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Sample records for airport traffic control

  1. 14 CFR 170.13 - Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) establishment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT... AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICES AND NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES Airport Traffic Control Towers § 170.13 Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) establishment criteria. (a) The following criteria along with...

  2. 14 CFR 170.13 - Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) establishment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT... AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICES AND NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES Airport Traffic Control Towers § 170.13 Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) establishment criteria. (a) The following criteria along with...

  3. 14 CFR 170.13 - Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) establishment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT... AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICES AND NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES Airport Traffic Control Towers § 170.13 Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) establishment criteria. (a) The following criteria along with...

  4. Air Traffic Control Response to Delays: A System Study of Newark International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Antony D.; Clarke, John-Paul

    2002-01-01

    Airport delays are a significant problem in the United States air transportation system. Between 1999 and 2000 the number of flights delayed increased by 20 percent despite only a 0.4% increase in total operations. Newark International Airport (EWR), one of New York City's primary airports, is one of the airports in the United States most impacted by delays. Newark had the highest percentage of operations delayed in 1999, and was second only to LaGuardia Airport in 2000. Nearly 85% of delays at Newark are caused by adverse weather impacting an airport that may be characterized as having limited capacity and a very full schedule. Although Newark is heavily impacted by weather, delays have not increased significantly since 1998. This indicates that the airlines, air traffic control (ATC), and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey have successfully adapted. On June 29, 2000, a research team from MIT visited Newark airport to assess the effectiveness of any adaptations made, and to collect data on airline and ATC departure operations, and of the national and local weather affecting the airport. Airline and ATC personnel were also interviewed. Results of this study indicate that airspace capacity limitations downstream of the airport are a primary flow constraint at the airport, and that these constraints are the source of most surface delays. A number of tactical ATC responses to delays were examined, including the application of restrictions, re-routing with the help of the National Playbook, and the use of decision-aiding tools such as the Dynamic Spacing Program (DSP) and the Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS). Improved interfacility communications and further utilization of runway 11-29 were identified as other tactical responses to delays, whilst the formation of the Air Traffic Control System Command Center and the New York Airspace redesign were identified as thekey strategic ATC responses to delays. Particularly the New York airspace redesign has

  5. Simulation studies of STOL airplane operations in metropolitan downtown and airport air traffic control environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, R. H.; Mclaughlin, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    The operating problems and equipment requirements for STOL airplanes in terminal area operations in simulated air traffic control (ATC) environments were studied. These studies consisted of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) arrivals and departures in the New York area to and from a downtown STOL port, STOL runways at John F. Kennedy International Airport, or STOL runways at a hypothetical international airport. The studies were accomplished in real time by using a STOL airplane flight simulator. An experimental powered lift STOL airplane and two in-service airplanes having high aerodynamic lift (i.e., STOL) capability were used in the simulations.

  6. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  7. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  8. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  9. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  10. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  11. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Simulation Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2010-01-01

    A Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate pilot reaction to conflict events in the TMA near the airport, different alert timings for various scenarios, alerting display concepts, and directive alerting concepts. This paper gives an overview of the conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) concept, simulation study, and test results

  12. 14 CFR 170.13 - Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) establishment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the present value of the ATCT life cycle benefits (BPV) to the present value of ATCT life cycle costs... traffic during the expected life of the tower facility. (An FAA annual count is a fiscal year or...

  13. 14 CFR 170.13 - Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) establishment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the present value of the ATCT life cycle benefits (BPV) to the present value of ATCT life cycle costs... traffic during the expected life of the tower facility. (An FAA annual count is a fiscal year or...

  14. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  15. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  16. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  17. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  18. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  19. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2009-01-01

    An initial Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the initial concept for an aircraft-based method of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) in the TMA focusing on conflict detection algorithms and alerting display concepts. This paper gives an overview of the CD&R concept, simulation study, and test results.

  20. Expanding Regional Airport Usage to Accommodate Increased Air Traffic Demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carl R.

    2009-01-01

    Small regional airports present an underutilized source of capacity in the national air transportation system. This study sought to determine whether a 50 percent increase in national operations could be achieved by limiting demand growth at large hub airports and instead growing traffic levels at the surrounding regional airports. This demand scenario for future air traffic in the United States was generated and used as input to a 24-hour simulation of the national airspace system. Results of the demand generation process and metrics predicting the simulation results are presented, in addition to the actual simulation results. The demand generation process showed that sufficient runway capacity exists at regional airports to offload a significant portion of traffic from hub airports. Predictive metrics forecast a large reduction of delays at most major airports when demand is shifted. The simulation results then show that offloading hub traffic can significantly reduce nationwide delays.

  1. 76 FR 27743 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Airport Traffic Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... visibility and improve safety of airport movement areas, have the capability to meet existing and future...-day public comment period at the following libraries: Champaign Public Library, 200 W Green...

  2. 75 FR 9014 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Airport Traffic Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... of an ATCT access road and consequent relocation of a portion of the existing airport perimeter road... Assessment. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Virginia Marcks, Manager, Infrastructure Engineering Center.... Virginia Marcks, Manager, Infrastructure Engineering Center, Chicago, AJW-C14D, Central Service...

  3. A Fast-Time Simulation Tool for Analysis of Airport Arrival Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Meyn, Larry A.; Neuman, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The basic objective of arrival sequencing in air traffic control automation is to match traffic demand and airport capacity while minimizing delays. The performance of an automated arrival scheduling system, such as the Traffic Management Advisor developed by NASA for the FAA, can be studied by a fast-time simulation that does not involve running expensive and time-consuming real-time simulations. The fast-time simulation models runway configurations, the characteristics of arrival traffic, deviations from predicted arrival times, as well as the arrival sequencing and scheduling algorithm. This report reviews the development of the fast-time simulation method used originally by NASA in the design of the sequencing and scheduling algorithm for the Traffic Management Advisor. The utility of this method of simulation is demonstrated by examining the effect on delays of altering arrival schedules at a hub airport.

  4. Input-Output Modeling and Control of the Departure Process of Congested Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pujet, Nicolas; Delcaire, Bertrand; Feron, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A simple queueing model of busy airport departure operations is proposed. This model is calibrated and validated using available runway configuration and traffic data. The model is then used to evaluate preliminary control schemes aimed at alleviating departure traffic congestion on the airport surface. The potential impact of these control strategies on direct operating costs, environmental costs and overall delay is quantified and discussed.

  5. Computationally Lightweight Air-Traffic-Control Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm for computationally lightweight simulation of automated air traffic control (ATC) at a busy airport has been derived. The algorithm is expected to serve as the basis for development of software that would be incorporated into flight-simulator software, the ATC component of which is not yet capable of handling realistic airport loads. Software based on this algorithm could also be incorporated into other computer programs that simulate a variety of scenarios for purposes of training or amusement.

  6. Effect of Surface Traffic Count on Taxi Time at Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gupta, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    As the amount of air traffic increases over the years, most airports simply do not have the means of expanding to handle the intensified traffic on the surface that will ensue. Precise surveillance equipment and automation concepts, as well as advanced surface traffic algorithms are being developed to improve airport efficiency. These surface algorithms require inputs unique to each airport to ensure maximum efficiency, and minimal taxi delay. This study analyzes surface traffic at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) to determine the effect of the number of aircraft on the surface and the amount of stop and go situations they experience to the amount of additional taxi time encountered. If the surface capacity of an airport is known, minimal delay can be accomplished by limiting the number of taxiing aircraft to that capacity. This concept is related to highways, where traffic flow drastically decreases as more cars occupy the road. An attempt to minimize this effect on highways is seen with the use of metering lights at freeway on-ramps. Since the surface traffic at airports is highly regulated, and aircraft are less mobile on the ground, limiting the surface count to a certain number can greatly reduce the amount of additional taxi time encountered, as well as reduce hazardous emissions. This study will also find the regions of an airport that encounter the most additional taxi time when the number of aircraft in that area is increased. This could help surface traffic algorithms avoid congesting that area, or re-route aircraft to different runways when that area reaches its capacity. The relationship between the amount of stop and go situations an aircraft encounters and their effect on the taxi time of that aircraft will also be investigated. This will help to determine the effect of holding an aircraft on the taxiway as opposed to re-routing it. The lesser of the two should be used when developing surface traffic algorithms to further minimize the

  7. Air Traffic Control: Economics of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Commercial flight is a partnership. Airlines. Pilots. Air traffic control. 2. Airline schedules and weather problems can cause delays at the airport. Delays are inevitable in de-regulated industry due to simple economics. 3.Delays can be mitigated. Build more runways/technology. Increase airspace supply. 4. Cost/benefit analysis determine justification.

  8. Manpower Requirements for Air Traffic Control and Flight Service Specialists in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Office of Manpower Studies.

    As of January 1, 1968 the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States Department of Transportation employed 6,963 controllers in airport towers, 7,617 controllers in Air Route Traffic Control Centers, and 4,459 flight service specialists at airport locations. Projected needs are as follows: (1) Controllers in airport towers:…

  9. Airport Economics: Management Control Financial Reporting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchbinder, A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of management control financial reporting systems for airport operation is discussed. The operation of the system to provide the reports required for determining the specific revenue producing facilities of airports is described. The organization of the cost reporting centers to show the types of information provided by the system is analyzed.

  10. Effect of Traffic Position Accuracy for Conducting Safe Airport Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Barnes, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept proposes many revolutionary operational concepts and technologies, such as display of traffic information and movements, airport moving maps (AMM), and proactive alerts of runway incursions and surface traffic conflicts, to deliver an overall increase in system capacity and safety. A piloted simulation study was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center to evaluate the ability to conduct safe and efficient airport surface operations while utilizing an AMM displaying traffic of various position accuracies as well as the effect of traffic position accuracy on airport conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) capability. Nominal scenarios and off-nominal conflict scenarios were conducted using 12 airline crews operating in a simulated Memphis International Airport terminal environment. The data suggest that all traffic should be shown on the airport moving map, whether qualified or unqualified, and conflict detection and resolution technologies provide significant safety benefits. Despite the presence of traffic information on the map, collisions or near collisions still occurred; when indications or alerts were generated in these same scenarios, the incidences were averted.

  11. Aircraft and airport noise control prospective outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, N.

    1982-01-01

    In a perspective look at aircraft and airport noise control over the past ten years or more - or more is added here because the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 of 1969 is a more significant milestone for the air transportation system than is the Noise Control Act of 1972 - we see an appreciable reduction in the noise emitted by newly designed and newly produced airplanes, particularly those powered by the new high bypass engines, but only, at best, a moderate alleviation of airport noise. The change in airport noise exposure was the consequence of the introduction of some new, quieter airplanes into the airlines fleets and some operational modifications or restrictions at the airports.

  12. Monte Carlo Analysis of Airport Throughput and Traffic Delays Using Self Separation Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Sturdy, James L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of three simulation studies of throughput and delay times of arrival and departure operations performed at non-towered, non-radar airports using self-separation procedures. The studies were conducted as part of the validation process of the Small Aircraft Transportation Systems Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) concept and include an analysis of the predicted airport capacity using with different traffic conditions and system constraints under increasing levels of demand. Results show that SATS HVO procedures can dramatically increase capacity at non-towered, non-radar airports and that the concept offers the potential for increasing capacity of the overall air transportation system.

  13. Air Traffic and Operational Data on Selected US Airports with Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Thomas M.; McGee, Frank G.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents information on a number of airports in the country with parallel runways and focuses on those that have at least one pair of parallel runways closer than 4300 ft. Information contained in the report describes the airport's current operational activity as obtained through contact with the facility and from FAA air traffic tower activity data for FY 1997. The primary reason for this document is to provide a single source of information for research to determine airports where Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) technology may be applicable.

  14. Airport Traffic Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Commo, Sean A.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2012-01-01

    A conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) concept for the terminal maneuvering area (TMA) was evaluated in a fast-time batch simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. The CD&R concept is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of aircraft-based CD&R algorithms in the TMA, as a function of surveillance accuracy. This paper gives an overview of the CD&R concept, simulation study, and results. The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for the year 2025 and beyond envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner [1]. NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and provide an overall system capacity up to three times that of current operating levels. Emerging NextGen operational concepts [2], such as four-dimensional trajectory based airborne and surface operations, equivalent visual operations, and super density arrival and departure operations, require a different approach to air traffic management and as a result, a dramatic shift in the tasks, roles, and responsibilities for the flight deck and air traffic control (ATC) to ensure a safe, sustainable air transportation system.

  15. 76 FR 58393 - High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of Determination Regarding Low Demand Periods at Ronald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ..., which the FAA allocates for a specific 60-minute period, for each scheduled operation. \\1\\ 33 FR 17896... first come, first served allocation procedure is inappropriate. \\2\\ 50 FR 52195 (Dec. 20, 1985). FAA... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 93 High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of...

  16. 77 FR 19076 - High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of Determination Regarding Low Demand Periods at Ronald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...\\ 33 FR 17896 (Dec. 3, 1968). In 1985, the FAA issued part 93 subpart S (the ``Buy/Sell Rule'').\\2\\ As... the 0600 hour is not a low demand period.\\3\\ \\2\\ 50 FR 52195 (Dec. 20, 1985). \\3\\ 76 FR 58393 (Sept... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 93 High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of...

  17. Simple Models for Airport Delays During Transition to a Trajectory-Based Air Traffic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Peter

    It is now widely recognised that a paradigm shift in air traffic control concepts is needed. This requires state-of-the-art innovative technologies, making much better use of the information in the air traffic management (ATM) system. These paradigm shifts go under the names of NextGen in the USA and SESAR in Europe, which inter alia will make dramatic changes to the nature of airport operations. A vital part of moving from an existing system to a new paradigm is the operational implications of the transition process. There would be business incentives for early aircraft fitment, it is generally safer to introduce new technologies gradually, and researchers are already proposing potential transition steps to the new system. Simple queuing theory models are used to establish rough quantitative estimates of the impact of the transition to a more efficient time-based navigational and ATM system. Such models are approximate, but they do offer insight into the broad implications of system change and its significant features. 4D-equipped aircraft in essence have a contract with the airport runway and, in return, they would get priority over any other aircraft waiting for use of the runway. The main operational feature examined here is the queuing delays affecting non-4D-equipped arrivals. These get a reasonable service if the proportion of 4D-equipped aircraft is low, but this can deteriorate markedly for high proportions, and be economically unviable. Preventative measures would be to limit the additional growth of 4D-equipped flights and/or to modify their contracts to provide sufficient space for the non-4D-equipped flights to operate without excessive delays. There is a potential for non-Poisson models, for which there is little in the literature, and for more complex models, e.g. grouping a succession of 4D-equipped aircraft as a batch.

  18. An intelligent traffic controller

    SciTech Connect

    Kagolanu, K.; Fink, R.; Smartt, H.; Powell, R.; Larsen, E.

    1995-12-01

    A controller with advanced control logic can significantly improve traffic flows at intersections. In this vein, this paper explores fuzzy rules and algorithms to improve the intersection operation by rationalizing phase changes and green times. The fuzzy logic for control is enhanced by the exploration of neural networks for families of membership functions and for ideal cost functions. The concepts of fuzzy logic control are carried forth into the controller architecture. Finally, the architecture and the modules are discussed. In essence, the control logic and architecture of an intelligent controller are explored.

  19. How to reduce workload--augmented reality to ease the work of air traffic controllers.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thomas; König, Christina; Bruder, Ralph; Bergner, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In the future the air traffic will rise--the workload of the controllers will do the same. In the BMWi research project, one of the tasks is, how to ensure safe air traffic, and a reasonable workload for the air traffic controllers. In this project it was the goal to find ways how to reduce the workload (and stress) for the controllers to allow safe air traffic, esp. at huge hub-airports by implementing augmented reality visualization and interaction. PMID:22316878

  20. Optical design of airport control tower cabs.

    PubMed

    Carman, P D; Budde, H W

    1980-02-15

    A study has been made of optical aspects of airport control towers as part of a planned general optimization of control towers by Transport Canada. Problems found were reflections, glare, visual obstructions, identification of distant objects, and excessive solar heat. The study makes recommendations on cab shape, tower height, glazing, shades, sunglasses, binoculars, and internal lighting. Proper choice of cab shape (e.g., 30 degrees window inclination and 12-28 sides) provided effective control of reflections. Some plastic shades werefound to increase the risk of eye damage. Two tower cabs incorporating the recommendations have been built and were found to be satisfactory. PMID:20216882

  1. Computer-Aided Air-Traffic Control In The Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    Developmental computer-aided system for automated management and control of arrival traffic at large airport includes three integrated subsystems. One subsystem, called Traffic Management Advisor, another subsystem, called Descent Advisor, and third subsystem, called Final Approach Spacing Tool. Data base that includes current wind measurements and mathematical models of performances of types of aircraft contributes to effective operation of system.

  2. Broadcast control of air traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a system of broadcast control for improved flight safety and air traffic control is discussed. The system provides a balance of equality between improved cockpit guidance and control capability and ground control in order to provide the pilot with a greater degree of participation. The manner in which the system is operated and the equipment required for safe operation are examined.

  3. Terminal area air traffic control simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    To study the impact of advanced aeronautical technologies on operations to and from terminal airports, a computer model of air traffic movements was developed. The advantages of fast-time simulation are discussed, and the arrival scheduling and flight simulation are described. A New York area study, user's guide, and programmer's guide are included.

  4. Stochastic Model of Traffic Jam and Traffic Signal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Cui, Cheng-You; Lee, Tae-Hong; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    Traffic signal control is an effective method to solve the traffic jam. and forecasting traffic density has been known as an important part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The several methods of the traffic signal control are known such as random walk method, Neuron Network method, Bayesian Network method, and so on. In this paper, we propose a new method of a traffic signal control using a predicted distribution of traffic jam based on a Dynamic Bayesian Network model. First, a forecasting model to predict a probabilistic distribution of the traffic jam during each period of traffic lights is built. As the forecasting model, the Dynamic Bayesian Network is used to predict the probabilistic distribution of a density of the traffic jam. According to measurement of two crossing points for each cycle, the inflow and outflow of each direction and the number of standing vehicles at former cycle are obtained. The number of standing vehicle at k-th cycle will be calculated synchronously. Next, the probabilistic distribution of the density of standing vehicle in each cycle will be predicted using the Dynamic Bayesian Network constructed for the traffic jam. And then a control rule to adjust the split and the cycle to increase the probability between a lower limit and ceiling of the standing vehicles is deduced. As the results of the simulation using the actual traffic data of Kitakyushu city, the effectiveness of the method is shown.

  5. Spatio-temporal Estimates of CO2 Emissions in the Los Angeles Basin from On-road and Airport Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, P.; Song, Y.; Patarasuk, R.; Gurney, K. R.; Eldering, A.; O'Keeffe, D.; Miller, C. E.; Duren, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing the spatio-temporal distribution of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions in urban landscapes is challenging. We use Hestia, an innovative "bottom up" approach for estimating FFCO2 emissions in the Los Angeles (LA) megacity and Southern California Air Basin (SCAB) which account for ~53% of the FFCO2 emissions in California. Hestia-LA, in coordination with "top down" atmospheric CO2 measurements, will provide baseline FFCO2 emissions, help monitor changes in emissions, and develop emissions mitigation policies. Hestia-LA characterizes FFCO2 emissions at the building/street spatial scale (10-100 m) and at hourly time steps in the basin by combining data on residential and commercial building emissions, industrial processes, electricity production, and different transportation sectors. We report here on the construction of the spatial and temporal structure in two key transportation sectors within the SCAB: on-road vehicle (46%) and aircraft (2%) emissions. We quantified on-road traffic emissions by merging traffic data from Southern California Association of Governments, California Freeway Performance Measurement System and modeled motor vehicle emissions from EPA's NMIM model. Preliminary analysis shows that (1) LA and Orange counties dominate the annual FFCO2 emissions from urban freeways and arterials, and (2) LA county has a wider peak traffic period during weekdays (2-6pm) than the other four counties (4-5pm). We characterized airport emissions by integrating information from Federal Aviation Administration, Los Angeles World Airports, and Airnav LLC for the temporal structure of aircraft arrivals and departures, and the National Emissions Inventory for total annual aircraft emissions. We categorized the 47 airports in LA basin based on the volume and type (commercial, general aviation and military) of aircraft traffic, and then assigned appropriate hour-of-day and day-of-week traffic volume-specific CO2 emission patterns to each airport. We found

  6. The employment of a spoken language computer applied to an air traffic control task.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laveson, J. I.; Silver, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Assessment of the merits of a limited spoken language (56 words) computer in a simulated air traffic control (ATC) task. An airport zone approximately 60 miles in diameter with a traffic flow simulation ranging from single-engine to commercial jet aircraft provided the workload for the controllers. This research determined that, under the circumstances of the experiments carried out, the use of a spoken-language computer would not improve the controller performance.

  7. Building the Brain's "Air Traffic Control" System: How Early Experiences Shape the Development of Executive Function. Working Paper 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Being able to focus, hold, and work with information in mind, filter distractions, and switch gears is like having an air traffic control system at a busy airport to manage the arrivals and departures of dozens of planes on multiple runways. In the brain, this air traffic control mechanism is called executive functioning, a group of skills that…

  8. Interaction Between Strategic and Local Traffic Flow Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Son; Sridhar, Banavar; Mukherjee, Avijit; Morando, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The loosely coordinated sets of traffic flow management initiatives that are operationally implemented at the national- and local-levels have the potential to under, over, and inconsistently control flights. This study is designed to explore these interactions through fast-time simulations with an emphasis on identifying inequitable situations in which flights receive multiple uncoordinated delays. Two operationally derived scenarios were considered in which flights arriving into the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport were first controlled at the national-level, either with a Ground Delay Program or a playbook reroute. These flights were subsequently controlled at the local level. The Traffic Management Advisor assigned them arrival scheduling delays. For the Ground Delay Program scenarios, between 51% and 53% of all arrivals experience both pre-departure delays from the Ground Delay Program and arrival scheduling delays from the Traffic Management Advisor. Of the subset of flights that received multiple delays, between 5.7% and 6.4% of the internal departures were first assigned a pre-departure delay by the Ground Delay Program, followed by a second pre-departure delay as a result of the arrival scheduling. For the playbook reroute scenario, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport arrivals were first assigned pre-departure reroutes based on the MW_2_DALLAS playbook plan, and were subsequently assigned arrival scheduling delays by the Traffic Management Advisor. Since the airport was operating well below capacity when the playbook reroute was in effect, only 7% of the arrivals were observed to receive both rerouting and arrival scheduling delays. Findings from these initial experiments confirm field observations that Ground Delay Programs operated in conjunction with arrival scheduling can result in inequitable situations in which flights receive multiple uncoordinated delays.

