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Sample records for airport surface movement

  1. Airport Surface Movement Technologies: Atlanta Demonstrations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted in August 1997 at the Hartsfield Atlanta (ATL) International Airport as part of low visibility landing and surface operations (LVLASO) research activities. This research was aimed at investigating technology to improve the safety and efficiency of aircraft movements on the surface during the operational phases of roll-out, turnoff, and taxi in any weather condition down to a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system tested at ATL was composed of airborne and ground-based components that were integrated to provide both the flight crew and controllers with supplemental information to enable safe, expedient surface operations. Experimental displays were installed on a Boeing 757-200 research aircraft in both headup and head-down formats. On the ground, an integrated system maintained surveillance of the airport surface and a controller interface provided routing and control instructions. While at ATL, the research aircraft performed a series of flight and taxi operations to show the validity of the operational concept at a major airport facility, to validate simulation findings, and to assess each of the individual technologies performance in an airport environment. The concept was demonstrated to over 100 visitors from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the aviation community. This paper gives an overview of the LVLASO system and ATL test activities.

  2. Flight Demonstration of Integrated Airport Surface Movement Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Jones, Denise R.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes operations associated with a set of flight experiments and demonstrations using a Boeing-757-200 research aircraft as part of low visibility landing and surface operations (LVLASO) research activities. To support this experiment, the B-757 performed flight and taxi operations at the Atlanta Hartsfield International Airport in Atlanta, GA. The test aircraft was equipped with experimental displays that were designed to provide flight crews with sufficient information to enable safe, expedient surface operations in any weather condition down to a runway visual range of 300 feet. In addition to flight deck displays and supporting equipment onboard the B-757, there was also a ground-based component of the system that provided for ground controller inputs and surveillance of airport surface movements. Qualitative and quantitative results are discussed.

  3. Enhancing pilot situational awareness of the airport surface movement area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. R.; Young, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    Two studies are being conducted to address airport surface movement area safety and capacity issues by providing enhanced situational awareness information to pilots. One study focuses on obtaining pilot opinion of the Runway Status Light System (RSLS). This system has been designed to reduce the likelihood of runway incursions by informing pilots when a runway is occupied. The second study is a flight demonstration of an rate integrated system consisting of an electronic moving map in the cockpit and display of the aircraft identification to the controller. Taxi route and hold warning information will be sent to the aircraft data link for display on the electronic moving map. This paper describes the plans for the two studies.

  4. Integrated Airport Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, S.

    1998-01-01

    The current air traffic environment in airport terminal areas experiences substantial delays when weather conditions deteriorate to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Research activity at NASA has culminated in the development, flight test and demonstration of a prototype Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) system. A NASA led industry team and the FAA developed the system which integrated airport surface surveillance systems, aeronautical data links, DGPS navigation, automation systems, and controller and flight deck displays. The LVLASO system was demonstrated at the Hartsfield-Atlanta International Airport using a Boeing 757-200 aircraft during August, 1997. This report documents the contractors role in this testing particularly in the area of data link and DGPS navigation.

  5. Aircraft-Based Satellite Navigation Augmentation to Enable Automated Landing and Movement on the Airport Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeidat, Qasem Turki

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables a paralyzed user to interact with an external device through brain signals. A BCI measures identifies patterns within these measured signals, translating such patterns into commands. The P300 is a pattern of a scalp potentials elicited by a luminance increment of an attended target rather than a non-target character of an alphanumeric matrix. The Row-Column Paradigm (RCP) can utilize responses to series of illuminations of matrix target and non-target characters to spell out alphanumeric strings of P300-eliciting target characters, yet this popular RCP speller faces three challenges. Theadjacent problem concerns the proximity of neighboring characters, the crowding problem concerns their number. Both adjacent and crowding problems concern how these factors impede BCI performance. The fatigue problem concerns how RCP use is tiring. This dissertation addressed these challenges for both desktop and mobile platforms. A new P300 speller interface, the Zigzag Paradigm (ZP), reduced the adjacent problem by increasing the distance between adjacent characters, as well as the crowding problem, by reducing the number neighboring characters. In desktop study, the classification accuracy was significantly improved 91% with the ZP VS 80.6% with the RCP. Since the ZP is not suitable for mobile P300 spellers with a small screen size, a new P300 speller interface was developed in this study, the Edges Paradigm (EP). The EP reduced the adjacent and crowding problems by adding flashing squares located upon the outer edges of the character matrix in the EP. The classification accuracy of the EP (i.e., 93.3%) was significantly higher than the RCP (i.e., 82.1%). We further compared three speller paradigms (i.e., RCP, ZP, and EP), and the result indicated that the EP produced the highest accuracy and caused less fatigue. Later, the EP is implemented in a simulator of a Samsung galaxy smart phone on the Microsoft Surface Pro 2. The mobile EP was

  6. Airport Surface Network Architecture Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thanh C.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Lawas-Grodek, Fran; Ellis, Brenda L.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, airport surface communications are fragmented across multiple types of systems. These communication systems for airport operations at most airports today are based dedicated and separate architectures that cannot support system-wide interoperability and information sharing. The requirements placed upon the Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) systems in airports are rapidly growing and integration is urgently needed if the future vision of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) 2025 concept are to be realized. To address this and other problems such as airport surface congestion, the Space Based Technologies Project s Surface ICNS Network Architecture team at NASA Glenn Research Center has assessed airport surface communications requirements, analyzed existing and future surface applications, and defined a set of architecture functions that will help design a scalable, reliable and flexible surface network architecture to meet the current and future needs of airport operations. This paper describes the systems approach or methodology to networking that was employed to assess airport surface communications requirements, analyze applications, and to define the surface network architecture functions as the building blocks or components of the network. The systems approach used for defining these functions is relatively new to networking. It is viewing the surface network, along with its environment (everything that the surface network interacts with or impacts), as a system. Associated with this system are sets of services that are offered by the network to the rest of the system. Therefore, the surface network is considered as part of the larger system (such as the NAS), with interactions and dependencies between the surface network and its users, applications, and devices. The surface network architecture includes components such as addressing/routing, network management, network

  7. Airport surface operations requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groce, John L.; Vonbokern, Greg J.; Wray, Rick L.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Airport Surface Operations Requirements Analysis (ASORA) study. This study was conducted in response to task 24 of NASA Contract NAS1-18027. This study is part of NASA LaRC's Low Visibility Surface Operations program, which is designed to eliminate the constraints on all-weather arrival/departure operations due to the airport/aircraft ground system. The goal of this program is to provide the capability for safe and efficient aircraft operations on the airport surface during low visibility conditions down to zero. The ASORA study objectives were to (1) develop requirements for operation on the airport surface in visibilities down to zero; (2) survey and evaluate likely technologies; (3) develop candidate concepts to meet the requirements; and (4) select the most suitable concept based on cost/benefit factors.

  8. Surface Operations Systems Improve Airport Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Ames Research Center, Mosaic ATM of Leesburg, Virginia created software to analyze surface operations at airports. Surface surveillance systems, which report locations every second for thousands of air and ground vehicles, generate massive amounts of data, making gathering and analyzing this information difficult. Mosaic?s Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool is an off-line support tool that can analyze how well the airport surface operation is working and can help redesign procedures to improve operations. SODAA helps researchers pinpoint trends and correlations in vast amounts of recorded airport operations data.

  9. Airport Surface Delays and Causes: A Preliminary Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, David K.; Goldberg, Jay; Tang, Tammy

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes FAA Program Analysis and Operations Research Service (ASD-400)/Lockheed Martin activities and findings related to airport surface delays and causes, in support of NASA Langley Research Center's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. The activities described in this report were initiated in June 1995. A preliminary report was published on September 30, 1995. The final report incorporates data collection forms filled out by traffic managers, other FAA staff, and an airline for the New York City area, some updates, data previously requested from various sources to support this analysis, and further quantification and documentation than in the preliminary report. This final report is based on data available as of April 12, 1996. This report incorporates data obtained from review and analysis of data bases and literature, discussions/interviews with engineers, air-traffic staff, other FAA technical personnel, and airline staff, site visits, and a survey on surface delays and causes. It includes analysis of delay statistics; preliminary findings and conclusions on surface movement, surface delay sources and causes, runway occupancy time (ROT), and airport characteristics impacting surface operations and delays; and site-specific data on the New York City area airports, which are the focus airports for this report.

  10. Flight demonstration of integrated airport surface automation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.

    1995-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted to address airport surface movement area capacity issues by providing pilots with enhanced situational awareness information. The demonstration showed an integration of several technologies to government and industry representatives. These technologies consisted of an electronic moving map display in the cockpit, a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) receiver, a high speed VHF data link, an ASDE-3 radar, and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS). Aircraft identification was presented to an air traffic controller on AMASS. The onboard electronic map included the display of taxi routes, hold instructions, and clearances, which were sent to the aircraft via data link by the controller. The map also displayed the positions of other traffic and warning information, which were sent to the aircraft automatically from the ASDE-3/AMASS system. This paper describes the flight demonstration in detail, along with preliminary results.

  11. Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    1 of 2 Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management Approaches Melanie Sandberg, Tom Reynolds...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management...1 Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management Approaches* Melanie

  12. Progress on the Development of Future Airport Surface Wireless Communications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Budinger, James M.; Brooks, David E.; Franklin, Morgan; DeHart, Steve; Dimond, Robert P.; Borden, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Continuing advances in airport surface management and improvements in airport surface safety are required to enable future growth in air traffic throughout the airspace, as airport arrival and departure delays create a major system bottleneck. These airport management and safety advances will be built upon improved communications, navigation, surveillance, and weather sensing, creating an information environment supporting system automation. The efficient movement of the digital data generated from these systems requires an underlying communications network infrastructure to connect data sources with the intended users with the required quality of service. Current airport surface communications consists primarily of buried copper or fiber cable. Safety related communications with mobile airport surface assets occurs over 25 kHz VHF voice and data channels. The available VHF spectrum, already congested in many areas, will be insufficient to support future data traffic requirements. Therefore, a broadband wireless airport surface communications network is considered a requirement for the future airport component of the air transportation system. Progress has been made on defining the technology and frequency spectrum for the airport surface wireless communications network. The development of a test and demonstration facility and the definition of required testing and standards development are now underway. This paper will review the progress and planned future work.

  13. Building Airport Surface HITL Simulation Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinn, Fay Cherie

    2016-01-01

    FutureFlight Central is a high fidelity, real-time simulator designed to study surface operations and automation. As an air traffic control tower simulator, FFC allows stakeholders such as the FAA, controllers, pilots, airports, and airlines to develop and test advanced surface and terminal area concepts and automation including NextGen and beyond automation concepts and tools. These technologies will improve the safety, capacity and environmental issues facing the National Airspace system. FFC also has extensive video streaming capabilities, which combined with the 3-D database capability makes the facility ideal for any research needing an immersive virtual and or video environment. FutureFlight Central allows human in the loop testing which accommodates human interactions and errors giving a more complete picture than fast time simulations. This presentation describes FFCs capabilities and the components necessary to build an airport surface human in the loop simulation capability.

  14. Flight Demonstration of Integrated Airport Surface Technologies for Increased Capacity and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.; Wills, Robert W.; Smith, Kathryn A.; Shipman, Floyd S.; Bryant, Wayne H.; Eckhardt, Dave E., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted to address airport surface movement area capacity and safety issues by providing pilots with enhanced situational awareness information. The demonstration presented an integration of several technologies to government and industry representatives. These technologies consisted of an electronic moving map display in the cockpit, a Differential Global Positioning system (DGPS) receiver, a high speed very high frequency (VHF) data link, an Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) radar, and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS). Aircraft identification was presented to an air traffic controller on an AMASS display. The onboard electronic map included the display of taxi routes, hold instructions, and clearances, which were sent to the aircraft via data link by the controller. The map also displayed the positions of other traffic and warning information, which were sent to the aircraft automatically from the ASDE-3/AMASS system. This paper describes the flight demonstration in detail, along with test results.

  15. Flight Testing of an Airport Surface Guidance, Navigation, and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Jones, Denise R.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes operations associated with a set of flight experiments and demonstrations using a Boeing-757-200 (B-757) research aircraft as part of low visibility landing and surface operations (LVLASO) research activities. To support this experiment, the B-757 performed flight and taxi operations at the Hartsfield-Atlanta International Airport (ATL) in Atlanta, GA. The B-757 was equipped with experimental displays that were designed to provide flight crews with sufficient information to enable safe, expedient surface operations in any weather condition down to a runway visual range (RVR) of 300 feet. In addition to flight deck displays and supporting equipment onboard the B-757, there was also a ground-based component of the system that provided for ground controller inputs and surveillance of airport surface movements. The integrated ground and airborne components resulted in a system that has the potential to significantly improve the safety and efficiency of airport surface movements particularly as weather conditions deteriorate. Several advanced technologies were employed to show the validity of the operational concept at a major airport facility, to validate flight simulation findings, and to assess each of the individual technologies performance in an airport environment. Results show that while the maturity of some of the technologies does not permit immediate implementation, the operational concept is valid and the performance is more than adequate in many areas.

  16. Surface Development and Test Facility (SDTF) New R&D Simulator for Airport Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorighi, Nancy S.

    1997-01-01

    A new simulator, the Surface Development and Test Facility (SDTF) is under construction at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Jointly funded by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and NASA, the SDTF will be a testbed for airport surface automation technologies of the future. The SDTF will be operational in the third quarter of 1998. The SDTF will combine a virtual tower with simulated ground operations to allow evaluation of new technologies for safety, effectiveness, reliability, and cost benefit. The full-scale level V tower will provide a seamless 360 degree high resolution out-the-window view, and a full complement of ATC (air traffic control) controller positions. The imaging system will be generated by two fully-configured Silicon Graphics Onyx Infinite Reality computers, and will support surface movement of up to 200 aircraft and ground vehicles. The controller positions, displays and consoles can be completely reconfigured to match the unique layout of any individual airport tower. Dedicated areas will accommodate pseudo-airport ramp controllers, pseudo-airport operators, and pseudo-pilots. Up to 33 total personnel positions will be able to participate in simultaneous operational scenarios. A realistic voice communication infrastructure will emulate the intercom and telephone communications of a real airport tower. Multi-channel audio and video recording and a sophisticated data acquisition system will support a wide variety of research and development areas, such as evaluation of automation tools for surface operations, human factors studies, integration of terminal area and airport technologies, and studies of potential airport physical and procedural modifications.

  17. Effect of Traffic Position Accuracy for Conducting Safe Airport Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Barnes, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept proposes many revolutionary operational concepts and technologies, such as display of traffic information and movements, airport moving maps (AMM), and proactive alerts of runway incursions and surface traffic conflicts, to deliver an overall increase in system capacity and safety. A piloted simulation study was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center to evaluate the ability to conduct safe and efficient airport surface operations while utilizing an AMM displaying traffic of various position accuracies as well as the effect of traffic position accuracy on airport conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) capability. Nominal scenarios and off-nominal conflict scenarios were conducted using 12 airline crews operating in a simulated Memphis International Airport terminal environment. The data suggest that all traffic should be shown on the airport moving map, whether qualified or unqualified, and conflict detection and resolution technologies provide significant safety benefits. Despite the presence of traffic information on the map, collisions or near collisions still occurred; when indications or alerts were generated in these same scenarios, the incidences were averted.

  18. Wireless Channel Characterization in the Airport Surface Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neville, Joshua T.

    2004-01-01

    Given the anticipated increase in air traffic in the coming years, modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS) is a necessity. Part of this modernization effort will include updating current communication, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) systems to deal with the increased traffic as well as developing advanced CNS technologies for the systems. An example of such technology is the integrated CNS (ICNS) network being developed by the Advanced CNS Architecture and Systems Technology (ACAST) group for use in the airport surface environment. The ICNS network would be used to convey voice/data between users in a secure and reliable manner. The current surface system only supports voice and does so through an obsolete physical infrastructure. The old system is vulnerable to outages and costly to maintain. The proposed ICNS network will include a wireless radio link. To ensure optimal performance, a thorough and accurate characterization of the channel across which the link would operate is necessary. The channel is the path the signal takes from the transmitter to the receiver and is prone to various forms of interference. Channel characterization involves a combination of analysis, simulation, and measurement. My work this summer was divided into four tasks. The first task required compiling and reviewing reference material that dealt with the characterization and modeling of aeronautical channels. The second task involved developing a systematic approach that could be used to group airports into classes, e.g. small airfields, medium airports, large open airports, large cluttered airports, etc. The third task consisted of implementing computer simulations of existing channel models. The fourth task entailed measuring possible interference sources in the airport surface environment via a spectrum analyzer.

  19. NASA Research on an Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Surface operations at airports in the US are based on tactical operations, where departure aircraft primarily queue up and wait at the departure runways. There have been attempts to address the resulting inefficiencies with both strategic and tactical tools for metering departure aircraft. This presentation gives an overview of Spot And Runway Departure Advisor with Collaborative Decision Making (SARDA-CDM): an integrated strategic and tactical system for improving surface operations by metering departure aircraft. SARDA-CDM is the augmentation of ground and local controller advisories through sharing of flight movement and related operations information between airport operators, flight operators and air traffic control at the airport. The goal is to enhance the efficiency of airport surface operations by exchanging information between air traffic control and airline operators, while minimizing adverse effects on stakeholders and passengers. The presentation motivates the need for departure metering, and provides a brief background on the previous work on SARDA. Then, the concept of operations for SARDA-CDM is described. Then the preliminary results from testing the concept in a real-time automated simulation environment are described. Results indicate benefits such as reduction in taxiing delay and fuel consumption. Further, the preliminary implementation of SARDA-CDM seems robust for two minutes delay in gate push-back times.

  20. Multi-modal cockpit interface for improved airport surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J. (Inventor); Bailey, Randall E. (Inventor); Prinzel, III, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Kramer, Lynda J. (Inventor); Williams, Steven P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for multi-modal cockpit interface during surface operation of an aircraft comprises a head tracking device, a processing element, and a full-color head worn display. The processing element is configured to receive head position information from the head tracking device, to receive current location information of the aircraft, and to render a virtual airport scene corresponding to the head position information and the current aircraft location. The full-color head worn display is configured to receive the virtual airport scene from the processing element and to display the virtual airport scene. The current location information may be received from one of a global positioning system or an inertial navigation system.

  1. 75 FR 30899 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ...: Airport Surface Wireless Communications meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications. DATES: The... Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications meeting. The agenda will include: Tuesday, June...

  2. 77 FR 55894 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless...: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless Communications. SUMMARY: The FAA is..., Airport Surface Wireless Communications. DATES: The meeting will be held October 2-3, 2012, from 9...

  3. 75 FR 14483 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless...: Airport Surface Wireless Communications meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications. DATES:...

  4. 75 FR 44306 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless... of RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport...

  5. 78 FR 13395 - Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless...: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless Communications SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport...

  6. SARDA: An Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is an integrated decision support tool for airlines and air traffic control tower enabling surface collaborative decision making (CDM) and departure metering in order to enhance efficiency of surface operations at congested airports. The presentation describes the concept and architecture of the SARDA as a CDM tool, and the results from a human-in-the-loop simulation of the tool conducted in 2012 at the FutureFlight Central, the tower simulation facility. Also, presented is the current activities and future plan for SARDA development. The presentation was given at the meeting with the FAA senior advisor of the Surface Operations Office.

  7. Conducting Safe and Efficient Airport Surface Operations in a NextGen Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Barnes, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) vision proposes many revolutionary operational concepts, such as surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) and technologies, including display of traffic information and movements, airport moving maps (AMM), and proactive alerts of runway incursions and surface traffic conflicts, to deliver an overall increase in system capacity and safety. A piloted simulation study was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center to evaluate the ability of a flight crew to conduct safe and efficient airport surface operations while utilizing an AMM. Position accuracy of traffic was varied, and the effect of traffic position accuracy on airport conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) capability was measured. Another goal was to evaluate the crew's ability to safely conduct STBO by assessing the impact of providing traffic intent information, CD&R system capability, and the display of STBO guidance to the flight crew on both head-down and head-up displays (HUD). Nominal scenarios and off-nominal conflict scenarios were conducted using 12 airline crews operating in a simulated Memphis International Airport terminal environment. The data suggest that all traffic should be shown on the airport moving map, whether qualified or unqualified, and conflict detection and resolution technologies provide significant safety benefits. Despite the presence of traffic information on the map, collisions or near-collisions still occurred; when indications or alerts were generated in these same scenarios, the incidents were averted. During the STBO testing, the flight crews met their required time-of-arrival at route end within 10 seconds on 98 percent of the trials, well within the acceptable performance bounds of 15 seconds. Traffic intent information was found to be useful in determining the intent of conflicting traffic, with graphical presentation preferred. The CD&R system was only

  8. Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, David W.

    2007-01-01

    In this project final report, entitled "Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas," we provide a detailed description and model representation for the wireless channel in the airport surface environment in this band. In this executive summary, we review report contents, describe the achieved objectives and major findings, and highlight significant conclusions and recommendations.

  9. 77 FR 37732 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ...: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless Communications. SUMMARY: The FAA is... Wireless Communications. DATES: The meeting will be held July 24-25, 2012, from 9 a.m.-5 p.m. ADDRESSES... Federal Aviation Administration Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface...

  10. 76 FR 38740 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... of RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is... Wireless Communications. DATES: The meeting will be held August 9-10, 2011 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. ADDRESSES... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface...

  11. 75 FR 66423 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... of RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is... Wireless Communications. DATES: The meeting will be held November 16-17, 2010 from 9 a.m.-5 p.m. ADDRESSES...), notice is hereby given for a RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications...

  12. 77 FR 71028 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ...: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless Communications. SUMMARY: The FAA is... Wireless Communications. DATES: The meeting will be held December 4-6, 2012, from 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface...

  13. Development of Airport Surface Required Navigation Performance (RNP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Smith, Alex; Hicok, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. and international aviation communities have adopted the Required Navigation Performance (RNP) process for defining aircraft performance when operating the en-route, approach and landing phases of flight. RNP consists primarily of the following key parameters - accuracy, integrity, continuity, and availability. The processes and analytical techniques employed to define en-route, approach and landing RNP have been applied in the development of RNP for the airport surface. To validate the proposed RNP requirements several methods were used. Operational and flight demonstration data were analyzed for conformance with proposed requirements, as were several aircraft flight simulation studies. The pilot failure risk component was analyzed through several hypothetical scenarios. Additional simulator studies are recommended to better quantify crew reactions to failures as well as additional simulator and field testing to validate achieved accuracy performance, This research was performed in support of the NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations Programs.

  14. Methods for Determining Aircraft Surface State at Lesser-Equipped Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Keenan; Null, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Tactical departure scheduling within a terminal airspace must accommodate a wide spectrum of surveillance and communication capabilities at multiple airports. The success of such a scheduler is highly dependent upon the knowledge of a departure's state while it is still on the surface. Airports within a common Terminal RAdar CONtrol (TRACON) airspace possess varying levels of surface surveillance infrastructure which directly impacts uncertainties in wheels-off times. Large airports have access to surface surveillance data, which is shared with the TRACON, while lesser-equipped airports still rely solely on controllers in Air Traffic Control Towers (Towers). Coordination between TRACON and Towers can be greatly enhanced when the TRACON controller has access to the surface surveillance and the associated decision-support tools at well-equipped airports. Similar coordination at lesser-equipped airports is still based on verbal communications. This paper investigates possible methods to reduce the uncertainty in wheels-off time predictions at the lesser-equipped airports through the novel use of Over-the-Air (OTA) data transmissions. We also discuss the methods and equipment used to collect sample data at lesser-equipped airports within a large US TRACON, as well as the data evaluation to determine if meaningful information can be extracted from it.

  15. Optimizing integrated airport surface and terminal airspace operations under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosson, Christabelle S.

    In airports and surrounding terminal airspaces, the integration of surface, arrival and departure scheduling and routing have the potential to improve the operations efficiency. Moreover, because both the airport surface and the terminal airspace are often altered by random perturbations, the consideration of uncertainty in flight schedules is crucial to improve the design of robust flight schedules. Previous research mainly focused on independently solving arrival scheduling problems, departure scheduling problems and surface management scheduling problems and most of the developed models are deterministic. This dissertation presents an alternate method to model the integrated operations by using a machine job-shop scheduling formulation. A multistage stochastic programming approach is chosen to formulate the problem in the presence of uncertainty and candidate solutions are obtained by solving sample average approximation problems with finite sample size. The developed mixed-integer-linear-programming algorithm-based scheduler is capable of computing optimal aircraft schedules and routings that reflect the integration of air and ground operations. The assembled methodology is applied to a Los Angeles case study. To show the benefits of integrated operations over First-Come-First-Served, a preliminary proof-of-concept is conducted for a set of fourteen aircraft evolving under deterministic conditions in a model of the Los Angeles International Airport surface and surrounding terminal areas. Using historical data, a representative 30-minute traffic schedule and aircraft mix scenario is constructed. The results of the Los Angeles application show that the integration of air and ground operations and the use of a time-based separation strategy enable both significant surface and air time savings. The solution computed by the optimization provides a more efficient routing and scheduling than the First-Come-First-Served solution. Additionally, a data driven analysis is

  16. A Concept and Implementation of Optimized Operations of Airport Surface Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon C.; Hoang, Ty; Montoya, Justin; Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Tobias, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept of optimized surface operations at busy airports to improve the efficiency of taxi operations, as well as reduce environmental impacts. The suggested system architecture consists of the integration of two decoupled optimization algorithms. The Spot Release Planner provides sequence and timing advisories to tower controllers for releasing departure aircraft into the movement area to reduce taxi delay while achieving maximum throughput. The Runway Scheduler provides take-off sequence and arrival runway crossing sequence to the controllers to maximize the runway usage. The description of a prototype implementation of this integrated decision support tool for the airport control tower controllers is also provided. The prototype decision support tool was evaluated through a human-in-the-loop experiment, where both the Spot Release Planner and Runway Scheduler provided advisories to the Ground and Local Controllers. Initial results indicate the average number of stops made by each departure aircraft in the departure runway queue was reduced by more than half when the controllers were using the advisories, which resulted in reduced taxi times in the departure queue.

  17. The monocular visual imaging technology model applied in the airport surface surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Huang, Chao

    2013-08-01

    At present, the civil aviation airports use the surface surveillance radar monitoring and positioning systems to monitor the aircrafts, vehicles and the other moving objects. Surface surveillance radars can cover most of the airport scenes, but because of the terminals, covered bridges and other buildings geometry, surface surveillance radar systems inevitably have some small segment blind spots. This paper presents a monocular vision imaging technology model for airport surface surveillance, achieving the perception of scenes of moving objects such as aircrafts, vehicles and personnel location. This new model provides an important complement for airport surface surveillance, which is different from the traditional surface surveillance radar techniques. Such technique not only provides clear objects activities screen for the ATC, but also provides image recognition and positioning of moving targets in this area. Thereby it can improve the work efficiency of the airport operations and avoid the conflict between the aircrafts and vehicles. This paper first introduces the monocular visual imaging technology model applied in the airport surface surveillance and then the monocular vision measurement accuracy analysis of the model. The monocular visual imaging technology model is simple, low cost, and highly efficient. It is an advanced monitoring technique which can make up blind spot area of the surface surveillance radar monitoring and positioning systems.

  18. 76 FR 72996 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223 Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Communications AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 223 Airport Surface Wireless Communications Eleventh Meeting. SUMMARY... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 75 FR 54421 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Overview of terrestrial communication networks (FAA) User Services and Applications (FAA) NASA Cleveland... Communications AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA...

  20. An airport surface surveillance solution based on fusion algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianliang; Xu, Yang; Liang, Xuelin; Yang, Yihuang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an airport surface surveillance solution combined with Multilateration (MLAT) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). The moving target to be monitored is regarded as a linear stochastic hybrid system moving freely and each surveillance technology is simplified as a sensor with white Gaussian noise. The dynamic model of target and the observation model of sensor are established in this paper. The measurements of sensors are filtered properly by estimators to get the estimation results for current time. Then, we analysis the characteristics of two fusion solutions proposed, and decide to use the scheme based on sensor estimation fusion for our surveillance solution. In the proposed fusion algorithm, according to the output of estimators, the estimation error is quantified, and the fusion weight of each sensor is calculated. The two estimation results are fused with weights, and the position estimation of target is computed accurately. Finally the proposed solution and algorithm are validated by an illustrative target tracking simulation.

  1. Safely Conducting Airport Surface Trajectory-Based Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Barnes, James R.

    2014-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to evaluate the ability to safely conduct surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) by assessing the impact of providing traffic intent information, conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) system capability, and the display of STBO guidance to the flight crew on both head-down and head-up displays (HUD). Nominal and off-nominal conflict scenarios were conducted using 12 airline crews operating in a simulated Memphis International Airport terminal environment. The flight crews met their required time-of-arrival at route end within 10 seconds on 98 percent of the trials, well within the acceptable performance bounds of 15 seconds. Traffic intent information was found to be useful in determining the intent of conflict traffic, with graphical presentation preferred. The CD&R system was only minimally effective during STBO because the prevailing visibility was sufficient for visual detection of incurring traffic. Overall, the pilots indicated STBO increased general situation awareness but also negatively impacted workload, reduced the ability to watch for other traffic, and increased head-down time.

  2. Initial Concept for Terminal Area Conflict Detection, Alerting, and Resolution Capability on or Near the Airport Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David F.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for 2025 envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. The NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and deliver an overall system capacity up to 3 times that of current operating levels. In order to achieve the NextGen vision, research is necessary in the areas of surface traffic optimization, maximum runway capacity, reduced runway occupancy time, simultaneous single runway operations, and terminal area conflict prevention, among others. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) research to develop technologies, data, and guidelines to enable Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) in the Airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (ATMA) under current and emerging NextGen operating concepts. In this report, an initial concept for an aircraft-based method for CD&R in the ATMA is presented. This method is based upon previous NASA work in CD&R for runway incursion prevention, the Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS). CAAT research is conducted jointly under NASA's Airspace Systems Program, Airportal Project and the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project.

  3. 78 FR 33145 - Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Communications AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless Communications. SUMMARY: The FAA is... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. The Earth surface slide movement at Soledad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, A.

    1986-11-01

    The Earth surface slide movement at Soledad is a mountain-slide type of movement. Estimations of the thickness of the layer which is moving range between 10 and 100 m. There is no proof that the movement is water induced, but it could be influenced by the water household. The slope of the slide area is H: D = 1: 2. The height difference in the moving area studied, according to this paper, is 1 km. The actual rate of movement is about 12 cm/yr.

