement that was never made before causes parietal-premotor activation or that the ability to perform this movement is indeed a precondition. Nine subjects [group Already Knowing It (AKI)] could abduct their hallux (moving big toe outward). Seven subjects initially failed to make such movement (Absolute Zero A0 group). They had to imagine, observe, or execute this movement, whereas fMRI data were obtained both before and after training. Contrasting abduction observation between the AKI-group and A0-group showed increased left SII and supplementary motor area activation. Comparing the observation of hallux flexion with abduction showed increased bilateral SII activation in the A0 and not in the AKI group. Prolonged training resulted in equal performance and similar cerebral activation patterns in the two groups. Thereby, conjunction analysis of the correlations on subject's range of abduction during execution, imagery, and observation of hallux abduction showed exclusive bilateral SII activation. The reduced SII involvement in A0 may imply that effective interplay between sensory predictions and feedback does not take place without actual movement experience. However, this can be acquired by training.

  3. The airnoise boundary concept for airport noise management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Philip J.

    Attention is given to the draft New Zealand Standard on Airport Noise, which tells airport users exactly how much noise exposure they may make over any residential area; only in a fixed airport control zone, enclosed by the 'airnoise boundary', may they make more noise than this amount. The airnoise boundary concept for airport noise management is argued to be feasible and applicable to any airport irrespective of size. Use of the concept may greatly ease the related health problems around many busy airports, and still allow for necessary growth.

  4. FAA Airport Design Competition for Universities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Raise awareness of the importance of airports to the National Airspace System infrastructure. Increase the involvement of the academic community in addressing airport operations and infrastructure issues and needs. Engage U.S. students in the conceptualization of applications, systems and equipment capable of addressing related challenges in a robust, reliable and comprehensive manner. Encourage U.S. undergraduate and graduate students to contribute innovative ideas and solutions to airport and runway safety issues. Provide the framework and incentives for quality educational experiences for university students. d Develop an awareness of and an interest in airports as a vital and interesting area for engineering and technology careers.

  5. Airport-related air pollution and noise.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Beverly S; Bronzaft, Arline L; Heikkinen, Maire; Goodman, Jerome; Nádas, Arthur

    2008-02-01

    To provide quantitative evidence of the impact on people of a neighboring metropolitan airport, La Guardia Airport (LGA) in New York City, (1) airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured to determine whether concentration differences could be detected between homes that are upwind and downwind of the airport; (2) 24-hr noise measurements were made in 12 homes near the airport; and (3) the impact of noise was assessed by a Community Wellness and Health Promotion Survey. Particulate matter concentrations were higher during active airport operating hours than during nonoperating hours, and the percent increase varied inversely with distance from the airport. Hourly differences between paired upwind and downwind sites were not remarkable. Residents living near the airport were exposed to noise levels as much as four times greater than those experienced by residents in a quiet, comparison home. Impulse noise events were detected from both aircraft and vehicular traffic. More than 55% of the people living within the flight path were bothered by aircraft noise, and 63% by highway noise; these were significantly higher percentages than for residents in the nonflight area. The change in PM concentrations with distance during operating compared with nonoperating hours; traffic-related impulse noise events; and the elevated annoyance with highway noise, as well as aircraft noise among residents in the flight path area, show airport-related motor vehicle traffic to be a major contributor to the negative impact of airports on people in the surrounding communities.

  6. Flight Testing of an Airport Surface Guidance, Navigation, and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Jones, Denise R.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes operations associated with a set of flight experiments and demonstrations using a Boeing-757-200 (B-757) research aircraft as part of low visibility landing and surface operations (LVLASO) research activities. To support this experiment, the B-757 performed flight and taxi operations at the Hartsfield-Atlanta International Airport (ATL) in Atlanta, GA. The B-757 was equipped with experimental displays that were designed to provide flight crews with sufficient information to enable safe, expedient surface operations in any weather condition down to a runway visual range (RVR) of 300 feet. In addition to flight deck displays and supporting equipment onboard the B-757, there was also a ground-based component of the system that provided for ground controller inputs and surveillance of airport surface movements. The integrated ground and airborne components resulted in a system that has the potential to significantly improve the safety and efficiency of airport surface movements particularly as weather conditions deteriorate. Several advanced technologies were employed to show the validity of the operational concept at a major airport facility, to validate flight simulation findings, and to assess each of the individual technologies performance in an airport environment. Results show that while the maturity of some of the technologies does not permit immediate implementation, the operational concept is valid and the performance is more than adequate in many areas.

  7. 9 CFR 72.6 - Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from... ANIMAL PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.6 Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks. Cattle in quarantined areas where tick eradication is not being conducted 3 may be...

  8. 9 CFR 72.6 - Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.6 Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks. Cattle in quarantined areas where tick eradication is not being conducted...

  9. 9 CFR 72.6 - Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.6 Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks. Cattle in quarantined areas where tick eradication is not being conducted...

  10. 9 CFR 72.6 - Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.6 Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks. Cattle in quarantined areas where tick eradication is not being conducted...

  11. 7 CFR 301.75-7 - Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-7 Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area. (a) Regulated fruit produced in a quarantined area or moved into a...

  12. 7 CFR 301.75-7 - Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-7 Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area. (a) Regulated fruit produced in a quarantined area or moved into a...

  13. 7 CFR 301.75-7 - Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-7 Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area. (a) Regulated fruit produced in a quarantined area or moved into a...

  14. 7 CFR 301.75-7 - Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-7 Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area. (a) Regulated fruit produced in a quarantined area or moved into a...

  15. 7 CFR 301.75-7 - Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-7 Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area. (a) Regulated fruit produced in a quarantined area or moved into a...

  16. Bird Activity Analysis Using Avian Radar Information in Naval Air Station airport, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Herricks, E.

    2010-12-01

    The number of bird strikes on aircraft has increased sharply over recent years and airport bird hazard management has gained increasing attention in wildlife management and control. Evaluation of bird activity near airport is very critical to analyze the hazard of bird strikes. Traditional methods for bird activity analysis using visual counting provide a direct approach to bird hazard assessment. However this approach is limited to daylight and good visual conditions. Radar has been proven to be a useful and effective tool for bird detection and movement analysis. Radar eliminates observation bias and supports consistent data collection for bird activity analysis and hazard management. In this study bird activity data from the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island was collected by Accipiter Avian Radar System. Radar data was pre-processed by filtering out non-bird noises, including traffic vehicle, aircraft, insects, wind, rainfall, ocean waves and so on. Filtered data is then statistically analyzed using MATLAB programs. The results indicated bird movement dynamics in target areas near the airport, which includes (1) the daily activity varied at dawn and dusk; (2) bird activity varied by target area due to the habitat difference; and (3) both temporal and spatial movement patterns varied by bird species. This bird activity analysis supports bird hazard evaluation and related analysis and modeling to provide very useful information in airport bird hazard management planning.

  17. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... has continuous use of each airport at which training flights originate. (b) Each airport used for airplanes and gliders must have at least one runway or takeoff area that allows training aircraft to make a... the powerplant operation, and landing gear and flap operation recommended by the manufacturer; and...

  18. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... has continuous use of each airport at which training flights originate. (b) Each airport used for airplanes and gliders must have at least one runway or takeoff area that allows training aircraft to make a... the powerplant operation, and landing gear and flap operation recommended by the manufacturer; and...

  19. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N.; Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  20. Surface Development and Test Facility (SDTF) New R&D Simulator for Airport Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorighi, Nancy S.

    1997-01-01

    A new simulator, the Surface Development and Test Facility (SDTF) is under construction at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Jointly funded by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and NASA, the SDTF will be a testbed for airport surface automation technologies of the future. The SDTF will be operational in the third quarter of 1998. The SDTF will combine a virtual tower with simulated ground operations to allow evaluation of new technologies for safety, effectiveness, reliability, and cost benefit. The full-scale level V tower will provide a seamless 360 degree high resolution out-the-window view, and a full complement of ATC (air traffic control) controller positions. The imaging system will be generated by two fully-configured Silicon Graphics Onyx Infinite Reality computers, and will support surface movement of up to 200 aircraft and ground vehicles. The controller positions, displays and consoles can be completely reconfigured to match the unique layout of any individual airport tower. Dedicated areas will accommodate pseudo-airport ramp controllers, pseudo-airport operators, and pseudo-pilots. Up to 33 total personnel positions will be able to participate in simultaneous operational scenarios. A realistic voice communication infrastructure will emulate the intercom and telephone communications of a real airport tower. Multi-channel audio and video recording and a sophisticated data acquisition system will support a wide variety of research and development areas, such as evaluation of automation tools for surface operations, human factors studies, integration of terminal area and airport technologies, and studies of potential airport physical and procedural modifications.

  1. 9 CFR 82.9 - Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of hatching eggs... Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area. Hatching eggs from birds or poultry not known...) The hatching eggs are accompanied by a permit obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (b) Copies of...

  2. 9 CFR 82.9 - Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of hatching eggs... Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area. Hatching eggs from birds or poultry not known...) The hatching eggs are accompanied by a permit obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (b) Copies of...

  3. 9 CFR 82.9 - Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of hatching eggs... Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area. Hatching eggs from birds or poultry not known...) The hatching eggs are accompanied by a permit obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (b) Copies of...

  4. 9 CFR 72.6 - Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.6 Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks. 72.6 Section 72.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...

  5. 9 CFR 82.9 - Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of hatching eggs... Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area. Hatching eggs from birds or poultry not known...) The hatching eggs are accompanied by a permit obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (b) Copies of...

  6. NASA New Virtual Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Virtual Airport Tower is located at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. The Virtual Airport Tower's two-story structure is a full-scale, highly sophisticated simulation facility that will emulate Level 5 air traffic control towers and the busiest airports. It provides the platform to conduct in-depth human factors studies with quantifiable results using actual air traffic controllers, airline dispatchers and airport managers.

  7. Sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu--from an airport to an industrial and residential area of the city of Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Astebøl, Svein Ole; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Simonsen, Oyvind

    2004-12-01

    The Oslo Airport at Fornebu was closed in 1998 after 60 years of operation. An area of 3.1 km(2) was made available for one of Norway's biggest property development projects. Plans include 6000 residences and 20,000 workplaces. Fornebu is situated on a peninsula in the Oslo Fjord just outside the city of Oslo and is regarded as a very attractive area for both urbanisation and recreation. The residential area located centrally at Fornebu surrounds a centrally located park area. In the planning process, there was an expressed interest in using water as a life-giving element within the vegetation structure of the park. In Norway, stormwater in urban areas has traditionally been collected and transported in pipe systems to adjacent watercourses. However, there is an increasing interest in alternative "green" solutions for the management of stormwater. The paper presents a concept for sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu. A main objective is to improve the recreational and ecological value of stormwater while achieving a cost-effective solution. This objective is reached by replacing conventional urban drainage pipes with swales, filter strips, wetlands and ponds as collection, storage and treatment systems designed for natural processes. The paper thereby addresses integrated systems for stormwater management by approaching nature's way and sustainable development principles.

  8. 7 CFR 301.75-6 - Interstate movement of regulated nursery stock from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-6 Interstate movement of regulated nursery... from a quarantined area into any area of the United States except commercial citrus-producing areas if... paragraph (b). Cuttings may not be obtained from properties where citrus canker is present. (4) All...

  9. 7 CFR 301.75-6 - Interstate movement of regulated nursery stock from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-6 Interstate movement of regulated nursery... from a quarantined area into any area of the United States except commercial citrus-producing areas if... paragraph (b). Cuttings may not be obtained from properties where citrus canker is present. (4) All...

  10. Productivity Analysis of Public and Private Airports: A Causal Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Gorjidooz, Javad

    2007-01-01

    Around the world, airports are being viewed as enterprises, rather than public services, which are expected to be managed efficiently and provide passengers with courteous customer services. Governments are, increasingly, turning to the private sectors for their efficiency in managing the operation, financing, and development, as well as providing security for airports. Operational and financial performance evaluation has become increasingly important to airport operators due to recent trends in airport privatization. Assessing performance allows the airport operators to plan for human resources and capital investment as efficiently as possible. Productivity measurements may be used as comparisons and guidelines in strategic planning, in the internal analysis of operational efficiency and effectiveness, and in assessing the competitive position of an airport in transportation industry. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the operational and financial efficiencies of 22 major airports in the United States and Europe. These airports are divided into three groups based on private ownership (7 British Airport Authority airports), public ownership (8 major United States airports), and a mix of private and public ownership (7 major European Union airports. The detail ownership structures of these airports are presented in Appendix A. Total factor productivity (TFP) model was utilized to measure airport performance in terms of financial and operational efficiencies and to develop a benchmarking tool to identify the areas of strength and weakness. A regression model was then employed to measure the relationship between TFP and ownership structure. Finally a Granger causality test was performed to determine whether ownership structure is a Granger cause of TFP. The results of the analysis presented in this paper demonstrate that there is not a significant relationship between airport TFP and ownership structure. Airport productivity and efficiency is

  11. Paleozoic vertical movements in Um Bogma area, southwestern Sinai

    SciTech Connect

    Beyth, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Wadi Khaboba-Gebel Nukhul high, in the Um Bogma area of southwestern Sinai, underwent a small-scale uplift-subsidence cycle during the Paleozoic. The trend of this structure is close to and almost parallel with the Suez rift, indicating that the young rift is related to older structures.

  12. The movement of labor in Chinese rural areas: with a focus on developed regions.

    PubMed

    Yan, S P

    1990-12-01

    Recent Chinese economic reforms target both agrarian and urban sectors. This paper discusses employment structure change in rural areas and the interindustry movement of labor, with particular attention to relevant institutional aspects. The residencies and population system and the employment-welfare-insurance system are reviewed. Socioeconomic structure and labor market mechanisms in rural areas are considered as the basis for the movement of labor; forms of employment and labor market characteristics in rural areas are identified; and factors influencing job-related behavior of the work force in agricultural households, as well as mechanisms regulating interindustry movement of the work force are quantified. These issues are investigated only for the Sunan area and suburban villages near Shanghai. Review suggests that labor force movement within China's rural areas has gained momentum despite institutional limitations. The rural employment structure has changed to impact the entire national economy. Village and township enterprises have helped raise income levels of farming households, industrialize and urbanize rural areas, and strengthen ties between rural and urban areas. To sustain growth in rural and national economies, however, greater differentiation is needed between the functions of administrative and economic sectors, competitive principles should be introduced in rural areas, and institutional restrictions on population and labor force movements should be relaxed.

  13. A novel wireless local positioning system for airport (indoor) security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekavat, Seyed A.; Tong, Hui; Tan, Jindong

    2004-09-01

    A novel wireless local positioning system (WLPS) for airport (or indoor) security is introduced. This system is used by airport (indoor) security guards to locate all of, or a group of airport employees or passengers within the airport area. WLPS consists of two main parts: (1) a base station that is carried by security personnel; hence, introducing dynamic base station (DBS), and (2) a transponder (TRX) that is mounted on all people (including security personnel) present at the airport; thus, introducing them as active targets. In this paper, we (a) draw a futuristic view of the airport security systems, and the flow of information at the airports, (b) investigate the techniques of extending WLPS coverage area beyond the line-of-sight (LoS), and (c) study the performance of this system via standard transceivers, and direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems with and without antenna arrays and conventional beamforming (BF).

  14. Results of the Analyses for 1,4-Dioxane of Groundwater Samples Collected in the Tucson Airport Remediation Project Area, South-Central Arizona, 2006-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D

    2009-01-01

    Extensive groundwater contamination resulting from industrial activities led to the listing of the Tucson International Airport Area (TIAA) as a Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1983. Early investigations revealed elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including the chlorinated solvents trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, in wells in the area. Several responsible parties were identified, and cleanup activities were initiated in the late 1980s using technology designed for removal of VOCs. In 2002, the compound 1,4-dioxane was discovered in wells in the TIAA area. Since then, 1,4-dioxane has been detected throughout the TIAA area at levels exceeding the USEPA Drinking Water Health Advisory value of 3 micrograms per liter (ug/L; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006). Chemical properties of 1,4-dioxane make it relatively unaffected by the treatment technologies employed in the TIAA area. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Arizona Water Science Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment, began an investigation into the extent of groundwater contamination by 1,4-dioxane in the area. Five rounds of groundwater sampling in the TIAA area have been completed by the USGS since that time, yielding a total of 210 samples. Results from these analyses indicate less than reportable concentrations of 1,4-dioxane in 30 percent of the samples, with 46 percent of the samples having concentrations at or above the USEPA Drinking Water Health Advisory level.

  15. Movements of juvenile Gyrfalcons from western and interior Alaska following departure from their natal areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, C.L.; Douglas, D.C.; Adams, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile raptors often travel thousands of kilometers from the time they leave their natal areas to the time they enter a breeding population. Documenting movements and identifying areas used by raptors before they enter a breeding population is important for understanding the factors that influence their survival. In North America, juvenile Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) are routinely observed outside the species' breeding range during the nonbreeding season, but the natal origins of these birds are rarely known. We used satellite telemetry to track the movements of juvenile Gyrfalcons during their first months of independence. We instrumented nestlings with lightweight satellite transmitters within 10 d of estimated fledging dates on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska and in Denali National Park (Denali) in interior Alaska. Gyrfalcons spent an average of 41.4 ?? 6.1 d (range = 30-50 d) in their natal areas after fledging. The mean departure date from natal areas was 27 August ?? 6.4 d. We tracked 15 individuals for an average of 70.5 ?? 28.1 d post-departure; Gyrfalcons moved from 105 to 4299 km during this period and tended to move greater distances earlier in the tracking period than later in the tracking period. Gyrfalcons did not establish temporary winter ranges within the tracking period. We identified several movement patterns among Gyrfalcons, including unidirectional long-distance movements, multidirectional long-and shortdistance movements, and shorter movements within a local region. Gyrfalcons from the Seward Peninsula remained in western Alaska or flew to eastern Russia with no movements into interior Alaska. In contrast, Gyrfalcons from Denali remained in interior Alaska, flew to northern and western Alaska, or flew to northern Alberta. Gyrfalcons from both study areas tended to move to coastal, riparian, and wetland areas during autumn and early winter. Because juvenile Gyrfalcons dispersed over a large geographic area and across three

  16. Ordinary and Extraordinary Movement Behaviour of Small Resident Fish within a Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Aspillaga, Eneko; Bartumeus, Frederic; Linares, Cristina; Starr, Richard M.; López-Sanz, Àngel; Díaz, David; Zabala, Mikel; Hereu, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    It is important to account for the movement behaviour of fishes when designing effective marine protected areas (MPAs). Fish movements occur across different spatial and temporal scales and understanding the variety of movements is essential to make correct management decisions. This study describes in detail the movement patterns of an economically and commercially important species, Diplodus sargus, within a well-enforced Mediterranean MPA. We monitored horizontal and vertical movements of 41 adult individuals using passive acoustic telemetry for up to one year. We applied novel analysis and visualization techniques to get a comprehensive view of a wide range of movements. D. sargus individuals were highly territorial, moving within small home ranges (< 1 km2), inside which they displayed repetitive diel activity patterns. Extraordinary movements beyond the ordinary home range were observed under two specific conditions. First, during stormy events D. sargus presented a sheltering behaviour, moving to more protected places to avoid the disturbance. Second, during the spawning season they made excursions to deep areas (> 50 m), where they aggregated to spawn. This study advances our understanding about the functioning of an established MPA and provides important insights into the biology and management of a small sedentary species, suggesting the relevance of rare but important fish behaviours. PMID:27437692

  17. Male Texas Horned Lizards increase daily movements and area covered in spring: A mate searching strategy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, Richard C.; Fox, S. F.; David, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Texas Horned Lizards, Phrynosoma cornutum, were tracked using fluorescent powder to determine exact daily movements. Daily linear movements and daily space use were compared between adult males and females. Lizards that traveled the greatest linear distances also covered the largest areas. In Oklahoma, adults emerge from hibernation in late April and early May and mate soon afterward. Males traveled significantly greater distances (and covered significantly larger areas in a day) than females in May but not after May. We propose that males move more and cover more area than females early in the mating season to intercept receptive females. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  18. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Simulation Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2010-01-01

    A Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate pilot reaction to conflict events in the TMA near the airport, different alert timings for various scenarios, alerting display concepts, and directive alerting concepts. This paper gives an overview of the conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) concept, simulation study, and test results

  19. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Caron, Alexandre; Cornelis, Daniel; Foggin, Chris; Hofmeyr, Markus; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel

    2016-02-01

    We report on the long-distance movements of subadult female buffalo within a Transfrontier Conservation Area in Africa. Our observations confirm that bovine tuberculosis and other diseases can spread between buffalo populations across national parks, community land, and countries, thus posing a risk to animal and human health in surrounding wildlife areas.

  20. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Daniel; Foggin, Chris; Hofmeyr, Markus; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We report on the long-distance movements of subadult female buffalo within a Transfrontier Conservation Area in Africa. Our observations confirm that bovine tuberculosis and other diseases can spread between buffalo populations across national parks, community land, and countries, thus posing a risk to animal and human health in surrounding wildlife areas. PMID:26812531

  1. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Caron, Alexandre; Cornelis, Daniel; Foggin, Chris; Hofmeyr, Markus; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel

    2016-02-01

    We report on the long-distance movements of subadult female buffalo within a Transfrontier Conservation Area in Africa. Our observations confirm that bovine tuberculosis and other diseases can spread between buffalo populations across national parks, community land, and countries, thus posing a risk to animal and human health in surrounding wildlife areas. PMID:26812531

  2. Sentence processing selectivity in Broca’s area: evident for structure but not syntactic movement

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Diogo; Sprouse, Jon; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The role of Broca’s area in sentence processing is hotly debated. Prominent hypotheses include that Broca’s area supports sentence comprehension via syntax-specific processes (“syntactic movement” in particular), hierarchical structure building or working memory. In the present fMRI study we adopt a within subject, across task approach using targeted sentence-level contrasts and non-sentential comparison tasks to address these hypotheses regarding the role of Broca’s area in sentence processing. For clarity, we have presented findings as three experiments: (i) Experiment 1 examines selectivity for a particular type of sentence construction, namely those containing syntactic movement. Standard syntactic movement distance effects in Broca’s area were replicated but no difference was found between movement and non-movement sentences in Broca’s area at the group level or consistently in individual subjects. (ii) Experiment 2 examines selectivity for sentences versus non-sentences, to assess claims regarding the role of Broca’s area in hierarchical structure building. Group and individual results differ, but both identify subregions of Broca’s area that are selective for sentence structure. (iii) Experiment 3 assesses whether activations in Broca’s area are selective for sentences when contrasted with simple subvocal articulation. Group results suggest shared resources for sentence processing and articulation in Broca’s area, but individual subject analyses contradict this finding. We conclude that Broca’s area is not selectively involved in processing syntactic movement, but that subregions are selectively responsive to sentence structure. Our findings also reinforce Fedorenko & Kanwishser’s call for the use of more individual subject analyses in functional imaging studies of sentence processing in Broca’s area, as group findings can obscure selective response patterns. PMID:27135039

  3. Volcanic hazards to airports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  4. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future.

  5. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future. PMID:16194561

  6. Human cortical areas involved in sustaining perceptual stability during smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Trenner, Maja U; Fahle, Manfred; Fasold, Oliver; Heekeren, Hauke R; Villringer, Arno; Wenzel, Rüdiger

    2008-03-01

    Because both, eye movements and object movements induce an image motion on the retina, eye movements must be compensated to allow a coherent and stable perception of our surroundings. The inferential theory of perception postulates that retinal image motion is compared with an internal reference signal related to eye movements. This mechanism allows to distinguish between the potential sources producing retinal image motion. Referring to this theory, we investigated referential calculation during smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) in humans using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response related to SPEM in front of a stable background was measured for different parametric steps of preceding motion stimuli and therefore assumed for different states of the referential system. To achieve optimally accurate anatomy and more detectable fMRI signal changes in group analysis, we applied cortex-based statistics both to all brain volumes and to defined regions of interest. Our analysis revealed that the activity in a temporal region as well as the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) depended on the velocity of the preceding stimuli. Previous single-cell recordings in monkeys demonstrated that the visual posterior sylvian area (VPS) is relevant for perceptual stability. The activation apparent in our study thus may represent a human analogue of this area. The PPC is known as being strongly related to goal-directed eye movements. In conclusion, temporal and parietal cortical areas may be involved in referential calculation and thereby in sustaining visual perceptual stability during eye movements. PMID:17415782

  7. Effect of forest harvesting on microclimate and sediment movement in a periglacial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaizumi, F.; Ryoko, N.; Ueno, K.; Kurobe, K.

    2013-12-01

    Activities of periglacial processes are controlled by the hillslope microclimate (i.e., air and ground temperatures, ground water content) that is highly affected by land cover conditions. Thus, forest harvesting in periglacial areas possibly affects activities of sediment movement (i.e., soil creep, dry ravel) by changing the microclimate of hillslopes. Knowledge on the effect of forest harvesting on sediment movement are needed to protect aquatic ecosystems as well as to develop better mitigation measures for preventing sediment disasters. In this study, we investigated seasonal changes in the sediment movement in arterial forests located in a periglacial area of southern Japanese Alps. In the southern Japanese Alps, rainfall is abundant in summer and autumn, and air temperature frequently rise above and fall below 0 degree in winter. We also observed difference in the microclimate as well as sediment movement between harvested and non-harvested artificial forests. Our monitoring by interval cameras and sediment traps detected sediment movements in all seasons. Rainfall-induced sediment movements were identified both in summer and winter, while periglacial processes (i.e., frost heave) was limited in winter. Forest harvesting changed both temperature and water condition of hillslopes; diurnal fluctuation of the ground surface temperature in the harvested area (about 15 degree) were much larger than that in the non-harvested area (about 3 degree). In the period without rainfall, water content ratio of soil in the harvested area was lower than that in the non-harvested area. Difference in the freezing and thawing frequency between the harvested and the non-harvested area was also observed by interval cameras. In the period without snow cover, diurnal frost heave was observed almost everyday in the harvested area. In contrast, diurnal frost heave in the non-harvested was observed only several times in one winter. Consequently, forest harvesting changes both

  8. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure. This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  9. 9 CFR 82.9 - Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of hatching eggs... hatching eggs from a quarantined area. Hatching eggs from birds or poultry not known to be infected with or... eggs are accompanied by a permit obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (b) Copies of the...

  10. 7 CFR 301.75-6 - Interstate movement of regulated nursery stock from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-6 Interstate movement of regulated nursery... United States except commercial citrus-producing areas if all of the following conditions are met: (1... obtained from properties where citrus canker is present. (4) All citrus plants at the nursery premises...

  11. 7 CFR 301.75-6 - Interstate movement of regulated nursery stock from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-6 Interstate movement of regulated nursery... United States except commercial citrus-producing areas if all of the following conditions are met: (1... obtained from properties where citrus canker is present. (4) All citrus plants at the nursery premises...

  12. 7 CFR 301.75-6 - Interstate movement of regulated nursery stock from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-6 Interstate movement of regulated nursery... United States except commercial citrus-producing areas if all of the following conditions are met: (1... obtained from properties where citrus canker is present. (4) All citrus plants at the nursery premises...

  13. Thermal area effectiveness for future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Happ, W. W.

    1975-01-01

    Problem areas in airport planning, design, and operations identified by a decision matrix developed to display various airport functions interfaced with facilities and an extensive literature survey were investigated. Areas considered include: site selection and growth potential; emissions and noise control/containment for airports; financial and legal aspects of airport planning, contruction, and operation; intra-airport transportation and other passenger flow facilitators; simulation and modeling for airports; guidelines for airport multimodal access planning. Results are summarized and a bibliography is included.

