Science.gov

Sample records for airport security checkpoints

  1. Detection of total knee prostheses at airport security checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Naziri, Qais; Johnson, Aaron J; Hooper, Hasan A; Sana, Said H; Mont, Michael A

    2012-06-01

    Airport security screening measures have changed substantially during the past decade, but few reports have examined how this affects patients who have undergone knee arthroplasties. The purpose of this study was to characterize the efficacy of airport metal detection of total knee prostheses, the delays faced, any inconvenience this may have caused, and the role of implant identification cards. Ninety-seven total knee arthroplasty recipients reported passing through an airport metal detector, with 70 triggering the alarm a mean of 3 times (range, 1-36). The presence of a single-knee prosthesis triggered airport security alarms more than 83% of the time and increased patient inconvenience. Patients should be informed about this chance and be prepared to present documentation of their prosthesis.

  2. Detection of Total Knee Arthroplasties at Airport Security Checkpoints: How Do Updated Security Measures Affect Patients?

    PubMed

    Issa, Kimona; Pierce, Todd P; Gwam, Chukwuweieke; Goljan, Peter; Festa, Anthony; Scillia, Anthony J; Mont, Michael A

    2016-10-24

    Airport security measures continue to be updated with the incorporation of the new body scanners and automatic target recognition software. The purpose of this study was analyze the incidence of: (1) triggering the security alarm; (2) extra security searches; (3) perceived inconvenience; and (4) presence of other surgical hardware in those who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and passed through airport security. A questionnaire was given to 125 consecutive patients with a TKA. Those who passed through airport security after January 2014 were considered for inclusion. A questionnaire was administered that addressed the number of encounters with airport security, metal detector activation, additional screening procedures, and perceived inconvenience. Out of the 125 patients, 53 met inclusion criteria. Out of the 53 patients, 20 (38%) reported that their prosthesis triggered a metal detector. Out of the 20 patients, 8 (40%) who reported triggering of metal detectors also reported the presence of surgical hardware elsewhere in the body. Eighteen of the 53 patients (34%) believed having a TKA was inconvenient for airplane travel. Compared with the historical cohort, alarms were triggered in 70 of 97 patients (p = 0.0001) and 50 of 97 reported inconvenience when traveling (n = 50 of 97 patients; p = 0.04). The incidences of those who underwent TKA triggering alarms and perceiving inconvenience when passing through airport security have decreased from previously published studies. This is most likely due to the recent updates and modifications to screening. As these security measures are modified and implant designs continue to evolve, this is an area of investigation that should continue.

  3. Airport Viz - a 3D Tool to Enhance Security Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In the summer of 2000, the National Safe Skies Alliance (NSSA) awarded a project to the Applied Visualization Center (AVC) at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) to develop a 3D computer tool to assist the Federal Aviation Administration security group, now the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), in evaluating new equipment and procedures to improve airport checkpoint security. A preliminary tool was demonstrated at the 2001 International Aviation Security Technology Symposium. Since then, the AVC went on to construct numerous detection equipment models as well as models of several airports. Airport Viz has been distributed by the NSSA to a number of airports around the country which are able to incorporate their own CAD models into the software due to its unique open architecture. It provides a checkpoint design and passenger flow simulation function, a layout design and simulation tool for checked baggage and cargo screening, and a means to assist in the vulnerability assessment of airport access points for pedestrians and vehicles.

  4. Identifying security checkpoints locations to protect the major U.S. urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Cuellar-Hengartner, Leticia; Watkins, Daniel; Kubicek, Deborah A.; Rodriguez, Erick; Stroud, Phillip D.

    2015-09-01

    Transit networks are integral to the economy and to society, but at the same time they could allow terrorists to transport weapons of mass destruction into any city. Road networks are especially vulnerable, because they lack natural checkpoints unlike air networks that have security measures in place at all major airports. One approach to mitigate this risk is ensuring that every road route passes through at least one security checkpoint. Using the Ford-Fulkerson maximum-flow algorithm, we generate a minimum set of checkpoint locations within a ring-shaped buffer area surrounding the 50 largest US urban areas. We study how the number of checkpoints changes as we increase the buffer width to perform a cost-benefit analysis and to identify groups of cities that behave similarly. The set of required checkpoints is surprisingly small (10-124) despite the hundreds of thousands of road arcs in those areas, making it feasible to protect all major cities.

  5. Economic Aspects of Airport Security Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Airport security measures use very expensive equipment, and may keep passengers in line for several minutes. The time passengers spend in those lines...can add up, and must be understood as time opportunity cost. In the 1970s, several airport security measures were adopted to help stop aircraft...associated with airport security measures. He concluded that the costs of the adopted measures were very high. While Landes concentrated on the

  6. To amend title 49, United States Code, to direct the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration) to transfer unclaimed money recovered at airport security checkpoints to United Service Organizations, Incorporated, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Miller, Jeff [R-FL-1

    2009-04-30

    05/26/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Giving radioiodine? Think about airport security alarms.

    PubMed

    Kaniuka-Jakubowska, S; Lewczuk, A; Mizan-Gross, K; Obołończyk, L; Lass, P; Sworczak, K

    2012-01-01

    An increased sensitivity of airport detectors, a growing number of isotopic tests, and globalization of the society have raised a number of false positive radioactive alarms at airports and public places. This paper presents two new cases of patients who triggered airport security alarms after receiving 740MBq of (131)I for non-toxic goitre and attempts to compare surprisingly limited literature concerning this problem. A 57-year-old man triggered a security alarm at three different airports on the 17th, 28th, and 31st day after radioiodine exposure. Interestingly enough, in the meantime, on the 18th and 22nd day, no radiation was detected in him at the airport where he was twice detained as a source of radiation later on. The second case presents a 45-year-old woman who activated security alarm detectors while crossing a border on her coach trip 28 days after radioiodine administration.

  8. Prevalence effects in newly trained airport checkpoint screeners: trained observers miss rare targets, too.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Brunelli, David N; Rubinstein, Joshua; Horowitz, Todd S

    2013-12-02

    Many socially important search tasks are characterized by low target prevalence, meaning that targets are rarely encountered. For example, transportation security officers (TSOs) at airport checkpoints encounter very few actual threats in carry-on bags. In laboratory-based visual search experiments, low prevalence reduces the probability of detecting targets (Wolfe, Horowitz, & Kenner, 2005). In the lab, this "prevalence effect" is caused by changes in decision and response criteria (Wolfe & Van Wert, 2010) and can be mitigated by presenting a burst of high-prevalence search with feedback (Wolfe et al., 2007). The goal of this study was to see if these effects could be replicated in the field with TSOs. A total of 125 newly trained TSOs participated in one of two experiments as part of their final evaluation following training. They searched for threats in simulated bags across five blocks. The first three blocks were low prevalence (target prevalence ≤ .05) with no feedback; the fourth block was high prevalence (.50) with full feedback; and the final block was, again, low prevalence. We found that newly trained TSOs were better at detecting targets at high compared to low prevalence, replicating the prevalence effect. Furthermore, performance was better (and response criterion was more "liberal") in the low-prevalence block that took place after the high-prevalence block than in the initial three low-prevalence blocks, suggesting that a burst of high-prevalence trials may help alleviate the prevalence effect in the field.

  9. Prevalence effects in newly trained airport checkpoint screeners: Trained observers miss rare targets, too

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Brunelli, David N.; Rubinstein, Joshua; Horowitz, Todd S.

    2013-01-01

    Many socially important search tasks are characterized by low target prevalence, meaning that targets are rarely encountered. For example, transportation security officers (TSOs) at airport checkpoints encounter very few actual threats in carry-on bags. In laboratory-based visual search experiments, low prevalence reduces the probability of detecting targets (Wolfe, Horowitz, & Kenner, 2005). In the lab, this “prevalence effect” is caused by changes in decision and response criteria (Wolfe & Van Wert, 2010) and can be mitigated by presenting a burst of high-prevalence search with feedback (Wolfe et al., 2007). The goal of this study was to see if these effects could be replicated in the field with TSOs. A total of 125 newly trained TSOs participated in one of two experiments as part of their final evaluation following training. They searched for threats in simulated bags across five blocks. The first three blocks were low prevalence (target prevalence ≤ .05) with no feedback; the fourth block was high prevalence (.50) with full feedback; and the final block was, again, low prevalence. We found that newly trained TSOs were better at detecting targets at high compared to low prevalence, replicating the prevalence effect. Furthermore, performance was better (and response criterion was more “liberal”) in the low-prevalence block that took place after the high-prevalence block than in the initial three low-prevalence blocks, suggesting that a burst of high-prevalence trials may help alleviate the prevalence effect in the field. PMID:24297778

  10. Identifying security checkpoints locations to protect the major U.S. urban areas

    DOE PAGES

    Cuellar-Hengartner, Leticia; Watkins, Daniel; Kubicek, Deborah A.; ...

    2015-09-01

    Transit networks are integral to the economy and to society, but at the same time they could allow terrorists to transport weapons of mass destruction into any city. Road networks are especially vulnerable, because they lack natural checkpoints unlike air networks that have security measures in place at all major airports. One approach to mitigate this risk is ensuring that every road route passes through at least one security checkpoint. Using the Ford-Fulkerson maximum-flow algorithm, we generate a minimum set of checkpoint locations within a ring-shaped buffer area surrounding the 50 largest US urban areas. We study how the numbermore » of checkpoints changes as we increase the buffer width to perform a cost-benefit analysis and to identify groups of cities that behave similarly. The set of required checkpoints is surprisingly small (10-124) despite the hundreds of thousands of road arcs in those areas, making it feasible to protect all major cities.« less

  11. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  12. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  13. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  14. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  15. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  16. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport tenant security programs. 1542.113 Section 1542.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  17. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport tenant security programs. 1542.113 Section 1542.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  18. Airport Security Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Johnson, Henry C. "Hank," Jr. [D-GA-4

    2013-11-14

    01/09/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Reducing waiting time at security checkpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Landauer, E.G.; Becker, L.C.

    1988-08-01

    The authors were asked to improve the time it took a queue of cars to go through a security gate every morning and afternoon. Each individual passing through the gate was required to show a security badge to a guard. The goal was to improve processing time and to eliminate a safety problem at the gate without increasing the required resources. This problem required quick resolution. The project was initiated using queuing theory. After collecting data, the authors determined that a simulation model would be more appropriate. The study demonstrated that a significant improvement could be seen when the same number of guards worked two parallel traffic lines leading to the single gate, in place of the security guards working in a serial process from a single line of traffic. 7 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. From sniffer dogs to emerging sniffer devices for airport security: an opportunity to rethink privacy implications?

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Matteo E

    2014-09-01

    Dogs are known for their incredible ability to detect odours, extracting them from a "complex" environment and recognising them. This makes sniffer dogs precious assets in a broad variety of security applications. However, their use is subject to some intrinsic restrictions. Dogs can only be trained to a limited set of applications, get tired after a relatively short period, and thus require a high turnover. This has sparked a drive over the past decade to develop artificial sniffer devices-generally known as "chemical sniffers" or "electronic noses"-able to complement and possibly replace dogs for some security applications. Such devices have been already deployed, or are intended to be deployed, at borders, airports and other critical installation security checkpoints. Similarly to dogs, they are adopted for detecting residual traces that indicate either the presence of, or recent contact with, substances like drugs and explosives. It goes without saying that, as with sniffer dogs, the use of artificial sniffer devices raises many sensitive issues. Adopting an ethical and legal perspective, the present paper discusses the privacy and data protection implications of the possible deployment of a hand-held body scanning sniffer for screening passengers at EU airport security checkpoints.

  1. Transportation Security: Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-15

    results of covert testing of airport security checkpoints demonstrating deficiencies in detecting improvised explosives and incendiary devices...34 A key issue in the debate over aviation security immediately following September 11, 2001, was whether airport security screeners should be...intentional wrongdoing on the part of airport security screeners, whether they be federal or private. Nonetheless, while the pilot program airports

  2. AVIATION SECURITY: FAA’s Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify Screening Companies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify Screening Companies DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for...local law enforcement support relating to air carrier and airport security measures. The funding of the security operations is divided among FAA, the...generally agreed with the current division of airport security responsibilities. These officials stated that the continuity of screening would be

  3. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 113 - Airport Customs Security Area Bond

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Airport Customs Security Area Bond A Appendix A to... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Pt. 113, App. A Appendix A to Part 113—Airport Customs Security Area Bond Airport Customs Security Area Bond (name of principal) of and (name of surety) of are held...

  4. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty-second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...

  5. 75 FR 80886 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  6. 78 FR 43963 - Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20,...

  7. 76 FR 59481 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  8. 77 FR 64838 - Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held November 15,...

  9. 76 FR 50811 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  10. 78 FR 16757 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 4, 2013 from...

  11. 77 FR 15448 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of meeting RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held April 5, 2012, from 10...

  12. 78 FR 22025 - Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 9-10,...

  13. 77 FR 71474 - Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held December 13,...

  14. 77 FR 55894 - Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held September 27-28,...

  15. 77 FR 2343 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 9, 2012, from 10...

  16. 77 FR 25525 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security... (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held May 30, 2012, from...

  17. 76 FR 67019 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. DATES:...

  18. 76 FR 16470 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  19. 76 FR 9632 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  20. The systems approach to airport security: The FAA (Federal Aviation Administration)/BWI (Baltimore-Washington International) Airport demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, D.L.; Olascoaga, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in designing, installing and evaluating security systems for various applications during the past 15 years. A systems approach to security that evolved from this experience was applied to aviation security for the Federal Aviation Administration. A general systems study of aviation security in the United States was concluded in 1987. One result of the study was a recommendation that an enhanced security system concept designed to meet specified objectives be demonstrated at an operational airport. Baltimore-Washington International Airport was selected as the site for the demonstration project which began in 1988 and will be completed in 1992. This article introduced the systems approach to airport security and discussed its application at Baltimore-Washington International Airport. Examples of design features that could be included in an enhanced security concept also were presented, including details of the proposed Ramps Area Intrusion Detection System (RAIDS).

  1. What Practices in Airport Security Should the United States Implement at Commercial Airports in Light of the Events of September 11, 2001?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS WHAT PRACTICES IN AIRPORT SECURITY SHOULD THE UNITED STATES IMPLEMENT AT...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE What Practices in Airport Security Should the United States Implement at Commercial...complacency and conflicts of interest. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Airport Security , Aviation Security Systems, Terrorism, Hijacking

  2. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

  7. 75 FR 71790 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  8. 76 FR 3931 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 Meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  9. 76 FR 38742 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  10. Gerardo Hernandez Airport Security Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Hudson, Richard [R-NC-8

    2014-06-05

    07/23/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Najeeb Al Hallak, Mohammed; McCurdy, Matt; Zouain, Nicolas; Hayes, Justin

    2009-08-28

    (153)Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate) and Samarium-153 [1]. (153)Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of (153)Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with (154)Eu (Europium-154) [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of (154)Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with (153)Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA) activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing the American-Canadian border. We assume that the (154)Eu which remained in the patients' bones activated the sensors. METHODS: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. RESULTS: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of (154)Eu emissions. CONCLUSION: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of (154)Eu retained in patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer

  12. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 113 - Airport Customs Security Area Bond

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Airport Customs Security Area Bond A Appendix A to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Pt. 113, App. A Appendix A to Part 113—Airport Customs Security...

  13. Los Alamos Shows Airport Security Technology at Work

    ScienceCinema

    Espy, Michelle; Schultz, Larry; Hunter, James

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos scientists have advanced a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology that may provide a breakthrough for screening liquids at airport security. They've added low-power X-ray data to the mix, and as a result have unlocked a new detection technology. Funded in part by the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the new system is named MagRay. The goal is to quickly and accurately distinguish between liquids that visually appear identical. For example, what appears to be a bottle of white wine could potentially be nitromethane, a liquid that could be used to make an explosive. Both are clear liquids, one would be perfectly safe on a commercial aircraft, the other would be strictly prohibited. How to tell them apart quickly without error at an airport security area is the focus of Michelle Espy, Larry Schultz and their team. In this video, Espy and the MagRay team explain how the new technology works, how they've developed an easy operator interface, and what the next steps might be in transitioning this technology to the private sector.

  14. Los Alamos Shows Airport Security Technology at Work

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle; Schultz, Larry; Hunter, James

    2013-11-25

    Los Alamos scientists have advanced a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology that may provide a breakthrough for screening liquids at airport security. They've added low-power X-ray data to the mix, and as a result have unlocked a new detection technology. Funded in part by the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the new system is named MagRay. The goal is to quickly and accurately distinguish between liquids that visually appear identical. For example, what appears to be a bottle of white wine could potentially be nitromethane, a liquid that could be used to make an explosive. Both are clear liquids, one would be perfectly safe on a commercial aircraft, the other would be strictly prohibited. How to tell them apart quickly without error at an airport security area is the focus of Michelle Espy, Larry Schultz and their team. In this video, Espy and the MagRay team explain how the new technology works, how they've developed an easy operator interface, and what the next steps might be in transitioning this technology to the private sector.

  15. 78 FR 7850 - Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 21,...

  16. 75 FR 61819 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Control Systems (Update to DO-230B): November 2, 2010 Welcome/Introductions/Administrative Remarks Agenda... Federal Aviation Administration First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  17. 78 FR 51810 - Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224,...

  18. Measuring Security Effectiveness and Efficiency at U.S. Commercial Airports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    formative program evaluation and policy analysis to investigate current airport security programs. It identifies innovative public administration and...policy-analysis tools that could provide potential benefits to airport security . These tools will complement the System Based Risk Management framework if

  19. Agency Problems and Airport Security: Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence on the Impact of Security Training.

    PubMed

    de Gramatica, Martina; Massacci, Fabio; Shim, Woohyun; Turhan, Uğur; Williams, Julian

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the issue of agency costs in aviation security by combining results from a quantitative economic model with a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews. Our model extends previous principal-agent models by combining the traditional fixed and varying monetary responses to physical and cognitive effort with nonmonetary welfare and potentially transferable value of employees' own human capital. To provide empirical evidence for the tradeoffs identified in the quantitative model, we have undertaken an extensive interview process with regulators, airport managers, security personnel, and those tasked with training security personnel from an airport operating in a relatively high-risk state, Turkey. Our results indicate that the effectiveness of additional training depends on the mix of "transferable skills" and "emotional" buy-in of the security agents. Principals need to identify on which side of a critical tipping point their agents are to ensure that additional training, with attached expectations of the burden of work, aligns the incentives of employees with the principals' own objectives.

  20. Interacting forms of expertise in security governance: the example of CCTV surveillance at Geneva International Airport.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    The paper investigates the multiple public-private exchanges and cooperation involved in the installation and development of CCTV surveillance at Geneva International Airport. Emphasis is placed on the interacting forms of authority and expertise of five parties: the user(s), owner and supplier of the camera system, as well as the technical managers of the airport and the Swiss regulatory bodies in airport security. While placing the issues of airport surveillance in the particular context of a specific range of projects and transformations relating to the developments of CCTV at Geneva Airport, the paper not only provides important insights into the micro-politics of surveillance at Geneva Airport, but aims to re-institute these as part of a broader 'problematic': the mediating role of expertise and the growing functional fragmentation of authority in contemporary security governance. On this basis, the paper also exemplifies the growing mutual interdependences between security and business interests in the ever growing 'surveillant assemblage' in contemporary security governance.

  1. Aviation Security: A Case for Risk-Based Passenger Screening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    cost-effective way. Kean et al., 2004, p. 391 A. BACKGROUND The overall effectiveness of airport security screening at passenger checkpoints, and...profiling, the public views airport security screening and the TSA with derision. The TSA states that, beginning in 2005, the agency has shifted the...focus of airport security away from concentration on finding prohibited objects and toward a focus on intent and people, primarily through the

  2. On determining specifications and selections of alternative technologies for airport checked-baggage security screening.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qianmei

    2007-10-01

    Federal law mandates that every checked bag at all commercial airports be screened by explosive detection systems (EDS), explosive trace detection systems (ETD), or alternative technologies. These technologies serve as critical components of airport security systems that strive to reduce security risks at both national and global levels. To improve the operational efficiency and airport security, emerging image-based technologies have been developed, such as dual-energy X-ray (DX), backscatter X-ray (BX), and multiview tomography (MVT). These technologies differ widely in purchasing cost, maintenance cost, operating cost, processing rate, and accuracy. Based on a mathematical framework that takes into account all these factors, this article investigates two critical issues for operating screening devices: setting specifications for continuous security responses by different technologies; and selecting technology or combination of technologies for efficient 100% baggage screening. For continuous security responses, specifications or thresholds are used for classifying threat items from nonthreat items. By investigating the setting of specifications on system security responses, this article assesses the risk and cost effectiveness of various technologies for both single-device and two-device systems. The findings provide the best selection of image-based technologies for both single-device and two-device systems. Our study suggests that two-device systems outperform single-device systems in terms of both cost effectiveness and accuracy. The model can be readily extended to evaluate risk and cost effectiveness of multiple-device systems for airport checked-baggage security screening.

  3. An RFID-based luggage and passenger tracking system for airport security control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Kountouriotis, Vassilios I.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2014-06-01

    Market analysis studies of recent years have shown a steady and significant increase in the usage of RFID technology. Key factors for this growth were the decreased costs of passive RFIDs and their improved performance compared to the other identification technologies. Besides the benefits of RFID technologies into the supply chains, warehousing, traditional inventory and asset management applications, RFID has proven itself worth exploiting on experimental, as well as on commercial level in other sectors, such as healthcare, transport and security. In security sector, airport security is one of the biggest challenges. Airports are extremely busy public places and thus prime targets for terrorism, with aircraft, passengers, crew and airport infrastructure all subject to terrorist attacks. Inside this labyrinth of security challenges, the long range detection capability of the UHF passive RFID technology can be turned into a very important tracking tool that may outperform all the limitations of the barcode tracking inside the current airport security control chain. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos has developed an RFID based Luggage and Passenger tracking system within the TASS (FP7-SEC-2010-241905) EU research project. This paper describes application scenarios of the system categorized according to the structured nature of the environment, the system architecture and presents evaluation results extracted from measurements with a group of different massive production GEN2 UHF RFID tags that are widely available in the world market.

  4. Radiation and Airport Security Scanning | RadTown USA | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-05-16

    To help keep travelers safe, airports may use different kinds of screening equipment such as backscatter x-ray machines, cabinet x-ray machines, millimeter wave machines and metal detectors. People may be screened with backscatter x-ray machines. They use very low levels of ionizing radiation. They may be screened with millimeter wave scanners. They use radiofrequency (non-ionizing) radiation. Metal detectors use no radiation. Luggage is screened with cabinet x-ray machines. No radiation leaves the machine.

  5. Sensor fusion-based security concept on airports with a rotating millimetre wave person scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hantscher, Sebastian; Lang, Stefan; Hägelen, Manfred; Essen, Helmut; Tessmann, Axel

    2010-10-01

    This paper gives an overview about a new security concept on airports. Because single systems have not often the desired reliability, the concept is based on the fusion of different sensors. Moreover, first measurements of a 94 GHz person scanner with circular synthetic aperture are presented showing the capability to detect metallic as well as nonmetallic objects without violating the personal privacy.

  6. Authoritarianism among border police officers, career soldiers, and airport security guards at the Israeli border.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Gidi

    2006-12-01

    Several personality theories focusing on specific personality variables involved in career choice and job satisfaction are based on the assumption that individuals choose certain career choices because they believe that they may be able to meet their emotional needs (J. L. Holland, 1977). The author of this study investigated the personality traits of border police officers, career soldiers, and airport security guards in Israel. The participants were 160 men--40 border policemen, 40 career soldiers, 40 airport security guards, and 40 control participants--who filled out a demographic questionnaire and a Hebrew version of the right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) shortened scale (B. Altemeyer, personal communication, February 2000). The present hypothesis predicted that the RWA scores of border police officers would be the highest, followed by those of career soldiers, airport security guards, and control participants, in that order. Statistically significant differences in RWA scores occurred between these groups in the predicted order, with the exception of the career soldiers' RWA scores, which did not significantly differ from those of the airport security guards.

  7. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... security program as follows: (1) The tenant must assume responsibility for specified security measures of... not assume responsibility for law enforcement support under § 1542.215. (3) The tenant must assume the responsibility within the tenant's leased areas or areas designated for the tenant's exclusive use. A tenant...

  8. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... security program as follows: (1) The tenant must assume responsibility for specified security measures of... not assume responsibility for law enforcement support under § 1542.215. (3) The tenant must assume the responsibility within the tenant's leased areas or areas designated for the tenant's exclusive use. A tenant...

  9. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... security program as follows: (1) The tenant must assume responsibility for specified security measures of... not assume responsibility for law enforcement support under § 1542.215. (3) The tenant must assume the responsibility within the tenant's leased areas or areas designated for the tenant's exclusive use. A tenant...

  10. FlySec: a risk-based airport security management system based on security as a service concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Segou, Olga E.; Zalonis, Andreas; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    Complementing the ACI/IATA efforts, the FLYSEC European H2020 Research and Innovation project (http://www.fly-sec.eu/) aims to develop and demonstrate an innovative, integrated and end-to-end airport security process for passengers, enabling a guided and streamlined procedure from the landside to airside and into the boarding gates, and offering for an operationally validated innovative concept for end-to-end aviation security. FLYSEC ambition turns through a well-structured work plan into: (i) innovative processes facilitating risk-based screening; (ii) deployment and integration of new technologies and repurposing existing solutions towards a risk-based Security paradigm shift; (iii) improvement of passenger facilitation and customer service, bringing security as a real service in the airport of tomorrow;(iv) achievement of measurable throughput improvement and a whole new level of Quality of Service; and (v) validation of the results through advanced "in-vitro" simulation and "in-vivo" pilots. On the technical side, FLYSEC achieves its ambitious goals by integrating new technologies on video surveillance, intelligent remote image processing and biometrics combined with big data analysis, open-source intelligence and crowdsourcing. Repurposing existing technologies is also in the FLYSEC objectives, such as mobile application technologies for improved passenger experience and positive boarding applications (i.e. services to facilitate boarding and landside/airside way finding) as well as RFID for carry-on luggage tracking and quick unattended luggage handling. In this paper, the authors will describe the risk based airport security management system which powers FLYSEC intelligence and serves as the backend on top of which FLYSEC's front end technologies reside for security services management, behaviour and risk analysis.

  11. Checkpointing filesystem

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.

    2005-05-17

    The present in invention is directed to a checkpointing filesystem of a distributed-memory parallel supercomputer comprising a node that accesses user data on the filesystem, the filesystem comprising an interface that is associated with a disk for storing the user data. The checkpointing filesystem provides for taking and checkpoint of the filesystem and rolling back to a previously taken checkpoint, as well as for writing user data to and deleting user data from the checkpointing filesystem. The checkpointing filesystem provides a recently written file allocation table (WFAT) for maintaining information regarding the user data written since a previously taken checkpoint and a recently deleted file allocation table (DFAT) for maintaining information regarding user data deleted from since the previously taken checkpoint, both of which are utilized by the checkpointing filesystem to take a checkpoint of the filesystem and rollback the filesystem to a previously taken checkpoint, as well as to write and delete user data from the checkpointing filesystem.