  5. Effect of Surface Traffic Count on Taxi Time at Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gupta, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    As the amount of air traffic increases over the years, most airports simply do not have the means of expanding to handle the intensified traffic on the surface that will ensue. Precise surveillance equipment and automation concepts, as well as advanced surface traffic algorithms are being developed to improve airport efficiency. These surface algorithms require inputs unique to each airport to ensure maximum efficiency, and minimal taxi delay. This study analyzes surface traffic at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) to determine the effect of the number of aircraft on the surface and the amount of stop and go situations they experience to the amount of additional taxi time encountered. If the surface capacity of an airport is known, minimal delay can be accomplished by limiting the number of taxiing aircraft to that capacity. This concept is related to highways, where traffic flow drastically decreases as more cars occupy the road. An attempt to minimize this effect on highways is seen with the use of metering lights at freeway on-ramps. Since the surface traffic at airports is highly regulated, and aircraft are less mobile on the ground, limiting the surface count to a certain number can greatly reduce the amount of additional taxi time encountered, as well as reduce hazardous emissions. This study will also find the regions of an airport that encounter the most additional taxi time when the number of aircraft in that area is increased. This could help surface traffic algorithms avoid congesting that area, or re-route aircraft to different runways when that area reaches its capacity. The relationship between the amount of stop and go situations an aircraft encounters and their effect on the taxi time of that aircraft will also be investigated. This will help to determine the effect of holding an aircraft on the taxiway as opposed to re-routing it. The lesser of the two should be used when developing surface traffic algorithms to further minimize the

  6. 14 CFR 77.25 - Civil airport imaginary surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... runway according to the type of approach available or planned for that runway. The slope and dimensions... horizontal surface at a slope of 20 to 1 for a horizontal distance of 4,000 feet. (c) Primary surface. A...) The approach surface extends for a horizontal distance of: (i) 5,000 feet at a slope of 20 to 1...

  7. 14 CFR 77.28 - Military airport imaginary surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... same width as the primary surface. (3) Approach clearance surface. An inclined plane, symmetrical about... United States. (1) Inner horizontal surface. A plane is oval in shape at a height of 150 feet above the established airfield elevation. The plane is constructed by scribing an arc with a radius of 7,500 feet...

  8. 14 CFR 77.28 - Military airport imaginary surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...,000 feet and the same width as the primary surface. (3) Approach clearance surface. An inclined plane... force of the United States. (1) Inner horizontal surface. A plane is oval in shape at a height of 150 feet above the established airfield elevation. The plane is constructed by scribing an arc with...

  9. Surface Meteorological Station - ESRL Short Tower, Wasco Airport - Raw Data

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Tim

    2016-10-25

    A diversity of instruments are used to measure various quantities related to meteorology, precipitation, and radiation near the Earth’s surface. Typically, a standard suite of instruments is deployed to monitor meteorological state variables.

  10. 14 CFR 77.25 - Civil airport imaginary surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... category of each runway according to the type of approach available or planned for that runway. The slope... periphery of the horizontal surface at a slope of 20 to 1 for a horizontal distance of 4,000 feet. (c... horizontal distance of: (i) 5,000 feet at a slope of 20 to 1 for all utility and visual runways; (ii)...

  11. Wireless Channel Characterization: Modeling the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Future Airport Surface Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, D. W.; Apaza, Rafael; Foore, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a recently completed wideband wireless channel characterization project for the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System (MLS) extension band, for airport surface areas. This work included mobile measurements at large and small airports, and fixed point-to-point measurements. Mobile measurements were made via transmission from the air traffic control tower (ATCT), or from an airport field site (AFS), to a receiving ground vehicle on the airport surface. The point-to-point measurements were between ATCT and AFSs. Detailed statistical channel models were developed from all these measurements. Measured quantities include propagation path loss and power delay profiles, from which we obtain delay spreads, frequency domain correlation (coherence bandwidths), fading amplitude statistics, and channel parameter correlations. In this paper we review the project motivation, measurement coordination, and illustrate measurement results. Example channel modeling results for several propagation conditions are also provided, highlighting new findings.

  12. Initial Concept for Terminal Area Conflict Detection, Alerting, and Resolution Capability On or Near the Airport Surface, Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for 2025 envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. The NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and deliver an overall system capacity up to 3 times that of current operating levels. In order to achieve the NextGen vision, research is necessary in the areas of surface traffic optimization, maximum runway capacity, reduced runway occupancy time, simultaneous single runway operations, and terminal area conflict prevention, among others. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) research to develop technologies, data, and guidelines to enable Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) in the Airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (ATMA) under current and emerging NextGen operating concepts. The term ATMA was created to reflect the fact that the CD&R concept area of operation is focused near the airport within the terminal maneuvering area. In the following, an initial concept for an aircraft-based method for CD&R in the ATMA is presented. This method is based upon previous NASA work in CD&R for runway incursion prevention, the Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS).

  13. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development, Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen. Steve

    2010-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." The proposed future C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system, referred to as the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), is anticipated to increase overall air-to-ground data communications systems capacity by using a new spectrum (i.e., not very high frequency (VHF)). Although some critical services could be supported, AeroMACS will also target noncritical services, such as weather advisory and aeronautical information services as part of an airborne System Wide Information Management (SWIM) program. AeroMACS is to be designed and implemented in a manner that will not disrupt other services operating in the C-band. This report defines the AeroMACS concepts of use, high-level system requirements, and architecture; the performance of supporting system analyses; the development of AeroMACS test and demonstration plans; and the establishment of an operational AeroMACS capability in support of C-band aeronautical data communications standards to be advanced in both international (International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO) and national (RTCA) forums. This includes the development of system parameter profile recommendations for AeroMACS based on existing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE) 802.16e- 2009 standards

  14. Airport noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of airport noise at several airports and air bases is detailed. Community reactions to the noise, steps taken to reduce jet engine noise, and the effect of airport use restrictions and curfews on air transportation are discussed. The adverse effect of changes in allowable operational noise on airport safety and altenative means for reducing noise pollution are considered. Community-airport relations and public relations are discussed.

  15. Preliminary Findings: Issues in Surface Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Denning, Rebecca; Obradovich, Jodi; Billings, Charles; Woods, David

    1999-01-01

    The final report for the grant is presented. The recent goals for this project have been: (1) To identify common surface movement challenges which affect the airlines and Air Traffic Control; (2) To map out possible solutions to these challenges; (3) To start generalizing about the information we are receiving so that major, abstract categories of challenges and potential solutions will begin to emerge. In particular, there are several areas of opportunity which are beginning to emerge from the data, dealing with the need for: (1) Tools to support information exchange regarding priorities (both within an individual airline and between the ATC tower and airlines). Such priorities include both concerns affecting departure throughput as well as the ordering of departures to accommodate other airline considerations; (2) Planning tools to help ATC and airline Ramp staff deal with information about priorities; (3) Implementation of strategies to enable greater flexibility in queueing flights for departures; (4) Tools to provide better coordination and situation awareness during taxiing (within an airline as well as between airlines and between the airlines); (5) Tools to support planning and to deal with the interactions between departures and arrivals. Thus far, the initial interviews and observations at three airlines and two ATC facilities have been completed.

  16. High Resolution Digital Surface Model For Production Of Airport Obstruction Charts Using Spaceborne SAR Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Henrique; Rodrigues, Marco; Radius, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Airport Obstruction Charts (AOCs) are graphical representations of natural or man-made obstructions (its locations and heights) around airfields, according to International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annexes 4, 14 and 15. One of the most important types of data used in AOCs production/update tasks is a Digital Surface Model (first reflective surface) of the surveyed area. The development of advanced remote sensing technologies provide the available tools for obstruction data acquisition, while Geographic Information Systems (GIS) present the perfect platform for storing and analyzing this type of data, enabling the production of digital ACOs, greatly contributing to the increase of the situational awareness of pilots and enhancing the air navigation safety level [1]. Data acquisition corresponding to the first reflective surface can be obtained through the use of Airborne Laser-Scanning and Light Detection and Ranging (ALS/LIDAR) or Spaceborne SAR Systems. The need of surveying broad areas, like the entire territory of a state, shows that Spaceborne SAR systems are the most adequate in economic and feasibility terms of the process, to perform the monitoring and producing a high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM). The high resolution DSM generation depends on many factors: the available data set, the used technique and the setting parameters. To increase the precision and obtain high resolution products, two techniques are available using a stack of data: the PS (Permanent Scatterers) technique [2], that uses large stack of data to identify many stable and coherent targets through multi- temporal analysis, removing the atmospheric contribution and to minimize the estimation errors, and the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique ([3],[4]), that relies on the use of small baseline SAR interferograms and on the application of the so called singular value decomposition (SVD) method, in order to link independent SAR acquisition data sets, separated by large

  17. Benefit Opportunities for Integrated Surface and Airspace Departure Metering at Charlotte-Douglas International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppenbarger, Rich; Jung, Yoon; Kozon, Tom; Farrahi, Amir; Malik, Wakar; Lee, Hanbong; Chevalley, Eric; Kistler, Matt

    2016-01-01

    NASA is collaborating with the FAA and aviation industry to develop and demonstrate new capabilities that integrate arrival, departure, and surface air-traffic operations. The concept relies on trajectory-based departure scheduling and collaborative decision making to reduce delays and uncertainties in taxi and climb operations. The paper describes the concept and benefit mechanisms aimed at improving flight efficiency and predictability while maintaining or improving operational throughput. The potential impact of the technology is studied and discussed through a quantitative analysis of relevant shortfalls at the site identified for initial deployment and demonstration in 2017: Charlotte-Douglas International Airport. Results from trajectory analysis indicate substantial opportunity to reduce taxi delays for both departures and arrivals by metering departures at the gate in a manner that maximizes throughput while adhering to takeoff restrictions due mostly to airspace constraints. Substantial taxi-out delay reduction is shown for flights subject to departure restrictions stemming from traffic flow management initiatives. Opportunities to improve the predictability of taxi, takeoff, and climb operations are examined and their potential impact on airline scheduling decisions and air-traffic forecasting is discussed. In addition, the potential to improve throughput with departure scheduling that maximizes use of available runway and airspace capacity is analyzed.

  18. A fresh look at runway incursions: onboard surface movement awareness and alerting system based on SVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernaleken, Christoph; Mihalic, Lamir; Güttler, Mathias; Klingauf, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    Increasing traffic density on the aerodrome surface due to the continuous worldwide growth in the number of flight operations does not only cause capacity and efficiency problems, but also increases the risk of serious incidents and accidents on the airport movement area. Of these, Runway Incursions are the by far most safety-critical. In fact, the worst-ever accident in civil aviation, the collision of two Boeing B747s on Tenerife in 1977 with 583 fatalities, was caused by a Runway Incursion. Therefore, various Runway Safety programs have recently been initiated around the globe, often focusing on ground-based measures such as improved surveillance. However, as a lack of flight crew situational awareness is a key causal factor in many Runway Incursion incidents and accidents, there is a strong need for an onboard solution, which should be capable of interacting cooperatively with ground-based ATM systems, such as A-SMGCS where available. This paper defines the concept of preventive and reactive Runway Incursion avoidance and describes a Surface Movement Awareness & Alerting System (SMAAS) designed to alert the flight crew if they are at risk of infringing a runway. Both the SVS flight deck displays and the corresponding alerting algorithms utilize an ED 99A/RTCA DO-272A compliant aerodrome database, as well as airport operational, traffic and clearance data received via ADS-B or other data links, respectively. The displays provide the crew with enhanced positional, operational, clearance and traffic awareness, and they are used to visualize alerts. A future enhancement of the system will provide intelligent alerting for conflicts caused by surrounding traffic.

  19. Ocean surface winds drive dynamics of transoceanic aerial movements.

    PubMed

    Felicísimo, Angel M; Muñoz, Jesús; González-Solis, Jacob

    2008-08-13

    Global wind patterns influence dispersal and migration processes of aerial organisms, propagules and particles, which ultimately could determine the dynamics of colonizations, invasions or spread of pathogens. However, studying how wind-mediated movements actually happen has been hampered so far by the lack of high resolution global wind data as well as the impossibility to track aerial movements. Using concurrent data on winds and actual pathways of a tracked seabird, here we show that oceanic winds define spatiotemporal pathways and barriers for large-scale aerial movements. We obtained wind data from NASA SeaWinds scatterometer to calculate wind cost (impedance) models reflecting the resistance to the aerial movement near the ocean surface. We also tracked the movements of a model organism, the Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea), a pelagic bird known to perform long distance migrations. Cost models revealed that distant areas can be connected through "wind highways" that do not match the shortest great circle routes. Bird routes closely followed the low-cost "wind-highways" linking breeding and wintering areas. In addition, we found that a potential barrier, the near surface westerlies in the Atlantic sector of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), temporally hindered meridional trans-equatorial movements. Once the westerlies vanished, birds crossed the ITCZ to their winter quarters. This study provides a novel approach to investigate wind-mediated movements in oceanic environments and shows that large-scale migration and dispersal processes over the oceans can be largely driven by spatiotemporal wind patterns.

  20. Ocean Surface Winds Drive Dynamics of Transoceanic Aerial Movements

    PubMed Central

    Felicísimo, Ángel M.; Muñoz, Jesús; González-Solis, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Global wind patterns influence dispersal and migration processes of aerial organisms, propagules and particles, which ultimately could determine the dynamics of colonizations, invasions or spread of pathogens. However, studying how wind-mediated movements actually happen has been hampered so far by the lack of high resolution global wind data as well as the impossibility to track aerial movements. Using concurrent data on winds and actual pathways of a tracked seabird, here we show that oceanic winds define spatiotemporal pathways and barriers for large-scale aerial movements. We obtained wind data from NASA SeaWinds scatterometer to calculate wind cost (impedance) models reflecting the resistance to the aerial movement near the ocean surface. We also tracked the movements of a model organism, the Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea), a pelagic bird known to perform long distance migrations. Cost models revealed that distant areas can be connected through “wind highways” that do not match the shortest great circle routes. Bird routes closely followed the low-cost “wind-highways” linking breeding and wintering areas. In addition, we found that a potential barrier, the near surface westerlies in the Atlantic sector of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), temporally hindered meridional trans-equatorial movements. Once the westerlies vanished, birds crossed the ITCZ to their winter quarters. This study provides a novel approach to investigate wind-mediated movements in oceanic environments and shows that large-scale migration and dispersal processes over the oceans can be largely driven by spatiotemporal wind patterns. PMID:18698354

  1. Surface movement above an underground coal longwall mine after closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoort, André

    2016-09-01

    The surface movement in an area of about 22 km2 above the underground coal mine of Houthalen was analyzed based on Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements. After its closure in 1992, a residual subsidence was observed over a period of several years, followed by an uplift of the surface above and around the past longwall panels, whereby the rate of movement was, in absolute terms, of the same order for the two types of movements. The processes behind these movements are different. The process of subsidence is caused by the caving of the roof above the mined-out area and is mainly a mechanical stress-deformation process, including time-dependent aspects. However, the process of uplift is most probably caused by the swelling of the clay minerals in the argillaceous rocks in the coal strata after the flooding of the underground workings. Hence, the areas in which there is the greatest risk of damage to the surface infrastructure are not the same for the hazards linked to subsidence and uplift. For example, the zone in which the maximum uplift occurs clearly is at a different location from that of the zone with the maximum residual subsidence. There is no clear sign that the amount of mining underneath affects the residual subsidence, and there is no indication that the process of uplift is linked directly to the mining characteristics. It is more likely that uplift as the result of flooding is initiated at, or close to, the vertical shafts.

  2. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  3. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  4. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  5. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  6. Automated optical measurements of human torso surface movements during breathing.

    PubMed

    Saumarez, R C

    1986-02-01

    An automated light-sectioning system has been developed for continuously measuring the movements of the torso surface during breathing. The body is illuminated with planes of light of a known geometry, and the body is visualized with television cameras. The perceived angles at which the television scan detected the planes projected onto the body are encoded digitally and stored continuously on magnetic tape. Subsequently the geometry of the torso can be reconstructed at 80-ms intervals enabling the detailed pattern of movements and volume displacement over the torso surface to be determined. Displacements of 0.5 mm over the torso surface can be resolved, and respired volume can be measured to within 10% over the range of the vital capacity.

  7. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  8. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  9. 14 CFR 77.29 - Airport imaginary surfaces for heli-ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... feet. The slope of the approach surface is 8 to 1 for civil heliports and 10 to 1 for military... boundaries of the heliport primary surface and from the approach surfaces at a slope of 2 to 1 for a...

  10. 14 CFR 77.29 - Airport imaginary surfaces for heli-ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... where its width is 500 feet. The slope of the approach surface is 8 to 1 for civil heliports and 10 to 1... from the lateral boundaries of the heliport primary surface and from the approach surfaces at a...

  11. Measured ground-surface movements, Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley, 30 kilometers southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, incurred slight deformation because of the extraction of hot water and steam, and probably, active tectonism. During 1977 to 1978, the US Geological Survey established and measured two networks of horizontal control in an effort to define both types of movement. These networks consisted of: (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from stations on an existing US Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border; and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the present and planned geothermal production area. Electronic distance measuring instruments were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks in 1978, 1979 and 1981. Lines in the regional net averaged 25 km. in length and the standard deviation of an individual measurement is estimated to be approx. 0.3 part per million of line length. The local network was measured using different instrumentation and techniques. The average line length was about 5 km. and the standard deviation of an individual measurement approached 3 parts per million per line length. Ground-surface movements in the regional net, as measured by both the 1979 and 1981 resurveys, were small and did not exceed the noise level. The 1979 resurvey of the local net showed an apparent movement of 2 to 3 centimeters inward toward the center of the production area. This apparent movement was restricted to the general limits of the production area. The 1981 resurvey of the local net did not show increased movement attributable to fluid extraction.

  12. 14 CFR 77.21 - Department of Defense (DOD) airport imaginary surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... same width as the primary surface. (3) Approach clearance surface. An inclined plane, symmetrical about.... (1) Inner horizontal surface. A plane that is oval in shape at a height of 150 feet above the established airfield elevation. The plane is constructed by scribing an arc with a radius of 7,500 feet...

  13. 14 CFR 77.21 - Department of Defense (DOD) airport imaginary surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... same width as the primary surface. (3) Approach clearance surface. An inclined plane, symmetrical about.... (1) Inner horizontal surface. A plane that is oval in shape at a height of 150 feet above the established airfield elevation. The plane is constructed by scribing an arc with a radius of 7,500 feet...

  14. 14 CFR 77.21 - Department of Defense (DOD) airport imaginary surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... same width as the primary surface. (3) Approach clearance surface. An inclined plane, symmetrical about.... (1) Inner horizontal surface. A plane that is oval in shape at a height of 150 feet above the established airfield elevation. The plane is constructed by scribing an arc with a radius of 7,500 feet...

  15. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Engineering-Initial High-Level Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents an initial high-level safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the C-band communication system after the profile is finalized and system rollout timing is determined. A security risk assessment has been performed by NASA as a parallel activity. While safety analysis is concerned with a prevention of accidental errors and failures, the security threat analysis focuses on deliberate attacks. Both processes identify the events that affect operation of the system; and from a safety perspective the security threats may present safety risks.

  16. Surface expression of subglacial meltwater movement, Bering Glacier, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwell, D.H. ); Fleisher, P.J. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Bailey, P.K. )

    1993-03-01

    Longitudinal topographic profiles (1988--1992) across the thermokarst terminus of the Grindle Hills Ice-tongue and interlobate moraine of the Bering Piedmont Glacier document annual changes in crevasse patterns and fluctuations in surface elevation related to subglacial water movement. A semi-continuous record of aerial photos (1978--1990), plus field observations (1988--1992), reveal the progressive enlargement of two lateral collapse basin on both sides of the thermokarst, connected by a transverse collapse trough. Seasonally generated meltwater at depth rises within the glacier, fills the basins and other depressions and lifts the thermokarst terminus of the ice-tongue a few meters by buoyancy and hydrostatic pressure. The resulting surface tension creates a chaotic crevasse pattern unrelated to normal glacier movement. The crevasses open (2 m wide, 8--10 m deep) in response to increased water accumulation at depth and close during subsidence as the ice-tongue settles following evacuation of subglacier water. A network of open conduits (>10 m diameter), exposed by surface ablation, provides evidence for the scale of englacial passageways beneath the thermokarst and represents a form of subglacial ablation that leads to removal of support and collapse in stagnant glacier masses.

  17. Tongue-surface movement patterns during speech and swallowing.

    PubMed

    Green, Jordan R; Wang, Yu-Tsai

    2003-05-01

    The tongue has been frequently characterized as being composed of several functionally independent articulators. The question of functional regionality within the tongue was examined by quantifying the strength of coupling among four different tongue locations across a large number of consonantal contexts and participants. Tongue behavior during swallowing was also described. Vertical displacements of pellets affixed to the tongue were extracted from the x-ray microbeam database. Forty-six participants recited 20 vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) combinations and swallowed 10 ccs of water. Tongue-surface movement patterns were quantitatively described by computing the covariance between the vertical time-histories of all possible pellet pairs. Phonemic differentiation in vertical tongue motions was observed as coupling varied predictably across pellet pairs with place of articulation. Moreover, tongue displacements for speech and swallowing clustered into distinct groups based on their coupling profiles. Functional independence of anterior tongue regions was evidenced by a wide range of movement coupling relations between anterior tongue pellets. The strengths and weaknesses of the covariance-based analysis for characterizing tongue movement are considered.

  18. Whiffing the Airport Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David

    2008-01-01

    An airport interview is an initial interview for a senior administrative position conducted at an airport hotel not too far from the campus in question. Meeting at an airport enables a search committee to interview a large number of candidates in a short period of time with a degree of confidentiality. At the conclusion of the airport interviews,…

  19. Airport technology international 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiorcopulo, George

    The present survey of developments in airport technologies and their management discusses airport extensions and upgradings, airport developments in China, polluter penalization, airport effects on environments, European ground-handling methods, ATC in Europe, EC duty-free sales at airports, and the privatization of airport security. Also discussed are airport advertising, new alternatives in air-cargo handling, ATC training, taxi-guidance systems, and the reduction of fuel consumption and emissions on the ground. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  20. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynda S.

    This document summarizes 20 articles and books which stress the importance of movement in the overall development of the human species. Each summary ranges in length from 100 to 200 words and often includes direct quotations. A wide range of movement activities suitable for people of all ages (from infants to adults) are discussed. Many summaries…

  1. An air pollution modeling study using three surface coverings near the New International Airport of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Jazcilevich, Arón D; García, Agustín R; Ruiz-Suárez, Luis-Gerardo

    2003-10-01

    The dry lakebed of what once was the lake of Texcoco is the location selected for the New International Airport of Mexico City. This project will generate an important urban development near the airport with regional implications on air quality. Using a prognostic air quality model, the consequences of photochemical air pollution in the metropolitan area of Mexico City resulting from three possible coverings for the areas of the lakebed that are not occupied by the runway and terminal building are investigated. These coverings are desert, grassland, and water and occupy an area of 63 km2. This study is based on a representative high pollution episode. In addition to reducing the emission of primary natural particles, the water covering generates a land-water breeze capable of maintaining enough ventilation to reduce pollutant concentrations over a localized region of the metropolitan area and may enhance the wind speed on the coasts of the proposed lake.

  2. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on movement: movable art, relocating families, human rights, and trains and cars. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books, additional resources and activities (PEN)

  3. 76 FR 6049 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lafayette, Purdue University Airport, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... University Airport, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This... IN E5 Lafayette, Purdue University Airport, IN [Amended] Lafayette, Purdue University Airport, IN... above the surface within a 6.7-mile radius of Purdue University Airport, and within 1.7 miles each...

  4. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Simulation Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2010-01-01

    A Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate pilot reaction to conflict events in the TMA near the airport, different alert timings for various scenarios, alerting display concepts, and directive alerting concepts. This paper gives an overview of the conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) concept, simulation study, and test results

  5. Volcanic hazards to airports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  6. Interpretations of surface movements of a landfill built on steeply sloping ground. A cautionary case history.

    PubMed

    Blight, G E

    2007-12-01

    The surface of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill cell, built on steeply sloping ground, was discovered to be moving downhill. The movements were measured and considered by the owners to be alarming. In an attempt to stop the movement, the compacted soil stability berm at the toe of the cell was raised by 5 m in two stages. The rate of movement declined, but the waste surface continued to move. Eventually, the cell was not filled to its designed full level. The paper describes the design of the landfill cell and its underliner, as well as three independent investigations into the causes of the surface movement. The first two investigators assumed that the surface movements represented shear displacements at the interface of the geomembrane and its protective geo-fabric, and therefore that the cell was failing in shear. The third investigation, undertaken in preparation of evidence in a civil court case, 7 years later, concluded that the movements resulted from down-slope shear straining of the land-filled MSW. The later investigation concluded that the MSW cell had been, and is still shear-stable, and it points to differences in behaviour between MSW landfill slopes and comparable slopes in mine waste or natural soils.

  7. Lip movement tracking based on the changes of surface area of ellipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talha, Kamil S.; Wan, Khairunizam; Chittawad, Viratt; Za'ba, S. K.; Ayob, M. Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Lip reading is a technique used by a hard hearing person to communicate in their conversation. Sometime the word they understand is not the same as what the other speaker talk. Computer-based lip reading system may help to track those words based on the movement of the lips. When speak, lip make a unique movement that may differ between several words. For the computer to recognize the spoken word, preliminary studies need to be done in order to extract features from the movements of the lip. A surface area of the lip is proposed as the feature of the lip movement. The horizontal and vertical distances of the lip are extracted to determine the surface area. In the experiments, several spoken words at the hospital have been chosen. The experimental results show that the ellipse feature could be employed to train the computer understands the spoken word from the human.

  8. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure. This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  9. Changes in multi-segmented body movements and EMG activity while standing on firm and foam support surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fransson, P A; Gomez, S; Patel, M; Johansson, L

    2007-09-01

    Postural control ensures stability during both static posture and locomotion by initiating corrective adjustments in body movement. This is particularly important when the conditions of the support surface change. We investigated the effects of standing on a compliant foam surface using 12 normal subjects (mean age 26 years) in terms of: linear movements at the head, shoulder, hip and knee; EMG activity of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles and torques towards the support surface. As subjects repeated the trials with eyes open or closed, we were also able to determine the effects of vision on multi-segmented body movements during standing upon different support surface conditions. As expected, EMG activity, torque variance values and body movements at all measured positions increased significantly when standing on foam compared with the firm surface. Linear knee and hip movements increased more, relative to shoulder and head movements while standing on foam. Vision stabilized the head and shoulder movements more than hip and knee movements while standing on foam support surface. Moreover, vision significantly reduced the tibialis anterior EMG activity and torque variance during the trials involving foam. In conclusion, the foam support surface increased corrective muscle and torque activity, and changed the firm-surface multi-segmented body movement pattern. Vision improved the ability of postural control to handle compliant surface conditions. Several essential features of postural control have been found from recording movements from multiple points on the body, synchronized with recording torque and EMG.

  10. Age-related changes of arm movements in dual task condition when walking on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yao-Jen; Cho, Chiung-Yu

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the dual task paradigm would influence arm movements during walking. Furthermore, we examined the effects of different walking surfaces on arm movements while performing dual tasks. The effects of age and gender were also investigated. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults were included in this study. Subjects were asked to perform the walking task alone (single-task trial) and walking in combination with a cognitive task (dual-task trial). Four walking conditions (1 single task and 3 dual task trials)×two walking surfaces were encountered. Both age groups had greater elbow and trunk movement in the sagittal plane under the dual task trials as compared to the single task trial (p<.05). Subjects had greater upper extremity and upper body movement on the soft floor than on the hard floor (p<.05). Subjects had greater movement amplitude when confronting a challenging environment, especially in the contralateral side. Among gender, there was a group-gender interaction: the older females had smaller upper extremity movement than the older males (p<.05) but the opposite was true for the young adults. The results suggest that different age groups of males and females use different balance control strategy to deal with the challenging conditions.

  11. Considerations on symbology, data requirements, and operational concept for integral NOTAM visualization on airport moving map displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernaleken, Christoph; Urvoy, Carole; Klingauf, Uwe

    2008-04-01

    Surface Movement is one of the most challenging phases of flight. To support the flight crew in this critical flight phase and to prevent serious incidents and accidents, of which Runway Incursions are the by far most safety-critical, the electronic airport moving map display has evolved as the key technology to increase the flight crew's situational awareness on the airport surface over the past decade. However, the airport moving map is limited to quasi-static airport information due to the envisaged 28 day update cycle of the underlying Aerodrome Mapping Database (AMDB), and thus does not include information on safety-relevant short-term and temporary changes such as runway closures or restrictions. Currently, these are conveyed on paper through the Pre-Flight Information Bulletin (PIB), a plain-language compilation of current Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) and other information of urgent character. In this context, the advent of airport moving map technology leads to a disparity in the conspicuousness of information, resulting in the danger that e.g. a runway that is not displayed as closed on the airport moving map might be perceived as open even if contrary NOTAM information exists on paper elsewhere in the cockpit. This calls for an integrated representation of PIB/NOTAM and airport moving map information. Piloted evaluations conducted by the Institute of Flight Systems and Automatic Control have already confirmed the high operational relevance of presenting runway closures on an airport moving map. Based on the results of these trials, this paper expands our previous work by addressing the various pre-requisites of an integral NOTAM visualization, ranging from the development of appropriate symbology to an operational concept enabling the transition from conventional to electronic, machine-readable NOTAM information without shifting responsibility and workload from the dispatcher to the flight deck. Employing Synthetic Vision techniques, a complete symbology set

  12. Establishing Object Correspondence across Eye Movements: Flexible Use of Spatiotemporal and Surface Feature Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Ashleigh M.; Luck, Steven J.; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Visual input is frequently disrupted by eye movements, blinks, and occlusion. The visual system must be able to establish correspondence between objects visible before and after a disruption. Current theories hold that correspondence is established solely on the basis of spatiotemporal information, with no contribution from surface features. In…

  13. Absolute and relative intrasession reliability of surface EMG variables for voluntary precise forearm movements.

    PubMed

    Carius, Daniel; Kugler, Patrick; Kuhwald, Hans-Marten; Wollny, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    The reliability of surface electromyography (EMG) derived parameters is of high importance, but there is distinct lack of studies concerning the reliability during dynamic contractions. Especially Amplitude, Fourier and Wavelet parameter in conjunction have not been tested so far. The interpretation of the EMG variables might be difficult because the movement itself introduces additional factors that affect its characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the relative and absolute intrasession reliability of electromyographic (EMG) variables of selected arm muscles during concurrent precise elbow extension/flexion movements at different force levels and movement speed. Participants (all-male: n = 17, range 20-32 years) were asked to adapt to a gross-motor visuomotor tracking task (elbow extension/flexion movement) using a custom-built lever arm apparatus. After sufficient adaptation surface electromyography was used to record the electrical activity of mm. biceps brachii, brachioradialis and triceps brachii, and the signal amplitude (RMS [μV]) and the mean frequency of the power spectrum (MNF [Hz]) were computed. Additionally Wavelet analysis was used. Relative reproducibility (intraclass correlation) for signal amplitude, mean frequency of the power spectrum and Wavelet intensity during dynamic contractions was fair to good, independent of force level and movement speed (ICC = 0.71-0.98). The amount of absolute intrasession reliability (coefficient of variation) of EMG variables depends on muscle and force level.