  14. Parceling of mesial frontal motor areas during ideation and movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 tesla.

    PubMed

    Tyszka, J M; Grafton, S T; Chew, W; Woods, R P; Colletti, P M

    1994-06-01

    Finger movement-related responses were identified in three discrete sites of mesial frontal cortex in 7 normal subjects using high resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging. During imagination of the same movements there was a differential response with rostral areas more active than caudal areas. Humans have multiple motor areas in mesial frontal cortex that subserve different functions in motor planning and execution.

  15. Movements of radio-instrumented grizzly bears within the Yellowstone area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judd, Steven L.; Knight, Richard R.

    1980-01-01

    Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) movement patterns were studied with the aid of 18 radio-instrumented grizzly bears in 1975 and 1976. Five bears gave minimal information because of death, transmitter failure, or loss of transmitters. Seasonal home range information is presented for 13 bears. Two bears, trapped inside Yellowstone National Park, included areas outside of the park in their home ranges. Twelve bears trapped outside included parts of the park in their home ranges. Three females with young gave no indication of having smaller home ranges than other individuals. Movement patterns prior to denning and dates of denning varied among individual bears.

  16. Annoyance from light aircraft investigation carried out around four airports near Paris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An opinion survey was carried out on residents living near four airports in the Paris, France area. An evaluation of their responses concerning noise pollution and possible expansion of airport activity is presented.

  17. 14 CFR 93.345 - VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports... Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area § 93.345 VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports. (a) A pilot may depart from a fringe airport as defined in § 93.335 without filing a flight plan or...

  18. Present stage of recent crustal movements and seismicity within Greater Cairo area, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Monem S.; Mohamed, Gad-Elkareem A.; Omar, Khaled; Nadia, Abou-Aly

    2014-01-01

    Greater Cairo and the Nile Delta are considered very important, high-density population areas. The subject of the research work is dealing with recent crustal movements and its relation to seismicity and tectonics setting. A Global Positioning System (GPS) network consisting of 11 benchmarks covering Greater Cairo and the southern part of the Nile Delta was established in 1996. Different campaigns surveyed the network. In this study, we used ten measurements collected during the period from 2004 to 2010. The data were processed using Bernese 5.0 software to derive velocity vectors and principal components of crustal strains. The horizontal velocity varies in average between 3 and 6 mm per year across the network. Rate of the accumulated strains in the southern part of Greater Cairo varies from low to moderate. The low strain rates and low level of earthquakes occurrence in the present interval in the Nile Delta area indicated that the rate of the deformation in this area is small. The result from coupling GPS and seismic data indicates that the southern part of the area is seismo-active area when compared with the other parts in the network areas. The paper gives information about the present state of the recent crustal movements within Greater Cairo area to understand the geodynamics of that area. This study is an attempt to build a basis for further development of seismic catastrophic risk management models to reduce a risk of large catastrophic losses within the important area.

  19. A Comparison of Independent Event-Related Desynchronization Responses in Motor-Related Brain Areas to Movement Execution, Movement Imagery, and Movement Observation.

    PubMed

    Duann, Jeng-Ren; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) event-related desynchronization (ERD) induced by movement imagery or by observing biological movements performed by someone else has recently been used extensively for brain-computer interface-based applications, such as applications used in stroke rehabilitation training and motor skill learning. However, the ERD responses induced by the movement imagery and observation might not be as reliable as the ERD responses induced by movement execution. Given that studies on the reliability of the EEG ERD responses induced by these activities are still lacking, here we conducted an EEG experiment with movement imagery, movement observation, and movement execution, performed multiple times each in a pseudorandomized order in the same experimental runs. Then, independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to the EEG data to find the common motor-related EEG source activity shared by the three motor tasks. Finally, conditional EEG ERD responses associated with the three movement conditions were computed and compared. Among the three motor conditions, the EEG ERD responses induced by motor execution revealed the alpha power suppression with highest strengths and longest durations. The ERD responses of the movement imagery and movement observation only partially resembled the ERD pattern of the movement execution condition, with slightly better detectability for the ERD responses associated with the movement imagery and faster ERD responses for movement observation. This may indicate different levels of involvement in the same motor-related brain circuits during different movement conditions. In addition, because the resulting conditional EEG ERD responses from the ICA preprocessing came with minimal contamination from the non-related and/or artifactual noisy components, this result can play a role of the reference for devising a brain-computer interface using the EEG ERD features of movement imagery or observation. PMID:27636359

  20. A Comparison of Independent Event-Related Desynchronization Responses in Motor-Related Brain Areas to Movement Execution, Movement Imagery, and Movement Observation

    PubMed Central

    Duann, Jeng-Ren; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) event-related desynchronization (ERD) induced by movement imagery or by observing biological movements performed by someone else has recently been used extensively for brain-computer interface-based applications, such as applications used in stroke rehabilitation training and motor skill learning. However, the ERD responses induced by the movement imagery and observation might not be as reliable as the ERD responses induced by movement execution. Given that studies on the reliability of the EEG ERD responses induced by these activities are still lacking, here we conducted an EEG experiment with movement imagery, movement observation, and movement execution, performed multiple times each in a pseudorandomized order in the same experimental runs. Then, independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to the EEG data to find the common motor-related EEG source activity shared by the three motor tasks. Finally, conditional EEG ERD responses associated with the three movement conditions were computed and compared. Among the three motor conditions, the EEG ERD responses induced by motor execution revealed the alpha power suppression with highest strengths and longest durations. The ERD responses of the movement imagery and movement observation only partially resembled the ERD pattern of the movement execution condition, with slightly better detectability for the ERD responses associated with the movement imagery and faster ERD responses for movement observation. This may indicate different levels of involvement in the same motor-related brain circuits during different movement conditions. In addition, because the resulting conditional EEG ERD responses from the ICA preprocessing came with minimal contamination from the non-related and/or artifactual noisy components, this result can play a role of the reference for devising a brain-computer interface using the EEG ERD features of movement imagery or observation. PMID:27636359

  1. Role of helicopters in airport access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Snyder, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews the role of helicopter systems in the provision of airport access services and evaluates the potential for the future development of such services in major metropolitan areas in the United States. The evaluation is based on a computer simulation of potential helicopter system proposed for 20 metropolitan areas. The simulation provides two indicators that are used to gage the extent of the feasibility of developing successful systems in these areas: (1) the cost per seat mile, and (2) the break-even number of passengers, expressed as a percentage of total air travelers. It is found that a few metropolitan areas presently have the potential of marginally supporting intra-urban helicopter airport access service. The access systems offer a viable alternative for air passengers placing a high value on their time, and provides the opportunity for better integrating the air transportation service of multiple airports in a given urban region.

  2. Movement patterns and study area boundaries: Influences on survival estimation in capture-mark-recapture studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, G.E.; Letcher, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The inability to account for the availability of individuals in the study area during capture-mark-recapture (CMR) studies and the resultant confounding of parameter estimates can make correct interpretation of CMR model parameter estimates difficult. Although important advances based on the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model have resulted in estimators of true survival that work by unconfounding either death or recapture probability from availability for capture in the study area, these methods rely on the researcher's ability to select a method that is correctly matched to emigration patterns in the population. If incorrect assumptions regarding site fidelity (non-movement) are made, it may be difficult or impossible as well as costly to change the study design once the incorrect assumption is discovered. Subtleties in characteristics of movement (e.g. life history-dependent emigration, nomads vs territory holders) can lead to mixtures in the probability of being available for capture among members of the same population. The result of these mixtures may be only a partial unconfounding of emigration from other CMR model parameters. Biologically-based differences in individual movement can combine with constraints on study design to further complicate the problem. Because of the intricacies of movement and its interaction with other parameters in CMR models, quantification of and solutions to these problems are needed. Based on our work with stream-dwelling populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, we used a simulation approach to evaluate existing CMR models under various mixtures of movement probabilities. The Barker joint data model provided unbiased estimates of true survival under all conditions tested. The CJS and robust design models provided similarly unbiased estimates of true survival but only when emigration information could be incorporated directly into individual encounter histories. For the robust design model, Markovian emigration (future

  3. Art at the Airport: An Exploration of New Art Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Many airports have transformed empty waiting spaces into mini malls, children's play areas, and displays of beautiful art, making a long wait a bit more pleasant. For the modern airport, showcasing art has become an important component, with perks including a built-in global audience, as well as the vast spaces of modern architecture. For the art…

  4. Roadless wilderness area determines forest elephant movements in the Congo Basin.

    PubMed

    Blake, Stephen; Deem, Sharon L; Strindberg, Samantha; Maisels, Fiona; Momont, Ludovic; Isia, Inogwabini-Bila; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Karesh, William B; Kock, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    A dramatic expansion of road building is underway in the Congo Basin fuelled by private enterprise, international aid, and government aspirations. Among the great wilderness areas on earth, the Congo Basin is outstanding for its high biodiversity, particularly mobile megafauna including forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis). The abundance of many mammal species in the Basin increases with distance from roads due to hunting pressure, but the impacts of road proliferation on the movements of individuals are unknown. We investigated the ranging behaviour of forest elephants in relation to roads and roadless wilderness by fitting GPS telemetry collars onto a sample of 28 forest elephants living in six priority conservation areas. We show that the size of roadless wilderness is a strong determinant of home range size in this species. Though our study sites included the largest wilderness areas in central African forests, none of 4 home range metrics we calculated, including core area, tended toward an asymptote with increasing wilderness size, suggesting that uninhibited ranging in forest elephants no longer exists. Furthermore we show that roads outside protected areas which are not protected from hunting are a formidable barrier to movement while roads inside protected areas are not. Only 1 elephant from our sample crossed an unprotected road. During crossings her mean speed increased 14-fold compared to normal movements. Forest elephants are increasingly confined and constrained by roads across the Congo Basin which is reducing effective habitat availability and isolating populations, significantly threatening long term conservation efforts. If the current road development trajectory continues, forest wildernesses and the forest elephants they contain will collapse. PMID:18958284

  5. Terminal area air traffic control simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    To study the impact of advanced aeronautical technologies on operations to and from terminal airports, a computer model of air traffic movements was developed. The advantages of fast-time simulation are discussed, and the arrival scheduling and flight simulation are described. A New York area study, user's guide, and programmer's guide are included.

  6. 14 CFR 137.43 - Operations in controlled airspace designated for an airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designated for an airport. 137.43 Section 137.43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... airspace designated for an airport. (a) Except for flights to and from a dispensing area, no person may... an airport unless authorization for that operation has been obtained from the ATC facility...

  7. 14 CFR 121.443 - Pilot in command qualification: Route and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airports. 121.443 Section 121.443 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Pilot in command qualification: Route and airports. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide a system... to each airport and terminal area into which that person is to operate, and ensures that that...

  8. 78 FR 31428 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Columbus, Rickenbacker International Airport, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... International Airport, OH, Class C airspace area. Issued in Fort Worth, TX on May 3, 2013. David P. Medina... Airspace; Columbus, Rickenbacker International Airport, OH AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airspace at Rickenbacker International Airport, Columbus, OH. Changes to the airspace description...

  9. Remote Detection and Analysis of Mass Movements in the Catchment Area of the Xiangxi River/ China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, X.; Xiaofang, G.; Frei, M.; Kaufmann, H.

    2009-04-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a better understanding of mechanisms and triggers of mass movements in an area influenced by the rising water level in Three Gorges Dam and to estimate the probability of their occurrence. Investigations are carried out for the Xiangxi river catchment area, a tributary of the Yangtze River discharging into the Three-Gorges-Dam reservoir. In this context, we focus at methodological and conceptual strategies that allow the correlation between recent mass movements with associated soils and lithologies, developed slopes, vegetation coverage and rainfall data. The results provide essential contributions to the estimation of the risk potential and thus, to the safety and future usability of the river banks. To meet the requirements, a synergetic approach of optical imaging and InSAR measurements and advanced remote sensing techniques for data extraction and monitoring are investigated: The differential INSAR method to monitor initial movements along the river banks and optical data for the detection and differentiation of varying soil and rock types as well as for the identification and quantification of vegetation canopies. In addition, geologic structures are deduced from high resolution data and correlated with collected field data. The combination and intersection of remotely derived information with existing thematic data and field knowledge within a GIS system allows for the estimation of the envisaged risk potential.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-04-20

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320. Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Appenzeller, Janet

    2000-04-20

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.

  12. Architectonic mapping of somatosensory areas involved in skilled forelimb movements and tool use.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andrei; Nascimento-Silva, Márcio L; Keher, Natalia B; Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben Ernesto; Gattass, Ricardo; Franca, João G

    2016-05-01

    Cebus monkeys stand out from other New World monkeys by their ability to perform fine hand movements, and by their spontaneous use of tools in the wild. Those behaviors rely on the integration of somatosensory information, which occurs in different areas of the parietal cortex. Although a few studies have examined and parceled the somatosensory areas of the cebus monkey, mainly using electrophysiological criteria, very little is known about its anatomical organization. In this study we used SMI-32 immunohistochemistry, myelin, and Nissl stains to characterize the architecture of the parietal cortical areas of cebus monkeys. Seven cortical areas were identified between the precentral gyrus and the anterior bank of the intraparietal sulcus. Except for areas 3a and 3b, distinction between different somatosensory areas was more evident in myelin-stained sections and SMI-32 immunohistochemistry than in Nissl stain, especially for area 2 and subdivisions of area 5. Our results show that cebus monkeys have a relatively complex somatosensory cortex, similar to that of macaques and humans. This suggests that, during primate evolution, the emergence of new somatosensory areas underpinned complex manual behaviors in most Old World simians and in the New World cebus monkey. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1399-1423, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during September 1999, Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method and a backhoe. Soil samples were collected from the sludge bed, sewage lagoons, strainer box, and Imhoff tank areas. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Soil sample results indicated that the only constituent of concern (COC) detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) was total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel-range organics. This COC was detected in three samples from the sludge bed at concentrations up to 580 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). Excavation of the area during characterization uncovered asphalt debris, four safety poles, and strands of barbed wire. The TPH-impacted soil and debris will be removed and disposed in the NTS Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill.

  14. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) within a Temperate Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Harasti, David; Lee, Kate A.; Gallen, Christopher; Hughes, Julian M.; Stewart, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs). We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae); a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing), with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high). Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days). The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years. PMID:26544185

  15. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    PubMed

    Harasti, David; Lee, Kate A; Gallen, Christopher; Hughes, Julian M; Stewart, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs). We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae); a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing), with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high). Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days). The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years.

  16. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    PubMed

    Harasti, David; Lee, Kate A; Gallen, Christopher; Hughes, Julian M; Stewart, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs). We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae); a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing), with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high). Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days). The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years. PMID:26544185

  17. Smoking restrictions in large-hub airports --- United States, 2002 and 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-11-19

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes death and disease in both nonsmoking adults and children, including cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. SHS exposure causes an estimated 46,000 heart disease deaths and 3,400 lung cancer deaths among U.S. nonsmoking adults annually. Adopting policies that completely eliminate smoking in all indoor areas is the only effective way to eliminate involuntary SHS exposure. In 2009, an estimated 696 million aircraft passenger boardings occurred in the United States. A 2002 survey of airport smoking policies found that 42% of 31 large-hub U.S. airports had policies requiring all indoor areas to be smoke-free. To update that finding, CDC analyzed the smoking policies of airports categorized as large-hub in 2010. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, although 22 (76%) of the 29 large-hub airports surveyed were smoke-free indoors, seven airports permitted smoking in certain indoor locations, including three of the five busiest airports. Although a majority of airports reported having specifically designated smoking areas outdoors in 2010 (79%) and/or prohibiting smoking within a minimum distance of entryways (69%), no airport completely prohibited smoking on all airport property. Smoke-free policies at the state, local, or airport authority level are needed for all airports to protect air travelers and workers at airports from SHS.

  18. ICAO's anti-SARS airport activities.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Silvio; Curdt-Christiansen, Claus M

    2003-11-01

    To prevent SARS from spreading through air travel and in order to rebuild the confidence of the traveling public in the safety of air travel, ICAO has set up an "Anti-SARS Airport Evaluation Project." The first phase of this project was to develop a set of protective measures for international airports in affected areas to adopt and implement and then to send out, on the request of Contracting States, a team of inspectors to evaluate and assess airports and issue a "statement of evaluation" that the airport inspected complies with the ICAO anti-SARS protective measures. In cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO), the first part of phase 1 was completed in early June this year, and the second part of phase 1 followed soon after. By mid-July, five international airports in Southeast Asia had been inspected and found to be in full compliance with the ICAO anti-SARS protective measures. The success of this ICAO project is believed to have contributed significantly to the recovery of international air travel and related industries now taking place. Phase 2 of the project is now being developed. It is aimed at preventing a resurgence of SARS, but it also contains elements to make the methodology developed applicable to future outbreaks of any other communicable disease in which the mode of transmission could involve aviation and/or the need to prevent the spread of the disease by air travel.

  19. Movements of Diplodus sargus (Sparidae) within a Portuguese coastal Marine Protected Area: Are they really protected?

    PubMed

    Belo, Ana Filipa; Pereira, Tadeu José; Quintella, Bernardo Ruivo; Castro, Nuno; Costa, José Lino; de Almeida, Pedro Raposo

    2016-03-01

    Mark-recapture tagging and acoustic telemetry were used to study the movements of Diplodus sargus within the Pessegueiro Island no-take Marine Protected Area (MPA), (Portugal) and assess its size adequacy for this species' protection against fishing activities. Therefore, 894 Diplodus sargus were captured and marked with conventional plastic t-bar tags. At the same time, 19 D. sargus were tagged with acoustic transmitters and monitored by 20 automatic acoustic receivers inside the no-take MPA for 60 days. Recapture rate of conventionally tagged specimens was 3.47%, most occurring during subsequent marking campaigns. One individual however was recaptured by recreational fishermen near Faro (ca. 250 km from the tagging location) 6 months after release. Furthermore, three specimens were recaptured in October 2013 near releasing site, one year after being tagged. Regarding acoustic telemetry, 18 specimens were detected by the receivers during most of the study period. To analyse no-take MPA use, the study site was divided into five areas reflecting habitat characteristics, three of which were frequently used by the tagged fish: Exterior, Interior Protected and Interior Exposed areas. Information on no-take protected area use was also analysed according to diel and tidal patterns. Preferred passageways and permanence areas were identified and high site fidelity was confirmed. The interaction between tide and time of day influenced space use patterns, with higher and more variable movements during daytime and neap tides. This no-take MPA proved to be an important refuge and feeding area for this species, encompassing most of the home ranges of tagged specimens. Therefore, it is likely that this no-take MPA is of adequate size to protect D. sargus against fishing activities, thus contributing to its sustainable management in the region. PMID:26794495

  20. Eye movements reveal distinct encoding patterns for number and cumulative surface area in random dot arrays

    PubMed Central

    Odic, Darko; Halberda, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Humans can quickly and intuitively represent the number of objects in a scene using visual evidence through the Approximate Number System (ANS). But the computations that support the encoding of visual number—the transformation from the retinal input into ANS representations—remain controversial. Two types of number encoding theories have been proposed: those arguing that number is encoded through a dedicated, enumeration computation, and those arguing that visual number is inferred from nonnumber specific visual features, such as surface area, density, convex hull, etc. Here, we attempt to adjudicate between these two theories by testing participants on both a number and a cumulative area task while also tracking their eye-movements. We hypothesize that if approximate number and surface area depend on distinct encoding computations, saccadic signatures should be distinct for the two tasks, even if the visual stimuli are identical. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that discriminating number versus cumulative area modulates both where participants look (i.e., participants spend more time looking at the more numerous set in the number task and the larger set in the cumulative area task), and how participants look (i.e., cumulative area encoding shows fewer, longer saccades, while number encoding shows many short saccades and many switches between targets). We further identify several saccadic signatures that are associated with task difficulty and correct versus incorrect trials for both dimensions. These results suggest distinct encoding algorithms for number and cumulative area extraction, and thereby distinct representations of these dimensions. PMID:26575191

  1. Migration patterns, use of stopover areas, and austral summer movements of swainson's hawks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kochert, M.N.; Fuller, M.R.; Schueck, L.S.; Bond, L.; Bechard, M.J.; Woodbridge, B.; Holroyd, G.L.; Martell, M.S.; Banasch, U.

    2011-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni), using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and movements in the austral summer. We tagged 46 hawks from July to September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson's Hawks followed three basic routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of central Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal area in central Argentina for the austral summer. North of 20?? N, southward and northward tracks differed little for individuals from east of the continental divide but differed greatly (up to 1700 km) for individuals from west of the continental divide. Hawks left the breeding grounds mid-August to mid-October; departure dates did not differ by location, year, or sex. Southbound migration lasted 42 to 98 days, northbound migration 51 to 82 days. Southbound, 36% of the Swainson's Hawks departed the nesting grounds nearly 3 weeks earlier than the other radio-marked hawks and made stopovers 9.0-26.0 days long in seven separate areas, mainly in the southern Great Plains, southern Arizona and New Mexico, and northcentral Mexico. The birds stayed in their nonbreeding range for 76 to 128 days. All used a core area in central Argentina within 23% of the 738 800-km2 austral summer range, where they frequently moved long distances (up to 1600 km). Conservation of Swainson's Hawks must be an international effort that considers habitats used during nesting and non-nesting seasons, including migration stopovers. Copyright ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  2. Migration patterns, use of stopover areas, and austral summer movements of Swainson's hawks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocher, Michael N.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schueck, Linda S.; Bond, Laura; Bechard, Marc J.; Woodbridge, Brian; Holroyd, Geoff L.; Martell, Mark S.; Banasch, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    from 1995 to 1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni), using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and movements in the austral summer. we tagged 46 hawks from July to September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson's Hawks followed three basic routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of cen-tral Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal area in central Argentina for the austral summer. North of 20° N, southward and northward tracks differed little for individuals from east of the continental divide but differed greatly (up to 1700 km) for individuals from west of the continental divide. Hawks left the breeding grounds mid-August to mid-October; departure dates did not differ by location, year, or sex. Southbound migra-tion lasted 42 to 98 days, northbound migration 51 to 82 days. Southbound, 36% of the Swainson's Hawks departed the nesting grounds nearly 3 weeks earlier than the other radio-marked hawks and made stopovers 9.0–26.0 days long in seven separate areas, mainly in the southern great Plains, southern Arizona and New Mexico, and north-central Mexico. The birds stayed in their nonbreeding range for 76 to 128 days. All used a core area in central Ar-gentina within 23% of the 738 800-km2 austral summer range, where they frequently moved long distances (up to 1600 km). Conservation of Swainson's Hawks must be an international effort that considers habitats used during nesting and non-nesting seasons, including migration stopovers.

  3. MIGRATION PATTERNS, USE OF STOPOVER AREAS, AND AUSTRAL SUMMER MOVEMENTS OF SWAINSON’S HAWKS

    PubMed Central

    Kochert, Michael N.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schueck, Linda S.; Bond, Laura; Bechard, Marc J.; Woodbridge, Brian; Holroyd, Geoff; Martell, Mark; Banasch, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    From 1995–1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson’s Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and austral summer movements. We tagged 46 hawks from July - September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson’s Hawks basically followed three routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of central Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal austral summer area in central Argentina. North of 20° N, southward and northward tracks differed little for individuals from east of the Continental Divide but differed greatly (up to 1700 km) for individuals from west of the Continental Divide. Hawks left the breeding grounds mid-August to mid-October; departure dates did not differ by location, year, or sex. South migration lasted 42 to 98 days, and north migration took 51 to 82 days. On south migration, 36% of the Swainson’s Hawks departed the nesting grounds nearly 3 weeks earlier than the other radio marked hawks and made stopovers 9.0 – 26.0 days long in seven separate areas, mainly in the southern Great Plains, southern Arizona and New Mexico, and north-central Mexico. The austral period lasted 76 to 128 days. All Swainson’s Hawks used a core area in central Argentina within 23% of the 738800 km2 austral summer range where they frequently moved long distances (up to 1600 km). Conservation of Swainson’s Hawks must be an international effort that considers habitats used during nesting and non-nesting seasons including migration stopovers. PMID:26380528

  4. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papasin, Richard; Gawdiak, Yuri; Maluf, David A.; Leidich, Christopher; Tran, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    Remote Tower Sensor Systems (RTSS) are proof-of-concept prototypes being developed by NASA/Ames Research Center (NASA/ARC) with collaboration with the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and NOAA (National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration). RTSS began with the deployment of an Airport Approach Zone Camera System that includes real-time weather observations at San Francisco International Airport. The goal of this research is to develop, deploy, and demonstrate remotely operated cameras and sensors at several major airport hubs and un-towered airports. RTSS can provide real-time weather observations of airport approach zone. RTSS will integrate and test airport sensor packages that will allow remote access to realtime airport conditions and aircraft status.

  5. Low back load in airport baggage handlers.

    PubMed

    Koblauch, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Low back pain (LBP) constitutes a major economic problem in many countries. The causes of LBP are still largely unknown and several risk factors have been suggested including heavy lifting, which causes high compression forces of the tissues in the low back. Micro-fractures in the endplates of the vertebrae caused by compression forces have been suggested as a source of unspecific pain. Although airport baggage handlers exhibit a high prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints the amount of biomechanical research within this and similar areas is limited. The aims of this thesis were to perform a general description of the lumbar loading in baggage handlers (Paper I), to develop a generically useful tool to examine specific lumbar compression in a valid manner (Paper II & III), and to investigate the spinal loading in common work tasks for baggage handlers. (Paper III). We recorded electromyography during baggage handling in the baggage hall, by a conveyor, and inside the aircraft baggage compartment. Electromyography was analyzed using amplitude probability distribution functions (APDF) on both tasks and full day recordings and root mean square (RMS) values on tasks. Furthermore, we estimated L4/L5 compression and moment along with shoulder flexor moment with a Watbak model based on more specific subtasks. In addition, we built an inverse dynamics-based musculoskeletal computer model using the AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). Motion capture recorded the movements in 3D during a stooped and a kneeling lifting task simulating airport baggage handler work. Marker trajectories were used to drive the model. The AMS-models computed estimated compression forces, shear forces and the moments around the L4/L5 joint. The compression forces were used for comparison with the vertebral compression tolerances reported in the literature. The RMS muscle activity was high in all tasks. The average peak RMS muscle activity was up to 120% EMGmax in the erector spinae during the baggage

  6. Planning for New Primary Airports in the United States: A Survey of Metropolitan Planning Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NewMeyer, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Airport congestion at primary airports in major metropolitan areas was analyzed in a report prepared by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in 1990. Taking the top twenty-three most congested airports from this study, a questionnaire was prepared and sent to the metropolitan planning organizations (MPOS) for twenty of the twenty-three metropolitan areas represented in the TRB study. The questionnaire focused on the role of the MPOs in planning for new primary airports in the United States, including questions about the status of the most recent MPO airport system plan, whether or not the latest plan recommends a new primary airport, and whether or not any other entities in the MPO areas are recommending new primary airports. The results indicated that 44.4 percent of the eighteen respondent MPOs have airport system plans that are five years old or older. Also, only two of the respondent MPOs have recommended a new primary airport in their latest regional airport system plan and only one of these two is a common recommendation in the Federal Aviation Administration's National Plan of Integrated Airport System.