  12. The President Has No Clothes: The Case for Broader Application of Red Teaming within Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    November 9, 2006). 130 Ibid. 131 Homeland Security News Wire, “Billions spent on airport security , but major security gaps remain.” 132 Arvind Gupta...security initiatives to improve airport security since 9/11.173 It also faces the challenge of managing almost 60,000 employees, 80 percent of whom work...perimeter at the airport security checkpoint.180 A Red Team might ask if we are building the equivalent of a modern-day Maginot line. What are the implied

  13. Effect of total shoulder replacements on airport security screening in the post-9/11 era.

    PubMed

    Dines, Joshua S; Elkousy, Hussein; Edwards, T Bradley; Gartsman, Gary M; Dines, David M

    2007-01-01

    There are few reports in the literature on the effect of orthopaedic implants on airport security devices and none on shoulder arthroplasty implants after September 11, 2001. Since 9/11, airport security screening devices have become more sensitive in response to the increasing threat of terrorism. Often, patients with joint implants activate the metal detectors and are subsequently subjected to more intensive screening. We assess the effects of shoulder joint implants on different airport security devices and what effect the results had on passenger travel. In this study, 154 patients who had previously undergone shoulder replacement responded to a questionnaire regarding their travel experiences after 9/11. Of these, 85 had flown during the time period studied (47 men and 38 women; mean age, 67.8 years); 79 had traveled domestically (mean, 7 flights), and 22 had taken international flights (mean, 6.1 flights). The questionnaire addressed each patient's height/weight, the number of flight segments flown (domestic and international), the number of times that a patient activated the doorway alarm/wand alarm, and the effect of a card stating that the patient had joint replacement (when applicable). On average, patients with shoulder replacement traveling domestically activated the security gate 52% of the time. The average for international travel was 42%. Of the patients who flew both domestically and internationally, there was a high correlation of activation (R = 0.54). Twenty-six patients had multiple joint implants (mean, 2.8). Multiple joint implants caused increased alarm activation (P < .001). All patients reported that their travel was delayed during the instances of security activation. There was no statistically significant effect of body mass index, height, weight, age, or sex on security device activation. Of the patients, 71% were told by their doctor that the shoulder replacement may activate security devices. Of these, 46 were given a card by their

  14. AVIATION SECURITY: Terrorist Acts Demonstrate Urgent Need to Improve Security at the Nation’s Airports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    what actually occurred or what all the weaknesses in the nation’s aviation security apparatus are that contributed to the horrendous events of last week...it is clear that serious weaknesses exist in our aviation security system and that their impact can be far more devastating than previously imagined...offer some observations about improving aviation security in these various areas.

  15. Airport technology international 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiorcopulo, George

    The present survey of developments in airport technologies and their management discusses airport extensions and upgradings, airport developments in China, polluter penalization, airport effects on environments, European ground-handling methods, ATC in Europe, EC duty-free sales at airports, and the privatization of airport security. Also discussed are airport advertising, new alternatives in air-cargo handling, ATC training, taxi-guidance systems, and the reduction of fuel consumption and emissions on the ground. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  16. Aviation Security: Weaknesses in Airport Security and Options for Assigning Screening Responsibilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    actually occurred or which of the weaknesses in the nations aviation security apparatus contributed to the horrendous events of last week, it is...clear that serious weaknesses exist in our aviation security system and that their impact can be far more devastating than previously imagined.

  17. Ability of the Vericator to Detect Smugglers at a Mock Security Checkpoint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    only acetaminophen, aspirin, contraceptive pills , or topicals were classified as unmedicated. A breakdown of the reported medications being used by...visitors granted access to what are termed ‘ risk areas’ must now wear special armbands. (You were issued an armband because you are in a ‘ risk area... risks associated with the use of this technology. Do not admit guilt to the Federal inspector or any security personnel. Do not discuss the

  18. Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction in Airport Security Officers - Work-Family Conflict as Mediator in the Job Demands-Resources Model.

    PubMed

    Baeriswyl, Sophie; Krause, Andreas; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The growing threat of terrorism has increased the importance of aviation security and the work of airport security officers (screeners). Nonetheless, airport security research has yet to focus on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction as major determinants of screeners' job performance. The present study bridges this research gap by applying the job demands-resources (JD-R) model and using work-family conflict (WFC) as an intervening variable to study relationships between work characteristics (workload and supervisor support), emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in 1,127 screeners at a European airport. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that (a) supervisor support as a major job resource predicted job satisfaction among screeners; (b) workload as a major job demand predicted their emotional exhaustion; and (c) WFC proved to be a promising extension to the JD-R model that partially mediated the impact of supervisor support and workload on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  19. Specific-Token Effects in Screening Tasks: Possible Implications for Aviation Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Washburn, David A.; Taglialatela, Lauren A.

    2005-01-01

    Screeners at airport security checkpoints perform an important categorization task in which they search for threat items in complex x-ray images. But little is known about how the processes of categorization stand up to visual complexity. The authors filled this research gap with screening tasks in which participants searched for members of target…

  20. Examining Passenger Flow Choke Points at Airports Using Discrete Event Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jeremy R.; Madhavan, Poomima

    2011-01-01

    The movement of passengers through an airport quickly, safely, and efficiently is the main function of the various checkpoints (check-in, security. etc) found in airports. Human error combined with other breakdowns in the complex system of the airport can disrupt passenger flow through the airport leading to lengthy waiting times, missing luggage and missed flights. In this paper we present a model of passenger flow through an airport using discrete event simulation that will provide a closer look into the possible reasons for breakdowns and their implications for passenger flow. The simulation is based on data collected at Norfolk International Airport (ORF). The primary goal of this simulation is to present ways to optimize the work force to keep passenger flow smooth even during peak travel times and for emergency preparedness at ORF in case of adverse events. In this simulation we ran three different scenarios: real world, increased check-in stations, and multiple waiting lines. Increased check-in stations increased waiting time and instantaneous utilization. while the multiple waiting lines decreased both the waiting time and instantaneous utilization. This simulation was able to show how different changes affected the passenger flow through the airport.

  1. An Analysis of Federal Airport and Air Carrier Employee Access Control, Screening. and Training Regulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    traveling public, air carriers, and persons employed by or conducting business at public airports. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Airport Security , Federal...26 4. Sterile Area 28 5. Exclusive Area 28 E. SECURITY ALERT LEVELS 29 F. AIRPORT SECURITY TOOLS 30 1. Electronic Detection System 31 a... Security Coordinator ASP Airport Security Program BIS Biometrie Identification System CCTV Closed Circuit Television CJIS Criminal Justice Information

  2. Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction in Airport Security Officers – Work–Family Conflict as Mediator in the Job Demands–Resources Model

    PubMed Central

    Baeriswyl, Sophie; Krause, Andreas; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The growing threat of terrorism has increased the importance of aviation security and the work of airport security officers (screeners). Nonetheless, airport security research has yet to focus on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction as major determinants of screeners’ job performance. The present study bridges this research gap by applying the job demands–resources (JD–R) model and using work–family conflict (WFC) as an intervening variable to study relationships between work characteristics (workload and supervisor support), emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in 1,127 screeners at a European airport. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that (a) supervisor support as a major job resource predicted job satisfaction among screeners; (b) workload as a major job demand predicted their emotional exhaustion; and (c) WFC proved to be a promising extension to the JD–R model that partially mediated the impact of supervisor support and workload on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27242581

  3. Airport noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of airport noise at several airports and air bases is detailed. Community reactions to the noise, steps taken to reduce jet engine noise, and the effect of airport use restrictions and curfews on air transportation are discussed. The adverse effect of changes in allowable operational noise on airport safety and altenative means for reducing noise pollution are considered. Community-airport relations and public relations are discussed.

  4. Privacy algorithm for airport passenger screening portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Paul E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; McKinnon, A. D.; Summet, Jay W.

    2000-03-01

    A novel personnel surveillance system has been developed for airport security to detect and identify threatening objects, which are concealed ont he human body. The main advantage of this system over conventional metal detectors is that non- metallic objects such as plastic explosives and plastic guns are detectable. This system is based on millimeter-wave array technology and a holographic imaging algorithm to provide surveillance images of objects hidden beneath clothing in near real-time. The privacy algorithm is based on image processing filters and artificial neural networks. The algorithm examines the millimeter-wave surveillance images to locate and segment the threats and place them on either a silhouette of the person or a wire-frame humanoid representation. In this way, all human features are removed from the final image and personal privacy is maintained. This system is ideally suited for mass transportation centers such as airport checkpoints that require high throughput rates. The system is currently under going evaluation. This paper reports on results from an earlier initial test of portions of the privacy algorithm that detect hidden plastic objects.

  5. Structuring Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    20 AIRPORT SECURITY .............................................................................................. 20...using an existing command and control structure. Since September 11, 2001 airport security has been of heightened importance to the American public...In order to use Reserves to provide airport security the airports themselves should be made federal property. This would allow greater flexibility for

  6. Conservation science in a terrorist age: the impact of airport security screening on the viability and DNA integrity of frozen felid spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Gloor, Kayleen T; Winget, Doug; Swanson, William F

    2006-09-01

    In response to growing terrorism concerns, the Transportation Security Administration now requires that all checked baggage at U.S. airports be scanned through a cabinet x-ray system, which may increase risk of radiation damage to transported biologic samples and other sensitive genetic material. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of these new airport security regulations on the viability and DNA integrity of frozen felid spermatozoa. Semen was collected from two domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) and one fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus), cryopreserved in plastic freezing straws, and transferred into liquid nitrogen dry shippers for security screening. Treatment groups included frozen samples from each male scanned once or three times using a Transportation Security Administration-operated cabinet x-ray system, in addition to non-scanned samples (i.e., negative control) and samples previously scanned three times and exposed to five additional high-intensity x-ray bursts (i.e., positive control). Dosimeters placed in empty dry shippers were used to quantify radiation exposure. Following treatment, straws were thawed and spermatozoa analyzed for post-thaw motility (percentage motile and rate of progressive movement), acrosome status, and DNA integrity using single-cell gel electrophoresis (i.e., the comet assay). Dosimeter measurements determined that each airport screening procedure produced approximately 16 mrem of radiation exposure. Our results indicated that all levels of radiation exposure adversely affected (P < 0.05) post-thaw sperm motility, but the percentage of acrosome-intact spermatozoa did not differ (P > 0.05) among treatment groups. Results also showed that the amount of double-stranded DNA damage was greater (P < 0.05) in sperm samples from both cat species scanned three times compared to samples scanned once or negative controls. Findings suggest that new airport security measures may cause radiation-induced damage to

  7. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-22

    SECURITY. - CONTINUED TRAINING OF LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS SUPPORTING AIRPORT SECURITY ACTIVITIES. - SECURITY PROGRAMS IMPLEMENTED BY AIR FREIGHT...cooperation by all concerned. (See Exhibit 14) Airport Security - Ongoing activities which contributed significantly to airport security included full...implementation of the revised Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 107 governing airport security , training of law enforcement officers supporting

  8. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-14

    CEASE FUNDING OF TRAINING"OF LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS SUPPORTING AIRPORT SECURITY ACTIVITIES. F. FEDERAL AIR MARSHALS PROVIDE LAW ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT...enforcement officer authority through special deputations by the U.S. Marshals Service on an annual basis. Airport Security - Continuing activities...which contributed signifi- cantly to airport security include the training of local law enforcement officers supporting airport security programs, the

  9. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-05

    The airline and airport security measures currently in effect continue to provide increased safety for airline passengers and crews as well as...107 governing airport security . other ongoing programs which contributed significantly to airport security included the training of law enforce- ment...officers supporting airport security programs and the explosives detection K(9 team program. Highlights of these actions and programs are summarized

  10. Perception of health risks of electromagnetic fields by MRI radiographers and airport security officers compared to the general Dutch working population: a cross sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The amount of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) at work is mainly determined by an individual's occupation and may differ from exposure at home. It is, however, unknown how different occupational groups perceive possible adverse health effects of EMF. Methods Three occupational groups, the general Dutch working population (n = 567), airport security officers who work with metal detectors (n = 106), and MRI radiographers who work with MRI (n = 193), were compared on perceived risk of and positive and negative feelings towards EMF in general and of different EMF sources, and health concerns by using analyses of variances. Data were collected via an internet survey. Results Overall, MRI radiographers had a lower perceived risk, felt less negative, and more positive towards EMF and different sources of EMF than the general working population and the security officers. For security officers, feeling more positive about EMF was not significantly related to perceived risk of EMF in general or EMF of domestic sources. Feeling positive about a source did not generalize to a lower perceived risk, while negative feelings were stronger related to perceived risk. MRI radiographers had fewer health concerns regarding EMF than the other two groups, although they considered it more likely that EMF could cause physical complaints. Conclusions These data show that although differences in occupation appear to be reflected in different perceptions of EMF, the level of occupational exposure to EMF as such does not predict the perceived health risk of EMF. PMID:22070906

  11. To amend title 49, United States Code, to direct the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration) to transfer unclaimed money recovered at airport security checkpoints to United Service Organizations, Incorporated, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Miller, Jeff [R-FL-1

    2011-06-14

    05/08/2012 Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 328. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.6328, which became Public Law 112-271 on 1/14/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Epigenetics meets immune checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Covre, Alessia; Coral, Sandra; Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Taverna, Pietro; Azab, Mohammad; Maio, Michele

    2015-06-01

    Epigenetic alterations play a pivotal role in cancer development and progression. Pharmacologic reversion of such alterations is feasible, and second generation "epigenetic drugs" are in development and have been demonstrated to possess significant immunomodulatory properties. This knowledge, together with the availability of new and highly effective immunotherapeutic agents including immune checkpoint(s) blocking monoclonal antibodies, allows us to plan for highly innovative proof-of-principle combination studies that will likely open the path to more effective anticancer therapies.

  13. 49 CFR 1560.111 - Covered airport operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Covered airport operators. 1560.111 Section 1560... Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.111 Covered airport operators. (a) Applicability. This section applies to a covered airport operator that has a program approved by TSA...

  14. 49 CFR 1560.111 - Covered airport operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered airport operators. 1560.111 Section 1560... Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.111 Covered airport operators. (a) Applicability. This section applies to a covered airport operator that has a program approved by TSA...

  15. 77 FR 17492 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports AGENCY: U.S.... This document announces the expansion of the program to include four additional airports. DATES: Global... site, http://www.globalentry.gov . Expansion of Global Entry Program to Additional Airports CBP...

  16. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Leidichj, Christopher; Papasin, Richard; Tran, Peter B.; Bass, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Networks of video cameras, meteorological sensors, and ancillary electronic equipment are under development in collaboration among NASA Ames Research Center, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These networks are to be established at and near airports to provide real-time information on local weather conditions that affect aircraft approaches and landings. The prototype network is an airport-approach-zone camera system (AAZCS), which has been deployed at San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and San Carlos Airport (SQL). The AAZCS includes remotely controlled color video cameras located on top of SFO and SQL air-traffic control towers. The cameras are controlled by the NOAA Center Weather Service Unit located at the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center and are accessible via a secure Web site. The AAZCS cameras can be zoomed and can be panned and tilted to cover a field of view 220 wide. The NOAA observer can see the sky condition as it is changing, thereby making possible a real-time evaluation of the conditions along the approach zones of SFO and SQL. The next-generation network, denoted a remote tower sensor system (RTSS), will soon be deployed at the Half Moon Bay Airport and a version of it will eventually be deployed at Los Angeles International Airport. In addition to remote control of video cameras via secure Web links, the RTSS offers realtime weather observations, remote sensing, portability, and a capability for deployment at remote and uninhabited sites. The RTSS can be used at airports that lack control towers, as well as at major airport hubs, to provide synthetic augmentation of vision for both local and remote operations under what would otherwise be conditions of low or even zero visibility.

  17. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N.; Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  18. English for Airport Ground Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes part of a European Commission Leonardo project that aimed to design a multimedia course for English language learners seeking work as ground staff in European airports. The structural-functional analysis of the dialogues written from the course showed that, across the four trades explored (security guards, ground handlers,…

  19. Airport Surface Network Architecture Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thanh C.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Lawas-Grodek, Fran; Ellis, Brenda L.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, airport surface communications are fragmented across multiple types of systems. These communication systems for airport operations at most airports today are based dedicated and separate architectures that cannot support system-wide interoperability and information sharing. The requirements placed upon the Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) systems in airports are rapidly growing and integration is urgently needed if the future vision of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) 2025 concept are to be realized. To address this and other problems such as airport surface congestion, the Space Based Technologies Project s Surface ICNS Network Architecture team at NASA Glenn Research Center has assessed airport surface communications requirements, analyzed existing and future surface applications, and defined a set of architecture functions that will help design a scalable, reliable and flexible surface network architecture to meet the current and future needs of airport operations. This paper describes the systems approach or methodology to networking that was employed to assess airport surface communications requirements, analyze applications, and to define the surface network architecture functions as the building blocks or components of the network. The systems approach used for defining these functions is relatively new to networking. It is viewing the surface network, along with its environment (everything that the surface network interacts with or impacts), as a system. Associated with this system are sets of services that are offered by the network to the rest of the system. Therefore, the surface network is considered as part of the larger system (such as the NAS), with interactions and dependencies between the surface network and its users, applications, and devices. The surface network architecture includes components such as addressing/routing, network management, network

  20. Securing the Aviation Transportation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    accessed 27 May 2007) 13 Robert W. Poole, Jr., “ Airport Security : Time for a New Model,” Reason Foundation online article, January 2006, Available from...15 Robert W. Poole, Jr., “ Airport Security : Time for a New Model,” Reason Foundation online article, January 2006...commercial jetliners. 24 Peter St. John, Air Piracy, Airport Security , and International Terrorism

  1. Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribe, William R.; Newnham, David A.; Taday, Philip F.; Kemp, Michael C.

    2004-04-01

    Recent events have led to dramatic changes to the methods employed in security screening. For example, following the failed shoe bombing, it is now common for shoes to be removed and X-rayed at airport checkpoints. There is therefore an increasing focus on new Recent events have led to dramatic changes to the methods employed in security screening. For example, following the failed shoe bombing, it is now common for shoes to be removed and X-rayed at airport checkpoints. There is therefore an increasing focus on new technologies that can be applied to security screening, either to simplify or speed up the checking process, or to provide additional functionality. Terahertz (THz) technology is a promising, emerging candidate. In previous publications we have shown how our THz pulsed imaging systems can be used to image threat items, and have demonstrated that explosive materials have characteristic THz spectra. We have also demonstrated that nonmetallic weaponry can be imaged when concealed beneath clothing. In this work we examine more closely the properties of barrier and potential confusion materials. We demonstrate that barrier materials have smooth spectra with relatively low attenuation. We further demonstrate that the terahertz spectra of several common chemicals and medicines are distinct from those of threat materials.

  2. Implementing Solar Technologies at Airports

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-07-01

    Federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, as well as numerous private entities are actively pursuing the installation of solar technologies to help reduce fossil fuel energy use and associated emissions, meet sustainability goals, and create more robust or reliable operations. One potential approach identified for siting solar technologies is the installation of solar energy technologies at airports and airfields, which present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to large amounts of open land. This report focuses largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) policies toward siting solar technologies at airports.

  3. AVIATION SECURITY: Transportation Security Administration Faces Immediate and Long-Term Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    circumvent airport security , and provide whistleblower protection for air carrier and airport security workers. (See app. III for a summary of pending...GAO-01-1171T. Washington, D.C.: September 25, 2001. Aviation Security: Weaknesses in Airport Security and Options for Assigning Screening...125. Washington, D.C.: March 16, 2000. Aviation Security: FAA’s Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify

  4. Conducting Airport Anti-Terrorism Operations and Contingency Planning for Risk Reduction of the Terrorist Threat.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    victims of some of the most vicious terrorist acts occurring in the past year, airport security has come under increasing scrutiny by television...operations and contingency planning can be the weapons which airport security managers use to successfully battle the increasing trend of terrorist acts on airports today. (Author)

  5. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-09

    which have been prevented or deterred by airline and airport security procedures cannot be determined with certainty. The Federal Aviation Administration...finalized and issued. The new FAR Part 108, Air Carrier Security and complementary changes to FAR Part 107, Airport Security , and FAR Part 129, Operations...initiated audit of the claims and, if verified, action will be taken to seek funding for payment. Airport Security . Airport security measures continue to be

  6. Sensitive Security Information (SSI) and Transportation Security: Background and Controversies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-05

    with airport security procedures, employee accountability, passenger screening, and airport secrecy agreements. In January 2003, the Dallas/Fort... Airport Security Flaws Bring Criticism,” Los Angeles Times, July 2, 2002, p. A8. 16 Charles Piller and Ricardo Alonso-Zaldivar, “A Suspect Computer...Secrecy in Airport Security Contract Criticized,” Des Moines Register, Sept. 27, 2003, p. 1A; James Andrews, “Here in Tristate, Security’s Tighter

  7. Whiffing the Airport Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David

    2008-01-01

    An airport interview is an initial interview for a senior administrative position conducted at an airport hotel not too far from the campus in question. Meeting at an airport enables a search committee to interview a large number of candidates in a short period of time with a degree of confidentiality. At the conclusion of the airport interviews,…

  8. Productivity Analysis of Public and Private Airports: A Causal Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Gorjidooz, Javad

    2007-01-01

    Around the world, airports are being viewed as enterprises, rather than public services, which are expected to be managed efficiently and provide passengers with courteous customer services. Governments are, increasingly, turning to the private sectors for their efficiency in managing the operation, financing, and development, as well as providing security for airports. Operational and financial performance evaluation has become increasingly important to airport operators due to recent trends in airport privatization. Assessing performance allows the airport operators to plan for human resources and capital investment as efficiently as possible. Productivity measurements may be used as comparisons and guidelines in strategic planning, in the internal analysis of operational efficiency and effectiveness, and in assessing the competitive position of an airport in transportation industry. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the operational and financial efficiencies of 22 major airports in the United States and Europe. These airports are divided into three groups based on private ownership (7 British Airport Authority airports), public ownership (8 major United States airports), and a mix of private and public ownership (7 major European Union airports. The detail ownership structures of these airports are presented in Appendix A. Total factor productivity (TFP) model was utilized to measure airport performance in terms of financial and operational efficiencies and to develop a benchmarking tool to identify the areas of strength and weakness. A regression model was then employed to measure the relationship between TFP and ownership structure. Finally a Granger causality test was performed to determine whether ownership structure is a Granger cause of TFP. The results of the analysis presented in this paper demonstrate that there is not a significant relationship between airport TFP and ownership structure. Airport productivity and efficiency is

  9. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-05

    diversions. Perhaps the best evidence of the effectiveness of airline and airport security measures is the number of hijackings and related crimes prevented...airports. Consideration is being given to include a provision in the airport security regulation which would prohibit the introduction of...Security Program. A complete revision of the regulation that established basic airport security requirements is currently underway. One of the more

  10. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-31

    searches. Perhaps the best evidence of the effectiveness of airline and airport security measures is the number of hijackings and related crimes...revision of the regulation that established basic airport security requirements is currently underway. One of the more significant revisions under study... airport security procedures cannot be determined with certainty. Nowever, the number of firearms detected at passenger screening points under suspicious

  11. 78 FR 38069 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports AGENCY: U.S... airports. This document announces the expansion of the program to include eight additional designated... the Federal Register and post the information on the Web site http://www.globalentry.gov ....

  12. 17 CFR 256.310 - Aircraft and airport equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft and airport equipment... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.310 Aircraft and airport equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned aircraft...

  13. 17 CFR 256.310 - Aircraft and airport equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and airport equipment... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.310 Aircraft and airport equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned aircraft...

  14. Inguinal Hernia and Airport Scanners: An Emerging Indication for Repair?

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O.; Maharaj, Ravi; Dan, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The use of advanced imaging technology at international airports is increasing in popularity as a corollary to heightened security concerns across the globe. Operators of airport scanners should be educated about common medical disorders such as inguinal herniae in order to avoid unnecessary harassment of travelers since they will encounter these with increasing frequency. PMID:24368923

  15. Checkpointing in speculative versioning caches

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-08-27

    Mechanisms for generating checkpoints in a speculative versioning cache of a data processing system are provided. The mechanisms execute code within the data processing system, wherein the code accesses cache lines in the speculative versioning cache. The mechanisms further determine whether a first condition occurs indicating a need to generate a checkpoint in the speculative versioning cache. The checkpoint is a speculative cache line which is made non-speculative in response to a second condition occurring that requires a roll-back of changes to a cache line corresponding to the speculative cache line. The mechanisms also generate the checkpoint in the speculative versioning cache in response to a determination that the first condition has occurred.

  16. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-15

    on item were processed through the screening system daily. The airline and airport security measures developed continue to provide increased safety...United States or Puerto Rico. None of these 16 hijackings resulted from insufficient airport security measures or a breakdown in the FAA-approved airport ... airport security programs is conducted at the Transportation Safety Institute in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The course provides in-depth coverage of civil

  17. New MagViz Airport Liquid Analysis System Undergoes Testing

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-18

    LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, December 16, 2008—An innovative application of a technology first used for medical imaging may enhance airport security if Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists are successful. Los Alamos technologists have adapted Magnetic Res

  18. Targeting checkpoint kinase 1 in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tse, Archie N; Carvajal, Richard; Schwartz, Gary K

    2007-04-01

    Progression through the cell cycle is monitored by surveillance mechanisms known as cell cycle checkpoints. Our knowledge of the biochemical nature of checkpoint regulation during an unperturbed cell cycle and following DNA damage has expanded tremendously over the past decade. We now know that dysfunction in cell cycle checkpoints leads to genomic instability and contributes to tumor progression, and most agents used for cancer therapy, such as cytotoxic chemotherapy and ionizing radiation, also activate cell cycle checkpoints. Understanding how checkpoints are regulated is therefore important from the points of view of both tumorigenesis and cancer treatment. In this review, we present an overview of the molecular hierarchy of the checkpoint signaling network and the emerging role of checkpoint targets, especially checkpoint kinase 1, in cancer therapy. Further, we discuss the results of recent clinical trials involving the nonspecific checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitor, UCN-01, and the challenges we face with this new therapeutic approach.

  19. Semiannual Report to Congress on the Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    enforcement support for airline and airport security measures. Airline passengers, as the ultimate beneficiaries of the security program. pay for the...environment for these air carriers. Airport security programs are designed to meet the threat to the specific airport. Of the 4(02 airports. 18...essential to many passengers. " FAA is currently reviewing Parts 107 and 108 of the Federal Aviation Regulations, covering airport security and airplane

  20. Semiannual Report to Congress on the Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    secure Zround environment and for providing local law enforcement support for airline and airport security measures. Finally, the passengers, the...operating environment for these air carriers. Airport security programs are designed to meet the threat to the specific airport. Of the 402 airports...assistance during this project. Responding to urgent requests from the Government of Liberia for onsite training of its airport security forces, FAA

  1. Compiler-assisted static checkpoint insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a compiler-assisted approach for static checkpoint insertion. Instead of fixing the checkpoint location before program execution, a compiler enhanced polling mechanism is utilized to maintain both the desired checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint 1ocations. The technique has been implemented in a GNU CC compiler for Sun 3 and Sun 4 (Sparc) processors. Experiments demonstrate that the approach provides for stable checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint placements with performance overhead comparable to a previously presented compiler assisted dynamic scheme (CATCH) utilizing the system clock.