  14. Surface electromyography shows increased mirroring in Parkinson's disease patients without overt mirror movements.

    PubMed

    Cincotta, Massimo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Balestrieri, Fabrizio; Vanni, Paola; Ragazzoni, Aldo; Zaccara, Gaetano; Ziemann, Ulf

    2006-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may present mirror movements (MM). Transcranial magnetic stimulation data indicate that these movements reflect an abnormal enhancement of the "physiological mirroring" that can be observed in healthy adults during complex and effortful tasks. It was hypothesized that, in PD, enhanced mirroring is caused by a failure of basal ganglia output to support the cortical network that is responsible for the execution of strictly unimanual movements. If so, it is likely that subtle alterations of voluntary unimanual motor control are also present in PD patients without overt MM. We tested this hypothesis by using surface electromyographic (EMG) techniques in 12 mildly to moderately affected PD patients without overt MM, and in 2 control groups (12 age-matched and 10 young healthy volunteers). Subjects performed unilateral phasic thumb abduction during a sustained tonic contraction of the opposite abductor pollicis brevis. All patients were tested on dopaminergic therapy. On a separate day, 7 of 12 patients were re-tested after withdrawal of medication. During this task, involuntary mirror-like increase in surface EMG of the tonically abducting thumb was significantly larger in PD patients than in age-matched or young healthy volunteers. Off therapy, mirroring was slightly greater than on medication, although this difference was not significant. Our findings suggest that dysfunction of unimanual motor control is a general feature of PD. It is likely that this deficient movement lateralization contributes to an impairment of nonsymmetrical bimanual movements in PD.

  15. Airport databases for 3D synthetic-vision flight-guidance displays: database design, quality assessment, and data generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Axel; Raabe, Helmut; Schiefele, Jens; Doerr, Kai Uwe

    1999-07-01

    In future aircraft cockpit designs SVS (Synthetic Vision System) databases will be used to display 3D physical and virtual information to pilots. In contrast to pure warning systems (TAWS, MSAW, EGPWS) SVS serve to enhance pilot spatial awareness by 3-dimensional perspective views of the objects in the environment. Therefore all kind of aeronautical relevant data has to be integrated into the SVS-database: Navigation- data, terrain-data, obstacles and airport-Data. For the integration of all these data the concept of a GIS (Geographical Information System) based HQDB (High-Quality- Database) has been created at the TUD (Technical University Darmstadt). To enable database certification, quality- assessment procedures according to ICAO Annex 4, 11, 14 and 15 and RTCA DO-200A/EUROCAE ED76 were established in the concept. They can be differentiated in object-related quality- assessment-methods following the keywords accuracy, resolution, timeliness, traceability, assurance-level, completeness, format and GIS-related quality assessment methods with the keywords system-tolerances, logical consistence and visual quality assessment. An airport database is integrated in the concept as part of the High-Quality- Database. The contents of the HQDB are chosen so that they support both Flight-Guidance-SVS and other aeronautical applications like SMGCS (Surface Movement and Guidance Systems) and flight simulation as well. Most airport data are not available. Even though data for runways, threshold, taxilines and parking positions were to be generated by the end of 1997 (ICAO Annex 11 and 15) only a few countries fulfilled these requirements. For that reason methods of creating and certifying airport data have to be found. Remote sensing and digital photogrammetry serve as means to acquire large amounts of airport objects with high spatial resolution and accuracy in much shorter time than with classical surveying methods. Remotely sensed images can be acquired from satellite

  16. Short latency hand movement classification based on surface EMG spectrogram with PCA.

    PubMed

    Xiaolong Zhai; Jelfs, Beth; Chan, Rosa H M; Chung Tin

    2016-08-01

    Hand gesture recognition from forearm surface electromyography (sEMG) is an active research field in the development of motor prosthesis. Studies have shown that classification accuracy and efficiency is highly dependent on the features extracted from the EMG. In this paper, we show that EMG spectrograms are a particularly effective feature for discriminating multiple classes of hand gesture when subjected to principal component analysis for dimensionality reduction. We tested our method on the Ninapro database which includes sEMG data (12 channels) of 40 subjects performing 50 different hand movements. Our results demonstrate improved classification accuracy (by ~10%) over purely time domain features for 50 different hand movements, including small finger movements and different levels of force exertion. Our method has also reduced the error rate (by ~12%) at the transition phase of gestures which could improve robustness of gesture recognition when continuous classification from sEMG is required.

  17. Dangerous Fog Analyses and Forecast in the Maceio Airport, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, N.; Silva, A.; Levit, V.; Santos, E.

    2010-07-01

    A small airplane fatal accident has occurred near Maceio Airport, on the coastal region on 26 July 2007. Low visibility in the intensive fog has provoked this accident. Weather forecast analysis, published in the local and central Brazilian newspapers during 2007, showed fog forecast absence during whole year. A study of the fog formation causes was elaborated using the high and low resolution satellite data, radar data, different products of NCEP reanalysis data and high resolution regional MM5 model simulation. The trade winds with a weak cyclonic curvature at the low levels have generated the humidity convergence at the superficial layers up to 850hPa on the coastal region. An anticyclonic circulation existence at the middle and higher levels and weak ascendant motion (by NCEP data) have support a weak convection development. The low levels clouds development on the continental region and convection development over ocean were confirmed by the radar and satellite data. A thermal inversion near surface level (up to 150m) and descendent movement at the middle and high levels were identified by MM5 model. Fog formation was simulated by PAFOG model. The conventional airport observations have shown the minimal visibility of 200m between 4 and 7a.m. Moreover visibility less than 1000m between 1 and 8a.m. with the minimal visibility of 213m was simulated by PAFOG model.

  18. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. 77 FR 23598 - Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List: Addition of Recently Approved Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport Southwest Florida.../Fort Worth International Airport. Fort Lauderdale, Florida Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood...

  20. Two-directional pattern of movements on the cell surface of Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Grebecki, A

    1986-07-01

    Particles of latex, glass and precipitated Alcian Blue were studied cinematographically on the surface of migrating Amoeba proteus and in the surrounding medium. The majority of the attached and all unattached particles flow steadily forward in the direction of the endoplasmic streaming and cell locomotion. Flow on the surface is faster than in suspension. Some particles stuck on the membrane move backwards from the frontal region. This retrograde transport is slower than the anterograde flow, and the rate decreases further when the particles approach cell regions adhering to the substratum, accurately following the pattern of the withdrawal of ectoplasm in the same zone. Both movements coexist in the same region and retrograde particles may pass anterograde ones at a distance less than their diameter. Transition from forward flow to backward transport occurs just behind the frontal cap, where the new ectoplasm is formed. The anterograde movement is interpreted as reflecting the general forward flow of the laterally mobile fluid membrane components, which become added to the frontal surface of the locomoting cell; the retrograde movement as retraction of membrane components that, externally, are linked to the transported material and, on the cytoplasmic side, to the contractile microfilamentous layer, as is postulated for cap formation in tissue cells.

  1. NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Atlanta Demonstration: Surveillance Systems Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Hicok, Dan; Lee, Derrick

    1999-01-01

    NASA conducted a series of flight experiments at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport as part of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Program. LVLASO is one of the subelements of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program, which is focused on providing technology and operating procedures for achieving clear-weather airport capacity in instrument-weather conditions, while also improving safety. LVLASO is investigating various technologies to be applied to airport surface operations, including advanced flight deck displays and surveillance systems. The purpose of this report is to document the performance of the surveillance systems tested as part of the LVLASO flight experiment. There were three surveillance sensors tested: primary radar using Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), Multilateration using the Airport Surface Target Identification System (ATIDS), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) operating at 1090 MHz. The performance was compared to the draft requirements of the ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). Performance parameters evaluated included coverage, position accuracy, and update rate. Each of the sensors was evaluated as a stand alone surveillance system.

  2. Airport Land Banking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    the Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study with respect to the feasibility, practicability, and cost of land bank planning and development...1977. Airport land banking was studied and analyzed from several different perspectives, including legal, economic, and financial, and the results of this study are reported in this document. (Author)

  3. Radial Wettable Gradient of Hot Surface to Control Droplets Movement in Directions

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shile; Wang, Sijie; Tao, Yuanhao; Shang, Weifeng; Deng, Siyan; Zheng, Yongmei; Hou, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    A radial wettable gradient was fabricated on the surface of graphite plate by a simple one-step anodic oxidation process. It was found that the direction and value of the wettable gradient could be easily controlled by adjusting current and oxidation time gradient. With the increase of surface temperature, droplets on surface not only exhibited the transition of boiling mode, but also showed the controlled radial spreading, evaporation and movement behaviors. These phenomena could be attributed to the cooperation of wettability force, hysteresis force and vapor pressure (Leidenfrost effect). Especially, the controlled radial convergence or divergence of droplets with high velocity were realized on the surfaces with either inside or outside radial gradient, which would have crucial applications in the design of microfluidic devices and the exploration of the biotechnology. PMID:25975722

  4. Data on noise environments at different times of day around airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Sources of information about noise environments at different times of the day at civilian and military airports are identified. Information about movements of scheduled flights are available in machine readable form from the Official Airline Guide. Information about permanent noise monitoring sites is readily obtained from individual airports. Limited data on the timing of flights are available at centralized locations for military airports. An examination of scheduled flights at commercial airports leads to the conclusion that differences between daytime and nighttime noise levels (measured in Equivalent Continuous Noise Level, LEQ) vary from 7 to 15 decibels. Data from 128 permanent noise monitoring sites at 11 airports are also examined. Differences between daytime and nighttime noise levels at these 128 noise monitoring sites vary from 3 to 17 decibels (LEQ). Preliminary analyses suggest that accurate estimates of time-of-day weights could not be obtained from conventional social surveys at existing airports.

  5. Upward movement of plutonium to surface sediments during an 11-year field study.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D I; Demirkanli, D I; Molz, F J; Beals, D M; Cadieux, J R; Halverson, J E

    2010-05-01

    An 11-year lysimeter study was established to monitor the movement of Pu through vadose zone sediments. Sediment Pu concentrations as a function of depth indicated that some Pu moved upward from the buried source material. Subsequent numerical modeling suggested that the upward movement was largely the result of invading grasses taking up the Pu and translocating it upward. The objective of this study was to determine if the Pu of surface sediments originated from atmosphere fallout or from the buried lysimeter source material (weapons-grade Pu), providing additional evidence that plants were involved in the upward migration of Pu. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu and (242)Pu/(239)Pu atomic fraction ratios of the lysimeter surface sediments, as determined by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS), were 0.063 and 0.00045, respectively; consistent with the signatures of the weapons-grade Pu. Our numerical simulations indicate that because plants create a large water flux, small concentrations over multiple years may result in a measurable accumulation of Pu on the ground surface. These results may have implications on the conceptual model for calculating risk associated with long-term stewardship and monitored natural attenuation management of Pu contaminated subsurface and surface sediments.

  6. UPWARD MOVEMENT OF PLUTONIUM TO SURFACE SEDIMENTS DURING AN 11-YEAR FIELD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.; Beals, D.; Cadieux, J.; Halverson, J.

    2010-01-25

    An 11-y lysimeter study was established to monitor the movement of Pu through vadose zone sediments. Sediment Pu concentrations as a function of depth indicated that some Pu moved upward from the buried source material. Subsequent numerical modeling suggested that the upward movement was largely the result of invading grasses taking up the Pu and translocating it upward. The objective of this study was to determine if the Pu of surface sediments originated from atmosphere fallout or from the buried lysimeter source material (weapons-grade Pu), providing additional evidence that plants were involved in the upward migration of Pu. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 242}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic fraction ratios of the lysimeter surface sediments, as determined by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS), were 0.063 and 0.00045, respectively; consistent with the signatures of the weapons-grade Pu. Our numerical simulations indicate that because plants create a large water flux, small concentrations over multiple years may result in a measurable accumulation of Pu on the ground surface. These results may have implications on the conceptual model for calculating risk associated with long-term stewardship and monitored natural attenuation management of Pu contaminated subsurface and surface sediments.

  7. A systematic review of surface electromyography analyses of the bench press movement task

    PubMed Central

    Gołaś, Artur; Blazek, Dusan; Maszczyk, Adam; Wilk, Michał; Pietraszewski, Przemysław; Petr, Miroslav; Uhlir, Petr; Zając, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background The bench press exercise (BP) plays an important role in recreational and professional training, in which muscle activity is an important multifactorial phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to systematically review electromyography (EMG) studies performed on the barbell BP exercise to answer the following research questions: Which muscles show the greatest activity during the flat BP? Which changes in muscle activity are related to specific conditions under which the BP movement is performed? Strategy PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched through June 10, 2016. A combination of the following search terms was used: bench press, chest press, board press, test, measure, assessment, dynamometer, kinematics and biomechanics. Only original, full-text articles were considered. Results The search process resulted in 14 relevant studies that were included in the discussion. The triceps brachii (TB) and pectoralis major (PM) muscles were found to have similar activity during the BP, which was significantly higher than the activity of the anterior deltoid. During the BP movement, muscle activity changes with exercise intensity, velocity of movement, fatigue, mental focus, movement phase and stability conditions, such as bar vibration or unstable surfaces. Under these circumstances, TB is the most common object of activity change. Conclusions PM and TB EMG activity is more dominant and shows greater EMG amplitude than anterior deltoid during the BP. There are six factors that can influence muscle activity during the BP; however, the most important factor is exercise intensity, which interacts with all other factors. The research on muscle activity in the BP has several unresolved areas, such as clearly and strongly defined guidelines to perform EMG measurements (e.g., how to elaborate with surface EMG limits) or guidelines for the use of exact muscle models. PMID

  8. 14 CFR 221.52 - Airport to airport application, accessorial services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport to airport application, accessorial... Charges § 221.52 Airport to airport application, accessorial services. Tariffs shall specify whether or not the fares therein include services in addition to airport-to-airport transportation....

  9. 14 CFR 221.52 - Airport to airport application, accessorial services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport to airport application, accessorial... Charges § 221.52 Airport to airport application, accessorial services. Tariffs shall specify whether or not the fares therein include services in addition to airport-to-airport transportation....

  10. Supersonics--Airport Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2007-01-01

    At this, the first year-end meeting of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, an overview of the Airport Noise discipline of the Supersonics Project leads the presentation of technical plans and achievements in this area of the Project. The overview starts by defining the Technical Challenges targeted by Airport Noise efforts, and the Approaches planned to meet these challenges. These are fleshed out in Elements, namely Prediction, Diagnostics, and Engineering, and broken down into Tasks. The Tasks level is where individual researchers' work is defined and from whence the technical presentations to follow this presentation come. This overview also presents the Milestones accomplished to date and to be completed in the next year. Finally, the NASA Research Announcement cooperative agreement activities are covered and tied to the Tasks and Milestones.

  11. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field (LZU), Lawrenceville, Georgia. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has completed its review of the Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field (LZU)...

  12. 78 FR 7476 - Airport Improvement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program AGENCY: Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. ACTION: Invitation to comment on draft FAA Order 5100-38, Airport Improvement...-38D, Airport Improvement Program Handbook. When finalized, this Order will replace Order...

  13. Intelligent building system for airport

    SciTech Connect

    Ancevic, M.

    1997-11-01

    The Munich airport uses a state-of-the-art intelligent building management system to control systems such as HVAC, runway lights, baggage handling, etc. Planning the new Munich II international airport provided a unique opportunity to use the latest state-of-the-art technical systems, while integrating their control through a single intelligent building management system. Opened in 1992, the airport is Germany`s second-largest airport after Frankfurt. The airport is staffed by 16,000 employees and can handle 17 million passengers a year. The sprawling site encompasses more than 120 buildings. The airport`s distributed control system is specifically designed to optimize the complex`s unique range of functions, while providing a high degree of comfort, convenience and safety for airport visitors. With the capacity to control 200,000 points, this system controls more than 112,000 points and integrates 13 major subsystems from nine different vendors. It provides convenient, accessible control of everything including the complex`s power plant, HVAC Control, the terminal`s people-moving functions, interior lighting controls, runway lights, baggage forwarding systems, elevators, and boarding bridges. The airport was named 1993 intelligent building of the year by the Intelligent Buildings Institute Foundation. Its building management system is a striking example of the degree to which a building complex`s functions can be integrated for greater operational control and efficiency.

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-05-09

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  15. Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOEpatents

    Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1997-04-22

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interfeometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Thomas J.; Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  17. Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOEpatents

    Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1997-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  18. Noise zoning around airports in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, F. W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The situation in the Netherlands with respect to noise abatement is dominated by a steadily increasing activity both at the political and the administrative level. A new law with respect to the designation of noise zones around existing and future airports and military airfields was enacted on 1 October 1978. A comprehensive new noise nuisance act was signed by the Queen on 16 February 1979. Both laws were accepted by Parliament unanimously. This article describes the new regulations with respect to noise zoning around airports. To maintain the habitability of the environment around airports, a demarcation will be made between the interest of the people living there and those of aviation. A noise zone will be designated outside which the noise load from aircraft movements may not exceed a fixed maximum. Within this area, where a noise load above the fixed maximum is allowed, planning and building design measures will have to be taken. Although the exclusion of new housing within the noise zone is an essential element, the area will be used for other purposes by exchanging previously intended developments with those from areas outside the zone. The Minister in charge of physical planning will issue directives concerning the contents of local development plans and will indicate how such plans, once amended, should be put into effect. Termination of the use or habitation of existing buildings is possible as well as soundproofing of buildings. The costs of measures taken to prevent undesirable new developments and measures taken to improve the existing state of affairs are borne by the central government. But a charge has to be paid by the users of the airports to defray the costs.

  19. Software Tools to Support Research on Airport Departure Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Francis; Evans, Antony; Feron, Eric; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    A simple, portable and useful collection of software tools has been developed for the analysis of airport surface traffic. The tools are based on a flexible and robust traffic-flow model, and include calibration, validation and simulation functionality for this model. Several different interfaces have been developed to help promote usage of these tools, including a portable Matlab(TM) implementation of the basic algorithms; a web-based interface which provides online access to automated analyses of airport traffic based on a database of real-world operations data which covers over 250 U.S. airports over a 5-year period; and an interactive simulation-based tool currently in use as part of a college-level educational module. More advanced applications for airport departure traffic include taxi-time prediction and evaluation of "windowing" congestion control.

  20. Operational Characteristics Identification and Simulation Model Verification for Incheon International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eun, Yeonju; Jeon, Daekeun; Lee, Hanbong; Zhu, Zhifan; Jung, Yoon C.; Jeong, Myeongsook; Kim, Hyounkyong; Oh, Eunmi; Hong, Sungkwon; Lee, Junwon

    2016-01-01

    Incheon International Airport (ICN) is one of the hub airports in East Asia. Airport operations at ICN have been growing more than 5% per year in the past five years. According to the current airport expansion plan, a new passenger terminal will be added and the current cargo ramp will be expanded in 2018. This expansion project will bring 77 new stands without adding a new runway to the airport. Due to such continuous growth in airport operations and future expansion of the ramps, it will be highly likely that airport surface traffic will experience more congestion, and therefore, suffer from efficiency degradation. There is a growing awareness in aviation research community of need for strategic and tactical surface scheduling capabilities for efficient airport surface operations. Specific to ICN airport operations, a need for A-CDM (Airport - Collaborative Decision Making) or S-CDM(Surface - Collaborative Decision Making), and controller decision support tools for efficient air traffic management has arisen since several years ago. In the United States, there has been independent research efforts made by academia, industry, and government research organizations to enhance efficiency and predictability of surface operations at busy airports. Among these research activities, the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) developed and tested by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a decision support tool to provide tactical advisories to the controllers for efficient surface operations. The effectiveness of SARDA concept, was successfully verified through the human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations for both spot release and runway operations advisories for ATC Tower controllers of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) in 2010 and 2012, and gate pushback advisories for the ramp controller of Charlotte/Douglas International Airport (CLT) in 2014. The SARDA concept for tactical surface scheduling is further enhanced and is being integrated into

  1. Operational Characteristics Identification and Simulation Model Verification for Incheon International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eun, Yeonju; Jeon, Daekeun; Lee, Hanbong; Zhu, Zhifan; Jung, Yoon C.; Jeong, Myeongsook; Kim, Hyounkyong; Oh, Eunmi; Hong, Sungkwon; Lee, Junwon

    2016-01-01

    Incheon International Airport (ICN) is one of the hub airports in East Asia. Airport operations at ICN have been growing more than 5 percent per year in the past five years. According to the current airport expansion plan, a new passenger terminal will be added and the current cargo ramp will be expanded in 2018. This expansion project will bring 77 new stands without adding a new runway to the airport. Due to such continuous growth in airport operations and future expansion of the ramps, it will be highly likely that airport surface traffic will experience more congestion, and therefore, suffer from efficiency degradation. There is a growing awareness in aviation research community of need for strategic and tactical surface scheduling capabilities for efficient airport surface operations. Specific to ICN airport operations, a need for A-CDM (Airport - Collaborative Decision Making) or S-CDM (Surface - Collaborative Decision Making), and controller decision support tools for efficient air traffic management has arisen since several years ago. In the United States, there has been independent research efforts made by academia, industry, and government research organizations to enhance efficiency and predictability of surface operations at busy airports. Among these research activities, the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) developed and tested by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a decision support tool to provide tactical advisories to the controllers for efficient surface operations. The effectiveness of SARDA concept, was successfully verified through the human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations for both spot release and runway operations advisories for ATC Tower controllers of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) in 2010 and 2012, and gate pushback advisories for the ramp controller of Charlotte-Douglas International Airport (CLT) in 2014. The SARDA concept for tactical surface scheduling is further enhanced and is being

  2. Quantification of facial movements by optical instruments: surface laser scanning and optoelectronic three-dimensional motion analyzer.

    PubMed

    Sidequersky, Fernanda Vincia; Verzé, Laura; Mapelli, Andrea; Ramieri, Guglielmo Amedeo; Sforza, Chiarella

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of displacements of tracing landmarks in standardized facial movements. Forty healthy persons were evaluated in 2 different groups (20 men and 20 women, aged 18-30 years) with optoelectronic motion analyzer and surface laser scanning. The displacements of tracing landmarks in brow lift and smile were calculated, and the 2 methods (optoelectronic motion analyzer and surface laser scanning) were compared in healthy persons. Side-related differences were found in the tracing landmark (superciliare) during brow lift movements between both methods (the largest movements were found on the right side, P = 0.044), whereas in smile movements the tracing landmark cheilion did not show significant differences between the 2 sides. In both movements, the differences of the tracing landmark displacements between the 2 systems and sexes were on average less than 2 mm, without statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). In conclusion, normal young adult men and women had similar standardized facial movements. The 2 analyzed movements can be measured by both optical instruments with comparable results.

  3. Topography-based surface tension gradients to facilitate water droplet movement on laser-etched copper substrates.

    PubMed

    Sommers, A D; Brest, T J; Eid, K F

    2013-09-24

    This paper describes a method for creating a topography-based gradient on a metallic surface to help mitigate problems associated with condensate retention. The gradient was designed to promote water droplet migration toward a specified region on the surface which would serve as the primary conduit for drainage using only the roughness of the surface to facilitate the movement of the droplets. In this work, parallel microchannels having a fixed land width but variable spacing were etched into copper substrates to create a surface tension gradient along the surface of the copper. The surfaces were fabricated using a 355 nm Nd:YVO4 laser system and then characterized using spray testing techniques and water droplet (2-10 μL) injection via microsyringe. The distances that individual droplets traveled on the gradient surface were also measured using a goniometer and CCD camera and were found to be between 0.5 and 1.5 mm for surfaces in a horizontal orientation. Droplet movement was spontaneous and did not require the use of chemical coatings. The theoretical design and construction of surface tension gradients were also explored in this work by calculating the minimum gradient needed for droplet movement on a horizontal surface using Wenzel's model of wetting. The results of this study suggest that microstructural patterning could be used to help reduce condensate retention on metallic fins such as those used in heat exchangers in heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) applications.

  4. Airport Pricing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  5. 77 FR 4394 - Release of Airport Property: Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport Property: Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando, FL AGENCY... provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties 12.4 acres at the Orlando Executive Airport... restrictions of a Quitclaim Deed agreement, dated August 9, 1961, between the subject airport and the...

  6. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  7. 14 CFR 125.49 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport requirements. 125.49 Section 125.49... Requirements § 125.49 Airport requirements. (a) No certificate holder may use any airport unless it is adequate...) No pilot of an airplane carrying passengers at night may take off from, or land on, an airport...

  8. 49 CFR 27.71 - Airport facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport facilities. 27.71 Section 27.71... Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.71 Airport facilities. (a) This section applies... financial assistance at a commercial service airport, including parking and ground transportation...

  9. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airports. 141.38 Section 141.38 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.38 Airports. (a) An... has continuous use of each airport at which training flights originate. (b) Each airport used...

  10. 49 CFR 27.71 - Airport facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport facilities. 27.71 Section 27.71... Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.71 Airport facilities. (a) This section applies... financial assistance at a commercial service airport, including parking and ground transportation...

  11. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  12. 14 CFR 125.49 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport requirements. 125.49 Section 125.49... Requirements § 125.49 Airport requirements. (a) No certificate holder may use any airport unless it is adequate...) No pilot of an airplane carrying passengers at night may take off from, or land on, an airport...

  13. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airports. 141.38 Section 141.38 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.38 Airports. (a) An... has continuous use of each airport at which training flights originate. (b) Each airport used...

  14. Airport Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airports. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers at airports, while the main part of the booklet outlines the following nine job categories: airport director, assistant airport director, engineers, support personnel,…

  15. 75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Mu oz Mar n International Airport (SJU), San Juan, Puerto Rico. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has completed its review of the Luis Mu oz Mar n International Airport International Airport... submitted a preliminary application to the Airport Privatization Pilot Program for Luis Mu oz Mar...

  16. Synthetic aperture radar imagery of airports and surrounding areas: Philadelphia Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, Robert G.; Gineris, Denise J.

    1990-01-01

    The statistical description of ground clutter at an airport and in the surrounding area is addressed. These data are being utilized in a program to detect microbursts. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data were collected at the Philadelphia Airport. These data and the results of the clutter study are described. This 13 km x 10 km scene was imaged at 9.38 GHz and HH-polarization and contained airport grounds and facilities (6 percent), industrial (14 percent), residential (14 percent), fields (10 percent), forest (8 percent), and water (33 percent). Incidence angles ranged from 40 to 84 deg. Even at the smallest incidence angles, the distributed targets such as forest, fields, water, and residential rarely had mean scattering coefficients greater than -10 dB. Eighty-seven percent of the image had scattering coefficients less than -17.5 dB. About 1 percent of the scattering coefficients exceeded 0 dB, with about 0.1 percent above 10 dB. Sources which produced the largest cross sections were largely confined to the airport grounds and areas highly industrialized. The largest cross sections were produced by observing broadside large buildings surrounded by smooth surfaces.

  17. 76 FR 27743 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Airport Traffic Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... visibility and improve safety of airport movement areas, have the capability to meet existing and future...-day public comment period at the following libraries: Champaign Public Library, 200 W Green...

  18. Multichannel surface EMG based estimation of bilateral hand kinematics during movements at multiple degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Muceli, Silvia; Jiang, Ning; Farina, Dario

    2010-01-01

    The paper proposes a method to estimate wrist kinematics from surface EMG signals for proportional and simultaneous control of multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs). The approach is based on the concurrent detection of surface EMG signals from forearm muscles and hand kinematics of both limbs during mirrored bilateral movements in free space which involve the simultaneous activation of wrist flexion/extension, radial/ulnar deviation and forearm pronation/supination. The estimation was based on one multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network for each DOF. The three MLPs were trained to estimate angular displacements corresponding to the three DOFs. The average coefficient of determination between the true and the predicted angular displacement was 82.7 ± 2.9% (80.9 ± 3.4%) for flexion/extension, 75.0 ± 3.8% (72.6 ± 9.4%) for radial/ulnar deviation, 76.6 ± 11.8% (75.1 ± 11.7%) for pronation/supination for the ipsi-lateral (contra-lateral) hand. The scheme represents a step forward towards the simultaneous control of DOFs and thus a more natural prosthetic control.

  19. Collection of Calibration and Validation Data for an Airport Landside Dynamic Simulation Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    34 The Trans- portation Systems Center has developed a computer model which simulates the movements of passengers in an airport terminal and vehicles on...conditions to efforts leading to the development of detailed mathematical models simulating the entire landside passenger and vehicular system...Denver-Stapleton International Airport, during the period December 12-15, 1975. -1- cut! AWAG9CLAI XII SAGWA CLIR REGIONALL ICKETING ENTANC SEURT CTAS OR

  20. 78 FR 63562 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property at Charleston International Airport, Charleston...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property at Charleston International Airport, Charleston, South Carolina AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... sale of three parcels totaling 266.954-acres of airport property located at the...

  1. 77 FR 51948 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Chapter 1 Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property; Correction AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... paragraph in the Proposed Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property that was...

  2. 75 FR 69905 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick Malcolm-McKinnon Airport, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Brunswick, GA, as the McKinnon NDB Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard... Class E airspace designated as surface areas. * * * * * ASO GA E2 Brunswick Malcolm-McKinnon Airport, GA... Airspace; Brunswick Malcolm- McKinnon Airport, GA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),...

  3. Input-Output Modeling and Control of the Departure Process of Congested Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pujet, Nicolas; Delcaire, Bertrand; Feron, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A simple queueing model of busy airport departure operations is proposed. This model is calibrated and validated using available runway configuration and traffic data. The model is then used to evaluate preliminary control schemes aimed at alleviating departure traffic congestion on the airport surface. The potential impact of these control strategies on direct operating costs, environmental costs and overall delay is quantified and discussed.

  4. Auctioning Airport Slots?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruyer, Nicolas; Lenoir, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    The current allocation of slots on congested European airports constitutes an obstacle to the effective liberalisation of air transportation undertaken in Europe. With a view to favouring effluent slot utilisation and competition, as is the goal of the Euopean commission, we propose to use a market mechanism, based on temporary" utilisation licences. In order to allocate those licences, we propose and describe an iterated combinatorial auction mechanism where a percentage of licences would be reallocated each season. A secondary market would also be set up in order to reallocate slots during a season. Since a combinatorial auction involve a complex optimisation procedure, we describe how it can be made to work in the case of auctions.

  5. 78 FR 27029 - Modification of Class C Airspace; Nashville International Airport; TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... surface area that was put in place to accommodate operations at an airport that is now permanently closed... the Class C surface area. The cutout was put in place to exclude the airspace within a 1.5 NM...

  6. Wrist torque estimation during simultaneous and continuously changing movements: surface vs. untargeted intramuscular EMG.