  7. Planning for New Primary Airports in the United States: A Survey of Metropolitan Planning Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NewMyer, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Airport congestion at primary airports in major metropolitan areas was analyzed in a report prepared by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in 1990. Taking the top twenty-three most congested airports from this study, a questionnaire was prepared and sent to the metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) for twenty of the twenty-three metropolitan areas represented in the TRB study, The questionnaire focused on the role of the MPOs in planning for new primary airports in the United States, including questions about the status of the most recent MPO airport system plan, whether or not the latest plan recommends a new primary airport, and whether or not any other entities in the MPO areas are recommending new primary airports. The results indicated that 44.4 percent of the eighteen respondent MPOs have airport system plans that are five years old or older. Also, only two of the respondent MPOs have recommended a new primary airport in their latest regional airport system plan and only one of these two is a common recommendation in the Federal Aviation Administration's National Plan of Integrated Airport System.

  8. A method of automatic recognition of airport in complex environment from remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Qiwei; Ni, Guoqiang; Guo, Pan; Chen, Xiaomei; Tang, Yi

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, a new method is proposed for airport recognition in complex environments. The algorithm takes all advantages of essential characteristics of the airport target. Structural characteristics of the airport are used to establish assumption process. Improved Hough transformation (HT) is used to check out those right straight-lines which stand for actual position and direction of runways. Morphological processing is used to remove road segments and isolated points. Finally, we combine these segments carefully to describe the whole airport area, and then our automatic recognition of airport target is realized.

  9. Predicting ground-water movement in large mine spoil areas in the Appalachian Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wunsch, D.R.; Dinger, J.S.; Graham, C.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Spoil created by surface mining can accumulate large quantities of ground-water, which can create geotechnical or regulatory problems, as well as flood active mine pits. A current study at a large (4.1 km2), thick, (up to 90 m) spoil body in eastern Kentucky reveals important factors that control the storage and movement of water. Ground-water recharge occurs along the periphery of the spoil body where surface-water drainage is blocked, as well as from infiltration along the spoil-bedrock contact, recharge from adjacent bedrock, and to a minor extent, through macropores at the spoil's surface. Based on an average saturated thickness of 6.4 m for all spoil wells, and assuming an estimated porosity of 20%, approximately 5.2 x 106 m3 of water is stored within the existing 4.1 km2 of reclaimed spoil. A conceptual model of ground-water flow, based on data from monitoring wells, dye-tracing data, discharge from springs and ponds, hydraulic gradients, chemical data, field reconnaissance, and aerial photographs indicate that three distinct but interconnected saturated zones have been established: one in the spoil's interior, and others in the valley fills that surround the main spoil body at lower elevations. Ground-water movement is sluggish in the spoil's interior, but moves quickly through the valley fills. The conceptual model shows that a prediction of ground-water occurrence, movement, and quality can be made for active or abandoned spoil areas if all or some of the following data are available: structural contour of the base of the lowest coal seam being mined, pre-mining topography, documentation of mining methods employed throughout the mine, overburden characteristics, and aerial photographs of mine progression.Spoil created by surface mining can accumulate large quantities of ground-water, which can create geotechnical or regulatory problems, as well as flood active mine pits. A current study at a large (4.1 km2), thick, (up to 90 m) spoil body in eastern

  10. Distinct neuronal organizations of the caudal cingulate motor area and supplementary motor area in monkeys for ipsilateral and contralateral hand movements

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Yokoyama, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    The caudal cingulate motor area (CMAc) and the supplementary motor area (SMA) play important roles in movement execution. The present study aimed to characterize the functional organization of these regions during movement by investigating laterality representations in the CMAc and SMA of monkeys via an examination of neuronal activity during a button press movement with either the right or left hand. Three types of movement-related neuronal activity were observed: 1) with only the contralateral hand, 2) with only the ipsilateral hand, and 3) with either hand. Neurons in the CMAc represented contralateral and ipsilateral hand movements to the same degree, whereas neuronal representations in the SMA were biased toward contralateral hand movement. Furthermore, recording neuronal activities using a linear-array multicontact electrode with 24 contacts spaced 150 μm apart allowed us to analyze the spatial distribution of neurons exhibiting particular hand preferences at the submillimeter scale. The CMAc and SMA displayed distinct microarchitectural organizations. The contralateral, ipsilateral, and bilateral CMAc neurons were distributed homogeneously, whereas SMA neurons exhibiting identical hand preferences tended to cluster. These findings indicate that the CMAc, which is functionally organized in a less structured manner than the SMA is, controls contralateral and ipsilateral hand movements in a counterbalanced fashion, whereas the SMA, which is more structured, preferentially controls contralateral hand movements. PMID:25717163

  11. Distinct neuronal organizations of the caudal cingulate motor area and supplementary motor area in monkeys for ipsilateral and contralateral hand movements.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Yokoyama, Osamu; Hoshi, Eiji

    2015-04-01

    The caudal cingulate motor area (CMAc) and the supplementary motor area (SMA) play important roles in movement execution. The present study aimed to characterize the functional organization of these regions during movement by investigating laterality representations in the CMAc and SMA of monkeys via an examination of neuronal activity during a button press movement with either the right or left hand. Three types of movement-related neuronal activity were observed: 1) with only the contralateral hand, 2) with only the ipsilateral hand, and 3) with either hand. Neurons in the CMAc represented contralateral and ipsilateral hand movements to the same degree, whereas neuronal representations in the SMA were biased toward contralateral hand movement. Furthermore, recording neuronal activities using a linear-array multicontact electrode with 24 contacts spaced 150 μm apart allowed us to analyze the spatial distribution of neurons exhibiting particular hand preferences at the submillimeter scale. The CMAc and SMA displayed distinct microarchitectural organizations. The contralateral, ipsilateral, and bilateral CMAc neurons were distributed homogeneously, whereas SMA neurons exhibiting identical hand preferences tended to cluster. These findings indicate that the CMAc, which is functionally organized in a less structured manner than the SMA is, controls contralateral and ipsilateral hand movements in a counterbalanced fashion, whereas the SMA, which is more structured, preferentially controls contralateral hand movements. PMID:25717163

  12. Minimum area requirements for an at-risk butterfly based on movement and demography.

    PubMed

    Brown, Leone M; Crone, Elizabeth E

    2016-02-01

    Determining the minimum area required to sustain populations has a long history in theoretical and conservation biology. Correlative approaches are often used to estimate minimum area requirements (MARs) based on relationships between area and the population size required for persistence or between species' traits and distribution patterns across landscapes. Mechanistic approaches to estimating MAR facilitate prediction across space and time but are few. We used a mechanistic MAR model to determine the critical minimum patch size (CMP) for the Baltimore checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas phaeton), a locally abundant species in decline along its southern range, and sister to several federally listed species. Our CMP is based on principles of diffusion, where individuals in smaller patches encounter edges and leave with higher probability than those in larger patches, potentially before reproducing. We estimated a CMP for the Baltimore checkerspot of 0.7-1.5 ha, in accordance with trait-based MAR estimates. The diffusion rate on which we based this CMP was broadly similar when estimated at the landscape scale (comparing flight path vs. capture-mark-recapture data), and the estimated population growth rate was consistent with observed site trends. Our mechanistic approach to estimating MAR is appropriate for species whose movement follows a correlated random walk and may be useful where landscape-scale distributions are difficult to assess, but demographic and movement data are obtainable from a single site or the literature. Just as simple estimates of lambda are often used to assess population viability, the principles of diffusion and CMP could provide a starting place for estimating MAR for conservation.

  13. Minimum area requirements for an at-risk butterfly based on movement and demography.

    PubMed

    Brown, Leone M; Crone, Elizabeth E

    2016-02-01

    Determining the minimum area required to sustain populations has a long history in theoretical and conservation biology. Correlative approaches are often used to estimate minimum area requirements (MARs) based on relationships between area and the population size required for persistence or between species' traits and distribution patterns across landscapes. Mechanistic approaches to estimating MAR facilitate prediction across space and time but are few. We used a mechanistic MAR model to determine the critical minimum patch size (CMP) for the Baltimore checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas phaeton), a locally abundant species in decline along its southern range, and sister to several federally listed species. Our CMP is based on principles of diffusion, where individuals in smaller patches encounter edges and leave with higher probability than those in larger patches, potentially before reproducing. We estimated a CMP for the Baltimore checkerspot of 0.7-1.5 ha, in accordance with trait-based MAR estimates. The diffusion rate on which we based this CMP was broadly similar when estimated at the landscape scale (comparing flight path vs. capture-mark-recapture data), and the estimated population growth rate was consistent with observed site trends. Our mechanistic approach to estimating MAR is appropriate for species whose movement follows a correlated random walk and may be useful where landscape-scale distributions are difficult to assess, but demographic and movement data are obtainable from a single site or the literature. Just as simple estimates of lambda are often used to assess population viability, the principles of diffusion and CMP could provide a starting place for estimating MAR for conservation. PMID:26174312

  14. Data on noise environments at different times of day around airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Sources of information about noise environments at different times of the day at civilian and military airports are identified. Information about movements of scheduled flights are available in machine readable form from the Official Airline Guide. Information about permanent noise monitoring sites is readily obtained from individual airports. Limited data on the timing of flights are available at centralized locations for military airports. An examination of scheduled flights at commercial airports leads to the conclusion that differences between daytime and nighttime noise levels (measured in Equivalent Continuous Noise Level, LEQ) vary from 7 to 15 decibels. Data from 128 permanent noise monitoring sites at 11 airports are also examined. Differences between daytime and nighttime noise levels at these 128 noise monitoring sites vary from 3 to 17 decibels (LEQ). Preliminary analyses suggest that accurate estimates of time-of-day weights could not be obtained from conventional social surveys at existing airports.

  15. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

    PubMed

    Feenders, Gesa; Liedvogel, Miriam; Rivas, Miriam; Zapka, Manuela; Horita, Haruhito; Hara, Erina; Wada, Kazuhiro; Mouritsen, Henrik; Jarvis, Erich D

    2008-03-12

    Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor pathway that controls

  16. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

    PubMed

    Feenders, Gesa; Liedvogel, Miriam; Rivas, Miriam; Zapka, Manuela; Horita, Haruhito; Hara, Erina; Wada, Kazuhiro; Mouritsen, Henrik; Jarvis, Erich D

    2008-01-01

    Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor pathway that controls

  17. Airport cleanup rises above problems

    SciTech Connect

    Pressly, N.; Lucas, B.; Frumer, B.; Roth, R.

    1996-07-01

    Engineers used a treatment combination to improve the in-situ bioremediation system`s efficiency in removing underground fuel leaks at JFK Airport. John F. Kennedy International Airport, in New York City, on Jamaica Bay, has an above-ground storage capacity of about 32 million gallons of jet fuel, which flow through about 50 miles of high-pressure underground pipe to the central terminal area. EAch terminal`s fuel hydrant system was the major source os subsurface contamination at the site. The site is covered by 1 to 1.5 feet of reinforced concrete pavement. Liquid phase jet fuel (free product) was measured on the water table with true thickness ranging from less than 1 inch to 1 foot. After analysis of core samples, contamination was found adsorbed to the soil with maximum levels at the water table. This article describes the clean up, covering the following topics: microbial conditions during system operation; above-ground treatment challenges: free product emulsification, presence of biomass; evaluation of enhancements: dissolved air floatation, coagulation and flocculation, retention time adjustments; conclusions.

  18. Residency times and patterns of movement of postbreeding dunlin on a subarctic staging area in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnock, Nils; Handel, Colleen M.; Gill, Robert E.; McCaffery, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how individuals use key resources is critical for effective conservation of a population. The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska is the most important postbreeding staging area for shorebirds in the subarctic North Pacific, yet little is known about movements of shorebirds there during the postbreeding period. To address this information gap, we studied residency times and patterns of movement of 17 adult and 17 juvenile radio-marked Dunlin (Calidris alpina) on the YKD between early August and early October 2005. Throughout this postbreeding period, during which Dunlin were molting, most birds were relocated within a 130 km radius of their capture site on the YKD, but three birds were relocated more than 600 km to the south at estuaries along the Alaska Peninsula. On average, juvenile Dunlin were relocated farther away from the banding site (median relocation distance = 36.3 km) than adult Dunlin (median relocation distance = 8.8 km). Post-capture, minimum lengths of stay by Dunlin on the YKD were not significantly different between juveniles (median = 19 days) and adults (median = 23 days), with some birds staging for more than 50 days. Body mass at time of capture was the best single variable explaining length of stay on the YKD, with average length of stay decreasing by 2.5 days per additional gram of body mass at time of capture. Conservation efforts for postbreeding shorebirds should consider patterns of resource use that may differ not only by age cohort but also by individual condition.

  19. A simulation study of moisture movement in proposed barriers for the subsurface disposal area, INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, S.O.

    1993-09-01

    This document presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate moisture movement within two engineered barriers, which are proposed for use in eventual closure of the Subsurface Disposal Area. The results of the study are intended to guide the design and implementation of field test plots that will be constructed to test the barrier designs. Discussed are the sensitivity of barrier performance to changes in the conceptual model, which was used to simulate the barriers, and to changes in hydrologic parameters, which were used to describe the materials composing the barriers. In addition, estimates are presented concerning the time required for the moisture profile within the barriers to come into equilibrium with the meteorological conditions at the surface. In addition, the performance of the barriers under conditions of supplemental precipitation and ponding is presented.

  20. Insights from the supplementary motor area syndrome in balancing movement initiation and inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Potgieser, A. R. E.; de Jong, B. M.; Wagemakers, M.; Hoving, E. W.; Groen, R. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a characteristic neurosurgical syndrome that can occur after unilateral resection of the SMA. Clinical symptoms may vary from none to a global akinesia, predominantly on the contralateral side, with preserved muscle strength and mutism. A remarkable feature is that these symptoms completely resolve within weeks to months, leaving only a disturbance in alternating bimanual movements. In this review we give an overview of the old and new insights from the SMA syndrome and extrapolate these findings to seemingly unrelated diseases and symptoms such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and tics. Furthermore, we integrate findings from lesion, stimulation and functional imaging studies to provide insight in the motor function of the SMA. PMID:25506324

  1. NDVI from Landsat 8 Vegetation Indices to Study Movement Dynamics of Capra Ibex in Mountain Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirotti, F.; Parraga, M. A.; Stuaro, E.; Dubbini, M.; Masiero, A.; Ramanzin, M.

    2014-09-01

    In this study we analyse the correlation between the spatial positions of Capra ibex (mountain goat) on an hourly basis and the information obtained from vegetation indices extracted from Landsat 8 datasets. Eight individuals were tagged with a collar with a GNSS receiver and their position was recorded every hour since the beginning of 2013 till 2014 (still ongoing); a total of 16 Landsat 8 cloud-free datasets overlapped that area during that time period. All images were brought to a reference radiometric level and NDVI was calculated. To assess behaviour of animal movement, NDVI values were extracted at each position (i.e. every hour). A daily "area of influence" was calculated by spatially creating a convex hull perimeter around the 24 points relative to each day, and then applying a 120 m buffer (figure 4). In each buffer a set of 24 points was randomly chosen and NDVI values again extracted. Statistical analysis and significance testing supported the hypothesis of the pseudo-random NDVI values to be have, in average, lower values than the real NDVI values, with a p value of 0.129 for not paired t test and p value of < 0.001 for pairwise t test. This is still a first study which will go more in depth in near future by testing models to see if the animal movements in different periods of the year follow in some way the phenological stage of vegetation. Different aspects have to be accounted for, such as the behaviour of animals when not feeding (e.g. resting) and the statistical significance of daily distributions, which might be improved by analysing broader gaps of time.

  2. 7 CFR 301.75-8 - Interstate movement of regulated seed from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-8 Interstate movement of regulated seed from... interstate movement, no plants or plant parts infected with or exposed to citrus canker were found in...

  3. 7 CFR 301.75-8 - Interstate movement of regulated seed from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-8 Interstate movement of regulated seed from... interstate movement, no plants or plant parts infected with or exposed to citrus canker were found in...

  4. 7 CFR 301.75-8 - Interstate movement of regulated seed from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-8 Interstate movement of regulated seed from... interstate movement, no plants or plant parts infected with or exposed to citrus canker were found in...

  5. 7 CFR 301.75-8 - Interstate movement of regulated seed from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-8 Interstate movement of regulated seed from... interstate movement, no plants or plant parts infected with or exposed to citrus canker were found in...

  6. 7 CFR 301.75-8 - Interstate movement of regulated seed from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-8 Interstate movement of regulated seed from... interstate movement, no plants or plant parts infected with or exposed to citrus canker were found in...

  7. Design of airport pavements for expansive soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeen, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Expansive soil subgrades exhibit volume changes with variation in moisture condition. These changes result in differential movement of airport pavements resting on these soils. Special design procedures must be used to account for the expansive soil activity during equilibration. In addition, special precautions are required to protect the subgrade from moisture variation with climate. Measurement of soil suction is a key step in quantifying moisture-induced soil behavior. Procedures are outlined for suction characterization of the soil and for estimating the in situ differential movement likely to occur under the pavement. Once the wavelength and amplitude characteristics of the differential movement are obtained, design calculations to select the thickness and materials for the pavement may proceed.

  8. 14 CFR 221.52 - Airport to airport application, accessorial services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport to airport application, accessorial... Charges § 221.52 Airport to airport application, accessorial services. Tariffs shall specify whether or not the fares therein include services in addition to airport-to-airport transportation....

  9. Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-Level Airport Operations and Management Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilty, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper identifies important topical knowledge areas required of individuals employed in airport operations and management positions. A total of 116 airport managers and airfield operations personnel responded to a survey that sought to identify the importance of various subject matter for entry level airport operations personnel. The results from this study add to the body of research on aviation management curriculum development and can be used to better develop university curriculum and supplemental training focused on airport management and operations. Recommendations are made for specialized airport courses within aviation management programs. Further, this study identifies for job seekers or individuals employed in entry level positions those knowledge requirements deemed important by airport managers and operations personnel at different sized airports.

  10. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... dead poultry from a quarantined area. 82.6 Section 82.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except...

  11. 9 CFR 82.5 - Interstate movement of live birds and live poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live poultry from a quarantined area. 82.5 Section 82.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.5 Interstate movement of live birds and live poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Pet...

  12. 9 CFR 82.5 - Interstate movement of live birds and live poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live poultry from a quarantined area. 82.5 Section 82.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.5 Interstate movement of live birds and live poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Pet...

  13. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dead poultry from a quarantined area. 82.6 Section 82.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except...

  14. 9 CFR 82.5 - Interstate movement of live birds and live poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live poultry from a quarantined area. 82.5 Section 82.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS NEWCASTLE DISEASE AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Newcastle Disease § 82.5 Interstate movement of live birds and live poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Pet birds. An individual may move...

  15. 9 CFR 82.5 - Interstate movement of live birds and live poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... live poultry from a quarantined area. 82.5 Section 82.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.5 Interstate movement of live birds and live poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Pet...

  16. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dead poultry from a quarantined area. 82.6 Section 82.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except...

  17. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dead poultry from a quarantined area. 82.6 Section 82.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS NEWCASTLE DISEASE AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Newcastle Disease § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  18. 9 CFR 82.5 - Interstate movement of live birds and live poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live poultry from a quarantined area. 82.5 Section 82.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.5 Interstate movement of live birds and live poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Pet...

  19. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dead poultry from a quarantined area. 82.6 Section 82.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except...

  20. 7 CFR 301.51-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulated articles from quarantined areas. 301.51-4 Section 301.51-4 Agriculture Regulations of the... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas. (a) Any regulated article may be moved interstate...

  1. Area use and movements of the white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) in the Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors.

    PubMed

    Farris, Michael; Ahr, Bonnie; Lowe, Christopher G

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the movements of fish in relation to areas of contaminated and urbanized habitats is crucial to fisheries management and habitat remediation. In this study, the movements of white croaker in the Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors were examined using both active and passive acoustic telemetry tracking. Daily area use for 20 fish actively tracked over multiple days averaged 94,720 ± 78,720 m(2) (±SD), with daily activity spaces shifting over periods of up to 1 month. Long-term dispersal (up to 7 months) of 93 passively tracked white croaker followed significantly non-random patterns, with 55 individuals (59.1%) making inter-regional Harbor movements. Inter-regional movements took an average of 4.7 ± 4.1 weeks to complete. Dispersal was significantly faster than what was predicted by an individual-based random walk model generated from short-term white croaker movements recorded during active tracking within the Harbor. Longer-term dispersal is likely the result of intentional movements between patches of favorable habitat rather than random daily shifts in activity spaces, indicating that white croaker deliberately utilize different areas within the Harbor and over the course of a year utilize much of the favorable Harbor habitat. PMID:27552120

  2. Brain areas involved in the control of speed during a motor sequence of the foot: real movement versus mental imagery.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, C; Jissendi, P; Seignan, S; Manto, M; Habas, C

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the cerebral networks involved in execution and mental imagery of sequential movements of the left foot, both performed at slow and fast speed. Twelve volunteers were scanned with a 3T MRI during execution and imagination of a sequence of ankle movements. Overt movement execution and motor imagery shared a common network including the premotor, parietal and cingulate cortices, the striatum and the cerebellum. Motor imagery recruited specifically the prefrontal cortex, whereas motor execution recruited specifically the sensorimotor cortex. We also found that slow movements specifically recruited frontopolar and right dorsomedian prefrontal areas bilaterally, during both execution and mental imagery, whereas fast movements strongly activated the sensorimotor cerebral cortex. Finally, we noted that anterior vermis, lobules VI/VII and VIII of the cerebellum were specifically activated during fast movements, both in imagination and execution. We show that the selection of the neural networks underlying voluntary movement of the foot is depending on the speed strategy and is sensitive to execution versus imagery. Moreover, to the light of surprising recent findings in monkeys showing that the vermis should no longer be considered as entirely isolated from the cerebral cortex (Coffman et al., 2011 [2]), we suggest that the anterior vermis contributes to computational aspects of fast commands, whereas more lateral cerebellar superior lobe and lobule VIII would regulate patterning and sequencing of submovements in conjunction with movement rate. We also suggest that execution of overt slow movements, which strongly involves prefrontal executive cortex as during motor mental imagery, is associated with conscious mental representation of the ongoing movements. PMID:23433722

  3. [Avian diversity and bird strike risk at Fuyang Airport].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-min; Jiang, Shuang-lin; Nie, Chuan-peng; Zhou, Hou-long; Li, Yan-yan; Chen, Nai-tang; Zhao, Zhi-hua

    2011-07-01

    From June 2008 to January 2010, a survey of avian communities was conducted in five habitats (grassland, farmland, town, wetland, and woodland) at Fuyang Airport and its surrounding areas, with the diversity indices in different seasons and different habitats analyzed. A total of 122 avian species belonging to 15 orders and 40 families were recorded. At Fuyang Airport, the avian species number was significantly higher in summer and autumn than in winter and spring, the avian density was the highest in autumn, and the Shannon diversity index and Pielou evenness index were the highest in summer. Among the five habitats at the Airport and its surrounding areas, woodland had the greatest avian species number and density, and the woodland, wetland, and farmland had higher Shannon diversity index than grassland and town. The most dangerous avian species to the airplanes at Fuyang Airport were Passer montanus, Pycnonotus sinensis, Hirundo rustica, Columba livia f. domestica, Pica pica, Streptopelia chinensis, and Sturnus cineraceu.

  4. Coarse-to-fine wavelet-based airport detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Wang, Shuigen; Pang, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Baojun

    2015-10-01

    Airport detection on optical remote sensing images has attracted great interest in the applications of military optics scout and traffic control. However, most of the popular techniques for airport detection from optical remote sensing images have three weaknesses: 1) Due to the characteristics of optical images, the detection results are often affected by imaging conditions, like weather situation and imaging distortion; and 2) optical images contain comprehensive information of targets, so that it is difficult for extracting robust features (e.g., intensity and textural information) to represent airport area; 3) the high resolution results in large data volume, which makes real-time processing limited. Most of the previous works mainly focus on solving one of those problems, and thus, the previous methods cannot achieve the balance of performance and complexity. In this paper, we propose a novel coarse-to-fine airport detection framework to solve aforementioned three issues using wavelet coefficients. The framework includes two stages: 1) an efficient wavelet-based feature extraction is adopted for multi-scale textural feature representation, and support vector machine(SVM) is exploited for classifying and coarsely deciding airport candidate region; and then 2) refined line segment detection is used to obtain runway and landing field of airport. Finally, airport recognition is achieved by applying the fine runway positioning to the candidate regions. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of detection accuracy and processing efficiency.

  5. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... procedures to be used in applications for exemption under the Airport Privatization Pilot Program (62 FR... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field (LZU), Lawrenceville, Georgia. SUMMARY: The Federal...

  6. 75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... procedures to be used in applications for exemption under Airport Privatization Pilot Program (62 FR 48693... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Airglades Airport (2IS), Clewiston, Florida. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)...

  7. 49 CFR 1542.111 - Exclusive area agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Airport Security Program § 1542.111 Exclusive area agreements. (a) TSA may approve an amendment to an airport security...

  8. 49 CFR 1542.111 - Exclusive area agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Airport Security Program § 1542.111 Exclusive area agreements. (a) TSA may approve an amendment to an airport security...

  9. Shallow Groundwater Movement in the Skagit River Delta Area, Skagit County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, Mark E.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.

    2009-01-01

    Shallow groundwater movement in an area between the lower Skagit River and Puget Sound was characterized by the U.S. Geological Survey to assist Skagit County and the Washington State Department of Ecology with the identification of areas where water withdrawals from existing and new wells could adversely affect streamflow in the Skagit River. The shallow groundwater system consists of alluvial, lahar runout, and recessional outwash deposits composed of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. Upland areas are underlain by glacial till and outwash deposits that show evidence of terrestrial and shallow marine depositional environments. Bedrock exposures are limited to a few upland outcrops in the southwestern part of the study area, and consist of metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous rocks. Water levels were measured in 47 wells on a quarterly basis (August 2007, November 2007, February 2008, and May 2008). Measurements from 34 wells completed in the shallow groundwater system were used to construct groundwater-level and flow-direction maps and perform a linear-regression analysis to estimate the overall, time averaged shallow groundwater-flow direction and gradient. Groundwater flow in the shallow groundwater system generally moves in a southwestward direction away from the Skagit River and toward the Swinomish Channel and Skagit Bay. Local groundwater flow towards the river was inferred during February 2008 in areas west and southwest of Mount Vernon. Water-level altitudes varied seasonally, however, and generally ranged from less than 3 feet (August 2007) in the west to about 15 feet (May 2008) in the east. The time-averaged, shallow groundwater-flow direction derived from regression analysis, 8.5 deg south of west, was similar to flow directions depicted on the quarterly water-level maps. Seasonal changes in groundwater levels in most wells in the Skagit River Delta follow a typical pattern for shallow wells in western Washington. Water

  10. Integration of seawater and grey water reuse to maximize alternative water resource for coastal areas: the case of the Hong Kong International Airport.

    PubMed

    Leung, R W K; Li, D C H; Yu, W K; Chui, H K; Lee, T O; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Chen, G H

    2012-01-01

    Development, population growth and climate change have pressurized water stress in the world. Being an urbanized coastal city, Hong Kong has adopted a dual water supply system since the 1950s for seawater toilet flushing for 80% of its 7 million inhabitants. Despite its success in saving 750,000 m(3)/day of freshwater, the saline sewage (consisting of about 20-30% of seawater) appears to have sacrificed the urban water cycle in terms of wastewater reuse and recycling. Can seawater toilet flushing be applied without affecting the urban water cycle with respect to sustainable water resource management? To address this issue, we examined the entire urban water cycle and developed an innovative water resource management system by integrating freshwater, seawater and reclaimed grey water into a sustainable, low-freshwater demand, low-energy consumption, and low-cost triple water supply (TWS) system. The applicability of this novel system has been demonstrated at the Hong Kong International Airport which reduced 52% of its freshwater demand.