  2. Security Annex Concept of Operations for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, Version 2.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-13

    Beverage Security .......................................... 24 4.5 AIRPORT SECURITY CONTROL CENTER... security protection plan based on sound practice and pertinent airport security design. Assessments and priorities as to probabilities of attack...with various measures. Selected prioritization strategies to enhance the robustness of Airport security include an appropriate mix of people

  3. A review of automated image understanding within 3D baggage computed tomography security screening.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Andre; Breckon, Toby P

    2015-01-01

    Baggage inspection is the principal safeguard against the transportation of prohibited and potentially dangerous materials at airport security checkpoints. Although traditionally performed by 2D X-ray based scanning, increasingly stringent security regulations have led to a growing demand for more advanced imaging technologies. The role of X-ray Computed Tomography is thus rapidly expanding beyond the traditional materials-based detection of explosives. The development of computer vision and image processing techniques for the automated understanding of 3D baggage-CT imagery is however, complicated by poor image resolutions, image clutter and high levels of noise and artefacts. We discuss the recent and most pertinent advancements and identify topics for future research within the challenging domain of automated image understanding for baggage security screening CT.

  4. Improving the Security of the U.S. Aeronautical Domain: Adopting an Intelligence-Led, Risk-Based Strategy and Partnership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    democratically governed countries have achieved success in the same areas. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 149 14. SUBJECT TERMS airport security , aviation...66 3. Commonwealth of Australia Aviation Security: Major Themes...66 a. Airport Security Command...Commercial Airports by Airport Security Category as of April 2006 (From GAO, 2007

  5. Recovery from the DNA Replication Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Indrajit; Koepp, Deanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Checkpoint recovery is integral to a successful checkpoint response. Checkpoint pathways monitor progress during cell division so that in the event of an error, the checkpoint is activated to block the cell cycle and activate repair pathways. Intrinsic to this process is that once repair has been achieved, the checkpoint signaling pathway is inactivated and cell cycle progression resumes. We use the term “checkpoint recovery” to describe the pathways responsible for the inactivation of checkpoint signaling and cell cycle re-entry after the initial stress has been alleviated. The DNA replication or S-phase checkpoint monitors the integrity of DNA synthesis. When replication stress is encountered, replication forks are stalled, and the checkpoint signaling pathway is activated. Central to recovery from the S-phase checkpoint is the restart of stalled replication forks. If checkpoint recovery fails, stalled forks may become unstable and lead to DNA breaks or unusual DNA structures that are difficult to resolve, causing genomic instability. Alternatively, if cell cycle resumption mechanisms become uncoupled from checkpoint inactivation, cells with under-replicated DNA might proceed through the cell cycle, also diminishing genomic stability. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that contribute to inactivation of the S-phase checkpoint signaling pathway and the restart of replication forks during recovery from replication stress. PMID:27801838

  6. Volcanic hazards to airports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  7. Semiannual Report to Congress on the Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-31

    This report also provides data on the initiatives being implemented as a result of the review of domestic airport security by the Secretary’s Safety...enforcement support for airline and airport security measures. Finally, the passengers-the ultimate beneficiaries of the security program--pay for...of these airports is required to implement a security program which provides a secure operating environment for these air carriers. Airport security programs

  8. New checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ling; Dong, Chen

    2017-03-01

    Immune responses must be fine-tuned to allow effective clearance of invading pathogens, while maintain tolerance to self-antigens. T cells are the major effector cells for fighting and killing tumor cells. Immune checkpoints play a pivotal role in T cell activation, and determine the functional outcome of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. The blockade of immune checkpoints CTLA-4 and PD-1 has already been one of the most successful cancer immunotherapies. In this review, we will focus on three novel inhibitory B7 family checkpoint molecules, B7-H3, B7S1 and VISTA. The aim of this article is to summarize their expressions in tumors as well as their roles in controlling and suppressing T cell immune responses and anti-tumor immunity. These pathways may be explored in future cancer immunotherapy.

  9. Cell Cycle Regulation by Checkpoints

    PubMed Central

    Barnum, Kevin J.; O’Connell, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints are surveillance mechanisms that monitor the order, integrity, and fidelity of the major events of the cell cycle. These include growth to the appropriate cell size, the replication and integrity of the chromosomes, and their accurate segregation at mitosis. Many of these mechanisms are ancient in origin and highly conserved, and hence have been heavily informed by studies in simple organisms such as the yeasts. Others have evolved in higher organisms, and control alternative cell fates with significant impact on tumor suppression. Here, we consider these different checkpoint pathways and the consequences of their dysfunction on cell fate. PMID:24906307

  10. Cell cycle regulation by checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Barnum, Kevin J; O'Connell, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints are surveillance mechanisms that monitor the order, integrity, and fidelity of the major events of the cell cycle. These include growth to the appropriate cell size, the replication and integrity of the chromosomes, and their accurate segregation at mitosis. Many of these mechanisms are ancient in origin and highly conserved, and hence have been heavily informed by studies in simple organisms such as the yeasts. Others have evolved in higher organisms, and control alternative cell fates with significant impact on tumor suppression. Here, we consider these different checkpoint pathways and the consequences of their dysfunction on cell fate.

  11. Network support for system initiated checkpoints

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

    2013-01-29

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in parallel computing systems. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity.

  12. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure. This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  13. Airline Security and a Strategy for Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-15

    profit. As a result, today’s airport security systems are not as technologically advanced as needed. In short, terrorists managed to defeat the...efficient method of securing the skies. The desired end state is known. Americans want an airport security system that allows the safe conduct of air...issue 34 p 3. 35 Ibid., 4. 36 Sara Goo, “Registered Traveler Test Ends Inconclusively; Airport Security Scheme Lacks Broad Support,” The Washington

  14. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-31

    regulation that established basic airport security requirements is nearing final rulemaking action. One of the most significant revisions proposed would...prevented or deterred by airline and airport security procedures cannot be determined with certainty. However, the number of firearms detected at passenger...support for airline and airport security measures. And finally, with the inclusion of security costs in the operating expenses of U.S. air

  15. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-12

    other crimes against civil aviation prevented or deterred by airline and airport security procedures cannot be determined with certainty. However...were prevented from doing so by airline and airport security measures. As noted elsewhere in this report, 1,632 firearms were detected at screening...enforcement sQp:)t’ for airline and airport security measures. Finally, with the inc.asoDr of security costs in airline ticket prices, the passengers

  16. Aviation Security-Related Findings and Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-30

    appropriations bill (H.R. 4567) as reported included language to limit the federal share for airport security projects to 75% at large and medium hubs and 90...participation and industry involvement. At airports, the local role is defined in the airport security program which is tailored for each airport...carry out this pilot program. The act also authorizes $200 million each year through FY2007 for improved air cargo and airport security related to the

  17. Non-volatile memory for checkpoint storage

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Cipolla, Thomas M.; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Ohmacht, Martin; Takken, Todd E.

    2014-07-22

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in high performance parallel computing systems and storing of checkpoint data to a non-volatile memory storage device. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity. In one embodiment, the non-volatile memory is a pluggable flash memory card.

  18. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  19. Semiannual Report to Congress on the Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    and airport security measures. Finally, the passengers, the ultimate beneficiaries of the security program, pay for the costs of the program through...required to adopt and use a security program which provides a secure operating environment for these air carriers. Airport security programs are designed to...special security requirements. This additional level of security precaution has been effected through changes to the F4A-approved airport security programs

  20. Phenotypic checkpoints regulate neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Spitzer, Nicholas C

    2010-11-01

    Nervous system development proceeds by sequential gene expression mediated by cascades of transcription factors in parallel with sequences of patterned network activity driven by receptors and ion channels. These sequences are cell type- and developmental stage-dependent and modulated by paracrine actions of substances released by neurons and glia. How and to what extent these sequences interact to enable neuronal network development is not understood. Recent evidence demonstrates that CNS development requires intermediate stages of differentiation providing functional feedback that influences gene expression. We suggest that embryonic neuronal functions constitute a series of phenotypic checkpoint signatures; neurons failing to express these functions are delayed or developmentally arrested. Such checkpoints are likely to be a general feature of neuronal development and constitute presymptomatic signatures of neurological disorders when they go awry.

  1. DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haiyong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Teng, Lisong; Legerski, Randy J.

    2015-06-10

    Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely unknown. Activated cytokine and growth factor-signaling pathways were very recently shown to suppress the DDR and to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in the context of oncovirus infection. In recent decades, data from cell line and tumor models showed that a group of checkpoint recovery proteins function in promoting tumor progression; data from patient samples also showed overexpression of checkpoint recovery proteins in human cancer tissues and a correlation with patients' poor prognosis. In this review, the known cell cycle checkpoint recovery proteins and their roles in DNA damage checkpoint recovery are reviewed, as well as their implications in cancer development. This review also provides insight into the mechanism by which the DDR suppresses oncogene-driven tumorigenesis and tumor progression. - Highlights: • DNA damage checkpoint works as a barrier to cancer initiation. • DDR machinary response to genotoxic and oncogenic stress in similar way. • Checkpoint recovery pathways provide active signaling in cell cycle control. • Checkpoint

  2. Affinity-aware checkpoint restart

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Ajay; Rezaei, Arash; Mueller, Frank; Hargrove, Paul; Roman, Eric

    2014-12-08

    Current checkpointing techniques employed to overcome faults for HPC applications result in inferior application performance after restart from a checkpoint for a number of applications. This is due to a lack of page and core affinity awareness of the checkpoint/restart (C/R) mechanism, i.e., application tasks originally pinned to cores may be restarted on different cores, and in case of non-uniform memory architectures (NUMA), quite common today, memory pages associated with tasks on a NUMA node may be associated with a different NUMA node after restart. Here, this work contributes a novel design technique for C/R mechanisms to preserve task-to-core maps and NUMA node specific page affinities across restarts. Experimental results with BLCR, a C/R mechanism, enhanced with affinity awareness demonstrate significant performance benefits of 37%-73% for the NAS Parallel Benchmark codes and 6-12% for NAMD with negligible overheads instead of up to nearly four times longer an execution times without affinity-aware restarts on 16 cores.

  3. Affinity-aware checkpoint restart

    DOE PAGES

    Saini, Ajay; Rezaei, Arash; Mueller, Frank; ...

    2014-12-08

    Current checkpointing techniques employed to overcome faults for HPC applications result in inferior application performance after restart from a checkpoint for a number of applications. This is due to a lack of page and core affinity awareness of the checkpoint/restart (C/R) mechanism, i.e., application tasks originally pinned to cores may be restarted on different cores, and in case of non-uniform memory architectures (NUMA), quite common today, memory pages associated with tasks on a NUMA node may be associated with a different NUMA node after restart. Here, this work contributes a novel design technique for C/R mechanisms to preserve task-to-core mapsmore » and NUMA node specific page affinities across restarts. Experimental results with BLCR, a C/R mechanism, enhanced with affinity awareness demonstrate significant performance benefits of 37%-73% for the NAS Parallel Benchmark codes and 6-12% for NAMD with negligible overheads instead of up to nearly four times longer an execution times without affinity-aware restarts on 16 cores.« less

  4. 76 FR 30822 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Naples Municipal Airport, Naples, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 122 Technical Amendment to List of User Fee..., Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: This document amends the... international or landing rights airports, have been approved by the Commissioner of CBP to receive, for a...

  5. Surviving the breakup: the DNA damage checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jacob C; Haber, James E

    2006-01-01

    In response to even a single chromosomal double-strand DNA break, cells enact the DNA damage checkpoint. This checkpoint triggers cell cycle arrest, providing time for the cell to repair damaged chromosomes before entering mitosis. This mechanism helps prevent the segregation of damaged or mutated chromosomes and thus promotes genomic stability. Recent work has elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying several critical steps in checkpoint activation, notably the recruitment of the upstream checkpoint kinases of the ATM and ATR families to different damaged DNA structures and the molecular events through which these kinases activate their effectors. Chromatin modification has emerged as one important component of checkpoint activation and maintenance. Following DNA repair, the checkpoint pathway is inactivated in a process termed recovery. A related but genetically distinct process, adaptation, controls cell cycle re-entry in the face of unrepairable damage.

  6. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-12

    passengers and over one million pieces of carry-on baggage daily. A major revision of the regulation that established basic airport security requirements...Crimes- Prevented - The number of hijacking attempts or other crimes against civil aviation prevented or deterred by airline and airport security procedures...from doing so by airline and airport security procedures. This makes a total of 74 possible hijackings or related crimes that may have been prevented

  7. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-25

    the airline and airport security measures in effect. Moreover, of the 25 U.S. airline hijackings that occurred over this 6-year period, none was caused...Furthermore, it is estimated that 75 hijackings or related crimes may have been prevented by the airline and airport security measures in effect...system. Moreover, it is estimated that at least 75 hijackings or related crimes may have been prevented by U.S. airline and airport security measures

  8. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-20

    commerce--a pr per balance appears to exist. Moreover, airline and airport security programs appear to be capable of responding to changes in the nature...Moreover, airline and airport security programs appear to be capable of responding to changes in the nature and level of current and future threats. The...delays and diversions were experienced. Airline and airport security measures continued to afford the necessary level of protection to U.S. air

  9. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-06

    Results of the passenger screening procedures continue to reflect the success and effec- tiveness of airline and airport security programs. During the...airline and airport security programs. While it is impossible to estimate accurately just how many hijackings and related crimes were prevented, the...attempts might have occurred during 1974 and as many as 25 during the first 6 months of 1975, if current airline and airport security programs had not

  10. Immune Checkpoint Modulators: An Emerging Antiglioma Armamentarium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eileen S.; Kim, Jennifer E.; Patel, Mira A.; Mangraviti, Antonella; Ruzevick, Jacob; Lim, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoints have come to the forefront of cancer therapies as a powerful and promising strategy to stimulate antitumor T cell activity. Results from recent preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate how checkpoint inhibition can be utilized to prevent tumor immune evasion and both local and systemic immune suppression. This review encompasses the key immune checkpoints that have been found to play a role in tumorigenesis and, more specifically, gliomagenesis. The review will provide an overview of the existing preclinical and clinical data, antitumor efficacy, and clinical applications for each checkpoint with respect to GBM, as well as a summary of combination therapies with chemotherapy and radiation. PMID:26881264

  11. Investigative Operations: Use of Covert Testing to Identify Security Vulnerabilities and Fraud, Waste, and Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-14

    including evaluations of controls over radioactive materials and security at America’s borders, airport security , sales of sensitive and surplus...officers. The details of this March 2006 report are classified; however, TSA has authorized this limited discussion. Airport Security Testing Sale of...of covert security vulnerability testing of numerous airports across the country. During these covert tests, our investigators passed through airport

  12. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  13. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  14. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  15. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  16. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States.

    PubMed

    Soong, Andrea; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pang, Yuanjie; Lopez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Stillman, Frances A

    2016-09-28

    Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11) and the US (10). Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities.

  18. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Andrea; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pang, Yuanjie; Lopez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Stillman, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11) and the US (10). Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities. PMID:27690072

  19. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  20. Integrated Airport Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, S.

    1998-01-01

    The current air traffic environment in airport terminal areas experiences substantial delays when weather conditions deteriorate to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Research activity at NASA has culminated in the development, flight test and demonstration of a prototype Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) system. A NASA led industry team and the FAA developed the system which integrated airport surface surveillance systems, aeronautical data links, DGPS navigation, automation systems, and controller and flight deck displays. The LVLASO system was demonstrated at the Hartsfield-Atlanta International Airport using a Boeing 757-200 aircraft during August, 1997. This report documents the contractors role in this testing particularly in the area of data link and DGPS navigation.

  1. Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities in, and Alternatives for, Preboard Screening Security Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-25

    establishing the certification program. This regulation is particularly significant because it is to include requirements mandated by the Airport Security Improvement...Assessment of Airport Security Screener Performance and Retention, Sept. 15, 2000. Page 8 GAO-01-1171T Criteria for Assessing Shifting responsibility for...airline and airport security officials to assess each option for reassigning screening responsibility against the key criteria- Specifically, we asked

  2. Intellectual property issues of immune checkpoint inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are drugs that interfere with tumor escape responses. Some members of this class are already approved, and expected to be blockbusters in the future. Many companies have developed patent activities in this field. This article focuses on the patent landscape, and discusses key players and cases related to immune checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26466763

  3. 77 FR 23598 - Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List: Addition of Recently Approved Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport Southwest Florida.../Fort Worth International Airport. Fort Lauderdale, Florida Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood...

  4. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens. 234.4 Section 234.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for...

  5. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens. 234.4 Section 234.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for...

  6. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens. 234.4 Section 234.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for...

  7. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens. 234.4 Section 234.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for...

  8. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens. 234.4 Section 234.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for...

  9. Development of Earthquake Emergency Response Plan for Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu, Nepal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Visual Assessment 37. SME Subject Matter Experts 38. SOP Standard Operating Procedure 39. TIACAO Tribhuvan International Airport Civil Aviation...CAAN, TIA and others. The plan incorporated information, results, and recommendations from Subject Matter Experts ( SME ) from the Federal Highway...Flight Rules (VFR) in daylight and Instrument Flight Rule ( IFR ). A. Restore Airport Perimeter Security B. Restore Flight Operations a

  10. Overlapped checkpointing with hardware assist

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Christopher J; Nunez, James A; Wang, Jun

    2009-01-01

    We present a new approach to handling the demanding I/O workload incurred during checkpoint writes encountered in High Performance Computing. Prior efforts to improve performance have been primarily bound by mechanical limitations of the hard drive. Our research surpasses this limitation by providing a method to: (1) write checkpoint data to a high-speed, non-volatile buffer, and (2) asynchronously write this data to permanent storage while resuming computation. This removes the hard drive from the critical data path because our I/O node based buffers isolate the compute nodes from the storage servers. This solution is feasible because of industry declines in cost for high-capacity, non-volatile storage technologies. Testing was conducted on a small-scale cluster to prove the design, and then scaled at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results show a definitive speedup factor for select workloads over writing directly to a typical global parallel file system; the Panasas ActiveScale File System.

  11. Airport Land Banking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    the Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study with respect to the feasibility, practicability, and cost of land bank planning and development...1977. Airport land banking was studied and analyzed from several different perspectives, including legal, economic, and financial, and the results of this study are reported in this document. (Author)

  12. Checkpoint inhibitors in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jezeršek Novaković, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma is unusual among cancers in that it consists of a small number of malignant Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells in a sea of immune system cells, including T cells. Most of these T cells are reversibly inactivated in different ways and their reactivation may induce a very strong immune response to cancer cells. One way of reactivation of T cells is with antibodies blocking the CTLA-4 and especially with antibodies directed against PD-1 or the PD-L1 ligand thereby reversing the tumor-induced downregulation of T-cell function and augmenting antitumor immune activity at the priming (CTLA-4) or tissue effector (PD-1) phase. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been evidenced as an additional treatment option with substantial effectiveness and acceptable toxicity in heavily pretreated patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma. Particularly, PD-1 blockade with nivolumab and pembrolizumab has demonstrated significant single-agent activity in this select population.

  13. Specific-token effects in screening tasks: possible implications for aviation security.

    PubMed

    Smith, J David; Redford, Joshua S; Washburn, David A; Taglialatela, Lauren A

    2005-11-01

    Screeners at airport security checkpoints perform an important categorization task in which they search for threat items in complex x-ray images. But little is known about how the processes of categorization stand up to visual complexity. The authors filled this research gap with screening tasks in which participants searched for members of target categories in visual displays. The authors found that when targets were sampled with replacement and repetition, participant screeners relied on recognizing familiar targets and had great difficulty using category-general knowledge. The authors observed a "heartbeat" in detection performance--it improved while test images repeated but dropped sharply when unfamiliar targets from the same categories appeared. This reliance on familiarity illuminates the processes of categorization under conditions of visual complexity and suggests limits on those processes. This reliance also has implications for the training and evaluation of screeners in the field.

  14. 14 CFR 221.52 - Airport to airport application, accessorial services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport to airport application, accessorial... Charges § 221.52 Airport to airport application, accessorial services. Tariffs shall specify whether or not the fares therein include services in addition to airport-to-airport transportation....

  15. 14 CFR 221.52 - Airport to airport application, accessorial services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport to airport application, accessorial... Charges § 221.52 Airport to airport application, accessorial services. Tariffs shall specify whether or not the fares therein include services in addition to airport-to-airport transportation....

  16. New MagViz Airport Liquid Analysis System Undergoes Testing

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, December 16, 2008—An innovative application of a technology first used for medical imaging may enhance airport security if Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists are successful. Los Alamos technologists have adapted Magnetic Res

  17. Supersonics--Airport Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2007-01-01

    At this, the first year-end meeting of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, an overview of the Airport Noise discipline of the Supersonics Project leads the presentation of technical plans and achievements in this area of the Project. The overview starts by defining the Technical Challenges targeted by Airport Noise efforts, and the Approaches planned to meet these challenges. These are fleshed out in Elements, namely Prediction, Diagnostics, and Engineering, and broken down into Tasks. The Tasks level is where individual researchers' work is defined and from whence the technical presentations to follow this presentation come. This overview also presents the Milestones accomplished to date and to be completed in the next year. Finally, the NASA Research Announcement cooperative agreement activities are covered and tied to the Tasks and Milestones.

  18. Immune checkpoint therapy for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Henrik; Andersson, Roland; Bauden, Monika; Hammes, Sarah; Holdenrieder, Stefan; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Novel treatment modalities are necessary for pancreatic cancer. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibition has shown effect in other solid tumors, and could have a place in pancreatic cancer treatment. Most available clinical studies on immune checkpoint inhibitors for pancreatic cancer are not yet completed and are still recruiting patients. Among the completed trials, there have been findings of a preliminary nature such as delayed disease progression and enhanced overall survival after treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors in mono- or combination therapy. However, due to small sample sizes, major results are not yet identifiable. The present article provides a clinical overview of immune checkpoint inhibition in pancreatic cancer. PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov and American Society of Clinical Oncology’s meeting abstracts were systematically searched for relevant clinical studies. Four articles, five abstracts and 25 clinical trials were identified and analyzed in detail. PMID:27920468

  19. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  20. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field (LZU), Lawrenceville, Georgia. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has completed its review of the Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field (LZU)...

  1. 78 FR 7476 - Airport Improvement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program AGENCY: Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. ACTION: Invitation to comment on draft FAA Order 5100-38, Airport Improvement...-38D, Airport Improvement Program Handbook. When finalized, this Order will replace Order...

  2. Intelligent building system for airport

    SciTech Connect

    Ancevic, M.

    1997-11-01

    The Munich airport uses a state-of-the-art intelligent building management system to control systems such as HVAC, runway lights, baggage handling, etc. Planning the new Munich II international airport provided a unique opportunity to use the latest state-of-the-art technical systems, while integrating their control through a single intelligent building management system. Opened in 1992, the airport is Germany`s second-largest airport after Frankfurt. The airport is staffed by 16,000 employees and can handle 17 million passengers a year. The sprawling site encompasses more than 120 buildings. The airport`s distributed control system is specifically designed to optimize the complex`s unique range of functions, while providing a high degree of comfort, convenience and safety for airport visitors. With the capacity to control 200,000 points, this system controls more than 112,000 points and integrates 13 major subsystems from nine different vendors. It provides convenient, accessible control of everything including the complex`s power plant, HVAC Control, the terminal`s people-moving functions, interior lighting controls, runway lights, baggage forwarding systems, elevators, and boarding bridges. The airport was named 1993 intelligent building of the year by the Intelligent Buildings Institute Foundation. Its building management system is a striking example of the degree to which a building complex`s functions can be integrated for greater operational control and efficiency.

  3. Transportation Security Administration in Defense of the National Aviation Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-12

    evidence suggests a hole exists within our airport security process. That hole may be caused by an over-reliance on technology and a blatant disregard of...environment enables BDOs to operate with increased effectiveness.11 Technology. Three major tools sit at the airport security technology forefront...Through Covert Testing of TSA’s Passenger Screening Process, GAO‐08‐48T, 15 Nov 07, 2. 16 Orlando News, “TSA Workers Skipping Orlando Airport Security Causes

  4. Toward an optimal online checkpoint solution under a two-level HPC checkpoint model

    DOE PAGES

    Di, Sheng; Robert, Yves; Vivien, Frederic; ...

    2016-03-29

    The traditional single-level checkpointing method suffers from significant overhead on large-scale platforms. Hence, multilevel checkpointing protocols have been studied extensively in recent years. The multilevel checkpoint approach allows different levels of checkpoints to be set (each with different checkpoint overheads and recovery abilities), in order to further improve the fault tolerance performance of extreme-scale HPC applications. How to optimize the checkpoint intervals for each level, however, is an extremely difficult problem. In this paper, we construct an easy-to-use two-level checkpoint model. Checkpoint level 1 deals with errors with low checkpoint/recovery overheads such as transient memory errors, while checkpoint level 2more » deals with hardware crashes such as node failures. Compared with previous optimization work, our new optimal checkpoint solution offers two improvements: (1) it is an online solution without requiring knowledge of the job length in advance, and (2) it shows that periodic patterns are optimal and determines the best pattern. We evaluate the proposed solution and compare it with the most up-to-date related approaches on an extreme-scale simulation testbed constructed based on a real HPC application execution. Simulation results show that our proposed solution outperforms other optimized solutions and can improve the performance significantly in some cases. Specifically, with the new solution the wall-clock time can be reduced by up to 25.3% over that of other state-of-the-art approaches. Lastly, a brute-force comparison with all possible patterns shows that our solution is always within 1% of the best pattern in the experiments.« less

  5. Toward an optimal online checkpoint solution under a two-level HPC checkpoint model

    SciTech Connect

    Di, Sheng; Robert, Yves; Vivien, Frederic; Cappello, Franck

    2016-03-29

    The traditional single-level checkpointing method suffers from significant overhead on large-scale platforms. Hence, multilevel checkpointing protocols have been studied extensively in recent years. The multilevel checkpoint approach allows different levels of checkpoints to be set (each with different checkpoint overheads and recovery abilities), in order to further improve the fault tolerance performance of extreme-scale HPC applications. How to optimize the checkpoint intervals for each level, however, is an extremely difficult problem. In this paper, we construct an easy-to-use two-level checkpoint model. Checkpoint level 1 deals with errors with low checkpoint/recovery overheads such as transient memory errors, while checkpoint level 2 deals with hardware crashes such as node failures. Compared with previous optimization work, our new optimal checkpoint solution offers two improvements: (1) it is an online solution without requiring knowledge of the job length in advance, and (2) it shows that periodic patterns are optimal and determines the best pattern. We evaluate the proposed solution and compare it with the most up-to-date related approaches on an extreme-scale simulation testbed constructed based on a real HPC application execution. Simulation results show that our proposed solution outperforms other optimized solutions and can improve the performance significantly in some cases. Specifically, with the new solution the wall-clock time can be reduced by up to 25.3% over that of other state-of-the-art approaches. Lastly, a brute-force comparison with all possible patterns shows that our solution is always within 1% of the best pattern in the experiments.