  9. A Concept and Implementation of Optimized Operations of Airport Surface Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon C.; Hoang, Ty; Montoya, Justin; Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Tobias, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept of optimized surface operations at busy airports to improve the efficiency of taxi operations, as well as reduce environmental impacts. The suggested system architecture consists of the integration of two decoupled optimization algorithms. The Spot Release Planner provides sequence and timing advisories to tower controllers for releasing departure aircraft into the movement area to reduce taxi delay while achieving maximum throughput. The Runway Scheduler provides take-off sequence and arrival runway crossing sequence to the controllers to maximize the runway usage. The description of a prototype implementation of this integrated decision support tool for the airport control tower controllers is also provided. The prototype decision support tool was evaluated through a human-in-the-loop experiment, where both the Spot Release Planner and Runway Scheduler provided advisories to the Ground and Local Controllers. Initial results indicate the average number of stops made by each departure aircraft in the departure runway queue was reduced by more than half when the controllers were using the advisories, which resulted in reduced taxi times in the departure queue.

  10. Modeling and Control of Airport Queueing Dynamics under Severe Flow Restrictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Francis; Evans, Antony; Clarke, John-Paul; Deron, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Based on field observations and interviews with controllers at BOS and EWR, we identify the closure of local departure fixes as the most severe class of airport departure restrictions. A set of simple queueing dynamics and traffic rules are developed to model departure traffic under such restrictions. The validity of the proposed model is tested via Monte Carlo simulation against 10 hours of actual operations data collected during a case-study at EWR on June 29,2000. In general, the model successfully reproduces the aggregate departure congestion. An analysis of the average error over 40 simulation runs indicates that flow-rate restrictions also significantly impact departure traffic; work is underway to capture these effects. Several applications and what-if scenarios are discussed for future evaluation using the calibrated model.

  11. CSMA Versus Prioritized CSMA for Air-Traffic-Control Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2001-01-01

    OPNET version 7.0 simulations are presented involving an important application of the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN), Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) over the Very High Frequency Data Link, Mode 2 (VDL-2). Communication is modeled for essentially all incoming and outgoing nonstop air-traffic for just three United States cities: Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Detroit. There are 32 airports in the simulation, 29 of which are either sources or destinations for the air-traffic of the aforementioned three airports. The simulation involves 111 Air Traffic Control (ATC) ground stations, and 1,235 equally equipped aircraft-taking off, flying realistic free-flight trajectories, and landing in a 24-hr period. Collisionless, Prioritized Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) is successfully tested and compared with the traditional CSMA typically associated with VDL-2. The performance measures include latency, throughput, and packet loss. As expected, Prioritized CSMA is much quicker and more efficient than traditional CSMA. These simulation results show the potency of Prioritized CSMA for implementing low latency, high throughput, and efficient connectivity.

  12. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  13. 30 CFR 57.9100 - Traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Traffic control. 57.9100 Section 57.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  14. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  15. 30 CFR 57.9100 - Traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Traffic control. 57.9100 Section 57.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  16. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  17. 30 CFR 57.9100 - Traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traffic control. 57.9100 Section 57.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  18. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  19. 30 CFR 57.9100 - Traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Traffic control. 57.9100 Section 57.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  20. 30 CFR 57.9100 - Traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of self-propelled... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 57.9100 Section 57.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL...

  1. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  2. Simulation of traffic control signal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, P. J.; Concannon, P. A.; Ricci, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in the development and testing of control strategies for networks of urban traffic signal systems by simulation. Simulation is an inexpensive and timely method for evaluating the effect of these traffic control strategies since traffic phenomena are too complex to be defined by analytical models and since a controlled experiment may be hazardous, expensive, and slow in producing meaningful results. This paper describes the application of an urban traffic corridor program, to evaluate the effectiveness of different traffic control strategies for the Massachusetts Avenue TOPICS Project.

  3. 76 FR 67019 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. DATES:...

  4. Effects of Airport Tower Controller Decision Support Tool on Controllers Head-Up Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Cruz Lopez, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite that aircraft positions and movements can be easily monitored on the radar displays at major airports nowadays, it is still important for the air traffic control tower (ATCT) controllers to look outside the window as much as possible to assure safe operations of traffic management. The present paper investigates whether an introduction of the NASA's proposed Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA), a decision support tool for the ATCT controller, would increase or decrease the controllers' head-up time. SARDA provides the controller departure-release schedule advisories, i.e., when to release each departure aircraft in order to minimize individual aircraft's fuel consumption on taxiways and simultaneously maximize the overall runway throughput. The SARDA advisories were presented on electronic flight strips (EFS). To investigate effects on the head-up time, a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment with two retired ATCT controller participants was conducted in a high-fidelity ATCT cab simulator with 360-degree computer-generated out-the-window view. Each controller participant wore a wearable video camera on a side of their head with the camera facing forward. The video data were later used to calculate their line of sight at each moment and eventually identify their head-up times. Four sessions were run with the SARDA advisories, and four sessions were run without (baseline). Traffic-load levels were varied in each session. The same set of user interface - EFS and the radar displays - were used in both the advisory and baseline sessions to make them directly comparable. The paper reports the findings and discusses their implications.

  5. Design and Operational Evaluation of the Traffic Management Advisor at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Vincent, Danny; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA and the FAA have designed and developed and an automation tool known as the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). The system was operationally evaluated at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that provides Traffic Management Coordinators and En Route Air Traffic Controllers the ability to efficiently optimize the capacity of a demand impacted airport. The TMA consists of trajectory prediction, constraint-based runway scheduling, traffic flow visualization and controllers advisories. The TMA was used and operationally evaluated for forty-one rush traffic periods during a one month period in the Summer of 1996. The evaluations included all shifts of air traffic operations as well as periods of inclement weather. Performance data was collected for engineering and human factor analysis and compared with similar operations without the TMA. The engineering data indicates that the operations with the TMA show a one to two minute per aircraft delay reduction during rush periods. The human factor data indicate a perceived reduction in en route controller workload as well as an increase in job satisfaction. Upon completion of the evaluation, the TMA has become part of the normal operations at the Ft. Worth ARTCC.

  6. Method and System For an Automated Tool for En Route Traffic Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); McNally, B. David (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for a new automation tool for en route air traffic controllers first finds all aircraft flying on inefficient routes, then determines whether it is possible to save time by bypassing some route segments, and finally whether the improved route is free of conflicts with other aircraft. The method displays all direct-to eligible aircraft to an air traffic controller in a list sorted by highest time savings. By allowing the air traffic controller to easily identify and work with the highest pay-off aircraft, the method of the present invention contributes to a significant increase in both air traffic controller and aircraft productivity. A graphical computer interface (GUI) is used to enable the air traffic controller to send the aircraft direct to a waypoint or fix closer to the destination airport by a simple point and click action.

  7. Method and system for an automated tool for en route traffic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); McNally, B. David (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for a new automation tool for en route air traffic controllers first finds all aircraft flying on inefficient routes, then determines whether it is possible to save time by bypassing some route segments, and finally whether the improved route is free of conflicts with other aircraft. The method displays all direct-to eligible aircraft to an air traffic controller in a list sorted by highest time savings. By allowing the air traffic controller to easily identify and work with the highest pay-off aircraft, the method of the present invention contributes to a significant increase in both air traffic controller and aircraft productivity. A graphical computer interface (GUI) is used to enable the air traffic controller to send the aircraft direct to a waypoint or fix closer to the destination airport by a simple point and click action.

  8. 77 FR 71474 - Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held December 13,...

  9. 78 FR 22025 - Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 9-10,...

  10. 77 FR 25525 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security... (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held May 30, 2012, from...

  11. 75 FR 80886 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  12. 77 FR 2343 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 9, 2012, from 10...

  13. 77 FR 64838 - Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held November 15,...

  14. 76 FR 50811 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  15. 77 FR 55894 - Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held September 27-28,...

  16. 76 FR 9632 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  17. 77 FR 15448 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of meeting RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held April 5, 2012, from 10...

  18. 76 FR 59481 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  19. 78 FR 43963 - Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20,...

  20. 76 FR 16470 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  1. 78 FR 16757 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 4, 2013 from...

  2. 78 FR 7850 - Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 21, 2013... Federal Aviation Administration Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security...

  3. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20, 2013... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security...

  4. 75 FR 61819 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  5. Impact of air traffic emissions on airport air quality. Multi-scale modeling, test bed and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaroson, R.; Vuillot, F.; Durand, Y.; Courbet, B.; Janin, F.; Copalle, A.; Guin, C.; Paux, E.; Vannier, F.; Talbaut, M.; Weill, M.

    2004-12-01

    Air traffic emissions are playing a significant role in airport air quality. Engine emissions contribute to the ozone and PM formation. There is an emergence of a need to develop advanced numerical tools and airport emission databases for air pollution studies. Field monitoring at airports necessary to support model assessment is still limited in time and space. The French ONERA AIRPUR project has focused on three objectives: emission inventories; dispersion models; field measurements. Results are presented and discussed in this paper. The ground spatial distribution of LTO emissions using realistic aircraft trajectories, aircraft-engine classification by ICAO, fuel flow methodology and diurnal variations of fleet number, is presented and discussed. Exhaust species time evolution is simulated using a chemical-dispersion model. Results show high emissions of NOx during LTO, and a maximum of CO and Hydrocarbons during taxi. Depending on seasons, the NOx lifetime is varying differently; lower concentration is calculated far away from LTO emissions. Longer-lived pollutants such as ozone are formed downstream and require the use of advanced dispersion models. For this reason, two interactive models coupling the micro and the regional scales are developed and used in this work. A 3D CFD model (CEDRE) simulates the flow characteristics around buildings and the dispersion of emissions. CEDRE boundary conditions are provided by the 3D nested dispersion model MEDIUM/MM5, which includes a surface boundary layer chemistry and calculates the concentration of pollutants from the local to the airport vicinities. The CFD results show a tracer accumulation calculated downstream beside terminals, consistent with observations at some mega-airports. Sensibility studies are conducted to highlight the impact of emissions on ozone formation with MEDIUM. Results show that longer-lived species are produced downstream, their concentration depending on NOx, aromatics and VOC released by

  6. 76 FR 3931 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 Meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  7. 75 FR 71790 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  8. 76 FR 38742 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  9. Automatic speech recognition in air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Joakim

    1990-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology and its application to the Air Traffic Control system are described. The advantages of applying ASR to Air Traffic Control, as well as criteria for choosing a suitable ASR system are presented. Results from previous research and directions for future work at the Flight Transportation Laboratory are outlined.

  10. Real-Time Surface Traffic Adviser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J. (Inventor); Spirkovska, Liljana (Inventor); McDermott, William J. (Inventor); Reisman, Ronald J. (Inventor); Gibson, James (Inventor); Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A real-time data management system which uses data generated at different rates by multiple heterogeneous incompatible data sources are presented. In one embodiment, the invention is as an airport surface traffic data management system (traffic adviser) that electronically interconnects air traffic control, airline, and airport operations user communities to facilitate information sharing and improve taxi queuing. The system uses an expert system to fuse dam from a variety of airline, airport operations, ramp control, and air traffic control sources, in order to establish, predict, and update reference data values for every aircraft surface operation.

  11. Collegiate Aviation and FAA Air Traffic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Jose R.; Ruiz, Lorelei E.

    2003-01-01

    Based on a literature review this article describes the Air Traffic-Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) program, including objectives, the process by which postsecondary institutes become affiliated, advantages of affiliation, and the recruitment and employment of air traffic control graduates by the Federal Aviation Administration. (Contains…

  12. Distributed traffic signal control using fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We present a distributed approach to traffic signal control, where the signal timing parameters at a given intersection are adjusted as functions of the local traffic condition and of the signal timing parameters at adjacent intersections. Thus, the signal timing parameters evolve dynamically using only local information to improve traffic flow. This distributed approach provides for a fault-tolerant, highly responsive traffic management system. The signal timing at an intersection is defined by three parameters: cycle time, phase split, and offset. We use fuzzy decision rules to adjust these three parameters based only on local information. The amount of change in the timing parameters during each cycle is limited to a small fraction of the current parameters to ensure smooth transition. We show the effectiveness of this method through simulation of the traffic flow in a network of controlled intersections.

  13. Static and Motion-Based Visual Features Used by Airport Tower Controllers: Some Implications for the Design of Remote or Virtual Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Liston, Dorion B.

    2011-01-01

    Visual motion and other visual cues are used by tower controllers to provide important support for their control tasks at and near airports. These cues are particularly important for anticipated separation. Some of them, which we call visual features, have been identified from structured interviews and discussions with 24 active air traffic controllers or supervisors. The visual information that these features provide has been analyzed with respect to possible ways it could be presented at a remote tower that does not allow a direct view of the airport. Two types of remote towers are possible. One could be based on a plan-view, map-like computer-generated display of the airport and its immediate surroundings. An alternative would present a composite perspective view of the airport and its surroundings, possibly provided by an array of radially mounted cameras positioned at the airport in lieu of a tower. An initial more detailed analyses of one of the specific landing cues identified by the controllers, landing deceleration, is provided as a basis for evaluating how controllers might detect and use it. Understanding other such cues will help identify the information that may be degraded or lost in a remote or virtual tower not located at the airport. Some initial suggestions how some of the lost visual information may be presented in displays are mentioned. Many of the cues considered involve visual motion, though some important static cues are also discussed.

  14. Remotely-Operated Traffic Control Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Traffic warning light for school crossing, construction zones, and other hazardous areas activated by remote control. Apparatus consists of small radio transmitter, pole-mounted strobe light with attached power supply and radio receiver.

  15. Intelligent traffic control system using PLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, C.; Todea, C.; Latinovic, T.; Preradovic, D. M.; Deaconu, S.; Berdie, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the traffic control system controlled through a PLC which takes the signals from different sensors on roads. The global system developed ensures the coordination of four intersections, setting a path that respects coordination type green light, the integration of additional sensors, the implementation of probes radar to inform traffic participants about recommended speed for accessing the green state located in the intersection that will follow to cross.

  16. Information Presentation and Control in a Modern Air Traffic Control Tower Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.; Doubek, Sharon; Rabin, Boris; Harke, Stanton

    1996-01-01

    The proper presentation and management of information in America's largest and busiest (Level V) air traffic control towers calls for an in-depth understanding of many different human-computer considerations: user interface design for graphical, radar, and text; manual and automated data input hardware; information/display output technology; reconfigurable workstations; workload assessment; and many other related subjects. This paper discusses these subjects in the context of the Surface Development and Test Facility (SDTF) currently under construction at NASA's Ames Research Center, a full scale, multi-manned, air traffic control simulator which will provide the "look and feel" of an actual airport tower cab. Special emphasis will be given to the human-computer interfaces required for the different kinds of information displayed at the various controller and supervisory positions and to the computer-aided design (CAD) and other analytic, computer-based tools used to develop the facility.

  17. Microwave landing system modeling with application to air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulose, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Compared to the current instrument landing system, the microwave landing system (MLS), which is in the advanced stage of implementation, can potentially provide significant fuel and time savings as well as more flexibility in approach and landing functions. However, the expanded coverage and increased accuracy requirements of the MLS make it more susceptible to the features of the site in which it is located. An analytical approach is presented for evaluating the multipath effects of scatterers that are commonly found in airport environments. The approach combines a multiplane model with a ray-tracing technique and a formulation for estimating the electromagnetic fields caused by the antenna array in the presence of scatterers. The model is applied to several airport scenarios. The reduced computational burden enables the scattering effects on MLS position information to be evaluated in near real time. Evaluation in near real time would permit the incorporation of the modeling scheme into air traffic control automation; it would adaptively delineate zones of reduced accuracy within the MLS coverage volume, and help establish safe approach and takeoff trajectories in the presence of uneven terrain and other scatterers.

  18. Integrated Airport Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, S.

    1998-01-01

    The current air traffic environment in airport terminal areas experiences substantial delays when weather conditions deteriorate to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Research activity at NASA has culminated in the development, flight test and demonstration of a prototype Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) system. A NASA led industry team and the FAA developed the system which integrated airport surface surveillance systems, aeronautical data links, DGPS navigation, automation systems, and controller and flight deck displays. The LVLASO system was demonstrated at the Hartsfield-Atlanta International Airport using a Boeing 757-200 aircraft during August, 1997. This report documents the contractors role in this testing particularly in the area of data link and DGPS navigation.

  19. 78 FR 51810 - Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224,...

  20. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Leidichj, Christopher; Papasin, Richard; Tran, Peter B.; Bass, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Networks of video cameras, meteorological sensors, and ancillary electronic equipment are under development in collaboration among NASA Ames Research Center, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These networks are to be established at and near airports to provide real-time information on local weather conditions that affect aircraft approaches and landings. The prototype network is an airport-approach-zone camera system (AAZCS), which has been deployed at San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and San Carlos Airport (SQL). The AAZCS includes remotely controlled color video cameras located on top of SFO and SQL air-traffic control towers. The cameras are controlled by the NOAA Center Weather Service Unit located at the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center and are accessible via a secure Web site. The AAZCS cameras can be zoomed and can be panned and tilted to cover a field of view 220 wide. The NOAA observer can see the sky condition as it is changing, thereby making possible a real-time evaluation of the conditions along the approach zones of SFO and SQL. The next-generation network, denoted a remote tower sensor system (RTSS), will soon be deployed at the Half Moon Bay Airport and a version of it will eventually be deployed at Los Angeles International Airport. In addition to remote control of video cameras via secure Web links, the RTSS offers realtime weather observations, remote sensing, portability, and a capability for deployment at remote and uninhabited sites. The RTSS can be used at airports that lack control towers, as well as at major airport hubs, to provide synthetic augmentation of vision for both local and remote operations under what would otherwise be conditions of low or even zero visibility.

  1. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  2. Trajectory Specification for Automation of Terminal Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paielli, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    "Trajectory specification" is the explicit bounding and control of aircraft tra- jectories such that the position at each point in time is constrained to a precisely defined volume of space. The bounding space is defined by cross-track, along-track, and vertical tolerances relative to a reference trajectory that specifies position as a function of time. The tolerances are dynamic and will be based on the aircraft nav- igation capabilities and the current traffic situation. A standard language will be developed to represent these specifications and to communicate them by datalink. Assuming conformance, trajectory specification can guarantee safe separation for an arbitrary period of time even in the event of an air traffic control (ATC) sys- tem or datalink failure, hence it can help to achieve the high level of safety and reliability needed for ATC automation. As a more proactive form of ATC, it can also maximize airspace capacity and reduce the reliance on tactical backup systems during normal operation. It applies to both enroute airspace and the terminal area around airports, but this paper focuses on arrival spacing in the terminal area and presents ATC algorithms and software for achieving a specified delay of runway arrival time.

  3. Semiautomated Management Of Arriving Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

    1992-01-01

    System of computers, graphical workstations, and computer programs developed for semiautomated management of approach and arrival of numerous aircraft at airport. System comprises three subsystems: traffic-management advisor, used for controlling traffic into terminal area; descent advisor generates information integrated into plan-view display of traffic on monitor; and final-approach-spacing tool used to merge traffic converging on final approach path while making sure aircraft are properly spaced. Not intended to restrict decisions of air-traffic controllers.

  4. 36 CFR 4.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 4.12... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device is prohibited unless otherwise directed by the superintendent....

  5. 36 CFR 1004.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Traffic control devices. 1004.12 Section 1004.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device...

  6. 36 CFR 4.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 4.12... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device is prohibited unless otherwise directed by the superintendent....

  7. 36 CFR 1004.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 1004.12 Section 1004.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device...

  8. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2... distress traffic. The control of distress traffic is the responsibility of the mobile station in distress... distress call. These stations may, however, delegate the control of the distress traffic to another station....

  9. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2... distress traffic. The control of distress traffic is the responsibility of the mobile station in distress... distress call. These stations may, however, delegate the control of the distress traffic to another station....

  10. 36 CFR 4.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 4.12... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device is prohibited unless otherwise directed by the superintendent....

  11. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2... distress traffic. The control of distress traffic is the responsibility of the mobile station in distress... distress call. These stations may, however, delegate the control of the distress traffic to another station....

  12. 36 CFR 1004.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 1004.12 Section 1004.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device...

  13. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2... distress traffic. The control of distress traffic is the responsibility of the mobile station in distress... distress call. These stations may, however, delegate the control of the distress traffic to another station....

  14. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2... distress traffic. The control of distress traffic is the responsibility of the mobile station in distress... distress call. These stations may, however, delegate the control of the distress traffic to another station....

  15. 36 CFR 1004.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 1004.12 Section 1004.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device...

  16. 36 CFR 4.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 4.12... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device is prohibited unless otherwise directed by the superintendent....

  17. 36 CFR 1004.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 1004.12 Section 1004.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device...

  18. 36 CFR 4.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 4.12... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device is prohibited unless otherwise directed by the superintendent....

  19. Development of a Laboratory for Improving Communication between Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brammer, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Runway incursions and other surface incidents are known to be significant threats to aviation safety and efficiency. Though the number of near mid-air collisions in U.S. air space has remained unchanged during the last five years, the number of runway incursions has increased and they are almost all due to human error. The three most common factors contributing to air traffic controller and pilot error in airport operations include two that involve failed auditory communication. This project addressed the problems of auditory communication in air traffic control from an acoustical standpoint, by establishing an acoustics laboratory designed for this purpose and initiating research into selected topics that show promise for improving voice communications between air traffic controllers and pilots.

  20. Breakdowns in Coordination Between Air Traffic Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Chris; Orasanu, Judith; Miller, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    This talk outlines the complexity of coordination in air traffic control, introduces the NextGen technologies, identifies common causes for coordination breakdowns in air traffic control and examines whether these causes are likely to be reduced with the introduction of NextGen technologies. While some of the common causes of breakdowns will be reduced in a NextGen environment this conclusion should be drawn carefully given the current stage of development of the technologies and the observation that new technologies often shift problems rather than reduce them.