  11. Movement of moisture in the unsaturated zone in a loess-mantled area, southwestern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prill, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    A study of moisture movement associated with ponding near Garden City, Kansas, indicates that loess-manted areas have excellent potential for artificial recharge by water spreading. Infiltration stabilized at rates ranging from 0.7 to 2.2 feet (0.2 to 0.7 meter) per day reflecting changes in hydraulic conductivity of soil horizons. Results of the study indicate that the underlying loess has the capacity to temporarily store about 1 cubic foot (0.03 cubic meter) of water for each 6 cubic feet (0.17 cubic meter) of material. Owing to relatively high hydraulic conductivities of the loess and alluvium, however, moisture continues to move through the unsaturated zone. After application of 21 feet (6 meters) of water, mounding at the water table had a maximum thickness of 2 feet (0.6 meter) at the edge of the pond. Although the boundary of mounding spread rapidly, the applied water moved slowly by lateral displacement. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Airport malaria: report of four cases in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Siala, Emna; Gamara, Dhikrayet; Kallel, Kalthoum; Daaboub, Jabeur; Zouiten, Faiçal; Houzé, Sandrine; Bouratbine, Aïda; Aoun, Karim

    2015-01-28

    Four cases of airport malaria were notified for the first time in Tunisia during the summer of 2013. All patients were neighbours living within 2 km of Tunis International Airport. They had no history of travel to malarious countries, of blood transfusion or of intravenous drug use. Although malaria transmission had ceased in Tunisia since 1980, autochthonous infection by local Anopheles mosquitoes was initially considered. However, this diagnostic hypothesis was ruled out due to negative entomological survey and the absence of additional cases.All cases were caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Clinical presentation was severe (important thrombocytopaenia and parasitaemia), because of relatively important delay in diagnosis (average of seven days). This indicates the need to consider malaria while examining airport employees or people living near international airports presenting with fever of unknown origin. It also stresses the need for effective spraying of aircrafts coming from malarious areas.

  13. Simulation of groundwater flow and saltwater movement in the Onslow County area, North Carolina: predevelopment-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fine, Jason M.; Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2014-01-01

    Onslow County, North Carolina, is located within the designated Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area (CCPCUA). The CCPCUA was designated by law as a result of groundwater level declines of as much as 200 feet during the past four decades within aquifers in rocks of Cretaceous age in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina and a depletion of water in storage from increased groundwater withdrawals in the area. The declines and depletion of water in storage within the Cretaceous aquifers increase the potential for saltwater migration—both lateral encroachment and upward leakage of brackish water. Within the CCPCUA, a reduction in groundwater withdrawals over a period of 16 years from 2003 to 2018 is mandated. Under the CCPCUA rules, withdrawals in excess of 100,000 gallons per day from any of the Cretaceous aquifer well systems are subject to water-use reductions of as much as 75 percent. To assess the effects of the CCPCUA rules and to assist with groundwater-management decisions, a numerical model was developed to simulate the groundwater flow and chloride concentrations in the surficial Castle Hayne, Beaufort, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers in the Onslow County area. The model was used to (1) simulate groundwater flow from 1900 to 2010; (2) assess chloride movement throughout the aquifer system; and (3) create hypothetical scenarios of future groundwater development. After calibration of a groundwater flow model and conversion to a variable-density model, five scenarios were created to simulate future groundwater conditions in the Onslow County area: (1) full implementation of the CCPCUA rules with three phases of withdrawal reductions simulated through 2028; (2) implementation of only phase 1 withdrawal reductions of the CCPCUA rules and simulated through 2028; (3) implementation of only phases 1 and 2 withdrawal reductions of the CCPCUA rules and simulated through 2028; (4) full implementation of the CCPCUA rules with the addition of withdrawals from

  14. 14 CFR 139.339 - Airport condition reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... areas, safety areas, or loading ramps and parking areas. (2) Surface irregularities on movement areas, safety areas, or loading ramps and parking areas. (3) Snow, ice, slush, or water on the movement area or loading ramps and parking areas. (4) Snow piled or drifted on or near movement areas contrary to §...

  15. 7 CFR 301.74-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated... Departmental permit and found by the Administrator to be adequate to prevent the spread of plum pox; and (4... plum pox while in the quarantined area; (2) The regulated article's point of origin is indicated on...

  16. 7 CFR 301.74-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated... Departmental permit and found by the Administrator to be adequate to prevent the spread of plum pox; and (4... plum pox while in the quarantined area; (2) The regulated article's point of origin is indicated on...

  17. 7 CFR 301.74-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated... Departmental permit and found by the Administrator to be adequate to prevent the spread of plum pox; and (4... plum pox while in the quarantined area; (2) The regulated article's point of origin is indicated on...

  18. 7 CFR 301.74-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated... Departmental permit and found by the Administrator to be adequate to prevent the spread of plum pox; and (4... plum pox while in the quarantined area; (2) The regulated article's point of origin is indicated on...

  19. 7 CFR 301.74-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated... Departmental permit and found by the Administrator to be adequate to prevent the spread of plum pox; and (4... plum pox while in the quarantined area; (2) The regulated article's point of origin is indicated on...

  20. 9 CFR 71.15 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted. 71.15 Section 71.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  1. 9 CFR 71.15 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted. 71.15 Section 71.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  2. 9 CFR 71.15 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted. 71.15 Section 71.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  3. 9 CFR 71.15 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted. 71.15 Section 71.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  4. 9 CFR 71.15 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted. 71.15 Section 71.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  5. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. 82.8 Section 82.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF...

  6. The systems approach to airport security: The FAA (Federal Aviation Administration)/BWI (Baltimore-Washington International) Airport demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, D.L.; Olascoaga, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in designing, installing and evaluating security systems for various applications during the past 15 years. A systems approach to security that evolved from this experience was applied to aviation security for the Federal Aviation Administration. A general systems study of aviation security in the United States was concluded in 1987. One result of the study was a recommendation that an enhanced security system concept designed to meet specified objectives be demonstrated at an operational airport. Baltimore-Washington International Airport was selected as the site for the demonstration project which began in 1988 and will be completed in 1992. This article introduced the systems approach to airport security and discussed its application at Baltimore-Washington International Airport. Examples of design features that could be included in an enhanced security concept also were presented, including details of the proposed Ramps Area Intrusion Detection System (RAIDS).

  7. Spatial patterns and movements of red king and Tanner crabs: Implications for the design of marine protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taggart, S.J.; Mondragon, J.; Andrews, A.G.; Nielsen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Most examples of positive population responses to marine protected areas (MPAs) have been documented for tropical reef species with very small home ranges; the utility of MPAs for commercially harvested temperate species that have large movement patterns remains poorly tested. We measured the distribution and abundance of red king Paralithodes camtschaticus and Tanner Chionoecetes bairdi crabs inside and outside of MPAs in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA. By tagging a sub-sample of crabs with sonic tags, we estimated the movement of adult crabs from one of the MPAs (Muir Inlet) into the central portion of Glacier Bay where fishing still occurs. Tanner crabs and red king crabs moved similar average distances per day, although Tanner crabs had a higher transfer out of the Muir Inlet MPA into the central bay. Tanner crab movements were characterized by large variation among individual crabs, both in distance and direction traveled, while red king crabs migrated seasonally between 2 specific areas. Although Tanner crabs exhibited relatively large movements, distribution and abundance data suggest that they may be restricted at large spatial scales by habitat barriers. MPAs that are effective at protecting king and especially Tanner crab brood stock from fishing mortality will likely need to be larger than is typical of MPAs worldwide. However, by incorporating information on the seasonal movements of red king crabs and the location of habitat barriers for Tanner crabs, MPAs could likely be designed that would effectively protect adults from fishing mortality. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  8. 14 CFR 93.345 - VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports... Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area § 93.345 VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports. (a) A pilot... pilot monitors VHF frequency 121.5 or UHF frequency 243.0. (b) No pilot may operate an aircraft...

  9. 14 CFR 93.345 - VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports... Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area § 93.345 VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports. (a) A pilot... pilot monitors VHF frequency 121.5 or UHF frequency 243.0. (b) No pilot may operate an aircraft...

  10. 14 CFR 93.345 - VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports... Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area § 93.345 VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports. (a) A pilot... pilot monitors VHF frequency 121.5 or UHF frequency 243.0. (b) No pilot may operate an aircraft...

  11. 14 CFR 93.345 - VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports... Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area § 93.345 VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports. (a) A pilot... pilot monitors VHF frequency 121.5 or UHF frequency 243.0. (b) No pilot may operate an aircraft...

  12. Airport Pricing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  13. The homosexual rights movement in the United States: a traditionally overlooked area of American history.

    PubMed

    Licata, S J

    In this short account, the homosexual rights movement in the United States, traditionally overlooked by historians, is presented as a minority movement. References are made to the European origins and the early efforts in America. The author sees eight stages in the growth of the movement. In Stage 1, from 1908 through 1945, there were sporadic individual attempts to defend the rights of homosexual men and women. In the years immediately following World War II, Stage 2 witnessed the dawning of a minority consciousness among gay people living in the cities. Stage 3, from 1950 to 1952, represented a search for identity. During the years 1952-1953, Stage 4, righteous indignation flared up within the movement. In Stage 5, from 1953 to 1960, the movement emphasized information and educational approaches. The decade of the sixties, Stage 6, brought civil-rights activism to the homophile movement. In Stage 7, beginning in 1969, gay liberation emerged. Finally, in Stage 8 (1973-1979), the movement and the government responded to each other through institutional channels. The 1970s ended with two major confrontations, giving the decade of 1969 to 1979 a unity and sense of accomplishment.

  14. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleb, Mageed A.; Salem, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area. PMID:25506074

  15. 75 FR 54946 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... assurances if the airport sponsor meets certain standards for control of airport operations and development; self- sustaining and nondiscriminatory airport rates; and compatible land use. At present, there are 75... and powers necessary to control and operate the airport; to maintain the airport in a safe...

  16. 77 FR 4394 - Release of Airport Property: Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport Property: Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando, FL AGENCY... provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties 12.4 acres at the Orlando Executive Airport... restrictions of a Quitclaim Deed agreement, dated August 9, 1961, between the subject airport and the...

  17. 14 CFR 139.339 - Airport condition reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., safety areas, or loading ramps and parking areas. (3) Snow, ice, slush, or water on the movement area or loading ramps and parking areas. (4) Snow piled or drifted on or near movement areas contrary to §...

  18. 14 CFR 139.339 - Airport condition reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., safety areas, or loading ramps and parking areas. (3) Snow, ice, slush, or water on the movement area or loading ramps and parking areas. (4) Snow piled or drifted on or near movement areas contrary to §...

  19. 14 CFR 139.339 - Airport condition reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., safety areas, or loading ramps and parking areas. (3) Snow, ice, slush, or water on the movement area or loading ramps and parking areas. (4) Snow piled or drifted on or near movement areas contrary to §...

  20. 14 CFR 139.339 - Airport condition reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., safety areas, or loading ramps and parking areas. (3) Snow, ice, slush, or water on the movement area or loading ramps and parking areas. (4) Snow piled or drifted on or near movement areas contrary to §...

  1. 7 CFR 301.81-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and Regulations § 301.81-4 Interstate movement of regulated articles from... inaccessible to the imported fire ant, or in locations that have been treated in accordance with the...

  2. 7 CFR 301.81-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and Regulations § 301.81-4 Interstate movement of regulated articles from... inaccessible to the imported fire ant, or in locations that have been treated in accordance with part 305...

  3. 7 CFR 301.81-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and Regulations § 301.81-4 Interstate movement of regulated articles from... inaccessible to the imported fire ant, or in locations that have been treated in accordance with part 305...

  4. 7 CFR 301.81-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and Regulations § 301.81-4 Interstate movement of regulated articles from... inaccessible to the imported fire ant, or in locations that have been treated in accordance with part 305...

  5. 7 CFR 301.81-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and Regulations § 301.81-4 Interstate movement of regulated articles from... inaccessible to the imported fire ant, or in locations that have been treated in accordance with part 305...

  6. 7 CFR 301.75-10 - Interstate movement of regulated articles through a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-10 Interstate movement of regulated...

  7. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  8. 49 CFR 27.71 - Airport facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Access Act rules (49 CFR part 382) for carriers. (g) If an airport operator who receives Federal... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport facilities. 27.71 Section 27.71... Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.71 Airport facilities. (a) This section...

  9. Airport Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airports. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers at airports, while the main part of the booklet outlines the following nine job categories: airport director, assistant airport director, engineers, support personnel,…

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Andrea; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pang, Yuanjie; Lopez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Stillman, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11) and the US (10). Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities. PMID:27690072

  11. An fMRI study dissociating distance measures computed by Broca's area in movement processing: clause boundary vs. identity.

    PubMed

    Santi, Andrea; Friederici, Angela D; Makuuchi, Michiru; Grodzinsky, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral studies of sentence comprehension suggest that processing long-distance dependencies is subject to interference effects when Noun Phrases (NP) similar to the dependency head intervene in the dependency. Neuroimaging studies converge in localizing such effects to Broca's area, showing that activity in Broca's area increases with the number of NP interveners crossed by a moved NP of the same type. To test if NP interference effects are modulated by adding an intervening clause boundary, which should by hypothesis increase the number of successive-cyclic movements, we conducted an fMRI study contrasting NP interveners with clausal (CP) interveners. Our design thus had two components: (I) the number of NP interveners crossed by movement was parametrically modulated; (II) CP-intervention was contrasted with NP-intervention. The number of NP interveners parametrically modulated a cluster straddling left BA44/45 of Broca's area, replicating earlier studies. Adding an intervening clause boundary did not significantly modulate the size of the NP interference effect in Broca's area. Yet, such an interaction effect was observed in the Superior Frontal Gyrus (SFG). Therefore, the involvement of Broca's area in processing syntactic movement is best captured by memory mechanisms affected by a grammatically instantiated type-identity (i.e., NP) intervention. PMID:26042078

  12. Representation of continuous hand and arm movements in macaque areas M1, F5, and AIP: a comparative decoding study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menz, Veera Katharina; Schaffelhofer, Stefan; Scherberger, Hansjörg

    2015-10-01

    Objective. In the last decade, multiple brain areas have been investigated with respect to their decoding capability of continuous arm or hand movements. So far, these studies have mainly focused on motor or premotor areas like M1 and F5. However, there is accumulating evidence that anterior intraparietal area (AIP) in the parietal cortex also contains information about continuous movement. Approach. In this study, we decoded 27 degrees of freedom representing complete hand and arm kinematics during a delayed grasping task from simultaneously recorded activity in areas M1, F5, and AIP of two macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Main results. We found that all three areas provided decoding performances that lay significantly above chance. In particular, M1 yielded highest decoding accuracy followed by F5 and AIP. Furthermore, we provide support for the notion that AIP does not only code categorical visual features of objects to be grasped, but also contains a substantial amount of temporal kinematic information. Significance. This fact could be utilized in future developments of neural interfaces restoring hand and arm movements.

  13. Auctioning Airport Slots?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruyer, Nicolas; Lenoir, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    The current allocation of slots on congested European airports constitutes an obstacle to the effective liberalisation of air transportation undertaken in Europe. With a view to favouring effluent slot utilisation and competition, as is the goal of the Euopean commission, we propose to use a market mechanism, based on temporary" utilisation licences. In order to allocate those licences, we propose and describe an iterated combinatorial auction mechanism where a percentage of licences would be reallocated each season. A secondary market would also be set up in order to reallocate slots during a season. Since a combinatorial auction involve a complex optimisation procedure, we describe how it can be made to work in the case of auctions.

  14. Maternal dexamethasone exposure inhibits the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal movement in the preoptic area of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Ling; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2014-01-01

    Migration and final positioning of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the preoptic area (POA) is critical for reproduction. It is known that maternal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure impairs reproductive function and behaviour in the offspring. However, it is still not known whether maternal DEX exposure affects the postnatal GnRH neurons in the offspring. This study determined the neuronal movement of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged GnRH neurons in slice culture of postnatal day 0 (P0), P5 and P50-60 transgenic male rats. Effect of maternal DEX treatment on EGFP-GnRH neuronal movement and F-actin distribution on GnRH neurons at P0 stage were studied. Time-lapse analysis of P0 and P5 EGFP-GnRH neurons displayed active cellular movement within the POA compared to young adult P50-60 stages, suggesting possible fine-tuning movement for positioning of early postnatal GnRH neurons. The DEX-treated EGFP-GnRH neurons demonstrated decreased motility in the POA and reduced F-actin distribution in the GnRH neurons at 60 h culture compared to the vehicle-treated. These results suggest that the P0 GnRH neuronal movement in the POA is altered by maternal DEX exposure, which possibly disrupts the fine-tuning process for positioning and development of early postnatal GnRH neurons in the brain, potentially linked to reproductive dysfunction in adulthood.

  15. 76 FR 30822 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Naples Municipal Airport, Naples, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Airports: Addition of Naples Municipal Airport, Naples, FL AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... user fee airports to reflect the recent user fee airport designation for Naples Municipal Airport, in Naples, Florida. User fee airports are those airports which, while not qualifying for designation...

  16. 75 FR 57106 - Public Notice for Sale of Airport Property at Houlton International Airport, Houlton, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Sale of Airport Property at Houlton International Airport, Houlton, ME AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Request for public... (.73 acres) of Airport property. The property was acquired from the United States Government...

  17. Mass movements of lowland areas in long range TLS and ALS monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyszkowski, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The development of geodynamic processes in lowland areas remains an interesting issue for geomorphology and geology as well as civil engineering. Landslides, slumps, slope washes, rills and gully erosion are considered both geomorphological processes and natural hazards. In order to know precisely their origin and development, it is crucial to determine the rate and direction of their change. Previously such studies used geodesy and photogrammetry but the recent progress in the LiDAR technology allows collecting the data in a wider range and comparable or higher precision than most of geodetic methods. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is also a good tool, but high costs and low frequency of the surveys make it difficult to trace the dynamics of the studied phenomena and processes. Nevertheless, this method enables gathering information from large areas, which is useful for the preliminary identification of the research issues and nomination of the areas for subsequent case studies. It is, however, more common to use Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for the detailed studies of morphology and its change. This method provides mobility and high accuracy, and enables frequent measurements. The problem in the analysis of many geoprocesses lies in the limited range of this method. This study concerns the Lower Vistula Valley located in northern Poland. It presents the results of measurements of landslides located in the escarpment zone of a big river valley. The object of the studies is mass movements developing within the quaternary deposits on the valley slopes. These processes were monitored in previous years with the traditional survey methods, mainly based on the geodesy field observations (benchmark) as well as the analyses of historical maps and archives. The ALS method used during the study enabled gathering the data on the valley with the density of 8 points per sq m, which provided the background for the consecutive monitoring study. In the surveys a terrestrial

  18. Four-dimensional modeling of recent vertical movements in the area of the southern california uplift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanicek, P.; Elliott, M.R.; Castle, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical technique that utilizes scattered geodetic relevelings and tide-gauge records to portray Recent vertical crustal movements that may have been characterized by spasmodic changes in velocity. The technique is based on the fitting of a time-varying algebraic surface of prescribed degree to the geodetic data treated as tilt elements and to tide-gauge readings treated as point movements. Desired variations in time can be selected as any combination of powers of vertical movement velocity and episodic events. The state of the modeled vertical displacement can be shown for any number of dates for visual display. Statistical confidence limits of the modeled displacements, derived from the density of measurements in both space and time, line length, and accuracy of input data, are also provided. The capabilities of the technique are demonstrated on selected data from the region of the southern California uplift. ?? 1979.

  19. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel. Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, are also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/integraal Luchthaven Competitie Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  20. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel, Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, arc also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/Integral Luchthaven Competitive Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  1. Airport surface operations requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groce, John L.; Vonbokern, Greg J.; Wray, Rick L.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Airport Surface Operations Requirements Analysis (ASORA) study. This study was conducted in response to task 24 of NASA Contract NAS1-18027. This study is part of NASA LaRC's Low Visibility Surface Operations program, which is designed to eliminate the constraints on all-weather arrival/departure operations due to the airport/aircraft ground system. The goal of this program is to provide the capability for safe and efficient aircraft operations on the airport surface during low visibility conditions down to zero. The ASORA study objectives were to (1) develop requirements for operation on the airport surface in visibilities down to zero; (2) survey and evaluate likely technologies; (3) develop candidate concepts to meet the requirements; and (4) select the most suitable concept based on cost/benefit factors.

  2. Airport expansion requires major wetlands mitigation project

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the steps taken to mitigate the impact to existing wetlands by creating new wetlands in an airport expansion project. The project addressed maintaining suitable amounts of wetlands to accommodate peak waterfowl populations, moving of high voltage power transmission towers, and maintaining agricultural and hunting interests. This project involved recreating of open water areas, marsh habitat, mud flat habitat, saline meadow habitat, maintaining two existing wetlands in the area of the new wetlands without disturbing them, and improving upland habitat surrounding the new wetlands.

  3. Multiple representations of body movements in mesial area 6 and the adjacent cingulate cortex: an intracortical microstimulation study in the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Luppino, G; Matelli, M; Camarda, R M; Gallese, V; Rizzolatti, G

    1991-09-22

    The mesial agranular frontal cortex that lies rostral to area 4 (F1) is formed by two distinct cytoarchitectonic areas: F3, located caudally, and F6, located rostrally. In the present experiments we investigated the organization of F3 and F6 by observing the motor responses evoked by their intracortical electrical microstimulation. Our main purpose was to find out whether the cytoarchitectonic subdivision of the mesial agranular frontal cortex into two areas has a physiological counterpart. The result showed that F3 (the caudal area) contains a complete motor representation with hindlimb movements located caudally, forelimb movements located centrally, and orofacial movements located rostrally. The great majority of limb movements involved proximal joints. With respect to F1, F3 showed the following functional characteristics: (1) lack of segregation between proximal and distal movements, (2) larger percentage of complex movements, and (3) higher excitability threshold. Movements were more difficult to elicit from F6 (the rostral area) than from F3. However, by using a longer stimulus train duration (100 ms) 39.3% of tested sites produced body movements. This percentage increased (50.5%) when the electrical stimulation was applied during monkey natural movements instead of when the monkey was still in its chair. Most of the evoked movements concerned the forelimb. More rarely, neck and upper face movements were observed. Unlike F1 and F3 where most movements were fast, slow movements were frequently observed with stimulation of F6. Many of them mimicked natural movements of the animal. Eye movements were evoked from F7 (superior area 6) but not from F6. An additional motor representation was found in the dorsocaudal part of area 24 (24d). This area is topographically organized with a forelimb representation located caudally and ventrally and a hindlimb representation located rostrally and dorsally. The excitability threshold of area 24d is higher than that of F1

  4. Airport Surface Network Architecture Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thanh C.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Lawas-Grodek, Fran; Ellis, Brenda L.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, airport surface communications are fragmented across multiple types of systems. These communication systems for airport operations at most airports today are based dedicated and separate architectures that cannot support system-wide interoperability and information sharing. The requirements placed upon the Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) systems in airports are rapidly growing and integration is urgently needed if the future vision of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) 2025 concept are to be realized. To address this and other problems such as airport surface congestion, the Space Based Technologies Project s Surface ICNS Network Architecture team at NASA Glenn Research Center has assessed airport surface communications requirements, analyzed existing and future surface applications, and defined a set of architecture functions that will help design a scalable, reliable and flexible surface network architecture to meet the current and future needs of airport operations. This paper describes the systems approach or methodology to networking that was employed to assess airport surface communications requirements, analyze applications, and to define the surface network architecture functions as the building blocks or components of the network. The systems approach used for defining these functions is relatively new to networking. It is viewing the surface network, along with its environment (everything that the surface network interacts with or impacts), as a system. Associated with this system are sets of services that are offered by the network to the rest of the system. Therefore, the surface network is considered as part of the larger system (such as the NAS), with interactions and dependencies between the surface network and its users, applications, and devices. The surface network architecture includes components such as addressing/routing, network management, network

  5. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Leidichj, Christopher; Papasin, Richard; Tran, Peter B.; Bass, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Networks of video cameras, meteorological sensors, and ancillary electronic equipment are under development in collaboration among NASA Ames Research Center, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These networks are to be established at and near airports to provide real-time information on local weather conditions that affect aircraft approaches and landings. The prototype network is an airport-approach-zone camera system (AAZCS), which has been deployed at San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and San Carlos Airport (SQL). The AAZCS includes remotely controlled color video cameras located on top of SFO and SQL air-traffic control towers. The cameras are controlled by the NOAA Center Weather Service Unit located at the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center and are accessible via a secure Web site. The AAZCS cameras can be zoomed and can be panned and tilted to cover a field of view 220 wide. The NOAA observer can see the sky condition as it is changing, thereby making possible a real-time evaluation of the conditions along the approach zones of SFO and SQL. The next-generation network, denoted a remote tower sensor system (RTSS), will soon be deployed at the Half Moon Bay Airport and a version of it will eventually be deployed at Los Angeles International Airport. In addition to remote control of video cameras via secure Web links, the RTSS offers realtime weather observations, remote sensing, portability, and a capability for deployment at remote and uninhabited sites. The RTSS can be used at airports that lack control towers, as well as at major airport hubs, to provide synthetic augmentation of vision for both local and remote operations under what would otherwise be conditions of low or even zero visibility.

  6. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Snake River alluvial aquifer at Jackson Hole Airport, Jackson, Wyoming, September 2008-June 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Snake River alluvial aquifer, at the Jackson Hole Airport in northwest Wyoming, was studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Jackson Hole Airport Board and the Teton Conservation District during September 2008-June 2009. Hydrogeologic conditions were characterized using data collected from 14 Jackson Hole Airport wells. Groundwater levels are summarized in this report and the direction of groundwater flow, hydraulic gradients, and estimated groundwater velocity rates in the Snake River alluvial aquifer underlying the study area are presented. Analytical results of chemical, dissolved gas, and stable isotopes are presented and summarized. Seasonally, the water table at Jackson Hole Airport was lowest in early spring and reached its peak in July, with an increase of 12 to 14 feet between April and July 2009. Groundwater flow was predominantly horizontal but had the hydraulic potential for downward flow. The direction of groundwater flow was from the northeast to the west-southwest. Horizontal groundwater velocities within the Snake River alluvial aquifer at the airport were estimated to be about 26 to 66 feet per day. This indicates that the traveltime from the farthest upgradient well to the farthest downgradient well was approximately 53 to 138 days. This estimate only describes the movement of groundwater because some solutes may move at a rate much slower than groundwater flow through the aquifer. The quality of the water in the alluvial aquifer generally was considered good. The alluvial aquifer was a fresh, hard to very hard, calcium carbonate type water. No constituents were detected at concentrations exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels, and no anthropogenic compounds were detected at concentrations greater than laboratory reporting levels. The quality of groundwater in the alluvial aquifer generally was suitable for domestic and other uses; however, dissolved

  7. Urban landscape features influencing rodent control and animal movement in two urban areas of California

    EPA Science Inventory

    “Pest” control of both native (e.g., gophers) and exotic (e.g., black rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in two urban locations in Californ...

  8. Landscape features influencing residential rodent control and animal movement in two urban areas of California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential “pest” control of both native (e.g., gophers, rabbits) and exotic (e.g., black and Norway rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in...

  9. 14 CFR 77.29 - Airport imaginary surfaces for heli-ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport imaginary surfaces for heli-ports. 77.29 Section 77.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Standards § 77.29 Airport imaginary surfaces for heli-ports. (a) Heliport primary surface. The area of...

  10. 14 CFR 93.69 - Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and... Anchorage, Alaska, Terminal Area § 93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each person operating an aircraft to or from Lake Campbell or Sixmile Lake Airport shall conform to the...