  6. Securing General Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-03

    ajor vulnerabilities still exist in ... general aviation security ,”3 the commission did not further elaborate on the nature of those vulnerabilities...commercial operations may make them an attractive alternative to terrorists seeking to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in aviation security . In this...3, 2003, p. A7. 2 See Report of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee Working Group on General Aviation Airport Security (October 1, 2003); and

  7. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  8. Choreography of the 9-1-1 checkpoint complex: DDK puts a check on the checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Paek, Andrew L; Weinert, Ted

    2010-11-24

    Checkpoint proteins respond to DNA damage by halting the cell cycle until the damage is repaired. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Furuya et al. (2010) provide evidence that checkpoint proteins need to be removed from sites of damage in order to properly repair it.

  9. Asynchronous Checkpoint Migration with MRNet in the Scalable Checkpoint / Restart Library

    SciTech Connect

    Mohror, K; Moody, A; de Supinski, B R

    2012-03-20

    Applications running on today's supercomputers tolerate failures by periodically saving their state in checkpoint files on stable storage, such as a parallel file system. Although this approach is simple, the overhead of writing the checkpoints can be prohibitive, especially for large-scale jobs. In this paper, we present initial results of an enhancement to our Scalable Checkpoint/Restart Library (SCR). We employ MRNet, a tree-based overlay network library, to transfer checkpoints from the compute nodes to the parallel file system asynchronously. This enhancement increases application efficiency by removing the need for an application to block while checkpoints are transferred to the parallel file system. We show that the integration of SCR with MRNet can reduce the time spent in I/O operations by as much as 15x. However, our experiments exposed new scalability issues with our initial implementation. We discuss the sources of the scalability problems and our plans to address them.

  10. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  11. Prosthetic metal implants and airport metal detectors

    PubMed Central

    Dancey, A; Titley, OG

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Metal detectors have been present in airports and points of departure for some time. With the introduction of heightened security measures in response to fears of an increased threat of terrorism, they may become more prevalent in other public locations. The aim of this study was to ascertain which prosthetic devices activated metal detector devices used for security purposes. Methods A range of prosthetic devices used commonly in orthopaedic and plastic surgery procedures were passed through an arch metal detector at Birmingham Airport in the UK. Additionally, each item was passed under a wand detector. Items tested included expandable breast prostheses, plates used in wrist and hand surgery, screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ ligation clips and staples. Results No prostheses were detected by the arch detector. The expandable implants and wrist plates were the only devices detected by passing the wand directly over them. No device was detected by the wand when it was under cover of the axillary soft tissue. Screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ clips and staples were not detected under any of the study conditions. Conclusions Although unlikely to trigger a detector, it is possible that an expandable breast prosthesis or larger plate may do so. It is therefore best to warn patients of this so they can anticipate detection and further examination. PMID:23827294

  12. Airport Pricing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  13. 77 FR 4394 - Release of Airport Property: Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport Property: Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando, FL AGENCY... provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties 12.4 acres at the Orlando Executive Airport... restrictions of a Quitclaim Deed agreement, dated August 9, 1961, between the subject airport and the...

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of DNA Replication Checkpoint Activation

    PubMed Central

    Recolin, Bénédicte; van der Laan, Siem; Tsanov, Nikolay; Maiorano, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The major challenge of the cell cycle is to deliver an intact, and fully duplicated, genetic material to the daughter cells. To this end, progression of DNA synthesis is monitored by a feedback mechanism known as replication checkpoint that is untimely linked to DNA replication. This signaling pathway ensures coordination of DNA synthesis with cell cycle progression. Failure to activate this checkpoint in response to perturbation of DNA synthesis (replication stress) results in forced cell division leading to chromosome fragmentation, aneuploidy, and genomic instability. In this review, we will describe current knowledge of the molecular determinants of the DNA replication checkpoint in eukaryotic cells and discuss a model of activation of this signaling pathway crucial for maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:24705291

  15. Checkpoint triggering in a computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-09-06

    According to an aspect, a method for triggering creation of a checkpoint in a computer system includes executing a task in a processing node of the computer system and determining whether it is time to read a monitor associated with a metric of the task. The monitor is read to determine a value of the metric based on determining that it is time to read the monitor. A threshold for triggering creation of the checkpoint is determined based on the value of the metric. Based on determining that the value of the metric has crossed the threshold, the checkpoint including state data of the task is created to enable restarting execution of the task upon a restart operation.

  16. Immune checkpoint inhibitors for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Junsik; Kwon, Minsuk; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-11-01

    During immune responses antigen-specific T cells are regulated by several mechanisms, including through inhibitory receptors and regulatory T cells, to avoid excessive or persistent immune responses. These regulatory mechanisms, which are called 'immune checkpoints', suppress T cell responses, particularly in patients with chronic viral infections and cancer where viral antigens or tumor antigens persist for a long time and contribute to T cell exhaustion. Among these regulatory mechanisms, cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) are the most well-known receptors and both have been targeted for drug development. As a result, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 (or anti-PD-L1) antibodies were recently developed as immune checkpoint inhibitors for use in cancer treatments. In this review we describe several receptors that function as immunological checkpoints as well as the pharmaceuticals that target them.

  17. Aviation security: A system's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    For many years the aviation industry and airports operated with security methods and equipment common to most other large industrial complexes. At that time, the security systems primarily provided asset and property protection. However, soon after the first aircraft hijacking the focus of security shifted to emphasize the security requirements necessary for protecting the traveling public and the one feature of the aviation industry that makes it unique---the airplane. The airplane and its operation offered attractive opportunities for the homesick refugee, the mentally unstable person and the terrorist wanting to make a political statement. The airport and its aircraft were the prime targets requiring enhanced security against this escalated threat. In response, the FAA, airport operators and air carriers began to develop plans for increasing security and assigning responsibilities for implementation.

  18. Final Report to President Clinton: White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    nationwide non-profit security corporation, funded by the airlines, to handle airport security . This concept, under consideration by the major...Canines are used to detect explosives in many important areas, but only sparingly in airport security . The Commission is convinced that an increase in...testing should also be increased by the FAA, and incorporated as a regular part of airport security action plans. Frequent, sophisticated attempts by

  19. HOMELAND SECURITY: Challenges and Strategies in Addressing Short- and Long-Term National Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    air travel has already prompted attention to chronic problems with airport security that we and others have been pointing to for years. Moreover, the...capital for certain areas such as intelligence, public health and airport security will also be necessary as well to foster and maintain the skill...Weaknesses in Airport Security and Options for Assigning Screening Responsibilities, (GAO-01-1165T, Sept. 21, 2001). Aviation Security: Terrorist Acts

  20. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  1. 14 CFR 125.49 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport requirements. 125.49 Section 125.49... Requirements § 125.49 Airport requirements. (a) No certificate holder may use any airport unless it is adequate...) No pilot of an airplane carrying passengers at night may take off from, or land on, an airport...

  2. 49 CFR 27.71 - Airport facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport facilities. 27.71 Section 27.71... Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.71 Airport facilities. (a) This section applies... financial assistance at a commercial service airport, including parking and ground transportation...

  3. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airports. 141.38 Section 141.38 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.38 Airports. (a) An... has continuous use of each airport at which training flights originate. (b) Each airport used...

  4. 49 CFR 27.71 - Airport facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport facilities. 27.71 Section 27.71... Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.71 Airport facilities. (a) This section applies... financial assistance at a commercial service airport, including parking and ground transportation...

  5. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  6. 14 CFR 125.49 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport requirements. 125.49 Section 125.49... Requirements § 125.49 Airport requirements. (a) No certificate holder may use any airport unless it is adequate...) No pilot of an airplane carrying passengers at night may take off from, or land on, an airport...

  7. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airports. 141.38 Section 141.38 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.38 Airports. (a) An... has continuous use of each airport at which training flights originate. (b) Each airport used...

  8. Airport Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airports. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers at airports, while the main part of the booklet outlines the following nine job categories: airport director, assistant airport director, engineers, support personnel,…

  9. 75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Mu oz Mar n International Airport (SJU), San Juan, Puerto Rico. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has completed its review of the Luis Mu oz Mar n International Airport International Airport... submitted a preliminary application to the Airport Privatization Pilot Program for Luis Mu oz Mar...

  10. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  11. Checkpointing and Recovery in Distributed and Database Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    A transaction-consistent global checkpoint of a database records a state of the database which reflects the effect of only completed transactions and not the results of any partially executed transactions. This thesis establishes the necessary and sufficient conditions for a checkpoint of a data item (or the checkpoints of a set of data items) to…

  12. Identifying changing aviation threat environments within an adaptive Homeland Security Advisory System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Adrian J; Jacobson, Sheldon H

    2012-02-01

    A critical component of aviation security consists of screening passengers and baggage to protect airports and aircraft from terrorist threats. Advancements in screening device technology have increased the ability to detect these threats; however, specifying the operational configurations of these devices in response to changes in the threat environment can become difficult. This article proposes to use Fisher information as a statistical measure for detecting changes in the threat environment. The perceived risk of passengers, according to prescreening information and behavior analysis, is analyzed as the passengers sequentially enter the security checkpoint. The alarm responses from the devices used to detect threats are also analyzed to monitor significant changes in the frequency of threat items uncovered. The key results are that this information-based measure can be used within the Homeland Security Advisory System to indicate changes in threat conditions in real time, and provide the flexibility of security screening detection devices to responsively and automatically adapt operational configurations to these changing threat conditions.

  13. 78 FR 63562 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property at Charleston International Airport, Charleston...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property at Charleston International Airport, Charleston, South Carolina AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... sale of three parcels totaling 266.954-acres of airport property located at the...

  14. 77 FR 51948 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Chapter 1 Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property; Correction AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... paragraph in the Proposed Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property that was...

  15. Auctioning Airport Slots?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruyer, Nicolas; Lenoir, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    The current allocation of slots on congested European airports constitutes an obstacle to the effective liberalisation of air transportation undertaken in Europe. With a view to favouring effluent slot utilisation and competition, as is the goal of the Euopean commission, we propose to use a market mechanism, based on temporary" utilisation licences. In order to allocate those licences, we propose and describe an iterated combinatorial auction mechanism where a percentage of licences would be reallocated each season. A secondary market would also be set up in order to reallocate slots during a season. Since a combinatorial auction involve a complex optimisation procedure, we describe how it can be made to work in the case of auctions.

  16. Accomplishments under the Airport Improvement Program: Fiscal Year 1990 (Ninth Annual Report)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    preserving and enhancing capacity, safety, and security and carrying out noise compatibility planning and programs at primary and reliever airports...GENERAL AVIATION) FOREST 01 $341,537 RECONSTRUCT RUNWAY, TAXIWAY AND APRON FOREST MUNICIPAL (GENERAL AVIATION) 58 TABLE II AIRPORTS GRANT-IN-AID PROGRAM...ASSISTANCE WYOMING 0 S7 $34,784 CONDUCT STATE SYSTEM PLAN UPDATE el STATE OF WYOMING (CONTINUOUS) (SYSTEM PLAN) AFTON 05 $27,000 CONDUCT MASTER PLAN

  17. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3 checkpoint gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, N J; Holtzman, D A; Flaggs, G; Keegan, K S; DeMaggio, A; Ford, J C; Hoekstra, M; Carr, A M

    1996-01-01

    The rad3 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is required for checkpoint pathways that respond to DNA damage and replication blocks. We report the complete rad3 gene sequence and show that rad3 is the homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ESR1 (MEC1/SAD3) and Drosophila melanogaster mei-41 checkpoint genes. This establishes Rad3/Mec1 as the only conserved protein which is required for all the DNA structure checkpoints in both yeast model systems. Rad3 is an inessential member of the 'lipid kinase' subclass of kinases which includes the ATM protein defective in ataxia telangiectasia patients. Mutational analysis indicates that the kinase domain is required for Rad3 function, and immunoprecipitation of overexpressed Rad3 demonstrates an associated protein kinase activity. The previous observation that rad3 mutations can be rescued by a truncated clone lacking the kinase domain may be due to intragenic complementation. Consistent with this, biochemical data suggest that Rad3 exists in a complex containing multiple copies of Rad3. We have identified a novel human gene (ATR) whose product is closely related to Rad3/Esr1p/Mei-41. ATR can functionally complement esr1-1 radiation sensitivity in S. cerevisiae. Together, the structural conservation and functional complementation suggest strongly that the mechanisms underlying the DNA structure checkpoints are conserved throughout evolution. Images PMID:8978690

  18. Airport surface operations requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groce, John L.; Vonbokern, Greg J.; Wray, Rick L.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Airport Surface Operations Requirements Analysis (ASORA) study. This study was conducted in response to task 24 of NASA Contract NAS1-18027. This study is part of NASA LaRC's Low Visibility Surface Operations program, which is designed to eliminate the constraints on all-weather arrival/departure operations due to the airport/aircraft ground system. The goal of this program is to provide the capability for safe and efficient aircraft operations on the airport surface during low visibility conditions down to zero. The ASORA study objectives were to (1) develop requirements for operation on the airport surface in visibilities down to zero; (2) survey and evaluate likely technologies; (3) develop candidate concepts to meet the requirements; and (4) select the most suitable concept based on cost/benefit factors.

  19. 49 CFR 1544.231 - Airport-approved and exclusive area personnel identification systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport-approved and exclusive area personnel identification systems. 1544.231 Section 1544.231 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION...

  20. 49 CFR 1544.231 - Airport-approved and exclusive area personnel identification systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airport-approved and exclusive area personnel identification systems. 1544.231 Section 1544.231 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION...

  1. 49 CFR 1544.231 - Airport-approved and exclusive area personnel identification systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport-approved and exclusive area personnel identification systems. 1544.231 Section 1544.231 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION...

  2. 49 CFR 1544.231 - Airport-approved and exclusive area personnel identification systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport-approved and exclusive area personnel identification systems. 1544.231 Section 1544.231 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION...

  3. 49 CFR 1544.231 - Airport-approved and exclusive area personnel identification systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airport-approved and exclusive area personnel identification systems. 1544.231 Section 1544.231 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION...

  4. Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger Prescreening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-30

    U.S. port of entry or at airport security checkpoints prior U.S. air carrier flights. For these purposes, CBP administers the Automated Targeting...Passenger Screening at Airport Security Checkpoints ................................. 14 9/11 Commission Recommendations and CAPPS II...individuals at either international ports of entries upon arrival at a U.S. port of entry or at airport security checkpoints prior U.S. air carrier

  5. Detailed Modeling and Evaluation of a Scalable Multilevel Checkpointing System

    SciTech Connect

    Mohror, Kathryn; Moody, Adam; Bronevetsky, Greg; de Supinski, Bronis R.

    2014-09-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) systems are growing more powerful by utilizing more components. As the system mean time before failure correspondingly drops, applications must checkpoint frequently to make progress. But, at scale, the cost of checkpointing becomes prohibitive. A solution to this problem is multilevel checkpointing, which employs multiple types of checkpoints in a single run. Moreover, lightweight checkpoints can handle the most common failure modes, while more expensive checkpoints can handle severe failures. We designed a multilevel checkpointing library, the Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) library, that writes lightweight checkpoints to node-local storage in addition to the parallel file system. We present probabilistic Markov models of SCR's performance. We show that on future large-scale systems, SCR can lead to a gain in machine efficiency of up to 35 percent, and reduce the load on the parallel file system by a factor of two. In addition, we predict that checkpoint scavenging, or only writing checkpoints to the parallel file system on application termination, can reduce the load on the parallel file system by 20 × on today's systems and still maintain high application efficiency.

  6. Wireless Channel Characterization in the Airport Surface Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neville, Joshua T.

    2004-01-01

    Given the anticipated increase in air traffic in the coming years, modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS) is a necessity. Part of this modernization effort will include updating current communication, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) systems to deal with the increased traffic as well as developing advanced CNS technologies for the systems. An example of such technology is the integrated CNS (ICNS) network being developed by the Advanced CNS Architecture and Systems Technology (ACAST) group for use in the airport surface environment. The ICNS network would be used to convey voice/data between users in a secure and reliable manner. The current surface system only supports voice and does so through an obsolete physical infrastructure. The old system is vulnerable to outages and costly to maintain. The proposed ICNS network will include a wireless radio link. To ensure optimal performance, a thorough and accurate characterization of the channel across which the link would operate is necessary. The channel is the path the signal takes from the transmitter to the receiver and is prone to various forms of interference. Channel characterization involves a combination of analysis, simulation, and measurement. My work this summer was divided into four tasks. The first task required compiling and reviewing reference material that dealt with the characterization and modeling of aeronautical channels. The second task involved developing a systematic approach that could be used to group airports into classes, e.g. small airfields, medium airports, large open airports, large cluttered airports, etc. The third task consisted of implementing computer simulations of existing channel models. The fourth task entailed measuring possible interference sources in the airport surface environment via a spectrum analyzer.

  7. The spindle checkpoint and chromosome segregation in meiosis.

    PubMed

    Gorbsky, Gary J

    2015-07-01

    The spindle checkpoint is a key regulator of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Its function is to prevent precocious anaphase onset before chromosomes have achieved bipolar attachment to the spindle. The spindle checkpoint comprises a complex set of signaling pathways that integrate microtubule dynamics, biomechanical forces at the kinetochores, and intricate regulation of protein interactions and post-translational modifications. Historically, many key observations that gave rise to the initial concepts of the spindle checkpoint were made in meiotic systems. In contrast with mitosis, the two distinct chromosome segregation events of meiosis present a special challenge for the regulation of checkpoint signaling. Preservation of fidelity in chromosome segregation in meiosis, controlled by the spindle checkpoint, also has a significant impact in human health. This review highlights the contributions from meiotic systems in understanding the spindle checkpoint as well as the role of checkpoint signaling in controlling the complex divisions of meiosis.

  8. Compiler-Enhanced Incremental Checkpointing for OpenMP Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; Marques, D; Pingali, K; McKee, S; Rugina, R

    2009-02-18

    As modern supercomputing systems reach the peta-flop performance range, they grow in both size and complexity. This makes them increasingly vulnerable to failures from a variety of causes. Checkpointing is a popular technique for tolerating such failures, enabling applications to periodically save their state and restart computation after a failure. Although a variety of automated system-level checkpointing solutions are currently available to HPC users, manual application-level checkpointing remains more popular due to its superior performance. This paper improves performance of automated checkpointing via a compiler analysis for incremental checkpointing. This analysis, which works with both sequential and OpenMP applications, significantly reduces checkpoint sizes and enables asynchronous checkpointing.

  9. 76 FR 18618 - Operating Limitations at Newark Liberty International Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Operating Limitations at Newark Liberty International Airport AGENCY... amends the Order Limiting Operations at Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) that published on May... Management Rule for LaGuardia Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, and Newark...

  10. Accomplishments under the Airport Improvement Program: Fiscal Year 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Airport Program. Of the remaining discretionary funds, 75 percent is to be used for preserving and enhancing capacity, safety, and security and carrying...EQUIPMENT ACQUIRE LAND FOR APPROACHES FOREST CITY 02 S531.450 REHABILITATE AND OVERLAY RUNWAY FOREST CITY MUNICIPAL (GENERAL AVIATION) FORT DODGE 08...IMPROVE RUNWAY SAFETY GENERAL AVIATION) AREA; RECONSTRUICT. EXTEND AMD LIGHT TAXIWAYS W YOM I NOa AFTON 06 S210.000 OVERLAY RUNWlAY. IMPROVE RUNWAY

  11. Survey of Technologies for the Airport Border of the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    decisions based upon the information presented. Airport Border of the Future March 2014 Page 2 of 74 Table of Contents 1 Executive Summary...Contractor and the contents do not necessarily have the approval or endorsement of the Department of National Defence of Canada. DRDC-RDDC-2014-C...the Canadian Safety and Security Program (CSSP), an outcomes- based program of S&T projects with the mission to strengthen Canada’s ability to

  12. Protecting America: Reorganizing the Nation’s Security Forces to Ensure the Protection of Our Critical Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-19

    As an example, before the terrorist hijackings of September 11, 2001, airport security was the responsibility of private carriers, state and local...mobilized for airport security , critical site protection, and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) detection, and more than 91,000 HOMELAND SECURITY...Preemptive and Retaliatory Strikes Counter Drugs Missile Defense Military Civil Law Enforcement Airport Security Local and State Consequence Management

  13. Semiannual Report to Congress on the Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-30

    and airport security measures in effect. Section V of this report provides a smry of firearms which were detected at screening points under suspicious...with the Secretary of State concerning threats, and (3) the inclusion of a sumnmary on foreign airport security in the Semiannual Report to Congress on...International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to embark inediately upon an intensified program aimed at responding to the need for enhanced airport security . As

  14. 14 CFR 139.205 - Amendment of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment of Airport Certification Manual... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Airport Certification Manual § 139.205 Amendment of Airport Certification Manual. (a) Under § 139.3, the Regional Airports Division Manager may amend any Airport Certification...

  15. 14 CFR 139.205 - Amendment of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amendment of Airport Certification Manual... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Airport Certification Manual § 139.205 Amendment of Airport Certification Manual. (a) Under § 139.3, the Regional Airports Division Manager may amend any Airport Certification...

  16. 14 CFR 156.4 - Airport and project eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... participating State shall administer the airport development and airport planning projects for airports within... grant agreement for integrated airport system planning, projects related to any primary airport, or any... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport and project eligibility....

  17. 14 CFR 156.4 - Airport and project eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... participating State shall administer the airport development and airport planning projects for airports within... grant agreement for integrated airport system planning, projects related to any primary airport, or any... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport and project eligibility....

  18. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Massachusetts L.G. Hanscom Field. Broomfield, Colorado Jefferson County Airport. Carlsbad, California McClellan... International Airport. Englewood, Colorado Centennial Airport. Fort Worth, Texas Fort Worth Alliance Airport... Airport. Mascoutah, Illinois MidAmerica St. Louis Airport. McKinney, Texas Collin County Regional...

  19. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Colorado Jefferson County Airport. Carlsbad, California McClellan-Palomar Airport. Dallas, Texas Dallas..., Colorado Centennial Airport. Fort Worth, Texas Fort Worth Alliance Airport. Fresno, California Fresno... MidAmerica St. Louis Airport. McKinney, Texas Collin County Regional Airport. Melbourne,...

  20. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Colorado Jefferson County Airport. Carlsbad, California McClellan-Palomar Airport. Dallas, Texas Dallas..., Colorado Centennial Airport. Fort Worth, Texas Fort Worth Alliance Airport. Fresno, California Fresno... MidAmerica St. Louis Airport. McKinney, Texas Collin County Regional Airport. Melbourne,...

  1. Semiannual Report to Congress on the Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-07

    hijackings since 1973 during any comparable 6-month period. (See Exhibits 1, 2, and 3) Air carrier and airport security measures required by the FAA have...enforcement support for airline passenger boarding and airport security measures. The passengers, who are the principal beneficiaries of the security program

  2. [Cancer immunotherapy by immuno-checkpoint blockade].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    As cancer immunotherapies utilizing anti-tumor T-cell responses, immuno-checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell immunotherapy have recently achieved durable responses even in advanced cancer patients with metastases. Administration of antibodies on the T-cell surface, CTLA-4 and PD-1 (or PD-1 ligand PD-L1), resulted in tumor regression of not only melanoma and renal cell cancer which were known to be relatively sensitive to immunotherapy, but also various malignancies including lung, bladder, ovarian, gastric, and head and neck cancers, as well as hematological malignancies such as Hodgkin and B-cell malignant lymphomas. These findings have changed the status of immunotherapy in the development of cancer treatments. Currently, development of combinations employing cancer immunotherapy with immuno-checkpoint blockade, as well as personalized cancer immunotherapy based on the evaluation of pretreatment immune status, are in progress.

  3. Perfect Rainbow Tradeoff with Checkpoints Revisited

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The rainbow tradeoff is an algorithm for inverting one-way functions that is widely used in practice to recover passwords from unsalted password hashes. An auxiliary technique referred to as checkpoints can be applied to the rainbow tradeoff to reduce the time taken for these inversions. Working out a rigorous theory that can explain and predict the effects of this technique involves delicate manipulations of the random function and is thus a challenging task. In this work, we compare three existing theoretical analyses of the checkpoint technique. We first demonstrate that the claims made by the three works are incompatible with each other. We then carry out experiments designed to highlight these incompatibilities, obtaining experimental evidences that show just one of the three analyses to be correct. Finally, we discuss the obscure theoretical errors made by the two inadequate analyses. PMID:27855190

  4. Targeting immune checkpoints in malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tete; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jingtao

    2017-01-01

    Malignant glioma is the most common and a highly aggressive cancer in the central nervous system (CNS). Cancer immunotherapy, strategies to boost the bodys anti-cancer immune responses instead of directly targeting tumor cells, recently achieved great success in treating several human solid tumors. Although once considered immune privileged and devoid of normal immunological functions, CNS is now considered a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, featuring the recent progresses in neurobiology and neuroimmunology and a highly immunosuppressive state in malignant glioma. In this review, we focus on immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically, antagonizing monoclonal antibodies for programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We discuss advances in the working mechanisms of these immune checkpoint molecules, their status in malignant glioma, and current preclinical and clinical trials targeting these molecules in malignant glioma. PMID:27756892

  5. Renal effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Izzedine, Hassan; Mateus, Christine; Boutros, Céline; Robert, Caroline; Rouvier, Philippe; Amoura, Zahir; Mathian, Alexis

    2016-12-26

    Recent advances in immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI) development have led to major improvements in oncology patient outcomes. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) are two essential immune checkpoint receptors. Ipilimumab and tremelimumab (anti-CTLA-4-blocking antibodies) and pembrolizumab and nivolumab (antibodies targeting PD-1 receptors) have already been approved by US Food and Drug Administration in several malignancies. Two different forms of ICPI-induced renal damage have been identified, including acute (granulomatous) tubulointerstitial nephritis and immune complex glomerulonephritis. The observed acute renal damage can be reversed upon ICPI drug discontinuation and renal function can recover back to normal following the introduction of systemic corticosteroid treatment. Any delay in treating this complication could result in definitive and irreversible renal injury.

  6. 78 FR 22024 - Request To Release Airport Property at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL), Oakley, Kansas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Request To Release Airport Property at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL... proposes to rule and invites public comment on the release of land at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL... following address: Lynn D. Martin, Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration,...

  7. 14 CFR 121.445 - Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports. 121.445 Section 121.445 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Qualifications § 121.445 Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports. (a)...

  8. 75 FR 57829 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports... Proposed Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property that was published in the Federal... and clarify FAA policy concerning through-the-fence access to a Federally obligated airport from...

  9. 77 FR 3031 - Release of Airport Property: Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport Property: Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL AGENCY... FAA hereby provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties, approximately 3.407 acres, at the Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL from the conditions, reservations, and restrictions...

  10. 14 CFR 121.445 - Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports. 121.445 Section 121.445 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Qualifications § 121.445 Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports. (a)...