  1. Information Requirements for Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers in Support of a Wake Vortex Departure System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Daniel M.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2008-01-01

    Closely Space Parallel Runway (CSPR) configurations are capacity limited for departures due to the requirement to apply wake vortex separation standards from traffic departing on the adjacent parallel runway. To mitigate the effects of this constraint, a concept focusing on wind dependent departure operations has been developed, known as the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD). This concept takes advantage of the fact that crosswinds of sufficient velocity blow wakes generated by aircraft departing from the downwind runway away from the upwind runway. Consequently, under certain conditions, wake separations on the upwind runway would not be required based on wakes generated by aircraft on the downwind runway, as is currently the case. It follows that information requirements, and sources for this information, would need to be determined for airport traffic control tower (ATCT) supervisory personnel who would be charged with decisions regarding use of the procedure. To determine the information requirements, data were collected from ATCT supervisors and controller-in-charge qualified individuals at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport (STL) and George Bush Houston Intercontinental Airport (IAH). STL and IAH were chosen as data collection sites based on the implementation of a WTMD prototype system, operating in shadow mode, at these locations. The 17 total subjects (STL: 5, IAH: 12) represented a broad-base of air traffic experience. Results indicated that the following information was required to support the conduct of WTMD operations: current and forecast weather information, current and forecast traffic demand and traffic flow restrictions, and WTMD System status information and alerting. Subjects further indicated that the requisite information is currently available in the tower cab with the exception of the WTMD status and alerting. Subjects were given a demonstration of a display supporting the prototype systems and unanimously stated that the

  2. Analysis of Controller Communication in En Route Air Traffic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seamster, Thomas L.; And Others

    To contribute to an understanding of the elements of good air traffic controller communication with the objective of providing recommendations to improve controller communication training, two studies analyzed team communication, ground-air communication, and ground-line communication. The simulated and live traffic analyses examined established…

  3. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  4. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  5. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  6. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  7. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  8. 78 FR 36132 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... January 11, 2013, the FHWA published a Request for Comments at 78 FR 2347 (Docket ID: FHWA-2012-0118...; Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notification; response to comments. SUMMARY: The Manual on Uniform Traffic...

  9. Software Tools to Support Research on Airport Departure Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Francis; Evans, Antony; Feron, Eric; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    A simple, portable and useful collection of software tools has been developed for the analysis of airport surface traffic. The tools are based on a flexible and robust traffic-flow model, and include calibration, validation and simulation functionality for this model. Several different interfaces have been developed to help promote usage of these tools, including a portable Matlab(TM) implementation of the basic algorithms; a web-based interface which provides online access to automated analyses of airport traffic based on a database of real-world operations data which covers over 250 U.S. airports over a 5-year period; and an interactive simulation-based tool currently in use as part of a college-level educational module. More advanced applications for airport departure traffic include taxi-time prediction and evaluation of "windowing" congestion control.

  10. CTAS: Computer intelligence for air traffic control in the terminal area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1992-01-01

    A system for the automated management and control of arrival traffic, referred to as the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS), has been designed by the ATC research group at NASA Ames research center. In a cooperative program, NASA and the FAA have efforts underway to install and evaluate the system at the Denver and Dallas/Ft. Worth airports. CTAS consists of three types of integrated tools that provide computer-generated intelligence for both Center and TRACON controllers to guide them in managing and controlling arrival traffic efficiently. One tool, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), establishes optimized landing sequences and landing times for aircraft arriving in the center airspace several hundred miles from the airport. In TRACON, TMA frequencies missed approach aircraft and unanticipated arrivals. Another tool, the Descent Advisor (DA), generates clearances for the center controllers handling at crossing times provided by TMA. In the TRACON, the final approach spacing tool (FAST) provides heading and speed clearances that produce and accurately spaced flow of aircraft on the final approach course. A data base consisting of aircraft performance models, airline preferred operational procedures and real time wind measurements contribute to the effective operation of CTAS. Extensive simulator evaluations of CTAS have demonstrated controller acceptance, delay reductions, and fuel savings.

  11. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  12. Development of simulation techniques suitable for the analysis of air traffic control situations and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A terminal area simulation is described which permits analysis and synthesis of current and advanced air traffic management system configurations including ground and airborne instrumentation and new and modified aircraft characteristics. Ground elements in the simulation include navigation aids, surveillance radars, communication links, air-route structuring, ATC procedures, airport geometries and runway handling constraints. Airborne elements include traffic samples with individual aircraft performance and operating characteristics and aircraft navigation equipment. The simulation also contains algorithms for conflict detection, conflict resolution, sequencing and pilot-controller data links. The simulation model is used to determine the sensitivities of terminal area traffic flow, safety and congestion to aircraft performance characteristics, avionics systems, and other ATC elements.

  13. Traffic Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mestech's X-15 "Eye in the Sky," a traffic monitoring system, incorporates NASA imaging and robotic vision technology. A camera or "sensor box" is mounted in a housing. The sensor detects vehicles approaching an intersection and sends the information to a computer, which controls the traffic light according to the traffic rate. Jet Propulsion Laboratory technical support packages aided in the company's development of the system. The X-15's "smart highway" can also be used to count vehicles on a highway and compute the number in each lane and their speeds, important information for freeway control engineers. Additional applications are in airport and railroad operations. The system is intended to replace loop-type traffic detectors.

  14. Controller Strategies for Managing Air Traffic in High Altitude Arrival Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nancy; Palmer, Everett; Prevot, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Substantial increases in the volume of air traffic in the National Airspace System (NAS) are forecast for the next decade, with the number of passengers travelling on U.S. airlines expected to increase by as much as 60%. This increased demand on system capacity will be accompanied by increases in traffic complexity as air traffic service providers routinely accommodate user preferred routing requests. Changes to the NAS to meet these new demands are currently underway, including development of new decision support tools to aid controllers in monitoring and managing air traffic, and increased air-to-air and air-to-ground information exchange. Changes in roles and responsibilities of pilots and controllers in flight path management will accompany these changes in traffic patterns and information technology, however the ultimate responsibility for maintaining aircraft separation will remain with the air traffic controller. A thorough understanding of the methods controllers use to manage air traffic will help ensure that changes to the NAS are implemented in a way that maintains the controller's ability to separate aircraft as the system evolves. This presentation describes the strategies controllers use today to manage arrival traffic in its descent from cruise altitude to the Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) boundary. Factors that increase the complexity of this task include the presence of overflight traffic, varying aircraft performance characteristics, winds aloft, ground speed variations with altitude, the need to merge arrival traffic into a single stream, and, when arrival traffic exceeds airport runway capacity, the added task of metering flow into the TRACON. Because of the limited information available to controllers to manage arrival traffic, their strategies are often driven by the need to reduce the task's complexity, which can result in de-optimized flight paths for individual aircraft (e.g., sub-optimal descent or speed profiles). Understanding

  15. Air Traffic Control Improvement Using Prioritized CSMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2001-01-01

    Version 7 simulations of the industry-standard network simulation software "OPNET" are presented of two applications of the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN), Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast mode (ADS-B), over VHF Data Link mode 2 (VDL-2). Communication is modeled for air traffic between just three cities. All aircraft are assumed to have the same equipage. The simulation involves Air Traffic Control (ATC) ground stations and 105 aircraft taking off, flying realistic free-flight trajectories, and landing in a 24-hr period. All communication is modeled as unreliable. Collision-less, prioritized carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) is successfully tested. The statistics presented include latency, queue length, and packet loss. This research may show that a communications system simpler than the currently accepted standard envisioned may not only suffice, but also surpass performance of the standard at a lower cost of deployment.

  16. Forecast of the general aviation air traffic control environment for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, W. C.; Hollister, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    The critical information required for the design of a reliable, low cost, advanced avionics system which would enhance the safety and utility of general aviation is stipulated. Sufficient data is accumulated upon which industry can base the design of a reasonably priced system having the capability required by general aviation in and beyond the 1980's. The key features of the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system are: a discrete address beacon system, a separation assurance system, area navigation, a microwave landing system, upgraded ATC automation, airport surface traffic control, a wake vortex avoidance system, flight service stations, and aeronautical satellites. The critical parameters that are necessary for component design are identified. The four primary functions of ATC (control, surveillance, navigation, and communication) and their impact on the onboard avionics system design are assessed.

  17. Air traffic control resource management strategies and the small aircraft transportation system: A system dynamics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, James J., Jr.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is leading a research effort to develop a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) that will expand air transportation capabilities to hundreds of underutilized airports in the United States. Most of the research effort addresses the technological development of the small aircraft as well as the systems to manage airspace usage and surface activities at airports. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will also play a major role in the successful implementation of SATS, however, the administration is reluctant to embrace the unproven concept. The purpose of the research presented in this dissertation is to determine if the FAA can pursue a resource management strategy that will support the current radar-based Air Traffic Control (ATC) system as well as a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS)-based ATC system required by the SATS. The research centered around the use of the System Dynamics modeling methodology to determine the future behavior of the principle components of the ATC system over time. The research included a model of the ATC system consisting of people, facilities, equipment, airports, aircraft, the FAA budget, and the Airport and Airways Trust Fund. The model generated system performance behavior used to evaluate three scenarios. The first scenario depicted the base case behavior of the system if the FAA continued its current resource management practices. The second scenario depicted the behavior of the system if the FAA emphasized development of GPS-based ATC systems. The third scenario depicted a combined resource management strategy that supplemented radar systems with GPS systems. The findings of the research were that the FAA must pursue a resource management strategy that primarily funds a radar-based ATC system and directs lesser funding toward a GPS-based supplemental ATC system. The most significant contribution of this research was the insight and understanding gained of how

  18. 5 CFR 842.207 - Air traffic controllers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air traffic controllers. 842.207 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.207 Air traffic controllers... misconduct, is entitled to an annuity— (1) After completing 25 years of service as an air traffic...

  19. 5 CFR 842.207 - Air traffic controllers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air traffic controllers. 842.207 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.207 Air traffic controllers... misconduct, is entitled to an annuity— (1) After completing 25 years of service as an air traffic...

  20. 5 CFR 842.207 - Air traffic controllers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air traffic controllers. 842.207 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.207 Air traffic controllers... misconduct, is entitled to an annuity— (1) After completing 25 years of service as an air traffic...

  1. 5 CFR 842.207 - Air traffic controllers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air traffic controllers. 842.207 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.207 Air traffic controllers... misconduct, is entitled to an annuity— (1) After completing 25 years of service as an air traffic...

  2. 5 CFR 842.207 - Air traffic controllers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers. 842.207 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.207 Air traffic controllers... misconduct, is entitled to an annuity— (1) After completing 25 years of service as an air traffic...

  3. Automated mixed traffic transit vehicle microprocessor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P.; Johnston, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    An improved Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) speed control system employing a microprocessor and transistor chopper motor current controller is described and its performance is presented in terms of velocity versus time curves. The on board computer hardware and software systems are described as is the software development system. All of the programming used in this controller was implemented using FORTRAN. This microprocessor controller made possible a number of safety features and improved the comfort associated with starting and shopping. In addition, most of the vehicle's performance characteristics can be altered by simple program parameter changes. A failure analysis of the microprocessor controller was generated and the results are included. Flow diagrams for the speed control algorithms and complete FORTRAN code listings are also included.

  4. Automated Conflict Resolution For Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and resolve conflicts automatically is considered to be an essential requirement for the next generation air traffic control system. While systems for automated conflict detection have been used operationally by controllers for more than 20 years, automated resolution systems have so far not reached the level of maturity required for operational deployment. Analytical models and algorithms for automated resolution have been traffic conditions to demonstrate that they can handle the complete spectrum of conflict situations encountered in actual operations. The resolution algorithm described in this paper was formulated to meet the performance requirements of the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC). The AAC, which was described in a recent paper [1], is a candidate for the next generation air traffic control system. The AAC's performance objectives are to increase safety and airspace capacity and to accommodate user preferences in flight operations to the greatest extent possible. In the AAC, resolution trajectories are generated by an automation system on the ground and sent to the aircraft autonomously via data link .The algorithm generating the trajectories must take into account the performance characteristics of the aircraft, the route structure of the airway system, and be capable of resolving all types of conflicts for properly equipped aircraft without requiring supervision and approval by a controller. Furthermore, the resolution trajectories should be compatible with the clearances, vectors and flight plan amendments that controllers customarily issue to pilots in resolving conflicts. The algorithm described herein, although formulated specifically to meet the needs of the AAC, provides a generic engine for resolving conflicts. Thus, it can be incorporated into any operational concept that requires a method for automated resolution, including concepts for autonomous air to air resolution.

  5. Quality of Life, Sleep, and Health of Air Traffic Controllers With Rapid Counterclockwise Shift Rotation.

    PubMed

    Sonati, Jaqueline Girnos; De Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo; Vilarta, Roberto; da Silva Maciel, Érika; Sonati, Renato José Ferreira; Paduan, Paulo Cézar

    2016-08-01

    Rotating shiftwork is common for air traffic controllers and usually causes sleep deprivation, biological adaptations, and life changes for these workers. This study assessed quality of life, the sleep, and the health of 30 air traffic controllers employed at an international airport in Brazil. The objective was to identify health and quality of life concerns of these professionals. The results identified physical inactivity, overweight, excess body fat, low scores for physical and social relationships, and sleep deprivation for workers in all four workshifts. In conclusion, these workers are at risk for chronic non-transmittable diseases and compromised work performance, suggesting the need for more rest time before working nightshifts and work environments that stimulate physical activity and healthy diets. PMID:27147608

  6. Insects, vegetation, and the control of laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) at Kennedy International Airport, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, P.A.; McCarthy, M.

    1994-01-01

    1. In response to a purported 'bird-strike problem' at J.F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, we examined short (5 cm) and long (45 cm) grass heights as gull deterrents, in a randomized-block experiment. 2. Vegetative cover, numbers of adult insects and of larval beetles (suspected on-airport food of the gulls) were sampled in the six-block, 36-plot study area, as well as gut contents of adult and downy young gulls in the immediately adjacent colony in the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. 3. We found that (i) Oriental beetle larvae were the most numerous and concentrated in one experimental block; (ii) beetle larvae numbers were uncorrelated with grass height; (iii) adult beetles were also uncorrelated with grass height; (iv) laughing gulls were distributed across blocks irrespective of percentage cover; (v) within blocks, laughing gulls were selecting short grass and avoiding long grass plots; (vi) laughing gull numbers were positively associated with numbers of Oriental beetle larvae; (vii) adult laughing gulls on the airport were eating lower-nutrition food of terrestrial origin (74-83% adult beetles, mostly Oriental plus green June and ground beetles); (viii) on the other hand, gull chicks in the adjacent breeding colony were being fed more easily digested, higher-protein food of marine origin (86-88% fishes, crustacea and molluscs); (ix) laughing gulls on the airport were taking their adult beetles only in short-grass plots, ignoring large numbers in adjacent long grass; (x) during the summer, on-airport gulls shifted from performing largely maintenance activities on pavement to feeding actively for beetles on newly mown short grass, the change coinciding with adult beetle emergence; (xi) standing water on the airport attracted significantly more gulls than dry areas all summer long. 4. We recommend a series of ecologically compatible, but aggressive habitat management actions for controlling laughing gulls on Kennedy Airport by rendering the airport

  7. 14 CFR 129.21 - Control of traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of traffic. 129.21 Section 129.21... of traffic. (a) Subject to applicable immigration laws and regulations, each foreign air carrier must... communications with its aircraft and must assist station operators in directing traffic....

  8. 14 CFR 129.21 - Control of traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of traffic. 129.21 Section 129.21... of traffic. (a) Subject to applicable immigration laws and regulations, each foreign air carrier must... communications with its aircraft and must assist station operators in directing traffic....

  9. 14 CFR 129.21 - Control of traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of traffic. 129.21 Section 129.21... of traffic. (a) Subject to applicable immigration laws and regulations, each foreign air carrier must... communications with its aircraft and must assist station operators in directing traffic....

  10. 14 CFR 129.21 - Control of traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of traffic. 129.21 Section 129.21... of traffic. (a) Subject to applicable immigration laws and regulations, each foreign air carrier must... communications with its aircraft and must assist station operators in directing traffic....

  11. 14 CFR 129.21 - Control of traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of traffic. 129.21 Section 129.21... of traffic. (a) Subject to applicable immigration laws and regulations, each foreign air carrier must... communications with its aircraft and must assist station operators in directing traffic....

  12. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control order for resident Canada geese at..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.49 Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and...

  13. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control order for resident Canada geese at..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.49 Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and...

  14. An efficient method to detect periodic behavior in botnet traffic by analyzing control plane traffic

    PubMed Central

    AsSadhan, Basil; Moura, José M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Botnets are large networks of bots (compromised machines) that are under the control of a small number of bot masters. They pose a significant threat to Internet’s communications and applications. A botnet relies on command and control (C2) communications channels traffic between its members for its attack execution. C2 traffic occurs prior to any attack; hence, the detection of botnet’s C2 traffic enables the detection of members of the botnet before any real harm happens. We analyze C2 traffic and find that it exhibits a periodic behavior. This is due to the pre-programmed behavior of bots that check for updates to download them every T seconds. We exploit this periodic behavior to detect C2 traffic. The detection involves evaluating the periodogram of the monitored traffic. Then applying Walker’s large sample test to the periodogram’s maximum ordinate in order to determine if it is due to a periodic component or not. If the periodogram of the monitored traffic contains a periodic component, then it is highly likely that it is due to a bot’s C2 traffic. The test looks only at aggregate control plane traffic behavior, which makes it more scalable than techniques that involve deep packet inspection (DPI) or tracking the communication flows of different hosts. We apply the test to two types of botnet, tinyP2P and IRC that are generated by SLINGbot. We verify the periodic behavior of their C2 traffic and compare it to the results we get on real traffic that is obtained from a secured enterprise network. We further study the characteristics of the test in the presence of injected HTTP background traffic and the effect of the duty cycle on the periodic behavior. PMID:25685512

  15. Noise prediction and control of Pudong International Airport expansion project.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bin; Yang, Xin; Yang, Jianguo

    2009-04-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process of the third runway building project of Pudong International Airport is briefly introduced in the paper. The basic principle, the features, and the operation steps of newly imported FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) are discussed for evaluating the aircraft noise impacts. The prediction of the aircraft noise and the countermeasures for the noise mitigation are developed, which includes the reasonable runway location, the optimized land use, the selection of low noise aircrafts, the Fly Quit Program, the relocation of sensitive receptors and the noise insulation of sensitive buildings. Finally, the expansion project is justified and its feasibility is confirmed. PMID:18373206

  16. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  17. 49 CFR 236.828 - System, traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.828 System, traffic control. A block signal system under which train movements are authorized by block... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System, traffic control. 236.828 Section...

  18. 49 CFR 236.828 - System, traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.828 System, traffic control. A block signal system under which train movements are authorized by block... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false System, traffic control. 236.828 Section...

  19. 49 CFR 236.828 - System, traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.828 System, traffic control. A block signal system under which train movements are authorized by block... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false System, traffic control. 236.828 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 236.828 - System, traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.828 System, traffic control. A block signal system under which train movements are authorized by block... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System, traffic control. 236.828 Section...

  1. 49 CFR 236.828 - System, traffic control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.828 System, traffic control. A block signal system under which train movements are authorized by block... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false System, traffic control. 236.828 Section...

  2. Atlanta Air Route Traffic Control Center's involvement in aviation weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of weather information throughout the Air Traffic Control System is discussed along with the development of meteorological radar, and the modifications to the Air Route Traffic Control Center radars for locating and determining the severity of storms' cells. The planned improvements in the availability of weather data to the control centers are listed.

  3. Flight Testing of an Airport Surface Guidance, Navigation, and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Jones, Denise R.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes operations associated with a set of flight experiments and demonstrations using a Boeing-757-200 (B-757) research aircraft as part of low visibility landing and surface operations (LVLASO) research activities. To support this experiment, the B-757 performed flight and taxi operations at the Hartsfield-Atlanta International Airport (ATL) in Atlanta, GA. The B-757 was equipped with experimental displays that were designed to provide flight crews with sufficient information to enable safe, expedient surface operations in any weather condition down to a runway visual range (RVR) of 300 feet. In addition to flight deck displays and supporting equipment onboard the B-757, there was also a ground-based component of the system that provided for ground controller inputs and surveillance of airport surface movements. The integrated ground and airborne components resulted in a system that has the potential to significantly improve the safety and efficiency of airport surface movements particularly as weather conditions deteriorate. Several advanced technologies were employed to show the validity of the operational concept at a major airport facility, to validate flight simulation findings, and to assess each of the individual technologies performance in an airport environment. Results show that while the maturity of some of the technologies does not permit immediate implementation, the operational concept is valid and the performance is more than adequate in many areas.

  4. Advisory circular. Building for storage and maintenance of airport snow removal and ice control equipment: A guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-03-01

    Standards are suggested for an airport maintenance, storage, and snow removal equipment building that can protect the airport's investment in snow and ice control equipment, as well as in stored ice conrol materials, as well as support safe all-weather aircraft operations. It is advantageous to size the building to include storage for field lighting and other airport maintenance equipment, friction measuring equipment, rubber removal devices, and inspection or bird partol vehicles. Such buildings require site specific design, should be planned by an architectural and engineering firm familiar and airport needs and construction constraints.

  5. Performance of an Automated System for Control of Traffic in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikoleris, Tasos; Erzberger, Heinz; Paielli, Russell A.; Chu, Yung-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of a system that performs automated conflict resolution and arrival scheduling for aircraft in the terminal airspace around major airports. Such a system has the potential to perform separation assurance and arrival sequencing tasks that are currently handled manually by human controllers. The performance of the system is tested against several simulated traffic scenarios that are characterized by the rate at which air traffic is metered into the terminal airspace. For each traffic scenario, the levels of performance that are examined include: number of conflicts predicted to occur, types of resolution maneuver used to resolve predicted conflicts, and the amount of delay for all flights. The simulation results indicate that the percentage of arrivals that required a maneuver that changes the flight's horizontal route ranged between 11% and 15% in all traffic scenarios. That finding has certain implications if this automated system were to be implemented simply as a decision support tool. It is also found that arrival delay due to purely wake vortex separation requirements on final approach constituted only between 29% and 35% of total arrival delay, while the remaining major portion of it is mainly due to delay back propagation effects.

  6. Efficient Conversation: The Talk between Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, James L.

    Two-way radio communications between air traffic controllers using radar on the ground to give airplane pilots instructions are of interest within the developing framework of the sociology of language. The main purpose of air traffic control language is efficient communication to promote flight safety. This study describes the standardized format…

  7. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields. 21.49 Section 21.49 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION...

  8. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields. 21.49 Section 21.49 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION...

  9. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields. 21.49 Section 21.49 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION...

  10. Graphical User Interface Development and Design to Support Airport Runway Configuration Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Debra G.; Lenox, Michelle; Onal, Emrah; Latorella, Kara A.; Lohr, Gary W.; Le Vie, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a graphical user interface (GUI) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) System Oriented Runway Management (SORM) decision support tool to support runway management. This tool is expected to be used by traffic flow managers and supervisors in the Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) and Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) facilities.

  11. 78 FR 2347 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ...The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) is incorporated in our regulations, approved by the Federal Highway Administration, and recognized as the national standard for traffic control devices used on all streets, highways, bikeways, and private roads open to public travel. Consistent with Executive Order 13563, and in particular its emphasis on burden-reduction and on......