    PubMed

    Kamavuako, Ernest N; Scheme, Erik J; Englehart, Kevin B

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the predictive capability of surface and untargeted intramuscular electromyography (EMG) was compared with respect to wrist-joint torque to quantify which type of measurement better represents joint torque during multiple degrees-of-freedom (DoF) movements for possible application in prosthetic control. Ten able-bodied subjects participated in the study. Surface and intramuscular EMG was recorded concurrently from the right forearm. The subjects were instructed to track continuous contraction profiles using single and combined DoF in two trials. The association between torque and EMG was assessed using an artificial neural network. Results showed a significant difference between the two types of EMG (P < 0.007) for all performance metrics: coefficient of determination (R(2)), Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), and root mean square error (RMSE). The performance of surface EMG (R(2) = 0.93 ± 0.03; PCC = 0.98 ± 0.01; RMSE = 8.7 ± 2.1%) was found to be superior compared with intramuscular EMG (R(2) = 0.80 ± 0.07; PCC = 0.93 ± 0.03; RMSE = 14.5 ± 2.9%). The higher values of PCC compared with R(2) indicate that both methods are able to track the torque profile well but have some trouble (particularly intramuscular EMG) in estimating the exact amplitude. The possible cause for the difference, thus the low performance of intramuscular EMG, may be attributed to the very high selectivity of the recordings used in this study.

  7. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Leidichj, Christopher; Papasin, Richard; Tran, Peter B.; Bass, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Networks of video cameras, meteorological sensors, and ancillary electronic equipment are under development in collaboration among NASA Ames Research Center, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These networks are to be established at and near airports to provide real-time information on local weather conditions that affect aircraft approaches and landings. The prototype network is an airport-approach-zone camera system (AAZCS), which has been deployed at San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and San Carlos Airport (SQL). The AAZCS includes remotely controlled color video cameras located on top of SFO and SQL air-traffic control towers. The cameras are controlled by the NOAA Center Weather Service Unit located at the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center and are accessible via a secure Web site. The AAZCS cameras can be zoomed and can be panned and tilted to cover a field of view 220 wide. The NOAA observer can see the sky condition as it is changing, thereby making possible a real-time evaluation of the conditions along the approach zones of SFO and SQL. The next-generation network, denoted a remote tower sensor system (RTSS), will soon be deployed at the Half Moon Bay Airport and a version of it will eventually be deployed at Los Angeles International Airport. In addition to remote control of video cameras via secure Web links, the RTSS offers realtime weather observations, remote sensing, portability, and a capability for deployment at remote and uninhabited sites. The RTSS can be used at airports that lack control towers, as well as at major airport hubs, to provide synthetic augmentation of vision for both local and remote operations under what would otherwise be conditions of low or even zero visibility.

  8. Classification of intended motor movement using surface EEG ensemble empirical mode decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ching-Chang; Lin, William S; Dressel, Chelsea A; Chiu, Alan W L

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) brain computer interface (BCI) systems are used to investigate intended arm reaching tasks. The main goal of the work is to create a device with a control scheme that allows those with limited motor control to have more command over potential prosthetic devices. Four healthy subjects were recruited to perform various reaching tasks directed by visual cues. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to identify artifacts. Active post parietal cortex (PPC) activation before arm movement was validated using EEGLAB. Single-trial binary classification strategies using support vector machine (SVM) with radial basis functions (RBF) kernels and Fisher linear discrimination (FLD) were evaluated using signal features from surface electrodes near the PPC regions. No significant improvement can be found by using a nonlinear SVM over a linear FLD classifier (63.65% to 63.41% accuracy). A significant improvement in classification accuracy was found when a normalization factor based on visual cue "signature" was introduced to the raw signal (90.43%) and the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) of the data (93.55%) using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD).

  9. Surface hydrology and soil movement in an arid karst: the Nullarbor Plain, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillieson, D. S.; Cochrane, J. A.; Murray, A.

    1994-03-01

    The Nullarbor Plain is the largest karst area in Australia (220,000 km2) and one of the largest in the world. Its climate is arid (Köppen BWk and BWh), and the surface relief is less than 10m. The landscape is divided into extensive closed karstic depressions separated by low rocky ridges, and the dominant vegetation is chenopod shrubland. The extent and severity of soil degradation has been assessed using remote sensing. GPS rectified images from 1972 1973, 1979, 1983, 1988, and 1991 have been compared for two sites on the Nullarbor. Over the 19 years the total extent of bare soil has reduced significantly, but some areas around water points have degraded and there is some disturbance due to fossorial wombats. Sheet-flow processes occur during intense rainfall events, which happen two or three times per decade. Runoff only occurs after the 10- or 50- year return frequency events, and at these times turbid water ponds in depressions and enters caves. Surface soil sorptivity and hydraulic conductivity differ markedly between ridges and depressions; the ridges are clearly zones of groundwater recharge, while ponding is evident in most depressions. Sorptivity is influenced by the extent and nature of ground cover and cryptogam crusts on the soil. The landscape has been divided into classes on the basis of vegetation type and percentage of foliage cover. In each class the activities of fallout radionuclides will be determined by high resolution γ spectroscopy. Preliminary results suggest that in undisturbed sites little sediment movement has occurred over the time scale of cesium-137 (the last 35 years) but that the landscape has been well sorted over a much longer time scale. Future work will investigate disturbed sites to estimate relative soil loss during the pastoral period.

  10. 76 FR 18618 - Operating Limitations at Newark Liberty International Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Operating Limitations at Newark Liberty International Airport AGENCY... amends the Order Limiting Operations at Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) that published on May... Management Rule for LaGuardia Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, and Newark...

  11. Effects of support surface and optic flow on step-like movements in pre-crawling and crawling infants.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David I; Kobayashi, Yuka; Hamel, Kate; Rivera, Monica; Campos, Joseph J; Barbu-Roth, Marianne

    2016-02-01

    Step-like movements were examined in pre-crawling (n=9) and crawling (n=9) 6-13 month-old infants in the air and on a surface in response to a static pattern or optic flows that moved toward or away from the infant. Infants completed six 60-s trials. A significant interaction between locomotor status and support condition revealed that pre-crawling infants made more step-like movements in the air than on a rigid surface. In contrast, crawling infants made an equivalent number of step-like movements in the air and on the surface. Optic flow did not influence the number of step-like movements made by infants. The pre-crawling infant finding is consistent with a finding in a previous study in which two month-old infants were shown to step more in the air than on the ground. This finding is discussed relative to the idea that the infant stepping pattern disappears because the legs become too heavy to lift.

  12. Effects of Support Surface and Optic Flow on Step-Like Movements in Pre-crawling and Crawling Infants

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David I.; Kobayashi, Yuka; Hamel, Kate; Rivera, Monica; Campos, Joseph J.; Barbu-Roth, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Step-like movements were examined in pre-crawling (n=9) and crawling (n=9) 6–13 month-old infants in the air and on a surface in response to a static pattern or optic flows that moved toward or away from the infant. Infants completed six 60-second trials. A significant interaction between locomotor status and support condition revealed that pre-crawling infants made more step-like movements in the air than on a rigid surface. In contrast, crawling infants made an equivalent number of step-like movements in the air and on the surface. Optic flow did not influence the number of step-like movements made by infants. The pre-crawling infant finding is consistent with a finding in a previous study in which two month-old infants were shown to step more in the air than on the ground. This finding is discussed relative to the idea that the infant stepping pattern disappears because the legs become too heavy to lift. PMID:26773774

  13. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2009-01-01

    An initial Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the initial concept for an aircraft-based method of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) in the TMA focusing on conflict detection algorithms and alerting display concepts. This paper gives an overview of the CD&R concept, simulation study, and test results.

  14. 14 CFR 139.205 - Amendment of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment of Airport Certification Manual... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Airport Certification Manual § 139.205 Amendment of Airport Certification Manual. (a) Under § 139.3, the Regional Airports Division Manager may amend any Airport Certification...

  15. 14 CFR 139.205 - Amendment of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amendment of Airport Certification Manual... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Airport Certification Manual § 139.205 Amendment of Airport Certification Manual. (a) Under § 139.3, the Regional Airports Division Manager may amend any Airport Certification...

  16. 14 CFR 156.4 - Airport and project eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... participating State shall administer the airport development and airport planning projects for airports within... grant agreement for integrated airport system planning, projects related to any primary airport, or any... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport and project eligibility....

  17. 14 CFR 156.4 - Airport and project eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... participating State shall administer the airport development and airport planning projects for airports within... grant agreement for integrated airport system planning, projects related to any primary airport, or any... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport and project eligibility....

  18. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Massachusetts L.G. Hanscom Field. Broomfield, Colorado Jefferson County Airport. Carlsbad, California McClellan... International Airport. Englewood, Colorado Centennial Airport. Fort Worth, Texas Fort Worth Alliance Airport... Airport. Mascoutah, Illinois MidAmerica St. Louis Airport. McKinney, Texas Collin County Regional...

  19. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Colorado Jefferson County Airport. Carlsbad, California McClellan-Palomar Airport. Dallas, Texas Dallas..., Colorado Centennial Airport. Fort Worth, Texas Fort Worth Alliance Airport. Fresno, California Fresno... MidAmerica St. Louis Airport. McKinney, Texas Collin County Regional Airport. Melbourne,...

  20. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Colorado Jefferson County Airport. Carlsbad, California McClellan-Palomar Airport. Dallas, Texas Dallas..., Colorado Centennial Airport. Fort Worth, Texas Fort Worth Alliance Airport. Fresno, California Fresno... MidAmerica St. Louis Airport. McKinney, Texas Collin County Regional Airport. Melbourne,...

  1. FIELD EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING AT CDG AIRPORTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaroson, R.

    2009-12-01

    Richard Ramaroson1,4, Klaus Schaefer2, Stefan Emeis2, Carsten Jahn2, Gregor Schürmann2, Maria Hoffmann2, Mikhael Zatevakhin3, Alexandre Ignatyev3. 1ONERA, Châtillon, France; 4SEAS, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; 2FZK, Garmisch, Germany; (3)FSUE SPbAEP, St Petersburg, Russia. 2-month field campaigns have been organized at CDG airports in autumn 2004 and summer 2005. Air quality and ground air traffic emissions have been monitored continuously at terminals and taxi-runways, along with meteorological parameters onboard trucks and with a SODAR. This paper analyses the commercial engine emissions characteristics at airports and their effects on gas pollutants and airborne particles coupled to meteorology. LES model results for PM dispersion coupled to microphysics in the PBL are compared to measurements. Winds and temperature at the surface and their vertical profiles have been stored with turbulence. SODAR observations show the time-development of the mixing layer depth and turbulent mixing in summer up to 800m. Active low level jets and their regional extent have been observed and analyzed. PM number and mass size distribution, morphology and chemical contents are investigated. Formation of new ultra fine volatile (UFV) particles in the ambient plume downstream of running engines is observed. Soot particles are mostly observed at significant level at high power thrusts at take-off (TO) and on touch-down whereas at lower thrusts at taxi and aprons ultra the UFV PM emissions become higher. Ambient airborne PM1/2.5 is closely correlated to air traffic volume and shows a maximum beside runways. PM number distribution at airports is composed mainly by volatile UF PM abundant at apron. Ambient PM mass in autumn is higher than in summer. The expected differences between TO and taxi emissions are confirmed for NO, NO2, speciated VOC and CO. NO/NO2 emissions are larger at runways due to higher power. Reactive VOC and CO are more produced at low powers during idling at

  2. Examining Passenger Flow Choke Points at Airports Using Discrete Event Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jeremy R.; Madhavan, Poomima

    2011-01-01

    The movement of passengers through an airport quickly, safely, and efficiently is the main function of the various checkpoints (check-in, security. etc) found in airports. Human error combined with other breakdowns in the complex system of the airport can disrupt passenger flow through the airport leading to lengthy waiting times, missing luggage and missed flights. In this paper we present a model of passenger flow through an airport using discrete event simulation that will provide a closer look into the possible reasons for breakdowns and their implications for passenger flow. The simulation is based on data collected at Norfolk International Airport (ORF). The primary goal of this simulation is to present ways to optimize the work force to keep passenger flow smooth even during peak travel times and for emergency preparedness at ORF in case of adverse events. In this simulation we ran three different scenarios: real world, increased check-in stations, and multiple waiting lines. Increased check-in stations increased waiting time and instantaneous utilization. while the multiple waiting lines decreased both the waiting time and instantaneous utilization. This simulation was able to show how different changes affected the passenger flow through the airport.

  3. 78 FR 22024 - Request To Release Airport Property at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL), Oakley, Kansas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Request To Release Airport Property at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL... proposes to rule and invites public comment on the release of land at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL... following address: Lynn D. Martin, Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration,...

  4. 14 CFR 121.445 - Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports. 121.445 Section 121.445 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Qualifications § 121.445 Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports. (a)...

  5. 75 FR 57829 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports... Proposed Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property that was published in the Federal... and clarify FAA policy concerning through-the-fence access to a Federally obligated airport from...

  6. 77 FR 3031 - Release of Airport Property: Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport Property: Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL AGENCY... FAA hereby provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties, approximately 3.407 acres, at the Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL from the conditions, reservations, and restrictions...

  7. 14 CFR 121.445 - Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports. 121.445 Section 121.445 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Qualifications § 121.445 Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports. (a)...

  8. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  9. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general...

  10. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general...

  11. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport requirements. 135.229 Section 135... Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.229 Airport requirements. (a) No certificate holder may use any airport unless it is adequate for the proposed operation, considering such items as...

  12. 32 CFR 644.423 - Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Airport development. 644.423 Section 644.423... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.423 Airport... carrying out a project for airport development under this subchapter, or for the operation of any...

  13. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport requirements. 135.229 Section 135... Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.229 Airport requirements. (a) No certificate holder may use any airport unless it is adequate for the proposed operation, considering such items as...

  14. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of new... used by turbojet or piston-type aircraft must notify the affected airport and the Federal...

  15. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of new... used by turbojet or piston-type aircraft must notify the affected airport and the Federal...

  16. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of new... used by turbojet or piston-type aircraft must notify the affected airport and the Federal...

  17. Implementation of noise budgets for civil airports

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    An increasing number of airports are faced with the need for establishing a lid on the noise from aircraft operations and for developing programs for reducing airport noise on a year-to-year basis. As an example, the California Airport Noise Standard acts to impose such programs on a number of airports in California. Any airport faced with the need to establish a quantitative reduction of noise obviously wants to achieve this reduction with the least impact on numbers of operations and reduction in air transportation services to the community. A reduction in noise and an increase in operations usually can be achieved only by encouraging use of the quietest aircraft available and, further adding incentives for operating procedures that minimize noise. One approach in administering airport noise reduction is to adopt an airport noise budget. As used in this paper, the noise budget concept implies that quantitative limits on the noise environment and on the noise contributions by major airport users will be established. Having methods for enforcing compliance with the airport budget for those airport users that exceed their budget will be established. Thus, the noise budget provides airport management, and major airport users, with quantitative measures for defining noise goals, and actual progress in achieving such goals.

  18. Planning, Management, and Economics of Airport Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, J.

    1972-01-01

    An overview of the role of the airport in the transportation complex and in the community is presented. The establishment of the airport including its requirements in regional planning and the operation of the airport as a social and economic force are discussed.

  19. Teaching Ideas Notebook: Student Airport Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Outlines, as recommended by the Aviation Distributors and Manufacturers Association, a cooperative program between schools and local airports. The Student Airport Tours Program for class and career study groups includes a field trip to an airport, free rides, and follow-up activities. (CS)

  20. Implementing Solar Technologies at Airports

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-07-01

    Federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, as well as numerous private entities are actively pursuing the installation of solar technologies to help reduce fossil fuel energy use and associated emissions, meet sustainability goals, and create more robust or reliable operations. One potential approach identified for siting solar technologies is the installation of solar energy technologies at airports and airfields, which present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to large amounts of open land. This report focuses largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) policies toward siting solar technologies at airports.

  1. English for Airport Ground Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes part of a European Commission Leonardo project that aimed to design a multimedia course for English language learners seeking work as ground staff in European airports. The structural-functional analysis of the dialogues written from the course showed that, across the four trades explored (security guards, ground handlers,…

  2. Teaching at Logan International Airport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    Although Terminal C at Logan airport does not look like a classroom, for about fifty minutes on this author's way back from Boston it was for him. Like many public spaces, Logan now has a very robust Wi-Fi wireless network and this enabled him to take advantage of a departure delay to "teach" his class. In 1970 when the author started…

  3. Real-time 3D visualization of the thoraco-abdominal surface during breathing with body movement and deformation extraction.

    PubMed

    Povšič, K; Jezeršek, M; Možina, J

    2015-07-01

    Real-time 3D visualization of the breathing displacements can be a useful diagnostic tool in order to immediately observe the most active regions on the thoraco-abdominal surface. The developed method is capable of separating non-relevant torso movement and deformations from the deformations that are solely related to breathing. This makes it possible to visualize only the breathing displacements. The system is based on the structured laser triangulation principle, with simultaneous spatial and color data acquisition of the thoraco-abdominal region. Based on the tracking of the attached passive markers, the torso movement and deformation is compensated using rigid and non-rigid transformation models on the three-dimensional (3D) data. The total time of 3D data processing together with visualization equals 20 ms per cycle.In vitro verification of the rigid movement extraction was performed using the iterative closest point algorithm as a reference. Furthermore, a volumetric evaluation on a live subject was performed to establish the accuracy of the rigid and non-rigid model. The root mean square deviation between the measured and the reference volumes shows an error of  ±0.08 dm(3) for rigid movement extraction. Similarly, the error was calculated to be  ±0.02 dm(3) for torsional deformation extraction and  ±0.11 dm(3) for lateral bending deformation extraction. The results confirm that during the torso movement and deformation, the proposed method is sufficiently accurate to visualize only the displacements related to breathing. The method can be used, for example, during the breathing exercise on an indoor bicycle or a treadmill.

  4. NASA diagonal-braked test vehicle evaluation of traction characteristics of grooved and ungrooved runway surfaces at Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida, 8-9 May 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Two runways were evaluated under artificially wetted conditions with the NASA diagonal-braked vehicle (DBV). Results of the evaluation which included a pavement drainage analysis, a pavement skid resistance analysis, and a DBV wet/dry stopping distance ratio analysis indicated that the ungrooved runway surfaces had poor water drainage characteristics and poor skid resistance under wet conditions at high speeds especially in rubbercoated areas of the runways. Grooving runways to a transverse 1-1/4 x 1/4 x 1/4 inch pattern greatly improved both the water drainage and pavement skid resistance capability of these asphaltic concrete surfaces.

  5. Taxi Time Prediction at Charlotte Airport Using Fast-Time Simulation and Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate taxi time prediction is required for enabling efficient runway scheduling that can increase runway throughput and reduce taxi times and fuel consumptions on the airport surface. Currently NASA and American Airlines are jointly developing a decision-support tool called Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) that assists airport ramp controllers to make gate pushback decisions and improve the overall efficiency of airport surface traffic. In this presentation, we propose to use Linear Optimized Sequencing (LINOS), a discrete-event fast-time simulation tool, to predict taxi times and provide the estimates to the runway scheduler in real-time airport operations. To assess its prediction accuracy, we also introduce a data-driven analytical method using machine learning techniques. These two taxi time prediction methods are evaluated with actual taxi time data obtained from the SARDA human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation for Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) using various performance measurement metrics. Based on the taxi time prediction results, we also discuss how the prediction accuracy can be affected by the operational complexity at this airport and how we can improve the fast time simulation model before implementing it with an airport scheduling algorithm in a real-time environment.

  6. Air quality and public health impacts of UK airports. Part II: Impacts and policy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Stettler, Marc E. J.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-03-01

    Thames Estuary airport combined with emissions mitigation measures would reduce UK-wide aviation-attributable early deaths by 56% in 2030 while increasing aircraft movements, which would represent aviation causing about the same level of adverse health impacts as today in absolute terms. We note that because aviation emissions are included in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, all options are CO2-neutral in terms of direct emissions (but not climate-neutral).

  7. Large Omnivore Movements in Response to Surface Mining and Mine Reclamation

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing global demands have resulted in widespread proliferation of resource extraction. Scientists are challenged to develop environmental mitigation strategies that meet societal expectations of resource supply, while achieving minimal disruption to sensitive “wilderness” species. We used GPS collar data from a 9-year study on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) (n = 18) in Alberta, Canada to assess movements and associated space use during versus after mining. Grizzly bear home range overlap with mined areas was lower during active mining except for females with cubs, that also had shortest movements on active mines. However, both females with cubs and males made shorter steps when on/close to mines following mine closure and reclamation. Our results show differences in bear movement and space-use strategies, with individuals from a key population segment (females with cubs) appearing most adaptable to mining disturbance. Preserving patches of original habitat, reclaiming the landscape and minimizing the risk of direct human-induced mortality during and after development can help conserve bears and other wildlife on industrially modified landscapes. PMID:26750094

  8. On optimal electrode configuration to estimate hand movements from forearm surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Paleari, Marco; Di Girolamo, Michela; Celadon, Nicoló; Favetto, Alain; Ariano, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the movement of the hand from sEMG signals acquired on the forearm is key in the development of future prosthetics of the upper limb. Despite the technical advancement on this technique, state of the art of sEMG still relies strongly on optimal electrode placement which is typically performed by a specialist by mean of a heuristic search. Involving a specialist has few major disadvantages including high costs and relatively long schedules. This work searches an optimal electrode configuration which could reduce or avoid the intervention of a specialist. More than 200 different possible electrode configurations were assessed by means of the average recognition rate over 11 different movements of the hand, wrist, and fingers. It is shown that using two rows of 8 equally spaced electrodes around the circumference of the forearm could be an optimal trade-off solution to accomplish the task of recognizing hand movement (ARR = 92%) without the need for a specialist or very complex hardware.

  9. Large Omnivore Movements in Response to Surface Mining and Mine Reclamation.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Boyce, Mark S

    2016-01-11

    Increasing global demands have resulted in widespread proliferation of resource extraction. Scientists are challenged to develop environmental mitigation strategies that meet societal expectations of resource supply, while achieving minimal disruption to sensitive "wilderness" species. We used GPS collar data from a 9-year study on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) (n = 18) in Alberta, Canada to assess movements and associated space use during versus after mining. Grizzly bear home range overlap with mined areas was lower during active mining except for females with cubs, that also had shortest movements on active mines. However, both females with cubs and males made shorter steps when on/close to mines following mine closure and reclamation. Our results show differences in bear movement and space-use strategies, with individuals from a key population segment (females with cubs) appearing most adaptable to mining disturbance. Preserving patches of original habitat, reclaiming the landscape and minimizing the risk of direct human-induced mortality during and after development can help conserve bears and other wildlife on industrially modified landscapes.

  10. Foraging spots of streaked shearwaters in relation to ocean surface currents as identified using their drift movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, Ken; Shiomi, Kozue; Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-03-01

    Ocean currents are in continuous motion and strongly influence oceanic ecosystems. In situ observation of currents is of primary importance for understanding how marine animals respond to ocean surface currents at various scales and for realizing effective ecosystem-based management and realistic oceanographic modelling. We developed a new method for obtaining in situ current measurements by using seabirds as Lagrangian current sensors akin to drifting buoys. We deployed high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) loggers on streaked shearwaters (Calonectris leucomelas) foraging in the Oyashio-Tsugaru Warm Current confluence in Japan, which is one of the most productive oceans in the world. The seabirds repeatedly performed foraging trips, including searching for prey and resting on the sea surface, over several hundred kilometres. The seabirds spent half of their time resting on the water surface and tended to be passive drifters. We inferred that the drift movements of C. leucomelas provided a direct and detailed description of the ocean surface currents, because currents deduced from their drift movements were in good agreement with ocean surface currents derived from in situ and satellite data. In addition, we extracted details of shearwaters’ intense searching flights associated with feeding (i.e. foraging spots) from GPS tracks. C. leucomelas did not forage at the core of anticyclonic eddies; rather, they used the boundary areas between eddies and the edge of eddies where primary productivity and prey density are thought to be high. Our study demonstrated that animal-borne GPS data can provide a detailed and cost-efficient tool for observing ocean surface currents and can reveal the ways in which marine animals respond to these currents at a fine scale.

  11. Red-cell glycophorin A-band 3 interactions associated with the movement of band 3 to the cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Young, M T; Beckmann, R; Toye, A M; Tanner, M J

    2000-01-01

    We have examined the mechanism by which glycophorin A (GPA) facilitates the movement of the human red-cell anion exchanger (band 3, AE1) to the cell surface. GPA itself forms stable dimers in membranes and detergent solution. Four mutants of human GPA with impaired dimerization were prepared (L75I, I76A, G79L and G83L). All four GPA mutants enhanced band 3 translocation to the Xenopus oocyte plasma membrane in the same way as wild-type GPA, showing that the GPA monomer is sufficient to mediate this process. Cell-surface expression of the natural band 3 mutant G701D has an absolute requirement for GPA. GPA monomers also rescued the cell-surface expression of this mutant band 3. Taking into account other evidence, we infer that the site of GPA interaction with band 3 is located outside the GPA dimerization interface but within the GPA transmembrane span. The results of examination of the cell-surface expression of GPA and band 3 in different K562 erythroleukaemia cell clones stably transfected with band 3 are consistent with the movement of GPA and band 3 to the cell surface together. We discuss the pathways by which band 3 moves to the cell surface in the presence and the absence of GPA, concluding that GPA has a role in enhancing the folding and maturation of band 3. We propose that GPA functions in erythroid cells to assist with the incorporation of large amounts of properly folded band 3 into the membrane within a limited time span during erythroid maturation. PMID:10926825

  12. Noise-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Residences Near Two Civil Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Howe, Richard R.; Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Pearsons, Karl S.; Sneddon, Matthew D.

    1995-01-01

    A large-scale field study of noise-induced sleep disturbance was conducted in the vicinities of Stapleton International Airport (DEN) and Denver International Airport (DIA) in anticipation of the closure of the former and opening of the latter. Both indoor and outdoor measurements of aircraft and other nighttime noises were made during four time periods. Measurements were made in 57 homes located as close as feasible to the runway ends of the two airports. Sleep disturbance was measured by several indices of behaviorally confirmed awakening (button pushes upon awakening) and body movement (as measured with wrist-worn actimeters). A total of 2717 subject-nights of observations were made over the course of the study. Although average noise event levels measured outdoors decreased markedly at DEN after closure of the airport and increased slightly at DIA after its opening, indoor noise event levels varied much less in homes near both airports. No large differences were observed in noise-induced sleep disturbance at either airport. Indoor sound exposure levels of noise events were, however, closely related to and good predictors of actimetrically defined motility and arousal.

  13. 14 CFR 152.109 - Project eligibility: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport planning. 152....109 Project eligibility: Airport planning. (a) Airport master planning. A proposed project for airport master planning is not approved unless— (1) The location of the existing or proposed airport is...

  14. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.325 Financial status report: Airport planning. Each sponsor of a project for airport master planning and each...

  15. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.103 Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development...

  16. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.103 Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development...

  17. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Massachusetts L.G. Hanscom Field. Broomfield, Colorado Jefferson County Airport. Carlsbad, California McClellan... Centennial Airport. Fort Worth, Texas Fort Worth Alliance Airport. Fresno, California Fresno Yosemite... St. Louis Airport. McKinney, Texas Collin County Regional Airport. Melbourne, Florida...

  18. Palmdale International Airport, Palmdale, California. Airport Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Valley as a whole, to almost 17 persons per acre for all of Los Angeles County. If the airport is not built, the North County region will continue to...four- and six-lane freeway runs from the northeastern corner of the San Fernando Valley , past Palmdale and Lancaster, to just beyond Rosamond where...fanning centered in Lancaster <i<*l consists largely of t.rkey growers. The construction industry is also prominent in the Valley , adding

  19. Air Traffic Control Response to Delays: A System Study of Newark International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Antony D.; Clarke, John-Paul

    2002-01-01

    Airport delays are a significant problem in the United States air transportation system. Between 1999 and 2000 the number of flights delayed increased by 20 percent despite only a 0.4% increase in total operations. Newark International Airport (EWR), one of New York City's primary airports, is one of the airports in the United States most impacted by delays. Newark had the highest percentage of operations delayed in 1999, and was second only to LaGuardia Airport in 2000. Nearly 85% of delays at Newark are caused by adverse weather impacting an airport that may be characterized as having limited capacity and a very full schedule. Although Newark is heavily impacted by weather, delays have not increased significantly since 1998. This indicates that the airlines, air traffic control (ATC), and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey have successfully adapted. On June 29, 2000, a research team from MIT visited Newark airport to assess the effectiveness of any adaptations made, and to collect data on airline and ATC departure operations, and of the national and local weather affecting the airport. Airline and ATC personnel were also interviewed. Results of this study indicate that airspace capacity limitations downstream of the airport are a primary flow constraint at the airport, and that these constraints are the source of most surface delays. A number of tactical ATC responses to delays were examined, including the application of restrictions, re-routing with the help of the National Playbook, and the use of decision-aiding tools such as the Dynamic Spacing Program (DSP) and the Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS). Improved interfacility communications and further utilization of runway 11-29 were identified as other tactical responses to delays, whilst the formation of the Air Traffic Control System Command Center and the New York Airspace redesign were identified as thekey strategic ATC responses to delays. Particularly the New York airspace redesign has

  20. Effects of near-bed turbulence and micro-topography on macroinvertebrate movements across contrasting gravel-bed surfaces (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffin-Belanger, T. K.; Rice, S. P.; Reid, I.; Lancaster, J.

    2009-12-01

    Fluvial habitats can be described from a series of physical variables but to adequately address the habitat quality it becomes necessary to develop an understanding that combines the physical variables with the behaviour of the inhabitating organisms. The hypothesis of flow refugia provide a rational that can explain the persistence of macroinvertebrate communities in gravel-bed rivers when spates occur. The movement behaviour of macroinvertebrates is a key element to the flow refugia hypothesis, but little is known about how local near-bed turbulence and bed microtopography may affect macroinvertebrate movements. We reproduced natural gravel-bed substrates with contrasting gravel bed textures in a large flume where we were able to document the movement behaviour of the cased caddisfly Potamophylax latipennis for a specific discharge. The crawling paths and drift events of animals were analysed from video recordings. Characteristics of movements differ from one substrate to another. The crawling speed is higher for the small grain-size substrates but the mean travel distance remains approximately the same between substrates. For each substrate, the animals tended to follow consistent paths across the surface. The number of drift events and mean distance drifted is higher for the small grain-size substrate. ADV measurements close to the boundary allow detailed characterisation of near-bed hydraulic variables, including : skewness coefficients, TKE, UV correlation coefficients and integral time scales from autocorrelation analysis. For these variables, the vertical patterns of turbulence parameters are similar between the substrates but the amplitude of the average values and standard errors vary significantly. The spatial distribution of this variability is considered in relation to the crawling paths. It appears that the animals tend to crawl within areas of the substrate where low flow velocities and low turbulent kinetic energies are found, while sites that

  1. 76 FR 31823 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Airports: Addition of Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport, Dallas, TX AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... revising the list of user fee airports to reflect the recent user fee airport designation for Dallas Love... of user fee status for Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport. This document updates the list of...