  11. Programmed death 1 immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Meghna S; Hoffner, Brianna; Winkelmann, Jennifer L; Abbott, Maura E; Hamid, Omid; Carvajal, Richard D

    2015-12-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint that provides inhibitory signals to the immune system in order to modulate the activity of T cells in peripheral tissues and maintain self-tolerance in the setting of infection and inflammation. In cancer, the immune checkpoints are exploited so that the tumor cells are able to evade the immune system. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a type of cancer immunotherapy that targets pathways such as PD-1 in order to reinvigorate and enhance the immune response against tumor cells. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved 2 PD-1 inhibitors, nivolumab and pembrolizumab, and several others are under investigation. Although PD-1 inhibitors have demonstrated activity in many different types of malignancies, FDA approval has been granted only in melanoma and in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Identifying biomarkers that can predict response to PD-1 inhibitors is critical to maximizing the benefit of these agents. Future directions for PD-1 inhibitors include investigation of combination therapies, use in malignancies other than melanoma and NSCLC, and refinement of biomarkers.

  12. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  13. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  14. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  15. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  16. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  17. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general...

  18. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general...

  19. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport requirements. 135.229 Section 135... Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.229 Airport requirements. (a) No certificate holder may use any airport unless it is adequate for the proposed operation, considering such items as...

  20. 32 CFR 644.423 - Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Airport development. 644.423 Section 644.423... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.423 Airport... carrying out a project for airport development under this subchapter, or for the operation of any...

  1. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport requirements. 135.229 Section 135... Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.229 Airport requirements. (a) No certificate holder may use any airport unless it is adequate for the proposed operation, considering such items as...

  2. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of new... used by turbojet or piston-type aircraft must notify the affected airport and the Federal...

  3. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of new... used by turbojet or piston-type aircraft must notify the affected airport and the Federal...

  4. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of new... used by turbojet or piston-type aircraft must notify the affected airport and the Federal...

  5. Implementation of noise budgets for civil airports

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    An increasing number of airports are faced with the need for establishing a lid on the noise from aircraft operations and for developing programs for reducing airport noise on a year-to-year basis. As an example, the California Airport Noise Standard acts to impose such programs on a number of airports in California. Any airport faced with the need to establish a quantitative reduction of noise obviously wants to achieve this reduction with the least impact on numbers of operations and reduction in air transportation services to the community. A reduction in noise and an increase in operations usually can be achieved only by encouraging use of the quietest aircraft available and, further adding incentives for operating procedures that minimize noise. One approach in administering airport noise reduction is to adopt an airport noise budget. As used in this paper, the noise budget concept implies that quantitative limits on the noise environment and on the noise contributions by major airport users will be established. Having methods for enforcing compliance with the airport budget for those airport users that exceed their budget will be established. Thus, the noise budget provides airport management, and major airport users, with quantitative measures for defining noise goals, and actual progress in achieving such goals.

  6. Planning, Management, and Economics of Airport Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, J.

    1972-01-01

    An overview of the role of the airport in the transportation complex and in the community is presented. The establishment of the airport including its requirements in regional planning and the operation of the airport as a social and economic force are discussed.

  7. Teaching Ideas Notebook: Student Airport Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Outlines, as recommended by the Aviation Distributors and Manufacturers Association, a cooperative program between schools and local airports. The Student Airport Tours Program for class and career study groups includes a field trip to an airport, free rides, and follow-up activities. (CS)

  8. Template based parallel checkpointing in a massively parallel computer system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Inglett, Todd Alan

    2009-01-13

    A method and apparatus for a template based parallel checkpoint save for a massively parallel super computer system using a parallel variation of the rsync protocol, and network broadcast. In preferred embodiments, the checkpoint data for each node is compared to a template checkpoint file that resides in the storage and that was previously produced. Embodiments herein greatly decrease the amount of data that must be transmitted and stored for faster checkpointing and increased efficiency of the computer system. Embodiments are directed to a parallel computer system with nodes arranged in a cluster with a high speed interconnect that can perform broadcast communication. The checkpoint contains a set of actual small data blocks with their corresponding checksums from all nodes in the system. The data blocks may be compressed using conventional non-lossy data compression algorithms to further reduce the overall checkpoint size.

  9. Efficient Checkpointing of Virtual Machines using Virtual Machine Introspection

    SciTech Connect

    Aderholdt, Ferrol; Han, Fang; Scott, Stephen L; Naughton, III, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing environments rely heavily on system-level virtualization. This is due to the inherent benefits of virtualization including fault tolerance through checkpoint/restart (C/R) mechanisms. Because clouds are the abstraction of large data centers and large data centers have a higher potential for failure, it is imperative that a C/R mechanism for such an environment provide minimal latency as well as a small checkpoint file size. Recently, there has been much research into C/R with respect to virtual machines (VM) providing excellent solutions to reduce either checkpoint latency or checkpoint file size. However, these approaches do not provide both. This paper presents a method of checkpointing VMs by utilizing virtual machine introspection (VMI). Through the usage of VMI, we are able to determine which pages of memory within the guest are used or free and are better able to reduce the amount of pages written to disk during a checkpoint. We have validated this work by using various benchmarks to measure the latency along with the checkpoint size. With respect to checkpoint file size, our approach results in file sizes within 24% or less of the actual used memory within the guest. Additionally, the checkpoint latency of our approach is up to 52% faster than KVM s default method.

  10. Teaching at Logan International Airport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    Although Terminal C at Logan airport does not look like a classroom, for about fifty minutes on this author's way back from Boston it was for him. Like many public spaces, Logan now has a very robust Wi-Fi wireless network and this enabled him to take advantage of a departure delay to "teach" his class. In 1970 when the author started…

  11. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    's understanding of the effects of sea level rise on coastal flooding at the airports and guiding decision-making in the selection of effective adaptation actions. Given the importance of these airports to transportation, this project is advancing security and continuity of national and international commerce well into the 21st century.

  12. Tactical Checkpoint: Hail/Warn Suppress/Stop (Poster)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-15

    distractor , optical suppression , human behavior, checkpoint, ambient light, driver suppression , human experimentation, light, paintball, obscuration...HAIL/WARN AND - SUPPRESS /STOP Poster Presented at the 2010 Directed Energies Professional Society Meeting, 15-19 November 2010. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...warning to a driver that is approaching a checkpoint. The laser, MCNC light, and the windshield obscuration were evaluated for their suppression

  13. Toward a systems-level view of mitotic checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Bashar

    2015-03-01

    Reproduction and natural selection are the key elements of life. In order to reproduce, the genetic material must be doubled, separated and placed into two new daughter cells, each containing a complete set of chromosomes and organelles. In mitosis, transition from one process to the next is guided by intricate surveillance mechanisms, known as the mitotic checkpoints. Dis-regulation of cell division through checkpoint malfunction can lead to developmental defects and contribute to the development or progression of tumors. This review approaches two important mitotic checkpoints, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC). The highly conserved spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) controls the onset of anaphase by preventing premature segregation of the sister chromatids of the duplicated genome, to the spindle poles. In contrast, the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC), in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ensures that during asymmetric cell division mitotic exit does not occur until the spindle is properly aligned with the cell polarity axis. Although there are no known homologs, there is indication that functionally similar checkpoints exist also in animal cells. This review can be regarded as an "executable model", which could be easily translated into various quantitative concrete models like Petri nets, ODEs, PDEs, or stochastic particle simulations. It can also function as a base for developing quantitative models explaining the interplay of the various components and proteins controlling mitosis.

  14. [Adverse events of immune checkpoint inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Foller, S; Oppel-Heuchel, H; Fetter, I; Winkler, Y; Grimm, M-O

    2017-04-01

    After immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy was approved for renal cell carcinoma last year, this new immune therapy has spread to urology. Further approvals (atezolizumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab) are expected in 2017 for metastatic urothelial carcinoma that has progressed following treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy. With expanding use of immune checkpoint inhibitors, experience in diagnosing and managing immune-mediated adverse events increases. Although of low incidence, grade 3/4 toxicities play a central role. Organs most common for immune-mediated adverse events are skin, liver (hepatitis), kidneys (nephritis), gastrointestinal tract (diarrhea and colitis), lungs (pneumonitis), and endocrine organs (hyper-, hypothyroidism and hypophysitis). Diagnostic workup includes routine laboratory tests (including liver function tests) and may be supplemented with hormone values. In cases of pneumonitis or hypophysitis, imaging (high-resolution CT, MRI) can confirm diagnoses. Immune-mediated toxicities are treated with therapy interruption and administration of corticosteroids (and in individual cases additional immunosuppression). Dose modification is not intended!

  15. Mammalian oocyte development: checkpoints for competence.

    PubMed

    Fair, Trudee

    2010-01-01

    During the lifespan of the female, biochemical changes occur in the ovarian environment. These changes are brought about by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors, including husbandry practices, production demands and disease, and can have a profound effect on ovarian oocyte quality and subsequent embryo development. Despite many investigations, there is no consensus regarding the time or period of follicular oocyte development that is particularly sensitive to insult. Here, the key molecular and morphological events that occur during oocyte and follicle growth are reviewed, with a specific focus on identifying critical checkpoints in oocyte development. The secondary follicle stage appears to be a key phase in follicular oocyte development because major events such as activation of the oocyte transcriptome, sequestration of the zona pellucida, establishment of bidirectional communication between the granulosa cells and the oocyte and cortical granule synthesis occur during this period of development. Several months later, the periovulatory period is also characterised by the occurrence of critical events, including appropriate degradation or polyadenylation of mRNA transcripts, resumption of meiosis, spindle formation, chromosome alignment and segregation, and so should also be considered as a potential checkpoint of oocyte development.

  16. 14 CFR 152.109 - Project eligibility: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport planning. 152....109 Project eligibility: Airport planning. (a) Airport master planning. A proposed project for airport master planning is not approved unless— (1) The location of the existing or proposed airport is...

  17. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.325 Financial status report: Airport planning. Each sponsor of a project for airport master planning and each...

  18. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.103 Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development...

  19. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.103 Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development...

  20. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Massachusetts L.G. Hanscom Field. Broomfield, Colorado Jefferson County Airport. Carlsbad, California McClellan... Centennial Airport. Fort Worth, Texas Fort Worth Alliance Airport. Fresno, California Fresno Yosemite... St. Louis Airport. McKinney, Texas Collin County Regional Airport. Melbourne, Florida...

  1. Palmdale International Airport, Palmdale, California. Airport Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Valley as a whole, to almost 17 persons per acre for all of Los Angeles County. If the airport is not built, the North County region will continue to...four- and six-lane freeway runs from the northeastern corner of the San Fernando Valley , past Palmdale and Lancaster, to just beyond Rosamond where...fanning centered in Lancaster <i<*l consists largely of t.rkey growers. The construction industry is also prominent in the Valley , adding

  2. Emergency Preparedness for Catastrophic Events at Small and Medium Sized Airports: Lacking or Not?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of security methods and processes in general has had a decisive impact on the aviation industry. However, efforts to effectively coordinate varied aspects of security protocols between agencies and general aviation components have not been adequately addressed. Whether or not overall security issues, especially with regard to planning for catastrophic terrorist events, have been neglected at the nation's smaller airports is the main topic of this paper. For perspective, the term general aviation is generally accepted to include all flying except for military and scheduled airline operations. Genera aviation makes up more than 1 percent of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product and supports almost 1.3 mission high-skilled jobs in professional services and manufacturing and hence is an important component of the aviation industry (AOPA, n.d.). In both conceptual and practical terms, this paper argues for the proactive management of security planning and repeated security awareness training from both an individual and an organizational perspective within the general aviation venue. The results of a research project incorporating survey data from general aviation and small commercial airport managers as well as Transportation Security Administration (TSA) employees are reported. Survey findings suggest that miscommunication does take place on different organizational levels and that between TSA employees and airport management interaction can be contentious and cooperation diminished. The importance of organizational training for decreasing conflict and increasing security and preparedness is discussed as a primary implication.

  3. Airport and superficial femoral artery obstruction due to a wandering coronary stent: the possibility of airport detection of modern implant metals.

    PubMed

    Teijink, J A W; van Herwaarden, J A; van den Berg, J C; Overtoom, T C; Moll, F L

    2004-06-01

    In the treatment of coronary artery disease, peripheral loss of a coronary stent is an unusual complication. We present the case of a patient who suggested that his right leg claudication was caused by a slipped coronary stent 2 years previously. The patient was convinced about this unusual finding based on an airport security check. Examination proved him to be right. However, the ability to detect an object using eddy currents is dependent on the object's permeability and its conductivity. Ferrous (iron) content is not the critical factor. Modern implant materials and processing techniques result in implants that are difficult to magnetize i.e. their permeability is very low. In addition their conductivity is very low. This enables modern implants to escape detection at airports. For this reason the event at the airport, as described by our patient, is considered coincidental.

  4. 76 FR 31823 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Airports: Addition of Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport, Dallas, TX AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... revising the list of user fee airports to reflect the recent user fee airport designation for Dallas Love... of user fee status for Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport. This document updates the list of...

  5. Airport noise complaint patterns and interviews of frequent complainers at two major air carrier airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggers, Nicholas; Eiff, Gary

    2005-09-01

    The complex and highly sensitive topic of aircraft noise and population annoyance continues to be a major inhibitor to airport development plans. The projected growth of air travel necessitates expanded capacity at many existing airports and the development and construction of new airports in order to accommodate burgeoning traveler needs. Concerns by citizens near major airports about their economic, health, and social welfare continue to generate community and individual declarations of annoyance and concern which threaten timely solutions to airport expansion plans. A deeper understanding of the nature of these concerns is important to more effectively cope with airport expansion concerns among adjacent communities and surrounding neighbors. This study analyzed existing noise complaints registered at Denver International Airport (DEN) and Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport (FLL) in an attempt to gain greater understanding of noise complaint drivers and public annoyance. Interviews of frequent complainers were utilized in order to gain richer data concerning individual annoyance issues.

  6. 76 FR 15028 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACTION: Interim policy; amendment to sponsor grant assurance 5. SUMMARY: This action adopts an interim policy amending...

  7. LH2 airport requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the facilities and equipment which will be required at a representative airport is provided so liquid hydrogen LH2 can be used as fuel in long range transport aircraft in 1995-2000. A complete facility was conceptually designed, sized to meet the projected air traffic requirement. The facility includes the liquefaction plant, LH2, storage capability, and LH2 fuel handling system. The requirements for ground support and maintenance for the LH2 fueled aircraft were analyzed. An estimate was made of capital and operating costs which might be expected for the facility. Recommendations were made for design modifications to the reference aircraft, reflecting results of the analysis of airport fuel handling requirements, and for a program of additional technology development for air terminal related items.

  8. 49 CFR 1542.303 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars. 1542.303 Section 1542.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  9. 49 CFR 1542.303 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars. 1542.303 Section 1542.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  10. 49 CFR 1542.303 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars. 1542.303 Section 1542.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  11. 49 CFR 1542.303 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars. 1542.303 Section 1542.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  12. 49 CFR 1542.303 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars. 1542.303 Section 1542.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  13. Semiannual Report to Congress on the Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-11

    deterred by airline and airport security procedures cannot be determined with certainty. However, the number of firearms detected at passenger screening... airport security measures continue to provide increased safety and protection to air travelers, aircraft crewmembers, air carrier aircraft, and air

  14. 76 FR 54287 - Notice of Intent To Release Federally-Obligated Airport Properties, Tampa International Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Release Federally-Obligated Airport Properties, Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Request for public comment. SUMMARY: The FAA hereby provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties,...

  15. 77 FR 44515 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Chapter I Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... policy, based on Federal law, concerning through-the-fence access to a federally obligated airport...

  16. 76 FR 74843 - Release of Airport Property, Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport Property, Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL AGENCY... properties, namely approximately 200 acres at the Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL, from the conditions, reservations, and restrictions as contained in a Surplus Property Agreement between the FAA and the...

  17. Airport-related air pollution and noise.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Beverly S; Bronzaft, Arline L; Heikkinen, Maire; Goodman, Jerome; Nádas, Arthur

    2008-02-01

    To provide quantitative evidence of the impact on people of a neighboring metropolitan airport, La Guardia Airport (LGA) in New York City, (1) airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured to determine whether concentration differences could be detected between homes that are upwind and downwind of the airport; (2) 24-hr noise measurements were made in 12 homes near the airport; and (3) the impact of noise was assessed by a Community Wellness and Health Promotion Survey. Particulate matter concentrations were higher during active airport operating hours than during nonoperating hours, and the percent increase varied inversely with distance from the airport. Hourly differences between paired upwind and downwind sites were not remarkable. Residents living near the airport were exposed to noise levels as much as four times greater than those experienced by residents in a quiet, comparison home. Impulse noise events were detected from both aircraft and vehicular traffic. More than 55% of the people living within the flight path were bothered by aircraft noise, and 63% by highway noise; these were significantly higher percentages than for residents in the nonflight area. The change in PM concentrations with distance during operating compared with nonoperating hours; traffic-related impulse noise events; and the elevated annoyance with highway noise, as well as aircraft noise among residents in the flight path area, show airport-related motor vehicle traffic to be a major contributor to the negative impact of airports on people in the surrounding communities.

  18. FAA Airport Design Competition for Universities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Raise awareness of the importance of airports to the National Airspace System infrastructure. Increase the involvement of the academic community in addressing airport operations and infrastructure issues and needs. Engage U.S. students in the conceptualization of applications, systems and equipment capable of addressing related challenges in a robust, reliable and comprehensive manner. Encourage U.S. undergraduate and graduate students to contribute innovative ideas and solutions to airport and runway safety issues. Provide the framework and incentives for quality educational experiences for university students. d Develop an awareness of and an interest in airports as a vital and interesting area for engineering and technology careers.

  19. A tissue checkpoint regulates type 2 immunity

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyken, Steven J.; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Lee, Jinwoo; Molofsky, Ari B.; Liang, Hong-Erh; Pollack, Joshua L.; Gate, Rachel E.; Haliburton, Genevieve E.; Ye, Chun J.; Marson, Alexander; Erle, David J.; Locksley, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and CD4+ T helper type 2 (Th2) cells are defined by their similar effector cytokines, which together mediate the features of allergic immunity. Here, we show that tissue ILC2s and Th2 cells differentiate independently but share overlapping effector function programs mediated by exposure to the tissue-derived cytokines interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Loss of these three tissue signals does not affect lymph node priming but abrogates terminal differentiation of effector Th2 cells and adaptive lung inflammation in a T cell-intrinsic manner. Our findings suggest how diverse perturbations activate type 2 immunity, uncovering a shared local tissue-elicited checkpoint that can be exploited to control both innate and adaptive allergic inflammation. PMID:27749840

  20. The Intra-S Checkpoint Responses to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Divya Ramalingam; Rhind, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Faithful duplication of the genome is a challenge because DNA is susceptible to damage by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic genotoxins, such as free radicals and UV light. Cells activate the intra-S checkpoint in response to damage during S phase to protect genomic integrity and ensure replication fidelity. The checkpoint prevents genomic instability mainly by regulating origin firing, fork progression, and transcription of G1/S genes in response to DNA damage. Several studies hint that regulation of forks is perhaps the most critical function of the intra-S checkpoint. However, the exact role of the checkpoint at replication forks has remained elusive and controversial. Is the checkpoint required for fork stability, or fork restart, or to prevent fork reversal or fork collapse, or activate repair at replication forks? What are the factors that the checkpoint targets at stalled replication forks? In this review, we will discuss the various pathways activated by the intra-S checkpoint in response to damage to prevent genomic instability. PMID:28218681

  1. Using the Sirocco File System for high-bandwidth checkpoints.

    SciTech Connect

    Klundt, Ruth Ann; Curry, Matthew L.; Ward, H. Lee

    2012-02-01

    The Sirocco File System, a file system for exascale under active development, is designed to allow the storage software to maximize quality of service through increased flexibility and local decision-making. By allowing the storage system to manage a range of storage targets that have varying speeds and capacities, the system can increase the speed and surety of storage to the application. We instrument CTH to use a group of RAM-based Sirocco storage servers allocated within the job as a high-performance storage tier to accept checkpoints, allowing computation to potentially continue asynchronously of checkpoint migration to slower, more permanent storage. The result is a 10-60x speedup in constructing and moving checkpoint data from the compute nodes. This demonstration of early Sirocco functionality shows a significant benefit for a real I/O workload, checkpointing, in a real application, CTH. By running Sirocco storage servers within a job as RAM-only stores, CTH was able to store checkpoints 10-60x faster than storing to PanFS, allowing the job to continue computing sooner. While this prototype did not include automatic data migration, the checkpoint was available to be pushed or pulled to disk-based storage as needed after the compute nodes continued computing. Future developments include the ability to dynamically spawn Sirocco nodes to absorb checkpoints, expanding this mechanism to other fast tiers of storage like flash memory, and sharing of dynamic Sirocco nodes between multiple jobs as needed.

  2. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G.; Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  3. 76 FR 19517 - Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Airport, LaGuardia Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport; High Density Rule at Reagan National.... FAA Analysis Under the FAA's High Density Rule and Orders limiting scheduled operations at LGA,...

  4. Prevention of DNA Rereplication Through a Meiotic Recombination Checkpoint Response

    PubMed Central

    Najor, Nicole A.; Weatherford, Layne; Brush, George S.

    2016-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unnatural stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 during meiosis can trigger extra rounds of DNA replication. When programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated but not repaired due to absence of DMC1, a pathway involving the checkpoint gene RAD17 prevents this DNA rereplication. Further genetic analysis has now revealed that prevention of DNA rereplication also requires MEC1, which encodes a protein kinase that serves as a central checkpoint regulator in several pathways including the meiotic recombination checkpoint response. Downstream of MEC1, MEK1 is required through its function to inhibit repair between sister chromatids. By contrast, meiotic recombination checkpoint effectors that regulate gene expression and cyclin-dependent kinase activity are not necessary. Phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is catalyzed by Mec1 and the related Tel1 protein kinase in response to DSBs, and can help coordinate activation of the Rad53 checkpoint protein kinase in the mitotic cell cycle, is required for the full checkpoint response. Phosphorylation sites that are targeted by Rad53 in a mitotic S phase checkpoint response are also involved, based on the behavior of cells containing mutations in the DBF4 and SLD3 DNA replication genes. However, RAD53 does not appear to be required, nor does RAD9, which encodes a mediator of Rad53, consistent with their lack of function in the recombination checkpoint pathway that prevents meiotic progression. While this response is similar to a checkpoint mechanism that inhibits initiation of DNA replication in the mitotic cell cycle, the evidence points to a new variation on DNA replication control. PMID:27678521

  5. A divergent role of the SIRT1-TopBP1 axis in regulating metabolic checkpoint and DNA damage checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongzheng; Lin, Yi-Hui; Leng, Wenchuan; Jung, Sung Yun; Zhang, Haoxing; Deng, Min; Evans, Debra; Li, Yunhui; Luo, Kuntian; Qin, Bo; Qin, Jun; Yuan, Jian; Lou, Zhenkun

    2014-12-04

    DNA replication is executed only when cells have sufficient metabolic resources and undamaged DNA. Nutrient limitation and DNA damage cause a metabolic checkpoint and DNA damage checkpoint, respectively. Although SIRT1 activity is regulated by metabolic stress and DNA damage, its function in these stress-mediated checkpoints remains elusive. Here we report that the SIRT1-TopBP1 axis functions as a switch for both checkpoints. With glucose deprivation, SIRT1 is activated and deacetylates TopBP1, resulting in TopBP1-Treslin disassociation and DNA replication inhibition. Conversely, SIRT1 activity is inhibited under genotoxic stress, resulting in increased TopBP1 acetylation that is important for the TopBP1-Rad9 interaction and activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway. Mechanistically, we showed that acetylation of TopBP1 changes the conformation of TopBP1, thereby facilitating its interaction with distinct partners in DNA replication and checkpoint activation. Taken together, our studies identify the SIRT1-TopBP1 axis as a key signaling mode in the regulation of the metabolic checkpoint and the DNA damage checkpoint.

  6. Just How Much Does That Cost, Anyway? An Analysis of the Financial Costs and Benefits of the No-Fly List

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    easier and more streamlined airport security checkpoint experience. Having outlined the key aspects of the no-fly list, the article will now turn...attempts to fly, he/she is stopped at the airport by local law enforcement and airport security . Having identified how many false positives there are in a...activities: the cost of the passenger being detained at the airport and missing his/her flight; the cost of airport security /personnel detaining the

  7. Career Unit. Careers at an Airport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Billie

    This career exploration instructional unit on airport careers is one of several resulting from the rural southwestern Colorado CEPAC Project (Career Education Process of Attitude Change). This unit is designed to help students become aware of the different types of jobs connected with running an airport (e.g., ticket agent, pilot, skycap, traffic…

  8. 14 CFR 398.3 - Specific airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific airports. 398.3 Section 398.3... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.3 Specific airports. (a) At an eligible place, essential air service may be specified as service to a particular...

  9. 14 CFR 398.3 - Specific airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific airports. 398.3 Section 398.3... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.3 Specific airports. (a) At an eligible place, essential air service may be specified as service to a particular...

  10. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of...

  11. Airport Economics: Management Control Financial Reporting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchbinder, A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of management control financial reporting systems for airport operation is discussed. The operation of the system to provide the reports required for determining the specific revenue producing facilities of airports is described. The organization of the cost reporting centers to show the types of information provided by the system is analyzed.

  12. Immunogenic chemotherapy sensitizes tumors to checkpoint blockade therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pfirschke, Christina; Engblom, Camilla; Rickelt, Steffen; Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Garris, Christopher; Pucci, Ferdinando; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Colame, Vichnou Poirier; Newton, Andita; Redouane, Younes; Lin, Yi-Jang; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Huynh, Tiffany G.; Hynes, Richard O.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Kroemer, Guido; Zitvogel, Laurence; Weissleder, Ralph; Pittet, Mikael J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Checkpoint blockade immunotherapies can be extraordinarily effective, but may benefit only the minority of patients whose tumors are pre-infiltrated by T cells. Here, using lung adenocarcinoma mouse models, including genetic models, we show that autochthonous tumors that lacked T cell infiltration and resisted current treatment options could be successfully sensitized to host antitumor T cell immunity when using appropriately selected immunogenic drugs (e.g. oxaliplatin combined with cyclophosphamide for treatment against tumors expressing oncogenic Kras and lacking Trp53). The antitumor response was triggered by direct drug actions on tumor cells, relied on innate immune sensing through toll-like receptor 4 signaling, and ultimately depended on CD8+ T cell antitumor immunity. Furthermore, instigating tumor infiltration by T cells sensitized tumors to checkpoint inhibition and controlled cancer durably. These findings indicate that the proportion of cancers responding to checkpoint therapy can be feasibly and substantially expanded by combining checkpoint blockade with immunogenic drugs. PMID:26872698

  13. Radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockades: a snapshot in 2016

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Taeryool; Kim, In Ah

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint blockades including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed death-1 (PD-1), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been emerged as a promising anticancer therapy. Several immune checkpoint blockades have been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and have shown notable success in clinical trials for patients with advanced melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Radiotherapy is a promising combination partner of immune checkpoint blockades due to its potent pro-immune effect. This review will cover the current issue and the future perspectives for combined with radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockades based upon the available preclinical and clinical data. PMID:28030901

  14. Siting Solar Photovoltaics at Airports: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-06-01

    Airports present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to their open land; based on a 2010 Federal Aviation Administration study, the US Department of Agriculture, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, there's potential for 116,704 MW of solar photovoltaics (PV) on idle lands at US airports. PV has a low profile and likely low to no impact on flight operations. This paper outlines guidance for implementing solar technologies at airports and airfields, focusing largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's policies. The paper also details best practices for siting solar at airports, provides information on the Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool, and highlights a case study example where solar has been installed at an airport.