  12. Advanced software design and standards for traffic signal control

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, D.; Hendrickson, C. )

    1992-05-01

    Improves traffic management and control systems are widely reported to be cost-effective investments. Simply retiming signals can provide significant benefits by reducing vehicle stops, travel times, and fuel consumption. The installation of advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) can provide even greater savings. However, many hardware and software obstacles have impeded the actual implementation of advanced traffic management systems. The general hardware and software limitations of current traffic signal control technology are reviewed in this paper. The impact of these deficiencies is discussed in the context of three example applications. Based on this discussion, the paper identifies several computing issues that should be addressed in order to reduce the effort involved with integrating existing traffic control devices. Adoption of standard industrial control computing platforms and development of new communication and software engineering models are recommendrecommended.

  13. The Dynamic Planner: The Sequencer, Scheduler, and Runway Allocator for Air Traffic Control Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Gregory L.; Denery, Dallas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Dynamic Planner (DP) has been designed, implemented, and integrated into the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) to assist Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs), in real time, with the task of planning and scheduling arrival traffic approximately 35 to 200 nautical miles from the destination airport. The TMC may input to the DP a series of current and future scheduling constraints that reflect the operation and environmental conditions of the airspace. Under these constraints, the DP uses flight plans, track updates, and Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) predictions to calculate optimal runway assignments and arrival schedules that help ensure an orderly, efficient, and conflict-free flow of traffic into the terminal area. These runway assignments and schedules can be shown directly to controllers or they can be used by other CTAS tools to generate advisories to the controllers. Additionally, the TMC and controllers may override the decisions made by the DP for tactical considerations. The DP will adapt to computations to accommodate these manual inputs.

  14. An extended signal control strategy for urban network traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Tian, Fuli; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-03-01

    Traffic flow patterns are in general repeated on a daily or weekly basis. To improve the traffic conditions by using the inherent repeatability of traffic flow, a novel signal control strategy for urban networks was developed via iterative learning control (ILC) approach. Rigorous analysis shows that the proposed learning control method can guarantee the asymptotic convergence. The impacts of the ILC-based signal control strategy on the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) were analyzed by simulations on a test road network. The results show that the proposed ILC strategy can evenly distribute the accumulation in the network and improve the network mobility.

  15. Detecting Approaching Vehicles at Streets with No Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of people with visual impairments to reliably detect oncoming traffic at crossing situations with no traffic control. In at least one condition, the participants could not hear vehicles to afford a safe crossing time when sound levels were as quiet as possible. Significant predictors of detection accounted for a third of the variation in the detection time. PMID:20126414

  16. Detecting Approaching Vehicles at Streets with No Traffic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of people with visual impairments to reliably detect oncoming traffic at crossing situations with no traffic control. In at least one condition, the participants could not hear vehicles to afford a safe crossing time when sound levels were as quiet as possible. Significant predictors of detection accounted for a…

  17. An RFID-based luggage and passenger tracking system for airport security control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Kountouriotis, Vassilios I.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2014-06-01

    Market analysis studies of recent years have shown a steady and significant increase in the usage of RFID technology. Key factors for this growth were the decreased costs of passive RFIDs and their improved performance compared to the other identification technologies. Besides the benefits of RFID technologies into the supply chains, warehousing, traditional inventory and asset management applications, RFID has proven itself worth exploiting on experimental, as well as on commercial level in other sectors, such as healthcare, transport and security. In security sector, airport security is one of the biggest challenges. Airports are extremely busy public places and thus prime targets for terrorism, with aircraft, passengers, crew and airport infrastructure all subject to terrorist attacks. Inside this labyrinth of security challenges, the long range detection capability of the UHF passive RFID technology can be turned into a very important tracking tool that may outperform all the limitations of the barcode tracking inside the current airport security control chain. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos has developed an RFID based Luggage and Passenger tracking system within the TASS (FP7-SEC-2010-241905) EU research project. This paper describes application scenarios of the system categorized according to the structured nature of the environment, the system architecture and presents evaluation results extracted from measurements with a group of different massive production GEN2 UHF RFID tags that are widely available in the world market.

  18. A generic solution for unwanted traffic control through trust management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zheng; Kantola, Raimo; Shen, Yue

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has dramatically changed our daily life. But it is also bogged down by unwanted traffic, which is malicious, harmful or unexpected for its receivers. In order to control the unwanted traffic over the Internet, especially the mobile Internet, in this paper, we propose a generic unwanted traffic control (UTC) solution through trust management. It can control unwanted traffic from its source to destinations in a personalized manner according to trust evaluation at a Global Trust Operator, traffic and behavior analysis at hosts and traffic observation in the Internet. Thus, it can conduct UTC by integrating distributed and centralized functions and supporting both defensive and offensive approaches. Simulation based evaluation shows that the solution is effective with regard to accuracy and efficiency for botnet intrusion and DDoS intrusion via reflectors. It is also robust against a number of malicious system attacks, such as hide evidence attack, bad mouthing attack, on-off attack, malicious attack by an Internet Service Provider and combinations of the above, playing in conjunction with traffic intrusions. Meanwhile, the solution can provide a personalized UTC based on unwanted traffic detection behaviors.

  19. Vehicular Traffic Flow Controlled by Traffic Light on a Street with Open Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhirech, Abdelaziz; Ismaili, Assia Alaoui

    2013-08-01

    The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) cellular automata (CA) model for describing the vehicular traffic flow in a street with open boundaries is studied. To control the traffic flow, a traffic signalization light operating for a fixed-time scheme is placed in the middle of the street. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to calculate various model characteristics. Essentially, we investigate the formation of the cars queue behind traffic light dependence on the duration of green light Tg, injecting and extracting probabilities α and β, respectively. Two phases of average training queues were found. Besides, the dependence of car accident probability per site and per time step on Tg, α and β is computed.

  20. Cockpit displayed traffic information and distributed management in air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A graphical display of information (such as surrounding aircraft and navigation routes) in the cockpit on a cathode ray tube has been proposed for improving the safety, orderliness, and expeditiousness of the air traffic control system. An investigation of this method at NASA-Ames indicated a large reduction in controller verbal work load without increasing pilot verbal load; the visual work may be increased. The cockpit displayed traffic and navigation information system reduced response delays permitting pilots to maintain their spacing more closely and precisely than when depending entirely on controller-issued radar vectors and speed command.

  1. A computerized traffic control algorithm to determine optimal traffic signal settings. Ph.D. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seldner, K.

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to optimally control the traffic signals at each intersection using a discrete time traffic model applicable to heavy or peak traffic. Off line optimization procedures were applied to compute the cycle splits required to minimize the lengths of the vehicle queues and delay at each intersection. The method was applied to an extensive traffic network in Toledo, Ohio. Results obtained with the derived optimal settings are compared with the control settings presently in use.

  2. Lightweight simulation of air traffic control using simple temporal networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell

    2005-01-01

    We provide a formulation of the air traffic control problem and a solver for this problem that makes use of temporal constraint networks and simple geometric reasoning. We provide results showing that this approach is practical for realistic simulated problems.

  3. 7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system room 25 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  4. Unattended vehicle detection for automatic traffic light control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Hady, Aya Salama; Moustafa, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Machine vision based traffic light control depends mainly on measuring traffic statistics at cross roads. Most of the previous studies have not taken unattended vehicles into consideration when calculating either the traffic density or the traffic flow. In this paper, we propose incorporating unattended vehicles into a new metric for measuring the traffic congestion. In addition to the vehicle motion analysis, opening the driver's side door is an important indicator that this vehicle is going to be unattended. Therefore, we focus in this paper on presenting how to detect this event for stationary vehicles from a live camera or a video feed. Through a set of experiments, we have found out that a Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature-descriptor with a Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier was able to successfully classify open-door vehicles from closed-door ones in 96.7% of our test dataset.

  5. Traffic improvement and transportation pollution control in Xiamen

    SciTech Connect

    Dongxing Yuan; Zilin, Wu

    1996-12-31

    in this paper, the urban traffic improvement and transportation control in Xiamen are highlighted. Xiamen is a port city and an economical special zone of China. As the economy grows, the transportation is developing dramatically and becoming the key for further economic development. The air quality is threatened by the rapid growth of the vehicles in the city. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The municipal government takes great effort to improve the traffic condition, as well as to reduce green house gases and protect air environment. Some management and technical measures are carried out. Those management measures are mainly as follows: (1) systematic planning of the city arrangement and city functional division, and integrated planning of the urban roads system, (2) putting great emphasis on tail gas monitoring and management, and (3) establishing optimized utilization of motor vehicles. Those included in the main technical measures are (1) making the roads clear, (2) enlarging traffic capacity, and (3) developing the public transport. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The city municipal government and Transportation Management Bureau plan to make a series of reforms to improve the urban traffic condition, such as building high quality road around the city, reducing the number of one way roads and replacing gasoline buses with electric buses. An optimized traffic system of Xiamen, taking public transport as the main means, is the key to meet the needs of both traffic improvement and urban transportation pollution control.

  6. Automatic Data Traffic Control on DSM Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We study data traffic on distributed shared memory machines and conclude that data placement and grouping improve performance of scientific codes. We present several methods which user can employ to improve data traffic in his code. We report on implementation of a tool which detects the code fragments causing data congestions and advises user on improvements of data routing in these fragments. The capabilities of the tool include deduction of data alignment and affinity from the source code; detection of the code constructs having abnormally high cache or TLB misses; generation of data placement constructs. We demonstrate the capabilities of the tool on experiments with NAS parallel benchmarks and with a simple computational fluid dynamics application ARC3D.

  7. Miami International Airport stormwater NPDES plan

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, A.I.; Goldman, J.Z.; Schmidt, M.F.; Clark, E.E.

    1994-12-31

    Miami International Airport (MIA) is endeavoring to essentially double its traffic volume by the turn of the century. This is a great challenge since the site is already highly developed. Space, safety and other constraints make it difficult to implement conventional detention/retention stormwater practices. Other practices were evaluated to control stormwater quantity/quality, since some of the downstream bodies of water are flood-prone or environmentally sensitive.

  8. Air-Traffic Controllers Evaluate The Descent Advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard; Volckers, Uwe; Erzberger, Heinz

    1992-01-01

    Report describes study of Descent Advisor algorithm: software automation aid intended to assist air-traffic controllers in spacing traffic and meeting specified times or arrival. Based partly on mathematical models of weather conditions and performances of aircraft, it generates suggested clearances, including top-of-descent points and speed-profile data to attain objectives. Study focused on operational characteristics with specific attention to how it can be used for prediction, spacing, and metering.

  9. Visual Features Involving Motion Seen from Airport Control Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Liston, Dorion

    2010-01-01

    Visual motion cues are used by tower controllers to support both visual and anticipated separation. Some of these cues are tabulated as part of the overall set of visual features used in towers to separate aircraft. An initial analyses of one motion cue, landing deceleration, is provided as a basis for evaluating how controllers detect and use it for spacing aircraft on or near the surface. Understanding cues like it will help determine if they can be safely used in a remote/virtual tower in which their presentation may be visually degraded.

  10. Virtual Airport Simulation Technology: Perceptions of Airport Operations Initial Training Program Variables and Effectiveness for Airside Professional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCarlo, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Air travel is expected to grow by a factor of 2 to 3 times by 2025 and people working in the aviation system, including airport personnel, pilots, and air traffic controllers, must be able to safely and efficiently operate in this arena ("NextGen"). In response to the personnel training and education requirements concomitant with "NextGen,"…

  11. Evaluation of Intersection Traffic Control Measures through Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaithambi, Gowri; Sivanandan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling traffic flow is stochastic in nature due to randomness in variables such as vehicle arrivals and speeds. Due to this and due to complex vehicular interactions and their manoeuvres, it is extremely difficult to model the traffic flow through analytical methods. To study this type of complex traffic system and vehicle interactions, simulation is considered as an effective tool. Application of homogeneous traffic models to heterogeneous traffic may not be able to capture the complex manoeuvres and interactions in such flows. Hence, a microscopic simulation model for heterogeneous traffic is developed using object oriented concepts. This simulation model acts as a tool for evaluating various control measures at signalized intersections. The present study focuses on the evaluation of Right Turn Lane (RTL) and Channelised Left Turn Lane (CLTL). A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate RTL and CLTL by varying the approach volumes, turn proportions and turn lane lengths. RTL is found to be advantageous only up to certain approach volumes and right-turn proportions, beyond which it is counter-productive. CLTL is found to be advantageous for lower approach volumes for all turn proportions, signifying the benefits of CLTL. It is counter-productive for higher approach volume and lower turn proportions. This study pinpoints the break-even points for various scenarios. The developed simulation model can be used as an appropriate intersection lane control tool for enhancing the efficiency of flow at intersections. This model can also be employed for scenario analysis and can be valuable to field traffic engineers in implementing vehicle-type based and lane-based traffic control measures.

  12. Measurement of Temporal Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal awareness, or level 3 situation awareness, is critical to successful control of air traffic, yet the construct remains ill-defined and difficult to measure. This research sought evidence for air traffic controllers awareness of temporal characteristics of their tasks in data from a high-fidelity system evaluation simulation. Five teams of controllers worked on four scenarios with different traffic load. Several temporal parameters were defined for each task controllers performed during a simulation run and their actions on the tasks were timed relative to them. Controllers showed a strong tendency to prioritize tasks according to a first come, first served principle. This trend persisted as task load increased. Also evident was awareness of the urgency of tasks, as tasks with impending closing of a window of opportunity were performed before tasks that had longer time available before closing of the window.

  13. Supporting the Future Air Traffic Control Projection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In air traffic control, projecting what the air traffic situation will be over the next 30 seconds to 30 minutes is a key process in identifying conflicts that may arise so that evasive action can be taken upon discovery of these conflicts. A series of field visits in the Boston and New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON) facilities and in the oceanic air traffic control facilities in New York and Reykjavik, Iceland were conducted to investigate the projection process in two different ATC domains. The results from the site visits suggest that two types of projection are currently used in ATC tasks, depending on the type of separation minima and/or traffic restriction and information display used by the controller. As technologies improve and procedures change, care should be taken by designers to support projection through displays, automation, and procedures. It is critical to prevent time/space mismatches between interfaces and restrictions. Existing structure in traffic dynamics could be utilized to provide controllers with useful behavioral models on which to build projections. Subtle structure that the controllers are unable to internalize could be incorporated into an ATC projection aid.

  14. 23 CFR 630.1110 - Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. 630... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Temporary Traffic Control Devices § 630.1110 Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. To provide for the continued effectiveness of...

  15. 23 CFR 630.1110 - Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. 630... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Temporary Traffic Control Devices § 630.1110 Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. To provide for the continued effectiveness of...

  16. 23 CFR 630.1110 - Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. 630... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Temporary Traffic Control Devices § 630.1110 Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. To provide for the continued effectiveness of...

  17. 23 CFR 630.1110 - Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. 630... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Temporary Traffic Control Devices § 630.1110 Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. To provide for the continued effectiveness of...

  18. Optimal Control of Hybrid Systems in Air Traffic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamgarpour, Maryam

    Growing concerns over the scalability of air traffic operations, air transportation fuel emissions and prices, as well as the advent of communication and sensing technologies motivate improvements to the air traffic management system. To address such improvements, in this thesis a hybrid dynamical model as an abstraction of the air traffic system is considered. Wind and hazardous weather impacts are included using a stochastic model. This thesis focuses on the design of algorithms for verification and control of hybrid and stochastic dynamical systems and the application of these algorithms to air traffic management problems. In the deterministic setting, a numerically efficient algorithm for optimal control of hybrid systems is proposed based on extensions of classical optimal control techniques. This algorithm is applied to optimize the trajectory of an Airbus 320 aircraft in the presence of wind and storms. In the stochastic setting, the verification problem of reaching a target set while avoiding obstacles (reach-avoid) is formulated as a two-player game to account for external agents' influence on system dynamics. The solution approach is applied to air traffic conflict prediction in the presence of stochastic wind. Due to the uncertainty in forecasts of the hazardous weather, and hence the unsafe regions of airspace for aircraft flight, the reach-avoid framework is extended to account for stochastic target and safe sets. This methodology is used to maximize the probability of the safety of aircraft paths through hazardous weather. Finally, the problem of modeling and optimization of arrival air traffic and runway configuration in dense airspace subject to stochastic weather data is addressed. This problem is formulated as a hybrid optimal control problem and is solved with a hierarchical approach that decouples safety and performance. As illustrated with this problem, the large scale of air traffic operations motivates future work on the efficient

  19. Airport noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of airport noise at several airports and air bases is detailed. Community reactions to the noise, steps taken to reduce jet engine noise, and the effect of airport use restrictions and curfews on air transportation are discussed. The adverse effect of changes in allowable operational noise on airport safety and altenative means for reducing noise pollution are considered. Community-airport relations and public relations are discussed.

  20. Surveying air traffic control specialist perception of scheduling regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darrius E.

    While there have been several studies conducted on air traffic controller fatigue, there is a lack of research on the subject since the scheduling policy changes that took place in 2012. The effectiveness of these changes has yet to be measured. The goal of this study was to investigate air traffic control specialist views towards the number of hours scheduled between shifts, changes in perception since 2012 regulation changes, and external factors that impact fatigue. A total of 54 FAA air traffic control specialist completed an online questionnaire. The results from the survey showed that the majority of respondents felt the 2012 regulation changes were not sufficient to address fatigue issues, and work with some amount sleep deprivation. The factors that appeared to have the most significant effect on fatigue included facility level, age group, availability of recuperative breaks, and children under 18 in the home.

  1. Speed limit and ramp meter control for traffic flow networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goatin, Paola; Göttlich, Simone; Kolb, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The control of traffic flow can be related to different applications. In this work, a method to manage variable speed limits combined with coordinated ramp metering within the framework of the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) network model is introduced. Following a 'first-discretize-then-optimize' approach, the first order optimality system is derived and the switch of speeds at certain fixed points in time is explained, together with the boundary control for the ramp metering. Sequential quadratic programming methods are used to solve the control problem numerically. For application purposes, experimental setups are presented wherein variable speed limits are used as a traffic guidance system to avoid traffic jams on highway interchanges and on-ramps.

  2. Cognitive Task Analysis of Prioritization in Air Traffic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Richard E.; And Others

    A cognitive task analysis was performed to analyze the key cognitive components of the en route air traffic controllers' jobs. The goals were to ascertain expert mental models and decision-making strategies and to identify important differences in controller knowledge, skills, and mental models as a function of expertise. Four groups of…

  3. Traffic behavior of mixed traffic flow with two kinds of different self-stabilizing control vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhipeng; Li, Wenzhong; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing; Sun, Jian

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a heterogeneous car following model in terms of an extension to the original optimal velocity model characterizing two classes of different self-stabilizing control vehicles. Linear stability analysis method is utilized to the extended model, for purpose to explore how the varying percentages of the vehicles with short-duration self-stabilizing control influence the stability of the heterogeneous traffic flow. We obtain the neutral stability lines for different percentages of two classes of vehicles, with finding that the traffic flow trends to stable with the decrease of the percentage for short-duration self-stabilizing control vehicles. Moreover, we explore a special case that the same numbers of two different classes of vehicles with self-stabilizing control. We theoretically derive the stability condition of the special case, and conclude the effect of the average value and the standard deviation of two time gaps, on the heterogeneous traffic stability. At last, direct simulations are conducted to verify the conclusion of theoretical analysis.

  4. Automated mixed traffic vehicle control and scheduling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1976-01-01

    The operation and the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low speed automated mixed traffic vehicles (AMTVs) were analyzed. Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies were evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed traffic interference on the average vehicle speed was examined with a vehicle pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed were evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort. Some preliminary data on the cost and operation of an experimental AMTV system are included. These data were the result of a separate task conducted at JPL, and were included as background information.

  5. Vehicular motion in 2D city traffic network with signals controlled by phase shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komada, Kazuhito; Kojima, Kengo; Nagatani, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    We study the dynamic behavior of vehicular traffic through the series of traffic lights controlled by phase shift in two-dimensional (2D) city traffic network. The nonlinear-map model is presented for the vehicular traffic. The city traffic network is made of one-way perpendicular streets arranged in a square lattice with traffic signals where vertical streets are oriented upwards and horizontal streets are oriented rightwards. There are two traffic lights for the movement to north or that to east at each crossing. The traffic lights are controlled by the cycle time, split, and phase shift. The vehicle moves through the series of signals on a path selected by the driver. The city traffic with a heterogeneous density distribution is also studied. The dependence of the arrival time on cycle time, split, phase shift, selected path, and density is clarified for 2D city traffic. It is shown that the vehicular traffic is efficiently controlled by the phase shift.

  6. A Sarsa(λ)-based control model for real-time traffic light coordination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoke; Zhu, Fei; Liu, Quan; Fu, Yuchen; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ)-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ)-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control. PMID:24592183

  7. Transforming the NAS: The Next Generation Air Traffic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    The next-generation air traffic control system must be designed to safely and efficiently accommodate the large growth of traffic expected in the near future. It should be sufficiently scalable to contend with the factor of 2 or more increase in demand expected by the year 2020. Analysis has shown that the current method of controlling air traffic cannot be scaled up to provide such levels of capacity. Therefore, to achieve a large increase in capacity while also giving pilots increased freedom to optimize their flight trajectories requires a fundamental change in the way air traffic is controlled. The key to achieving a factor of 2 or more increase in airspace capacity is to automate separation monitoring and control and to use an air-ground data link to send trajectories and clearances directly between ground-based and airborne systems. In addition to increasing capacity and offering greater flexibility in the selection of trajectories, this approach also has the potential to increase safety by reducing controller and pilot errors that occur in routine monitoring and voice communication tasks.

  8. Stability analysis of traffic flow with extended CACC control models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ya-Zhou, Zheng; Rong-Jun, Cheng; Siu-Ming, Lo; Hong-Xia, Ge

    2016-06-01

    To further investigate car-following behaviors in the cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategy, a comprehensive control system which can handle three traffic conditions to guarantee driving efficiency and safety is designed by using three CACC models. In this control system, some vital comprehensive information, such as multiple preceding cars’ speed differences and headway, variable safety distance (VSD) and time-delay effect on the traffic current and the jamming transition have been investigated via analytical or numerical methods. Local and string stability criterion for the velocity control (VC) model and gap control (GC) model are derived via linear stability theory. Numerical simulations are conducted to study the performance of the simulated traffic flow. The simulation results show that the VC model and GC model can improve driving efficiency and suppress traffic congestion. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71571107 and 11302110). The Scientific Research Fund of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant Nos. LY15A020007, LY15E080013, and LY16G010003). The Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo City (Grant Nos. 2014A610030 and 2015A610299), the Fund from the Government of the Hong Kong Administrative Region, China (Grant No. CityU11209614), and the K C Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  9. Coarse-to-fine wavelet-based airport detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Wang, Shuigen; Pang, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Baojun

    2015-10-01

    Airport detection on optical remote sensing images has attracted great interest in the applications of military optics scout and traffic control. However, most of the popular techniques for airport detection from optical remote sensing images have three weaknesses: 1) Due to the characteristics of optical images, the detection results are often affected by imaging conditions, like weather situation and imaging distortion; and 2) optical images contain comprehensive information of targets, so that it is difficult for extracting robust features (e.g., intensity and textural information) to represent airport area; 3) the high resolution results in large data volume, which makes real-time processing limited. Most of the previous works mainly focus on solving one of those problems, and thus, the previous methods cannot achieve the balance of performance and complexity. In this paper, we propose a novel coarse-to-fine airport detection framework to solve aforementioned three issues using wavelet coefficients. The framework includes two stages: 1) an efficient wavelet-based feature extraction is adopted for multi-scale textural feature representation, and support vector machine(SVM) is exploited for classifying and coarsely deciding airport candidate region; and then 2) refined line segment detection is used to obtain runway and landing field of airport. Finally, airport recognition is achieved by applying the fine runway positioning to the candidate regions. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of detection accuracy and processing efficiency.