  2. Airport noise complaint patterns and interviews of frequent complainers at two major air carrier airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggers, Nicholas; Eiff, Gary

    2005-09-01

    The complex and highly sensitive topic of aircraft noise and population annoyance continues to be a major inhibitor to airport development plans. The projected growth of air travel necessitates expanded capacity at many existing airports and the development and construction of new airports in order to accommodate burgeoning traveler needs. Concerns by citizens near major airports about their economic, health, and social welfare continue to generate community and individual declarations of annoyance and concern which threaten timely solutions to airport expansion plans. A deeper understanding of the nature of these concerns is important to more effectively cope with airport expansion concerns among adjacent communities and surrounding neighbors. This study analyzed existing noise complaints registered at Denver International Airport (DEN) and Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport (FLL) in an attempt to gain greater understanding of noise complaint drivers and public annoyance. Interviews of frequent complainers were utilized in order to gain richer data concerning individual annoyance issues.

  3. 76 FR 15028 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACTION: Interim policy; amendment to sponsor grant assurance 5. SUMMARY: This action adopts an interim policy amending...

  4. LH2 airport requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the facilities and equipment which will be required at a representative airport is provided so liquid hydrogen LH2 can be used as fuel in long range transport aircraft in 1995-2000. A complete facility was conceptually designed, sized to meet the projected air traffic requirement. The facility includes the liquefaction plant, LH2, storage capability, and LH2 fuel handling system. The requirements for ground support and maintenance for the LH2 fueled aircraft were analyzed. An estimate was made of capital and operating costs which might be expected for the facility. Recommendations were made for design modifications to the reference aircraft, reflecting results of the analysis of airport fuel handling requirements, and for a program of additional technology development for air terminal related items.

  5. How to reduce resistance to movement of alkane liquid drops across tilted surfaces without relying on surface roughening and perfluorination.

    PubMed

    Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Cheng, Dalton F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2012-12-21

    Alkylsilane-derived monolayer-covered surfaces generally display a reasonably good level of hydrophobicity but poor oleophobicity. Here, we demonstrate that the physical attributes of alkylsilane-derived surfaces (liquid-like or solid-like) are dependent on the alkyl chain length and density, and these factors subsequently have significant influence upon the dynamic dewetting behavior toward alkanes (C(n)H(2n+2), where n = 7-16). In this study, we prepared and characterized hybrid films through a simple sol-gel process based on the cohydrolysis and co-condensation of a mixture of a range of alkyltriethoxysilanes (C(n)H(2n+1)Si(OEt)(3), where n = 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Surprisingly, when the carbon number (C(n)) of alkyl chain was 10 and below, the produced hybrid films were all smooth, highly transparent, and showed negligible contact angle (CA) hysteresis. On these hybrid surfaces, 5 μL drops of alkanes (n-hexadecane, n-dodecane, and n-decane) could move easily at low tilt angles (<5°) without pinning. On the other hand, when the C(n) exceeded 12, both transparency and mobility of probe liquids significantly worsened. In the former case, TMOS molecules played key roles in both forming continuous films (as a binder) and improving flexibility of alkyl chains (as a molecular spacer), resulting in the smooth liquid-like surfaces. Silylation of the hybrid film and subsequent dynamic CA measurements proved the presence of silanol groups on the outermost surfaces and demonstrated that the dynamic dewettability of hybrid films worsened as packing densities increased. Additionally, solvent effects (high affinity) between the alkyl chains and alkane liquids imparted a more liquid-like character to the surface. Thanks to these simple physical effects, the resistance to the alkane droplet motion across tilted surfaces was markedly reduced. With the longer carbon chains, the chain mobility was strictly inhibited by mutual interactions

  6. Economic Aspects of Airport Security Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Airport security measures use very expensive equipment, and may keep passengers in line for several minutes. The time passengers spend in those lines...can add up, and must be understood as time opportunity cost. In the 1970s, several airport security measures were adopted to help stop aircraft...associated with airport security measures. He concluded that the costs of the adopted measures were very high. While Landes concentrated on the

  7. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-04-25

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  8. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Thomas J.; Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  9. 76 FR 54287 - Notice of Intent To Release Federally-Obligated Airport Properties, Tampa International Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Release Federally-Obligated Airport Properties, Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Request for public comment. SUMMARY: The FAA hereby provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties,...

  10. 77 FR 44515 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Chapter I Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... policy, based on Federal law, concerning through-the-fence access to a federally obligated airport...

  11. 76 FR 74843 - Release of Airport Property, Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport Property, Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL AGENCY... properties, namely approximately 200 acres at the Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL, from the conditions, reservations, and restrictions as contained in a Surplus Property Agreement between the FAA and the...

  12. Simulation of drop movement over an inclined surface using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Das, Arup K; Das, Prasanta K

    2009-10-06

    Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is used to numerically simulate the movement of drops down an inclined plane. Diffuse interfaces have been assumed for tracking the motion of the contact line. The asymmetric shape of the three-dimensional drop and the variation of contact angle along its periphery can be calculated using the simulation. During the motion of a liquid drop down an inclined plane, an internal circulation of liquid particles is observed due to gravitational pull which causes periodic change in the drop shape. The critical angle of inclination required for the inception of drop motion is also evaluated for different fluids as a function of drop volume. The numerical predictions exhibit a good agreement with the published experimental results.

  13. Airport-related air pollution and noise.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Beverly S; Bronzaft, Arline L; Heikkinen, Maire; Goodman, Jerome; Nádas, Arthur

    2008-02-01

    To provide quantitative evidence of the impact on people of a neighboring metropolitan airport, La Guardia Airport (LGA) in New York City, (1) airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured to determine whether concentration differences could be detected between homes that are upwind and downwind of the airport; (2) 24-hr noise measurements were made in 12 homes near the airport; and (3) the impact of noise was assessed by a Community Wellness and Health Promotion Survey. Particulate matter concentrations were higher during active airport operating hours than during nonoperating hours, and the percent increase varied inversely with distance from the airport. Hourly differences between paired upwind and downwind sites were not remarkable. Residents living near the airport were exposed to noise levels as much as four times greater than those experienced by residents in a quiet, comparison home. Impulse noise events were detected from both aircraft and vehicular traffic. More than 55% of the people living within the flight path were bothered by aircraft noise, and 63% by highway noise; these were significantly higher percentages than for residents in the nonflight area. The change in PM concentrations with distance during operating compared with nonoperating hours; traffic-related impulse noise events; and the elevated annoyance with highway noise, as well as aircraft noise among residents in the flight path area, show airport-related motor vehicle traffic to be a major contributor to the negative impact of airports on people in the surrounding communities.

  14. FAA Airport Design Competition for Universities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Raise awareness of the importance of airports to the National Airspace System infrastructure. Increase the involvement of the academic community in addressing airport operations and infrastructure issues and needs. Engage U.S. students in the conceptualization of applications, systems and equipment capable of addressing related challenges in a robust, reliable and comprehensive manner. Encourage U.S. undergraduate and graduate students to contribute innovative ideas and solutions to airport and runway safety issues. Provide the framework and incentives for quality educational experiences for university students. d Develop an awareness of and an interest in airports as a vital and interesting area for engineering and technology careers.

  15. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future.

  16. CTAS and NASA Air Traffic Management Fact Sheets for En Route Descent Advisor and Surface Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine

    2004-01-01

    The Surface Management System (SMS) is a decision support tool that will help controllers, traffic managers, and NAS users manage the movements of aircraft on the surface of busy airports, improving capacity, efficiency, and flexibility. The Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project at NASA is developing SMS in cooperation with the FAA's Free Flight Phase 2 (FFP2) pro5ram. SMS consists of three parts: a traffic management tool, a controller tool, and a National Airspace System (NAS) information tool.

  17. 76 FR 19517 - Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Airport, LaGuardia Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport; High Density Rule at Reagan National.... FAA Analysis Under the FAA's High Density Rule and Orders limiting scheduled operations at LGA,...

  18. Bird Activity Analysis Using Avian Radar Information in Naval Air Station airport, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Herricks, E.

    2010-12-01

    The number of bird strikes on aircraft has increased sharply over recent years and airport bird hazard management has gained increasing attention in wildlife management and control. Evaluation of bird activity near airport is very critical to analyze the hazard of bird strikes. Traditional methods for bird activity analysis using visual counting provide a direct approach to bird hazard assessment. However this approach is limited to daylight and good visual conditions. Radar has been proven to be a useful and effective tool for bird detection and movement analysis. Radar eliminates observation bias and supports consistent data collection for bird activity analysis and hazard management. In this study bird activity data from the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island was collected by Accipiter Avian Radar System. Radar data was pre-processed by filtering out non-bird noises, including traffic vehicle, aircraft, insects, wind, rainfall, ocean waves and so on. Filtered data is then statistically analyzed using MATLAB programs. The results indicated bird movement dynamics in target areas near the airport, which includes (1) the daily activity varied at dawn and dusk; (2) bird activity varied by target area due to the habitat difference; and (3) both temporal and spatial movement patterns varied by bird species. This bird activity analysis supports bird hazard evaluation and related analysis and modeling to provide very useful information in airport bird hazard management planning.

  19. Pilot study on interfractional and intrafractional movements using surface infrared markers and EPID for patients with rectal cancer treated in the prone position

    PubMed Central

    Eom, K-Y; Kim, K; Chang, J H; Koo, T R; Park, J I; Park, Y-G; Ye, S-J; Ha, S W

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate interfractional and intrafractional movement of patients with rectal cancer during radiotherapy with electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and surface infrared (IR) markers. Methods: 20 patients undergoing radiotherapy for rectal cancer with body mass index ranging from 18.5 to 30 were enrolled. Patients were placed in the prone position on a couch with a leg pillow. Three IR markers were put on the surface of each patient and traced by two stereo cameras during radiotherapy on a twice-weekly basis. Interfractional isocentre movement was obtained with EPID images on a weekly basis. Movement of the IR markers was analysed in correlation with the isocentre movement obtained from the EPID images. Results: The maximum right-to-left (R-L) movement of the laterally located markers in the horizontal isocentre plane was correlated with isocentre translocation with statistical significance (p = 0.018 and 0.015, respectively). Movement of the surface markers was cyclical. For centrally located markers, the 95% confidence intervals for the average amplitude in the R-L, cranial-to-caudal (C-C) and anterior-to-posterior (A-P) directions were 0.86, 2.25 and 3.48 mm, respectively. In 10 patients, intrafractional movement exceeding 5 mm in at least one direction was observed. Time-dependent systematic movement of surface markers during treatment, which consisted of continuous movement towards the cranial direction and a sail back motion in the A-P direction, was also observed. Conclusion: Intrafractional movement of surface markers has both cyclic components and time-dependent systematic components. Marker deviations exceeding 5 mm were mainly seen in the A-P direction. Pre- or post-treatment EPID images may not provide adequate information regarding intrafractional movement because of systematic movement in the A-P direction during radiotherapy. Advances in knowledge: This work uncovered a sail back motion of patients in the A-P direction during

  20. Career Unit. Careers at an Airport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Billie

    This career exploration instructional unit on airport careers is one of several resulting from the rural southwestern Colorado CEPAC Project (Career Education Process of Attitude Change). This unit is designed to help students become aware of the different types of jobs connected with running an airport (e.g., ticket agent, pilot, skycap, traffic…

  1. 14 CFR 398.3 - Specific airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific airports. 398.3 Section 398.3... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.3 Specific airports. (a) At an eligible place, essential air service may be specified as service to a particular...

  2. 14 CFR 398.3 - Specific airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific airports. 398.3 Section 398.3... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.3 Specific airports. (a) At an eligible place, essential air service may be specified as service to a particular...

  3. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of...

  4. Airport Economics: Management Control Financial Reporting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchbinder, A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of management control financial reporting systems for airport operation is discussed. The operation of the system to provide the reports required for determining the specific revenue producing facilities of airports is described. The organization of the cost reporting centers to show the types of information provided by the system is analyzed.

  5. Enhanced Airport Surface Detection Equipment Applications,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    instal- lation and includes only the time required for corrective diagnosis , repair, realignment, and proper reinitiatlon of system operation. Thus, 13...for corrective diagnosis , repair, realignment and reinitiating proper operation of the radar system . Availability predictions shall be provided as...do not warrant extensive non- surveil lance-related system developments E-3Ui such as automation of the Control or Commu- nications functions. ASDE

  6. Spiders avoid sticking to their webs: clever leg movements, branched drip-tip setae, and anti-adhesive surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, R. D.; Eberhard, W. G.

    2012-04-01

    Orb-weaving spiders construct webs with adhesive silk but are not trapped by it. Previous studies have attributed this defense to an oily coating on their legs that protects against adhesion or, more recently, to behavioral avoidance of sticky lines. The old evidence is very weak, however, and the behavioral avoidance explanation is inadequate because orb-weavers push with their hind legs against sticky lines hundreds or thousands of times during construction of each orb and are not trapped. Video analyses of behavior and experimental observations of isolated legs pulling away from contact with sticky lines showed that the spider uses three anti-adhesion traits: dense arrays of branched setae on the legs that reduce the area of contact with adhesive material; careful engagement and withdrawal movements of its legs that minimize contact with the adhesive and that avoid pulling against the line itself; and a chemical coating or surface layer that reduces adhesion.

  7. An algorithm for the estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio in surface myoelectric signals generated during cyclic movements.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Valentina; Knaflitz, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In many applications requiring the study of the surface myoelectric signal (SMES) acquired in dynamic conditions, it is essential to have a quantitative evaluation of the quality of the collected signals. When the activation pattern of a muscle has to be obtained by means of single- or double-threshold statistical detectors, the background noise level e (noise) of the signal is a necessary input parameter. Moreover, the detection strategy of double-threshold detectors may be properly tuned when the SNR and the duty cycle (DC) of the signal are known. The aim of this paper is to present an algorithm for the estimation of e (noise), SNR, and DC of an SMES collected during cyclic movements. The algorithm is validated on synthetic signals with statistical properties similar to those of SMES, as well as on more than 100 real signals.

  8. Low back load in airport baggage handlers.

    PubMed

    Koblauch, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Low back pain (LBP) constitutes a major economic problem in many countries. The causes of LBP are still largely unknown and several risk factors have been suggested including heavy lifting, which causes high compression forces of the tissues in the low back. Micro-fractures in the endplates of the vertebrae caused by compression forces have been suggested as a source of unspecific pain. Although airport baggage handlers exhibit a high prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints the amount of biomechanical research within this and similar areas is limited. The aims of this thesis were to perform a general description of the lumbar loading in baggage handlers (Paper I), to develop a generically useful tool to examine specific lumbar compression in a valid manner (Paper II & III), and to investigate the spinal loading in common work tasks for baggage handlers. (Paper III). We recorded electromyography during baggage handling in the baggage hall, by a conveyor, and inside the aircraft baggage compartment. Electromyography was analyzed using amplitude probability distribution functions (APDF) on both tasks and full day recordings and root mean square (RMS) values on tasks. Furthermore, we estimated L4/L5 compression and moment along with shoulder flexor moment with a Watbak model based on more specific subtasks. In addition, we built an inverse dynamics-based musculoskeletal computer model using the AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). Motion capture recorded the movements in 3D during a stooped and a kneeling lifting task simulating airport baggage handler work. Marker trajectories were used to drive the model. The AMS-models computed estimated compression forces, shear forces and the moments around the L4/L5 joint. The compression forces were used for comparison with the vertebral compression tolerances reported in the literature. The RMS muscle activity was high in all tasks. The average peak RMS muscle activity was up to 120% EMGmax in the erector spinae during the baggage

  9. Siting Solar Photovoltaics at Airports: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-06-01

    Airports present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to their open land; based on a 2010 Federal Aviation Administration study, the US Department of Agriculture, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, there's potential for 116,704 MW of solar photovoltaics (PV) on idle lands at US airports. PV has a low profile and likely low to no impact on flight operations. This paper outlines guidance for implementing solar technologies at airports and airfields, focusing largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's policies. The paper also details best practices for siting solar at airports, provides information on the Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool, and highlights a case study example where solar has been installed at an airport.

  10. Giving radioiodine? Think about airport security alarms.

    PubMed

    Kaniuka-Jakubowska, S; Lewczuk, A; Mizan-Gross, K; Obołończyk, L; Lass, P; Sworczak, K

    2012-01-01

    An increased sensitivity of airport detectors, a growing number of isotopic tests, and globalization of the society have raised a number of false positive radioactive alarms at airports and public places. This paper presents two new cases of patients who triggered airport security alarms after receiving 740MBq of (131)I for non-toxic goitre and attempts to compare surprisingly limited literature concerning this problem. A 57-year-old man triggered a security alarm at three different airports on the 17th, 28th, and 31st day after radioiodine exposure. Interestingly enough, in the meantime, on the 18th and 22nd day, no radiation was detected in him at the airport where he was twice detained as a source of radiation later on. The second case presents a 45-year-old woman who activated security alarm detectors while crossing a border on her coach trip 28 days after radioiodine administration.

  11. Airport noise impact reduction through operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1981-01-01

    The airport-noise levels and annoyance model (ALAMO) developed at NASA Langley Research Center is comprised of a system of computer programs which is capable of quantifying airport community noise impact in terms of noise level, population distribution, and human subjective response to noise. The ALAMO can be used to compare the noise impact of an airport's current operating scenario with the noise impact which would result from some proposed change in airport operations. The relative effectiveness of number of noise-impact reduction alternatives is assessed for a major midwest airport. Significant reductions in noise impact are predicted for certain noise abatement strategies while others are shown to result in relatively little noise relief.

  12. Action of cytochalasin D on cells of established lines. III. Zeiosis and movements at the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Godman, G C; Miranda, A F; Deitch, A D; Tanenbaum, S W

    1975-03-01

    The projection of knobby protuberances at the cell surface (zeiosis) is a general cellular response to cytochalasin D (CD), resulting from herniation of endoplasm through undefended places of the cortex during cell contractions and displacement of microfilaments induced by CD. Zeiosis is prevented by agents that interfere with the contractile response to CD, such as inhibitors of energy metabolism or cyclic AMP. The developed protrusions, which remain relatively stable in the presence of CD, contain chiefly mono- or subribosomes, and occasionally other organelles normally resident in endoplasm; compact microfilament felt occupies their bases and extends into their proximal stalks. Protein synthesis in the knobs is less than half of that in the polyribosome-containing endoplasm residual in the main body of the cell. Knobs first protrude singly near the margin of the contracting cells and rapidly cluster into small groups in the periphery even at lower temperature. The clusters then migrate centripetally and coalesce into a large aggregate near the apex of the immobilized and retracted cell: this movement is energy- and temperature-dependent. Aggregation is more prominent and stable in cell lines of epithelial derivation than in fibroblastic or other lines in which nuclear extrusion occurs more readily. The latter is regarded as a special manifestation of zeiosis. Macromarkers, such as latex spherules, migrate like the zeiotic knobs on the cell surfaces in the presence of CD. The aggregated knobs, although persistent for days in the presence of CD, are rapidly recessed after withdrawal of the agent as ruffling is resumed and the cells spread. These movements are discussed in terms of current concepts of mobility of the cell membrane.

  13. Rapid movement of wastewater from on-site disposal systems into surface waters in the lower Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, John H.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.; Stokes, Rodger; Rose, Joan B.

    2000-01-01

    Viral tracer studies have been used previously to study the potential for wastewater contamination of surface marine waters in the Upper and Middle Florida Keys. Two bacteriophages, the marine bacteriophage φHSIC and the Salmonella phage PRD1, were used as tracers in injection well and septic tank studies in Saddlebunch Keys of the Lower Florida Keys and in septic tank studies in Boot Key Harbor, Marathon, of the Middle Keys. In Boot Key Harbor, both phages were detected in a canal adjacent to the seeded septic tank within 3 h 15 min of the end of the seed period. The tracer was then detected at all sampling sites in Boot Key Harbor, including one on the opposite side of U. S. Highway 1 in Florida Bay, and at an Atlantic Ocean beach outside Boot Key Harbor. Rates of migration based on first appearance of the phage ranged from 1.7 to 57.5 m h-1. In Saddlebunch Keys, φHSIC and PRD1 were used to seed a residential septic tank and a commercial injection well. The septic tank tracer was not found in any surface water samples. The injection well tracer was first detected at a site most distant from the seed site, a channel that connected Sugarloaf Sound with the Atlantic Ocean. The rate of tracer migration from the injection well to this channel ranged from 66.8 to 141 m h-1. Both tracer studies showed a rapid movement of wastewater from on-site sewage treatment and disposal systems in a southeasterly direction toward the reef tract and Atlantic Ocean, with preferential movement through tidal channels. These studies indicate that wastewater disposal systems currently in widespread use in the Florida Keys can rapidly contaminate the marine environment.

  14. Meteorological and air pollution modeling for an urban airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, P. R.; Lee, I. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of numerical experiments modeling meteorology, multiple pollutant sources, and nonlinear photochemical reactions for the case of an airport in a large urban area with complex terrain. A planetary boundary-layer model which predicts the mixing depth and generates wind, moisture, and temperature fields was used; it utilizes only surface and synoptic boundary conditions as input data. A version of the Hecht-Seinfeld-Dodge chemical kinetics model is integrated with a new, rapid numerical technique; both the San Francisco Bay Area Air Quality Management District source inventory and the San Jose Airport aircraft inventory are utilized. The air quality model results are presented in contour plots; the combined results illustrate that the highly nonlinear interactions which are present require that the chemistry and meteorology be considered simultaneously to make a valid assessment of the effects of individual sources on regional air quality.

  15. Airport Delay and Improvement Study, John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    LaGuardia Airport fb Current System Operation Aircraft delat has been ar integral part of the operationr or out presen s %tem of major huh airpnort,. Ru ri...iuardia %%henl Kcnnecd% is usingt thre Ruiiwa% 131 11 S. I it, pioposal riral. with the departure delav increasing h,, 3.5 minutes. Oserall. a delat ...genieral iatrioii actIisits. adds 5.7󈧥 additiontal I%TF;RIM AK k ORTErX %S rFEM mntes o t delat , at a Co st of S95.5-8 annual[%. Because of he os

  16. Initial Investigation of Operational Concept Elements for NASA's NextGen-Airportal Project Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary; Lee, Jonathan; Poage, James L.; Tobias, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    The NextGen-Airportal Project is organized into three research focus areas: Safe and Efficient Surface Operations, Coordinated Arrival/Departure Operations Management, and Airportal Transition and Integration Management. The content in this document was derived from an examination of constraints and problems at airports for accommodating future increases in air traffic, and from an examination of capabilities envisioned for NextGen. The concepts are organized around categories of constraints and problems and therefore do not precisely match, but generally reflect, the research focus areas. The concepts provide a framework for defining and coordinating research activities that are, and will be, conducted by the NextGen-Airportal Project. The concepts will help the research activities function as an integrated set focused on future needs for airport operations and will aid aligning the research activities with NextGen key capabilities. The concepts are presented as concept elements with more detailed sub-elements under each concept element. For each concept element, the following topics are discussed: constraints and problems being addressed, benefit descriptions, required technology and infrastructure, and an initial list of potential research topics. Concept content will be updated and more detail added as the research progresses. The concepts are focused on enhancing airportal capacity and efficiency in a timeframe 20 to 25 years in the future, which is similar to NextGen's timeframe.

  17. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.15 User fee airports. (a) Permission to land. The procedures for obtaining permission to land at a user fee airport are the same procedures as those set forth... is subject to change without notice. Information concerning service at any user fee airport can...

  18. 14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contents of Airport Certification Manual... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Airport Certification Manual § 139.203 Contents of Airport Certification Manual. (a... serving facilities or NAVAIDS that support air carrier operations X X X 8. A description of the system...

  19. 14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of Airport Certification Manual... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Airport Certification Manual § 139.203 Contents of Airport Certification Manual. (a) Except as otherwise authorized by the Administrator, each certificate holder must include in the...

  20. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false List of international airports. 122.13 Section 122... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.13 List of international airports. The following is a list of international airports of entry designated by the Secretary of the Treasury....

  1. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false List of international airports. 122.13 Section 122... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.13 List of international airports. The following is a list of international airports of entry designated by the Secretary of the Treasury....

  2. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  3. 14 CFR 121.617 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate airport for departure. 121.617... Alternate airport for departure. (a) If the weather conditions at the airport of takeoff are below the landing minimums in the certificate holder's operations specifications for that airport, no person...

  4. 14 CFR 135.223 - IFR: Alternate airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport requirements. 135... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.223 IFR: Alternate airport requirements...) to— (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Fly from that airport...

  5. 14 CFR 151.3 - National Airport Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National Airport Plan. 151.3 Section 151.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements § 151.3 National Airport Plan. (a) Under the Federal...

  6. 14 CFR 121.617 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate airport for departure. 121.617... Alternate airport for departure. (a) If the weather conditions at the airport of takeoff are below the landing minimums in the certificate holder's operations specifications for that airport, no person...

  7. 14 CFR 135.223 - IFR: Alternate airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport requirements. 135... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.223 IFR: Alternate airport requirements...) to— (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Fly from that airport...

  8. 14 CFR 152.107 - Project eligibility: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport development... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.107 Project eligibility: Airport development. (a) Except in the case of approved stage...

  9. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  10. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget revision: Airport development. (a) If any performance review conducted by the sponsor discloses a need...

  11. 19 CFR 122.14 - Landing rights airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Landing rights airport. 122.14 Section 122.14... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.14 Landing rights airport. (a) Permission to land. Permission to land at a landing rights airport may be given as follows: (1) Scheduled flight....

  12. 14 CFR 152.107 - Project eligibility: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport development... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.107 Project eligibility: Airport development. (a) Except in the case of approved stage...

  13. 14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contents of Airport Certification Manual... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Airport Certification Manual § 139.203 Contents of Airport Certification Manual. (a) Except as otherwise authorized by the Administrator, each certificate holder must include in the...

  14. 14 CFR 152.111 - Application requirements: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application requirements: Airport... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.111 Application requirements: Airport development. (a) An eligible sponsor that desires to...

  15. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget revision: Airport development. (a) If any performance review conducted by the sponsor discloses a need...

  16. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  17. 14 CFR 151.3 - National Airport Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National Airport Plan. 151.3 Section 151.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements § 151.3 National Airport Plan. (a) Under the Federal...

  18. 14 CFR 152.111 - Application requirements: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application requirements: Airport... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.111 Application requirements: Airport development. (a) An eligible sponsor that desires to...

  19. 14 CFR 152.109 - Project eligibility: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport planning. 152....109 Project eligibility: Airport planning. (a) Airport master planning. A proposed project for airport... master planning as defined in § 152.3; (4) If the project has been determined to have...

  20. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... status report: Airport planning. Each sponsor of a project for airport master planning and each planning agency conducting a project for airport system planning shall submit a financial status report on a form... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport...

  1. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  2. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  3. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  4. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  5. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  6. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  7. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  8. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  9. 78 FR 65417 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Regional Airport (EAR), Kearney, Nebraska. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invites public comment on... request to release approximately 67.72 acres of airport property at the Kearney Regional Airport (EAR... property at the Kearney Regional Airport (EAR) submitted by the Sponsor meets the procedural...

  10. 77 FR 73310 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Bozeman Yellowstone International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Airports: Addition of Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport, Belgrade, MT AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... user fee airports to reflect the recent user fee airport designation for Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport in Belgrade, Montana. User fee airports are those airports which, while not qualifying...

  11. 76 FR 21420 - Policy and Procedures Concerning the Use of Airport Revenue; Policy Regarding Airport Rates and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Policy and Procedures Concerning the Use of Airport Revenue; Policy Regarding Airport Rates and Charges: Petition of the Clark County Department of Aviation To Use a Weight... consistent with Federal law and policies on the use of airport revenue and on airport rates and charges....

  12. 76 FR 30422 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Helena Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... on Request To Release Airport Property at the Helena Regional Airport, Helena, Montana AGENCY... Release Airport Property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite public comment on the release of land at Helena Regional Airport (HLN) under the provisions of Section 125 of the Wendell H....

  13. Geophysical characterization of permafrost terrain at Iqaluit International Airport, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenborger, Greg A.; LeBlanc, Anne-Marie

    2015-12-01

    Iqaluit International Airport presently suffers from instabilities and subsidence along its runway, taxiways and apron. In particular, asphalt surfaces are significantly impacted by settlement and cracking. These instabilities may be related to permafrost, permafrost degradation and associated drainage conditions. Low induction number electromagnetic measurements along with galvanic and capacitive electrical resistivity surveys were performed over selected areas within the airport boundary and in the near vicinity to assist with permafrost characterization and to investigate active permafrost processes. Electrical resistivity images suggest distinct electrical signatures for different terrain units and sediment types, and for ice-rich material including ice wedges. Anomalous regions are identified that are coincident with localized settlement problems. Repeated resistivity maps reveal seasonal changes indicative of high unfrozen water content and freeze/thaw of groundwater beneath airport infrastructure in distinct regions related to surficial geology. Even with continuous permafrost and cold permafrost temperatures, the resistivity models reveal anomalously conductive material at depth that is not obviously correlated to mapped surficial sediments and that may represent thaw susceptible sediments or significant unfrozen water content.

  14. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  15. A methodology using in-chair movements as an objective measure of discomfort for the purpose of statistically distinguishing between similar seat surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cascioli, Vincenzo; Liu, Zhuofu; Heusch, Andrew; McCarthy, Peter W

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a method for objectively measuring in-chair movement (ICM) that shows correlation with subjective ratings of comfort and discomfort. Employing a cross-over controlled, single blind design, healthy young subjects (n = 21) sat for 18 min on each of the following surfaces: contoured foam, straight foam and wood. Force sensitive resistors attached to the sitting interface measured the relative movements of the subjects during sitting. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ICM could statistically distinguish between each seat material, including two with subtle design differences. In addition, this study investigated methodological considerations, in particular appropriate threshold selection and sitting duration, when analysing objective movement data. ICM appears to be able to statistically distinguish between similar foam surfaces, as long as appropriate ICM thresholds and sufficient sitting durations are present. A relationship between greater ICM and increased discomfort, and lesser ICM and increased comfort was also found.

  16. Mesoscale Characterization of Coupled Hydromechanical Behavior of a Fractured Porous Slope in Response to Free Water-Surface Movement

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Guglielmi, Y.; Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C.-F.; Thoraval, A.

    2008-05-15

    the high-permeability zones. The periodicity and magnitude of free water-surface movements cause 10 to 20% variations in those local stress/strain accumulations related to the contrasting HM behavior for high and low-permeable elements of the slope. Finally, surface-tilt monitoring coupled with internal localized pressure/deformation measurements appears to be a promising method for characterizing the HM properties and behavior of a slope, and for detecting its progressive destabilization.