  15. Airport noise impact reduction through operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1981-01-01

    The airport-noise levels and annoyance model (ALAMO) developed at NASA Langley Research Center is comprised of a system of computer programs which is capable of quantifying airport community noise impact in terms of noise level, population distribution, and human subjective response to noise. The ALAMO can be used to compare the noise impact of an airport's current operating scenario with the noise impact which would result from some proposed change in airport operations. The relative effectiveness of number of noise-impact reduction alternatives is assessed for a major midwest airport. Significant reductions in noise impact are predicted for certain noise abatement strategies while others are shown to result in relatively little noise relief.

  16. Tactical Checkpoint: Hail/Warn Suppress/Stop (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-15

    U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command Tactical Checkpoint: Hail/Warn Suppress /Stop Target Behavioral Response Laboratory... SUPPRESS /STOP Presented at the 2010 Directed Energies Professional Society Meeting, 15-19 November 2010. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...driver that is approaching a checkpoint. The laser, MCNC light, and the windshield obscuration were evaluated for their suppression capabilities (ability

  17. HORMAD1-dependent checkpoint/surveillance mechanism eliminates asynaptic oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kogo, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Makiko; Ohye, Tamae; Inagaki, Hidehito; Abe, Takaya; Kurahashi, Hiroki

    2012-06-01

    Meiotic pachytene checkpoints monitor the failure of homologous recombination and synapsis to ensure faithful chromosome segregation during gamete formation. To date, the molecular basis of the mammalian pachytene checkpoints has remained largely unknown. We here report that mouse HORMAD1 is required for a meiotic prophase checkpoint that eliminates asynaptic oocytes. Hormad1-deficient mice are infertile and show an extensive failure of homologous pairing and synapsis, consistent with the evolutionarily conserved function of meiotic HORMA domain proteins. Unexpectedly, Hormad1-deficient ovaries contain a normal number of oocytes despite asynapsis and consequently produce aneuploid oocytes, indicating a checkpoint failure. By the analysis of Hormad1/Spo11 double mutants, the Hormad1 deficiency was found to abrogate the massive oocyte loss in the Spo11-deficient ovary. The Hormad1 deficiency also causes the eventual loss of pseudo sex body in the Spo11-deficient ovary and testis. These results suggest the involvement of HORMAD1 in the repressive chromatin domain formation that is proposed to be important in the meiotic prophase checkpoints. We also show the extensive phosphorylation of HORMAD1 in the Spo11-deficient testis and ovary, suggesting an involvement of novel DNA damage-independent phosphorylation signaling in the surveillance mechanism. Our present results provide clues to HORMAD1-dependent checkpoint in response to asynapsis in mammalian meiosis.

  18. The protein phosphatase 2A functions in the spindle position checkpoint by regulating the checkpoint kinase Kin4

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Leon Y.; Amon, Angelika

    2009-01-01

    In budding yeast, a surveillance mechanism known as the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) ensures accurate genome partitioning. In the event of spindle misposition, the checkpoint delays exit from mitosis by restraining the activity of the mitotic exit network (MEN). To date, the only component of the checkpoint to be identified is the protein kinase Kin4. Furthermore, how the kinase is regulated by spindle position is not known. Here, we identify the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in complex with the regulatory subunit Rts1 as a component of the SPOC. Loss of PP2A-Rts1 function abrogates the SPOC but not other mitotic checkpoints. We further show that the protein phosphatase functions upstream of Kin4, regulating the kinase's phosphorylation and localization during an unperturbed cell cycle and during SPOC activation, thus defining the phosphatase as a key regulator of SPOC function. PMID:19605686

  19. The protein phosphatase 2A functions in the spindle position checkpoint by regulating the checkpoint kinase Kin4.

    PubMed

    Chan, Leon Y; Amon, Angelika

    2009-07-15

    In budding yeast, a surveillance mechanism known as the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) ensures accurate genome partitioning. In the event of spindle misposition, the checkpoint delays exit from mitosis by restraining the activity of the mitotic exit network (MEN). To date, the only component of the checkpoint to be identified is the protein kinase Kin4. Furthermore, how the kinase is regulated by spindle position is not known. Here, we identify the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in complex with the regulatory subunit Rts1 as a component of the SPOC. Loss of PP2A-Rts1 function abrogates the SPOC but not other mitotic checkpoints. We further show that the protein phosphatase functions upstream of Kin4, regulating the kinase's phosphorylation and localization during an unperturbed cell cycle and during SPOC activation, thus defining the phosphatase as a key regulator of SPOC function.

  20. Airport Delay and Improvement Study, John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    LaGuardia Airport fb Current System Operation Aircraft delat has been ar integral part of the operationr or out presen s %tem of major huh airpnort,. Ru ri...iuardia %%henl Kcnnecd% is usingt thre Ruiiwa% 131 11 S. I it, pioposal riral. with the departure delav increasing h,, 3.5 minutes. Oserall. a delat ...genieral iatrioii actIisits. adds 5.7󈧥 additiontal I%TF;RIM AK k ORTErX %S rFEM mntes o t delat , at a Co st of S95.5-8 annual[%. Because of he os

  1. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.15 User fee airports. (a) Permission to land. The procedures for obtaining permission to land at a user fee airport are the same procedures as those set forth... is subject to change without notice. Information concerning service at any user fee airport can...

  2. 14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contents of Airport Certification Manual... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Airport Certification Manual § 139.203 Contents of Airport Certification Manual. (a... serving facilities or NAVAIDS that support air carrier operations X X X 8. A description of the system...

  3. 14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of Airport Certification Manual... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Airport Certification Manual § 139.203 Contents of Airport Certification Manual. (a) Except as otherwise authorized by the Administrator, each certificate holder must include in the...

  4. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false List of international airports. 122.13 Section 122... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.13 List of international airports. The following is a list of international airports of entry designated by the Secretary of the Treasury....

  5. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false List of international airports. 122.13 Section 122... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.13 List of international airports. The following is a list of international airports of entry designated by the Secretary of the Treasury....

  6. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  7. 14 CFR 121.617 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate airport for departure. 121.617... Alternate airport for departure. (a) If the weather conditions at the airport of takeoff are below the landing minimums in the certificate holder's operations specifications for that airport, no person...

  8. 14 CFR 135.223 - IFR: Alternate airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport requirements. 135... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.223 IFR: Alternate airport requirements...) to— (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Fly from that airport...

  9. 14 CFR 151.3 - National Airport Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National Airport Plan. 151.3 Section 151.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements § 151.3 National Airport Plan. (a) Under the Federal...

  10. 14 CFR 121.617 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate airport for departure. 121.617... Alternate airport for departure. (a) If the weather conditions at the airport of takeoff are below the landing minimums in the certificate holder's operations specifications for that airport, no person...

  11. 14 CFR 135.223 - IFR: Alternate airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport requirements. 135... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.223 IFR: Alternate airport requirements...) to— (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Fly from that airport...

  12. 14 CFR 152.107 - Project eligibility: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport development... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.107 Project eligibility: Airport development. (a) Except in the case of approved stage...

  13. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  14. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget revision: Airport development. (a) If any performance review conducted by the sponsor discloses a need...

  15. 19 CFR 122.14 - Landing rights airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Landing rights airport. 122.14 Section 122.14... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.14 Landing rights airport. (a) Permission to land. Permission to land at a landing rights airport may be given as follows: (1) Scheduled flight....

  16. 14 CFR 152.107 - Project eligibility: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport development... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.107 Project eligibility: Airport development. (a) Except in the case of approved stage...

  17. 14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contents of Airport Certification Manual... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Airport Certification Manual § 139.203 Contents of Airport Certification Manual. (a) Except as otherwise authorized by the Administrator, each certificate holder must include in the...

  18. 14 CFR 152.111 - Application requirements: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application requirements: Airport... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.111 Application requirements: Airport development. (a) An eligible sponsor that desires to...

  19. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget revision: Airport development. (a) If any performance review conducted by the sponsor discloses a need...

  20. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  1. 14 CFR 151.3 - National Airport Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National Airport Plan. 151.3 Section 151.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements § 151.3 National Airport Plan. (a) Under the Federal...

  2. 14 CFR 152.111 - Application requirements: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application requirements: Airport... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.111 Application requirements: Airport development. (a) An eligible sponsor that desires to...

  3. 14 CFR 152.109 - Project eligibility: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport planning. 152....109 Project eligibility: Airport planning. (a) Airport master planning. A proposed project for airport... master planning as defined in § 152.3; (4) If the project has been determined to have...

  4. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... status report: Airport planning. Each sponsor of a project for airport master planning and each planning agency conducting a project for airport system planning shall submit a financial status report on a form... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport...

  5. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  6. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  7. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  8. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  9. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  10. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  11. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  12. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  13. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  14. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  15. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  16. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  17. 78 FR 65417 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Regional Airport (EAR), Kearney, Nebraska. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invites public comment on... request to release approximately 67.72 acres of airport property at the Kearney Regional Airport (EAR... property at the Kearney Regional Airport (EAR) submitted by the Sponsor meets the procedural...

  18. Phosphorylation of Minichromosome Maintenance 3 (MCM3) by Checkpoint Kinase 1 (Chk1) Negatively Regulates DNA Replication and Checkpoint Activation.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiangzi; Mayca Pozo, Franklin; Wisotsky, Jacob N; Wang, Benlian; Jacobberger, James W; Zhang, Youwei

    2015-05-08

    Mechanisms controlling DNA replication and replication checkpoint are critical for the maintenance of genome stability and the prevention or treatment of human cancers. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a key effector protein kinase that regulates the DNA damage response and replication checkpoint. The heterohexameric minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex is the core component of mammalian DNA helicase and has been implicated in replication checkpoint activation. Here we report that Chk1 phosphorylates the MCM3 subunit of the MCM complex at Ser-205 under normal growth conditions. Mutating the Ser-205 of MCM3 to Ala increased the length of DNA replication track and shortened the S phase duration, indicating that Ser-205 phosphorylation negatively controls normal DNA replication. Upon replicative stress treatment, the inhibitory phosphorylation of MCM3 at Ser-205 was reduced, and this reduction was accompanied with the generation of single strand DNA, the key platform for ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) activation. As a result, the replication checkpoint is activated. Together, these data provide significant insights into the regulation of both normal DNA replication and replication checkpoint activation through the novel phosphorylation of MCM3 by Chk1.

  19. 77 FR 73310 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Bozeman Yellowstone International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Airports: Addition of Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport, Belgrade, MT AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... user fee airports to reflect the recent user fee airport designation for Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport in Belgrade, Montana. User fee airports are those airports which, while not qualifying...

  20. 76 FR 21420 - Policy and Procedures Concerning the Use of Airport Revenue; Policy Regarding Airport Rates and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Policy and Procedures Concerning the Use of Airport Revenue; Policy Regarding Airport Rates and Charges: Petition of the Clark County Department of Aviation To Use a Weight... consistent with Federal law and policies on the use of airport revenue and on airport rates and charges....

  1. 76 FR 30422 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Helena Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... on Request To Release Airport Property at the Helena Regional Airport, Helena, Montana AGENCY... Release Airport Property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite public comment on the release of land at Helena Regional Airport (HLN) under the provisions of Section 125 of the Wendell H....

  2. Cell cycle control, checkpoint mechanisms, and genotoxic stress.

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, R E; Kaufmann, W K; Paules, R S

    1999-01-01

    The ability of cells to maintain genomic integrity is vital for cell survival and proliferation. Lack of fidelity in DNA replication and maintenance can result in deleterious mutations leading to cell death or, in multicellular organisms, cancer. The purpose of this review is to discuss the known signal transduction pathways that regulate cell cycle progression and the mechanisms cells employ to insure DNA stability in the face of genotoxic stress. In particular, we focus on mammalian cell cycle checkpoint functions, their role in maintaining DNA stability during the cell cycle following exposure to genotoxic agents, and the gene products that act in checkpoint function signal transduction cascades. Key transitions in the cell cycle are regulated by the activities of various protein kinase complexes composed of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) molecules. Surveillance control mechanisms that check to ensure proper completion of early events and cellular integrity before initiation of subsequent events in cell cycle progression are referred to as cell cycle checkpoints and can generate a transient delay that provides the cell more time to repair damage before progressing to the next phase of the cycle. A variety of cellular responses are elicited that function in checkpoint signaling to inhibit cyclin/Cdk activities. These responses include the p53-dependent and p53-independent induction of Cdk inhibitors and the p53-independent inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk molecules themselves. Eliciting proper G1, S, and G2 checkpoint responses to double-strand DNA breaks requires the function of the Ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene product. Several human heritable cancer-prone syndromes known to alter DNA stability have been found to have defects in checkpoint surveillance pathways. Exposures to several common sources of genotoxic stress, including oxidative stress, ionizing radiation, UV radiation, and the genotoxic compound benzo[a]pyrene, elicit cell cycle

  3. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Simulation Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2010-01-01

    A Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate pilot reaction to conflict events in the TMA near the airport, different alert timings for various scenarios, alerting display concepts, and directive alerting concepts. This paper gives an overview of the conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) concept, simulation study, and test results

  4. Surface Operations Systems Improve Airport Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Ames Research Center, Mosaic ATM of Leesburg, Virginia created software to analyze surface operations at airports. Surface surveillance systems, which report locations every second for thousands of air and ground vehicles, generate massive amounts of data, making gathering and analyzing this information difficult. Mosaic?s Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool is an off-line support tool that can analyze how well the airport surface operation is working and can help redesign procedures to improve operations. SODAA helps researchers pinpoint trends and correlations in vast amounts of recorded airport operations data.

  5. WWOX modulates the ATR-mediated DNA damage checkpoint response.

    PubMed

    Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Hereema, Nyla A; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2016-01-26

    For many decades genomic instability is considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Role of the tumor suppressor WWOX (WW domain-containing oxidoreductase) in DNA damage response upon double strand breaks has been recently revealed. Here we demonstrate unforeseen functions for WWOX upon DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) checkpoint activation. We found that WWOX levels are induced following SSBs and accumulate in the nucleus. WWOX deficiency is associated with reduced activation of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) checkpoint proteins and increased chromosomal breaks. At the molecular level, we show that upon SSBs WWOX is modified at lysine 274 by ubiquitination mediated by the ubiquitin E3 ligase ITCH and interacts with ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM). Interestingly, ATM inhibition was associated with reduced activation of ATR checkpoint proteins suggesting that WWOX manipulation of ATR checkpoint proteins is ATM-dependent. Taken together, the present findings indicate that WWOX plays a key role in ATR checkpoint activation, while its absence might facilitate genomic instability.

  6. WWOX modulates the ATR-mediated DNA damage checkpoint response

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Hereema, Nyla A.; Aqeilan, Rami I.

    2016-01-01

    For many decades genomic instability is considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Role of the tumor suppressor WWOX (WW domain-containing oxidoreductase) in DNA damage response upon double strand breaks has been recently revealed. Here we demonstrate unforeseen functions for WWOX upon DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) checkpoint activation. We found that WWOX levels are induced following SSBs and accumulate in the nucleus. WWOX deficiency is associated with reduced activation of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) checkpoint proteins and increased chromosomal breaks. At the molecular level, we show that upon SSBs WWOX is modified at lysine 274 by ubiquitination mediated by the ubiquitin E3 ligase ITCH and interacts with ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM). Interestingly, ATM inhibition was associated with reduced activation of ATR checkpoint proteins suggesting that WWOX manipulation of ATR checkpoint proteins is ATM-dependent. Taken together, the present findings indicate that WWOX plays a key role in ATR checkpoint activation, while its absence might facilitate genomic instability. PMID:26675548

  7. PKCɛ switches Aurora B specificity to exit the abscission checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Tanya; Brownlow, Nicola; Kjaer, Svend; Carlton, Jeremy; Parker, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The ‘NoCut', or Aurora B abscission checkpoint can be activated if DNA is retained in the cleavage furrow after completion of anaphase. Checkpoint failure leads to incomplete abscission and a binucleate outcome. These phenotypes are also observed after loss of PKCɛ in transformed cell models. Here we show that PKCɛ directly modulates the Aurora B-dependent abscission checkpoint by phosphorylating Aurora B at S227. This phosphorylation invokes a switch in Aurora B specificity, with increased phosphorylation of a subset of target substrates, including the CPC subunit Borealin. This switch is essential for abscission checkpoint exit. Preventing the phosphorylation of Borealin leads to abscission failure, as does expression of a non-phosphorylatable Aurora B S227A mutant. Further, depletion of the ESCRT-III component and Aurora B substrate CHMP4C enables abscission, bypassing the PKCɛ–Aurora B exit pathway. Thus, we demonstrate that PKCɛ signals through Aurora B to exit the abscission checkpoint and complete cell division. PMID:28004745

  8. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Prostate Cancer: A New Frontier?

    PubMed Central

    Modena, Alessandra; Ciccarese, Chiara; Iacovelli, Roberto; Brunelli, Matteo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), agents that provide durable disease control and long-term survival are still needed. It is a fact that a tumor-induced immunosuppressive status (mediated by aberrant activation of inhibitory immune checkpoint pathways as a mechanism to evade host immune surveillance) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cancer, including prostate cancer (PC), making CRPC patients suitable candidates for immunotherapy. Therefore, growing interest of anticancer research aims at blocking immune checkpoints (mainly targeting CTLA-4 and PD1/PD-L1 pathways) to restore and enhance cellular-mediated antitumor immunity and achieve durable tumor regression. In this review, we describe the current knowledge regarding the role of immune checkpoints in mediating PC progression, focusing on CTLA-4 and PD1 pathways. We also provide current clinical data available, an update on ongoing trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors in PC. Finally, we discuss the necessity to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers of immune activity, and we analyze new immune checkpoints with a role as promising targets for PC therapy. PMID:27471580

  9. Kinetochore localization of spindle checkpoint proteins: who controls whom?

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Suzanne; Prieto, Susana; Bernis, Cyril; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Castro, Anna; Lorca, Thierry

    2004-10-01

    The spindle checkpoint prevents anaphase onset until all the chromosomes have successfully attached to the spindle microtubules. The mechanisms by which unattached kinetochores trigger and transmit a primary signal are poorly understood, although it seems to be dependent at least in part, on the kinetochore localization of the different checkpoint components. By using protein immunodepletion and mRNA translation in Xenopus egg extracts, we have studied the hierarchic sequence and the interdependent network that governs protein recruitment at the kinetochore in the spindle checkpoint pathway. Our results show that the first regulatory step of this cascade is defined by Aurora B/INCENP complex. Aurora B/INCENP controls the activation of a second regulatory level by inducing at the kinetochore the localization of Mps1, Bub1, Bub3, and CENP-E. This localization, in turn, promotes the recruitment to the kinetochore of Mad1/Mad2, Cdc20, and the anaphase promoting complex (APC). Unlike Aurora B/INCENP, Mps1, Bub1, and CENP-E, the downstream checkpoint protein Mad1 does not regulate the kinetochore localization of either Cdc20 or APC. Similarly, Cdc20 and APC do not require each other to be localized at these chromosome structures. Thus, at the last step of the spindle checkpoint cascade, Mad1/Mad2, Cdc20, and APC are recruited at the kinetochores independently from each other.

  10. PKCɛ switches Aurora B specificity to exit the abscission checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Pike, Tanya; Brownlow, Nicola; Kjaer, Svend; Carlton, Jeremy; Parker, Peter J

    2016-12-22

    The 'NoCut', or Aurora B abscission checkpoint can be activated if DNA is retained in the cleavage furrow after completion of anaphase. Checkpoint failure leads to incomplete abscission and a binucleate outcome. These phenotypes are also observed after loss of PKCɛ in transformed cell models. Here we show that PKCɛ directly modulates the Aurora B-dependent abscission checkpoint by phosphorylating Aurora B at S227. This phosphorylation invokes a switch in Aurora B specificity, with increased phosphorylation of a subset of target substrates, including the CPC subunit Borealin. This switch is essential for abscission checkpoint exit. Preventing the phosphorylation of Borealin leads to abscission failure, as does expression of a non-phosphorylatable Aurora B S227A mutant. Further, depletion of the ESCRT-III component and Aurora B substrate CHMP4C enables abscission, bypassing the PKCɛ-Aurora B exit pathway. Thus, we demonstrate that PKCɛ signals through Aurora B to exit the abscission checkpoint and complete cell division.

  11. The emerging role of immune checkpoint inhibition in malignant lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hude, Ida; Sasse, Stephanie; Engert, Andreas; Bröckelmann, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    To evade elimination by the host immune system, tumor cells commonly exploit physiological immune checkpoint pathways, restraining efficient anti-tumor immune cell function. Growing understanding of the complex dialog between tumor cells and their microenvironment contributed to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors. This innovative strategy has demonstrated paradigm-shifting clinical activity in various malignancies. Antibodies targeting programmed death 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 are also being investigated in lymphoid malignancies with varying levels of activity and a favorable toxicity profile. To date, evaluated only in the setting of relapsed or refractory disease, anti-programmed death 1 antibodies such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab show encouraging response rates particularly in classical Hodgkin lymphoma but also in follicular lymphoma and diffuse-large B-cell lymphoma. As the first immune checkpoint inhibitor in lymphoma, nivolumab was approved for the treatment of relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma by the Food and Drug Administration in May 2016. In this review, we assess the role of the pathways involved and potential rationale of checkpoint inhibition in various lymphoid malignancies. In addition to data from current clinical trials, immune-related side effects, potential limitations and future perspectives including promising combinatory approaches with immune checkpoint inhibition are discussed. PMID:27884973

  12. Message Efficient Checkpointing and Rollback Recovery in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggi, Parmeet Kaur; Singh, Awadhesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous networks provide an appealing way of expanding the computing capability of mobile networks by combining infrastructure-less mobile ad-hoc networks with the infrastructure-based cellular mobile networks. The nodes in such a network range from low-power nodes to macro base stations and thus, vary greatly in their capabilities such as computation power and battery power. The nodes are susceptible to different types of transient and permanent failures and therefore, the algorithms designed for such networks need to be fault-tolerant. The article presents a checkpointing algorithm for the rollback recovery of mobile hosts in a heterogeneous mobile network. Checkpointing is a well established approach to provide fault tolerance in static and cellular mobile distributed systems. However, the use of checkpointing for fault tolerance in a heterogeneous environment remains to be explored. The proposed protocol is based on the results of zigzag paths and zigzag cycles by Netzer-Xu. Considering the heterogeneity prevalent in the network, an uncoordinated checkpointing technique is employed. Yet, useless checkpoints are avoided without causing a high message overhead.

  13. Public health impact of large airports.

    PubMed

    Passchier, W; Knottnerus, A; Albering, H; Walda, I

    2000-01-01

    Large airports with the related infrastructure, businesses and industrial activities affect the health of the population living, travelling and working in the surroundings of or at the airport. The employment and contributions to economy from the airport and related operations are expected to have a beneficial effect, which, however, is difficult to quantify. More pertinent data are available on the, largely negative, health effects of environmental factors, such as air and soil pollution, noise, accident risk, and landscape changes. Information on the concurrent and cumulative impact of these factors is lacking, but is of primary relevance for public health policy. A committee of the Health Council of The Netherlands recently reviewed the data on the health impact of large airports. It was concluded that, generally, integrated health assessments are not available. Such assessments, as part of sustainable mobility policy, should accompany the further development of the global aviation system.

  14. Aircraft and airport noise control prospective outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, N.

    1982-01-01

    In a perspective look at aircraft and airport noise control over the past ten years or more - or more is added here because the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 of 1969 is a more significant milestone for the air transportation system than is the Noise Control Act of 1972 - we see an appreciable reduction in the noise emitted by newly designed and newly produced airplanes, particularly those powered by the new high bypass engines, but only, at best, a moderate alleviation of airport noise. The change in airport noise exposure was the consequence of the introduction of some new, quieter airplanes into the airlines fleets and some operational modifications or restrictions at the airports.

  15. Behavioral Indicators of Drug Couriers in Airports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5508--15-9595 Behavioral Indicators of Drug Couriers in Airports April 30, 2015 Approved...identify behaviors typical of drug couriers. Based on this training and the roundtable, AMX researchers cataloged 69 distinct behaviors in 7...in the case of the illegal narcotics trade, where drug couriers use airports to transport drugs and money throughout the United States. While

  16. The Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Wilson, J.; Fujita, T. T.

    1983-01-01

    A block diagram of the joint airport weather studies program is presented. Background leading to the development of the program is reviewed. Basic studies, aircraft performance, and detection and warning techniques used to develop fine scale structure of thunderstorm dynamics and kinematics in the vicinity of a major airport; effect of thunderstorm low level wind shear on aircraft performance; and development of real time testing of flow level wind shear detection and warning techniques and displays are described.

  17. Prediction of Weather Impacted Airport Capacity using Ensemble Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao Xun

    2011-01-01

    Ensemble learning with the Bagging Decision Tree (BDT) model was used to assess the impact of weather on airport capacities at selected high-demand airports in the United States. The ensemble bagging decision tree models were developed and validated using the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aviation System Performance Metrics (ASPM) data and weather forecast at these airports. The study examines the performance of BDT, along with traditional single Support Vector Machines (SVM), for airport runway configuration selection and airport arrival rates (AAR) prediction during weather impacts. Testing of these models was accomplished using observed weather, weather forecast, and airport operation information at the chosen airports. The experimental results show that ensemble methods are more accurate than a single SVM classifier. The airport capacity ensemble method presented here can be used as a decision support model that supports air traffic flow management to meet the weather impacted airport capacity in order to reduce costs and increase safety.

  18. Immune checkpoint and inflammation as therapeutic targets in pancreatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kimbara, Shiro; Kondo, Shunsuke

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is one of the most deadly malignant neoplasms, and the efficacy of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy is far from satisfactory. Recent research studies have revealed that immunosuppression and inflammation are associated with oncogenesis, as well as tumor development, invasion, and metastasis in PAC. Thus, immunosuppression-related signaling, especially that involving immune checkpoint and inflammation, has emerged as novel treatment targets for PAC. However, PAC is an immune-resistant tumor, and it is still unclear whether immune checkpoint or anti-inflammation therapies would be an ideal strategy. In this article, we will review immune checkpoint and inflammation as potential targets, as well as clinical trials and the prospects for immunotherapy in PAC. PMID:27672267

  19. The Abscission Checkpoint: Making It to the Final Cut.

    PubMed

    Nähse, Viola; Christ, Liliane; Stenmark, Harald; Campsteijn, Coen

    2017-01-01

    Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division and is concluded by abscission of the intercellular bridge to physically separate the daughter cells. Timing of cytokinetic abscission is monitored by a molecular machinery termed the abscission checkpoint. This machinery delays abscission in cells with persistent chromatin in the intercellular bridge. Recent work has also uncovered its response to high membrane tension, nuclear pore defects, and DNA replication stress. Although it is known that the abscission checkpoint depends on persistent activity of the Aurora B protein kinase, we have only recently begun to understand its molecular basis. We propose here a molecular framework for abscission checkpoint signaling and we discuss outstanding questions relating to its function and physiological relevance.