  10. Automated Traffic Management System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J. (Inventor); Spirkovska, Liljana (Inventor); McDermott, William J. (Inventor); Reisman, Ronald J. (Inventor); Gibson, James (Inventor); Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A data management system and method that enables acquisition, integration, and management of real-time data generated at different rates, by multiple heterogeneous incompatible data sources. The system achieves this functionality by using an expert system to fuse data from a variety of airline, airport operations, ramp control, and air traffic control tower sources, to establish and update reference data values for every aircraft surface operation. The system may be configured as a real-time airport surface traffic management system (TMS) that electronically interconnects air traffic control, airline data, and airport operations data to facilitate information sharing and improve taxi queuing. In the TMS operational mode, empirical data shows substantial benefits in ramp operations for airlines, reducing departure taxi times by about one minute per aircraft in operational use, translating as $12 to $15 million per year savings to airlines at the Atlanta, Georgia airport. The data management system and method may also be used for scheduling the movement of multiple vehicles in other applications, such as marine vessels in harbors and ports, trucks or railroad cars in ports or shipping yards, and railroad cars in switching yards. Finally, the data management system and method may be used for managing containers at a shipping dock, stock on a factory floor or in a warehouse, or as a training tool for improving situational awareness of FAA tower controllers, ramp and airport operators, or commercial airline personnel in airfield surface operations.

  11. Evolution of Chinese airport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Cao, Xian-Bin; Du, Wen-Bo; Cai, Kai-Quan

    2010-09-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and the accelerated globalization process, the aviation industry plays a more and more critical role in today’s world, in both developed and developing countries. As the infrastructure of aviation industry, the airport network is one of the most important indicators of economic growth. In this paper, we investigate the evolution of the Chinese airport network (CAN) via complex network theory. It is found that although the topology of CAN has remained steady during the past few years, there are many dynamic switchings inside the network, which have changed the relative importance of airports and airlines. Moreover, we investigate the evolution of traffic flow (passengers and cargoes) on CAN. It is found that the traffic continues to grow in an exponential form and has evident seasonal fluctuations. We also found that cargo traffic and passenger traffic are positively related but the correlations are quite different for different kinds of cities.

  12. Planes, Politics and Oral Proficiency: Testing International Air Traffic Controllers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the variation in oral proficiency demonstrated by 14 Air Traffic Controllers across two types of testing tasks: work-related radio telephony-based tasks and non-specific English tasks on aviation topics. Their performance was compared statistically in terms of level ratings on the International Civil Aviation Organization…

  13. Trainer Interventions as Instructional Strategies in Air Traffic Control Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskela, Inka; Palukka, Hannele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify methods of guidance and supervision used in air traffic control training. It also aims to show how these methods facilitate trainee participation in core work activities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper applies the tools of conversation analysis and ethnomethodology to explore the ways in which trainers…

  14. Initial Air Traffic Control Training at Tartu Aviation College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulbas, Tanel

    1997-01-01

    Development of an air traffic control (ATC) training course at Tartu Aviation College in Estonia had to start at ground zero, creating new rules and regulations for ATC, writing special study materials, building simulators, and finding enough applicants with sufficient English skills. (SK)

  15. A Course in English for Air Traffic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Paul; Thompson, Lesley

    A description is provided of a course, developed by the British Council in Madrid, Spain, to improve the English language training for trainee air traffic services personnel as a result of an increased demand for trained controllers over the next few years. The course aims to teach students in the areas of standard radiotelephony, non-routine…

  16. Second Careers: The Air Traffic Controller Experience and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Michael D.

    1978-01-01

    Second careers are examined from an organizational viewpoint, and new directions for education-work policy, suggested by a unique second career program of the Federal Aviation Administration for air traffic controllers, are explored. Focus is on age, organizational and training factors, and community involvement. (Author/JMD)

  17. The use of speech technology in air traffic control simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. A.; Hobbs, G. R.; Howes, J. R.; Cope, N.

    The advantages of applying speech technology to air traffic control (ATC) simulators are discussed with emphasis placed on the simulation of the pilot end of the pilot-controller dialog. Speech I/O in an ATC simulator is described as well as technology capability, and research on an electronic blip driver. It is found that the system is easier to use and performs better for less experienced controllers.

  18. Pilot and Controller Workload and Situation Awareness with Three Traffic Management Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Kraut, Joshua; Bacon, Paige; Minakata, Katsumi; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on workload and situation awareness of pilots and controllers participating in a human-in-the-loop simulation using three different distributed air-ground traffic management concepts. Eight experimental pilots started the scenario in an en-route phase of flight and were asked to avoid convective weather while performing spacing and merging tasks along with a continuous descent approach (CDA) into Louisville Standiford Airport (SDF). Two controllers managed the sectors through which the pilots flew, with one managing a sector that included the Top of Descent, and the other managing a sector that included the merge point for arrival into SDF. At 3-minute intervals in the scenario, pilots and controllers were probed on their workload or situation awareness. We employed one of three concepts of operation that distributed separation responsibility across human controllers, pilots, and automation to measure changes in operator situation awareness and workload. We found that when pilots were responsible for separation, they had higher levels of awareness, but not necessarily higher levels of workload. When controllers are responsible and actively engaged, they showed higher workload levels compared to pilots and changes in awareness that were dependent on sector characteristics.

  19. Airport Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan Paluska/Flickr Denver Airport Security Screening Introduction With air travel regaining popularity and increased secu- rity measures, airport security screening has become an area of interest for ...

  20. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-09-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  1. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-08-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  2. Operational Characteristics Identification and Simulation Model Verification for Incheon International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eun, Yeonju; Jeon, Daekeun; Lee, Hanbong; Zhu, Zhifan; Jung, Yoon C.; Jeong, Myeongsook; Kim, Hyounkyong; Oh, Eunmi; Hong, Sungkwon; Lee, Junwon

    2016-01-01

    Incheon International Airport (ICN) is one of the hub airports in East Asia. Airport operations at ICN have been growing more than 5 percent per year in the past five years. According to the current airport expansion plan, a new passenger terminal will be added and the current cargo ramp will be expanded in 2018. This expansion project will bring 77 new stands without adding a new runway to the airport. Due to such continuous growth in airport operations and future expansion of the ramps, it will be highly likely that airport surface traffic will experience more congestion, and therefore, suffer from efficiency degradation. There is a growing awareness in aviation research community of need for strategic and tactical surface scheduling capabilities for efficient airport surface operations. Specific to ICN airport operations, a need for A-CDM (Airport - Collaborative Decision Making) or S-CDM (Surface - Collaborative Decision Making), and controller decision support tools for efficient air traffic management has arisen since several years ago. In the United States, there has been independent research efforts made by academia, industry, and government research organizations to enhance efficiency and predictability of surface operations at busy airports. Among these research activities, the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) developed and tested by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a decision support tool to provide tactical advisories to the controllers for efficient surface operations. The effectiveness of SARDA concept, was successfully verified through the human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations for both spot release and runway operations advisories for ATC Tower controllers of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) in 2010 and 2012, and gate pushback advisories for the ramp controller of Charlotte-Douglas International Airport (CLT) in 2014. The SARDA concept for tactical surface scheduling is further enhanced and is being

  3. Operational Characteristics Identification and Simulation Model Verification for Incheon International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eun, Yeonju; Jeon, Daekeun; Lee, Hanbong; Zhu, Zhifan; Jung, Yoon C.; Jeong, Myeongsook; Kim, Hyounkyong; Oh, Eunmi; Hong, Sungkwon; Lee, Junwon

    2016-01-01

    Incheon International Airport (ICN) is one of the hub airports in East Asia. Airport operations at ICN have been growing more than 5% per year in the past five years. According to the current airport expansion plan, a new passenger terminal will be added and the current cargo ramp will be expanded in 2018. This expansion project will bring 77 new stands without adding a new runway to the airport. Due to such continuous growth in airport operations and future expansion of the ramps, it will be highly likely that airport surface traffic will experience more congestion, and therefore, suffer from efficiency degradation. There is a growing awareness in aviation research community of need for strategic and tactical surface scheduling capabilities for efficient airport surface operations. Specific to ICN airport operations, a need for A-CDM (Airport - Collaborative Decision Making) or S-CDM(Surface - Collaborative Decision Making), and controller decision support tools for efficient air traffic management has arisen since several years ago. In the United States, there has been independent research efforts made by academia, industry, and government research organizations to enhance efficiency and predictability of surface operations at busy airports. Among these research activities, the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) developed and tested by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a decision support tool to provide tactical advisories to the controllers for efficient surface operations. The effectiveness of SARDA concept, was successfully verified through the human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations for both spot release and runway operations advisories for ATC Tower controllers of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) in 2010 and 2012, and gate pushback advisories for the ramp controller of Charlotte/Douglas International Airport (CLT) in 2014. The SARDA concept for tactical surface scheduling is further enhanced and is being integrated into

  4. 76 FR 46213 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... compromised based on engineering judgment or engineering study.'' \\1\\ 74 FR 66732, December 16, 2009. This... numbered accordingly. \\2\\ 75 FR 20935, April 22, 2010. This Federal Register notice can be viewed at the... Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways; Revision AGENCY:...

  5. 75 FR 20935 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Printing Office's Web page at: http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara . Background On December 21, 2007, at 72 FR... retroreflectivity final rule was published in the Federal Register at 72 FR 72574 on December 21, 2007, and can be... Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways; Maintaining...

  6. 77 FR 28460 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... dates. \\1\\ 75 FR 74128, November 30, 2010. After reviewing and considering the nearly 600 letters... Notice of Proposed Amendments (NPA), proposing revisions to the MUTCD at 76 FR 54156. The NPA proposed to..., 2010, request for comments on traffic control compliance dates published at 75 FR 74128. As a...

  7. Effect of Dynamic Sector Boundary Changes on Air Traffic Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Jaewoo; Lee, Paul; Kessell, Angela; Homola, Jeff; Zelinski, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    The effect of dynamic sector boundary changes on air traffic controller workload was investigated with data from a human-in-the-loop simulation. Multiple boundary changes were made during simulated operations, and controller rating of workload was recorded. Analysis of these data showed an increase of 16.9% in controller workload due to boundary changes. This increased workload was correlated with the number of aircraft handoffs and change in sector volume. There was also a 12.7% increase in average workload due to the changed sector design after boundary changes. This increase was correlated to traffic flow crossing points getting closer to sector boundaries and an increase in the number of flights with short dwell time in a sector. This study has identified some of the factors that affect controller workload when sector boundaries are changed, but more research is needed to better understand their relationships.

  8. Simulating Human Cognition in the Domain of Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Experiments intended to assess performance in human-machine interactions are often prohibitively expensive, unethical or otherwise impractical to run. Approximations of experimental results can be obtained, in principle, by simulating the behavior of subjects using computer models of human mental behavior. Computer simulation technology has been developed for this purpose. Our goal is to produce a cognitive model suitable to guide the simulation machinery and enable it to closely approximate a human subject's performance in experimental conditions. The described model is designed to simulate a variety of cognitive behaviors involved in routine air traffic control. As the model is elaborated, our ability to predict the effects of novel circumstances on controller error rates and other performance characteristics should increase. This will enable the system to project the impact of proposed changes to air traffic control procedures and equipment on controller performance.

  9. Individual Markers of Resilience in Train Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Julia C.; Pluyter, Kari R.; Meijer, Sebastiaan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual markers of resilience and obtain quantitative insights into the understanding and the implications of variation and expertise levels in train traffic operators’ goals and strategic mental models and their impact on performance. Background: The Dutch railways are one of the world’s most heavy utilized railway networks and have been identified to be weak in system and organizational resilience. Method: Twenty-two train traffic controllers enacted two scenarios in a human-in-the-loop simulator. Their experience, goals, strategic mental models, and performance were assessed through questionnaires and simulator logs. Goals were operationalized through performance indicators and strategic mental models through train completion strategies. Results: A variation was found between operators for both self-reported primary performance indicators and completion strategies. Further, the primary goal of only 14% of the operators reflected the primary organizational goal (i.e., arrival punctuality). An incongruence was also found between train traffic controllers’ self-reported performance indicators and objective performance in a more disrupted condition. The level of experience tends to affect performance differently. Conclusion: There is a gap between primary organizational goals and preferred individual goals. Further, the relative strong diversity in primary operator goals and strategic mental models indicates weak resilience at the individual level. Application: With recent and upcoming large-scale changes throughout the sociotechnical space of the railway infrastructure organization, the findings are useful to facilitate future railway traffic control and the development of a resilient system. PMID:26721290

  10. Conflict-free trajectory planning for air traffic control automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slattery, Rhonda; Green, Steve

    1994-01-01

    As the traffic demand continues to grow within the National Airspace System (NAS), the need for long-range planning (30 minutes plus) of arrival traffic increases greatly. Research into air traffic control (ATC) automation at ARC has led to the development of the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS). CTAS determines optimum landing schedules for arrival traffic and assists controllers in meeting those schedules safely and efficiently. One crucial element in the development of CTAS is the capability to perform long-range (20 minutes) and short-range (5 minutes) conflict prediction and resolution once landing schedules are determined. The determination of conflict-free trajectories within the Center airspace is particularly difficult because of large variations in speed and altitude. The paper describes the current design and implementation of the conflict prediction and resolution tools used to generate CTAS advisories in Center airspace. Conflict criteria (separation requirements) are defined and the process of separation prediction is described. The major portion of the paper will describe the current implementation of CTAS conflict resolution algorithms in terms of the degrees of freedom for resolutions as well as resolution search techniques. The tools described in this paper have been implemented in a research system designed to rapidly develop and evaluate prototype concepts and will form the basis for an operational ATC automation system.

  11. Voice data entry in air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Donald W.

    1977-01-01

    Several of the keyboard data languages were tabulated and analyzed. The key language chosen as a test vehicle was that used by the nonradar or flight data controllers. This application was undertaken to minimize effort in a cost efficient way and with less research and development.

  12. Learning styles: The learning methods of air traffic control students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Dontae L.

    In the world of aviation, air traffic controllers are an integral part in the overall level of safety that is provided. With a number of controllers reaching retirement age, the Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) was created to provide a stronger candidate pool. However, AT-CTI Instructors have found that a number of AT-CTI students are unable to memorize types of aircraft effectively. This study focused on the basic learning styles (auditory, visual, and kinesthetic) of students and created a teaching method to try to increase memorization in AT-CTI students. The participants were asked to take a questionnaire to determine their learning style. Upon knowing their learning styles, participants attended two classroom sessions. The participants were given a presentation in the first class, and divided into a control and experimental group for the second class. The control group was given the same presentation from the first classroom session while the experimental group had a group discussion and utilized Middle Tennessee State University's Air Traffic Control simulator to learn the aircraft types. Participants took a quiz and filled out a survey, which tested the new teaching method. An appropriate statistical analysis was applied to determine if there was a significant difference between the control and experimental groups. The results showed that even though the participants felt that the method increased their learning, there was no significant difference between the two groups.

  13. Proposal of Wireless Traffic Control Schemes for Wireless LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraguri, Takefumi; Ichikawa, Takeo; Iizuka, Masataka; Kubota, Shuji

    This paper proposes two traffic control schemes to support the communication quality of multimedia streaming services such as VoIP and audio/video over IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN systems. The main features of the proposed scheme are bandwidth control for each flow of the multimedia streaming service and load balancing between access points (APs) of the wireless LAN by using information of data link, network and transport layers. The proposed schemes are implemented on a Linux machine which is called the wireless traffic controller (WTC). The WTC connects a high capacity backbone network and an access network to which the APs are attached. We evaluated the performance of the proposed WTC and confirmed that the communication quality of the multimedia streaming would be greatly improved by using this technique.

  14. Differentiated control of web traffic: a numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang; Matta, Ibrahim

    2002-07-01

    Internet measurements show that the size distribution of Web-based transactions is usually very skewed; a few large requests constitute most of the total traffic. Motivated by the advantages of scheduling algorithms which favor short jobs, we propose to perform differentiated control over Web-based transactions to give preferential service to short web requests. The control is realized through service semantics provided by Internet Traffic Managers, a Diffserv-like architecture. To evaluate the performance of such a control system, it is necessary to have a fast but accurate analytical method. To this end, we model the Internet as a time-shared system and propose a numerical approach which utilizes Kleinrock's conservation law to solve the model. The numerical results are shown to match well those obtained by packet-level simulation, which runs orders of magnitude slower than our numerical method.

  15. Methods for Determining Aircraft Surface State at Lesser-Equipped Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Keenan; Null, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Tactical departure scheduling within a terminal airspace must accommodate a wide spectrum of surveillance and communication capabilities at multiple airports. The success of such a scheduler is highly dependent upon the knowledge of a departure's state while it is still on the surface. Airports within a common Terminal RAdar CONtrol (TRACON) airspace possess varying levels of surface surveillance infrastructure which directly impacts uncertainties in wheels-off times. Large airports have access to surface surveillance data, which is shared with the TRACON, while lesser-equipped airports still rely solely on controllers in Air Traffic Control Towers (Towers). Coordination between TRACON and Towers can be greatly enhanced when the TRACON controller has access to the surface surveillance and the associated decision-support tools at well-equipped airports. Similar coordination at lesser-equipped airports is still based on verbal communications. This paper investigates possible methods to reduce the uncertainty in wheels-off time predictions at the lesser-equipped airports through the novel use of Over-the-Air (OTA) data transmissions. We also discuss the methods and equipment used to collect sample data at lesser-equipped airports within a large US TRACON, as well as the data evaluation to determine if meaningful information can be extracted from it.

  16. Stabilization of traffic flow in optimal velocity model via delayed-feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yanfei; Hu, Haiyan

    2013-04-01

    Traffic jams may occur due to various reasons, such as traffic accidents, lane reductions and on-ramps. In order to suppress the traffic congestion in an optimal velocity traffic model without any driver's delay taken into account, a delayed-feedback control of both displacement and velocity differences is proposed in this study. By using the delay-independent stability criteria and the H∞-norm, the delayed-feedback control can be determined to stabilize the unstable traffic flow and suppress the traffic jam. The numerical case studies are given to demonstrate and verify the new control method. Furthermore, a comparison is made between the new control method and the method proposed by Konishi et al. [K. Konishi, M. Hirai, H. Kokame, Decentralized delayed-feedback control of an optimal velocity traffic model, Eur. Phys. J. B 15 (2000) 715-722]. The results show that the new control method makes the traffic flow more stable and improves the control performance.

  17. Controlling traffic jams by time modulating the safety distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Gorria, C.; Berkemer, R.; Kawamoto, A.; Shiga, T.; Christiansen, P. L.; Sørensen, M. P.; Starke, J.

    2013-10-01

    The possibility of controlling traffic dynamics by applying high-frequency time modulation of traffic flow parameters is studied. It is shown that the region of the car density where the uniform (free) flow is unstable changes in the presence of time modulation compared with the unmodulated case. This region shrinks when the speed-up of cars does not exceed some critical value and expands in the opposite case. The flux of the time-modulated flow is an increasing function of the amplitude of the modulation for traffic flows whose density is larger than 1/h where h is the safety distance in the nonmodulated case, while it is a decreasing function in the opposite case. In other words, the safety distance time modulation facilitates car propagation in the case when the mean distance between cars in the congestive traffic is less than h and hinders it when the neighboring cars in the flow are well separated. A link between a microscopic description and the macroscopic fundamental diagram is established.

  18. Free flight: air traffic control evolution or revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Karl

    1996-05-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry are moving towards a more flexible, user oriented air traffic control system. The question is: does this point to a natural evolution or revolution in the world of the air traffic controllers? The National Airspace System is by all accounts the safest in the world. How will we sustain this record of performance with increased flexibility and user involvement? How will controllers and pilots react to a new more dynamic paradigm? Is the current state of automation, modeling, and analysis what is needed to make Free Flight a reality? How will the FAA insure that all human factors questions are answered before implementation? How will we quantify the impact of unanswered questions and their influence on safety? These, and many more questions need to be answered to ensure that the benefits promised by Free Flight are realized by all parties. The National Air Traffic Controllers Association supports the new concept. Yet, we are seriously concerned about the actual implementation of Free Flight's various components.

  19. Control techniques for an automated mixed traffic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meisenholder, G. W.; Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes an automated mixed traffic vehicle (AMTV), a driverless low-speed tram designed to operate in mixed pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The vehicle is a six-passenger electric tram equipped with sensing and control which permit it to function on existing streets in an automatic mode. The design includes established wire-following techniques for steering and near-IR headway sensors. A 7-mph cruise speed is reduced to 2 mph or a complete stop in response to sensor (or passenger) inputs. The AMTV performance is evaluated by operation on a loop route and by simulation. Some necessary improvements involving sensors, sensor pattern, use of an audible signal, and control lag are discussed. It is suggested that appropriate modifications will eliminate collision incidents.

  20. An analysis of landing rates and separations at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Erzberger, Heinz

    1996-01-01

    Advanced air traffic management systems such as the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) should yield a wide range of benefits, including reduced aircraft delays and controller workload. To determine the traffic-flow benefits achievable from future terminal airspace automation, live radar information was used to perform an analysis of current aircraft landing rates and separations at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. Separation statistics that result when controllers balance complex control procedural constraints in order to maintain high landing rates are presented. In addition, the analysis estimates the potential for airport capacity improvements by determining the unused landing opportunities that occur during rush traffic periods. Results suggest a large potential for improving the accuracy and consistency of spacing between arrivals on final approach, and they support earlier simulation findings that improved air traffic management would increase capacity and reduce delays.