  17. Public health impact of large airports.

    PubMed

    Passchier, W; Knottnerus, A; Albering, H; Walda, I

    2000-01-01

    Large airports with the related infrastructure, businesses and industrial activities affect the health of the population living, travelling and working in the surroundings of or at the airport. The employment and contributions to economy from the airport and related operations are expected to have a beneficial effect, which, however, is difficult to quantify. More pertinent data are available on the, largely negative, health effects of environmental factors, such as air and soil pollution, noise, accident risk, and landscape changes. Information on the concurrent and cumulative impact of these factors is lacking, but is of primary relevance for public health policy. A committee of the Health Council of The Netherlands recently reviewed the data on the health impact of large airports. It was concluded that, generally, integrated health assessments are not available. Such assessments, as part of sustainable mobility policy, should accompany the further development of the global aviation system.

  18. Aircraft and airport noise control prospective outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, N.

    1982-01-01

    In a perspective look at aircraft and airport noise control over the past ten years or more - or more is added here because the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 of 1969 is a more significant milestone for the air transportation system than is the Noise Control Act of 1972 - we see an appreciable reduction in the noise emitted by newly designed and newly produced airplanes, particularly those powered by the new high bypass engines, but only, at best, a moderate alleviation of airport noise. The change in airport noise exposure was the consequence of the introduction of some new, quieter airplanes into the airlines fleets and some operational modifications or restrictions at the airports.

  19. A Physical Experiment to determine the Impact of Atmospheric Condensation of Water Vapour on Surface Air Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyard, Peter

    2014-05-01

    water vapor, by 6 grams/m3during the course of the experiment, leads to differential increases in air density. The latent heat released during condensation tends to warm the air in the immediate vicinity of the coolant coils and as such would tend to counter the air clockwise air-circulation, the assumption being that the highly localized partial pressure reduction on condensation is the overriding force. The experimental data accords well with data from Costa Rica, where, for the past three years, daily meteorological data have been collected from two OTS sites, namely La Selva and Palo Verde, the former in particular displaying relatively high rates of evapotranspiration. Statistically high correlations are found between the calculated evaporative/condensation force fE, and corresponding surface wind movements. Those findings, combined with the experimental data, suggest that a high rate of condensation and the consequent partial pressure reduction at the scale of the lower trophosphere leads to horizontal surface airflows of the order of 1 m.s-1.

  20. A Physical Experiment to determine the Impact of Atmospheric Condensation of Water Vapor on Surface Air Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyard, P. P.; Nechev, P.

    2013-12-01

    water vapor, by 6 grams/m3during the course of the experiment, leads to differential increases in air density. The latent heat released during condensation tends to warm the air in the immediate vicinity of the coolant coils and as such would tend to counter the air clockwise air-circulation, the assumption being that the highly localized partial pressure reduction on condensation is the overriding force. The experimental data accords well with data from Costa Rica, where, for the past three years, daily meteorological data have been collected from two OTS sites, namely La Selva and Palo Verde, the former in particular displaying relatively high rates of evapotranspiration. Statistically high correlations are found between the calculated evaporative/condensation force fE, and corresponding surface wind movements. Those findings, combined with the experimental data, suggest that a high rate of condensation and the consequent partial pressure reduction at the scale of the lower trophosphere leads to horizontal surface airflows of the order of 1 m.s-1.

  1. Subsidence and Differential Surface Movement in the Upper Coachella Valley, California, as Indicated by InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisely, B. A.; Schmidt, D.

    2005-12-01

    We present interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) results for the Coachella Valley, California, indicating land subsidence in the Upper Coachella Valley and regions of differential movement along faults east of San Gorgonio Pass. The Coachella Valley is a northwest trending basin, bounded to the east by the southern San Andreas Fault, to the west by the San Jacinto and Santa Rosa Mountains, and to the south by the Salton Sea. To the northwest, the Coachella Valley terminates in the San Gorgonio Pass stepover region, a contractional left step in the San Andreas Fault Zone, composed of a complex system of interacting faults. Several hundred differential interferograms are processed using SAR data from ERS1/2 satellite to image the deformation from 1992-2000. Up to 20 differential interferograms with temporal baselines greater than 3 years are stacked to reduce atmospheric noise. The greatest land subsidence rates indicated by the InSAR results can be seen in the Upper Coachella Valley, located along the Interstate 10 corridor. The maximum subsidence rates observed are ~5mm/yr from 1992-2000, and encompass the cities of Coachella, Indio, and Palm Springs. Subsidence rates of ~3mm/yr near Thousand Palms, Palm Desert and the Coachella Valley Preserve are also observed. We quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of subsidence in the region and compare subsidence time histories with well level data. Surface deformation is detected along the northwest trending, right-lateral Garnet Hill Fault (GHF) and along the sub-parallel, right-lateral Coachella Valley segment of the Banning Fault (CVBF). A deformation signal is detected along a section of the CVBF currently considered inactive due to a lack of surface geomorphic expression categorically associated with other active fault strands in the region. A range change of 1-1.5mm/yr is seen across each fault. The sign of the range change across these faults would correspond to left-lateral motion if it is

  2. Friction evaluation of concrete paver blocks for airport pavement applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The development and use of concrete paver blocks is reviewed and some general specifications for application of this type of pavement surface at airport facilities are given. Two different shapes of interlocking concrete paver blocks installed in the track surface at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are described. Preliminary cornering performance results from testing of 40 x 14 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires are reviewed. These tire tests are part of a larger, ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction and Radial Tire (START) Program involving several different tire sizes. Both dry and wet surface conditions were evaluated on the two concrete paver block test surfaces and a conventional, nongrooved Portland cement concrete surface. Future test plans involving evaluation of other concrete paver block designs at the ALDF are indicated.

  3. Behavioral Indicators of Drug Couriers in Airports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5508--15-9595 Behavioral Indicators of Drug Couriers in Airports April 30, 2015 Approved...identify behaviors typical of drug couriers. Based on this training and the roundtable, AMX researchers cataloged 69 distinct behaviors in 7...in the case of the illegal narcotics trade, where drug couriers use airports to transport drugs and money throughout the United States. While

  4. The Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Wilson, J.; Fujita, T. T.

    1983-01-01

    A block diagram of the joint airport weather studies program is presented. Background leading to the development of the program is reviewed. Basic studies, aircraft performance, and detection and warning techniques used to develop fine scale structure of thunderstorm dynamics and kinematics in the vicinity of a major airport; effect of thunderstorm low level wind shear on aircraft performance; and development of real time testing of flow level wind shear detection and warning techniques and displays are described.

  5. Binding and movement of individual Cel7A cellobiohydrolases on crystalline cellulose surfaces revealed by single-molecule fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaemyeong; Sethi, Anurag; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Han, Jason J; Jeoh, Tina; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Goodwin, Peter M

    2013-08-16

    The efficient catalytic conversion of biomass to bioenergy would meet a large portion of energy requirements in the near future. A crucial step in this process is the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose that is then converted into fuel such as ethanol by fermentation. Here we use single-molecule fluorescence imaging to directly monitor the movement of individual Cel7A cellobiohydrolases from Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) on the surface of insoluble cellulose fibrils to elucidate molecular level details of cellulase activity. The motion of multiple, individual TrCel7A cellobiohydrolases was simultaneously recorded with ∼15-nm spatial resolution. Time-resolved localization microscopy provides insights on the activity of TrCel7A on cellulose and informs on nonproductive binding and diffusion. We measured single-molecule residency time distributions of TrCel7A bound to cellulose both in the presence of and absence of cellobiose the major product and a potent inhibitor of Cel7A activity. Combining these results with a kinetic model of TrCel7A binding provides microscopic insight into interactions between TrCel7A and the cellulose substrate.

  6. Prediction of Weather Impacted Airport Capacity using Ensemble Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao Xun

    2011-01-01

    Ensemble learning with the Bagging Decision Tree (BDT) model was used to assess the impact of weather on airport capacities at selected high-demand airports in the United States. The ensemble bagging decision tree models were developed and validated using the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aviation System Performance Metrics (ASPM) data and weather forecast at these airports. The study examines the performance of BDT, along with traditional single Support Vector Machines (SVM), for airport runway configuration selection and airport arrival rates (AAR) prediction during weather impacts. Testing of these models was accomplished using observed weather, weather forecast, and airport operation information at the chosen airports. The experimental results show that ensemble methods are more accurate than a single SVM classifier. The airport capacity ensemble method presented here can be used as a decision support model that supports air traffic flow management to meet the weather impacted airport capacity in order to reduce costs and increase safety.

  7. Monitoring Aircraft Motion at Airports by LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, C.; Jozkow, G.; Koppanyi, Z.; Young, S.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    2016-06-01

    Improving sensor performance, combined with better affordability, provides better object space observability, resulting in new applications. Remote sensing systems are primarily concerned with acquiring data of the static components of our environment, such as the topographic surface of the earth, transportation infrastructure, city models, etc. Observing the dynamic component of the object space is still rather rare in the geospatial application field; vehicle extraction and traffic flow monitoring are a few examples of using remote sensing to detect and model moving objects. Deploying a network of inexpensive LiDAR sensors along taxiways and runways can provide both geometrically and temporally rich geospatial data that aircraft body can be extracted from the point cloud, and then, based on consecutive point clouds motion parameters can be estimated. Acquiring accurate aircraft trajectory data is essential to improve aviation safety at airports. This paper reports about the initial experiences obtained by using a network of four Velodyne VLP- 16 sensors to acquire data along a runway segment.

  8. Temperature logging to describe the movement of sewage-polluted surface water infiltrating into a fractured rock aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, Florian; Chapuis, Renaud

    1995-12-01

    In 1992-1993, temperature logs were used to study the movement of sewage-polluted surface water infiltrating into the fractured limestone of an experimental site located in the southeastern part of the Lez Basin (Southern France). The wells investigated were located on either side of a sewage-polluted stream and intersected water-bearing fractures characterised by large contrasts in hydraulic conductivity. From the results of temperature-depth profiles measured in four closely spaced wells of 60 m depth (W7, W8, W 10 and W 16) during the period February 1992-June 1993 and the findings of a previous and more extensive geothermal survey, we examined the spatial distribution and the temporal variability of ground-water temperature during periods influenced or not influenced by percolating sewage-polluted water. Results of this thermal survey, which were in good agreement with those of a physico-chemical and bacteriological survey simultaneously carried out at the site, provided a substantial amount of information on the distribution of contaminant flow pathways. Well W8, which showed high fluctuating ground-water temperature anomalies, intersected a solution-enlarged part of a bedding joint which seemed to carry much of the sewage-polluted infiltrating water. Ground water in this conductive opening also had a low physico-chemical and bacteriological 'stability' and the highest average contaminant concentrations. In contrast, Wells W10, W16 and, to a lesser extent, Well W7 displayed only low ground-water temperature anomalies during periods influenced by percolating sewage-polluted water. Ground water circulating through the thin and rather closed fissures intersected by these wells was less sensitive to pollution, as it had a greater thermal, physico-chemical and bacteriological 'stability' and the lowest average. contaminant concentrations. Thus, we suggest that in advance of more focused monitoring programmes, temperature-depth profiles in wells could effectively be

  9. 75 FR 54946 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ..., such as the proximity of children and pets, to normal airport operations. In addition, not all..., and resistance to the sponsor's accommodation of those changes. At airports where the nearby residents... accommodation of new aircraft types. While the FAA supports these mitigation measures where available,...

  10. 77 FR 3324 - Release of Airport Property: Fort Myers International Airport, Fort Myers, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 3324] [FR Doc No: 2012-1064] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport... Airports District Office Southern Region. R [FR Doc. 2012-1064 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  11. Airport Noise Tech Challenge Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, operating under NASA Aeronautics Mission Directorate#s Fundamental Aero Program, has been organized around the Technical Challenges that have historically precluded commercial supersonic flight. One of these Challenges is making aircraft that are capable of such high aerodynamic performance quiet enough around airports that they will not be objectionable. It is recognized that a successful civilian supersonic aircraft will be a system where many new technologies will come together, and for this to happen not only will new low noise propulsion concepts be required, but new engineering tools that predict the noise of the aircraft as these technologies are combined and compromised with the rest of the aircraft design. These are the two main objectives of the Airport Noise Tech Challenge. " ! As a Project in the Fundamental Aero Program, we work at a relatively low level of technology readiness. However, we have high level milestones which force us to integrate our efforts to impact systems-level activities. To keep the low-level work tied to delivering engineering tools and low-noise concepts, we have structured our milestones around development of the concepts and organized our activities around developing and applying our engineering tools to these concepts. The final deliverables in these milestones are noise prediction modules validated against the best embodiment of each concept. These will then be used in cross-disciplinary exercises to demonstrate the viability of aircraft designs to meet all the Technical Challenges. Some of the concepts being developed are shown: Fan Flow Diverters, Multi-jet Shielding, High-Aspect Ratio Embedded Nozzles, Plasma Actuated Instability Manipulation, Highly Variable Cycle Mixer- Ejectors, and Inverted Velocity Profiles. These concepts are being developed for reduced jet noise along with the design tools which describe how they perform when used in various aircraft configurations. Several key upcoming

  12. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport near Cordova, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Sokup, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Air service to Cordova, Alaska and the surrounding region is provided by the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport, 21 kilometers east of the townsite. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates support facilities at the airport and wishes to consider the environmental setting and hydro- geologic conditions when evaluating options for remediation of potential contamination at these facilities. The airport is within the Copper River Delta wetlands area and the Chugach National Forest. Silts, sands, and gravels of fluvial origin underlie the airport. Potential flooding may be caused by outbursts of glacier-dammed lakes, glacier icemelt, snowmelt runoff, or precipitation. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials in conjunction with precipitation or flooding may adversely affect the quality of ground water. Drinking water at the airport is currently supplied by wells. Alternative drinking-water sources include local rivers and streams, transporting city water from Cordova, or undiscovered aquifers. Each alternative source, however, would likely cost significantly more to develop than using the existing shallow aquifer supply.

  13. ICAO's anti-SARS airport activities.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Silvio; Curdt-Christiansen, Claus M

    2003-11-01

    To prevent SARS from spreading through air travel and in order to rebuild the confidence of the traveling public in the safety of air travel, ICAO has set up an "Anti-SARS Airport Evaluation Project." The first phase of this project was to develop a set of protective measures for international airports in affected areas to adopt and implement and then to send out, on the request of Contracting States, a team of inspectors to evaluate and assess airports and issue a "statement of evaluation" that the airport inspected complies with the ICAO anti-SARS protective measures. In cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO), the first part of phase 1 was completed in early June this year, and the second part of phase 1 followed soon after. By mid-July, five international airports in Southeast Asia had been inspected and found to be in full compliance with the ICAO anti-SARS protective measures. The success of this ICAO project is believed to have contributed significantly to the recovery of international air travel and related industries now taking place. Phase 2 of the project is now being developed. It is aimed at preventing a resurgence of SARS, but it also contains elements to make the methodology developed applicable to future outbreaks of any other communicable disease in which the mode of transmission could involve aviation and/or the need to prevent the spread of the disease by air travel.

  14. Yeager Airport Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Williams

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was designed to have the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC), together with its partners, manage the Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project at the Yeager Airport in conjunction with the Central West Virginia Regional Airport Authority (CWVRAA) in coordination with the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE NETL). This program would allow testing and evaluation of the use of hydrogen vehicles in the state of West Virginia utilizing the hydrogen fueling station at Yeager Airport. The NAFTC and CWVRAA to raise awareness and foster a greater understanding of hydrogen fuel and hydrogen-powered vehicles through a targeted utilization and outreach and education effort. After initial implementation of the project, the project added, determine the source(s) of supply for hydrogen powered vehicles that could be used for the testing. After completion of this, testing was begun at Yeager Airport. During the course of the project, the station at Yeager Airport was closed and moved to Morgantown and the West Virginia University Research Corporation. The vehicles were then moved to Morgantown and a vehicle owned by the CWVRAA was purchased to complete the project at the new location. Because of a number of issues detailed in the report for DE-FE0002994 and in this report, this project did not get to evaluate the effectiveness of the vehicles as planned.

  15. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Airport Capacity and Delay Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David A.; Nelson, Caroline; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    The ASAC Airport Capacity Model and the ASAC Airport Delay Model support analyses of technologies addressing airport capacity. NASA's Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Airport Capacity Model estimates the capacity of an airport as a function of weather, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures, traffic characteristics, and the level of technology available. Airport capacity is presented as a Pareto frontier of arrivals per hour versus departures per hour. The ASAC Airport Delay Model allows the user to estimate the minutes of arrival delay for an airport, given its (weather dependent) capacity. Historical weather observations and demand patterns are provided by ASAC as inputs to the delay model. The ASAC economic models can translate a reduction in delay minutes into benefit dollars.

  16. 77 FR 28667 - Land Release for Plattsburgh International Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Plattsburgh International Airport AGENCY: Federal... Secretary may waive a Sponsor's Federal obligation to use certain airport land for aeronautical use....

  17. 77 FR 27857 - Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Kingman Airport Authority, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--Kingman Airport Authority, Inc. Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC (KTRR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of....--Continuance in Control Exemption--Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC, Docket No. FD 35619, wherein...

  18. The noise impact of proposed runway alternatives at Craig Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1982-01-01

    Four proposed runway expansion alternatives at Craig Airport in Jacksonville, Florida have been assessed with respect to their forecasted noise impact in the year 2005. The assessment accounts for population distributions around the airport and human subjective response to noise, as well as the distribution of noise levels in the surrounding community (footprints). The impact analysis was performed using the Airport-noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO), an airport community response model recently developd at Langley Research Center.

  19. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N.; Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  20. Environmental Impacts of Airport Operations: Maintenance, and Expansion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-05

    goals. Projects funded under this category address the environmental impacts of airports, primarily to abate airport noise (e.g., soundproofing homes...of airports, primarily aircraft noise. Among other uses, those funds may be spent on projects to abate airport noise impacts (e.g., soundproofing ... soundproofing ) do not address issues associated with outdoor noise. Further, the use of limited funds for short-tem benefits detracts from investments

  1. Productivity Analysis of Public and Private Airports: A Causal Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Gorjidooz, Javad

    2007-01-01

    Around the world, airports are being viewed as enterprises, rather than public services, which are expected to be managed efficiently and provide passengers with courteous customer services. Governments are, increasingly, turning to the private sectors for their efficiency in managing the operation, financing, and development, as well as providing security for airports. Operational and financial performance evaluation has become increasingly important to airport operators due to recent trends in airport privatization. Assessing performance allows the airport operators to plan for human resources and capital investment as efficiently as possible. Productivity measurements may be used as comparisons and guidelines in strategic planning, in the internal analysis of operational efficiency and effectiveness, and in assessing the competitive position of an airport in transportation industry. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the operational and financial efficiencies of 22 major airports in the United States and Europe. These airports are divided into three groups based on private ownership (7 British Airport Authority airports), public ownership (8 major United States airports), and a mix of private and public ownership (7 major European Union airports. The detail ownership structures of these airports are presented in Appendix A. Total factor productivity (TFP) model was utilized to measure airport performance in terms of financial and operational efficiencies and to develop a benchmarking tool to identify the areas of strength and weakness. A regression model was then employed to measure the relationship between TFP and ownership structure. Finally a Granger causality test was performed to determine whether ownership structure is a Granger cause of TFP. The results of the analysis presented in this paper demonstrate that there is not a significant relationship between airport TFP and ownership structure. Airport productivity and efficiency is

  2. Plastic (wire-combed) grooving of a slip-formed concrete runway overlay at Patrick Henry Airport: An initial evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlin, E. C.; Horne, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A wire-comb technique is described for transversely grooving the surface of a freshly laid (plastic state) slip-formed concrete overlay installed at Patrick Henry Airport. This method of surface texturing yields better water drainage and pavement skid resistance than that obtained with an older conventional burlap drag concrete surface treatment installed on an adjacent portion of the runway.

  3. TRIZ Tool for Optimization of Airport Runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Venkata; Selladurai, V.; Saravanan, R.

    TRIZ tool is used for conceptual design and layout of the novel ascending and descending runway model for the effective utilization of short length airports. Handling bigger aircrafts at smaller airports become the necessity for economic consideration and for the benefit of vast airliners and the aspiring air travelers of the region. The authors’ proposal of ascending and descending runway would enable the operational need of wide body aircrafts such as Boeing 747 and Airbus A380-800. Negotiating take-off and landing of bigger aircrafts at less than 10000 feet runway is an optimization solution. This conceptual model and the theoretical design with its layout is dealt in this paper as Part - I. The computer-aided design and analysis using MATLAB with Simulink tool box to confirm the adequacy of the runway length for the bigger aircrafts at smaller airports is however dealt in subsequent papers.

  4. Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Caleb Hoi Kei (Inventor); Hsiao, Thomas Kun-Lung (Inventor); Mittler, Nathan C. (Inventor); Couluris, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections is a system and method for providing hold advisories to surface controllers to prevent gridlock and resolve crossing and merging conflicts among vehicles traversing a vertex-edge graph representing a surface traffic network on an airport surface. The Advisor performs pair-wise comparisons of current position and projected path of each vehicle with other surface vehicles to detect conflicts, determine critical sections, and provide hold advisories to traffic controllers recommending vehicles stop at entry points to protected zones around identified critical sections. A critical section defines a segment of the vertex-edge graph where vehicles are in crossing or merging or opposite direction gridlock contention. The Advisor detects critical sections without reference to scheduled, projected or required times along assigned vehicle paths, and generates hold advisories to prevent conflicts without requiring network path direction-of-movement rules and without requiring rerouting, rescheduling or other network optimization solutions.

  5. 77 FR 68196 - Orders Limiting Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...Guardia Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport; High Density Rule at Reagan Washington National... operations took several days after the storm. FAA Analysis Under the FAA's High Density Rule at DCA...

  6. 75 FR 23841 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Reading Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... to Berks County Industrial Development Authority. The property was transferred to the City of Reading... needed for airport development as shown on the Airport Layout Plan. Any proceeds from the sale...

  7. 14 CFR 125.365 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules... person may release an airplane from that airport unless the flight release specifies an alternate airport... person lists each required alternate airport in the flight release....

  8. 14 CFR 125.365 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules... person may release an airplane from that airport unless the flight release specifies an alternate airport... person lists each required alternate airport in the flight release....

  9. 14 CFR 125.365 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules... person may release an airplane from that airport unless the flight release specifies an alternate airport... person lists each required alternate airport in the flight release....

  10. 14 CFR 125.365 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules... person may release an airplane from that airport unless the flight release specifies an alternate airport... person lists each required alternate airport in the flight release....

  11. 14 CFR 125.365 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules... person may release an airplane from that airport unless the flight release specifies an alternate airport... person lists each required alternate airport in the flight release....

  12. Un Viaje al Aeropuerto (A Trip to the Airport).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This illustrated, bilingual Spanish-English intermediate reader describes a class trip to an airport, in which the class tours the airport, and learns about airport activities, the parts of an airplane, and other related topics. Each page of the text is illustrated with a drawing. The narrative is followed by a list of 24 suggested learning…

  13. 14 CFR 135.223 - IFR: Alternate airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) to— (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Fly from that airport to the alternate airport; and (3) Fly after that for 45 minutes at normal cruising speed or, for helicopters, fly after that for 30 minutes at normal cruising speed. (b) Paragraph (a)(2) of this section...

  14. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  15. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  16. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  17. 14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contents of Airport Certification Manual. 139.203 Section 139.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... succession of airport operational responsibility X X X X 2. Each current exemption issued to the airport...

  18. 14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contents of Airport Certification Manual. 139.203 Section 139.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... succession of airport operational responsibility X X X X 2. Each current exemption issued to the airport...

  19. 14 CFR 121.117 - Airports: Required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airports: Required data. 121.117 Section... Operations § 121.117 Airports: Required data. (a) No certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may use any airport unless it is properly equipped and adequate for the proposed...

  20. 14 CFR 121.97 - Airports: Required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airports: Required data. 121.97 Section 121... § 121.97 Airports: Required data. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag operations must show that each route it submits for approval has enough airports that are properly equipped...

  1. 14 CFR 121.97 - Airports: Required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airports: Required data. 121.97 Section 121... § 121.97 Airports: Required data. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag operations must show that each route it submits for approval has enough airports that are properly equipped...

  2. 14 CFR 121.624 - ETOPS Alternate Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false ETOPS Alternate Airports. 121.624 Section... Alternate Airports. (a) No person may dispatch or release an airplane for an ETOPS flight unless enough ETOPS Alternate Airports are listed in the dispatch or flight release such that the airplane...

  3. 14 CFR 121.624 - ETOPS Alternate Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ETOPS Alternate Airports. 121.624 Section... Alternate Airports. (a) No person may dispatch or release an airplane for an ETOPS flight unless enough ETOPS Alternate Airports are listed in the dispatch or flight release such that the airplane...

  4. 14 CFR 121.117 - Airports: Required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airports: Required data. 121.117 Section... Operations § 121.117 Airports: Required data. (a) No certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may use any airport unless it is properly equipped and adequate for the proposed...

  5. 14 CFR 139.339 - Airport condition reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport condition reporting. 139.339... OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.339 Airport condition reporting. In a manner authorized by the Administrator, each certificate holder must— (a) Provide for the collection and dissemination of...

  6. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  7. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  8. 46 CFR 72.05-30 - Windows and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Windows and airports. 72.05-30 Section 72.05-30 Shipping... Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-30 Windows and airports. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, all glass in windows or airports shall be at least 1/4 inch thick. However, greater thickness may be required...

  9. 14 CFR 139.339 - Airport condition reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport condition reporting. 139.339... OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.339 Airport condition reporting. In a manner authorized by the Administrator, each certificate holder must— (a) Provide for the collection and dissemination of...

  10. 49 CFR 1560.111 - Covered airport operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Covered airport operators. 1560.111 Section 1560... Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.111 Covered airport operators. (a) Applicability. This section applies to a covered airport operator that has a program approved by TSA...

  11. 78 FR 3311 - Safety Enhancements, Certification of Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 139 RIN 2120-AJ70 Safety Enhancements, Certification of Airports AGENCY: Federal... pertaining to certification of airports to clarify that the applicability of these regulations is based only... intentionally false statements concerning an airport operating certificate. Finally, this final rule...

  12. 49 CFR 1560.111 - Covered airport operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered airport operators. 1560.111 Section 1560... Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.111 Covered airport operators. (a) Applicability. This section applies to a covered airport operator that has a program approved by TSA...

  13. 46 CFR 72.05-30 - Windows and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Windows and airports. 72.05-30 Section 72.05-30 Shipping... Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-30 Windows and airports. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, all glass in windows or airports shall be at least 1/4 inch thick. However, greater thickness may be required...

  14. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  15. 77 FR 17492 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports AGENCY: U.S.... This document announces the expansion of the program to include four additional airports. DATES: Global... site, http://www.globalentry.gov . Expansion of Global Entry Program to Additional Airports CBP...

  16. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  17. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  18. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  19. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  20. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  1. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  2. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  3. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  4. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  5. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  6. 78 FR 48217 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at the Ottumwa Regional Airport (OTM), Ottumwa....martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may be reviewed, by appointment, in person at this...

  7. Airports, Hotel, and Ground Transportation Information | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Airports in and near Washington, DC Reagan National (DCA)  Approximate 30 minute drive from Rockville* Has its own Metro stop on the blue and yellow lines in Virginia NOTE: This airport may be the closest and easiest option if not renting a car or do not want to pay for an airport cab/shuttle.   Dulles International (IAD) |

  8. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  9. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  10. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  11. 46 CFR 72.05-30 - Windows and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Windows and airports. 72.05-30 Section 72.05-30 Shipping... Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-30 Windows and airports. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, all glass in windows or airports shall be at least 1/4 inch thick. However, greater thickness may be required...

  12. 46 CFR 72.05-30 - Windows and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Windows and airports. 72.05-30 Section 72.05-30 Shipping... Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-30 Windows and airports. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, all glass in windows or airports shall be at least 1/4 inch thick. However, greater thickness may be required...

  13. 46 CFR 72.05-30 - Windows and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Windows and airports. 72.05-30 Section 72.05-30 Shipping... Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-30 Windows and airports. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, all glass in windows or airports shall be at least 1/4 inch thick. However, greater thickness may be required...

  14. Performance Evaluation of the Approaches and Algorithms for Hamburg Airport Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan; Jung, Yoon; Lee, Hanbong; Schier, Sebastian; Okuniek, Nikolai; Gerdes, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    In this work, fast-time simulations have been conducted using SARDA tools at Hamburg airport by NASA and real-time simulations using CADEO and TRACC with the NLR ATM Research Simulator (NARSIM) by DLR. The outputs are analyzed using a set of common metrics collaborated between DLR and NASA. The proposed metrics are derived from International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)s Key Performance Areas (KPAs) in capability, efficiency, predictability and environment, and adapted to simulation studies. The results are examined to explore and compare the merits and shortcomings of the two approaches using the common performance metrics. Particular attention is paid to the concept of the close-loop, trajectory-based taxi as well as the application of US concept to the European airport. Both teams consider the trajectory-based surface operation concept a critical technology advance in not only addressing the current surface traffic management problems, but also having potential application in unmanned vehicle maneuver on airport surface, such as autonomous towing or TaxiBot [6][7] and even Remote Piloted Aircraft (RPA). Based on this work, a future integration of TRACC and SOSS is described aiming at bringing conflict-free trajectory-based operation concept to US airport.

  15. 75 FR 41922 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at Fort Smith Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Smith Regional Airport, Fort Smith, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... comment on the release of land at Fort Smith Regional Airport under the provisions of Title 49, U.S.C... comments submitted to the FM must be mailed or delivered to Mr. John Parker, Airport Director, Fort...

  16. 76 FR 23854 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dubois Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dubois Regional Airport, Reynoldsville, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite...

  17. 78 FR 20168 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport, Boulder, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite public...

  18. 76 FR 69321 - Intent To Rule On Request To Release Airport Property at the Malden Regional Airport and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Intent To Rule On Request To Release Airport Property at the Malden Regional Airport and Industrial Park (MAW), Malden, MO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... the Malden Regional Airport & Industrial Park (MAW), Malden, Missouri, under the provisions of 49...

  19. 77 FR 12906 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dubois Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dubois Regional Airport, Reynoldsville, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite...

  20. Detection of emission indices of aircraft exhaust compounds by open-path optical methods at airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürmann, Gregor; Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Hoffmann, Herbert; Utzig, Selina

    2005-10-01

    Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different thrust levels (Idle, approach, cruise and take-off). It is a common procedure to use this data base as a starting point to estimate aircraft emissions at airports and further on to calculate the contribution of airports on local air quality. The comparison of these indices to real in use measurements therefore is a vital task to test the quality of air quality models at airports. Here a method to determine emission indices is used, where concentration measurements of CO2 together with other pollutants in the aircraft plume are needed. During intensive measurement campaigns at Zurich (ZRH) and Paris Charles De Gaulle (CDG) airports, concentrations of CO2, NO, NO2 and CO were measured. The measurement techniques were Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). The big advantage of these methods is that no operations on the airport are influenced during measurement times. Together with detailed observations of taxiway movements, a comparison of emission indices with real in use emissions is possible.