  20. Combination Approaches with Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Swart, Maarten; Verbrugge, Inge; Beltman, Joost B

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, immune-checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune-checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programed death-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate antitumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune-checkpoint blockade in the context of the cancer-immunity cycle, aimed at increasing response rates to the single treatments. Specifically, we discuss combinations that promote antigen release and presentation, that further amplify T cell activation, that inhibit trafficking of regulatory T cells or MSDCs, that stimulate intratumoral T cell infiltration, that increase cancer recognition by T cells, and that stimulate tumor killing.

  1. Analysis of the Functionality of the Mitotic Checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Fraschini, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    During cell division the main goal of the cell is to produce two daughter cells with the same genome as the mother, i.e., maintain its genetic stability. Since this issue is essential to preserve the cell ability to proliferate properly, all eukaryotic cells have developed several pathways, called mitotic checkpoints, that regulate mitotic entry, progression, and exit in response to different cellular signals. Given the evolutive conservation of mechanisms and proteins involved in the cell cycle control from yeast to humans, the budding yeast S. cerevisiae has been very helpful to gain insight in these complex regulations. Here, we describe how the checkpoint can be activated and which cellular phenotypes can be used as markers of checkpoint activation.

  2. Combination Approaches with Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Maarten; Verbrugge, Inge; Beltman, Joost B.

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, immune-checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune-checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programed death-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate antitumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune-checkpoint blockade in the context of the cancer-immunity cycle, aimed at increasing response rates to the single treatments. Specifically, we discuss combinations that promote antigen release and presentation, that further amplify T cell activation, that inhibit trafficking of regulatory T cells or MSDCs, that stimulate intratumoral T cell infiltration, that increase cancer recognition by T cells, and that stimulate tumor killing. PMID:27847783

  3. Epigenetic regulation of immune checkpoints: another target for cancer immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Ali, Mahmoud A; Matboli, Marwa; Tarek, Marwa; Reda, Maged; Kamal, Kamal M; Nouh, Mahmoud; Ashry, Ahmed M; El-Bab, Ahmed Fath; Mesalam, Hend A; Shafei, Ayman El-Sayed; Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic changes in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes contribute to carcinogenesis. Understanding the epigenetic and genetic components of tumor immune evasion is crucial. Few cancer genetic mutations have been linked to direct correlations with immune evasion. Studies on the epigenetic modulation of the immune checkpoints have revealed a critical interaction between epigenetic and immune modulation. Epigenetic modifiers can activate many silenced genes. Some of them are immune checkpoints regulators that turn on immune responses and others turn them off resulting in immune evasion. Many forms of epigenetic inheritance mechanisms may play a role in regulation of immune checkpoints including: covalent modifications, noncoding RNA and histone modifications. In this review, we will show how the potential interaction between epigenetic and immune modulation may lead to new approaches for specific epigenome/immunome-targeted therapies for cancer.

  4. 33 CFR 162.20 - Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area. 162.20 Section 162.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND...

  5. Inhibiting Immune Checkpoints for the Treatment of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bidnur, S.; Savdie, R.; Black, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supporting the role of immune checkpoint blockade in cancer management has been bolstered by recent reports demonstrating significant and durable clinical responses across multiple tumour types, including metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). The majority of these results are achieved via blockade of the programmed death (PD) axis, which like CTLA-4 blockade permits T-cell activation and immune-mediated anti-tumour activity- essentially harnessing the patient’s own immune system to mount an anti-neoplastic response. However, while clinical responses can be striking, our understanding of the biology of immune checkpoint blockade is only beginning to shed light on how to maximize and even improve patient outcomes with immune checkpoint blockade, especially in UC. Methods: We performed a literature review for immune checkpoint blockade with a focus on rationale for checkpoint therapy and outcomes in UC. We also highlight the advances made in other tumour types, with a focus on the recent 2015 meeting of the American Society for Clinical Oncology. Results: In heavily pre-treated UC, trials are suggesting objective response rates above 30% . These impressive results are seen across multiple different tumour types, especially those with high burden of DNA level mutations. Identification of prognostic biomarkers is currently under investigation, in order to improve patient selection. Interestingly, response to PD-1 directed therapy is seen even in patients with no evidence of PD-1 positivity on immunohistochemistry. This has led to the development of enhanced biomarkers including assessing DNA mutation rates and immune gene signatures, to improve patient selection. Conclusions: Immune checkpoint blockade is an exciting cancer treatment modality which is demonstrating impressive clinical results across multiple tumour types. For UC, anti-PD directed therapy represents a much needed treatment in the metastatic, post chemotherapy context

  6. The Dynamical Mechanisms of the Cell Cycle Size Checkpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shi-Fu; Yan, Jie; Liu, Zeng-Rong; Yang, Ling

    2012-10-01

    Cell division must be tightly coupled to cell growth in order to maintain cell size, whereas the mechanisms of how initialization of mitosis is regulated by cell size remain to be elucidated. We develop a mathematical model of the cell cycle, which incorporates cell growth to investigate the dynamical properties of the size checkpoint in embryos of Xenopus laevis. We show that the size checkpoint is naturally raised from a saddle-node bifurcation, and in a mutant case, the cell loses its size control ability due to the loss of this saddle-node point.

  7. 75 FR 54946 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ..., such as the proximity of children and pets, to normal airport operations. In addition, not all..., and resistance to the sponsor's accommodation of those changes. At airports where the nearby residents... accommodation of new aircraft types. While the FAA supports these mitigation measures where available,...

  8. 77 FR 3324 - Release of Airport Property: Fort Myers International Airport, Fort Myers, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 3324] [FR Doc No: 2012-1064] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport... Airports District Office Southern Region. R [FR Doc. 2012-1064 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  9. Finite-Time Performance of Local Search Algorithms: Theory and Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-10

    security devices deployed at airport security checkpoints are used to detect prohibited items (e.g., guns, knives, explosives). Each security device...security devices are deployed, the practical issue of determining how to optimally use them can be difficult. For an airport security system design...checked baggage), explosive detection systems (designed to detect explosives in checked baggage), and detailed hand search by an airport security official

  10. Airport Noise Tech Challenge Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, operating under NASA Aeronautics Mission Directorate#s Fundamental Aero Program, has been organized around the Technical Challenges that have historically precluded commercial supersonic flight. One of these Challenges is making aircraft that are capable of such high aerodynamic performance quiet enough around airports that they will not be objectionable. It is recognized that a successful civilian supersonic aircraft will be a system where many new technologies will come together, and for this to happen not only will new low noise propulsion concepts be required, but new engineering tools that predict the noise of the aircraft as these technologies are combined and compromised with the rest of the aircraft design. These are the two main objectives of the Airport Noise Tech Challenge. " ! As a Project in the Fundamental Aero Program, we work at a relatively low level of technology readiness. However, we have high level milestones which force us to integrate our efforts to impact systems-level activities. To keep the low-level work tied to delivering engineering tools and low-noise concepts, we have structured our milestones around development of the concepts and organized our activities around developing and applying our engineering tools to these concepts. The final deliverables in these milestones are noise prediction modules validated against the best embodiment of each concept. These will then be used in cross-disciplinary exercises to demonstrate the viability of aircraft designs to meet all the Technical Challenges. Some of the concepts being developed are shown: Fan Flow Diverters, Multi-jet Shielding, High-Aspect Ratio Embedded Nozzles, Plasma Actuated Instability Manipulation, Highly Variable Cycle Mixer- Ejectors, and Inverted Velocity Profiles. These concepts are being developed for reduced jet noise along with the design tools which describe how they perform when used in various aircraft configurations. Several key upcoming

  11. Airport Ground Access Planning Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    herein solely because they are con- sidered essential to the object of this report. 4! I Technical Report Documentation Pago 1 0. o . n m n c c s i . 3...INFORMATION SERVICE. SPRINGFIELD. VIRGINIA 22161 19. Security Clossif. (of this report) 20. Security Cleesil. (of this pagoe ) 21. Ne. of Peg 22. Pri te...passenger totals, and the sheer number of employees contributes heavily to surface con- gestion in terminal areas. For example, some 6,000 vehicles can be

  12. 49 CFR 1542.203 - Security of the air operations area (AOA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security of the air operations area (AOA). 1542.203 Section 1542.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  13. 49 CFR 1542.203 - Security of the air operations area (AOA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Security of the air operations area (AOA). 1542.203 Section 1542.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  14. 49 CFR 1542.203 - Security of the air operations area (AOA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security of the air operations area (AOA). 1542.203 Section 1542.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  15. 49 CFR 1542.203 - Security of the air operations area (AOA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Security of the air operations area (AOA). 1542.203 Section 1542.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  16. 49 CFR 1542.203 - Security of the air operations area (AOA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Security of the air operations area (AOA). 1542.203 Section 1542.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  17. A quantitative systems view of the spindle assembly checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Ciliberto, Andrea; Shah, Jagesh V

    2009-01-01

    The idle assembly checkpoint acts to delay chromosome segregation until all duplicated sister chromatids are captured by the mitotic spindle. This pathway ensures that each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the genome. The high fidelity and robustness of this process have made it a subject of intense study in both the experimental and computational realms. A significant number of checkpoint proteins have been identified but how they orchestrate the communication between local spindle attachment and global cytoplasmic signalling to delay segregation is not yet understood. Here, we propose a systems view of the spindle assembly checkpoint to focus attention on the key regulators of the dynamics of this pathway. These regulators in turn have been the subject of detailed cellular measurements and computational modelling to connect molecular function to the dynamics of spindle assembly checkpoint signalling. A review of these efforts reveals the insights provided by such approaches and underscores the need for further interdisciplinary studies to reveal in full the quantitative underpinnings of this cellular control pathway. PMID:19629044

  18. Immunomodulatory Drugs: Immune Checkpoint Agents in Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, Hanna A.; Kanakry, Christopher G.; Luznik, Leo; Gojo, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic immune responses to acute leukemia are inhibited by a variety of mechanisms, such as aberrant antigen expression by leukemia cells, secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines and expression of inhibitory enzymes in the tumor microenvironment, expansion of immunoregulatory cells, and activation of immune checkpoint pathways, all leading to T cell dysfunction and/or exhaustion. Leukemic cells, similar to other tumor cells, hijack these inhibitory pathways to evade immune recognition and destruction by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Thus, blockade of immune checkpoints has emerged as a highly promising approach to augment innate anti-tumor immunity in order to treat malignancies. Most evidence for the clinical efficacy of this immunotherapeutic strategy has been seen in patients with metastatic melanoma, where anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies have recently revolutionized treatment of this lethal disease with otherwise limited treatment options. To meet the high demand for new treatment strategies in acute leukemia, clinical testing of these promising therapies is commencing. Herein, we review the biology of multiple inhibitory checkpoints (including CTLA-4, PD-1, TIM-3, LAG-3, BTLA, and CD200R) and their contribution to immune evasion by acute leukemias. In addition, we discuss the current state of preclinical and clinical studies of immune checkpoint inhibition in acute leukemia, which seek to harness the body’s own immune system to fight leukemic cells. PMID:25981611

  19. [Immune Checkpoint for a Kidney Cancer and Other Cancers].

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Shunichiro; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Miura, Kayo; Kato, Shunsuke

    2016-06-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been getting increasing attention in the field of cancer treatment, resulting in the investigation of numerous drugs and target cancers. Clinical trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors have focused on malignant melanomas and non-small cell lung cancer;however, recently, clinical trials have been carried out for other cancers. To date, 31 phase III clinical trials have been conducted for 13 types of cancer. Recently, the results of the CheckMate025 kidney cancer and CheckMate141 head and neck cancer trials have been reported. These reports showed that nivolumab significantly enhanced overall survival in comparison to that associated with an existing second-line treatment drug. Based on these results, the approval of nivolumab for use in renal cell cancer and head and neck cancer is expected in the near future. Furthermore, the results of 20 phase III clinical trials will be submitted from 2017 to 2019, expanding the approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, many issues such as biomarker searches, the evaluation of antitumor effects, and the impact on medical economy remain to be resolved. In this report, we outline clinical trial trends and the future prospects for immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  20. Immunomodulatory Drugs: Immune Checkpoint Agents in Acute Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Hanna A; Kanakry, Christopher G; Luznik, Leo; Gojo, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsic immune responses to acute leukemia are inhibited by a variety of mechanisms, such as aberrant antigen expression by leukemia cells, secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines and expression of inhibitory enzymes in the tumor microenvironment, expansion of immunoregulatory cells, and activation of immune checkpoint pathways, all leading to T cell dysfunction and/or exhaustion. Leukemic cells, similar to other tumor cells, hijack these inhibitory pathways to evade immune recognition and destruction by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Thus, blockade of immune checkpoints has emerged as a highly promising approach to augment innate anti-tumor immunity in order to treat malignancies. Most evidence for the clinical efficacy of this immunotherapeutic strategy has been seen in patients with metastatic melanoma, where anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies have recently revolutionized treatment of this lethal disease with otherwise limited treatment options. To meet the high demand for new treatment strategies in acute leukemia, clinical testing of these promising therapies is commencing. Herein, we review the biology of multiple inhibitory checkpoints (including CTLA-4, PD-1, TIM-3, LAG-3, BTLA, and CD200R) and their contribution to immune evasion by acute leukemias. In addition, we discuss the current state of preclinical and clinical studies of immune checkpoint inhibition in acute leukemia, which seek to harness the body's own immune system to fight leukemic cells.

  1. ICAO's anti-SARS airport activities.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Silvio; Curdt-Christiansen, Claus M

    2003-11-01

    To prevent SARS from spreading through air travel and in order to rebuild the confidence of the traveling public in the safety of air travel, ICAO has set up an "Anti-SARS Airport Evaluation Project." The first phase of this project was to develop a set of protective measures for international airports in affected areas to adopt and implement and then to send out, on the request of Contracting States, a team of inspectors to evaluate and assess airports and issue a "statement of evaluation" that the airport inspected complies with the ICAO anti-SARS protective measures. In cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO), the first part of phase 1 was completed in early June this year, and the second part of phase 1 followed soon after. By mid-July, five international airports in Southeast Asia had been inspected and found to be in full compliance with the ICAO anti-SARS protective measures. The success of this ICAO project is believed to have contributed significantly to the recovery of international air travel and related industries now taking place. Phase 2 of the project is now being developed. It is aimed at preventing a resurgence of SARS, but it also contains elements to make the methodology developed applicable to future outbreaks of any other communicable disease in which the mode of transmission could involve aviation and/or the need to prevent the spread of the disease by air travel.

  2. Yeager Airport Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Williams

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was designed to have the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC), together with its partners, manage the Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project at the Yeager Airport in conjunction with the Central West Virginia Regional Airport Authority (CWVRAA) in coordination with the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE NETL). This program would allow testing and evaluation of the use of hydrogen vehicles in the state of West Virginia utilizing the hydrogen fueling station at Yeager Airport. The NAFTC and CWVRAA to raise awareness and foster a greater understanding of hydrogen fuel and hydrogen-powered vehicles through a targeted utilization and outreach and education effort. After initial implementation of the project, the project added, determine the source(s) of supply for hydrogen powered vehicles that could be used for the testing. After completion of this, testing was begun at Yeager Airport. During the course of the project, the station at Yeager Airport was closed and moved to Morgantown and the West Virginia University Research Corporation. The vehicles were then moved to Morgantown and a vehicle owned by the CWVRAA was purchased to complete the project at the new location. Because of a number of issues detailed in the report for DE-FE0002994 and in this report, this project did not get to evaluate the effectiveness of the vehicles as planned.

  3. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Airport Capacity and Delay Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David A.; Nelson, Caroline; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    The ASAC Airport Capacity Model and the ASAC Airport Delay Model support analyses of technologies addressing airport capacity. NASA's Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Airport Capacity Model estimates the capacity of an airport as a function of weather, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures, traffic characteristics, and the level of technology available. Airport capacity is presented as a Pareto frontier of arrivals per hour versus departures per hour. The ASAC Airport Delay Model allows the user to estimate the minutes of arrival delay for an airport, given its (weather dependent) capacity. Historical weather observations and demand patterns are provided by ASAC as inputs to the delay model. The ASAC economic models can translate a reduction in delay minutes into benefit dollars.

  5. 77 FR 28667 - Land Release for Plattsburgh International Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Plattsburgh International Airport AGENCY: Federal... Secretary may waive a Sponsor's Federal obligation to use certain airport land for aeronautical use....

  6. Secure Large-Scale Airport Simulations Using Distributed Computational Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermott, William J.; Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Tran, Peter; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To fully conduct research that will support the far-term concepts, technologies and methods required to improve the safety of Air Transportation a simulation environment of the requisite degree of fidelity must first be in place. The Virtual National Airspace Simulation (VNAS) will provide the underlying infrastructure necessary for such a simulation system. Aerospace-specific knowledge management services such as intelligent data-integration middleware will support the management of information associated with this complex and critically important operational environment. This simulation environment, in conjunction with a distributed network of supercomputers, and high-speed network connections to aircraft, and to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airline and other data-sources will provide the capability to continuously monitor and measure operational performance against expected performance. The VNAS will also provide the tools to use this performance baseline to obtain a perspective of what is happening today and of the potential impact of proposed changes before they are introduced into the system.

  7. Fueling the engine and releasing the break: combinational therapy of cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kleponis, Jennifer; Skelton, Richard; Zheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly drawing much attention in the therapeutic development for cancer treatment. However, many cancer patients do not respond to treatments with immune checkpoint inhibitors, partly because of the lack of tumor-infiltrating effector T cells. Cancer vaccines may prime patients for treatments with immune checkpoint inhibitors by inducing effector T-cell infiltration into the tumors and immune checkpoint signals. The combination of cancer vaccine and an immune checkpoint inhibitor may function synergistically to induce more effective antitumor immune responses, and clinical trials to test the combination are currently ongoing. PMID:26487965

  8. Airport baggage handling--where do human factors fit in the challenges that airports put on a baggage system?

    PubMed

    Lenior, O N M

    2012-01-01

    The challenges put on large baggage systems by airports can be summarized as: handling a high number of bags in a short period of time, in a limited space, with all sorts of disruptions, whilst complying with stringent regulation upon security, sustainability and health and safety. The aim of this company case study is to show in the different project phases--as indicated in the system ergonomic approach--how the human factors specialist can play a major part in tackling these challenges. By describing different projects in terms of scope, organization, human factors topics covered, phases and lessons learned, the importance of Human-Computer Interaction, automation as well as manual handling and work organization in baggage is addressed.

  9. The noise impact of proposed runway alternatives at Craig Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1982-01-01

    Four proposed runway expansion alternatives at Craig Airport in Jacksonville, Florida have been assessed with respect to their forecasted noise impact in the year 2005. The assessment accounts for population distributions around the airport and human subjective response to noise, as well as the distribution of noise levels in the surrounding community (footprints). The impact analysis was performed using the Airport-noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO), an airport community response model recently developd at Langley Research Center.

  10. Environmental Impacts of Airport Operations: Maintenance, and Expansion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-05

    goals. Projects funded under this category address the environmental impacts of airports, primarily to abate airport noise (e.g., soundproofing homes...of airports, primarily aircraft noise. Among other uses, those funds may be spent on projects to abate airport noise impacts (e.g., soundproofing ... soundproofing ) do not address issues associated with outdoor noise. Further, the use of limited funds for short-tem benefits detracts from investments

  11. The centrosome orientation checkpoint is germline stem cell specific and operates prior to the spindle assembly checkpoint in Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Venkei, Zsolt G; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division is utilized by a broad range of cell types to generate two daughter cells with distinct cell fates. In stem cell populations asymmetric cell division is believed to be crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, failure of which can lead to tissue degeneration or hyperplasia/tumorigenesis. Asymmetric cell divisions also underlie cell fate diversification during development. Accordingly, the mechanisms by which asymmetric cell division is achieved have been extensively studied, although the check points that are in place to protect against potential perturbation of the process are poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster male germline stem cells (GSCs) possess a checkpoint, termed the centrosome orientation checkpoint (COC), that monitors correct centrosome orientation with respect to the component cells of the niche to ensure asymmetric stem cell division. To our knowledge, the COC is the only checkpoint mechanism identified to date that specializes in monitoring the orientation of cell division in multicellular organisms. Here, by establishing colcemid-induced microtubule depolymerization as a sensitive assay, we examined the characteristics of COC activity and find that it functions uniquely in GSCs but not in their differentiating progeny. We show that the COC operates in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, independently of the spindle assembly checkpoint. This study may provide a framework for identifying and understanding similar mechanisms that might be in place in other asymmetrically dividing cell types.

  12. TRIZ Tool for Optimization of Airport Runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Venkata; Selladurai, V.; Saravanan, R.

    TRIZ tool is used for conceptual design and layout of the novel ascending and descending runway model for the effective utilization of short length airports. Handling bigger aircrafts at smaller airports become the necessity for economic consideration and for the benefit of vast airliners and the aspiring air travelers of the region. The authors’ proposal of ascending and descending runway would enable the operational need of wide body aircrafts such as Boeing 747 and Airbus A380-800. Negotiating take-off and landing of bigger aircrafts at less than 10000 feet runway is an optimization solution. This conceptual model and the theoretical design with its layout is dealt in this paper as Part - I. The computer-aided design and analysis using MATLAB with Simulink tool box to confirm the adequacy of the runway length for the bigger aircrafts at smaller airports is however dealt in subsequent papers.

  13. 77 FR 68196 - Orders Limiting Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...Guardia Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport; High Density Rule at Reagan Washington National... operations took several days after the storm. FAA Analysis Under the FAA's High Density Rule at DCA...

  14. 75 FR 23841 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Reading Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... to Berks County Industrial Development Authority. The property was transferred to the City of Reading... needed for airport development as shown on the Airport Layout Plan. Any proceeds from the sale...

  15. 14 CFR 125.365 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules... person may release an airplane from that airport unless the flight release specifies an alternate airport... person lists each required alternate airport in the flight release....

  16. 14 CFR 125.365 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules... person may release an airplane from that airport unless the flight release specifies an alternate airport... person lists each required alternate airport in the flight release....

  17. 14 CFR 125.365 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules... person may release an airplane from that airport unless the flight release specifies an alternate airport... person lists each required alternate airport in the flight release....

  18. 14 CFR 125.365 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules... person may release an airplane from that airport unless the flight release specifies an alternate airport... person lists each required alternate airport in the flight release....

  19. 14 CFR 125.365 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules... person may release an airplane from that airport unless the flight release specifies an alternate airport... person lists each required alternate airport in the flight release....

  20. Un Viaje al Aeropuerto (A Trip to the Airport).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This illustrated, bilingual Spanish-English intermediate reader describes a class trip to an airport, in which the class tours the airport, and learns about airport activities, the parts of an airplane, and other related topics. Each page of the text is illustrated with a drawing. The narrative is followed by a list of 24 suggested learning…

  1. 14 CFR 135.223 - IFR: Alternate airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) to— (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Fly from that airport to the alternate airport; and (3) Fly after that for 45 minutes at normal cruising speed or, for helicopters, fly after that for 30 minutes at normal cruising speed. (b) Paragraph (a)(2) of this section...

  2. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  3. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  4. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  5. 14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contents of Airport Certification Manual. 139.203 Section 139.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... succession of airport operational responsibility X X X X 2. Each current exemption issued to the airport...

  6. 14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contents of Airport Certification Manual. 139.203 Section 139.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... succession of airport operational responsibility X X X X 2. Each current exemption issued to the airport...

  7. 14 CFR 121.117 - Airports: Required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airports: Required data. 121.117 Section... Operations § 121.117 Airports: Required data. (a) No certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may use any airport unless it is properly equipped and adequate for the proposed...

  8. 14 CFR 121.97 - Airports: Required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airports: Required data. 121.97 Section 121... § 121.97 Airports: Required data. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag operations must show that each route it submits for approval has enough airports that are properly equipped...

  9. 14 CFR 121.97 - Airports: Required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airports: Required data. 121.97 Section 121... § 121.97 Airports: Required data. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag operations must show that each route it submits for approval has enough airports that are properly equipped...

  10. 14 CFR 121.624 - ETOPS Alternate Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false ETOPS Alternate Airports. 121.624 Section... Alternate Airports. (a) No person may dispatch or release an airplane for an ETOPS flight unless enough ETOPS Alternate Airports are listed in the dispatch or flight release such that the airplane...

  11. 14 CFR 121.624 - ETOPS Alternate Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ETOPS Alternate Airports. 121.624 Section... Alternate Airports. (a) No person may dispatch or release an airplane for an ETOPS flight unless enough ETOPS Alternate Airports are listed in the dispatch or flight release such that the airplane...

  12. 14 CFR 121.117 - Airports: Required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airports: Required data. 121.117 Section... Operations § 121.117 Airports: Required data. (a) No certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may use any airport unless it is properly equipped and adequate for the proposed...

  13. 14 CFR 139.339 - Airport condition reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport condition reporting. 139.339... OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.339 Airport condition reporting. In a manner authorized by the Administrator, each certificate holder must— (a) Provide for the collection and dissemination of...

  14. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  15. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  16. 46 CFR 72.05-30 - Windows and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Windows and airports. 72.05-30 Section 72.05-30 Shipping... Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-30 Windows and airports. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, all glass in windows or airports shall be at least 1/4 inch thick. However, greater thickness may be required...

  17. 14 CFR 139.339 - Airport condition reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport condition reporting. 139.339... OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.339 Airport condition reporting. In a manner authorized by the Administrator, each certificate holder must— (a) Provide for the collection and dissemination of...

  18. 78 FR 3311 - Safety Enhancements, Certification of Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 139 RIN 2120-AJ70 Safety Enhancements, Certification of Airports AGENCY: Federal... pertaining to certification of airports to clarify that the applicability of these regulations is based only... intentionally false statements concerning an airport operating certificate. Finally, this final rule...

  19. 46 CFR 72.05-30 - Windows and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Windows and airports. 72.05-30 Section 72.05-30 Shipping... Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-30 Windows and airports. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, all glass in windows or airports shall be at least 1/4 inch thick. However, greater thickness may be required...

  20. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  1. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  2. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  3. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  4. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  5. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  6. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  7. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  8. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  9. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  10. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  11. 78 FR 48217 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at the Ottumwa Regional Airport (OTM), Ottumwa....martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may be reviewed, by appointment, in person at this...

  12. Airports, Hotel, and Ground Transportation Information | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Airports in and near Washington, DC Reagan National (DCA)  Approximate 30 minute drive from Rockville* Has its own Metro stop on the blue and yellow lines in Virginia NOTE: This airport may be the closest and easiest option if not renting a car or do not want to pay for an airport cab/shuttle.   Dulles International (IAD) |

  13. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  14. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  15. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  16. Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    1 of 2 Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management Approaches Melanie Sandberg, Tom Reynolds...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management...1 Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management Approaches* Melanie

  17. 46 CFR 72.05-30 - Windows and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Windows and airports. 72.05-30 Section 72.05-30 Shipping... Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-30 Windows and airports. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, all glass in windows or airports shall be at least 1/4 inch thick. However, greater thickness may be required...

  18. 46 CFR 72.05-30 - Windows and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Windows and airports. 72.05-30 Section 72.05-30 Shipping... Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-30 Windows and airports. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, all glass in windows or airports shall be at least 1/4 inch thick. However, greater thickness may be required...