  11. Role of area LIP in modulation of the strength of sensory-motor transmission for visually-guided movements

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, John G.; Lisberger, Stephen G.

    2012-01-01

    The lateral intraparietal area (LIP) has been implicated as a salience map for control of saccadic eye movements and visual attention. Here, we report evidence to link the encoding of saccades and saliency in LIP to modulation of several other sensory-motor behaviors in monkeys. In many LIP neurons, there was a significant trial-by-trial correlation between the firing rate just before a saccade and the post- or pre-saccadic pursuit eye velocity. Some neurons also showed trail-by-trial correlations of the firing rate of LIP neurons with the speed of “glissades” that occur at the end of saccades to stationary targets. LIP-pursuit correlations were spatially-specific and were strong only when the target appeared in the receptive/movement field of the neuron under study. We suggest that LIP is a component of a salience representation that modulates the strength of visual-motor transmission for pursuit, and that may play a similar role for many movements, beyond its traditional roles in guiding saccadic eye movements and localizing attention. PMID:22787060

  12. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Vt.—Burlington International Airport Calexico, Calif.—Calexico International Airport Caribou, Maine—Caribou Municipal Airport Chicago, Ill.—Midway Airport Cleveland, Ohio—Cleveland Hopkins...

  13. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Vt.—Burlington International Airport Calexico, Calif.—Calexico International Airport Caribou, Maine—Caribou Municipal Airport Chicago, Ill.—Midway Airport Cleveland, Ohio—Cleveland Hopkins...

  14. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Vt.—Burlington International Airport Calexico, Calif.—Calexico International Airport Caribou, Maine—Caribou Municipal Airport Chicago, Ill.—Midway Airport Cleveland, Ohio—Cleveland Hopkins...

  15. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Vt.—Burlington International Airport Calexico, Calif.—Calexico International Airport Caribou, Maine—Caribou Municipal Airport Chicago, Ill.—Midway Airport Cleveland, Ohio—Cleveland Hopkins...

  16. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....—Detroit City Airport Detroit, Mich.—Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport Douglas, Ariz.—Bisbee-Douglas International Airport Duluth, Minn.—Duluth International Airport Duluth, Minn.—Sky Harbor...

  17. Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Simon J; Monaco, Mark E; Friedlander, Alan M; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S; Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D; Wedding, Lisa M; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness.

  18. Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Simon J; Monaco, Mark E; Friedlander, Alan M; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S; Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D; Wedding, Lisa M; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

  19. Fish with Chips: Tracking Reef Fish Movements to Evaluate Size and Connectivity of Caribbean Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Simon J.; Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S.; Kendall, Matthew S.; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D.; Wedding, Lisa M.; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40–64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

  20. DynAOI: a tool for matching eye-movement data with dynamic areas of interest in animations and movies.

    PubMed

    Papenmeier, Frank; Huff, Markus

    2010-02-01

    Analyzing gaze behavior with dynamic stimulus material is of growing importance in experimental psychology; however, there is still a lack of efficient analysis tools that are able to handle dynamically changing areas of interest. In this article, we present DynAOI, an open-source tool that allows for the definition of dynamic areas of interest. It works automatically with animations that are based on virtual three-dimensional models. When one is working with videos of real-world scenes, a three-dimensional model of the relevant content needs to be created first. The recorded eye-movement data are matched with the static and dynamic objects in the model underlying the video content, thus creating static and dynamic areas of interest. A validation study asking participants to track particular objects demonstrated that DynAOI is an efficient tool for handling dynamic areas of interest. PMID:20160298

  1. 77 FR 16891 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at Tulsa International Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... International Airport, Tulsa, OK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Request... Agnew, Manager, Federal Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, AR/OK Airports..., Project Manager, Federal Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, AR/OK...

  2. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2009-01-01

    An initial Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the initial concept for an aircraft-based method of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) in the TMA focusing on conflict detection algorithms and alerting display concepts. This paper gives an overview of the CD&R concept, simulation study, and test results.

  3. 14 CFR 139.205 - Amendment of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment of Airport Certification Manual... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Airport Certification Manual § 139.205 Amendment of Airport Certification Manual. (a) Under § 139.3, the Regional Airports Division Manager may amend any Airport Certification...

  4. 78 FR 22024 - Request To Release Airport Property at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL), Oakley, Kansas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Request To Release Airport Property at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL... proposes to rule and invites public comment on the release of land at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL... following address: Lynn D. Martin, Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration,...

  5. 76 FR 74843 - Release of Airport Property, Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... advised that its release request is designed to clarify the airport property and to correct ambiguities in... Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport Property, Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL AGENCY... properties, namely approximately 200 acres at the Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL, from the...

  6. Examining Passenger Flow Choke Points at Airports Using Discrete Event Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jeremy R.; Madhavan, Poomima

    2011-01-01

    The movement of passengers through an airport quickly, safely, and efficiently is the main function of the various checkpoints (check-in, security. etc) found in airports. Human error combined with other breakdowns in the complex system of the airport can disrupt passenger flow through the airport leading to lengthy waiting times, missing luggage and missed flights. In this paper we present a model of passenger flow through an airport using discrete event simulation that will provide a closer look into the possible reasons for breakdowns and their implications for passenger flow. The simulation is based on data collected at Norfolk International Airport (ORF). The primary goal of this simulation is to present ways to optimize the work force to keep passenger flow smooth even during peak travel times and for emergency preparedness at ORF in case of adverse events. In this simulation we ran three different scenarios: real world, increased check-in stations, and multiple waiting lines. Increased check-in stations increased waiting time and instantaneous utilization. while the multiple waiting lines decreased both the waiting time and instantaneous utilization. This simulation was able to show how different changes affected the passenger flow through the airport.

  7. A Concept and Implementation of Optimized Operations of Airport Surface Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon C.; Hoang, Ty; Montoya, Justin; Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Tobias, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept of optimized surface operations at busy airports to improve the efficiency of taxi operations, as well as reduce environmental impacts. The suggested system architecture consists of the integration of two decoupled optimization algorithms. The Spot Release Planner provides sequence and timing advisories to tower controllers for releasing departure aircraft into the movement area to reduce taxi delay while achieving maximum throughput. The Runway Scheduler provides take-off sequence and arrival runway crossing sequence to the controllers to maximize the runway usage. The description of a prototype implementation of this integrated decision support tool for the airport control tower controllers is also provided. The prototype decision support tool was evaluated through a human-in-the-loop experiment, where both the Spot Release Planner and Runway Scheduler provided advisories to the Ground and Local Controllers. Initial results indicate the average number of stops made by each departure aircraft in the departure runway queue was reduced by more than half when the controllers were using the advisories, which resulted in reduced taxi times in the departure queue.

  8. Planning, Management, and Economics of Airport Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, J.

    1972-01-01

    An overview of the role of the airport in the transportation complex and in the community is presented. The establishment of the airport including its requirements in regional planning and the operation of the airport as a social and economic force are discussed.

  9. Teaching Ideas Notebook: Student Airport Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Outlines, as recommended by the Aviation Distributors and Manufacturers Association, a cooperative program between schools and local airports. The Student Airport Tours Program for class and career study groups includes a field trip to an airport, free rides, and follow-up activities. (CS)

  10. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general...

  11. Difference in Activity in the Supplementary Motor Area Depending on Limb Combination of Hand–Foot Coordinated Movements

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Kento; Kawashima, Saeko; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Periodic interlimb coordination shows lower performance when the ipsilateral hand and foot (e.g., right hand and right foot) are simultaneously moved than when the contralateral hand and foot (e.g., right hand and left foot) are simultaneously moved. The present study aimed to investigate how brain activity that is related to the dependence of hand–foot coordination on limb combination, using functional magnetic imaging. Twenty-one right-handed subjects performed periodic coordinated movements of the ipsilateral or contralateral hand and foot in the same or opposite direction in the sagittal plane. Kinematic data showed that performance was lower for the ipsilateral hand–foot coordination than for the contralateral one. A comparison of brain activity between the same and opposite directions showed that there was a greater activation of supplementary motor area for ipsilateral hand–foot coordination as compared to that seen during contralateral hand–foot coordination. We speculate that this might reflect a difference in the degree of inhibition of the neural circuit that disrupts opposite directional movements between ipsilateral and contralateral hand–foot coordinated movements. PMID:27757079

  12. Implementing Solar Technologies at Airports

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-07-01

    Federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, as well as numerous private entities are actively pursuing the installation of solar technologies to help reduce fossil fuel energy use and associated emissions, meet sustainability goals, and create more robust or reliable operations. One potential approach identified for siting solar technologies is the installation of solar energy technologies at airports and airfields, which present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to large amounts of open land. This report focuses largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) policies toward siting solar technologies at airports.

  13. Hand orientation during reach-to-grasp movements modulates neuronal activity in the medial posterior parietal area V6A.

    PubMed

    Fattori, Patrizia; Breveglieri, Rossella; Marzocchi, Nicoletta; Filippini, Daniela; Bosco, Annalisa; Galletti, Claudio

    2009-02-11

    Reach-to-grasp actions involve several components of forelimb movements needed to direct the hand toward the object to be grasped, and to orient and preshape the hand according to the object axis and shape. Area V6A, which represents a node of the dorsomedial frontoparietal circuits, has so far been implicated only in directing the arm toward different spatial locations. The present results confirm this finding and demonstrate, for the first time, that during reach-to-grasp, V6A neurons are also modulated by the orientation of the hand. In the present work the object to be grasped was a handle that could have different orientations. Reach-to-grasp movements were executed in complete darkness while gazing at a small fixation point. The majority of the tested cells (76/142; 54%) turned out to be sensitive to the orientation of the handle. Neurons could be modulated during preparation or execution of reach-to-grasp movements. The most represented cells were those modulated by hand orientation both during preparatory and movement periods. These data show that reaching and grasping are processed by the same population of neurons, providing evidence that the coordination of reaching and grasping takes place much earlier than previously thought, i.e., in the parieto-occipital cortex. The data here reported are in agreement with results of lesions to the medial posterior parietal cortex in both monkeys and humans, and with recent imaging data in humans, all of them indicating a functional coupling in the control of reaching and grasping by the medial parietofrontal circuit.

  14. Decoding the timing and target locations of saccadic eye movements from neuronal activity in macaque oculomotor areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmae, Shogo; Takahashi, Toshimitsu; Lu, Xiaofeng; Nishimori, Yasunori; Kodaka, Yasushi; Takashima, Ichiro; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2015-06-01

    Objective. The control of movement timing has been a significant challenge for brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). As a first step toward developing a timing-based BMI, we aimed to decode movement timing and target locations in a visually guided saccadic eye movement task using the activity of neurons in the primate frontal eye field (FEF) and supplementary eye field (SEF). Approach. For this purpose, we developed a template-matching method that could recruit a variety of neurons in these areas. Main results. As a result, we were able to achieve a favorable estimation of saccade onset: for example, data from 20 randomly sampled FEF neurons or 40 SEF neurons achieved a median estimation error of ˜10 ms with an interquartile range less than 50 ms (± ˜25 ms). In the best case, seven simultaneously recorded SEF neurons using a multi-electrode array achieved a comparable accuracy (10 ± 30 ms). The method was significantly better than a heuristic method that used only a group of movement cells with sharp discharges at the onset of saccades. The estimation of target location was less accurate but still favorable, especially when we estimated target location at a timing of 200 ms after the onset of saccade: the method was able to discriminate 16 targets with an accuracy of 90%, which differed not only in their directions (eight directions) but also in amplitude (10/20°) when we used data from 61 randomly sampled FEF neurons. Significance. The results show that the timing, amplitude and direction of saccades can be decoded from neuronal activity in the FEF and SEF and further suggest that timing-based BMIs can be developed by decoding timing information using the template-matching method.

  15. Supersonics Project - Airport Noise Tech Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2010-01-01

    The Airport Noise Tech Challenge research effort under the Supersonics Project is reviewed. While the goal of "Improved supersonic jet noise models validated on innovative nozzle concepts" remains the same, the success of the research effort has caused the thrust of the research to be modified going forward in time. The main activities from FY06-10 focused on development and validation of jet noise prediction codes. This required innovative diagnostic techniques to be developed and deployed, extensive jet noise and flow databases to be created, and computational tools to be developed and validated. Furthermore, in FY09-10 systems studies commissioned by the Supersonics Project showed that viable supersonic aircraft were within reach using variable cycle engine architectures if exhaust nozzle technology could provide 3-5dB of suppression. The Project then began to focus on integrating the technologies being developed in its Tech Challenge areas to bring about successful system designs. Consequently, the Airport Noise Tech Challenge area has shifted efforts from developing jet noise prediction codes to using them to develop low-noise nozzle concepts for integration into supersonic aircraft. The new plan of research is briefly presented by technology and timelines.

  16. English for Airport Ground Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes part of a European Commission Leonardo project that aimed to design a multimedia course for English language learners seeking work as ground staff in European airports. The structural-functional analysis of the dialogues written from the course showed that, across the four trades explored (security guards, ground handlers,…

  17. Integrating small mammal community variables into aircraft-wildlife collision management plans at Namibian airports.

    PubMed

    Hauptfleisch, Morgan L; Avenant, Nico L

    2015-11-01

    Understanding ecosystems within and around airports can help to determine the causes and possible mitigation measures for collisions between aircraft and wildlife. Small mammal communities are an important component of the semi-arid savanna ecosystems of Namibia, its productivity and its ecosystem integrity. They are also a major direct attractant for raptors at airports. The present study compared the abundance and diversity of small mammals between Namibia's 2 main airport properties (Hosea Kutako International Airport and Eros Airport), and among areas of land used for various purposes surrounding the airports. A total of 2150 small mammals (3 orders, 11 species) were captured over 4 trapping seasons. Small mammal abundance was significantly higher at the end of the growing season than during the non-growing season. The grass mowing regimen in current management plans at the airports resulted in a significant reduction of small mammal abundance at Hosea Kutako during the non-growing season only, thus indicating that annual mowing is effective but insufficient to reduce the overall abundance of mammal prey species for raptors. Small mammal numbers were significantly higher at Hosea Kutako Airport compared to the cattle and game farming land surrounding the airport, while no differences in small mammal densities or diversity were found for areas with different land uses at and surrounding Eros. The study suggests that the fence around Hosea Kutako provides a refuge for small mammals, resulting in higher densities. It also indicates that different surrounding land use practices result in altered ecosystem function and productivity, an important consideration when identifying wildlife attractants at airports.

  18. Integrating small mammal community variables into aircraft-wildlife collision management plans at Namibian airports.

    PubMed

    Hauptfleisch, Morgan L; Avenant, Nico L

    2015-11-01

    Understanding ecosystems within and around airports can help to determine the causes and possible mitigation measures for collisions between aircraft and wildlife. Small mammal communities are an important component of the semi-arid savanna ecosystems of Namibia, its productivity and its ecosystem integrity. They are also a major direct attractant for raptors at airports. The present study compared the abundance and diversity of small mammals between Namibia's 2 main airport properties (Hosea Kutako International Airport and Eros Airport), and among areas of land used for various purposes surrounding the airports. A total of 2150 small mammals (3 orders, 11 species) were captured over 4 trapping seasons. Small mammal abundance was significantly higher at the end of the growing season than during the non-growing season. The grass mowing regimen in current management plans at the airports resulted in a significant reduction of small mammal abundance at Hosea Kutako during the non-growing season only, thus indicating that annual mowing is effective but insufficient to reduce the overall abundance of mammal prey species for raptors. Small mammal numbers were significantly higher at Hosea Kutako Airport compared to the cattle and game farming land surrounding the airport, while no differences in small mammal densities or diversity were found for areas with different land uses at and surrounding Eros. The study suggests that the fence around Hosea Kutako provides a refuge for small mammals, resulting in higher densities. It also indicates that different surrounding land use practices result in altered ecosystem function and productivity, an important consideration when identifying wildlife attractants at airports. PMID:26331534

  19. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 91 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Miami International Airport) Minneapolis, MN (Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport) Newark, NJ... International Airport) Minneapolis, MN (Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport) Newark, NJ...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 91 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Miami International Airport) Minneapolis, MN (Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport) Newark, NJ... International Airport) Minneapolis, MN (Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport) Newark, NJ...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 91 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Miami International Airport) Minneapolis, MN (Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport) Newark, NJ... International Airport) Minneapolis, MN (Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport) Newark, NJ...

  2. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited. PMID:25115476

  3. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  4. Characteristics of deep-seated catastrophic landslide in a valley, movement process, and determination of deposition hazard area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Chia-Ming; Weng, Meng-Chia

    2013-04-01

    During extreme rainfall, deep-seated catastrophic landslide is a frequent mishap in main stream and tributaries of Taiwan. Reviewing the histories of Taiwan landslide events, as a large and deep-seated rock/soil mass of simultaneous movements in a valley, it might cause serious disasters. Reviewing the present literatures, there are morphological indications that the potential deep-seated catastrophic landslide can be track and find. Especially, the slate slope is influenced by weathering and gravitation for a long time, it become weak and it may cause the sliding slope creep and folding rock that will become the sliding surface of deep-seated catastrophic landslide. But analysis deep-seated catastrophic landslides for disaster preparedness and response planning are sometimes inadequate due to the complexity of such slopes. Whereas, this study mainly focus on deep-seated catastrophic landslide in valley. The study area has chosen Xiandushan Mountain, the 115.9 k of Suhua highway, and Zhuoshui River which to discuss the characteristics of deep-seated catastrophic landslide in a valley, movement process, and deposition hazard area. Base on the past events of deep-seated catastrophic landslide, the geological investigation, morphological analysis, and remote sensing technology will helpful to induce the geological characteristics and the morphological evolution. Besides, the deep-seated catastrophic landslide events will simplify to set up the physical modeling, its interpret the variation conditions to influence the characteristics, movement process, and deposition hazard area for deep-seated catastrophic landslide. The results of physical modeling were compared with those produced by numerical analysis (Application of discrete element method by PFC3D program) so that the correctness of the numerical simulation could be justified. Subsequently, calibrated numerical methods adopted in the small-scale model were used to simulate the full-scale model. The simulation

  5. Movements and corridors of African elephants in relation to protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, I.; Krink, T.; Vollrath, F.

    2005-04-01

    Understanding how mammals satisfy their need for space in fragmenting ecosystems is crucial for ecosystem conservation. Using state-of-the-art global positioning system (GPS) technology we tracked 11 focal African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Kenya at 3-hourly fix intervals and collected between 34 and 406 days per individual. Our recordings gave a high spatio-temporal resolution compared to previous studies and allowed novel insights into range use. The actual ranges of the tracked elephants are smaller than usually represented. Moreover, the ranges in our sample were complex and not confined to officially designated protected areas, except where fenced. All the unfenced elephants in our sample had distinct `home sectors' linked by `travel' corridors. Within each home sector the elephants concentrated in favourite `core zones'. Such core zones tended to lie in protected areas whereas corridors typically crossed unprotected range. Elephants moved significantly faster along corridors than elsewhere in their range, which suggests awareness of danger outside the protected area. We conclude that understanding the complex use of an animal's range is crucial for conservation planning aiming to balance animal interests with those of human beings that co-habit in their range.

  6. Movements and corridors of African elephants in relation to protected areas.

    PubMed

    Douglas-Hamilton, I; Krink, T; Vollrath, F

    2005-04-01

    Understanding how mammals satisfy their need for space in fragmenting ecosystems is crucial for ecosystem conservation. Using state-of-the-art global positioning system (GPS) technology we tracked 11 focal African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Kenya at 3-hourly fix intervals and collected between 34 and 406 days per individual. Our recordings gave a high spatio-temporal resolution compared to previous studies and allowed novel insights into range use. The actual ranges of the tracked elephants are smaller than usually represented. Moreover, the ranges in our sample were complex and not confined to officially designated protected areas, except where fenced. All the unfenced elephants in our sample had distinct 'home sectors' linked by 'travel' corridors. Within each home sector the elephants concentrated in favourite 'core zones'. Such core zones tended to lie in protected areas whereas corridors typically crossed unprotected range. Elephants moved significantly faster along corridors than elsewhere in their range, which suggests awareness of danger outside the protected area. We conclude that understanding the complex use of an animal's range is crucial for conservation planning aiming to balance animal interests with those of human beings that co-habit in their range.

  7. Air quality and public health impacts of UK airports. Part II: Impacts and policy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Stettler, Marc E. J.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-03-01

    Thames Estuary airport combined with emissions mitigation measures would reduce UK-wide aviation-attributable early deaths by 56% in 2030 while increasing aircraft movements, which would represent aviation causing about the same level of adverse health impacts as today in absolute terms. We note that because aviation emissions are included in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, all options are CO2-neutral in terms of direct emissions (but not climate-neutral).

  8. Tephra fallout hazards at Quito International Airport (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volentik, Alain C. M.; Houghton, Bruce F.

    2015-06-01

    accumulations of 1 cm or greater, and the probability of tephra accumulation reaching 1 mm at UIO is 3.8-8.2 and 0.2 %, respectively. Our results show that the probabilities of tephra accumulation are mostly reduced at the new airport site with respect to OUIO (except for Reventador). The use of our probabilistic approach is not restricted to UIO, but it can certainly be applied to quantify tephra fall hazards at other airports worldwide, especially those identified as being potentially affected by future volcanic eruptions (e.g., Catania, Italy; Anchorage, USA; Kokopo, Papua New Guinea). Finally, the probabilistic method presented here can also be applied to other critical facilities (e.g., nuclear power plants) or to urban areas.

  9. Upstream movement of residual hatchery steelhead into areas containing bull trout and cutthroat trout.

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A. ); Pearsons, Todd N.

    2000-11-01

    Hatchery-reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss that do not emigrate as smolts shortly after release may negatively impact wild fish communities through ecological interactions. We used systematic, stratified snorkeling surveys to document the relative abundance of wild rainbow trout O. mykiss, bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi as well as the upstream limit of residual hatchery steelhead (hatchery-reared steelhead that had failed to emigrate before June 1). Our objective was to determine whether residual hatchery steelhead had migrated upstream from their release point into an area containing a threatened population of bull trout and cutthroat trout. Hatchery steelhead made up a larger portion of the salmonid community in the sites near their release location (mean= 52.5%, range= 29-79%), and constituted a lower proportion (mean= 4.8%, range= 0-14%) of the salmonid community as distance upstream of the release location increased. However, residual hatchery steelhead had migrated over 12 km upstream into an area containing a threatened stock of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi.

  10. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Airport Security Program § 1542.113 Airport tenant security programs. (a) TSA may approve an airport tenant... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport tenant security programs. 1542.113...

  11. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Airport Security Program § 1542.113 Airport tenant security programs. (a) TSA may approve an airport tenant... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airport tenant security programs. 1542.113...

  12. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.103 Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development...

  13. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport tenant security programs. 1542.113 Section... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Airport Security Program § 1542.113 Airport tenant security programs. (a) TSA may approve an airport...

  14. 14 CFR 152.109 - Project eligibility: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport planning. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.109 Project eligibility: Airport planning. (a) Airport master planning. A proposed project for...

  15. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3 Airport security coordinator. (a) Each airport operator must designate one or more Airport Security...

  16. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.325 Financial status report: Airport planning. Each sponsor of a project for airport master planning and each...

  17. Movement of Saltwater in the "2,000-Foot" Sand of the Baton Rouge Area, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaszewski, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    Ground-water withdrawals in southeastern Louisiana have caused saltwater to encroach into some freshwater aquifers. The most heavily pumped area, East Baton Rouge Parish, includes the city of Baton Rouge and surrounding areas. The Baton Rouge aquifer system includes 10 extensive aquifers that were pumped about 150 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) in 2003. Ground-water investigations in the 1960's delineated a freshwater-saltwater interface located at the Baton Rouge fault. Test drilling and water well data collected near the fault indicate that the fault is associated with major discontinuities in water levels and water quality. Generally, aquifers south of the fault contain saltwater and aquifers north of the fault contain freshwater with chloride concentrations less than 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Saltwater encroachment into freshwater areas north of the fault has been monitored and delineated with well networks in several aquifers. Saltwater was initially detected as early as the 1960's; by the 1990's saltwater had been detected in six of the aquifers north of the fault, including the "2,000-ft" sand. Northward encroachment of saltwater across the fault in the "2,000-ft" sand in East Baton Rouge Parish is in response to large water withdrawals from the aquifer totaling about 22.7 Mgal/d in the Parish in 2002. Encroachment of saltwater has been monitored by a system of wells. The approximate location of the freshwater-saltwater interface north of the fault was delineated for the years 1966, 1977, and 1992. At present, wells in the "2,000-ft" sand at two public-supply well fields located north of the fault are producing water with chloride concentrations approaching 200 mg/L. Wells at these fields may help protect the aquifer from northward advancement of saltwater by intercepting and discharging saltwater. In 2002, about 0.8 Mgal/d from the aquifer was withdrawn by the impacted wells. If withdrawals from the impacted wells were discontinued, saltwater could

  18. Noise-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Residences Near Two Civil Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Howe, Richard R.; Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Pearsons, Karl S.; Sneddon, Matthew D.

    1995-01-01

    A large-scale field study of noise-induced sleep disturbance was conducted in the vicinities of Stapleton International Airport (DEN) and Denver International Airport (DIA) in anticipation of the closure of the former and opening of the latter. Both indoor and outdoor measurements of aircraft and other nighttime noises were made during four time periods. Measurements were made in 57 homes located as close as feasible to the runway ends of the two airports. Sleep disturbance was measured by several indices of behaviorally confirmed awakening (button pushes upon awakening) and body movement (as measured with wrist-worn actimeters). A total of 2717 subject-nights of observations were made over the course of the study. Although average noise event levels measured outdoors decreased markedly at DEN after closure of the airport and increased slightly at DIA after its opening, indoor noise event levels varied much less in homes near both airports. No large differences were observed in noise-induced sleep disturbance at either airport. Indoor sound exposure levels of noise events were, however, closely related to and good predictors of actimetrically defined motility and arousal.

  19. Numerical simulation of groundwater movement and managed aquifer recharge from Sand Hollow Reservoir, Hurricane Bench area, Washington County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marston, Thomas M.; Heilweil, Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    The Hurricane Bench area of Washington County, Utah, is a 70 square-mile area extending south from the Virgin River and encompassing Sand Hollow basin. Sand Hollow Reservoir, located on Hurricane Bench, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily as a managed aquifer recharge project by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. The reservoir is situated on a thick sequence of the Navajo Sandstone and Kayenta Formation. Total recharge to the underlying Navajo aquifer from the reservoir was about 86,000 acre-feet from 2002 to 2009. Natural recharge as infiltration of precipitation was approximately 2,100 acre-feet per year for the same period. Discharge occurs as seepage to the Virgin River, municipal and irrigation well withdrawals, and seepage to drains at the base of reservoir dams. Within the Hurricane Bench area, unconfined groundwater-flow conditions generally exist throughout the Navajo Sandstone. Navajo Sandstone hydraulic-conductivity values from regional aquifer testing range from 0.8 to 32 feet per day. The large variability in hydraulic conductivity is attributed to bedrock fractures that trend north-northeast across the study area. A numerical groundwater-flow model was developed to simulate groundwater movement in the Hurricane Bench area and to simulate the movement of managed aquifer recharge from Sand Hollow Reservoir through the groundwater system. The model was calibrated to combined steady- and transient-state conditions. The steady-state portion of the simulation was developed and calibrated by using hydrologic data that represented average conditions for 1975. The transient-state portion of the simulation was developed and calibrated by using hydrologic data collected from 1976 to 2009. Areally, the model grid was 98 rows by 76 columns with a variable cell size ranging from about 1.5 to 25 acres. Smaller cells were used to represent the reservoir to accurately simulate the reservoir bathymetry and nearby monitoring wells

  20. LH2 airport requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the facilities and equipment which will be required at a representative airport is provided so liquid hydrogen LH2 can be used as fuel in long range transport aircraft in 1995-2000. A complete facility was conceptually designed, sized to meet the projected air traffic requirement. The facility includes the liquefaction plant, LH2, storage capability, and LH2 fuel handling system. The requirements for ground support and maintenance for the LH2 fueled aircraft were analyzed. An estimate was made of capital and operating costs which might be expected for the facility. Recommendations were made for design modifications to the reference aircraft, reflecting results of the analysis of airport fuel handling requirements, and for a program of additional technology development for air terminal related items.