  1. Operations Under the Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    97,113 Plan (Continuous). TEXAS Big Spring City of Big Spring General Big Spring Airport Aviation 39,600 Airport Master Plan. Dalhart City of Dalhart ...Carolina 1 17,319 South Dakota -0- -o- Tennessee 2 127,857 Texas 19 955,623 Trust Territory of Pacific Islands 1 49,499 Utah 2 128,729 32 APPENDIX A...General Dalhart Municipal Aviation 13,500 Airport Master Plan. El Paso City of El Paso General El Past Airport (East) (New) Aviation 45,000 Airport

  2. Procuring Fuel and Ground Handling Services at Commercial Airports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dodig.osd.mil, or Mr. John Yonaitis at (703) 604-9632 (DSN 664-9632), e-mail jyonaitis@dodig.osd.mil. See Appendix D for the report distribution. The...Airport Hobbs Service, Hobbs, New Mexico 1.25 1.95 2.05 Lincoln Municipal Airport, Lincoln, Nebraska’ 1.21 1.35 1.65 Lubbock International Airport... Lubbock , Texas* 1.27 1.87 2.12 Manassas Regional Airport, Manassas, Virginia 0.95 1.99 2.09 McCarron International Airport, Las Vegas, Nevada 1.32 1.91 2.19

  3. Analysis and Modeling of Ground Operations at Hub Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Stephen (Technical Monitor); Andersson, Kari; Carr, Francis; Feron, Eric; Hall, William D.

    2000-01-01

    Building simple and accurate models of hub airports can considerably help one understand airport dynamics, and may provide quantitative estimates of operational airport improvements. In this paper, three models are proposed to capture the dynamics of busy hub airport operations. Two simple queuing models are introduced to capture the taxi-out and taxi-in processes. An integer programming model aimed at representing airline decision-making attempts to capture the dynamics of the aircraft turnaround process. These models can be applied for predictive purposes. They may also be used to evaluate control strategies for improving overall airport efficiency.

  4. Aircraft noise in the region of the Bucharest-Otopeni Airport. [noise pollution in airport environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costescu, M.; Gherghel, C.; Curtoglu, A.

    1974-01-01

    Aircraft noise, especially in the region adjoining airports, constitutes a problem that will be aggravated in the near future because of increasing aircraft traffic and the appearance of new types of large tonnage aircraft with continuously increasing powers and speeds. Criteria for the evaluation of aircraft noise are reported and some results of studies carried out in the region of Bucharest-Otopeni Airport are detailed.

  5. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MSWLF units, existing MSWLF units, and lateral expansions that are located within 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) of any airport runway end used by turbojet aircraft or within 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) of any... injury to its occupants. Note to § 258.10: A prohibition on locating a new MSWLF near certain...

  6. 32 CFR 644.428 - Airport property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Airport property. 644.428 Section 644.428 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.428...

  7. Concentrations, sources and geochemistry of airborne particulate matter at a major European airport.

    PubMed

    Amato, Fulvio; Moreno, Teresa; Pandolfi, Marco; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Delgado, Ana; Pedrero, Manuel; Cots, Nuria

    2010-04-01

    Monitoring of aerosol particle concentrations (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(1)) and chemical analysis (PM(10)) was undertaken at a major European airport (El Prat, Barcelona) for a whole month during autumn 2007. Concentrations of airborne PM at the airport were close to those at road traffic hotspots in the nearby Barcelona city, with means measuring 48 microg PM(10)/m(3), 21 microg PM(2.5)/m(3) and 17 microg PM(1)/m(3). Meteorological controls on PM at El Prat are identified as cleansing daytime sea breezes with abundant coarse salt particles, alternating with nocturnal land-sourced winds which channel air polluted by industry and traffic (PM(1)/PM(10) ratios > 0.5) SE down the Llobregat Valley. Chemical analyses of the PM(10) samples show that crustal PM is dominant (38% of PM(10)), followed by total carbon (OC + EC, 25%), secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA, 20%), and sea salt (6%). Local construction work for a new airport terminal was an important contributor to PM(10) crustal levels. Source apportionment modelling PCA-MLRA identifies five factors: industrial/traffic, crustal, sea salt, SIA, and K(+) likely derived from agricultural biomass burning. Whereas most of the atmospheric contamination concerning ambient air PM(10) levels at El Prat is not attributable directly to aircraft movement, levels of carbon are unusually high (especially organic carbon), as are metals possibly sourced from tyre detritus/smoke in runway dust (Ba, Zn, Mo) and from brake dust in ambient PM(10) (Cu, Sb), especially when the airport is at its most busy. We identify microflakes of aluminous alloys in ambient PM(10) filters derived from corroded fuselage and wings as an unequivocal and highly distinctive tracer for aircraft movement.

  8. Performance Evaluation of the Approaches and Algorithms using Hamburg Airport Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan; Lee, Hanbong; Jung, Yoon; Okuniek, Nikolai; Gerdes, Ingrid; Schier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have been independently developing and testing their own concepts and tools for airport surface traffic management. Although these concepts and tools have been tested individually for European and US airports, they have never been compared or analyzed side-by-side. This paper presents the collaborative research devoted to the evaluation and analysis of two different surface management concepts. Hamburg Airport was used as a common test bed airport for the study. First, two independent simulations using the same traffic scenario were conducted: one by the DLR team using the Controller Assistance for Departure Optimization (CADEO) and the Taxi Routing for Aircraft58; Creation and Controlling (TRACC) in a real-time simulation environment, and one by the NASA team based on the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) in a fast-time simulation environment. A set of common performance metrics was defined. The simulation results showed that both approaches produced operational benefits in efficiency, such as reducing taxi times, while maintaining runway throughput. Both approaches generated the gate pushback schedule to meet the runway schedule, such that the runway utilization was maximized. The conflict-free taxi guidance by TRACC helped avoid taxi conflicts and reduced taxiing stops, but the taxi benefit needed be assessed together with runway throughput to analyze the overall performance objective.

  9. Performance Evaluation of the Approaches and Algorithms for Hamburg Airport Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan; Okuniek, Nikolai; Gerdes, Ingrid; Schier, Sebastian; Lee, Hanbong; Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have been independently developing and testing their own concepts and tools for airport surface traffic management. Although these concepts and tools have been tested individually for European and US airports, they have never been compared or analyzed side-by-side. This paper presents the collaborative research devoted to the evaluation and analysis of two different surface management concepts. Hamburg Airport was used as a common test bed airport for the study. First, two independent simulations using the same traffic scenario were conducted: one by the DLR team using the Controller Assistance for Departure Optimization (CADEO) and the Taxi Routing for Aircraft: Creation and Controlling (TRACC) in a real-time simulation environment, and one by the NASA team based on the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) in a fast-time simulation environment. A set of common performance metrics was defined. The simulation results showed that both approaches produced operational benefits in efficiency, such as reducing taxi times, while maintaining runway throughput. Both approaches generated the gate pushback schedule to meet the runway schedule, such that the runway utilization was maximized. The conflict-free taxi guidance by TRACC helped avoid taxi conflicts and reduced taxiing stops, but the taxi benefit needed be assessed together with runway throughput to analyze the overall performance objective.

  10. Interference Analysis for an Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of aeronautical communications for airport surface applications has been identified through a NASA research program and an international collaborative future communications study. The result, endorsed by both the United States and European regulatory agencies is called AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System) and is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard. Coordinated efforts to develop appropriate aviation standards for the AeroMACS system are now underway within RTCA (United States) and Eurocae (Europe). AeroMACS will be implemented in a recently allocated frequency band, 5091-5150 MHz. As this band is also occupied by fixed satellite service uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference to the fixed satellite service are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been involved in this analysis, and the first results of modeling and simulation efforts directed at this analysis are the subject of this presentation.

  11. Interference Analysis for an Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kercewski, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of aeronautical communications for airport surface applications has been identified through a NASA research program and an international collaborative future communications study. The result, endorsed by both the United States and European regulatory agencies is called AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System) and is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard. Coordinated efforts to develop appropriate aviation standards for the AeroMACS system are now underway within RTCA (United States) and Eurocae (Europe). AeroMACS will be implemented in a recently allocated frequency band, 5091- 5150 MHz. As this band is also occupied by fixed satellite service uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference to the fixed satellite service are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been involved in this analysis, and the first results of modeling and simulation efforts directed at this analysis are the subject of this paper.12

  12. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out ... rectum and anus. Another name for stool is feces. It is made of what is left after ...

  13. Movement - uncontrollable

    MedlinePlus

    ... peripheral nervous system References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders: diagnosis and assessment. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 21. Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 91 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Airport) Chicago, IL Chicago-O'Hare International Airport) Cleveland, OH (Cleveland-Hopkins International... Buffalo International Airport) Chicago, IL (Chicago-O'Hare International Airport) Cleveland, OH (Cleveland... (General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport) Chicago, IL (Chicago-O'Hare International...

  15. 14 CFR 121.187 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Landing limitations: Alternate airport. 121.187 Section 121.187 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Alternate airport. (a) No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in a dispatch or flight release unless the airplane (at the weight anticipated at the time of arrival at the airport), based on...

  16. 14 CFR 121.187 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: Landing limitations: Alternate airport. 121.187 Section 121.187 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Alternate airport. (a) No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in a dispatch or flight release unless the airplane (at the weight anticipated at the time of arrival at the airport), based on...

  17. Actin-based movement of Listeria monocytogenes: actin assembly results from the local maintenance of uncapped filament barbed ends at the bacterium surface

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The thermodynamic basis for actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes has been investigated using cytoplasmic extracts of Xenopus eggs, initially developed by Theriot et al. (Theriot, J. A., J. Rosenblatt, D. A. Portnoy, P. J. Goldschmidt-Clermont, and T. J. Mitchison. 1994. Cell. 76:505-517) as an in vitro cell-free system. A large proportion (75%) of actin was found unpolymerized in the extracts. The amount of unassembled actin (12 microM) is accounted for by the sequestering functions of T beta 4Xen (20 microM) and profilin (5 microM), the barbed ends being capped. Movement of Listeria was not abolished by depletion of over 99% of the endogenous profilin. The proline-rich sequences of ActA are unlikely to be the target of profilin. All data support the view that actin assembly at the rear of Listeria results from a local shift in steady state due to a factor, keeping filaments uncapped, bound to the surface of the bacterium, while barbed ends are capped in the bulk cytoplasm. Movement is controlled by the energetic difference (i.e., the difference in critical concentration) between the two ends of the filaments, hence a constant ATP supply and the presence of barbed end capped F-actin in the medium are required to buffer free G-actin at a high concentration. The role of membrane components is demonstrated by the facts that: (a) Listeria movement can be reconstituted in the resuspended pellets of high speed-centrifuged extracts that are enriched in membranes; (b) Actin-based motility of endogenous vesicles, exhibiting the same rocketing movement as Listeria, can be observed in the extracts. PMID:7615635

  18. The Movement of Micro Droplet with the Effects of Dielectric Layer and Hydrophobic Surface Treatment with R.F. Atmospheric Plasma in EWOD Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nah-Young; Hong, Sung-Min; Park, Soon-Sup; Hong, Young-Pyo

    2006-04-01

    This study is about how to lower the driving voltage that enables to move the micro droplet by the EWOD (Electro Wetting On Dielectric) mechanism. EWOD is well known that it is used µ -TAS digital micro fluidics system. As voltages are applied to the device which is fabricated with dielectric layer between electrode and micro droplet, the hydrophobic surface is changed into the hydrophilic surface by its electrical property. EWOD induces the movement of micro droplet with reducing contact angle of micro droplet. Because the driving voltage depends on the dielectric constant of dielectric layer, it can be reduced by increase of dielectric constant. Typically, driving voltage of these devices was 30V~100V and Teflon film was coated to provide hydrophobic surface. This high voltage induces many problems. In previous study, we used Ta2O5 as the dielectric layer and driving voltage was 23V that reduced 24 percent compared with SiO2. In this study, we used BZN (Bi2O3-ZnO-Nb2O5) layer which had high dielectric constant. It operated the just on 12V. And micro droplet was moved within 1s on 14V. It reduced the voltage until 35 percents compared with Ta2O5 and 50 percents compared with SiO2. The movement of micro droplet within 1s was achieved with BZN (ferroelectrics) just on 14V. Teflon film which is coated to provide hydrophobic surface is a very difficult to control accurate concentration, and unnecessary processes which uses metal as a protect layer in patterning should be added. So instead of Teflon coating, surface was treated to hydrophobic with R.F. atmospheric plasma.

  19. The application of magnetic measurements for the characterization of atmospheric particulate pollution within the airport environment.

    PubMed

    Jones, S; Richardson, N; Bennett, M; Hoon, S R

    2015-01-01

    The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment may be derived from a range of sources. To date, however, the identification of individual sources of airport derived PM has remained elusive but constitutes a research priority for the aviation industry.The aim of this research was to identify distinctive and characteristic fingerprints of atmospheric PM derived from various sources in an airport environment through the use of environmental magnetic measurements. PM samples from aircraft engine emissions, brake wear and tire wear residues have been obtained from a range of different aircraft and engine types. Samples have been analyzed utilizing a range of magnetic mineral properties indicative of magnetic mineralogy and grain size. Results indicate that the dusts from the three 'aircraft' sources, (i.e. engines, brakes and tires) display distinctive magnetic mineral characteristics which may serve as 'magnetic fingerprints' for these sources. Magnetic measurements of runway dusts collected at different locations on the runway surface also show contrasting magnetic characteristics which, when compared with those of the aircraft-derived samples, suggest that they may relate to different sources characteristic of aircraft emissions at various stages of the take-off/landing cycle. The findings suggest that magnetic measurements could have wider applicability for the differentiation and identification of PM within the airport environment.

  20. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleb, Mageed A.; Salem, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area. PMID:25506074

  1. Effects of racetrack surface and nail placement on movement between heels of the hoof and horseshoes of racehorses.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Vanessa E; Hitchens, Peta L; Stover, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of racetrack surface and shoe characteristics on formation of wear grooves in the horseshoes of racehorses. SAMPLES 1,121 horseshoes from 242 Thoroughbred racehorses collected during routine horseshoeing procedures at 4 racetracks with dirt or synthetic surfaces. PROCEDURES Data for 1,014 horseshoes from 233 racehorses were analyzed. Horseshoes were photographed, and length and width of grooves formed at the heels of the solar surface of horseshoes were measured on the photographs. Effects of racetrack, racetrack surface, and shoe characteristics (eg, shoe size, clips, and nails) on length and width of grooves were assessed by use of a mixed-model anova. RESULTS Length and width of wear grooves differed significantly on the basis of racetrack, nail placement, and limb side (left vs right). Differences in groove dimensions between types of racetrack surface (dirt vs synthetic) were less apparent than differences among racetracks. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Measurements of the length and width of wear grooves in the horseshoes of racehorses may be useful for understanding some aspects of hoof interactions with various racetrack surfaces. Interpretation of differences in wear grooves for various racetrack surfaces will likely require quantitation of the mechanical behavior of the surfaces.

  2. Criteria for Polymer Concrete on Airport Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-27

    basins against corrosion and erosion due to sand and other abrasive materials carried by the flowing waters. Other examples of the Corps of Engineers...airport pavement involves the following 6 design parameters; 1. load specifications (magnitude, geometry , frequency etc.), 2. pavement and subgrade...specifications ( geometry , material properties) and 3. allowable stresses and deflections in the system. It is assumed that all the above parameters except

  3. The annoyance caused by noise around airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    JOSSE

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive study of noise around selected airports in France was performed. By use of questionnaires, the degree of annoyance caused by aircraft noise was determined. Three approaches used in the study were: (1) analytical study on the influence of noise on sleep; (2) sociological study on the satisfaction of occupants of buildings which conform to laws which are supposed to guarantee sufficient comfort; and (3) statistical study of correlations between external noises and psychological and pathological disturbances in residences.

  4. Expanding Regional Airport Usage to Accommodate Increased Air Traffic Demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carl R.

    2009-01-01

    Small regional airports present an underutilized source of capacity in the national air transportation system. This study sought to determine whether a 50 percent increase in national operations could be achieved by limiting demand growth at large hub airports and instead growing traffic levels at the surrounding regional airports. This demand scenario for future air traffic in the United States was generated and used as input to a 24-hour simulation of the national airspace system. Results of the demand generation process and metrics predicting the simulation results are presented, in addition to the actual simulation results. The demand generation process showed that sufficient runway capacity exists at regional airports to offload a significant portion of traffic from hub airports. Predictive metrics forecast a large reduction of delays at most major airports when demand is shifted. The simulation results then show that offloading hub traffic can significantly reduce nationwide delays.

  5. Movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone during the mid-pleistocene transition and the response of atmospheric and surface ocean circulations in the central equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Inah; Lee, Yong Il; Kim, Wonnyon; Yoo, Chan Min; Hyeong, Kiseong

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the causes of a brief, but prominent, cooling episode (1.1-0.8 Ma) that occurred in the equatorial upwelling region of the Atlantic and Pacific during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) using temporal changes in dust provenance, regional hydrology, and surface productivity recorded in a deep-sea sediment core from the central equatorial Pacific. The 87Sr/86Sr and ɛNd values of the inorganic silicate fraction indicate deposition of dust from Australia and Central/South America before 0.8 Ma, but a gradual increase in Asian dust deposition after 0.8 Ma. The change in dust provenance was accompanied by an increased dust flux and a decrease in surface productivity and salinity. These changes can be explained by the southward movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC) and the direct influence of these features on the site after 0.8 Ma. Our results, together with previously published Atlantic data, suggest the northward position of the ITCZ between 1.1 and 0.9 Ma, and the southward position thereafter. The meridional movement of the ITCZ is in phase with the cooling and warming trend in upwelling regions in the equatorial Pacific and Atlantic, which suggests strengthening of southeast trades relative to its northern counterpart between 1.1 and 0.9 Ma as a plausible cause of this brief cooling event. The southward movement of the ITCZ from 0.9 to 0.8 Ma indicates more significant cooling in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) than in the Southern Hemisphere, which is supportive of the interpretation that the NH ice sheet expanded significantly and stabilized after 0.9 Ma.

  6. The impact of NO x, CO and VOC emissions on the air quality of Zurich airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürmann, Gregor; Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Hoffmann, Herbert; Bauerfeind, Martina; Fleuti, Emanuel; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    To study the impact of emissions at an airport on local air quality, a measurement campaign at the Zurich airport was performed from 30 June 2004 to 15 July 2004. Measurements of NO, NO 2, CO and CO 2 were conducted with open path devices to determine real in-use emission indices of aircraft during idling. Additionally, air samples were taken to analyse the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Temporal variations of VOC mixing ratios on the airport were investigated, while other air samples were taken in the plume of an aircraft during engine ignition. CO concentrations in the vicinity of the terminals were found to be highly dependent on aircraft movement, whereas NO concentrations were dominated by emissions from ground support vehicles. The measured emission indices for aircraft showed a strong dependence upon engine type. Our work also revealed differences from emission indices published in the emission data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation. Among the VOC, reactive C 2-C 3 alkenes were found in significant amounts in the exhaust of an engine compared to ambient levels. Also, isoprene, a VOC commonly associated with biogenic emissions, was found in the exhaust, however it was not detected in refuelling emissions. The benzene to toluene ratio was used to discriminate exhaust from refuelling emission. In refuelling emissions, a ratio well below 1 was found, while for exhaust this ratio was usually about 1.7.

  7. Cyclic surface morphology change related to Li ion movement in Li secondary microbattery embedded in Si substrate: Atomic force microscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushida, K.; Kuriyama, K.

    2004-05-01

    Surface morphology and charge/discharge characteristic in a 5×5 μm2 area of an all-solid-state Li secondary battery (Al/Li/SiO2-15 at. %P2O5/LiMn2O4/polycrystalline silicon) embedded in a Si substrate are simultaneously observed by atomic force microscopy with a conductive probe. The battery area of 5×5 μm2 shows charge/discharge behavior corresponding to the movement of ˜2.9×1010 Li+ ions/μm2, reflecting the cyclic movement of Li+ ions. The Al electrode consisting of scale-shaped grains of 0.1-1.5 μm in size rises by ˜30 nm during the first charge operation. The surface of the Al electrode shows a cyclic change from scaly to wrinkled structures with the charge/discharge operations, indicating the drawing of the excess Li in the anode into the glassy electrolyte. These results are promising for the realization of a micrometer-sized battery.

  8. Aircraft hydrocarbon emissions at Oakland International Airport.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Scott C; Wood, Ezra C; Northway, Megan J; Miake-Lye, Richard; Thornhill, Lee; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Anderson, Bruce E; Dowlin, Renee; Dodds, Willard; Knighton, W Berk

    2009-03-15

    To help airports improve emission inventory data, speciated hydrocarbon emission indices have been measured from in-use commercial, airfreight, and general aviation aircraft at Oakland International Airport. The compounds reported here include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethene, propene, and benzene. At idle, the magnitude of hydrocarbon emission indices was variable and reflected differences in engine technology, actual throttle setting, and ambient temperature. Scaling the measured emission indices to the simultaneously measured formaldehyde (HCHO) emission index eliminated most of the observed variability. This result supports a uniform hydrocarbon emissions profile across engine types when the engine is operating near idle, which can greatly simplify how speciated hydrocarbons are handled in emission inventories. The magnitude of the measured hydrocarbon emission index observed in these measurements (ambient temperature range 12-22 degrees C) is a factor of 1.5-2.2 times larger than the certification benchmarks. Using estimates of operational fuel flow rates at idle, this analysis suggests that current emission inventories at the temperatures encountered at this airport underestimate hydrocarbon emissions from the idle phase of operation by 16-45%.

  9. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel. Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, are also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/integraal Luchthaven Competitie Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  10. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel, Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, arc also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/Integral Luchthaven Competitive Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  11. Amsterdam's Airport Library Serves Passengers in 30 Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 2010, Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam started offering the world's first library in an airport. This article describes Airport Library which is no ordinary library. It holds more than 1,200 items, but it lends nothing. It operates 24/7, yet it's only staffed by volunteers for 2 or 3 hours a day. It offers just nine public-access…

  12. Seasonal cues of Arctic grayling movement in a small Arctic stream: the importance of surface water connectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heim, Kurt C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Arp, Christopher D.; Adams, Jeff; Falke, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    In Arctic ecosystems, freshwater fish migrate seasonally between productive shallow water habitats that freeze in winter and deep overwinter refuge in rivers and lakes. How these movements relate to seasonal hydrology is not well understood. We used passive integrated transponder tags and stream wide antennae to track 1035 Arctic grayling in Crea Creek, a seasonally flowing beaded stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska. Migration of juvenile and adult fish into Crea Creek peaked in June immediately after ice break-up in the stream. Fish that entered the stream during periods of high flow and cold stream temperature traveled farther upstream than those entering during periods of lower flow and warmer temperature. We used generalized linear models to relate migration of adult and juvenile fish out of Crea Creek to hydrology. Most adults migrated in late June – early July, and there was best support (Akaike weight = 0.46; w i ) for a model indicating that the rate of migration increased with decreasing discharge. Juvenile migration occurred in two peaks; the early peak consisted of larger juveniles and coincided with adult migration, while the later peak occurred shortly before freeze-up in September and included smaller juveniles. A model that included discharge, minimum stream temperature, year, season, and mean size of potential migrants was most strongly supported (w i  = 0.86). Juvenile migration rate increased sharply as daily minimum stream temperature decreased, suggesting fish respond to impending freeze-up. We found fish movements to be intimately tied to the strong seasonality of discharge and temperature, and demonstrate the importance of small stream connectivity for migratory Arctic grayling during the entire open-water period. The ongoing and anticipated effects of climate change and petroleum development on Arctic hydrology (e.g. reduced stream connectivity, earlier peak flows, increased evapotranspiration) have important implications

  13. Physical environment. [environmental impact statement required for general aviation airport construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Environmental legislation affecting airports and the more common environmental effects resulting from airport construction are discussed with special emphasis on general aviation airports. The discussion is focused on the regulation of noise, pollution, and water quality.

  14. 76 FR 61135 - Environmental Impact Statement: Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) has been prepared for Theodore Francis Green Airport, in Warwick, Rhode... Theodore Francis Green Airport, in Warwick, Rhode Island. The ROD documents the final Agency...

  15. 78 FR 8683 - Environmental Impact Statement: Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Re-evaluation has been prepared for Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick... Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick, Rhode Island. The ROD documents the final Agency...

  16. 41 CFR 102-75.400 - Is industrial property located on an airport also considered to be “airport property”?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is industrial property located on an airport also considered to be âairport propertyâ? 102-75.400 Section 102-75.400 Public... Public Airports § 102-75.400 Is industrial property located on an airport also considered to be...

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.435 - Does the Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970, as amended (Airport Act of 1970), apply to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does the Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970, as amended (Airport Act of 1970), apply to the transfer of airports to... PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Public Airports § 102-75.435 Does the...

  18. 41 CFR 102-75.400 - Is industrial property located on an airport also considered to be “airport property”?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Is industrial property located on an airport also considered to be âairport propertyâ? 102-75.400 Section 102-75.400 Public... Public Airports § 102-75.400 Is industrial property located on an airport also considered to be...

  19. 41 CFR 102-75.435 - Does the Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970, as amended (Airport Act of 1970), apply to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Does the Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970, as amended (Airport Act of 1970), apply to the transfer of airports to... PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Public Airports § 102-75.435 Does the...

  20. The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, Andreas; Koch, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and threats which arise when turning origin/destination airports into hubs. The analysis focuses on market development trends, competitive structures, especially in the light of airline network strategies and the growing rivalry between airports, and finally the potential financial impacts for the airport, including both investment efforts and the financial results from hub operations. We argue that in most cases a decision against converting a traditional origin/destination airport into a major transfer point is preferable to the transformation into a hub.

  1. Christchurch International Airport Personnel and Local Media Visit SOFIA

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Eric Becklin, SOFIA chief science advisor, briefs airport personnel and media on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy program and the reasons for infrared astronomy missions in ...

  2. Integrated Analysis of Airport Capacity and Environmental Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Shahab; Long, Dou; Hart, George; Eckhause, Jeremy; Hemm, Robert; Busick, Andrew; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Murphy, Charles; Poage, James

    2010-01-01

    LMI conducted an integrated analysis of airport capacity and environmental constraints. identifying and ranking the key factors limiting achievement of NextGen capacity goals. The primary metric used was projected throughput, which was estimated for the years 2015 and 2025 based on the unconstrained demand forecast from the Federal Aviation Administration, and planned improvements including those proposed in the NextGen plan. A set of 310 critical airports was identified.. collectively accounting for more than 99 percent of domestic air traffic volume; a one-off analytical approach was used to isolate the constraint being assessed. The study considered three capacity constraints (runway.. taxiway, and gate) and three environmental constraints (fuel, NO(x) emissions, and noise). For the ten busiest airports, runway and noise are the primary and secondary constraints in both 2015 and 2025. For the OEP 35 airports and overall for the remaining airports, the most binding constraint is noise. Six of the 10 busiest airports, will face runway constraints in 2025, and 95 will face gate constraints. Nearly every airport will be subject to constraints due to emissions and NOx. Runway and taxi constraints are more concentrated in the large airports: environmental constraints are present at almost every airport regardless of size.

  3. Airport Ground Access Planning Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    herein solely because they are con- sidered essential to the object of this report. 4! I Technical Report Documentation Pago 1 0. o . n m n c c s i . 3...INFORMATION SERVICE. SPRINGFIELD. VIRGINIA 22161 19. Security Clossif. (of this report) 20. Security Cleesil. (of this pagoe ) 21. Ne. of Peg 22. Pri te...passenger totals, and the sheer number of employees contributes heavily to surface con- gestion in terminal areas. For example, some 6,000 vehicles can be

  4. [Stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  5. Chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamitsu; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Sato, Yoshikatsu

    2003-01-01

    The study of chloroplast movement made a quantum leap at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Research based on reverse-genetic approaches using targeted mutants has brought new concepts to this field. One of the most exciting findings has been the discovery of photoreceptors for both accumulation and avoidance responses in Arabidopsis and in the fern Adiantum. Evidence for the adaptive advantage of chloroplast avoidance movements in plant survival has also been found. Additional discoveries include mechano-stress-induced chloroplast movement in ferns and mosses, and microtubule-mediated chloroplast movement in the moss Physcomitrella. The possible ecological significance of chloroplast movement is discussed in the final part of this review.

  6. Hydrodynamic effects of the tip movement on surface nanobubbles: a combined tapping mode, lift mode and force volume mode AFM study.

    PubMed

    Walczyk, Wiktoria; Hain, Nicole; Schönherr, Holger

    2014-08-28

    We report on an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) study of AFM tip-nanobubble interactions in experiments conducted on argon surface nanobubbles on HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) in water in tapping mode, lift mode and Force Volume (FV) mode AFM. By subsequent data acquisition on the same nanobubbles in these three different AFM modes, we could directly compare the effect of different tip-sample interactions. The tip-bubble interaction strength was found to depend on the vertical and horizontal position of the tip on the bubble with respect to the bubble center. The interaction forces measured experimentally were in good agreement with the forces calculated using the dynamic interaction model. The strength of the hydrodynamic effect was also found to depend on the direction of the tip movement. It was more pronounced in the FV mode, in which the tip approaches the bubble from the top, than in the lift mode, in which the tip approaches the bubble from the side. This result suggests that the direction of tip movement influences the bubble deformation. The effect should be taken into account when nanobubbles are analysed by AFM in various scanning modes.

  7. 76 FR 70532 - Release of Airport Property: Melbourne International Airport, Melbourne, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ..., along the west side of Neiman Avenue and south of Laurie Street in Brevard County, Florida. The parcel... acres at the Melbourne International Airport, Melbourne, Florida from the conditions, reservations, and... is located west of Apollo Boulevard and North of General Aviation Drive in Brevard County,...

  8. 75 FR 57106 - Public Notice for Sale of Airport Property at Houlton International Airport, Houlton, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... was used in accordance with FAA's Policy and Procedures Concerning the Use of Airport Revenue... three-quarter inch (\\3/4\\ ) iron pipe marking the southwest corner of Lot Seventeen (17) as shown on... marking the boundary between Lot Seventeen (17) and Sixteen (16) and being on the easterly right of...

  9. Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery of Airports and Surrounding Areas: Denver Stapleton International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, Robert G.; Gineris, Denise J.