  1. A Vision of the Future Air Traffic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2000-01-01

    The air transportation system is on the verge of gridlock, with delays and cancelled flights this summer reaching all time highs. As demand for air transportation continues to increase, the capacity needed to accommodate the growth in traffic is falling farther and farther behind. Moreover, it has become increasingly apparent that the present system cannot be scaled up to provide the capacity increases needed to meet demand over the next 25 years. NASA, working with the Federal Aviation Administration and industry, is pursuing a major research program to develop air traffic management technologies that have the ultimate goal of doubling capacity while increasing safety and efficiency. This seminar will describe how the current system operates, what its limitations are and why a revolutionary "shift in paradigm" is needed to overcome fundamental limitations in capacity and safety. For the near term, NASA has developed a portfolio of software tools for air traffic controllers, called the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS), that provides modest gains in capacity and efficiency while staying within the current paradigm. The outline of a concept for the long term, with a deployment date of 2015 at the earliest, has recently been formulated and presented by NASA to a select group of industry and government stakeholders. Automated decision making software, combined with an Internet in the sky that enables sharing of information and distributes control between the cockpit and the ground, is key to this concept. However, its most revolutionary feature is a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities assigned to air traffic controllers.

  2. Air traffic control by distributed management in a MLS environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Hart, S.

    1977-01-01

    The microwave landing system (MLS) is a technically feasible means for increasing runway capacity since it could support curved approaches to a short final. The shorter the final segment of the approach, the wider the variety of speed mixes possible so that theoretically, capacity would ultimately be limited by runway occupance time only. An experiment contrasted air traffic control in a MLS environment under a centralized form of management and under distributed management which was supported by a traffic situation display in each of the 3 piloted simulators. Objective flight data, verbal communication and subjective responses were recorded on 18 trial runs lasting about 20 minutes each. The results were in general agreement with previous distributed management research. In particular, distributed management permitted a smaller spread of intercrossing times and both pilots and controllers perceived distributed management as the more 'ideal' system in this task. It is concluded from this and previous research that distributed management offers a viable alternative to centralized management with definite potential for dealing with dense traffic in a safe, orderly and expeditious manner.

  3. Advanced interactive display formats for terminal area traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.

    1995-01-01

    The basic design considerations for perspective Air Traffic Control displays are described. A software framework has been developed for manual viewing parameter setting (MVPS) in preparation for continued, ongoing developments on automated viewing parameter setting (AVPS) schemes. The MVPS system is based on indirect manipulation of the viewing parameters. Requests for changes in viewing parameter setting are entered manually by the operator by moving viewing parameter manipulation pointers on the screen. The motion of these pointers, which are an integral part of the 3-D scene, is limited to the boundaries of screen. This arrangement has been chosen, in order to preserve the correspondence between the new and the old viewing parameter setting, a feature which contributes to preventing spatial disorientation of the operator. For all viewing operations, e.g. rotation, translation and ranging, the actual change is executed automatically by the system, through gradual transitions with an exponentially damped, sinusoidal velocity profile, in this work referred to as 'slewing' motions. The slewing functions, which eliminate discontinuities in the viewing parameter changes, are designed primarily for enhancing the operator's impression that he, or she, is dealing with an actually existing physical system, rather than an abstract computer generated scene. Current, ongoing efforts deal with the development of automated viewing parameter setting schemes. These schemes employ an optimization strategy, aimed at identifying the best possible vantage point, from which the Air Traffic Control scene can be viewed, for a given traffic situation.

  4. Automation of Data Traffic Control on DSM Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    The design of distributed shared memory (DSM) computers liberates users from the duty to distribute data across processors and allows for the incremental development of parallel programs using, for example, OpenMP or Java threads. DSM architecture greatly simplifies the development of parallel programs having good performance on a few processors. However, to achieve a good program scalability on DSM computers requires that the user understand data flow in the application and use various techniques to avoid data traffic congestions. In this paper we discuss a number of such techniques, including data blocking, data placement, data transposition and page size control and evaluate their efficiency on the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks. We also present a tool which automates the detection of constructs causing data congestions in Fortran array oriented codes and advises the user on code transformations for improving data traffic in the application.

  5. Advanced Interactive Display Formats for Terminal Area Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Shaviv, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    This research project deals with an on-line dynamic method for automated viewing parameter management in perspective displays. Perspective images are optimized such that a human observer will perceive relevant spatial geometrical features with minimal errors. In order to compute the errors at which observers reconstruct spatial features from perspective images, a visual spatial-perception model was formulated. The model was employed as the basis of an optimization scheme aimed at seeking the optimal projection parameter setting. These ideas are implemented in the context of an air traffic control (ATC) application. A concept, referred to as an active display system, was developed. This system uses heuristic rules to identify relevant geometrical features of the three-dimensional air traffic situation. Agile, on-line optimization was achieved by a specially developed and custom-tailored genetic algorithm (GA), which was to deal with the multi-modal characteristics of the objective function and exploit its time-evolving nature.

  6. 32 CFR 636.21 - Obedience to official traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Obedience to official traffic control devices... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.21 Obedience to official traffic control devices. (a) All...

  7. 32 CFR 636.21 - Obedience to official traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Obedience to official traffic control devices... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.21 Obedience to official traffic control devices. (a) All...

  8. 32 CFR 636.21 - Obedience to official traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obedience to official traffic control devices... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.21 Obedience to official traffic control devices. (a) All...

  9. 32 CFR 636.21 - Obedience to official traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obedience to official traffic control devices... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.21 Obedience to official traffic control devices. (a) All...

  10. Air traffic control surveillance accuracy and update rate study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craigie, J. H.; Morrison, D. D.; Zipper, I.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an air traffic control surveillance accuracy and update rate study are presented. The objective of the study was to establish quantitative relationships between the surveillance accuracies, update rates, and the communication load associated with the tactical control of aircraft for conflict resolution. The relationships are established for typical types of aircraft, phases of flight, and types of airspace. Specific cases are analyzed to determine the surveillance accuracies and update rates required to prevent two aircraft from approaching each other too closely.

  11. Flight demonstration of integrated airport surface automation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.

    1995-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted to address airport surface movement area capacity issues by providing pilots with enhanced situational awareness information. The demonstration showed an integration of several technologies to government and industry representatives. These technologies consisted of an electronic moving map display in the cockpit, a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) receiver, a high speed VHF data link, an ASDE-3 radar, and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS). Aircraft identification was presented to an air traffic controller on AMASS. The onboard electronic map included the display of taxi routes, hold instructions, and clearances, which were sent to the aircraft via data link by the controller. The map also displayed the positions of other traffic and warning information, which were sent to the aircraft automatically from the ASDE-3/AMASS system. This paper describes the flight demonstration in detail, along with preliminary results.

  12. Delay-feedback control strategy for reducing CO2 emission of traffic flow system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing

    2015-06-01

    To study the signal control strategy for reducing traffic emission theoretically, we first presented a kind of discrete traffic flow model with relative speed term based on traditional coupled map car-following model. In the model, the relative speed difference between two successive running cars is incorporated into following vehicle's acceleration running equation. Then we analyzed its stability condition with discrete control system stability theory. Third, we designed a delay-feedback controller to suppress traffic jam and decrease traffic emission based on modern controller theory. Last, numerical simulations are made to support our theoretical results, including the comparison of models' stability analysis, the influence of model type and signal control on CO2 emissions. The results show that the temporal behavior of our model is superior to other models, and the traffic signal controller has good effect on traffic jam suppression and traffic CO2 emission, which fully supports the theoretical conclusions.

  13. Commercial machine vision system for traffic monitoring and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D Agostino, Salvatore A.

    1992-03-01

    Traffic imaging covers a range of current and potential applications. These include traffic control and analysis, license plate finding, reading and storage, violation detection and archiving, vehicle sensors, and toll collection/enforcement. Experience from commercial installations and knowledge of the system requirements have been gained over the past 10 years. Recent improvements in system component cost and performance now allow products to be applied that provide cost effective solutions to the requirements for truly intelligent vehicle/highway systems (IVHS). The United States is a country that loves to drive. The infrastructure built in the 1950s and 1960s along with the low price of gasoline created an environment where the automobiles became an accessible and intricate part of American life. The United States has spent $DLR103 billion to build 40,000 highway miles since 1956, the start of the interstate program which is nearly complete. Unfortunately, a situation has arisen where the options for dramatically improving the ability of our roadways to absorb the increasing amount of traffic is limited. This is true in other countries as well as in the United States. The number of vehicles in the world increases by over 10,000,000 each year. In the United States there are about 180 million cars, trucks, and buses and this is estimated to double in the next 30 years. Urban development, and development in general, pushes from the edge of our roadways out. This leaves little room to increase the physical amount of roadway. Americans now spend more than 1.6 billion hours a year waiting in traffic jams. It is estimated that this congestion wasted 3 billion gallons of oil or 4% of the nation's annual gas consumption. The way out of the dilemma is to increase road use efficiency as well as improve mass transportation alternatives.

  14. Interaction of Airspace Partitions and Traffic Flow Management Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palopo, Kee; Chatterji, Gano B.; Lee, Hak-Tae

    2010-01-01

    To ensure that air traffic demand does not exceed airport and airspace capacities, traffic management restrictions, such as delaying aircraft on the ground, assigning them different routes and metering them in the airspace, are implemented. To reduce the delays resulting from these restrictions, revising the partitioning of airspace has been proposed to distribute capacity to yield a more efficient airspace configuration. The capacity of an airspace partition, commonly referred to as a sector, is limited by the number of flights that an air traffic controller can safely manage within the sector. Where viable, re-partitioning of the airspace distributes the flights over more efficient sectors and reduces individual sector demand. This increases the overall airspace efficiency, but requires additional resources in some sectors in terms of controllers and equipment, which is undesirable. This study examines the tradeoff of the number of sectors designed for a specified amount of traffic in a clear-weather day and the delays needed for accommodating the traffic demand. Results show that most of the delays are caused by airport arrival and departure capacity constraints. Some delays caused by airspace capacity constraints can be eliminated by re-partitioning the airspace. Analyses show that about 360 high-altitude sectors, which are approximately today s operational number of sectors of 373, are adequate for delays to be driven solely by airport capacity constraints for the current daily air traffic demand. For a marginal increase of 15 seconds of average delay, the number of sectors can be reduced to 283. In addition, simulations of traffic growths of 15% and 20% with forecasted airport capacities in the years 2018 and 2025 show that delays will continue to be governed by airport capacities. In clear-weather days, for small increases in traffic demand, increasing sector capacities will have almost no effect on delays.

  15. Human resources for the control of road traffic injury.

    PubMed

    Mock, Charles; Kobusingye, Olive; Anh, Le Vu; Afukaar, Francis; Arreola-Risa, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    The definition of the ideal numbers and distribution of human resources required for control of road traffic injury (RTI) is not as advanced as for other health problems. We can nonetheless identify functions that need to be addressed across the spectrum of injury control: surveillance; road safety (including infrastructure, vehicle design, and behaviour); and trauma care. Many low-cost strategies to improve these functions in low- or middle-income countries can be identified. For all these strategies, there is need for adequate institutional capacity, including funding, legal authority, and human resources. Several categories of human resources need to be developed: epidemiologists who can handle injury data, design surveillance systems, and undertake research; engineers and planners versed in safety aspects of road design, traffic flow, urban planning, and vehicle design; police and lawyers who understand the health impact of traffic law; clinicians who can develop cost-effective improvements in the entire system of trauma treatment; media experts to undertake effective behaviour change and social marketing; and economists to assist with cost-effectiveness evaluations. RTI control can be strengthened by enhancing such training in these disciplines, as well as encouraging retention of those who have the needed skills. Mechanisms to enhance collaboration between these different fields need to be promoted. Finally, the burden of RTI is borne disproportionately by the poor; in addition to technical issues, more profound equity issues must be addressed. This mandates that people from all professional backgrounds who work for RTI control should develop skills in advocacy and politics. PMID:15868021

  16. Human resources for the control of road traffic injury.

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Charles; Kobusingye, Olive; Anh, Le Vu; Afukaar, Francis; Arreola-Risa, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The definition of the ideal numbers and distribution of human resources required for control of road traffic injury (RTI) is not as advanced as for other health problems. We can nonetheless identify functions that need to be addressed across the spectrum of injury control: surveillance; road safety (including infrastructure, vehicle design, and behaviour); and trauma care. Many low-cost strategies to improve these functions in low- or middle-income countries can be identified. For all these strategies, there is need for adequate institutional capacity, including funding, legal authority, and human resources. Several categories of human resources need to be developed: epidemiologists who can handle injury data, design surveillance systems, and undertake research; engineers and planners versed in safety aspects of road design, traffic flow, urban planning, and vehicle design; police and lawyers who understand the health impact of traffic law; clinicians who can develop cost-effective improvements in the entire system of trauma treatment; media experts to undertake effective behaviour change and social marketing; and economists to assist with cost-effectiveness evaluations. RTI control can be strengthened by enhancing such training in these disciplines, as well as encouraging retention of those who have the needed skills. Mechanisms to enhance collaboration between these different fields need to be promoted. Finally, the burden of RTI is borne disproportionately by the poor; in addition to technical issues, more profound equity issues must be addressed. This mandates that people from all professional backgrounds who work for RTI control should develop skills in advocacy and politics. PMID:15868021

  17. Controller evaluation of initial data link en route air traffic control services: Mini study 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Hank; Shochet, Ephraim; Darby, Evan; Buck, Frank; Sweeney, David; Cratch, Preston

    1991-06-01

    The results of Mini Study 3 conducted November 5-9, 1990 are presented. This Mini Study was conducted at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center utilizing the Washington Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) airspace in the Data Link test bed. Initial Data Link en route services were evaluated in order to identify service delivery methods which optimize the human computer interface. Controllers from the Air Traffic Data Link Validation Team participated in this study.

  18. CONNECTICUT AIRPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer that includes all of the airports that appear on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7½ minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut. It includes the perimeter of airport, heliport, and seaplane landing areas as depicted...

  19. Electronic System for Preventing Airport Runway Incursions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system of portable illuminated signs, electronic monitoring equipment, and radio-communication equipment for preventing (or taking corrective action in response to) improper entry of aircraft, pedestrians, or ground vehicles onto active airport runways is described. The main overall functions of the proposed system would be to automatically monitor aircraft ground traffic on or approaching runways and to generate visible and/or audible warnings to affected pilots, ground-vehicle drivers, and control-tower personnel when runway incursions take place.

  20. Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Herbert H.; Morrow, Daniel; Rodvoid, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    The present project has three related goals. The first is to describe the organization of routine controller-pilot communication. This includes identifying the basic units of communication and how they are organized into discourse, how controllers and pilots use language to achieve their goals, and what topics they discuss. The second goal is to identify the type and frequency of problems that interrupt routine information transfer and prompt pilots and controllers to focus on the communication itself. The authors analyze the costs of these problems in terms of communication efficiency, and the techniques used to resolve these problems. Third, the authors hope to identify factors associated with communication problems, such as deviations from conventional air traffic control procedures.

  1. A generic approach for examining the effectiveness of traffic control devices in school zones.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaohua; Li, Jiahui; Ding, Han; Zhang, Guohui; Rong, Jian

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness and performance of traffic control devices in school zones have been impacted significantly by many factors, such as driver behavioral attributes, roadway geometric features, environmental characteristics, weather and visibility conditions, region-wide traffic regulations and policies, control modes, etc. When deploying traffic control devices in school zones, efforts are needed to clarify: (1) whether traffic control device installation is warranted; and (2) whether other device effectively complements this traffic control device and strengthens its effectiveness. In this study, a generic approach is developed to examine and evaluate the effectiveness of various traffic control devices deployed in school zones through driving simulator-based experiments. A Traffic Control Device Selection Model (TCDSM) is developed and two representative school zones are selected as the testbed in Beijing for driving simulation implementation to enhance its applicability. Statistical analyses are conducted to extract the knowledge from test data recorded by a driving simulator. Multiple measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are developed and adopted including average speed, relative speed difference, and standard deviation of acceleration for traffic control device performance quantification. The experimental tests and analysis results reveal that the appropriateness of the installation of certain traffic control devices can be statistically verified by TCDSM. The proposed approach provides a generic framework to assess traffic control device performance in school zones including experiment design, statistical formulation, data analysis, simulation model implementation, data interpretation, and recommendation development. PMID:26072182

  2. Flight Demonstration of Integrated Airport Surface Technologies for Increased Capacity and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.; Wills, Robert W.; Smith, Kathryn A.; Shipman, Floyd S.; Bryant, Wayne H.; Eckhardt, Dave E., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted to address airport surface movement area capacity and safety issues by providing pilots with enhanced situational awareness information. The demonstration presented an integration of several technologies to government and industry representatives. These technologies consisted of an electronic moving map display in the cockpit, a Differential Global Positioning system (DGPS) receiver, a high speed very high frequency (VHF) data link, an Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) radar, and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS). Aircraft identification was presented to an air traffic controller on an AMASS display. The onboard electronic map included the display of taxi routes, hold instructions, and clearances, which were sent to the aircraft via data link by the controller. The map also displayed the positions of other traffic and warning information, which were sent to the aircraft automatically from the ASDE-3/AMASS system. This paper describes the flight demonstration in detail, along with test results.

  3. Simulation of traffic flow and control using conventional, fuzzy, and adaptive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.; Kelsey, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the graphical simulation of a traffic environment. The environment includes streets leading to an intersection, the intersection, vehicle traffic, and signal lights in the intersection controlled by different methods. The simulation allows for the study of parameters affecting traffic environments and the study of different control strategies for traffic signal lights, including conventional, fuzzy, and adaptive control methods. Realistic traffic environments are simulated including a cross intersection, with one or more lanes of traffic in each direction, with and without turn lanes. Vehicle traffic patterns are a mixture of cars going straight and making right or left turns. The free velocities of vehicles follow a normal distribution with a mean of the posted'' speed limit. Actual velocities depend on such factors as the proximity and velocity of surrounding traffic, approaches to intersections, and human response time. The simulation proves the be a useful tool for evaluating controller methods. Preliminary results show that larger quantities of traffic are handled'' by fuzzy control methods then by conventional control methods. Also, the average time spent waiting in traffic decreases with the use of fuzzy control versus conventional control.

  4. Simulation of traffic flow and control using conventional, fuzzy, and adaptive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.; Kelsey, R.L.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes the graphical simulation of a traffic environment. The environment includes streets leading to an intersection, the intersection, vehicle traffic, and signal lights in the intersection controlled by different methods. The simulation allows for the study of parameters affecting traffic environments and the study of different control strategies for traffic signal lights, including conventional, fuzzy, and adaptive control methods. Realistic traffic environments are simulated including a cross intersection, with one or more lanes of traffic in each direction, with and without turn lanes. Vehicle traffic patterns are a mixture of cars going straight and making right or left turns. The free velocities of vehicles follow a normal distribution with a mean of the ``posted`` speed limit. Actual velocities depend on such factors as the proximity and velocity of surrounding traffic, approaches to intersections, and human response time. The simulation proves the be a useful tool for evaluating controller methods. Preliminary results show that larger quantities of traffic are ``handled`` by fuzzy control methods then by conventional control methods. Also, the average time spent waiting in traffic decreases with the use of fuzzy control versus conventional control.

  5. Driving behavior and control in traffic system with two kinds of signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Hino, Yuki

    2014-06-01

    We study the vehicular traffic controlled by two kinds of signals which are positioned with a periodic configuration. We propose a microscopic model to explore the driving behavior in the traffic system with two kinds of signals. The control method of traffic flow by the combination of two kinds of signals is proposed. The dynamic model is described by the nonlinear map model and the CA model. The driving behavior is clarified for the traffic system controlled by two kinds of signals. The fundamental diagrams are derived for various combinations of two kinds of signals. The traffic flow through two kinds of signals is compared with that of a single kind of signals. The traffic flow displays the complex behavior different from the conventional traffic with a single kind of signals.

  6. Trajectory Specification for High-Capacity Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paielli, Russell A.

    2004-01-01

    In the current air traffic management system, the fundamental limitation on airspace capacity is the cognitive ability of human air traffic controllers to maintain safe separation with high reliability. The doubling or tripling of airspace capacity that will be needed over the next couple of decades will require that tactical separation be at least partially automated. Standardized conflict-free four-dimensional trajectory assignment will be needed to accomplish that objective. A trajectory specification format based on the Extensible Markup Language is proposed for that purpose. This format can be used to downlink a trajectory request, which can then be checked on the ground for conflicts and approved or modified, if necessary, then uplinked as the assigned trajectory. The horizontal path is specified as a series of geodetic waypoints connected by great circles, and the great-circle segments are connected by turns of specified radius. Vertical profiles for climb and descent are specified as low-order polynomial functions of along-track position, which is itself specified as a function of time. Flight technical error tolerances in the along-track, cross-track, and vertical axes define a bounding space around the reference trajectory, and conformance will guarantee the required separation for a period of time known as the conflict time horizon. An important safety benefit of this regimen is that the traffic will be able to fly free of conflicts for at least several minutes even if all ground systems and the entire communication infrastructure fail. Periodic updates in the along-track axis will adjust for errors in the predicted along-track winds.

  7. Design of a final approach spacing tool for TRACON air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Erzberger, Heinz; Bergeron, Hugh

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an automation tool that assists air traffic controllers in the Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) Facilities in providing safe and efficient sequencing and spacing of arrival traffic. The automation tool, referred to as the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST), allows the controller to interactively choose various levels of automation and advisory information ranging from predicted time errors to speed and heading advisories for controlling time error. FAST also uses a timeline to display current scheduling and sequencing information for all aircraft in the TRACON airspace. FAST combines accurate predictive algorithms and state-of-the-art mouse and graphical interface technology to present advisory information to the controller. Furthermore, FAST exchanges various types of traffic information and communicates with automation tools being developed for the Air Route Traffic Control Center. Thus it is part of an integrated traffic management system for arrival traffic at major terminal areas.