  1. Teaching at Logan International Airport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    Although Terminal C at Logan airport does not look like a classroom, for about fifty minutes on this author's way back from Boston it was for him. Like many public spaces, Logan now has a very robust Wi-Fi wireless network and this enabled him to take advantage of a departure delay to "teach" his class. In 1970 when the author started teaching,…

  2. 14 CFR 93.343 - Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in 49 CFR part 1562, subpart A; (2) Before departing, the pilot files an IFR or DC FRZ or DC SFRA... from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or Washington Executive/Hyde Field Airport. 93.343 Section... Special Flight Rules Area § 93.343 Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park...

  3. 14 CFR 93.343 - Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in 49 CFR part 1562, subpart A; (2) Before departing, the pilot files an IFR or DC FRZ or DC SFRA... from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or Washington Executive/Hyde Field Airport. 93.343 Section... Special Flight Rules Area § 93.343 Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park...

  4. 14 CFR 93.343 - Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in 49 CFR part 1562, subpart A; (2) Before departing, the pilot files an IFR or DC FRZ or DC SFRA... from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or Washington Executive/Hyde Field Airport. 93.343 Section... Special Flight Rules Area § 93.343 Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park...

  5. 14 CFR 93.343 - Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in 49 CFR part 1562, subpart A; (2) Before departing, the pilot files an IFR or DC FRZ or DC SFRA... from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or Washington Executive/Hyde Field Airport. 93.343 Section... Special Flight Rules Area § 93.343 Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park...

  6. 14 CFR 93.343 - Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in 49 CFR part 1562, subpart A; (2) Before departing, the pilot files an IFR or DC FRZ or DC SFRA... from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or Washington Executive/Hyde Field Airport. 93.343 Section... Special Flight Rules Area § 93.343 Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park...

  7. 77 FR 35104 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property at Merrill Field Airport, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... purchased for inclusion into MRI utilizing FAA Airport Improvement (AIP) Funds. Said lands, described as a... impacts to the airport by allowing the disposal of the property. A categorical exclusion for this...

  8. Effects Of Light Pollution On The Movements Of Leptonycteris Curasoae Yerbabuenae In The Tucson Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Daniel; Walker, C.

    2011-01-01

    We used data from the GLOBE at Night project and telemetry tracking data of lesser long-nosed bats obtained by the Arizona Game and Fish Department to study the effects of light pollution on the flight paths of the bats between their day roosts and night foraging areas around the city of Tucson, AZ. With the visual limiting magnitude data from GLOBE at Night, we ran a compositional analysis with respect to the bats’ flight paths to determine whether the bats were selecting for or against flight through regions of particular night sky brightness levels. We found that the bats selected for the regions in which the limiting sky magnitudes fell between the ranges of 2.8-3.0 to 3.6-3.8 and 4.4-4.6 to 5.0-5.2, suggesting that the lesser long-nosed bat can tolerate a fair degree of urbanization. We also compared this result to contour maps created with digital Sky Quality Meter data. In this presentation, we present the results from our compositional analysis with respect to the habits of the lesser long-nosed bat. For more information, please visit www.globeatnight.org.

  9. Ground-water movement and nitrate in ground water, East Erda area, Tooele County, Utah, 1997-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Susong, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    Nitrate was discovered in ground water in the east Erda area of Tooele County, Utah, in 1994. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Tooele County, investigated the ground-water flow system and water quality in the eastern part of Tooele Valley to determine (1) the vertical and horizontal distribution of nitrate, (2) the direction of movement of the nitrate contamination, and (3) the source of the nitrate. The potentiometric surface of the upper part of the basin-fill aquifer indicates that the general direction of ground-water flow is to the northwest, the flow system is complex, and there is a ground-water mound probably associated with springs. The spatial distribution of nitrate reflects the flow system with the nitrate contamination split into a north and south part by the ground-water mound. The distribution of dissolved solids and sulfate in ground water varies spatially. Vertical profiles of nitrate in water from selected wells indicate that nitrate contamination generally is in the upper part of the saturated zone and in some wells has moved downward. Septic systems, mining and smelting, agriculture, and natural sources were considered to be possible sources of nitrate contamination in the east Erda area. Septic systems are not the source of nitrate because water from wells drilled upgradient of all septic systems in the area had elevated nitrate concentrations. Mining and smelting activity are a possible source of nitrate contamination but few data are available to link nitrate contamination with mining sites. Natural and agricultural sources of nitrate are present east of the Erda area but few data are available about these sources. The source(s) of nitrate in the east Erda area could not be clearly delineated in spite of considerable effort and expenditure of resources.

  10. Characterizing the air quality in the vicinity of a fast-growing Asian airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Juang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Many studies have shown that air quality in the vicinity of major airports could be directly influenced by aircraft emissions, airport activities, and other forms of intense transportation in proximity to airports. There are two types of pollutants emitted within the confines of airports: one is directly emitted from aircraft engines, and the other is from ground support equipment (GSE). Such pollutants include aromatic hydrocarbon, ultrafine particles (UFP) , black carbon (BC) , nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, and sulfides and could immiately impact the air quality in areas downwind. Although the impact of airport emissions on surrounding communities has been studied in some major airports in North America and Europe, scant attention has been paid to airport pollution issues in Asia despite the surging growth of air travel and of airports. Commercial air traffic in Taiwan has been dramatically growing in the last two decades because of rapid economic growth and is expected to continue surging into the next decades due to increasing trade and travel with China and other countries. In this study, the air quality in the vicinity of Taiwan’s Taoyuan International Airport (TPE Airport) is analyzed to further characterize air quality in the region of a fast-growing Asian airport. Monitoring data from the Taiwanese Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) is used in the study to investigate long-term trends in air quality. The first step of this research is to analyze the data from six stations close to TPE Airport during the last ten years and to filter the attributes (wind field, geography, and so on) which could impact that air quality. Second, we characterize the relationship between data from different monitoring stations by using cluster analysis and then use the air pollution model (Industrial Source Complex-ISC3 and Cal-Puff) to identify why serious pollution events occur. Finally, we use model binds with a GIS system containing population-activity and

  11. 78 FR 63562 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property at Charleston International Airport, Charleston...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... of Airport Revenue, published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1999 (64 FR 7696). The Aviation... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property at Charleston International Airport, Charleston, South Carolina AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION:...

  12. 76 FR 54287 - Notice of Intent To Release Federally-Obligated Airport Properties, Tampa International Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Release Federally-Obligated Airport Properties, Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Request for public comment. SUMMARY: The FAA hereby provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties,...

  13. Framework for determining airport daily departure and arrival delay thresholds: statistical modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, Ronald; Nabugoomu, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    The study derives a framework for assessing airport efficiency through evaluating optimal arrival and departure delay thresholds. Assumptions of airport efficiency measurements, though based upon minimum numeric values such as 15 min of turnaround time, cannot be extrapolated to determine proportions of delay-days of an airport. This study explored the concept of delay threshold to determine the proportion of delay-days as an expansion of the theory of delay and our previous work. Data-driven approach using statistical modelling was employed to a limited set of determinants of daily delay at an airport. For the purpose of testing the efficacy of the threshold levels, operational data for Entebbe International Airport were used as a case study. Findings show differences in the proportions of delay at departure (μ = 0.499; 95 % CI = 0.023) and arrival (μ = 0.363; 95 % CI = 0.022). Multivariate logistic model confirmed an optimal daily departure and arrival delay threshold of 60 % for the airport given the four probable thresholds {50, 60, 70, 80}. The decision for the threshold value was based on the number of significant determinants, the goodness of fit statistics based on the Wald test and the area under the receiver operating curves. These findings propose a modelling framework to generate relevant information for the Air Traffic Management relevant in planning and measurement of airport operational efficiency. PMID:27441145

  14. Components of the airport access system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The organizations and agencies which make up or influence the airport access system are examined. These include the airport, the airline industry, the public and private transit agencies which provide ground access to the airport, and the regulatory agencies which affect all of these organizations and their actions. Each component, with the exception of the regulatory agencies is described in terms of its legal status, its sources of funds, and the nature of its relationship with the other components. Conclusions regarding the system components' effects on airport access and recommendations for changes which appear practical are presented.

  15. 61 FR 25729 - Security Measures; Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-05-22

    ... Security Measures; Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece Summary The Secretary of Transportation has now determined that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, maintains and carries out... that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, did not maintain and carry out...

  16. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Airport. Mesa, Arizona Williams Gateway Airport. Midland, Texas Midland International Airport....

  17. [Aviation fuels and aircraft emissions. A risk characterization for airport neighbors using Hamburg Airport as an example].

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, I; Mach, B; Koss, G

    1998-06-01

    Aviation fuels are well characterised regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapours and of liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Exposure of the general population (airport visitors and people living in the vicinity of airports) may occur during fuel supply particularly in warm summers (odour). Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type and the kind of fuel. Combustion of aviation fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) no compound characteristic for jet engines (tracer) could be detected so far. Hardly any data exist on the toxicology of jet engine emissions. According to analyses of their chemical composition, however, they contain various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. Measurements in ambient air around the Hamburg Airport show no elevated pollutant levels. However, no such data exist on aldehydes, black smoke or fine particles. Annoying odours have been stated in some areas around the airport, which were mainly attributed to the aircraft engine emissions rather than to fuel vapours.

  18. [Aviation fuels and aircraft emissions. A risk characterization for airport neighbors using Hamburg Airport as an example].

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, I; Mach, B; Koss, G

    1998-06-01

    Aviation fuels are well characterised regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapours and of liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Exposure of the general population (airport visitors and people living in the vicinity of airports) may occur during fuel supply particularly in warm summers (odour). Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type and the kind of fuel. Combustion of aviation fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) no compound characteristic for jet engines (tracer) could be detected so far. Hardly any data exist on the toxicology of jet engine emissions. According to analyses of their chemical composition, however, they contain various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. Measurements in ambient air around the Hamburg Airport show no elevated pollutant levels. However, no such data exist on aldehydes, black smoke or fine particles. Annoying odours have been stated in some areas around the airport, which were mainly attributed to the aircraft engine emissions rather than to fuel vapours. PMID:9686444

  19. Observations regarding the movement of barchan sand dunes in the Nazca to Tanaca area of southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker Gay, S.

    1999-03-01

    Significant studies of sand dunes and sand movement made in coastal southern Peru in 1959-1961 [Gay, S.P., 1962. Origen, distribución y movimiento de las arenas eólicas en el área de Yauca a Palpa. Boletin de la Sociedad Geologica del Perú 37, 37-58] have never been published in the English language and consequently have never been referred to in the standard literature. These studies contain valuable information, not developed by later workers in this field, that may be of broad general interest. For example, using airphotos of barchan dunes and plotting the rates of movement vs. dune widths, the author quantified the deduction of Bagnold [Bagnold, R.A., 1941. The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes. Methuen, London.] that the speed of barchan movement is inversely proportional to barchan size (as characterized by height or width). This led to the conclusion that all barchans in a given dune field, regardless of size, sweep out approximately equal areas in equal times. Another conclusion was that collisions between smaller, overtaking dunes and larger dunes in front of them do not result in destruction or absorption of the smaller dunes if the collision is a `sideswipe'. The dunes simply merge into a compound dune for a time, and the smaller dune then moves on intact, i.e., passes, the larger dune, whilst retaining its approximate original size and shape. Another result of the 1959-1961 studies was a map that documents the Pacific coast beaches as the source of the sand ( Fig. 1), which is then blown inland through extensive dune fields of barchans and other dune forms in great clockwise-sweeping paths, to its final resting place in huge sand masses, sometimes called `sand seas' [Lancaster, N., 1995. Geomorphology of Desert Dunes. Routledge, London], at higher elevations 20 to 60 km from the coast. A minor, but nevertheless interesting, discovery was a small heavy mineral dune located directly in the lee of a large barchan, evidently formed by the winnowing

  20. 19 CFR 122.153 - Limitations on airport of entry or departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... International Airport. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Pittsburgh International Airport. San Juan, Puerto Rico San Juan Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport. Tampa, Florida Tampa International Airport. West Palm Beach, Florida Palm Beach International Airport....

  1. Preliminary Study of Ground Movement in Prone Landslide Area by Means of MAI InSAR A Case Study: Ciloto, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, Noorlaila; Riedel, Björn; Niemeier, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Ciloto is one of the most prone landslide hazard areas in Indonesia. Several landslides in 2012 and 2013 had been recorded in Ciloto and damaged infrastructure around the area. Investigating the history of ground movement along slope area before the landslide happened could support the hazard mitigation in the future. Considering to an efficient surveying method, space-borne SAR processing is the one appropriate way to monitor the phenomenon in past years. The purpose of this study is detecting ground movement using multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar images. We use 13 ALOS PALSAR images from 2007 to 2009 with combination Fine Beam Single (FBS) and Fine Beam Double (FBD) polarization to investigate the slow movement on slope topography. MAI (Multiple Aperture Interferometry) InSAR method is used to analyze the ground movement from both line-of-sight and along-track direction. We split the synthetic aperture into two-looking aperture so that along-track displacement could be created by the difference of forward-backward looking interferograms. With integration of both methods, we could more precisely detect the movement in prone landslide area and achieve two measurements produced by the same interferogram. However, InSAR requires smaller baseline and good temporal baseline between master and slave images to avoid decorellation. There are only several pairs that meet the condition of proper length and temporal baseline indeed the location is also on the agriculture area where is mostly covered by vegetation. The result for two years observation shows that there is insignificant slow movement along slope surface in Ciloto with -2 - -7 cm in range looks or line of sight and 9-40 cm in along track direction. Based on geometry SAR , the most visible detecting of displacement is on the north-west area due to utilization of ascending SAR images.

  2. Meteorological and air pollution modeling for an urban airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, P. R.; Lee, I. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of numerical experiments modeling meteorology, multiple pollutant sources, and nonlinear photochemical reactions for the case of an airport in a large urban area with complex terrain. A planetary boundary-layer model which predicts the mixing depth and generates wind, moisture, and temperature fields was used; it utilizes only surface and synoptic boundary conditions as input data. A version of the Hecht-Seinfeld-Dodge chemical kinetics model is integrated with a new, rapid numerical technique; both the San Francisco Bay Area Air Quality Management District source inventory and the San Jose Airport aircraft inventory are utilized. The air quality model results are presented in contour plots; the combined results illustrate that the highly nonlinear interactions which are present require that the chemistry and meteorology be considered simultaneously to make a valid assessment of the effects of individual sources on regional air quality.

  3. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of...

  4. Airport Economics: Management Control Financial Reporting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchbinder, A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of management control financial reporting systems for airport operation is discussed. The operation of the system to provide the reports required for determining the specific revenue producing facilities of airports is described. The organization of the cost reporting centers to show the types of information provided by the system is analyzed.

  5. 75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Program (62 FR 48693). A request for participation in the Pilot Program must be initiated by the filing of... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Mu oz Mar n International Airport (SJU), San Juan, Puerto Rico. SUMMARY: The Federal...

  6. 14 CFR 398.3 - Specific airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific airports. 398.3 Section 398.3... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.3 Specific airports. (a) At an eligible place, essential air service may be specified as service to a particular...

  7. 77 FR 58208 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... will also participate. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at: Verdanza Hotel, 8020 Tartak Street, Isla... for sending your comments electronically. Docket Number: FAA 2009-1144. Mail: Docket Management... Compliance Specialist, Airport Compliance Division, ACO-100, Office of Airport Compliance and...

  8. 78 FR 7476 - Airport Improvement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Program Handbook. SUMMARY: This notice announces the request for comments on the draft of FAA Order 5100-38D, Airport Improvement Program Handbook. When finalized, this Order will replace Order 5100-38C, Airport Improvement Program Handbook, issued on June 28, 2005. This update clarifies...

  9. Insects, vegetation, and the control of laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) at Kennedy International Airport, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, P.A.; McCarthy, M.

    1994-01-01

    1. In response to a purported 'bird-strike problem' at J.F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, we examined short (5 cm) and long (45 cm) grass heights as gull deterrents, in a randomized-block experiment. 2. Vegetative cover, numbers of adult insects and of larval beetles (suspected on-airport food of the gulls) were sampled in the six-block, 36-plot study area, as well as gut contents of adult and downy young gulls in the immediately adjacent colony in the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. 3. We found that (i) Oriental beetle larvae were the most numerous and concentrated in one experimental block; (ii) beetle larvae numbers were uncorrelated with grass height; (iii) adult beetles were also uncorrelated with grass height; (iv) laughing gulls were distributed across blocks irrespective of percentage cover; (v) within blocks, laughing gulls were selecting short grass and avoiding long grass plots; (vi) laughing gull numbers were positively associated with numbers of Oriental beetle larvae; (vii) adult laughing gulls on the airport were eating lower-nutrition food of terrestrial origin (74-83% adult beetles, mostly Oriental plus green June and ground beetles); (viii) on the other hand, gull chicks in the adjacent breeding colony were being fed more easily digested, higher-protein food of marine origin (86-88% fishes, crustacea and molluscs); (ix) laughing gulls on the airport were taking their adult beetles only in short-grass plots, ignoring large numbers in adjacent long grass; (x) during the summer, on-airport gulls shifted from performing largely maintenance activities on pavement to feeding actively for beetles on newly mown short grass, the change coinciding with adult beetle emergence; (xi) standing water on the airport attracted significantly more gulls than dry areas all summer long. 4. We recommend a series of ecologically compatible, but aggressive habitat management actions for controlling laughing gulls on Kennedy Airport by rendering the airport

  10. Siting Solar Photovoltaics at Airports: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-06-01

    Airports present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to their open land; based on a 2010 Federal Aviation Administration study, the US Department of Agriculture, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, there's potential for 116,704 MW of solar photovoltaics (PV) on idle lands at US airports. PV has a low profile and likely low to no impact on flight operations. This paper outlines guidance for implementing solar technologies at airports and airfields, focusing largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's policies. The paper also details best practices for siting solar at airports, provides information on the Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool, and highlights a case study example where solar has been installed at an airport.

  11. Airport noise impact reduction through operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1981-01-01

    The airport-noise levels and annoyance model (ALAMO) developed at NASA Langley Research Center is comprised of a system of computer programs which is capable of quantifying airport community noise impact in terms of noise level, population distribution, and human subjective response to noise. The ALAMO can be used to compare the noise impact of an airport's current operating scenario with the noise impact which would result from some proposed change in airport operations. The relative effectiveness of number of noise-impact reduction alternatives is assessed for a major midwest airport. Significant reductions in noise impact are predicted for certain noise abatement strategies while others are shown to result in relatively little noise relief.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-10

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  13. The monocular visual imaging technology model applied in the airport surface surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Huang, Chao

    2013-08-01

    At present, the civil aviation airports use the surface surveillance radar monitoring and positioning systems to monitor the aircrafts, vehicles and the other moving objects. Surface surveillance radars can cover most of the airport scenes, but because of the terminals, covered bridges and other buildings geometry, surface surveillance radar systems inevitably have some small segment blind spots. This paper presents a monocular vision imaging technology model for airport surface surveillance, achieving the perception of scenes of moving objects such as aircrafts, vehicles and personnel location. This new model provides an important complement for airport surface surveillance, which is different from the traditional surface surveillance radar techniques. Such technique not only provides clear objects activities screen for the ATC, but also provides image recognition and positioning of moving targets in this area. Thereby it can improve the work efficiency of the airport operations and avoid the conflict between the aircrafts and vehicles. This paper first introduces the monocular visual imaging technology model applied in the airport surface surveillance and then the monocular vision measurement accuracy analysis of the model. The monocular visual imaging technology model is simple, low cost, and highly efficient. It is an advanced monitoring technique which can make up blind spot area of the surface surveillance radar monitoring and positioning systems.

  14. Initial Investigation of Operational Concept Elements for NASA's NextGen-Airportal Project Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary; Lee, Jonathan; Poage, James L.; Tobias, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    The NextGen-Airportal Project is organized into three research focus areas: Safe and Efficient Surface Operations, Coordinated Arrival/Departure Operations Management, and Airportal Transition and Integration Management. The content in this document was derived from an examination of constraints and problems at airports for accommodating future increases in air traffic, and from an examination of capabilities envisioned for NextGen. The concepts are organized around categories of constraints and problems and therefore do not precisely match, but generally reflect, the research focus areas. The concepts provide a framework for defining and coordinating research activities that are, and will be, conducted by the NextGen-Airportal Project. The concepts will help the research activities function as an integrated set focused on future needs for airport operations and will aid aligning the research activities with NextGen key capabilities. The concepts are presented as concept elements with more detailed sub-elements under each concept element. For each concept element, the following topics are discussed: constraints and problems being addressed, benefit descriptions, required technology and infrastructure, and an initial list of potential research topics. Concept content will be updated and more detail added as the research progresses. The concepts are focused on enhancing airportal capacity and efficiency in a timeframe 20 to 25 years in the future, which is similar to NextGen's timeframe.

  15. Ambient air particulates and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) concentrations: dry deposition study over a Traffic, Airport, Park (T.A.P.) areas during years of 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Lin, Yen-Heng; Zheng, Yu-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor ambient air particles and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) in total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations and dry deposition at the Hung Kuang (Traffic), Taichung airport and Westing Park sampling sites during the daytime and nighttime, from 2011 to 2012. In addition, the calculated/measured dry deposition flux ratios of ambient air particles and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) were also studied with Baklanov & Sorensen and the Williams models. For a particle size of 10 μm, the Baklanov & Sorensen model yielded better predictions of dry deposition of ambient air particulates and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) at the Hung Kuang (Traffic), Taichung airport and Westing Park sampling site during the daytime and nighttime sampling periods. However, for particulates with sizes 20-23 μm, the results obtained in the study reveal that the Williams model provided better prediction results for ambient air particulates and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) at all sampling sites in this study.

  16. Preliminary Results Of Hydrodynamic Responses To Ship Movements And Weather Conditions Along The Coastal Walls Of Shallow Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Cagatay, Namık; Ozeren, Sinan; Sarı, Erol; Eris, Kadir; Vardar, Denizhan; Arslan, Tugce; Basegmez, Koray

    2016-04-01

    Water-level variations in coastal areas and shallow channels take place under the influence of more complex factors, compared to those in deeper areas. Atmospheric pressure, wind, and wave interactions with bottom morphological characteristics are some important natural features while human-induced factors are usually maritime traffic and manoeuvres the ships. While weather conditions cause long-term changes in water level, water level interactions in near shore areas, can occur very quickly depending on the ship manoeuvres and squat characteristics, and these rapid changes can lead to unpredictable water level lowering. Such rapid changes may cause various dangerous incidents and ship accidents, particularly in areas where rapid water oscillations occur. Improper calculations of propulsion power or orientation of the ship body, especially in the areas where geological and morphological characteristics permit fast water movements, are the most important additional causes of accidents due to sudden water level decreases. For an example, even though a 200-m-long vessel can complete its 35° rotation in a circular area with radius of 250 m, if it is calm and sufficiently deep, this diameter increases 5 times at the shallow waters also depending on the hydrodynamic flow conditions. In 2005, "Gerardus Mercator" has bumped into the inside bottom wall of the channel with a low speed (4 knots) turn of when she had just made a 200° turn. Seven years later the cruise ship "Costa Concordia" struck a rock, before she drifted and grounded, in the calm seas of the coast of Isola del Giglio in Italy, due to a combined effects of waves generated by side waves of ship manoeuvres, atmospheric pressure and squat specifications as well. The waves reflected from the seawalls complicate the navigation problems which should be examined in detail. Thus, three prototype models with various angular seawall features were prepared, simple in shape with perpendicular and sloped seawalls with

  17. Measuring the levels of noise at the İstanbul Atatürk Airport and comparisons with model simulations.

    PubMed

    Sari, Deniz; Ozkurt, Nesimi; Akdag, Ali; Kutukoglu, Murat; Gurarslan, Aliye

    2014-06-01

    Airport noise and its impact on the surrounding areas are major issues in the aviation industry. The İstanbul Atatürk Airport is a major global airport with passenger numbers increasing rapidly per annum. The noise levels for day, evening and night times were modeled around the İstanbul Atatürk Airport according to the European Noise Directive using the actual data records for the year 2011. The "ECAC Doc. 29-Interim" method was used for the computation of the aircraft traffic noise. In the setting the noise model for the local airport topography was taken into consideration together with the noise source data, the airport loadings, features of aircraft and actual air traffic data. Model results were compared with long-term noise measurement values for calibration. According to calibration results, classifications of the aircraft type and flight tracks were revised. For noise model validation, the daily noise measurements at four additional locations were used during the verification period. The input data was re-edited only for these periods and the model was validated. A successful model performance was obtained in several zones around the airport. The validated noise model of the İstanbul Atatürk Airport can be now utilized both for determining the noise levels in the future and for producing new strategies which are about the land use planning, operational considerations for the air traffic management and the noise abatement procedures.

  18. Effect of Traffic Position Accuracy for Conducting Safe Airport Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Barnes, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept proposes many revolutionary operational concepts and technologies, such as display of traffic information and movements, airport moving maps (AMM), and proactive alerts of runway incursions and surface traffic conflicts, to deliver an overall increase in system capacity and safety. A piloted simulation study was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center to evaluate the ability to conduct safe and efficient airport surface operations while utilizing an AMM displaying traffic of various position accuracies as well as the effect of traffic position accuracy on airport conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) capability. Nominal scenarios and off-nominal conflict scenarios were conducted using 12 airline crews operating in a simulated Memphis International Airport terminal environment. The data suggest that all traffic should be shown on the airport moving map, whether qualified or unqualified, and conflict detection and resolution technologies provide significant safety benefits. Despite the presence of traffic information on the map, collisions or near collisions still occurred; when indications or alerts were generated in these same scenarios, the incidences were averted.

  19. The community response to aircraft noise around six Spanish airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A.; Faus, L. J.; Garcia, A. M.

    1993-06-01

    The community response to aircraft noise has been studied through a social survey. A total of 1800 persons living in the vicinity of six major Spanish airports have been interviewed at their homes concerning the environmental quality of the area, dissatisfaction with road traffic noise and aircraft noise, activities interfered with by noise, most disturbing aircraft types, and subjective evaluation of airport impact. All the responses obtained in this survey have been compared with aircraft noise levels corresponding to the residence locations of the people interviewed (values of NEF levels were calculated with the INM model). The results obtained in this work allow one to evaluate the impact of aircraft noise under a wide range of different situations.