    1990-01-01

    This is the third in a series of three reports which address the statistical description of ground clutter at an airport and in the surrounding area. These data are being utilized in a program to detect microbursts. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were collected at the Denver Stapleton Airport using a set of parameters which closely match those which are anticipated to be utilized by an aircraft on approach to an airport. These data and the results of the clutter study are described. Scenes of 13 x 10 km were imaged at 9.38 GHz and HH-, VV-, and HV-polarizations, and contain airport grounds and facilities (up to 14 percent), cultural areas (more than 50 percent), and rural areas (up to 6 percent). Incidence angles range from 40 to 84 deg. At the largest depression angles the distributed targets, such as forest, fields, water, and residential, rarely had mean scattering coefficients greater than -10 dB. From 30 to 80 percent of an image had scattering coefficients less than -20 dB. About 1 to 10 percent of the scattering coefficients exceeded 0 dB, and from 0 to 1 percent above 10 dB. In examining the average backscatter coefficients at large angles, the clutter types cluster according to the following groups: (1) terminals (-3 dB), (2) city and industrial (-7 dB), (3) warehouse (-10 dB), (4) urban and residential (-14 dB), and (5) grass (-24 dB).

  10. 77 FR 35104 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property at Merrill Field Airport, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... proposal to authorize the release of approximately 3.37 acres of Merrill Field Airport (MRI) property... MRI and other Municipal lands along with a proposal to provide for a ``Functional Replacement'' of MRI... additional right of way to construct improvements to the Glenn Highway adjacent to MRI in conjunction...

  11. [Airports malaria: findings of a survey in Paris airports (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Leger, N; Pesson, B; Bruaire, M; Cassaigne, R; Ferrand, G; van Damme, R; Timbal, J

    1981-01-01

    From 1976 to 1978, thirteen cases of malaria have been reported from France. Ten of them occurred in the vicinity of the airport Roissy-Charles de Gaulle. The entomological investigation which is described there have been performed to evaluate risk of local transmission and to plan prophylactic measures.

  12. Background noise analysis in urban airport surroundings of Brazilian cities, Congonhas Airport, São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Scatolini, Fabio; Alves, Cláudio Jorge Pinto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform a quantitative analysis of the background noise at Congonhas Airport surroundings based on large sampling and measurements with no interruption. METHODS Measuring sites were chosen from 62 and 72 DNL (day-night-level) noise contours, in urban sites compatible with residential use. Fifteen sites were monitored for at least 168 hours without interruption or seven consecutive days. Data compilation was based on cross-reference between noise measurements and air traffic control records, and results were validated by airport meteorological reports. Preliminary diagnoses were established using the standard NBR-13368. Background noise values were calculated based on the Sound Exposure Level (SEL). Statistic parameters were calculated in one-hour intervals. RESULTS Only four of the fifteen sites assessed presented aircraft operations as a clear cause for the noise annoyance. Even so, it is possible to detect background noise levels above regulation limits during periods of low airport activity or when it closes at night. CONCLUSIONS All the sites monitored showed background noise levels above regulation limits between 7:00 and 21:00. In the intervals between 6:00-6:59 and 21:00-22:59 the noise data, when analyzed with the current airport operational characteristics, still allow the development of additional mitigating measures. PMID:28099658

  13. 19 CFR 122.14 - Landing rights airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... land. Permission to land at a landing rights airport may be given as follows: (1) Scheduled flight. The scheduled aircraft of a scheduled airline may be allowed to land at a landing rights airport. Permission is... made. (i) Additional flights, charters or changes in schedule—Scheduled aircraft. If a new...

  14. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... systems operated by public airport operators, which provide designated public transportation and connect... this part for fixed route or demand responsive systems, as applicable, operated by public entities. Public airports which operate fixed route transportation systems are subject to the requirements of...

  15. Ethnic and Cultural Focus in Airport Driver Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, John; Rankin, William

    2009-01-01

    A series of linked relationships is advanced which together suggest changes should be made to training programs for airside drivers at major airports in the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom. Overall, the links suggest a relationship between the number of airside incidents such as collisions at airports, the ethnic diversity evident…

  16. 14 CFR 152.111 - Application requirements: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to comply with applicable air and water quality standards. (6) A statement whether any building... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152... Transportation (49 CFR 25.57 and 25.59), whether or not reimbursement is being requested for the costs...

  17. 78 FR 38069 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports AGENCY: U.S... airports. This document announces the expansion of the program to include eight additional designated... the Federal Register and post the information on the Web site http://www.globalentry.gov ....

  18. 14 CFR 135.219 - IFR: Destination airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IFR: Destination airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.219 IFR: Destination airport weather... latest weather reports or forecasts, or any combination of them, indicate that weather conditions at...

  19. 14 CFR 135.219 - IFR: Destination airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IFR: Destination airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.219 IFR: Destination airport weather... latest weather reports or forecasts, or any combination of them, indicate that weather conditions at...

  20. 14 CFR 135.219 - IFR: Destination airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IFR: Destination airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.219 IFR: Destination airport weather... latest weather reports or forecasts, or any combination of them, indicate that weather conditions at...

  1. 14 CFR 135.219 - IFR: Destination airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IFR: Destination airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.219 IFR: Destination airport weather... latest weather reports or forecasts, or any combination of them, indicate that weather conditions at...

  2. 14 CFR 135.219 - IFR: Destination airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IFR: Destination airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.219 IFR: Destination airport weather... latest weather reports or forecasts, or any combination of them, indicate that weather conditions at...

  3. 78 FR 44188 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at Sioux..., Kansas City, MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may...

  4. 76 FR 66352 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Halifax... Park, GA 30337. The request to release property may be reviewed, by appointment, in person at this...

  5. 78 FR 48926 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ] ACTION: Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the... Room 364, Kansas City, MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release...

  6. 77 FR 58438 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Meade..., Kansas City, MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may...

  7. 78 FR 48926 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Ottumwa..., MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may be reviewed,...

  8. 78 FR 49790 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at the Ottumwa..., MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may be reviewed,...

  9. 78 FR 16911 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at the Ankeny..., Kansas City, MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may...

  10. 78 FR 9770 - Notice of Request to Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request to Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property... request to release property may be reviewed, by appointment, in person at this same...

  11. 76 FR 78967 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent To Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Liberal... Room 364, Kansas City, MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release...

  12. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  13. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  14. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  15. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  16. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  17. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport tenant security programs. 1542.113 Section 1542.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  18. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport tenant security programs. 1542.113 Section 1542.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  19. 78 FR 53184 - Land Release for Penn Yan Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Penn Yan Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... consists of 0.069 +/- acres of land and it is currently vacant. The requested release is for the purpose of... boat storage and maintenance facility to be constructed by Land and Sea Properties on airports...

  20. 17 CFR 256.310 - Aircraft and airport equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft and airport equipment... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.310 Aircraft and airport equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned aircraft...

  1. 17 CFR 256.310 - Aircraft and airport equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and airport equipment... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.310 Aircraft and airport equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned aircraft...

  2. 14 CFR 121.624 - ETOPS Alternate Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.624 ETOPS Alternate Airports. (a) No person may dispatch or release an airplane for an ETOPS flight unless enough ETOPS Alternate Airports are listed in the dispatch or flight release such that the airplane...

  3. 14 CFR 121.624 - ETOPS Alternate Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.624 ETOPS Alternate Airports. (a) No person may dispatch or release an airplane for an ETOPS flight unless enough ETOPS Alternate Airports are listed in the dispatch or flight release such that the airplane...

  4. 14 CFR 121.624 - ETOPS Alternate Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.624 ETOPS Alternate Airports. (a) No person may dispatch or release an airplane for an ETOPS flight unless enough ETOPS Alternate Airports are listed in the dispatch or flight release such that the airplane...

  5. Nature of the annoyance and noise annoyance relation around airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francois, J.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of 5,000 individuals living around Orly Airport is described. The psobic index was used as the noise index which indicated the intensity of the annoyance experienced by people living around the airport. The results indicate that sensitivity to noise is related to certain personal factors.

  6. Inguinal Hernia and Airport Scanners: An Emerging Indication for Repair?

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O.; Maharaj, Ravi; Dan, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The use of advanced imaging technology at international airports is increasing in popularity as a corollary to heightened security concerns across the globe. Operators of airport scanners should be educated about common medical disorders such as inguinal herniae in order to avoid unnecessary harassment of travelers since they will encounter these with increasing frequency. PMID:24368923

  7. Art at the Airport: An Exploration of New Art Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Many airports have transformed empty waiting spaces into mini malls, children's play areas, and displays of beautiful art, making a long wait a bit more pleasant. For the modern airport, showcasing art has become an important component, with perks including a built-in global audience, as well as the vast spaces of modern architecture. For the art…

  8. Electronic System for Preventing Airport Runway Incursions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system of portable illuminated signs, electronic monitoring equipment, and radio-communication equipment for preventing (or taking corrective action in response to) improper entry of aircraft, pedestrians, or ground vehicles onto active airport runways is described. The main overall functions of the proposed system would be to automatically monitor aircraft ground traffic on or approaching runways and to generate visible and/or audible warnings to affected pilots, ground-vehicle drivers, and control-tower personnel when runway incursions take place.

  9. Airport expansion requires major wetlands mitigation project

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the steps taken to mitigate the impact to existing wetlands by creating new wetlands in an airport expansion project. The project addressed maintaining suitable amounts of wetlands to accommodate peak waterfowl populations, moving of high voltage power transmission towers, and maintaining agricultural and hunting interests. This project involved recreating of open water areas, marsh habitat, mud flat habitat, saline meadow habitat, maintaining two existing wetlands in the area of the new wetlands without disturbing them, and improving upland habitat surrounding the new wetlands.

  10. Airport Simulations Using Distributed Computational Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermott, William J.; Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Tran, Peter; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Virtual National Airspace Simulation (VNAS) will improve the safety of Air Transportation. In 2001, using simulation and information management software running over a distributed network of super-computers, researchers at NASA Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers developed a working prototype of a virtual airspace. This VNAS prototype modeled daily operations of the Atlanta airport by integrating measured operational data and simulation data on up to 2,000 flights a day. The concepts and architecture developed by NASA for this prototype are integral to the National Airspace Simulation to support the development of strategies improving aviation safety, identifying precursors to component failure.

  11. Future of Colombo Airport (CMB) as an Airline Hub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayalath, J. T. D.; Bandara, J. M. S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Aviation throughout the world has seen profound changes within the last two decades. Today more and more airports are looking for hub operations. However, as the success of hub operation would depend on a number of parameters such as geographic location, route network, facilities available, passengers' acceptance etc., not all airports would be able to operate as successful hubs. This paper investigates the possibility for (he Bandaranayake international airport, Colombo, Sri Lanka (CMB) to emerge as a hub airport in the South Asian region. It is found that CMB is situated in a geographically advantageous position in the region with respect to the airline route network. Comparison of travel distances between CMB and prominent O-D pairs and evaluation of airline schedules at relevant established hub airports indicates that CMB could operate as a directional hub serving the South Asian market if the number of destinations with daily flights could be increased.

  12. Advanced InSAR and GPS measurements for the detection of surface movements along the Alto Tiberina (Italy) normal fault system: data modeling and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderlini, L.; Polcari, M.; Bignami, C.; Pepe, A.; Solaro, G.; Serpelloni, E.; Moro, M.; Albano, M.; Chiaraluce, L.; Stramondo, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) is a low-angle (east-dipping at 15°), 70 km long normal fault (LANF) located in the Umbria-Marche Apennines (central Italy), an area characterized by a SW-NE oriented extension occurring at rates of ~2 mm/yr. Active extension is precisely measured by a dense distribution of GPS stations belonging to several networks, thanks also to additional sites recently installed in the framework of the INGV national RING network and of the ATF observatory. Advanced Interferometry SAR (A-InSAR) techniques play today a key role in Earth Sciences thanks to their capability to detect and monitor slow surface movements over wide areas. A-InSAR techniques, along with in-situ ground measurements, can provide suitable information on the causes of interseismic (seismic, creep) movements. Large datasets of SAR images of European (ERS 1-2 and ENVISAT) and Italian (COSMO-SKyMed) satellites have been used to retrieve surface velocity maps and relevant time series from 1992 to 2014, along both ascending and descending orbits. A network of artificial Corner Reflectors has also been deployed in the proximity of some GPS sites in order to calibrate the processing results of the COSMO-SkyMed SAR data-set and to derive velocity maps. We use an elastic Block Modeling (BM) approach in order to model GPS data by considering the major fault systems as bounds of rotating blocks, while estimating geodetic fault slip-rates.,Thanks to the latest imaging of its deep structure obtained from seismic profiles, the ATF is represented as a complex rough surface with the goal of evaluating the distribution of interseismic fault coupling. The preliminary results obtained show firstly that the observed extension is partially accommodated by interseismic deformation on the ATF, highlighting the important role of this LANF inside an active tectonic contest. Secondarily, using the ATF surface "topography", we found for the resolved areas an interesting correlation between

  13. 77 FR 54650 - Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the El Paso International Airport, El...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the El Paso International Airport, El Paso, TX AGENCY...: The FAA proposes to rule and invite public comment on the release of land at the El Paso International... delivered to the FAA at the following: Ms. Monica Lombra[ntilde]a, Director of Aviation, El...

  14. Movement - uncoordinated

    MedlinePlus

    Lack of coordination; Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... are passed through families (such as congenital cerebellar ataxia, Friedreich ataxia , ataxia - telangiectasia , or Wilson disease ) Multiple ...

  15. Time-dependent movement and distribution of chlorpyrifos and its metabolism in bamboo forest under soil surface mulching.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihua; Shen, Danyu; Zhong, Donglian; Mo, Runhong; Ni, Zhanglin; Tang, Fubin

    2014-07-16

    The dissipation and distribution of chlorpyrifos (CHP) granule formulation in bamboo forest under soil surface mulching conditions (CP) and noncovered cultivation conditions (NCP) from soil to product were investigated. In the CP treatment, the CHP granule with slow-release effect leached from the topsoil to the subsoil. Conversely, the CHP was fixed in the topsoil (0-5 cm layer) in the NCP treatment, and no obvious leaching effect could be observed. The residue of CHP could be found in bamboo shoots from CP treatment, mainly at the bottom part (5 cm length). CHP could be degraded into 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in the soil and bamboo shoots. In addition, the straw used as the mulching material with higher OM and pH had some regulatory role in changing the pH and OM characteristics of the soil. Thus the straw could indirectly affect the adsorption and degradation behavior of CHP and TCP in the soil.

  16. Ultrafast source-to-surface movement of melt at island arcs from 226Ra-230Th systematics.

    PubMed

    Turner, S; Evans, P; Hawkesworth, C

    2001-05-18

    Island arc lavas have radium-226 excesses that extend to higher values than those observed in mid-ocean ridge or ocean island basalts. The initial ratio of radium-226 to thorium-230 is largest in the most primitive lavas, which also have the highest barium/thorium ratios, and decreases with increasing magmatic differentiation. Therefore, the radium-226 excesses appear to have been introduced into the base of the mantle melting column by fluids released from the subducting plate. Preservation of this signal requires transport to the surface arguably in only a few hundreds of years and directly constrains the average melt velocity to the order of 1000 meters per year. Thus, melt segregation and channel formation can occur rapidly in the mantle.

  17. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  18. Supersonics Project - Airport Noise Tech Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2010-01-01

    The Airport Noise Tech Challenge research effort under the Supersonics Project is reviewed. While the goal of "Improved supersonic jet noise models validated on innovative nozzle concepts" remains the same, the success of the research effort has caused the thrust of the research to be modified going forward in time. The main activities from FY06-10 focused on development and validation of jet noise prediction codes. This required innovative diagnostic techniques to be developed and deployed, extensive jet noise and flow databases to be created, and computational tools to be developed and validated. Furthermore, in FY09-10 systems studies commissioned by the Supersonics Project showed that viable supersonic aircraft were within reach using variable cycle engine architectures if exhaust nozzle technology could provide 3-5dB of suppression. The Project then began to focus on integrating the technologies being developed in its Tech Challenge areas to bring about successful system designs. Consequently, the Airport Noise Tech Challenge area has shifted efforts from developing jet noise prediction codes to using them to develop low-noise nozzle concepts for integration into supersonic aircraft. The new plan of research is briefly presented by technology and timelines.

  19. Prosthetic metal implants and airport metal detectors

    PubMed Central

    Dancey, A; Titley, OG

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Metal detectors have been present in airports and points of departure for some time. With the introduction of heightened security measures in response to fears of an increased threat of terrorism, they may become more prevalent in other public locations. The aim of this study was to ascertain which prosthetic devices activated metal detector devices used for security purposes. Methods A range of prosthetic devices used commonly in orthopaedic and plastic surgery procedures were passed through an arch metal detector at Birmingham Airport in the UK. Additionally, each item was passed under a wand detector. Items tested included expandable breast prostheses, plates used in wrist and hand surgery, screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ ligation clips and staples. Results No prostheses were detected by the arch detector. The expandable implants and wrist plates were the only devices detected by passing the wand directly over them. No device was detected by the wand when it was under cover of the axillary soft tissue. Screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ clips and staples were not detected under any of the study conditions. Conclusions Although unlikely to trigger a detector, it is possible that an expandable breast prosthesis or larger plate may do so. It is therefore best to warn patients of this so they can anticipate detection and further examination. PMID:23827294

  20. Privacy algorithm for airport passenger screening portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Paul E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; McKinnon, A. D.; Summet, Jay W.

    2000-03-01

    A novel personnel surveillance system has been developed for airport security to detect and identify threatening objects, which are concealed ont he human body. The main advantage of this system over conventional metal detectors is that non- metallic objects such as plastic explosives and plastic guns are detectable. This system is based on millimeter-wave array technology and a holographic imaging algorithm to provide surveillance images of objects hidden beneath clothing in near real-time. The privacy algorithm is based on image processing filters and artificial neural networks. The algorithm examines the millimeter-wave surveillance images to locate and segment the threats and place them on either a silhouette of the person or a wire-frame humanoid representation. In this way, all human features are removed from the final image and personal privacy is maintained. This system is ideally suited for mass transportation centers such as airport checkpoints that require high throughput rates. The system is currently under going evaluation. This paper reports on results from an earlier initial test of portions of the privacy algorithm that detect hidden plastic objects.

  1. 25 CFR 170.132 - When can a tribe use IRR Program funds for airport facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can a tribe use IRR Program funds for airport..., Ferry and Airport Facilities § 170.132 When can a tribe use IRR Program funds for airport facilities? (a) A tribe can use IRR Program funds for construction of airport and heliport access roads, if...

  2. 25 CFR 170.132 - When can a tribe use IRR Program funds for airport facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When can a tribe use IRR Program funds for airport..., Ferry and Airport Facilities § 170.132 When can a tribe use IRR Program funds for airport facilities? (a) A tribe can use IRR Program funds for construction of airport and heliport access roads, if...

  3. 78 FR 15804 - Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance: Rolla National Airport (VIH), Rolla, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance: Rolla National Airport (VIH... airport property at the Rolla National Airport (VIH) from aeronautical use to non-aeronautical for revenue... Airport (VIH) is proposing the release of one parcel, of 10 acres, more or less from aeronautical to...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 91 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., GA (The William B. Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport) Baltimore, MD (Baltimore Washington... prohibited. The Special VFR weather minimums of § 91.157 do not apply to the following airports: Atlanta, GA... following airports. Atlanta, GA (The William B. Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport) Boston,...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 91 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... following list. Atlanta, GA (The William B. Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport) Baltimore, MD... prohibited. The Special VFR weather minimums of § 91.157 do not apply to the following airports: Atlanta, GA... following airports. Atlanta, GA (The William B. Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport) Boston,...

  6. 14 CFR 121.621 - Alternate airport for destination: Flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate airport for destination: Flag... § 121.621 Alternate airport for destination: Flag operations. (a) No person may dispatch an airplane under IFR or over-the-top unless he lists at least one alternate airport for each destination airport...

  7. 14 CFR 121.621 - Alternate airport for destination: Flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate airport for destination: Flag... § 121.621 Alternate airport for destination: Flag operations. (a) No person may dispatch an airplane under IFR or over-the-top unless he lists at least one alternate airport for each destination airport...

  8. 48 CFR 3036.570 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... work at operating airports. 3036.570 Section 3036.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... work at operating airports. Where any acquisition will require work at an operating airport, insert the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.236-70, Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports, in...

  9. 14 CFR 135.395 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Landing limitations: Alternate airports. 135.395 Section 135.395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airports. No person may select an airport as an alternate airport for a large nontransport category airplane unless that airplane (at the weight...

  10. 14 CFR 121.205 - Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airport. 121.205 Section 121.205 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... airport. No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in a dispatch or flight release for...

  11. 48 CFR 3036.570 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... work at operating airports. 3036.570 Section 3036.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... work at operating airports. Where any acquisition will require work at an operating airport, insert the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.236-70, Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports, in...

  12. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of land uses in airport..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  13. 14 CFR 152.105 - Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.105 Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project...

  14. 14 CFR 105.23 - Parachute operations over or onto airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parachute operations over or onto airports... Parachute operations over or onto airports. No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in... any airport unless— (a) For airports with an operating control tower: (1) Prior approval has...

  15. 76 FR 28888 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Gruver Cluck Ranch Airport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Gruver Cluck Ranch Airport... removes Class E airspace at Gruver, Cluck Ranch Airport, TX. The airport has been abandoned, thereby eliminating the need for controlled airspace in the Gruver, Cluck Ranch Airport, TX, area. The FAA is...

  16. 14 CFR 105.23 - Parachute operations over or onto airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parachute operations over or onto airports... Parachute operations over or onto airports. No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in... any airport unless— (a) For airports with an operating control tower: (1) Prior approval has...

  17. 14 CFR 121.106 - ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire fighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire... and Flag Operations § 121.106 ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire fighting service. (a) Except as... available at each airport listed as an ETOPS Alternate Airport in a dispatch or flight release. (1)...

  18. 14 CFR 121.205 - Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airport. 121.205 Section 121.205 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... airport. No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in a dispatch or flight release for...

  19. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... airports. 71.45 Section 71.45 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport... or aircraft at any seaport or airport intended for human consumption thereon shall be obtained...

  20. 7 CFR 301.48-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of, regulated airports. 301.48-2 Section 301.48-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... terminate designation of, regulated airports. (a) An inspector may declare any airport within a quarantined State to be a regulated airport when he or she determines that adult populations of Japanese...

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.390 - What does the term “surplus airport property” mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... âsurplus airport propertyâ mean? 102-75.390 Section 102-75.390 Public Contracts and Property Management...-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Public Airports § 102-75.390 What does the term “surplus airport property” mean? For the purposes of this part, surplus airport...

  2. 41 CFR 102-37.520 - What is the authority for public airport donations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49...

  3. An Evaluation of the Importance of Military Associations at Civil Airports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Patti J.

    2010-01-01

    Today there are over 1,500 public-use airports in the United States. Each of these airports provides a service to the surrounding community, whether in the form of a general aviation or commercial air service facility. An airport is dependent on many facets of the local government infrastructure for support services. Also, the airports have ties…

  4. Achieving Recognition as a World Class Airport through Education and Training. Sorenson Best Paper Award Recipient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization has standards for airport certification that require education and training of personnel. The American Association of Airport Executives offers accreditation and certification in airport operations and safety that can meet the needs of world-class airports. (Contains 18 references.) (SK)

  5. 41 CFR 102-37.520 - What is the authority for public airport donations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49...

  6. 77 FR 55896 - Notice of Release Effecting Federal Grant Assurance Obligations Due to Airport Layout Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Due to Airport Layout Plan Revision at Mather Airport, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation..., Federal Register Comment, 1000 Marina Boulevard, Suite 220, Brisbane, CA 94005-1835. In addition, one copy... Planning and Environment, Sacramento County Airport System, 6900 Airport Boulevard, Sacramento, CA...

  7. 77 FR 59703 - Environmental Impact Statement; Taos Regional Airport, Taos, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Taos Regional Airport, Taos, NM AGENCY...) for the ``Taos Regional Airport, Airport Layout Plan Improvements'' Environmental Impact Statement... requested the FAA to approve revisions to its Airport Layout Plan (ALP) to reflect and allow construction...

  8. 14 CFR 105.23 - Parachute operations over or onto airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... any airport unless— (a) For airports with an operating control tower: (1) Prior approval has been...) Approval has been obtained from the control tower to conduct parachute operations over or onto that airport... parachute operation and the control tower of the airport over or onto which the parachute operation is...

  9. 14 CFR 105.23 - Parachute operations over or onto airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... any airport unless— (a) For airports with an operating control tower: (1) Prior approval has been...) Approval has been obtained from the control tower to conduct parachute operations over or onto that airport... parachute operation and the control tower of the airport over or onto which the parachute operation is...

  10. An Analysis of Federal Airport and Air Carrier Employee Access Control, Screening. and Training Regulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    traveling public, air carriers, and persons employed by or conducting business at public airports. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Airport Security , Federal...26 4. Sterile Area 28 5. Exclusive Area 28 E. SECURITY ALERT LEVELS 29 F. AIRPORT SECURITY TOOLS 30 1. Electronic Detection System 31 a... Security Coordinator ASP Airport Security Program BIS Biometrie Identification System CCTV Closed Circuit Television CJIS Criminal Justice Information

  11. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 91 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regional Airport) Denver, CO (Denver International Airport) Detroit, MI (Metropolitan Wayne County Airport..., TX (Love Field) Denver, CO (Denver International Airport) Detroit, MI (Metropolitan Wayne County..., the effective date was delayed to May 15, 1994. By Amdt. 91-241, 59 FR 24916, May 13, 1994,...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 91 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regional Airport) Denver, CO (Denver International Airport) Detroit, MI (Metropolitan Wayne County Airport..., TX (Love Field) Denver, CO (Denver International Airport) Detroit, MI (Metropolitan Wayne County..., the effective date was delayed to May 15, 1994. By Amdt. 91-241, 59 FR 24916, May 13, 1994,...

  13. Kinetics of pulse photothermal surface deformation as a method of studying the phase interface movement in a first-order phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vintzentz, S. V.; Kiselev, V. F.; Levshin, N. L.; Sandomirskii, V. B.

    1991-01-01

    The photothermal surface deformation (PTSD) method is used for characterization of the first-order phase transition (PT) for the first time. The advantages of the method are demonstrated experimentally for the well known metal-to-semiconductor PT in VO 2. It is found that near the PT temperature the PTSD pulse in a VO 2 film has a sign opposite to that of the thermoelastic response. The conclusion is drawn that this phenomenon is determined primarily by the contribution of the decrease in the specific volume (Δ V/ V) of the substance involved in the semiconductor-to-metal PT. The sign of Δ V/ V for a submicron polycrystalline VO 2 film is determined. Besides, analysis shows that in the PTSD kinetics measured as a whole we can "separate" a law for the metal-semicon- ductor interface movement (i.e. the interface moves towards the interior of the film when the latter is heated and back towards the surface when it is cooling down). The relative density change due to the PT is estimated based on this law.

  14. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  15. Origin and prevention of airport malaria in France.

    PubMed

    Guillet, P; Germain, M C; Giacomini, T; Chandre, F; Akogbeto, M; Faye, O; Kone, A; Manga, L; Mouchet, J

    1998-09-01

    Since 1969, 63 cases of airport malaria have been reported in Western Europe, 24 of which occurred in France. Most were due to Plasmodium falciparum. In 1994, 7 cases occurred in and around Roissy Charles de Gaulle airport (CDG), showing 4 types of contamination: among employees working on airstrips or opening containers, among residents living near the airport, among people living at some distance from the airport after a secondary transport of vectors, and by vectors transported in luggage. In-flight or stop-over infection is not considered as airport malaria. The infective anophelines originated from airports where malaria transmission occurs, mostly in subsaharan Africa. A tentative list is given taking into account aerial traffic with France. Surveys in the airports of Dakar (Senegal), Cotonou (Benin), Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Yaoundé (Cameroun) found potential vectors in all of these from July to September. After 1994, the Contrôle Sanitaire aux Frontières (CSF) in charge at CDG concentrated its efforts on the flights at risk, as well as information and sensitization of airline companies, which resulted in 73% and 87% of the flights at risk being properly disinsected in 1995 and 1996. Despite pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. in West Africa, the efficacy of aircraft spraying with permethrin aerosols is still acceptable. However, surveillance of resistance should be improved and search for nonpyrethroid insecticides suitable for aircraft strongly encouraged.

  16. Coarse-to-fine wavelet-based airport detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Wang, Shuigen; Pang, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Baojun

    2015-10-01

    Airport detection on optical remote sensing images has attracted great interest in the applications of military optics scout and traffic control. However, most of the popular techniques for airport detection from optical remote sensing images have three weaknesses: 1) Due to the characteristics of optical images, the detection results are often affected by imaging conditions, like weather situation and imaging distortion; and 2) optical images contain comprehensive information of targets, so that it is difficult for extracting robust features (e.g., intensity and textural information) to represent airport area; 3) the high resolution results in large data volume, which makes real-time processing limited. Most of the previous works mainly focus on solving one of those problems, and thus, the previous methods cannot achieve the balance of performance and complexity. In this paper, we propose a novel coarse-to-fine airport detection framework to solve aforementioned three issues using wavelet coefficients. The framework includes two stages: 1) an efficient wavelet-based feature extraction is adopted for multi-scale textural feature representation, and support vector machine(SVM) is exploited for classifying and coarsely deciding airport candidate region; and then 2) refined line segment detection is used to obtain runway and landing field of airport. Finally, airport recognition is achieved by applying the fine runway positioning to the candidate regions. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of detection accuracy and processing efficiency.

  17. Airports Offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devault, Travis L.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Martin, James A.; Schmidt, Jason A.; Wes Burger, L.; Patterson, James W.

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  18. Consequences of Slot Transactions on Airport Congestion and Environmental Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyratne, Ruwantissa I.R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent trends in the liberalization of market access by many commercial airlines have opened the skies to virtually unlimited flights between many countries. However, this liberalization is stultified by the lack of airport capacity to accommodate the many flights that are generated by demand for capacity. Accordingly, the allocation of slots for open skies airlines remain dependent on the expansion and effective management of airport capacity. This article examines the ramifications of slot allocation on traffic peaking at airports and environmental concerns, which may emerge with this activity.

  19. Airports offer unrealized potential for alternative energy production.

    PubMed

    DeVault, Travis L; Belant, Jerrold L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Martin, James A; Schmidt, Jason A; Wes Burger, L; Patterson, James W

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  20. Los Angeles International Airport Improvement Program. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    furnish you a revised list as soon as it fisavailable. W BRUCE C Enclosure cc: Mr. Ray Fowler, AE-O0 (w/o encl) Mr. Jerry Cohen, ATF- (w/o encl) LU- r ...BRUCE CHME _.... i t v Code A", I 1 0H / r cc: Ray Fowler, AEK-100 r ~i :t ,1 ,. Jerry Cohen, ATF-i. I%- at. -; M6;L =- July 1, 1978 MEMORANDUM To: Airport...8217-* - - --- 00 4CO. U000f-0~’n’e C: ~ , r C i0 1 1 -00aa w-. 0% oc-o 0 -4 0A a. Ci f" all w l a 0 0 4 0% 000 000 0000 0 0 0 0