  8. Advanced Interactive Display formats for Terminal Area Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the basic design considerations for perspective Air Traffic Control displays. A software framework has been developed for manual viewing parameter setting (MVPS) in preparation for continued, ongoing developments on automated viewing parameter setting (AVPS) schemes. Two distinct modes of MVPS operations are considered, both of which utilize manipulation pointers imbedded in the three-dimensional scene: (1) direct manipulation of the viewing parameters; in this mode the manipulation pointers act like the control-input device, through which the viewing parameter changes are made. Part of the parameters are rate controlled, and part of them position controlled. This mode is intended for making fast, iterative small changes in the parameters. (2) indirect manipulation of the viewing parameters. This mode is intended primarily for introducing large, predetermined changes in the parameters. Requests for changes in viewing parameter setting are entered manually by the operator by moving viewing parameter manipulation pointers on the screen. The motion of these pointers, which are an integral part of the 3-D scene, is limited to the boundaries of screen. This arrangement has been chosen, in order to preserve the correspondence between the spatial lay-outs of the new and the old viewing parameter setting, a feature which contributes to preventing spatial disorientation of the operator. For all viewing operations, e.g. rotation, translation and ranging, the actual change is executed automatically by the system, through gradual transitions with an exponentially damped, sinusoidal velocity profile, in this work referred to as 'slewing' motions. The slewing functions, which eliminate discontinuities in the viewing parameter changes, are designed primarily for enhancing the operator's impression that he, or she, is dealing with an actually existing physical system, rather than an abstract computer-generated scene, The proposed, continued research efforts

  9. Advanced interactive display formats for terminal area traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the basic design considerations for perspective air traffic control displays. A software framework has been developed for manual viewing parameter setting (MVPS) in preparation for continued, ongoing developments on automated viewing parameter setting (AVPS) schemes. Two distinct modes of MVPS operations are considered, both of which utilize manipulation pointers imbedded in the three-dimensional scene: (1) direct manipulation of the viewing parameters -- in this mode the manipulation pointers act like the control-input device, through which the viewing parameter changes are made. Part of the parameters are rate controlled, and part of them position controlled. This mode is intended for making fast, iterative small changes in the parameters. (2) Indirect manipulation of the viewing parameters -- this mode is intended primarily for introducing large, predetermined changes in the parameters. Requests for changes in viewing parameter setting are entered manually by the operator by moving viewing parameter manipulation pointers on the screen. The motion of these pointers, which are an integral part of the 3-D scene, is limited to the boundaries of the screen. This arrangement has been chosen in order to preserve the correspondence between the spatial lay-outs of the new and the old viewing parameter setting, a feature which contributes to preventing spatial disorientation of the operator. For all viewing operations, e.g. rotation, translation and ranging, the actual change is executed automatically by the system, through gradual transitions with an exponentially damped, sinusoidal velocity profile, in this work referred to as 'slewing' motions. The slewing functions, which eliminate discontinuities in the viewing parameter changes, are designed primarily for enhancing the operator's impression that he, or she, is dealing with an actually existing physical system, rather than an abstract computer-generated scene. The proposed, continued research

  10. Air Route Traffic Control Center. Controller Over-The-Shoulder Training Review: Instruction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The instruction manual provides 12 step-by-step instructions for air traffic control supervisors in conducting over-the-shoulder training observations of enroute center controllers. Since the primary purpose of the review is to quickly identify training needs and requirements, the control responsibilities are approached from a deficiency…

  11. A new traffic control design method for large networks with signalized intersections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G. G.; Colony, D. C.; Seldner, K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a traffic control design technique for application to large traffic networks with signalized intersections. It is shown that the design method adopts a macroscopic viewpoint to establish a new traffic modelling procedure in which vehicle platoons are subdivided into main stream queues and turning queues. Optimization of the signal splits minimizes queue lengths in the steady state condition and improves traffic flow conditions, from the viewpoint of the traveling public. Finally, an application of the design method to a traffic network with thirty-three signalized intersections is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  12. Piloted simulation of a ground-based time-control concept for air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Green, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A concept for aiding air traffic controllers in efficiently spacing traffic and meeting scheduled arrival times at a metering fix was developed and tested in a real time simulation. The automation aid, referred to as the ground based 4-D descent advisor (DA), is based on accurate models of aircraft performance and weather conditions. The DA generates suggested clearances, including both top-of-descent-point and speed-profile data, for one or more aircraft in order to achieve specific time or distance separation objectives. The DA algorithm is used by the air traffic controller to resolve conflicts and issue advisories to arrival aircraft. A joint simulation was conducted using a piloted simulator and an advanced concept air traffic control simulation to study the acceptability and accuracy of the DA automation aid from both the pilot's and the air traffic controller's perspectives. The results of the piloted simulation are examined. In the piloted simulation, airline crews executed controller issued descent advisories along standard curved path arrival routes, and were able to achieve an arrival time precision of + or - 20 sec at the metering fix. An analysis of errors generated in turns resulted in further enhancements of the algorithm to improve the predictive accuracy. Evaluations by pilots indicate general support for the concept and provide specific recommendations for improvement.

  13. 49 CFR 236.426 - Interlocking rules and instructions applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.426 Section 236.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Rules and Instructions § 236.426...

  14. 49 CFR 236.476 - Interlocking inspections and tests applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.476 Section 236.476 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Inspection and Tests § 236.476...

  15. 49 CFR 236.476 - Interlocking inspections and tests applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.476 Section 236.476 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Inspection and Tests § 236.476...

  16. 49 CFR 236.426 - Interlocking rules and instructions applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.426 Section 236.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Rules and Instructions § 236.426...

  17. 49 CFR 236.476 - Interlocking inspections and tests applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.476 Section 236.476 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Inspection and Tests § 236.476...

  18. 49 CFR 236.476 - Interlocking inspections and tests applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.476 Section 236.476 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Inspection and Tests § 236.476...

  19. 49 CFR 236.476 - Interlocking inspections and tests applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.476 Section 236.476 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Inspection and Tests § 236.476...

  20. 49 CFR 236.426 - Interlocking rules and instructions applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.426 Section 236.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Rules and Instructions § 236.426...

  1. 49 CFR 236.426 - Interlocking rules and instructions applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.426 Section 236.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Rules and Instructions § 236.426...

  2. 49 CFR 236.426 - Interlocking rules and instructions applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.426 Section 236.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Rules and Instructions § 236.426...

  3. Prediction of Weather Impacted Airport Capacity using Ensemble Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao Xun

    2011-01-01

    Ensemble learning with the Bagging Decision Tree (BDT) model was used to assess the impact of weather on airport capacities at selected high-demand airports in the United States. The ensemble bagging decision tree models were developed and validated using the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aviation System Performance Metrics (ASPM) data and weather forecast at these airports. The study examines the performance of BDT, along with traditional single Support Vector Machines (SVM), for airport runway configuration selection and airport arrival rates (AAR) prediction during weather impacts. Testing of these models was accomplished using observed weather, weather forecast, and airport operation information at the chosen airports. The experimental results show that ensemble methods are more accurate than a single SVM classifier. The airport capacity ensemble method presented here can be used as a decision support model that supports air traffic flow management to meet the weather impacted airport capacity in order to reduce costs and increase safety.

  4. Optimization and planning of emergency evacuation routes considering traffic control.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Emergencies, especially major ones, happen fast, randomly, as well as unpredictably, and generally will bring great harm to people's life and the economy. Therefore, governments and lots of professionals devote themselves to taking effective measures and providing optimal evacuation plans. This paper establishes two different emergency evacuation models on the basis of the maximum flow model (MFM) and the minimum-cost maximum flow model (MC-MFM), and proposes corresponding algorithms for the evacuation from one source node to one designated destination (one-to-one evacuation). Ulteriorly, we extend our evaluation model from one source node to many designated destinations (one-to-many evacuation). At last, we make case analysis of evacuation optimization and planning in Beijing, and obtain the desired evacuation routes and effective traffic control measures from the perspective of sufficiency and practicability. Both analytical and numerical results support that our models are feasible and practical. PMID:24991636

  5. Optimization and Planning of Emergency Evacuation Routes Considering Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Emergencies, especially major ones, happen fast, randomly, as well as unpredictably, and generally will bring great harm to people's life and the economy. Therefore, governments and lots of professionals devote themselves to taking effective measures and providing optimal evacuation plans. This paper establishes two different emergency evacuation models on the basis of the maximum flow model (MFM) and the minimum-cost maximum flow model (MC-MFM), and proposes corresponding algorithms for the evacuation from one source node to one designated destination (one-to-one evacuation). Ulteriorly, we extend our evaluation model from one source node to many designated destinations (one-to-many evacuation). At last, we make case analysis of evacuation optimization and planning in Beijing, and obtain the desired evacuation routes and effective traffic control measures from the perspective of sufficiency and practicability. Both analytical and numerical results support that our models are feasible and practical. PMID:24991636

  6. Feasibility of satellite interferometry for surveillance, navigation, and traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalapillai, S.; Ruck, G. T.; Mourad, A. G.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of using a satellite borne interferometry system for surveillance, navigation, and traffic control applications was investigated. The evaluation was comprised of: (1) a two part systems analysis (software and hardware); (2) a survey of competitive navigation systems (both experimental and planned); (3) a comparison of their characteristics and capabilities with those of an interferometry system; and (4) a limited survey of potential users to determine the variety of possible applications for the interferometry system and the requirements which it would have to meet. Five candidate or "strawman" interferometry systems for various applications with various capabilities were configured (on a preliminary basis) and were evaluated. It is concluded that interferometry in conjunction with a geostationary satellite has an inherent ability to provide both a means for navigation/position location and communication. It offers a very high potential for meeting a large number of user applications and requirements for navigation and related functions.

  7. Flight management concepts compatible with air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of airline deregulation and increased competition, the need for cost efficient airline operations is critical. This paper summarizes past research efforts and planned research thrusts toward the development of compatible flight management and air traffic control systems that promise increased operational effectiveness and efficiency. Potential capacity improvements resulting from a time-based ATC simulation (fast-time) are presented. Advanced display concepts with time guidance and velocity vector information to allow the flight crew to play an important role in the future ATC environment are discussed. Results of parametric sensitivity analyses are also presented that quantify the fuel/cost penalties for idle-thrust mismodeling and wind-modeling errors.

  8. An Adaptive Fuzzy-Logic Traffic Control System in Conditions of Saturated Transport Stream.

    PubMed

    Yusupbekov, N R; Marakhimov, A R; Igamberdiev, H Z; Umarov, Sh X

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of building adaptive fuzzy-logic traffic control systems (AFLTCS) to deal with information fuzziness and uncertainty in case of heavy traffic streams. Methods of formal description of traffic control on the crossroads based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are proposed. This paper also provides efficient algorithms for implementing AFLTCS and develops the appropriate simulation models to test the efficiency of suggested approach. PMID:27517081

  9. An Adaptive Fuzzy-Logic Traffic Control System in Conditions of Saturated Transport Stream

    PubMed Central

    Marakhimov, A. R.; Igamberdiev, H. Z.; Umarov, Sh. X.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of building adaptive fuzzy-logic traffic control systems (AFLTCS) to deal with information fuzziness and uncertainty in case of heavy traffic streams. Methods of formal description of traffic control on the crossroads based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are proposed. This paper also provides efficient algorithms for implementing AFLTCS and develops the appropriate simulation models to test the efficiency of suggested approach. PMID:27517081

  10. Self-control of traffic lights and vehicle flows in urban road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lämmer, Stefan; Helbing, Dirk

    2008-04-01

    Based on fluid-dynamic and many-particle (car-following) simulations of traffic flows in (urban) networks, we study the problem of coordinating incompatible traffic flows at intersections. Inspired by the observation of self-organized oscillations of pedestrian flows at bottlenecks, we propose a self-organization approach to traffic light control. The problem can be treated as a multi-agent problem with interactions between vehicles and traffic lights. Specifically, our approach assumes a priority-based control of traffic lights by the vehicle flows themselves, taking into account short-sighted anticipation of vehicle flows and platoons. The considered local interactions lead to emergent coordination patterns such as 'green waves' and achieve an efficient, decentralized traffic light control. While the proposed self-control adapts flexibly to local flow conditions and often leads to non-cyclical switching patterns with changing service sequences of different traffic flows, an almost periodic service may evolve under certain conditions and suggests the existence of a spontaneous synchronization of traffic lights despite the varying delays due to variable vehicle queues and travel times. The self-organized traffic light control is based on an optimization and a stabilization rule, each of which performs poorly at high utilizations of the road network, while their proper combination reaches a superior performance. The result is a considerable reduction not only in the average travel times, but also of their variation. Similar control approaches could be applied to the coordination of logistic and production processes.

  11. The Conception Approach to the Traffic Control in Czech Cities - Examples from Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichý, Tomáš; Krajčír, Dušan

    Modern and economic development of contemporary towns is without question highly dependent upon traffic infrastructure progress. Automobile transport intensity is dramatically rising in large towns and other Czech and European cities. At the same time number of traffic congestions and accidents is increasing, standing times are becoming longer and ecological stress is also escalated. To solve this situation seems to be the most effective solution to design intelligent traffic light intersection control system, variable message signs, preference of public transportation, road line traffic control and next telematics subsystems. This control system and subsystems should improve permeability of traffic road network with a respect for all demands on recent trends of traffic development in towns and regions.

  12. Comprehensive Optimization of Emergency Evacuation Route and Departure Time under Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Liu, Mengqi

    2014-01-01

    With the frequent occurrence of major emergencies, emergency management gets high attention from all around the world. This paper investigates the comprehensive optimization of major emergency evacuation route and departure time, in which case the evacuation propagation mechanism is considered under traffic control. Given the practical assumptions, we first establish a comprehensive optimization model based on the simulation of evacuation route and departure time. Furthermore, we explore the reasonable description method of evacuation traffic flow propagation under traffic control, including the establishment of traffic flow propagation model and the design of the simulation mudule that can simulate the evacuation traffic flow. Finally, we propose a heuristic algorithm for the optimization of this comprehensive model. In case analysis, we take some areas in Beijing as the evaluation sources to verify the reliability of our model. A series of constructive suggestions for Beijing's emergency evacuation are proposed, which can be applied to the actual situation under traffic control. PMID:24977232

  13. Taxi Time Prediction at Charlotte Airport Using Fast-Time Simulation and Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate taxi time prediction is required for enabling efficient runway scheduling that can increase runway throughput and reduce taxi times and fuel consumptions on the airport surface. Currently NASA and American Airlines are jointly developing a decision-support tool called Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) that assists airport ramp controllers to make gate pushback decisions and improve the overall efficiency of airport surface traffic. In this presentation, we propose to use Linear Optimized Sequencing (LINOS), a discrete-event fast-time simulation tool, to predict taxi times and provide the estimates to the runway scheduler in real-time airport operations. To assess its prediction accuracy, we also introduce a data-driven analytical method using machine learning techniques. These two taxi time prediction methods are evaluated with actual taxi time data obtained from the SARDA human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation for Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) using various performance measurement metrics. Based on the taxi time prediction results, we also discuss how the prediction accuracy can be affected by the operational complexity at this airport and how we can improve the fast time simulation model before implementing it with an airport scheduling algorithm in a real-time environment.

  14. Speed and path control for conflict-free flight in high air traffic demand in terminal airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Ali

    To accommodate the growing air traffic demand, flights will need to be planned and navigated with a much higher level of precision than today's aircraft flight path. The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) stands to benefit significantly in safety and efficiency from such movement of aircraft along precisely defined paths. Air Traffic Operations (ATO) relying on such precision--the Precision Air Traffic Operations or PATO--are the foundation of high throughput capacity envisioned for the future airports. In PATO, the preferred method is to manage the air traffic by assigning a speed profile to each aircraft in a given fleet in a given airspace (in practice known as (speed control). In this research, an algorithm has been developed, set in the context of a Hybrid Control System (HCS) model, that determines whether a speed control solution exists for a given fleet of aircraft in a given airspace and if so, computes this solution as a collective speed profile that assures separation if executed without deviation. Uncertainties such as weather are not considered but the algorithm can be modified to include uncertainties. The algorithm first computes all feasible sequences (i.e., all sequences that allow the given fleet of aircraft to reach destinations without violating the FAA's separation requirement) by looking at all pairs of aircraft. Then, the most likely sequence is determined and the speed control solution is constructed by a backward trajectory generation, starting with the aircraft last out and proceeds to the first out. This computation can be done for different sequences in parallel which helps to reduce the computation time. If such a solution does not exist, then the algorithm calculates a minimal path modification (known as path control) that will allow separation-compliance speed control. We will also prove that the algorithm will modify the path without creating a new separation violation. The new path will be generated by adding new

  15. Tour time in a two-route traffic system controlled by signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Naito, Yuichi

    2011-11-01

    We study the dynamic behavior of vehicular traffic in a two-route system with a series of signals (traffic lights) at low density where the number of signals on route A is different from that on route B. We investigate the dependence of the tour time on the route for some strategies of signal control. The nonlinear dynamic model of a two-route traffic system controlled by signals is presented by nonlinear maps. The vehicular traffic exhibits a very complex behavior, depending on the cycle time, the phase difference, and the irregularity. The dependence of the tour time on the route choice is clarified for the signal strategies.

  16. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations § 842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement... or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208...

  17. Dimensions of Air Traffic Control Tower Information Needs: From Information Requests to Display Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durso, Francis T.; Johnson, Brian R.; Crutchfield, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead,…

  18. Control of Future Air Traffic Systems via Complexity Bound Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of the present system for managing air traffic has led to "discreteness" in approaches to creating new concepts: new concepts are created as point designs, based on experience, expertise, and creativity of the proposer. Discrete point designs may be highly successful but they are difficult to substantiate in the face of equally strong substantiation of competing concepts, as well as the state of the art in concept evaluation via simulations. Hybrid concepts may present a compromise - the golden middle. Yet a hybrid of sometimes in principle incompatible concepts forms another point design that faces the challenge of substantiation and validation. We are faced with the need to re-design the air transportation system ab initio. This is a daunting task, especially considering the problem of transitioning from the present system to any fundamentally new system. However, design from scratch is also an opportunity to reconsider approaches to new concept development. In this position paper we propose an approach, Optimized Parametric Functional Design, for systematic development of concepts for management and control of airspace systems, based on optimization formulations in terms of required system functions and states. This reasoning framework, realizable in the context of ab initio system design, offers an approach to deriving substantiated airspace management and control concepts. With growing computational power, we hope that the approach will also yield a methodology for actual dynamic control of airspace

  19. The Traffic Noise Index: A Method of Controlling Noise Nuisance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, F. J.; Scholes, W. E.

    This building research survey is an analysis of the social nuisance caused by urban motor ways and their noise. The Traffic Noise Index is used to indicate traffic noises and their effects on architectural designs and planning, while suggesting the need for more and better window insulation and acoustical barriers. Overall concern is for--(1)…

  20. Design and Construction of Intelligent Traffic Light Control System Using Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Htin; Aye, Khin Muyar; Tun, Hla Myo; Theingi, Naing, Zaw Min

    2008-10-01

    Vehicular travel is increasing throughout the world, particularly in large urban areas. Therefore the need arises for simulation and optimizing traffic control algorithms to better accommodate this increasing demand. This paper presents a microcontroller simulation of intelligent traffic light controller using fuzzy logic that is used to change the traffic signal cycles adaptively at a two-way intersection. This paper is an attempt to design an intelligent traffic light control systems using microcontrollers such as PIC 16F84A and PIC 16F877A. And then traffic signal can be controlled depending upon the densities of cars behind green and red lights of the two-way intersection by using sensors and detectors circuits.

  1. Improved low visibility forecasts at Amsterdam Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijngaard, J.; Vogelezang, D.; Maat, N.; van Bruggen, H.

    2009-09-01

    Accurate, reliable and unambiguous information concerning the actual and expected (low) visibility conditions at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is very important for the available operational flow capacity. Therefore visibility forecast errors can have a negative impact on safety and operational expenses. KNMI has performed an update of the visibility forecast system in close collaboration with the main users of the forecasts (Air Traffic Control, the airport authorities and KLM airlines). This automatic forecasting system consists of a Numerical Weather Prediction Model (Hirlam) with a statistical post processing module on top of it. Output of both components is supplied to a human forecaster who issues a special probabilistic forecast bulletin. This bulletin is tailored to the specific requirements of the airport community. The improvements made to the forecast system are twofold: 1) In addition to the Meteorological Optical Range (MOR) values, RVR (Runway Visual Range) is forecasted. Since RVR depends on both MOR and the local Background Luminance, a (deterministic) statistical forecast for the latter has been developed. 2) Another improvement was achieved by calculating joint probabilities for specific combinations of visibility and cloud base height for thresholds which have direct impact on the flow capacity at the airport. The development of this new visibility forecast will be presented briefly. Also a few verification results will be shown to demonstrate the improvements made. Finally, the importance of explaining the user the use of the forecast information, in relation to their decision making process, will be discussed. For that reason, a simple guideline model to make a cost-optimal choice will be introduced.

  2. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Airport Capacity and Delay Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David A.; Nelson, Caroline; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    The ASAC Airport Capacity Model and the ASAC Airport Delay Model support analyses of technologies addressing airport capacity. NASA's Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Airport Capacity Model estimates the capacity of an airport as a function of weather, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures, traffic characteristics, and the level of technology available. Airport capacity is presented as a Pareto frontier of arrivals per hour versus departures per hour. The ASAC Airport Delay Model allows the user to estimate the minutes of arrival delay for an airport, given its (weather dependent) capacity. Historical weather observations and demand patterns are provided by ASAC as inputs to the delay model. The ASAC economic models can translate a reduction in delay minutes into benefit dollars.

  3. Auction Mechanism to Allocate Air Traffic Control Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffarin, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with an auction mechanism for airspace slots, as a means of solving the European airspace congestion problem. A disequilibrium, between Air Traffic Control (ATC) services supply and ATC services demand are at the origin of almost one fourth of delays in the air transport industry in Europe. In order to tackle this congestion problem, we suggest modifying both pricing and allocation of ATC services, by setting up an auction mechanism. Objects of the auction will be the right for airlines to cross a part of the airspace, and then to benefit from ATC services over a period corresponding to the necessary time for the crossing. Allocation and payment rules have to be defined according to the objectives of this auction. The auctioneer is the public authority in charge of ATC services, whose aim is to obtain an efficient allocation. Therefore, the social value will be maximized. Another objective is to internalize congestion costs. To that end, we apply the principle of Clarke-Groves mechanism auction: each winner has to pay the externalities imposed on other bidders. The complex context of ATC leads to a specific design for this auction.