  20. Metabarcoding avian diets at airports: implications for birdstrike hazard management planning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wildlife collisions with aircraft cost the airline industry billions of dollars per annum and represent a public safety risk. Clearly, adapting aerodrome habitats to become less attractive to hazardous wildlife will reduce the incidence of collisions. Formulating effective habitat management strategies relies on accurate species identification of high-risk species. This can be successfully achieved for all strikes either through morphology and/or DNA-based identifications. Beyond species identification, dietary analysis of birdstrike gut contents can provide valuable intelligence for airport hazard management practices in regards to what food is attracting which species to aerodromes. Here, we present birdstrike identification and dietary data from Perth Airport, Western Australia, an aerodrome that saw approximately 140,000 aircraft movements in 2012. Next-generation high throughput DNA sequencing was employed to investigate 77 carcasses from 16 bird species collected over a 12-month period. Five DNA markers, which broadly characterize vertebrates, invertebrates and plants, were used to target three animal mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and COI) and a plastid gene (trnL) from DNA extracted from birdstrike carcass gastrointestinal tracts. Results Over 151,000 DNA sequences were generated, filtered and analyzed by a fusion-tag amplicon sequencing approach. Across the 77 carcasses, the most commonly identified vertebrate was Mus musculus (house mouse). Acrididae (grasshoppers) was the most common invertebrate family identified, and Poaceae (grasses) the most commonly identified plant family. The DNA-based dietary data has the potential to provide some key insights into feeding ecologies within and around the aerodrome. Conclusions The data generated here, together with the methodological approach, will greatly assist in the development of hazard management plans and, in combination with existing observational studies, provide an improved way to

  1. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning... agency conducting a project for airport system planning shall submit a financial status report on a form... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.325...

  2. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  3. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  4. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  5. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  6. 78 FR 65417 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Regional Airport (EAR), Kearney, Nebraska. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invites public comment on... request to release approximately 67.72 acres of airport property at the Kearney Regional Airport (EAR... property at the Kearney Regional Airport (EAR) submitted by the Sponsor meets the procedural...

  7. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  8. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  9. 14 CFR 135.223 - IFR: Alternate airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport requirements. 135... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.223 IFR: Alternate airport requirements...) to— (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Fly from that airport...

  10. 14 CFR 152.107 - Project eligibility: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport development... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.107 Project eligibility: Airport development. (a) Except in the case of approved stage...

  11. 14 CFR 151.3 - National Airport Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National Airport Plan. 151.3 Section 151.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements § 151.3 National Airport Plan. (a) Under the Federal...

  12. 14 CFR 121.617 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate airport for departure. 121.617... Alternate airport for departure. (a) If the weather conditions at the airport of takeoff are below the landing minimums in the certificate holder's operations specifications for that airport, no person...

  13. 14 CFR 125.365 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate airport for departure. 125.365... § 125.365 Alternate airport for departure. (a) If the weather conditions at the airport of takeoff are below the landing minimums in the certificate holder's operations specifications for that airport,...

  14. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  15. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget revision: Airport development. (a) If any performance review conducted by the sponsor discloses a need...

  16. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  17. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  18. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  19. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  20. 14 CFR 139.205 - Amendment of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS...) Under § 139.3, the Regional Airports Division Manager may amend any Airport Certification Manual... Airports Division Manager's own initiative, if the Regional Airports Division Manager determines...

  1. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  2. 14 CFR 125.369 - Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate airport weather minimums. 125.369... § 125.369 Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in the flight release unless the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination...

  3. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  4. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  5. 14 CFR 125.369 - Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate airport weather minimums. 125.369... § 125.369 Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in the flight release unless the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination...

  6. 14 CFR 125.369 - Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate airport weather minimums. 125.369... § 125.369 Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in the flight release unless the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination...

  7. 14 CFR 125.369 - Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate airport weather minimums. 125.369... § 125.369 Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in the flight release unless the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination...

  8. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  9. 14 CFR 125.369 - Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate airport weather minimums. 125.369... § 125.369 Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in the flight release unless the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination...

  10. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  11. 14 CFR 156.4 - Airport and project eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS STATE BLOCK GRANT PILOT PROGRAM § 156.4 Airport and project eligibility. (a) A participating State shall use monies distributed pursuant to a State block grant agreement for airport... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport and project eligibility....

  12. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  13. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  14. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  15. Emissions from an international airport increase particle number concentrations 4-fold at 10 km downwind.

    PubMed

    Hudda, Neelakshi; Gould, Tim; Hartin, Kris; Larson, Timothy V; Fruin, Scott A

    2014-06-17

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km(2) that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8-10 km (5-6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm(3), more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280-790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated. PMID:24871496

  16. Emissions from an international airport increase particle number concentrations 4-fold at 10 km downwind.

    PubMed

    Hudda, Neelakshi; Gould, Tim; Hartin, Kris; Larson, Timothy V; Fruin, Scott A

    2014-06-17

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km(2) that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8-10 km (5-6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm(3), more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280-790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated.

  17. 7 CFR 301.51-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement... beetle; and (C) The article has not been combined or commingled with other articles so as to lose...

  18. 7 CFR 301.51-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement... beetle; and (C) The article has not been combined or commingled with other articles so as to lose...

  19. 7 CFR 301.51-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement... beetle; and (C) The article has not been combined or commingled with other articles so as to lose...

  20. 7 CFR 301.51-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement... beetle; and (C) The article has not been combined or commingled with other articles so as to lose...

  1. 7 CFR 301.53-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... infestation by emerald ash borer; and (iv) The article has not been combined or commingled with other...

  2. 7 CFR 301.53-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... infestation by emerald ash borer; and (iv) The article has not been combined or commingled with other...

  3. 7 CFR 301.53-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... infestation by emerald ash borer; and (iv) The article has not been combined or commingled with other...

  4. 7 CFR 301.53-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... infestation by emerald ash borer; and (iv) The article has not been combined or commingled with other...

  5. Distribution of Blood Pressure Data from People Living Near AN Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GOTO, K.; KANEKO, T.

    2002-02-01

    We observed blood pressure in general health examination data around a city airport and compared the data with those from a calm suburban area of the city. Information was also collected on the short-term history of medication and lifestyle including smoking, drinking and eating salty foods. This cross-sectional study on 469 women showed that systolic and diastolic blood pressure was not associated with aircraft noise levels in the area, even after controlling for variables regarding anti-hypertension treatment and lifestyle factors. A comparative study on 469 women from an area around an airport and 1177 women from a suburban control area showed no significant differences between blood pressure and other medical tests controlling for the variables of medication and lifestyle. Changes in blood pressure after 8 years were observed in 183 women around the airport. No significant differences among three zones with different levels of aircraft noise were found.

  6. Concentration of Airline Operations at Individual Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelerman, W.; Deneufville, R.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that it is a natural property of air transportation networks for competitive airlines to concentrate their operations at individual airports serving a given market. This implies that a strategy of developing satellite airports is doomed to failure unless the competitives behavior of the airlines is restricted. The results are demonstrated by tracing out the implications of observed patterns of traveller behavior as regards choice of carrier on the optimal game strategy for any particular airline. Analytic results for a two airline, two airport situation are extrapolated to the more general case, and specific supportive evidence from current operations are cited.

  7. Surface Operations Systems Improve Airport Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Ames Research Center, Mosaic ATM of Leesburg, Virginia created software to analyze surface operations at airports. Surface surveillance systems, which report locations every second for thousands of air and ground vehicles, generate massive amounts of data, making gathering and analyzing this information difficult. Mosaic?s Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool is an off-line support tool that can analyze how well the airport surface operation is working and can help redesign procedures to improve operations. SODAA helps researchers pinpoint trends and correlations in vast amounts of recorded airport operations data.

  8. 77 FR 59035 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the St. George Airport, St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the St. George Airport, St. George, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Administration, Northwest Mountain Region, Airports Division, Denver Airports District Office, 26805 E....

  9. Three-dimensional localization of SMA activity preceding voluntary movement. A study of electric and magnetic fields in a patient with infarction of the right supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Lang, W; Cheyne, D; Kristeva, R; Beisteiner, R; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies by magnetoencephalography (MEG) failed to consistently localize the activity of the supplementary motor area (SMA) prior to voluntary movements in healthy human subjects. Based on the assumption that the SMA of either hemisphere is active prior to voluntary movements, the negative findings of previous studies could be explained by the hypothesis that magnetic fields of current dipole sources in the two SMAs may cancel each other. The present MEG study was performed in a patient with a complete vascular lesion of the right SMA. In this case it was possible to consistently localize a current dipole source in the intact left SMA starting about 1200 msec prior to the initiation of voluntary movements of the right thumb. Starting at about 600 msec prior to movement onset the assumption of a current dipole source in the left primary motor cortex was needed to account for the observed fields. Measurements of brain potentials were consistent with MEG findings of activity of the left SMA starting about 1200 msec prior to movement onset.

  10. Quantifying the air quality-CO2 tradeoff potential for airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Akshay; Dedoussi, Irene C.; Yim, Steve H. L.; Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Aircraft movements on the airport surface are responsible for CO2 emissions that contribute to climate change and other emissions that affect air quality and human health. While the potential for optimizing aircraft surface movements to minimize CO2 emissions has been assessed, the implications of CO2 emissions minimization for air quality have not been quantified. In this paper, we identify conditions in which there is a tradeoff between CO2 emissions and population exposure to O3 and secondary PM2.5 - i.e. where decreasing fuel burn (which is directly proportional to CO2 emissions) results in increased exposure. Fuel burn and emissions are estimated as a function of thrust setting for five common gas turbine engines at 34 US airports. Regional air quality impacts, which are dominated by ozone and secondary PM2.5, are computed as a function of airport location and time using the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemistry-transport model. Tradeoffs between CO2 emissions and population exposure to PM2.5 and O3 occur between 2-18% and 5-60% of the year, respectively, depending on airport location, engine type, and thrust setting. The total duration of tradeoff conditions is 5-12 times longer at maximum thrust operations (typical for takeoff) relative to 4% thrust operations (typical for taxiing). Per kilogram of additional fuel burn at constant thrust setting during tradeoff conditions, reductions in population exposure to PM2.5 and O3 are 6-13% and 32-1060% of the annual average (positive) population exposure per kilogram fuel burn, where the ranges encompass the medians over the 34 airports. For fuel burn increases due to thrust increases (i.e. for constant operating time), reductions in both PM2.5 and O3 exposure are 1.5-6.4 times larger in magnitude than those due to increasing fuel burn at constant thrust (i.e. increasing operating time). Airports with relatively high population exposure reduction potentials - which occur due to a combination of high duration and

  11. 19 CFR 122.153 - Limitations on airport of entry or departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., the Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida; the John F. Kennedy International Airport, Jamaica... York John F. Kennedy International Airport Los Angeles, California Los Angeles International...

  12. 19 CFR 122.153 - Limitations on airport of entry or departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., the Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida; the John F. Kennedy International Airport, Jamaica... York John F. Kennedy International Airport Los Angeles, California Los Angeles International...

  13. Geophysical characterization of permafrost terrain at Iqaluit International Airport, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenborger, Greg A.; LeBlanc, Anne-Marie

    2015-12-01

    Iqaluit International Airport presently suffers from instabilities and subsidence along its runway, taxiways and apron. In particular, asphalt surfaces are significantly impacted by settlement and cracking. These instabilities may be related to permafrost, permafrost degradation and associated drainage conditions. Low induction number electromagnetic measurements along with galvanic and capacitive electrical resistivity surveys were performed over selected areas within the airport boundary and in the near vicinity to assist with permafrost characterization and to investigate active permafrost processes. Electrical resistivity images suggest distinct electrical signatures for different terrain units and sediment types, and for ice-rich material including ice wedges. Anomalous regions are identified that are coincident with localized settlement problems. Repeated resistivity maps reveal seasonal changes indicative of high unfrozen water content and freeze/thaw of groundwater beneath airport infrastructure in distinct regions related to surficial geology. Even with continuous permafrost and cold permafrost temperatures, the resistivity models reveal anomalously conductive material at depth that is not obviously correlated to mapped surficial sediments and that may represent thaw susceptible sediments or significant unfrozen water content.

  14. Impact of aircraft plume dynamics on airport local air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Britter, Rex E.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2013-08-01

    Air quality degradation in the locality of airports poses a public health hazard. The ability to quantitatively predict the air quality impacts of airport operations is of importance for assessing the air quality and public health impacts of airports today, of future developments, and for evaluating approaches for mitigating these impacts. However, studies such as the Project for the Sustainable Development of Heathrow have highlighted shortcomings in understanding of aircraft plume dispersion. Further, if national or international aviation environmental policies are to be assessed, a computationally efficient method of modeling aircraft plume dispersion is needed. To address these needs, we describe the formulation and validation of a three-dimensional integral plume model appropriate for modeling aircraft exhaust plumes at airports. We also develop a simplified concentration correction factor approach to efficiently account for dispersion processes particular to aircraft plumes. The model is used to explain monitoring station results in the London Heathrow area showing that pollutant concentrations are approximately constant over wind speeds of 3-12 m s-1, and is applied to reproduce empirically derived relationships between engine types and peak NOx concentrations at Heathrow. We calculated that not accounting for aircraft plume dynamics would result in a factor of 1.36-2.3 over-prediction of the mean NOx concentration (depending on location), consistent with empirical evidence of a factor of 1.7 over-prediction. Concentration correction factors are also calculated for aircraft takeoff, landing and taxi emissions, providing an efficient way to account for aircraft plume effects in atmospheric dispersion models.

  15. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... use any airport unless it is adequate for the proposed operation, considering such items as size... to be used for takeoff or landing is marked by flare pots or lanterns, their use must be approved...

  16. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... use any airport unless it is adequate for the proposed operation, considering such items as size... to be used for takeoff or landing is marked by flare pots or lanterns, their use must be approved...

  17. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... use any airport unless it is adequate for the proposed operation, considering such items as size... to be used for takeoff or landing is marked by flare pots or lanterns, their use must be approved...

  18. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... use any airport unless it is adequate for the proposed operation, considering such items as size... to be used for takeoff or landing is marked by flare pots or lanterns, their use must be approved...

  19. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... use any airport unless it is adequate for the proposed operation, considering such items as size... to be used for takeoff or landing is marked by flare pots or lanterns, their use must be approved...

  20. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the end of each runway at ground level; (d) Each airport must have a traffic direction indicator when... seaplanes is permitted to use adequate nonpermanent lighting or shoreline lighting, if approved by...

  1. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the end of each runway at ground level; (d) Each airport must have a traffic direction indicator when... seaplanes is permitted to use adequate nonpermanent lighting or shoreline lighting, if approved by...

  2. Pilot preference and procedures at uncontrolled airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    The report presents the results of a pilot questionnaire utilized at the 1974 Reading, Pennsylvania Air Show to obtain data on pilot procedures and preference in the terminal airspace of uncontrolled airports.

  3. Public health impact of large airports.

    PubMed

    Passchier, W; Knottnerus, A; Albering, H; Walda, I

    2000-01-01

    Large airports with the related infrastructure, businesses and industrial activities affect the health of the population living, travelling and working in the surroundings of or at the airport. The employment and contributions to economy from the airport and related operations are expected to have a beneficial effect, which, however, is difficult to quantify. More pertinent data are available on the, largely negative, health effects of environmental factors, such as air and soil pollution, noise, accident risk, and landscape changes. Information on the concurrent and cumulative impact of these factors is lacking, but is of primary relevance for public health policy. A committee of the Health Council of The Netherlands recently reviewed the data on the health impact of large airports. It was concluded that, generally, integrated health assessments are not available. Such assessments, as part of sustainable mobility policy, should accompany the further development of the global aviation system.

  4. Aircraft and airport noise control prospective outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, N.

    1982-01-01

    In a perspective look at aircraft and airport noise control over the past ten years or more - or more is added here because the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 of 1969 is a more significant milestone for the air transportation system than is the Noise Control Act of 1972 - we see an appreciable reduction in the noise emitted by newly designed and newly produced airplanes, particularly those powered by the new high bypass engines, but only, at best, a moderate alleviation of airport noise. The change in airport noise exposure was the consequence of the introduction of some new, quieter airplanes into the airlines fleets and some operational modifications or restrictions at the airports.

  5. The Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Wilson, J.; Fujita, T. T.

    1983-01-01

    A block diagram of the joint airport weather studies program is presented. Background leading to the development of the program is reviewed. Basic studies, aircraft performance, and detection and warning techniques used to develop fine scale structure of thunderstorm dynamics and kinematics in the vicinity of a major airport; effect of thunderstorm low level wind shear on aircraft performance; and development of real time testing of flow level wind shear detection and warning techniques and displays are described.

  6. Innovative School Facility Partnerships: Downtown, Airport, and Retail Space. Policy Study No. 276.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew D.; Snell, Lisa

    This document examines three locations that schools have utilized in partnership with private enterprises to help ease school overcrowding: downtown areas, airports, and malls. The downtown model serves students whose parents work in a downtown area. The mall model targets high school students who want an alternative education with job training.…

  7. 7 CFR 301.32-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... enclosed vehicle or is completely enclosed by a covering adequate to prevent access by fruit flies (such as... prevent the spread of fruit flies; and (4) With a tag or label bearing the number of the permit issued...

  8. 9 CFR 73.7 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; restrictions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.7 Movement from quarantined to free... any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia any cattle which have been moved from the..., however, That such cattle may be delivered for transportation, transported, driven on foot, or...

  9. 9 CFR 73.7 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; restrictions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.7 Movement from quarantined to free... any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia any cattle which have been moved from the..., however, That such cattle may be delivered for transportation, transported, driven on foot, or...

  10. 9 CFR 73.7 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; restrictions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.7 Movement from quarantined to free... any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia any cattle which have been moved from the..., however, That such cattle may be delivered for transportation, transported, driven on foot, or...

  11. 9 CFR 73.7 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; restrictions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.7 Movement from quarantined to free... any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia any cattle which have been moved from the..., however, That such cattle may be delivered for transportation, transported, driven on foot, or...

  12. 9 CFR 73.7 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; restrictions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.7 Movement from quarantined to free... any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia any cattle which have been moved from the..., however, That such cattle may be delivered for transportation, transported, driven on foot, or...

  13. 7 CFR 301.50-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pine Shoot Beetle § 301.50-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... beetle; and (2) The point of origin of the regulated article is indicted on the waybill. (c) With a... permit, which the Administrator has found to be adequate to prevent the spread of the pine shoot...

  14. 7 CFR 301.50-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pine Shoot Beetle § 301.50-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... beetle; and (2) The point of origin of the regulated article is indicted on the waybill. (c) With a... permit, which the Administrator has found to be adequate to prevent the spread of the pine shoot...

  15. 7 CFR 301.50-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pine Shoot Beetle § 301.50-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... beetle; and (2) The point of origin of the regulated article is indicted on the waybill. (c) With a... permit, which the Administrator has found to be adequate to prevent the spread of the pine shoot...

  16. 7 CFR 301.50-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pine Shoot Beetle § 301.50-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... beetle; and (2) The point of origin of the regulated article is indicted on the waybill. (c) With a... permit, which the Administrator has found to be adequate to prevent the spread of the pine shoot...

  17. 7 CFR 301.32-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... enclosed vehicle or is completely enclosed by a covering adequate to prevent access by fruit flies (such as... prevent the spread of fruit flies; and (4) With a tag or label bearing the number of the permit issued...

  18. 7 CFR 301.32-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... enclosed vehicle or is completely enclosed by a covering adequate to prevent access by fruit flies (such as... prevent the spread of fruit flies; and (4) With a tag or label bearing the number of the permit issued...

  19. 7 CFR 301.32-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... enclosed vehicle or is completely enclosed by a covering adequate to prevent access by fruit flies (such as... prevent the spread of fruit flies; and (4) With a tag or label bearing the number of the permit issued...

  20. Prediction of Weather Impacted Airport Capacity using Ensemble Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao Xun

    2011-01-01

    Ensemble learning with the Bagging Decision Tree (BDT) model was used to assess the impact of weather on airport capacities at selected high-demand airports in the United States. The ensemble bagging decision tree models were developed and validated using the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aviation System Performance Metrics (ASPM) data and weather forecast at these airports. The study examines the performance of BDT, along with traditional single Support Vector Machines (SVM), for airport runway configuration selection and airport arrival rates (AAR) prediction during weather impacts. Testing of these models was accomplished using observed weather, weather forecast, and airport operation information at the chosen airports. The experimental results show that ensemble methods are more accurate than a single SVM classifier. The airport capacity ensemble method presented here can be used as a decision support model that supports air traffic flow management to meet the weather impacted airport capacity in order to reduce costs and increase safety.

  1. Airport Noise Tech Challenge Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, operating under NASA Aeronautics Mission Directorate#s Fundamental Aero Program, has been organized around the Technical Challenges that have historically precluded commercial supersonic flight. One of these Challenges is making aircraft that are capable of such high aerodynamic performance quiet enough around airports that they will not be objectionable. It is recognized that a successful civilian supersonic aircraft will be a system where many new technologies will come together, and for this to happen not only will new low noise propulsion concepts be required, but new engineering tools that predict the noise of the aircraft as these technologies are combined and compromised with the rest of the aircraft design. These are the two main objectives of the Airport Noise Tech Challenge. " ! As a Project in the Fundamental Aero Program, we work at a relatively low level of technology readiness. However, we have high level milestones which force us to integrate our efforts to impact systems-level activities. To keep the low-level work tied to delivering engineering tools and low-noise concepts, we have structured our milestones around development of the concepts and organized our activities around developing and applying our engineering tools to these concepts. The final deliverables in these milestones are noise prediction modules validated against the best embodiment of each concept. These will then be used in cross-disciplinary exercises to demonstrate the viability of aircraft designs to meet all the Technical Challenges. Some of the concepts being developed are shown: Fan Flow Diverters, Multi-jet Shielding, High-Aspect Ratio Embedded Nozzles, Plasma Actuated Instability Manipulation, Highly Variable Cycle Mixer- Ejectors, and Inverted Velocity Profiles. These concepts are being developed for reduced jet noise along with the design tools which describe how they perform when used in various aircraft configurations. Several key upcoming

  2. Dangerous Fog Analyses and Forecast in the Maceio Airport, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, N.; Silva, A.; Levit, V.; Santos, E.

    2010-07-01

    A small airplane fatal accident has occurred near Maceio Airport, on the coastal region on 26 July 2007. Low visibility in the intensive fog has provoked this accident. Weather forecast analysis, published in the local and central Brazilian newspapers during 2007, showed fog forecast absence during whole year. A study of the fog formation causes was elaborated using the high and low resolution satellite data, radar data, different products of NCEP reanalysis data and high resolution regional MM5 model simulation. The trade winds with a weak cyclonic curvature at the low levels have generated the humidity convergence at the superficial layers up to 850hPa on the coastal region. An anticyclonic circulation existence at the middle and higher levels and weak ascendant motion (by NCEP data) have support a weak convection development. The low levels clouds development on the continental region and convection development over ocean were confirmed by the radar and satellite data. A thermal inversion near surface level (up to 150m) and descendent movement at the middle and high levels were identified by MM5 model. Fog formation was simulated by PAFOG model. The conventional airport observations have shown the minimal visibility of 200m between 4 and 7a.m. Moreover visibility less than 1000m between 1 and 8a.m. with the minimal visibility of 213m was simulated by PAFOG model.

  3. 77 FR 3031 - Release of Airport Property: Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...The FAA hereby provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties, approximately 3.407 acres, at the Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL from the conditions, reservations, and restrictions as contained in federal grant assurances. The release of property will allow the Hillsborough County Aviation Authority to dispose of the property for other than aeronautical purposes. The......

  4. 76 FR 15028 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... standards for control of airport operations and development and for self-sustaining and nondiscriminatory... include responsibilities to retain the rights and powers necessary to control and operate the airport; to... as self-sustaining as possible. A complete list of the current grant assurances can be viewed...

  5. 77 FR 23598 - Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List: Addition of Recently Approved Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... FR 5058) that amended the CBP regulations to establish such procedures and airport eligibility... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 122 Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List... from Cuba. DATES: Effective: April 20, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Arthur A.E. Pitts, Sr.,...

  6. Reduction of Weather-Related Terminal Area Delays in the Free-Flight Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Chin, David K.; Rovinsky, Robert B.; Kostiuk, Peter F.; Lee, David A.; Hemm, Robert V.; Wingrove, Earl R., III

    1996-01-01

    While much of the emphasis of the free-flight movement has been concentrated on reducing en-route delays, airport capacity is a major bottleneck in the current airspace system, particularly during bad weather. According to the Air Transport Association (ATA) Air Carrier Delay Reports, ground delays (gate-hold, taxi-in, and taxi-out) comprise 75 percent of total delays. It is likely that the projected steady growth in traffic will only exacerbate these losses. Preliminary analyses show that implementation of the terminal area technologies and procedures under development in NASA s Terminal Area Productivity program can potentially save the airlines at least $350M annually in weather-related delays by the year 2005 at Boston Logan and Detroit airports alone. This paper briefly describes the Terminal Area Productivity program, outlines the costhenefit analyses that are being conducted in support of the program, and presents some preliminary analysis results.

  7. Decentralized aircraft landing scheduling at single runway non-controlled airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yuanyuan

    The existing air transportation system is approaching a bottleneck because its dominant hub-and-spoke model results in a concentration of a large percentage of the air traffic at a few hub airports. Advanced technologies are greatly needed to enhance the transportation capabilities of the small airports in the U.S.A., and distribute the high volume of air traffic at the hub airports to those small airports, which are mostly non-controlled airports. Currently, two major focus areas of research are being pursued to achieve this objective. One focus concentrates on the development of tools to improve operations in the current Air Traffic Management system. A more long-term research effort focuses on the development of decentralized Air Traffic Management techniques. This dissertation takes the latter approach and seeks to analyze the degree of decentralization for scheduling aircraft landings in the dynamic operational environment at single runway non-controlled airports. Moreover, it explores the feasibility and capability of scheduling aircraft landings within uninterrupted free-flight environment in which there is no existence of Air Traffic Control (ATC). First, it addresses the approach of developing static optimization algorithms for scheduling aircraft landings and, thus, analyzes the capability of automated aircraft landing scheduling at single runway non-controlled airports. Then, it provides detailed description of the implementation of a distributed Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that achieves decentralized aircraft landing scheduling with acceptable performance whereas a solution to the distributed coordination issues is presented. Finally real-time Monte Carlo flight simulations of multi-aircraft landing scenarios are conducted to evaluate the static and dynamic performance of the aircraft landing scheduling algorithms and operation concepts introduced. Results presented in the dissertation demonstrate that decentralized aircraft landing scheduling

  8. Air pollution simulation and geographical information systems (GIS) applied to Athens International Airport.

    PubMed

    Theophanides, Mike; Anastassopoulou, Jane

    2009-07-01

    This study presents an improved methodology for analysing atmospheric pollution around airports using Gaussian-plume numerical simulation integrated with Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The new methodology focuses on streamlining the lengthy analysis process for Airport Environmental Impact Assessments by integrating the definition of emission sources, simulating and displaying the results in a GIS environment. One of the objectives of the research is to validate the methodology applied to the Athens International Airport, "Eleftherios Venizelos", to produce a realistic estimate of emission inventories, dispersion simulations and comparison to measured data. The methodology used a combination of the Emission Dispersion and Modelling System (EDMS) and the Atmospheric Dispersion and Modelling system (ADMS) to improve the analysis process. The second objective is to conduct numerical simulations under various adverse conditions (e.g. scenarios) and assess the dispersion in the surrounding areas. The study concludes that the use of GIS in environmental assessments provides a valuable advantage for organizing data and entering accurate geographical/topological information for the simulation engine. Emissions simulation produced estimates within 10% of published values. Dispersion simulations indicate that airport pollution will affect neighbouring cities such as Rafina and Loutsa. Presently, there are no measured controls in these areas. In some cases, airport pollution can contribute to as much as 40% of permissible EU levels in VOCs.