  19. 46 CFR 72.05-30 - Windows and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Windows and airports. 72.05-30 Section 72.05-30 Shipping... Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-30 Windows and airports. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, all glass in windows or airports shall be at least 1/4 inch thick. However, greater thickness may be required...

  20. Review of the Literature Related to Screening Airline Passenger Baggage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    11 billion passengers and their carry-on items have passed through airport security checkpoints. According to the Federal Aviation Administration...Aviation Security establishes security requirements, inspects airline and airport security operations, and issues civil penalties for noncompliance with...operations areas and provide law enforcement support for the screening system and overall airport security requirements (FAA, 1991). The FAA’s role in aviation

  1. 75 FR 41922 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at Fort Smith Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Smith Regional Airport, Fort Smith, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... comment on the release of land at Fort Smith Regional Airport under the provisions of Title 49, U.S.C... comments submitted to the FM must be mailed or delivered to Mr. John Parker, Airport Director, Fort...

  2. 76 FR 23854 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dubois Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dubois Regional Airport, Reynoldsville, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite...

  3. 78 FR 20168 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport, Boulder, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite public...

  4. 76 FR 69321 - Intent To Rule On Request To Release Airport Property at the Malden Regional Airport and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Intent To Rule On Request To Release Airport Property at the Malden Regional Airport and Industrial Park (MAW), Malden, MO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... the Malden Regional Airport & Industrial Park (MAW), Malden, Missouri, under the provisions of 49...

  5. 77 FR 12906 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dubois Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dubois Regional Airport, Reynoldsville, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite...

  6. Operations Under the Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    97,113 Plan (Continuous). TEXAS Big Spring City of Big Spring General Big Spring Airport Aviation 39,600 Airport Master Plan. Dalhart City of Dalhart ...Carolina 1 17,319 South Dakota -0- -o- Tennessee 2 127,857 Texas 19 955,623 Trust Territory of Pacific Islands 1 49,499 Utah 2 128,729 32 APPENDIX A...General Dalhart Municipal Aviation 13,500 Airport Master Plan. El Paso City of El Paso General El Past Airport (East) (New) Aviation 45,000 Airport

  7. Procuring Fuel and Ground Handling Services at Commercial Airports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dodig.osd.mil, or Mr. John Yonaitis at (703) 604-9632 (DSN 664-9632), e-mail jyonaitis@dodig.osd.mil. See Appendix D for the report distribution. The...Airport Hobbs Service, Hobbs, New Mexico 1.25 1.95 2.05 Lincoln Municipal Airport, Lincoln, Nebraska’ 1.21 1.35 1.65 Lubbock International Airport... Lubbock , Texas* 1.27 1.87 2.12 Manassas Regional Airport, Manassas, Virginia 0.95 1.99 2.09 McCarron International Airport, Las Vegas, Nevada 1.32 1.91 2.19

  8. Analysis and Modeling of Ground Operations at Hub Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Stephen (Technical Monitor); Andersson, Kari; Carr, Francis; Feron, Eric; Hall, William D.

    2000-01-01

    Building simple and accurate models of hub airports can considerably help one understand airport dynamics, and may provide quantitative estimates of operational airport improvements. In this paper, three models are proposed to capture the dynamics of busy hub airport operations. Two simple queuing models are introduced to capture the taxi-out and taxi-in processes. An integer programming model aimed at representing airline decision-making attempts to capture the dynamics of the aircraft turnaround process. These models can be applied for predictive purposes. They may also be used to evaluate control strategies for improving overall airport efficiency.

  9. Aircraft noise in the region of the Bucharest-Otopeni Airport. [noise pollution in airport environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costescu, M.; Gherghel, C.; Curtoglu, A.

    1974-01-01

    Aircraft noise, especially in the region adjoining airports, constitutes a problem that will be aggravated in the near future because of increasing aircraft traffic and the appearance of new types of large tonnage aircraft with continuously increasing powers and speeds. Criteria for the evaluation of aircraft noise are reported and some results of studies carried out in the region of Bucharest-Otopeni Airport are detailed.

  10. The problem with security: Public perception versus reality

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, D.L.

    1991-12-31

    The public perception of ``security``, both of the requirements and the implementation, is often at odds with the judgment of security professionals. There is clearly a need to bridge the existing gulf, both by better education of the public, and by the security community gaining a better understanding of public policy, its constraints and limitations, and the effects of public perception. This paper explores the topic through the examination of a case study. The example chosen was the recent Gulf War`s effects on airport security in the US. The paper provides an analysis of the threat, as perceived by the FAA and the airports, the security measures imposed by the FAA, and their effects, on both public perception and in fact, from a technical security view. It also suggests that the lack of vulnerability analysis is a major problem in providing effective security.

  11. Airport Surface Movement Technologies: Atlanta Demonstrations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted in August 1997 at the Hartsfield Atlanta (ATL) International Airport as part of low visibility landing and surface operations (LVLASO) research activities. This research was aimed at investigating technology to improve the safety and efficiency of aircraft movements on the surface during the operational phases of roll-out, turnoff, and taxi in any weather condition down to a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system tested at ATL was composed of airborne and ground-based components that were integrated to provide both the flight crew and controllers with supplemental information to enable safe, expedient surface operations. Experimental displays were installed on a Boeing 757-200 research aircraft in both headup and head-down formats. On the ground, an integrated system maintained surveillance of the airport surface and a controller interface provided routing and control instructions. While at ATL, the research aircraft performed a series of flight and taxi operations to show the validity of the operational concept at a major airport facility, to validate simulation findings, and to assess each of the individual technologies performance in an airport environment. The concept was demonstrated to over 100 visitors from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the aviation community. This paper gives an overview of the LVLASO system and ATL test activities.

  12. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MSWLF units, existing MSWLF units, and lateral expansions that are located within 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) of any airport runway end used by turbojet aircraft or within 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) of any... injury to its occupants. Note to § 258.10: A prohibition on locating a new MSWLF near certain...

  13. 32 CFR 644.428 - Airport property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Airport property. 644.428 Section 644.428 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.428...

  14. Synthetic Physical Interactions Map Kinetochore-Checkpoint Activation Regions

    PubMed Central

    Ólafsson, Guðjón; Thorpe, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a key mechanism to regulate the timing of mitosis and ensure that chromosomes are correctly segregated to daughter cells. The recruitment of the Mad1 and Mad2 proteins to the kinetochore is normally necessary for SAC activation. This recruitment is coordinated by the SAC kinase Mps1, which phosphorylates residues at the kinetochore to facilitate binding of Bub1, Bub3, Mad1, and Mad2. There is evidence that the essential function of Mps1 is to direct recruitment of Mad1/2. To test this model, we have systematically recruited Mad1, Mad2, and Mps1 to most proteins in the yeast kinetochore, and find that, while Mps1 is sufficient for checkpoint activation, recruitment of either Mad1 or Mad2 is not. These data indicate an important role for Mps1 phosphorylation in SAC activation, beyond the direct recruitment of Mad1 and Mad2. PMID:27280788

  15. Replication, checkpoint suppression and structure of centromeric DNA.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Francesco; Falbo, Lucia; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Human centromeres contain large amounts of repetitive DNA sequences known as α satellite DNA, which can be difficult to replicate and whose functional role is unclear. Recently, we have characterized protein composition, structural organization and checkpoint response to stalled replication forks of centromeric chromatin reconstituted in Xenopus laevis egg extract. We showed that centromeric DNA has high affinity for SMC2-4 subunits of condensins and for CENP-A, it is enriched for DNA repair factors and suppresses the ATR checkpoint to ensure its efficient replication. We also showed that centromeric chromatin forms condensins enriched and topologically constrained DNA loops, which likely contribute to the overall structure of the centromere. These findings have important implications on how chromosomes are organized and genome stability is maintained in mammalian cells.

  16. Checkpoint inhibitors in lung cancer: latest developments and clinical potential

    PubMed Central

    Schvartsman, Gustavo; Ferrarotto, Renata; Massarelli, Erminia

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The vast majority of patients are diagnosed with metastatic disease with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. After first-line chemotherapy or biomarker-matched targeted therapy, only suitable for a small group of patients, further systemic therapy options rendered very limited, if any, benefit until recently. Checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved outcomes in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and are currently an established second-line therapeutic option. In this manuscript, we review the mechanism of action of checkpoint inhibitors, present the available data with approved and experimental agents, discuss the progress that has already been made in the field, as well as toxicity awareness, and future perspectives. PMID:27800034

  17. A review of adverse events caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

      There has been no effective therapy in the unresectable melanoma for more than 40 years. Anti-PD-1 antibody and anti-CTLA-4 antibody have totally changed the situation. They have clearly shown the survival benefits of the patients with metastatic melanoma. However, immune checkpoint inhibitors sometimes induce various kinds of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). It is very important for the clinicians to know the reported cases of irAEs and to keep in mind the symptoms of irAEs for the early detection. This review describes the previously reported irAEs and adequate managements for irAEs induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  18. Update on immune checkpoint inhibitors in gynecological cancers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, progress in our understanding of immune-modulatory signaling pathways in immune cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) has led to rejuvenated interest in cancer immunotherapy. In particular, immunotherapy targeting the immune checkpoint receptors such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell-death 1 (PD-1), and programmed cell-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have demonstrated clinical activity in a wide variety of tumors, including gynecological cancers. This review will focus on the emerging clinical data on the therapeutic role of immune checkpoint inhibitors, and potential strategies to enhance the efficacy of this class of compounds, in the context of gynecological cancers. It is anticipated that future biomarker-directed clinical trials will provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying response and resistance to immunotherapy, and help guide our approach to designing therapeutic combinations that have the potential to enhance the benefit of immunotherapy in patients with gynecologic cancers. PMID:28028993

  19. Abscission checkpoint control: stuck in the middle with Aurora B.

    PubMed

    Carmena, Mar

    2012-07-01

    At the end of cell division, the cytoplasmic bridge joining the daughter cells is severed through a process that involves scission of the plasma membrane. The presence of chromatin bridges 'stuck' in the division plane is sensed by the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) component Aurora B kinase, triggering a checkpoint that delays abscission until the chromatin bridges have been resolved. Recent work has started to shed some light on the molecular mechanism by which the CPC controls the timing of abscission.

  20. Central Tolerance Blockade to Augment Checkpoint Immunotherapy in Melanoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    needed to bring anti-RANKL antibody to the clinic for treating advanced melanoma patients. To date, our findings include: RANKL is expressed at high...promising therapy for enhancing checkpoint inhibitor efficacy in advanced melanoma. This observation has immediate clinical relevance given the FDA...What was the impact on the development of the principal discipline(s) of the project? Based on our findings, we are planning a Phase 2 clinical

  1. Checkpointing Shared Memory Programs at the Application-level

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; Schulz, M; Szwed, P; Marques, D; Pingali, K

    2004-09-08

    Trends in high-performance computing are making it necessary for long-running applications to tolerate hardware faults. The most commonly used approach is checkpoint and restart(CPR)-the state of the computation is saved periodically on disk, and when a failure occurs, the computation is restarted from the last saved state. At present, it is the responsibility of the programmer to instrument applications for CPR. Our group is investigating the use of compiler technology to instrument codes to make them self-checkpointing and self-restarting, thereby providing an automatic solution to the problem of making long-running scientific applications resilient to hardware faults. Our previous work focused on message-passing programs. In this paper, we describe such a system for shared-memory programs running on symmetric multiprocessors. The system has two components: (i)a pre-compiler for source-to-source modification of applications, and (ii) a runtime system that implements a protocol for coordinating CPR among the threads of the parallel application. For the sake of concreteness, we focus on a non-trivial subset of OpenMP that includes barriers and locks. One of the advantages of this approach is that the ability to tolerate faults becomes embedded within the application itself, so applications become self-checkpointing and self-restarting on any platform. We demonstrate this by showing that our transformed benchmarks can checkpoint and restart on three different platforms (Windows/x86, Linux/x86, and Tru64/Alpha). Our experiments show that the overhead introduced by this approach is usually quite small; they also suggest ways in which the current implementation can be tuned to reduced overheads further.

  2. Targeting lung cancer through inhibition of checkpoint kinases

    PubMed Central

    Syljuåsen, Randi G.; Hasvold, Grete; Hauge, Sissel; Helland, Åslaug

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of checkpoint kinases ATR, Chk1, and Wee1 are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical trials. Here, we review the basic principles behind the use of such inhibitors as anticancer agents, and particularly discuss their potential for treatment of lung cancer. As lung cancer is one of the most deadly cancers, new treatment strategies are highly needed. We discuss how checkpoint kinase inhibition in principle can lead to selective killing of lung cancer cells while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Several features of lung cancer may potentially be exploited for targeting through inhibition of checkpoint kinases, including mutated p53, low ERCC1 levels, amplified Myc, tumor hypoxia and presence of lung cancer stem cells. Synergistic effects have also been reported between inhibitors of ATR/Chk1/Wee1 and conventional lung cancer treatments, such as gemcitabine, cisplatin, or radiation. Altogether, inhibitors of ATR, Chk1, and Wee1 are emerging as new cancer treatment agents, likely to be useful in lung cancer treatment. However, as lung tumors are very diverse, the inhibitors are unlikely to be effective in all patients, and more work is needed to determine how such inhibitors can be utilized in the most optimal ways. PMID:25774168

  3. Managing immune checkpoint-blocking antibody side effects.

    PubMed

    Postow, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies that enhance the immune system's ability to fight cancer are becoming important components of treatment for patients with a variety of malignancies. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) was the first immune checkpoint to be clinically targeted, and ipilimumab, an inhibitor of CTLA-4, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for patients with advanced melanoma. The programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor and one of its ligands, PD-L1, more recently have shown great promise as therapeutic targets in a variety of malignancies. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab recently have been FDA- approved for patients with melanoma and additional approvals within this therapeutic class are expected. The use of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies is associated with side effects known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Immune-related adverse events affect the dermatologic, gastrointestinal, hepatic, endocrine, and other organ systems. Temporary immunosuppression with corticosteroids, tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, mycophenolate mofetil, or other agents can be effective treatment. This article describes the side-effect profile of the checkpoint-blocking antibodies that target CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 and provides suggestions on how to manage specific irAEs.

  4. Immune checkpoint modulation for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Soria, Jean-Charles; Marabelle, Aurélien; Brahmer, Julie R; Gettinger, Scott

    2015-05-15

    Therapies targeting immune checkpoints have recently shown encouraging activity in patients with heavily pretreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independently of NSCLC histology or mutational status, with low toxicity profiles when used as monotherapy. Objective response rates of approximately 20% have been reported in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with antagonist antibodies targeting the immune checkpoint, programmed death 1 (PD-1) on activated T cells, or its primary ligand, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressed within the tumor microenvironment. Response rates appear to be higher in patients with tumor PD-L1 expression documented by immunohistochemistry, although responses have been appreciated in patients with reportedly PD-L1-negative tumor specimens. Antibodies directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), another immunosuppressive T-cell signaling molecule, are also being evaluated in clinical trials, with one randomized phase II trial demonstrating improved immune-related progression-free survival in lung cancer patients when added to standard chemotherapy. Additional clinical trials are combining anti-CTLA-4 antibodies with either anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies. Combinations of other immune checkpoint antagonists or agonist antibodies with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies are also being pursued.

  5. Emerging role of checkpoint blockade therapy in lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Galanina, Natalie; Kline, Justin; Bishop, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Following the successful application of immune checkpoint blockade therapy (CBT) in refractory solid tumors, it has recently gained momentum as a promising modality in the treatment of relapsed lymphoma. This significant therapeutic advance stems from decades of research that elucidated the role of immune regulation pathways and the mechanisms by which tumors can engage these critical pathways to escape immune detection. To date, two main pathways, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), have emerged as key targets of CBT demonstrating unprecedented activity particularly in heavily pretreated relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and some forms of non-Hodgkin disease. Herein we provide a brief discussion of checkpoint blockade in the context of lymphoma biology with a specific focus on novel checkpoint inhibitors and their therapeutic activity. We discuss current clinical trials and the landscape of CBT to underscore both the remarkable progress and foreseeable limitations of this novel treatment strategy. In particular, we build upon state-of-the-art knowledge and clinical insights gained from the early trials to review potential approaches to how CBT may be integrated with other treatment modalities, including chemoimmunotherapy to improve patient outcomes in the future. Finally, as the role of CBT evolves to potentially become a cornerstone of therapy in refractory/relapsed lymphoma, we briefly emphasize the importance of predictive biomarkers in an effort to select appropriate patients who are most likely to derive benefit from CBT. PMID:28203344

  6. Immune Checkpoint Blockade and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

    PubMed

    Merryman, Reid W; Armand, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) relies primarily upon graft-versus-tumor activity for cancer eradication. Relapse remains the principal cause of treatment failure after HSCT, implying frequent immune escape, which in at least some cases, appears to be mediated by increased expression of inhibitory immune checkpoints. In an attempt to restore anti-tumor immunity, checkpoint blockade therapy (CBT) targeting PD-1 and CLTA-4 has been used in conjunction with both allogeneic and autologous HSCT. Clinical experience in this setting is limited to several small clinical trials and case series, but together they suggest that treatment with CBT can effectively amplify anti-tumor immune responses. However, intrinsic to its mechanism is also the risk that CBT in the HSCT setting may also cause significant immune toxicity. Fatal immune-related adverse events and graft-versus-host disease have been observed, but in most cases, immune side effects appear to be reversible with steroids and CBT discontinuation. As clinical investigation continues, improved understanding of immune checkpoint biology will be critical to optimize safe and efficacious treatment strategies.

  7. Checkpoint inhibition: new treatment options in urologic cancer.

    PubMed

    De Maeseneer, Daan Joost; Delafontaine, Brant; Rottey, Sylvie

    2017-02-01

    Both urothelial (UC) and renal cell cancer (RCC) are highly immunogenic tumours. Recent advances in cellular immunity understanding have resulted in a successful new class of therapeutic agents. Interaction between the programmed cell death 1 (PD1) on regulatory T-cells (Treg) and programmed cell death 1 ligand (PDL1) on cancer cells inhibits an effective immune response and is an important mechanism for cancer cells to evade the immune system. Monoclonal anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 antibodies inhibit this interaction and are called checkpoint inhibitors. As in non-small lung cancer and melanoma, these agents have shown to be highly active agents in UC and RCC. In metastatic or inoperable UC, no good second line therapy exists and checkpoint inhibitors have shown to be active. Multiple Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT) are underway both in second line and adjuvant settings which could change daily practice. In RCC, an anti-PD1 antibody, Nivolumab, has already proven to be effective in prolonging overall survival, and is included in current guidelines in metastatic RCC in second and third line. RCTs with other anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 antibodies are ongoing both in metastatic and adjuvant setting. Checkpoint inhibitors have breathed new life into immunotherapy in urologic cancers and are rapidly being included in practice guidelines.

  8. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr.

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological tunnels of sensors (the tunnels of truth), (5) curved benches with blast proof walls or backs, (6

  9. A decision framework for managing risk to airports from terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Shafieezadeh, Abdollah; Cha, Eun J; Ellingwood, Bruce R

    2015-02-01

    This article presents an asset-level security risk management framework to assist stakeholders of critical assets with allocating limited budgets for enhancing their safety and security against terrorist attack. The proposed framework models the security system of an asset, considers various threat scenarios, and models the sequential decision framework of attackers during the attack. Its novel contributions are the introduction of the notion of partial neutralization of attackers by defenders, estimation of total loss from successful, partially successful, and unsuccessful actions of attackers at various stages of an attack, and inclusion of the effects of these losses on the choices made by terrorists at various stages of the attack. The application of the proposed method is demonstrated in an example dealing with security risk management of a U.S. commercial airport, in which a set of plausible threat scenarios and risk mitigation options are considered. It is found that a combination of providing blast-resistant cargo containers and a video surveillance system on the airport perimeter fence is the best option based on minimum expected life-cycle cost considering a 10-year service period.

  10. Sobriety checkpoints in Thailand: a review of effectiveness and developments over time.

    PubMed

    Ditsuwan, Vallop; Veerman, J Lennert; Bertram, Melanie; Vos, Theo

    2015-03-01

    This review describes the legal basis for and implementation of sobriety checkpoints in Thailand and identifies factors that influenced their historical development and effectiveness. The first alcohol and traffic injury control law in Thailand was implemented in 1934. The 0.05 g/100 mL blood alcohol concentration limit was set in 1994. Currently, 3 types of sobriety checkpoints are used: general police checkpoints, selective breath testing, and special event sobriety checkpoints. The authors found few reports on the strategies, frequencies, and outcomes for any of these types of checkpoints, despite Thailand having devoted many resources to their implementation. In Thailand and other low-middle income countries, it is necessary to address the country-specific barriers to successful enforcement (including political and logistical issues, lack of equipment, and absence of other supportive alcohol harm reduction measures) before sobriety checkpoints can be expected to be as effective as reported in high-income countries.

  11. Emodnet Med Sea Check-Point - Indicators for decision- maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Sophie; Claverie, Vincent; Blanc, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    The Emodnet Checkpoint projects aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness, reliability and utility of the existing monitoring at the sea basin level. This involves the development of monitoring system indicators and a GIS Platform to perform the assessment and make it available. Assessment or production of Check-Point information is made by developing targeted products based on the monitoring data and determining whether the products are meeting the needs of industry and public authorities. Check-point users are the research community, the 'institutional' policy makers for IMP and MSFD implementation, the 'intermediate users', i.e., users capable to understand basic raw data but that benefit from seeing the Checkpoint targeted products and the assessment of the fitness for purpose. We define assessment criteria aimed to characterize/depict the input datasets in terms of 3 territories capable to show performance and gaps of the present monitoring system, appropriateness, availability and fitness for purpose. • Appropriateness: What is made available to users? What motivate/decide them to select this observation rather than this one. • Availability: How this is made available to the user? Place to understand the readiness and service performance of the EU infrastructure • Fitness for use / fitness for purpose: Ability for non-expert user to appreciate the data exploitability (feedback on efficiency & reliability of marine data) For each territory (appropriateness, Availability and Fitness for purpose / for use), we define several indicators. For example, for Availability we define Visibility, Accessibility and Performance. And Visibility is itself defined by "Easily found" and "EU service". So these indicators can be classified according to their territory and sub-territory as seen above, but also according to the complexity to build them. Indicators are built from raw descriptors in 3 stages:  Stage 1: to give a neutral and basic status directly computed from

  12. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 91 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Airport) Chicago, IL Chicago-O'Hare International Airport) Cleveland, OH (Cleveland-Hopkins International... Buffalo International Airport) Chicago, IL (Chicago-O'Hare International Airport) Cleveland, OH (Cleveland... (General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport) Chicago, IL (Chicago-O'Hare International...

  13. 14 CFR 121.187 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Landing limitations: Alternate airport. 121.187 Section 121.187 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Alternate airport. (a) No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in a dispatch or flight release unless the airplane (at the weight anticipated at the time of arrival at the airport), based on...

  14. 14 CFR 121.187 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: Landing limitations: Alternate airport. 121.187 Section 121.187 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Alternate airport. (a) No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in a dispatch or flight release unless the airplane (at the weight anticipated at the time of arrival at the airport), based on...

  15. Two-Level Incremental Checkpoint Recovery Scheme for Reducing System Total Overheads

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huixian; Pang, Liaojun; Wang, Zhangquan

    2014-01-01

    Long-running applications are often subject to failures. Once failures occur, it will lead to unacceptable system overheads. The checkpoint technology is used to reduce the losses in the event of a failure. For the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme used in the long-running tasks, it is unavoidable for the system to periodically transfer huge memory context to a remote stable storage. Therefore, the overheads of setting checkpoints and the re-computing time become a critical issue which directly impacts the system total overheads. Motivated by these concerns, this paper presents a new model by introducing i-checkpoints into the existing two-level checkpoint recovery scheme to deal with the more probable failures with the smaller cost and the faster speed. The proposed scheme is independent of the specific failure distribution type and can be applied to different failure distribution types. We respectively make analyses between the two-level incremental and two-level checkpoint recovery schemes with the Weibull distribution and exponential distribution, both of which fit with the actual failure distribution best. The comparison results show that the total overheads of setting checkpoints, the total re-computing time and the system total overheads in the two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme are all significantly smaller than those in the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme. At last, limitations of our study are discussed, and at the same time, open questions and possible future work are given. PMID:25111048

  16. McrEngine: A Scalable Checkpointing System Using Data-Aware Aggregation and Compression

    DOE PAGES

    Islam, Tanzima Zerin; Mohror, Kathryn; Bagchi, Saurabh; ...

    2013-01-01

    High performance computing (HPC) systems use checkpoint-restart to tolerate failures. Typically, applications store their states in checkpoints on a parallel file system (PFS). As applications scale up, checkpoint-restart incurs high overheads due to contention for PFS resources. The high overheads force large-scale applications to reduce checkpoint frequency, which means more compute time is lost in the event of failure. We alleviate this problem through a scalable checkpoint-restart system, mcrEngine. McrEngine aggregates checkpoints from multiple application processes with knowledge of the data semantics available through widely-used I/O libraries, e.g., HDF5 and netCDF, and compresses them. Our novel scheme improves compressibility ofmore » checkpoints up to 115% over simple concatenation and compression. Our evaluation with large-scale application checkpoints show that mcrEngine reduces checkpointing overhead by up to 87% and restart overhead by up to 62% over a baseline with no aggregation or compression.« less

  17. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleb, Mageed A.; Salem, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area. PMID:25506074

  18. Building Airport Surface HITL Simulation Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinn, Fay Cherie

    2016-01-01

    FutureFlight Central is a high fidelity, real-time simulator designed to study surface operations and automation. As an air traffic control tower simulator, FFC allows stakeholders such as the FAA, controllers, pilots, airports, and airlines to develop and test advanced surface and terminal area concepts and automation including NextGen and beyond automation concepts and tools. These technologies will improve the safety, capacity and environmental issues facing the National Airspace system. FFC also has extensive video streaming capabilities, which combined with the 3-D database capability makes the facility ideal for any research needing an immersive virtual and or video environment. FutureFlight Central allows human in the loop testing which accommodates human interactions and errors giving a more complete picture than fast time simulations. This presentation describes FFCs capabilities and the components necessary to build an airport surface human in the loop simulation capability.

  19. Criteria for Polymer Concrete on Airport Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-27

    basins against corrosion and erosion due to sand and other abrasive materials carried by the flowing waters. Other examples of the Corps of Engineers...airport pavement involves the following 6 design parameters; 1. load specifications (magnitude, geometry , frequency etc.), 2. pavement and subgrade...specifications ( geometry , material properties) and 3. allowable stresses and deflections in the system. It is assumed that all the above parameters except

  20. The annoyance caused by noise around airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    JOSSE

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive study of noise around selected airports in France was performed. By use of questionnaires, the degree of annoyance caused by aircraft noise was determined. Three approaches used in the study were: (1) analytical study on the influence of noise on sleep; (2) sociological study on the satisfaction of occupants of buildings which conform to laws which are supposed to guarantee sufficient comfort; and (3) statistical study of correlations between external noises and psychological and pathological disturbances in residences.