  9. Air pollution simulation and geographical information systems (GIS) applied to Athens International Airport.

    PubMed

    Theophanides, Mike; Anastassopoulou, Jane

    2009-07-01

    This study presents an improved methodology for analysing atmospheric pollution around airports using Gaussian-plume numerical simulation integrated with Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The new methodology focuses on streamlining the lengthy analysis process for Airport Environmental Impact Assessments by integrating the definition of emission sources, simulating and displaying the results in a GIS environment. One of the objectives of the research is to validate the methodology applied to the Athens International Airport, "Eleftherios Venizelos", to produce a realistic estimate of emission inventories, dispersion simulations and comparison to measured data. The methodology used a combination of the Emission Dispersion and Modelling System (EDMS) and the Atmospheric Dispersion and Modelling system (ADMS) to improve the analysis process. The second objective is to conduct numerical simulations under various adverse conditions (e.g. scenarios) and assess the dispersion in the surrounding areas. The study concludes that the use of GIS in environmental assessments provides a valuable advantage for organizing data and entering accurate geographical/topological information for the simulation engine. Emissions simulation produced estimates within 10% of published values. Dispersion simulations indicate that airport pollution will affect neighbouring cities such as Rafina and Loutsa. Presently, there are no measured controls in these areas. In some cases, airport pollution can contribute to as much as 40% of permissible EU levels in VOCs. PMID:19731833

  10. Wildlife strike risk assessment in several Italian airports: lessons from BRI and a new methodology implementation.

    PubMed

    Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Lovato, Tomas; Andreon, Adriano; Torricelli, Patrizia; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Corsa, Cosimo; Georgalas, Vyron

    2011-01-01

    The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes) cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2) is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B.

  11. Application of continuous remote sensing of mixing layer height for assessment of airport air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Helmis, Costas; Emeis, Stefan; Sgouros, George; Kurtenbach, Ralf; Wiesen, Peter; Münkel, Christoph; Jahn, Carsten; Hoffmann, Maria; Anamaterou, Evi; O'Connor, Michael

    2010-10-01

    The assessment of airport air quality requires not only the knowledge of the emissions and the temporal and spatial distribution of meteorological parameters like wind direction and wind speed but also of the mixing layer height, because this variable controls the vertical space for rapid mixing of near-surface pollutants. It was demonstrated that the lowest stable layer or temperature inversion limits the vertical exchange of primary pollutants emitted at or near the surface and thus controls the near-surface pollutant concentrations. Remote sensing is a suitable tool to determine mixing layer height continuously as was demonstrated in urban and sub-urban areas (Hannover, Munich, Budapest, Augsburg) as well as at airports (Zurich, Paris CDG, Mexico City International Airport, Athens International Airport). The Vaisala ceilometer LD40 was used which is an eye-safe commercial lidar and designed originally to detect cloud base heights and vertical visibility for aviation safety purposes. These measurements of the vertical aerosol distribution are routinely retrieved for mixing layer height estimation by using software which was improved continuously and compared with radiosonde data. Further, mixing layer height was determined by remote sensing with a combination of a Doppler- SODAR (Sound Detection and Ranging), a RASS (Radio Acustic Sounding System) and in-situ measurements. Vertical wind, temperature and turbulence parameter profiles up to 1500 m maximum were measured by this method too. Some results of interpretation of measured data at Athens International Airport will be discussed as the influence of mixing layer height upon airport air quality and estimation of the airport emission source strengths.

  12. Movement and effects of spilled oil over the outer continental shelf; inadequacy of existent data for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, Harley J.

    1974-01-01

    A deductive approach to the problem of determining the movement and effects of spilled oil over the Outer Continental Shelf requires that the potential paths of oil be determined first, in order that critical subareas may be defined for later studies. The paths of spilled oil, in turn, depend primarily on the temporal and spatial variability of four factors: the thermohaline structure of the waters, the circulation of the water, the winds, and the distribution of suspended matter. A review of the existent data concerning these factors for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area (a relatively well studied segment of the Continental Shelf) reveals that the movement and dispersal of potential oil spills cannot be reliably predicted. Variations in the thermohaline structure of waters and in the distribution of suspended matter are adequately known; the uncertainty is due to insufficient wind and storm statistics and to the lack of quantitative understanding of the relationship between the nontidal drift and its basic driving mechanisms. Similar inadequacies should be anticipated for other potentially leasable areas of the shelf because an understanding of the movement of spilled oil has not been the underlying aim of most previous studies.

  13. Passive Wake Acoustics Measurements at Denver International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Frank Y.; Wassaf, Hadi; Dougherty, Robert P.; Clark, Kevin; Gulsrud, Andrew; Fenichel, Neil; Bryant, Wayne H.

    2004-01-01

    From August to September 2003, NASA conducted an extensive measurement campaign to characterize the acoustic signal of wake vortices. A large, both spatially as well as in number of elements, phased microphone array was deployed at Denver International Airport for this effort. This paper will briefly describe the program background, the microphone array, as well as the supporting ground-truth and meteorological sensor suite. Sample results to date are then presented and discussed. It is seen that, in the frequency range processed so far, wake noise is generated predominantly from a very confined area around the cores.

  14. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Yeager Airport Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Williams

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was designed to have the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC), together with its partners, manage the Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project at the Yeager Airport in conjunction with the Central West Virginia Regional Airport Authority (CWVRAA) in coordination with the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE NETL). This program would allow testing and evaluation of the use of hydrogen vehicles in the state of West Virginia utilizing the hydrogen fueling station at Yeager Airport. The NAFTC and CWVRAA to raise awareness and foster a greater understanding of hydrogen fuel and hydrogen-powered vehicles through a targeted utilization and outreach and education effort. After initial implementation of the project, the project added, determine the source(s) of supply for hydrogen powered vehicles that could be used for the testing. After completion of this, testing was begun at Yeager Airport. During the course of the project, the station at Yeager Airport was closed and moved to Morgantown and the West Virginia University Research Corporation. The vehicles were then moved to Morgantown and a vehicle owned by the CWVRAA was purchased to complete the project at the new location. Because of a number of issues detailed in the report for DE-FE0002994 and in this report, this project did not get to evaluate the effectiveness of the vehicles as planned.

  16. NASA Research on an Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Surface operations at airports in the US are based on tactical operations, where departure aircraft primarily queue up and wait at the departure runways. There have been attempts to address the resulting inefficiencies with both strategic and tactical tools for metering departure aircraft. This presentation gives an overview of Spot And Runway Departure Advisor with Collaborative Decision Making (SARDA-CDM): an integrated strategic and tactical system for improving surface operations by metering departure aircraft. SARDA-CDM is the augmentation of ground and local controller advisories through sharing of flight movement and related operations information between airport operators, flight operators and air traffic control at the airport. The goal is to enhance the efficiency of airport surface operations by exchanging information between air traffic control and airline operators, while minimizing adverse effects on stakeholders and passengers. The presentation motivates the need for departure metering, and provides a brief background on the previous work on SARDA. Then, the concept of operations for SARDA-CDM is described. Then the preliminary results from testing the concept in a real-time automated simulation environment are described. Results indicate benefits such as reduction in taxiing delay and fuel consumption. Further, the preliminary implementation of SARDA-CDM seems robust for two minutes delay in gate push-back times.

  17. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Centennial Airport. Fort Worth, Texas Fort Worth Alliance Airport. Fresno, California Fresno...

  18. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 122.15, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...-Palomar Airport. Dallas, Texas Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport Daytona Beach, Florida Daytona...

  19. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 122.15, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... Love Field Municipal Airport Daytona Beach, Florida Daytona Beach International Airport....

  20. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 122.15, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... Love Field Municipal Airport Daytona Beach, Florida Daytona Beach International Airport....

  1. Aerial overview of the Denver International Airport site, looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial overview of the Denver International Airport site, looking southwest - Denver International Airport Site, Between Fifty-sixth & 128th Avenues, Buckley Road & Box Elder Creek, Denver, Denver County, CO

  2. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Airport Capacity and Delay Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David A.; Nelson, Caroline; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    The ASAC Airport Capacity Model and the ASAC Airport Delay Model support analyses of technologies addressing airport capacity. NASA's Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Airport Capacity Model estimates the capacity of an airport as a function of weather, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures, traffic characteristics, and the level of technology available. Airport capacity is presented as a Pareto frontier of arrivals per hour versus departures per hour. The ASAC Airport Delay Model allows the user to estimate the minutes of arrival delay for an airport, given its (weather dependent) capacity. Historical weather observations and demand patterns are provided by ASAC as inputs to the delay model. The ASAC economic models can translate a reduction in delay minutes into benefit dollars.

  3. 14 CFR 139.325 - Airport emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... certificate holder must develop and maintain an airport emergency plan designed to minimize the possibility...) Coordination of airport and control tower functions relating to emergency actions, as appropriate. (e) The...

  4. Photocopy of aerial photograph taken in 1959, showing Newark Airport. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of aerial photograph taken in 1959, showing Newark Airport. Photographer unknown. Original photograph property of Continental Airlines, Houston, Texas - Newark International Airport, Between New Jersey Turnpike, U.S. Routes 1 & 9, & Interstate 78, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  5. 14 CFR 152.107 - Project eligibility: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airport that is safe, useful, and usable; or, (2) An additional facility that increases the safety... incorporated into this part by § 152.11; and (3) Be described in an approved airport layout plan. (d)...

  6. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  7. 7 CFR 301.32-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... area quarantined for Mexican or sapote fruit fly and that are moving interstate from such an area are... in an orchard within the quarantined area, the identity of the avocados must be maintained from field... marked with the identity of the grower and the packinghouse. (iv) Any boxes of Hass avocados packed...

  8. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport near Cordova, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Sokup, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Air service to Cordova, Alaska and the surrounding region is provided by the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport, 21 kilometers east of the townsite. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates support facilities at the airport and wishes to consider the environmental setting and hydro- geologic conditions when evaluating options for remediation of potential contamination at these facilities. The airport is within the Copper River Delta wetlands area and the Chugach National Forest. Silts, sands, and gravels of fluvial origin underlie the airport. Potential flooding may be caused by outbursts of glacier-dammed lakes, glacier icemelt, snowmelt runoff, or precipitation. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials in conjunction with precipitation or flooding may adversely affect the quality of ground water. Drinking water at the airport is currently supplied by wells. Alternative drinking-water sources include local rivers and streams, transporting city water from Cordova, or undiscovered aquifers. Each alternative source, however, would likely cost significantly more to develop than using the existing shallow aquifer supply.

  9. TRIZ Tool for Optimization of Airport Runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Venkata; Selladurai, V.; Saravanan, R.

    TRIZ tool is used for conceptual design and layout of the novel ascending and descending runway model for the effective utilization of short length airports. Handling bigger aircrafts at smaller airports become the necessity for economic consideration and for the benefit of vast airliners and the aspiring air travelers of the region. The authors’ proposal of ascending and descending runway would enable the operational need of wide body aircrafts such as Boeing 747 and Airbus A380-800. Negotiating take-off and landing of bigger aircrafts at less than 10000 feet runway is an optimization solution. This conceptual model and the theoretical design with its layout is dealt in this paper as Part - I. The computer-aided design and analysis using MATLAB with Simulink tool box to confirm the adequacy of the runway length for the bigger aircrafts at smaller airports is however dealt in subsequent papers.

  10. Sensor Fusion of Position- and Micro-Sensors (MEMS) integrated in a Wireless Sensor Network for movement detection in landslide areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnhardt, Christian; Fernández-Steeger, Tomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring systems in landslide areas are important elements of effective Early Warning structures. Data acquisition and retrieval allows the detection of movement processes and thus is essential to generate warnings in time. Apart from the precise measurement, the reliability of data is fundamental, because outliers can trigger false alarms and leads to the loss of acceptance of such systems. For the monitoring of mass movements and their risk it is important to know, if there is movement, how fast it is and how trustworthy is the information. The joint project "Sensorbased landslide early warning system" (SLEWS) deals with these questions, and tries to improve data quality and to reduce false alarm rates, due to the combination of sensor date (sensor fusion). The project concentrates on the development of a prototypic Alarm- and Early Warning system (EWS) for different types of landslides by using various low-cost sensors, integrated in a wireless sensor network (WSN). The network consists of numerous connection points (nodes) that transfer data directly or over other nodes (Multi-Hop) in real-time to a data collection point (gateway). From there all the data packages are transmitted to a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) for further processing, analyzing and visualizing with respect to end-user specifications. The ad-hoc characteristic of the network allows the autonomous crosslinking of the nodes according to existing connections and communication strength. Due to the independent finding of new or more stable connections (self healing) a breakdown of the whole system is avoided. The bidirectional data stream enables the receiving of data from the network but also allows the transfer of commands and pointed requests into the WSN. For the detection of surface deformations in landslide areas small low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) and positionsensors from the automobile industries, different industrial applications and from other measurement

  11. The noise impact of proposed runway alternatives at Craig Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1982-01-01

    Four proposed runway expansion alternatives at Craig Airport in Jacksonville, Florida have been assessed with respect to their forecasted noise impact in the year 2005. The assessment accounts for population distributions around the airport and human subjective response to noise, as well as the distribution of noise levels in the surrounding community (footprints). The impact analysis was performed using the Airport-noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO), an airport community response model recently developd at Langley Research Center.

  12. Results of the groundwater monitoring program performed at the former St. Louis Airport Storage Site for the period of January 1981 through January 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.; Berven, B.A.

    1984-03-01

    Results of a two-year groundwater monitoring program performed at the former St. Louis Airport Storage Site in January 1981 though January 1983 are presented. Data indicate that radionuclides stored onsite are leaching into the groundwater; however, the radionuclide concentrations are well below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for effluents to unrestricted areas. The only radionuclide detected in measurable amounts in the groundwater at these wells was /sup 238/U. One well averaged approximately 1860 pCi/L of /sup 238/U during the two-year period. The maximum concentration of /sup 238/U observed at this well was 2230 pCi/L. This well water sample exceeded the maximum background /sup 238/U concentration (45 pCi/L) measured in groundwater throughout the state of Missouri by a factor of 50. Based on the results of the /sup 238/U concentration measured (in well water) at the former St. Louis Airport Storage Site, leaching of radionuclides is occurring, resulting in concentrations of /sup 238/U in the groundwater above background levels. However, the concentration of the radionuclides analyzed did not exceed the MPC for effluents as given in Appendix B, Table II, Column 2 of 10 CRF 20. Although there appears to be some movement of the groundwater into Coldwater Creek, adjacent to the site, due to dilution of the creek water, the concentrations of radionuclides in Coldwater Creek are expected to be substantially below MPC. 7 references, 11 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Wireless Channel Characterization: Modeling the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Future Airport Surface Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, D. W.; Apaza, Rafael; Foore, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a recently completed wideband wireless channel characterization project for the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System (MLS) extension band, for airport surface areas. This work included mobile measurements at large and small airports, and fixed point-to-point measurements. Mobile measurements were made via transmission from the air traffic control tower (ATCT), or from an airport field site (AFS), to a receiving ground vehicle on the airport surface. The point-to-point measurements were between ATCT and AFSs. Detailed statistical channel models were developed from all these measurements. Measured quantities include propagation path loss and power delay profiles, from which we obtain delay spreads, frequency domain correlation (coherence bandwidths), fading amplitude statistics, and channel parameter correlations. In this paper we review the project motivation, measurement coordination, and illustrate measurement results. Example channel modeling results for several propagation conditions are also provided, highlighting new findings.

  14. A Global Airport-Based Risk Model for the Spread of Dengue Infection via the Air Transport Network

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Lauren; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2013-01-01

    The number of travel-acquired dengue infections has seen a consistent global rise over the past decade. An increased volume of international passenger air traffic originating from regions with endemic dengue has contributed to a rise in the number of dengue cases in both areas of endemicity and elsewhere. This paper reports results from a network-based risk assessment model which uses international passenger travel volumes, travel routes, travel distances, regional populations, and predictive species distribution models (for the two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) to quantify the relative risk posed by each airport in importing passengers with travel-acquired dengue infections. Two risk attributes are evaluated: (i) the risk posed by through traffic at each stopover airport and (ii) the risk posed by incoming travelers to each destination airport. The model results prioritize optimal locations (i.e., airports) for targeted dengue surveillance. The model is easily extendible to other vector-borne diseases. PMID:24009672

  15. A global airport-based risk model for the spread of dengue infection via the air transport network.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Lauren; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2013-01-01

    The number of travel-acquired dengue infections has seen a consistent global rise over the past decade. An increased volume of international passenger air traffic originating from regions with endemic dengue has contributed to a rise in the number of dengue cases in both areas of endemicity and elsewhere. This paper reports results from a network-based risk assessment model which uses international passenger travel volumes, travel routes, travel distances, regional populations, and predictive species distribution models (for the two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) to quantify the relative risk posed by each airport in importing passengers with travel-acquired dengue infections. Two risk attributes are evaluated: (i) the risk posed by through traffic at each stopover airport and (ii) the risk posed by incoming travelers to each destination airport. The model results prioritize optimal locations (i.e., airports) for targeted dengue surveillance. The model is easily extendible to other vector-borne diseases.

  16. Flow-Meter and Passive Diffusion Bag Tests and Potential Influences on the Vertical Distribution of Contaminants in Wells at Galena Airport, Galena, Alaska, August to October 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Peterson, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Past activities at Galena Airport, a U.S. Air Force Base in Galena, Alaska, have resulted in ground-water contamination by volatile organic compounds. The primary contaminants are petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. The U.S. Geological Survey and Earth Tech, in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, conducted investigations at Galena Airport from August to October 2002 using polyethylene diffusion bag samplers and borehole flow-meter testing to examine the vertical distribution of ground-water contamination in selected wells. This investigation was limited to the vicinity of building 1845 and to the area between building 1845 and the Yukon River. In addition, the U.S. Geological Survey was asked to determine whether additional wells are needed to more clearly define the nature and extent of the ground-water contamination at the Air Force Base. Little or no vertical water movement occurred under ambient conditions in the wells tested at Galena Airport, Alaska, in August 2002. All of the ambient vertical flows detected in wells were at rates less than the quantitative limit of the borehole flow meter (0.03 gallons per minute). In wells 06-MW-07 and 10-MW-01, no vertical flow was detected. In wells where ambient flow was detected, the direction of flow was downward. In general, concentrations of volatile organic compounds detected in the low-flow samples from wells at Galena Airport were approximately the same concentrations detected in the closest polyethylene diffusion bag sample for a wide variety of volatile organic compounds. The data indicate that the polyethylene diffusion bag sample results are consistent with the low-flow sample results. Vertical profiling of selected wells using polyethylene diffusion bag samplers at Galena Airport showed that from September 30 to October 1, 2002, little vertical change occurred in volatile organic compound concentrations along the screen length despite the fact that

  17. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103 Section 152.103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development...

  18. 14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contents of Airport Certification Manual. 139.203 Section 139.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... succession of airport operational responsibility X X X X 2. Each current exemption issued to the airport...

  19. 14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contents of Airport Certification Manual. 139.203 Section 139.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... succession of airport operational responsibility X X X X 2. Each current exemption issued to the airport...

  20. 14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contents of Airport Certification Manual. 139.203 Section 139.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... succession of airport operational responsibility X X X X 2. Each current exemption issued to the airport...

  1. Airports, Hotel, and Ground Transportation Information | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Airports in and near Washington, DC Reagan National Approximate 30 minute drive from Rockville* Has its own Metro stop on the blue and yellow lines in Virginia NOTE: This airport may be the closest and easiest option if not renting a car or do not want to pay for an airport cab/shuttle.   Dulles International Approximate 1 hour drive from Rockville* |

  2. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  3. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  4. 78 FR 44188 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Gateway Airport/Col. Bud Day Field, Sioux City, Iowa. ] SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invites public comment on the release of land at Sioux Gateway Airport/Col. Bud Day Field, Sioux City, Iowa... Airport/Col. Bud Day Field (SUX) under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47107(h)(2). On April 13, 2013,...

  5. Un Viaje al Aeropuerto (A Trip to the Airport).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This illustrated, bilingual Spanish-English intermediate reader describes a class trip to an airport, in which the class tours the airport, and learns about airport activities, the parts of an airplane, and other related topics. Each page of the text is illustrated with a drawing. The narrative is followed by a list of 24 suggested learning…

  6. 77 FR 12905 - Land Release for Penn Yan Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Penn Yan Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... requesting public comment on the Penn Yan Airport (PEO), Penn Yan, New York, Notice of Proposed Release from Aeronautical Use of approximately 10.00 +/- acres of airport property, to allow for...

  7. 77 FR 28667 - Land Release for Plattsburgh International Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Plattsburgh International Airport AGENCY: Federal... Administration is requesting public comment on the Plattsburgh International Airport (PBG), Plattsburgh, New York, Notice of Proposed Release from Aeronautical Use, and from the Airport, of approximately 1.73 +/-...

  8. 77 FR 27272 - Land Release for Dunkirk Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Dunkirk Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... requesting public comment on the Dunkirk Airport (DKK), Dunkirk, New York, Notice of Proposed Release from Aeronautical Use of approximately 2.666 +/- acres of airport property, to allow for...

  9. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  10. 14 CFR 156.4 - Airport and project eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport and project eligibility. 156.4... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS STATE BLOCK GRANT PILOT PROGRAM § 156.4 Airport and project eligibility. (a) A participating State shall use monies distributed pursuant to a State block grant agreement for...

  11. 78 FR 53184 - Land Release for Penn Yan Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Penn Yan Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... requesting public comment on the Penn Yan Airport (PEO), Penn Yan, New York, Notice of Proposed Release from Aeronautical Use of approximately 0.069 +/- acres of airport property, to allow for...

  12. 14 CFR 121.624 - ETOPS Alternate Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ETOPS Alternate Airports. 121.624 Section... Alternate Airports. (a) No person may dispatch or release an airplane for an ETOPS flight unless enough ETOPS Alternate Airports are listed in the dispatch or flight release such that the airplane...

  13. 14 CFR 135.223 - IFR: Alternate airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) to— (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Fly from that airport to the alternate airport; and (3) Fly after that for 45 minutes at normal cruising speed or, for helicopters, fly after that for 30 minutes at normal cruising speed. (b) Paragraph (a)(2) of this section...

  14. 78 FR 49790 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at the Ottumwa Regional Airport (OTM), Ottumwa, Iowa. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invites public comment on...

  15. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  16. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  17. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  18. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  19. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  20. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  1. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  2. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  3. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  4. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  5. 14 CFR 152.113 - Application requirements: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application requirements: Airport planning. 152.113 Section 152.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  6. 77 FR 17492 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... selection process, and the initial airport locations. See 77 FR 5681 and 8 CFR 235.12. Travelers who wish to... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports AGENCY: U.S.... This document announces the expansion of the program to include four additional airports. DATES:...

  7. 48 CFR 3052.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... work at operating airports. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3036.570, insert the following clause... daylight hours and by red lights at other times. The red lights along the edge of the construction areas... electric or battery type lights. These lights and flags shall be placed so as to outline the...

  8. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 3: Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The airport siting, design, cost, operation, and implementation aspects of a short takeoff aircraft transportation system are analyzed. Problem areas are identified and alternative solutions or actions required to achieve system implementation by the early 1980's are recommended. Factors associated with the ultimate community acceptance of the STOL program, such as noise, emissions, and congestion, are given special emphasis.

  9. 78 FR 54795 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Dallas, Addison Airport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... to air traffic flows in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area has made it necessary to lower the... 71 by amending Class D airspace at Addison Airport, Dallas, TX. Adjustments to air traffic flows in... accessed through the FAA's Web page at...

  10. 78 FR 27029 - Modification of Class C Airspace; Nashville International Airport; TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... International Airport, TN, Class C airspace area (78 FR 6257). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory evaluation... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  11. 48 CFR 3052.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... daylight hours and by red lights at other times. The red lights along the edge of the construction areas... Officer, with red obstruction lights at nights. All equipment operating on the apron, taxiway, runway, and... work at operating airports. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3036.570, insert the following...

  12. 48 CFR 3052.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... daylight hours and by red lights at other times. The red lights along the edge of the construction areas... Officer, with red obstruction lights at nights. All equipment operating on the apron, taxiway, runway, and... work at operating airports. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3036.570, insert the following...

  13. Negligible risk associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from an infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) endemic area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPatra, S.E.; Batts, W.N.; Overturf, K.; Jones, G.N.; Shewmaker, W.D.; Winton, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the risk of transmission of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, from an area where the virus is endemic, 240 freshly eviscerated fish (225-500 g) exhibiting spinal curvature or spinal compression types of deformities were tested for IHNV by virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Commercially produced rainbow trout, approximately 1-year-old, that exhibited spinal deformities were considered to have had a high likelihood of having survived an outbreak of IHN. Serological analysis of fish exhibiting spinal curvature or spinal compression types of deformities for anti-IHNV antibodies resulted, in 71 and 50% of the serum samples, respectively, with detectable neutralization activity suggesting previous infection with IHNV. A portion of the skin and muscle in the area of the deformity was collected, as well as brain tissue from each commercially processed fish. Tissue homogenates were tested for IHNV using the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line pretreated with polyethylene glycol and the chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line using standard methods. Nested, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR for the detection of IHNV used the central 1231 bp portion of the glycoprotein (G) challenge studies and is suggested as a mechanism responsible for virus clearance. These results provide scientific information that can be used to assess the risk associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout from an IHNV endemic area.

  14. Reaching activity in parietal area V6A of macaque: eye influence on arm activity or retinocentric coding of reaching movements?

    PubMed Central

    Marzocchi, Nicoletta; Breveglieri, Rossella; Galletti, Claudio; Fattori, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    Parietal area V6A contains neurons modulated by the direction of gaze as well as neurons able to code the direction of arm movement. The present study was aimed to disentangle the gaze effect from the effect of reaching activity upon single V6A neurons. To this purpose, we used a visuomotor task in which the direction of arm movement remained constant while the animal changed the direction of gaze. Gaze direction modulated reach-related activity in about two-thirds of tested neurons. In several cases, modulations were not due to the eye-position signal per se, the apparent eye-position modulation being just an epiphenomenon. The real modulating factor was the location of reaching target with respect to the point gazed by the animal, that is, the retinotopic coordinates towards which the action of reaching occurred. Comparison of neural discharge of the same cell during execution of foveated and non-foveated reaching movements, performed towards the same or different spatial locations, confirmed that in a part of V6A neurons reaching activity is coded retinocentrically. In other neurons, reaching activity is coded spatially, depending on the direction of reaching movement regardless of where the animal was looking at. The majority of V6A reaching neurons use a system that encompasses both of these reference frames. These results are in line with the view of a progressive visuomotor transformation in the dorsal visual stream, that changes the frame of reference from the retinocentric one, typically used by the visual system, to the arm-centred one, typically used by the motor system. PMID:18279330

  15. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ..., 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0127) a proposal... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit...

  16. 7 CFR 301.50-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... certificate or limited permit, if: (1)(i) The regulated article originates outside any quarantined area and is... conditions, such as traffic lights or stop signs) during October, November, or December, or when ambient air temperature is below 10 °C (50 °F); or (ii) The regulated article originates outside any quarantined area...

  17. 9 CFR 83.3 - Interstate movement of live VHS-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas. 83.3 Section 83.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section, live VHS-regulated fish, including fish moved to live fish markets, may only be...

  18. 9 CFR 83.3 - Interstate movement of live VHS-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas. 83.3 Section 83.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section, live VHS-regulated fish, including fish moved to live fish markets, may only be...

  19. 9 CFR 83.3 - Interstate movement of live VHS-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas. 83.3 Section 83.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section, live VHS-regulated fish, including fish moved to live fish markets, may only be...

  20. 9 CFR 83.3 - Interstate movement of live VHS-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas. 83.3 Section 83.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section, live VHS-regulated fish, including fish moved to live fish markets, may only be...