  4. Characterization of Visual Scanning Patterns in Air Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    McClung, Sarah N.; Kang, Ziho

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of air traffic controllers' (ATCs') visual scanning strategies is a challenging issue due to the dynamic movement of multiple aircraft and increasing complexity of scanpaths (order of eye fixations and saccades) over time. Additionally, terminologies and methods are lacking to accurately characterize the eye tracking data into simplified visual scanning strategies linguistically expressed by ATCs. As an intermediate step to automate the characterization classification process, we (1) defined and developed new concepts to systematically filter complex visual scanpaths into simpler and more manageable forms and (2) developed procedures to map visual scanpaths with linguistic inputs to reduce the human judgement bias during interrater agreement. The developed concepts and procedures were applied to investigating the visual scanpaths of expert ATCs using scenarios with different aircraft congestion levels. Furthermore, oculomotor trends were analyzed to identify the influence of aircraft congestion on scan time and number of comparisons among aircraft. The findings show that (1) the scanpaths filtered at the highest intensity led to more consistent mapping with the ATCs' linguistic inputs, (2) the pattern classification occurrences differed between scenarios, and (3) increasing aircraft congestion caused increased scan times and aircraft pairwise comparisons. The results provide a foundation for better characterizing complex scanpaths in a dynamic task and automating the analysis process. PMID:27239190

  5. An error-resistant linguistic protocol for air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushing, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The research results described here are intended to enhance the effectiveness of the DATALINK interface that is scheduled by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to be deployed during the 1990's to improve the safety of various aspects of aviation. While voice has a natural appeal as the preferred means of communication both among humans themselves and between humans and machines as the form of communication that people find most convenient, the complexity and flexibility of natural language are problematic, because of the confusions and misunderstandings that can arise as a result of ambiguity, unclear reference, intonation peculiarities, implicit inference, and presupposition. The DATALINK interface will avoid many of these problems by replacing voice with vision and speech with written instructions. This report describes results achieved to date on an on-going research effort to refine the protocol of the DATALINK system so as to avoid many of the linguistic problems that still remain in the visual mode. In particular, a working prototype DATALINK simulator system has been developed consisting of an unambiguous, context-free grammar and parser, based on the current air-traffic-control language and incorporated into a visual display involving simulated touch-screen buttons and three levels of menu screens. The system is written in the C programming language and runs on the Macintosh II computer. After reviewing work already done on the project, new tasks for further development are described.

  6. Characterization of Visual Scanning Patterns in Air Traffic Control.

    PubMed

    McClung, Sarah N; Kang, Ziho

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of air traffic controllers' (ATCs') visual scanning strategies is a challenging issue due to the dynamic movement of multiple aircraft and increasing complexity of scanpaths (order of eye fixations and saccades) over time. Additionally, terminologies and methods are lacking to accurately characterize the eye tracking data into simplified visual scanning strategies linguistically expressed by ATCs. As an intermediate step to automate the characterization classification process, we (1) defined and developed new concepts to systematically filter complex visual scanpaths into simpler and more manageable forms and (2) developed procedures to map visual scanpaths with linguistic inputs to reduce the human judgement bias during interrater agreement. The developed concepts and procedures were applied to investigating the visual scanpaths of expert ATCs using scenarios with different aircraft congestion levels. Furthermore, oculomotor trends were analyzed to identify the influence of aircraft congestion on scan time and number of comparisons among aircraft. The findings show that (1) the scanpaths filtered at the highest intensity led to more consistent mapping with the ATCs' linguistic inputs, (2) the pattern classification occurrences differed between scenarios, and (3) increasing aircraft congestion caused increased scan times and aircraft pairwise comparisons. The results provide a foundation for better characterizing complex scanpaths in a dynamic task and automating the analysis process. PMID:27239190

  7. Feedback control scheme of traffic jams based on the coupled map car-following model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tong; Sun, Di-Hua; Zhao, Min; Li, Hua-Min

    2013-09-01

    Based on the pioneering work of Konishi et al. [Phys. Rev. E (1999) 60 4000], a new feedback control scheme is presented to suppress traffic jams based on the coupled map car-following model under the open boundary condition. The effect of the safe headway on the traffic system is considered. According to the control theory, the condition under which traffic jams can be suppressed is analyzed. The results are compared with the previous results concerning congestion control. The simulations show that the suppression performance of our scheme on traffic jams is better than those of the previous schemes, although all the schemes can suppress traffic jams. The simulation results are consistent with theoretical analyses.

  8. To Cross or Not to Cross: Objective Timing Methods of Assessing Street Crossings without Traffic Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerburger, Dona

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents methods for visually impaired pedestrians assessing safety of street crossings in the absence of traffic controls, considering both limited detection ability and the difficulty of judging when approaching traffic is distant or slow enough to allow crossing. Alternatives for "uncrossable" streets and teaching methods are…

  9. 32 CFR 636.21 - Obedience to official traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obedience to official traffic control devices. 636.21 Section 636.21 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.21...

  10. The ATC evaluation of the prototype Airport Surveillance Radar Wind Shear Processor (ASR-WSP) at Orlando International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Radame

    1993-03-01

    The Airport Surveillance Radar Wind Shear Processor (ASR-WSP), also known as Airport Surveillance Radar-9 (ASR-9) modification for low altitude wind shear detection, is a production ASR-9 with an expanded weather channel for added processing capabilities. The primary mission of the ASR-WSP is to enhance the safety of air travel through the timely detection and reporting of hazardous wind shear in and near the terminal approach and departure zones of the airport. It will also improve the management of air traffic (AT) in the terminal area through the forecast of precipitation, and ultimately the detection of other hazardous weather phenomena. The ASR-WSP may be used as a stand-alone system at airports without a Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) or Enhanced-Low Level Wind Shear Alert System (E-LLWAS), or in an integrated mode with either or both the TDWR and E-LLWAS. An operational evaluation of a prototype ASR-WSP, developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratories (MIT/LL), was conducted at the Orlando International Airport (MCO) in Orlando, Florida, during the period 29 Jun. to 31 Aug. 1992. The objective of the evaluation was to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) air traffic controller reaction to the prototype ASR-WSP weather data and display equipment. The following are highlights of the evaluation: (1) the ASW-WSP is very useful when making runway configuration changes; (2) the ASR-WSP is not perceived to be as accurate as the prototype TDWR; (3) the gust front prediction feature is not reliable; and (4) the information provided on both the RDT and the GSD is very useful.

  11. Selection and allocation of manual traffic control points and personnel during emergencies.

    PubMed

    Parr, Scott A; Wolshon, Brian; Dixit, Vinayak

    2015-01-01

    Manual traffic control is an intersection control strategy in which law enforcement officers allocate intersection right-of-way to turning movements. Many emergency traffic management plans call for manual traffic control in response to oversaturated roadway conditions. This is because it is thought to more effectively move traffic during temporary surges in demand. The goal of this research was to evaluate the current state-of-the-practice used by the Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) in selecting intersections for manual traffic control and allocating police personnel to them during emergencies. This research uses the emergency traffic management plans developed by the ACE for nine counties in the Maryland Eastern Shore region. This area encompassing 14,318 intersections of which 74 were selected for manual traffic control during emergencies. This work sought to quantify the correlations that exist between intersection attributes and the ACE' decision to allocate officers to control them. The research findings suggest that US routes, State routes, and emergency evacuation routes are statistically significant in determining the need for police control at intersections. Also significant are intersection on contraflow corridors and intersections near grade separated interchanges. The model also determined that intersections isolated from evacuation routes and county exits were more likely to be selected for manual control, indicating that rural areas may rely on manual traffic control in the absence of multilane highway and freeways. This research also found that intersections involving evacuation routes, contraflow corridors, and grade separated interchanges may warrant additional police personnel (two or more officers) for manual traffic control. PMID:25902295

  12. A new cellular automaton for signal controlled traffic flow based on driving behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Yan-Yan

    2015-03-01

    The complexity of signal controlled traffic largely stems from the various driving behaviors developed in response to the traffic signal. However, the existing models take a few driving behaviors into account and consequently the traffic dynamics has not been completely explored. Therefore, a new cellular automaton model, which incorporates the driving behaviors typically manifesting during the different stages when the vehicles are moving toward a traffic light, is proposed in this paper. Numerical simulations have demonstrated that the proposed model can produce the spontaneous traffic breakdown and the dissolution of the over-saturated traffic phenomena. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the slow-to-start behavior and the inch-forward behavior can foster the traffic breakdown. Particularly, it has been discovered that the over-saturated traffic can be revised to be an under-saturated state when the slow-down behavior is activated after the spontaneous breakdown. Finally, the contributions of the driving behaviors on the traffic breakdown have been examined. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grand No. 2012CB723303) and the Beijing Committee of Science and Technology, China (Grand No. Z1211000003120100).

  13. Model Predictive Control for Automobile Ecological Driving Using Traffic Signal Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Kamal, M. A. S.; Mukai, Masakazu; Kawabe, Taketoshi

    This paper presents development of a control system for ecological driving of an automobile. Prediction using traffic signal information is considered to improve the fuel economy. It is assumed that the automobile receives traffic signal information from Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Model predictive control is used to calculate optimal vehicle control inputs using traffic signal information. The performance of the proposed method was analyzed through computer simulation results. It was observed that fuel economy was improved compared with driving of a typical human driving model.

  14. Algorithm and data support of traffic congestion forecasting in the controlled transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, S. V.

    2015-06-01

    The topicality of problem of the traffic congestion forecasting in the logistic systems of product movement highways is considered. The concepts: the controlled territory, the highway occupancy by vehicles, the parking and the controlled territory are introduced. Technical realizabilityof organizing the necessary flow of information on the state of the transport system for its regulation has been marked. Sequence of practical implementation of the solution is given. An algorithm for predicting traffic congestion in the controlled transport system is suggested.

  15. Wireless Channel Characterization: Modeling the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Future Airport Surface Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, D. W.; Apaza, Rafael; Foore, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a recently completed wideband wireless channel characterization project for the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System (MLS) extension band, for airport surface areas. This work included mobile measurements at large and small airports, and fixed point-to-point measurements. Mobile measurements were made via transmission from the air traffic control tower (ATCT), or from an airport field site (AFS), to a receiving ground vehicle on the airport surface. The point-to-point measurements were between ATCT and AFSs. Detailed statistical channel models were developed from all these measurements. Measured quantities include propagation path loss and power delay profiles, from which we obtain delay spreads, frequency domain correlation (coherence bandwidths), fading amplitude statistics, and channel parameter correlations. In this paper we review the project motivation, measurement coordination, and illustrate measurement results. Example channel modeling results for several propagation conditions are also provided, highlighting new findings.

  16. The Impact of Trajectory Prediction Uncertainty on Air Traffic Controller Performance and Acceptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Joey S.; Bienert, Nancy; Gomez, Ashley; Hunt, Sarah; Kraut, Joshua; Martin, Lynne; Morey, Susan; Green, Steven M.; Prevot, Thomas; Wu, Minghong G.

    2013-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop air traffic control simulation investigated the impact of uncertainties in trajectory predictions on NextGen Trajectory-Based Operations concepts, seeking to understand when the automation would become unacceptable to controllers or when performance targets could no longer be met. Retired air traffic controllers staffed two en route transition sectors, delivering arrival traffic to the northwest corner-post of Atlanta approach control under time-based metering operations. Using trajectory-based decision-support tools, the participants worked the traffic under varying levels of wind forecast error and aircraft performance model error, impacting the ground automations ability to make accurate predictions. Results suggest that the controllers were able to maintain high levels of performance, despite even the highest levels of trajectory prediction errors.

  17. Prediction of Traffic Complexity and Controller Workload in Mixed Equipage NextGen Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Prevot, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Controller workload is a key factor in limiting en route air traffic capacity. Past efforts to quantify and predict workload have resulted in identifying objective metrics that correlate well with subjective workload ratings during current air traffic control operations. Although these metrics provide a reasonable statistical fit to existing data, they do not provide a good mechanism for estimating controller workload for future air traffic concepts and environments that make different assumptions about automation, enabling technologies, and controller tasks. One such future environment is characterized by en route airspace with a mixture of aircraft equipped with and without Data Communications (Data Comm). In this environment, aircraft with Data Comm will impact controller workload less than aircraft requiring voice communication, altering the close correlation between aircraft count and controller workload that exists in current air traffic operations. This paper outlines a new trajectory-based complexity (TBX) calculation that was presented to controllers during a human-in-the-loop simulation. The results showed that TBX accurately estimated the workload in a mixed Data Comm equipage environment and the resulting complexity values were understood and readily interpreted by the controllers. The complexity was represented as a "modified aircraft account" that weighted different complexity factors and summed them in such a way that the controllers could effectively treat them as aircraft count. The factors were also relatively easy to tune without an extensive data set. The results showed that the TBX approach is well suited for presenting traffic complexity in future air traffic environments.

  18. Managing birds and controlling aircraft in the kennedy airport-jamaica bay wildlife refuge complex: the need for hard data and soft opinions.

    PubMed

    Brown, K M; Erwin, R M; Richmond, M E; Buckley, P A; Tanacredi, J T; Avrin, D

    2001-08-01

    During the 1980s, the exponential growth of laughing gull (Larus atricilla) colonies, from 15 to about 7600 nests in 1990, in the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge and a correlated increase in the bird-strike rate at nearby John F. Kennedy International Airport (New York City) led to a controversy between wildlife and airport managers over the elimination of the colonies. In this paper, we review data to evaluate if: (1) the colonies have increased the level of risk to the flying public; (2) on-colony population control would reduce the presence of gulls, and subsequently bird strikes, at the airport; and (3) all on-airport management alternatives have been adequately implemented. Since 1979, most (2987, 87%) of the 3444 bird strikes (number of aircraft struck) were actually bird carcasses found near runways (cause of death unknown but assumed to be bird strikes by definition). Of the 457 pilot-reported strikes (mean = 23 +/- 6 aircraft/yr, N = 20 years), 78 (17%) involved laughing gulls. Since a gull-shooting program was initiated on airport property in 1991, over 50,000 adult laughing gulls have been killed and the number of reported bird strikes involving laughing gulls has declined from 6.9 +/- 2.9 (1983-1990) to 2.6 +/- 1.3 (1991-1998) aircraft/yr; nongull reported bird strikes, however, have more than doubled (6.4 +/- 2.6, 1983-1990; 14.9 +/- 5.1, 1991-1998). We found no evidence to indicate that on-colony management would yield a reduction of bird strikes at Kennedy Airport. Dietary and mark-recapture studies suggest that 60%-90% of the laughing gulls collected on-airport were either failed breeders and/or nonbreeding birds. We argue that the Jamaica Bay laughing gull colonies, the only ones in New York State, should not be managed at least until all on-airport management alternatives have been properly implemented and demonstrated to be ineffective at reducing bird strikes, including habitat alterations and increasing the capability of the bird control unit to

  19. Managing birds and controlling aircraft in the Kennedy Airport-Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge complex: the need for hard data and soft opinions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, K.M.; Erwin, R.M.; Richmond, M.E.; Buckley, P.A.; Tanacredi, J.T.; Avrin, D.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1980s, the exponential growth of laughing gull (Larus atrfcilla) colonies, from 15 to about 7600 nests in 1990, in the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge and a correlated increase in the bird-strike rate at nearby John F. Kennedy International Airport (New York City) led to a controversy between wildlife and airport managers over the elimination of the colonies. In this paper, we review data to evaluate if: (1) the colonies have increased the level of risk to the flying public; (2) on-colony population control would reduce the presence of gulls, and subsequently bird strikes, at the airport; and (3) all on-airport management alternatives have been adequately implemented. Since 1979, most (2987, 87%) of the 3444 bird strikes (number of aircraft struck) were actually bird carcasses found near runways (cause of death unknown but assumed to be bird strikes by definition). Of the 457 pilot-reported strikes (mean = 23 + 6 aircraft/yr, N = 20 years), 78 (17%) involved laughing gulls. Since a gull-shooting program was initiated on airport property in 1991, over 50,000 adult laughing gulls have been killed and the number of reported bird strikes involving laughing gulls has declined from 6.9 + 2.9 (1983-1990) to 2.8 + 1.3 (1991-1998) aircraft/yr; nongull reported bird strikes, however, have more than doubled (6.4 + 2.6, 1983-1990; 14.9 + 5.1, 1991-1998). We found no evidence to indicate that on-colony management would yield a reduction of bird strikes at Kennedy Airport. Dietary and mark-recapture studies suggest that 60%-90% of the laughing gulls collected on-airport were either failed breeders and/or nonbreeding birds. We argue that the Jamaica Bay laughing gull colonies, the only ones in New York State, should not be managed at least until all on-airport management alternatives have been properly implemented and demonstrated to be ineffective at reducing bird strikes, including habitat alterations and increasing the capability of the bird control unit to eliminate

  20. Feedback control for car following model based on two-lane traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hong-xia; Meng, Xiang-pei; Zhu, Hui-bing; Li, Zhi-Peng

    2014-08-01

    In the paper, two-lane traffic flow considering lane changing behaviors has been discussed based on the control theory, and the friction interference which is from the neighbor lane has been taken into account. By using the control method, the stability condition is derived. The feedback signals, which include vehicular information from both lanes, acting on the two-lane traffic system have been introduced into the Full Velocity Difference car-following model. In the end, simulations are conducted to examine the validity and reasonability of the control method. It is proven that lane changing behaviors can aggravate the traffic perturbation. The traffic flow congestion could be suppressed by using the control method and the simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  1. Improving air traffic control: Proving new tools or approving the joint human-machine system?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaillard, Irene; Leroux, Marcel

    1994-01-01

    From the description of a field problem (i.e., designing decision aids for air traffic controllers), this paper points out how a cognitive engineering approach provides the milestones for the evaluation of future joint human-machine systems.

  2. Overcoming the Pigou-Downs Paradox Using Advanced Traffic Signal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowdur, S. C.; Rughooputh, S. D. D. V.

    2013-06-01

    Expansion of a road network has often been observed to cause more congestion and has led researchers to the formulation of traffic paradoxes such as the Pigou-Downs and the Braess paradoxes. In this paper, we present an application of advanced traffic signal control (ATSC) to overcome the Pigou-Downs paradox. Port Louis, the capital city of Mauritius is used to investigate the effect of using a harbor bridge to by-pass the city center. Using traffic cellular automata (TCA) simulations it has been shown how, if traffic is only gradually deviated along the by-pass, an overall longer travel time and decreased flux would result. By making use of ATSC, which involves traffic lights that sense the number of vehicles accumulated in the queue, better travel times and fluxes are achieved.

  3. Target detection using radar images of an airport surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Hayden B.; Wyschogrod, Daniel; Harman, William H.; Sasiela, Richard J.; Bush, Richard W.

    1994-07-01

    Automation aids which increase the efficiency of the controller and enhance safety are being sought by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This paper describes the target detection algorithms developed by the MIT Lincoln Laboratory as part of the airport surface traffic automation (ASTA) and runway surface safety light system (RSLS) programs sponsored by the FAA that were demonstrated at Logan International Airport in Boston, Mass. from September 1992 through December 1993. A companion paper to this conference describes the ASTA and RSLS system demonstration. Another companion paper describes the tracking algorithms. Real-time, parallel processing implementations of these surveillance algorithms are written in C++ on a Silicon Graphics Inc. Unix multiprocessor. The heavy reliance on commercial hardware, standard operating systems, object oriented design, and high-level computer languages allows a rapid transition from a research environment to a production environment.

  4. The realistic consideration of human factors in model based simulation tools for the air traffic control domain.

    PubMed

    Duca, Gabriella; Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts related to automation, airspace organization and operational procedures are driven by the overall goal to increase ATM system performance. Independently on the nature and/or impact of envisaged changes (e.g. from a short term procedure adjustment to a very long term operational concept or aid tools completion), the preliminary assessment of possible gains in airspace/airport capacity, safety and cost-effectiveness is done by running Model Based Simulations (MBSs, also known as Fast Time Simulations - FTS). Being a not human-in-the-loop technique, the reliability of a MBS results depend on the accuracy and significance of modeled human factors. Despite that, it can be observed in the practice that modeling tools commonly assume a generalized standardization of human behaviors and tasks and consider a very few range of work environment factors that, in the reality, affect the actual human-system performance. The present paper is aimed at opening a discussion about the possibility to keep task description and related weight at a high/general level, suitable for an efficient use of MBSs and, at the same time, increasing simulations reliability adopting some adjustment coming from the elaboration of further variables related to the human aspects of controllers workload. PMID:22316714

  5. Effect of advanced aircraft noise reduction technology on the 1990 projected noise environment around Patrick Henry Airport. [development of noise exposure forecast contours for projected traffic volume and aircraft types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawthorn, J. M.; Brown, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    A study has been conducted of the future noise environment of Patric Henry Airport and its neighboring communities projected for the year 1990. An assessment was made of the impact of advanced noise reduction technologies which are currently being considered. These advanced technologies include a two-segment landing approach procedure and aircraft hardware modifications or retrofits which would add sound absorbent material in the nacelles of the engines or which would replace the present two- and three-stage fans with a single-stage fan of larger diameter. Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF) contours were computed for the baseline (nonretrofitted) aircraft for the projected traffic volume and fleet mix for the year 1990. These NEF contours are presented along with contours for a variety of retrofit options. Comparisons of the baseline with the noise reduction options are given in terms of total land area exposed to 30 and 40 NEF levels. Results are also presented of the effects on noise exposure area of the total number of daily operations.

  6. NASA Research on an Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Surface operations at airports in the US are based on tactical operations, where departure aircraft primarily queue up and wait at the departure runways. There have been attempts to address the resulting inefficiencies with both strategic and tactical tools for metering departure aircraft. This presentation gives an overview of Spot And Runway Departure Advisor with Collaborative Decision Making (SARDA-CDM): an integrated strategic and tactical system for improving surface operations by metering departure aircraft. SARDA-CDM is the augmentation of ground and local controller advisories through sharing of flight movement and related operations information between airport operators, flight operators and air traffic control at the airport. The goal is to enhance the efficiency of airport surface operations by exchanging information between air traffic control and airline operators, while minimizing adverse effects on stakeholders and passengers. The presentation motivates the need for departure metering, and provides a brief background on the previous work on SARDA. Then, the concept of operations for SARDA-CDM is described. Then the preliminary results from testing the concept in a real-time automated simulation environment are described. Results indicate benefits such as reduction in taxiing delay and fuel consumption. Further, the preliminary implementation of SARDA-CDM seems robust for two minutes delay in gate push-back times.

  7. A Theory and Model of Conflict Detection in Air Traffic Control: Incorporating Environmental Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Bolland, Scott; Humphreys, Michael S.; Neal, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A performance theory for conflict detection in air traffic control is presented that specifies how controllers adapt decisions to compensate for environmental constraints. This theory is then used as a framework for a model that can fit controller intervention decisions. The performance theory proposes that controllers apply safety margins to…

  8. Adult asthma and traffic exposure at residential address, workplace address, and self-reported daily time outdoor in traffic: A two-stage case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most epidemiologic studies use traffic at residential address as a surrogate for total traffic exposure when investigating effects of traffic on respiratory health. This study used GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to estimate traffic exposure, not only on residential, but also on workplace address, in addition to survey questions on time spent in traffic during commuting or other daily activities. The aim was to investigate 1) if there is an association between traffic exposure and prevalence of adult asthma and asthma symptoms, and 2) if so, does this association become stronger using more complete traffic exposure information. Methods This study was conducted in two stages: A first cross-sectional survey in Southern Sweden 2004 (n = 24819, 18-80 years, response rate 59%) was followed by a case-control study in 2005 to obtain more detailed exposure and confounder information (n = 2856, asthmatics and controls (1:3), 86% response rate). In the first survey, only residential address was known. In the second survey, questions about workplace addresses and daily time spent in traffic were also included. Residential and workplace addresses were geocoded and linked with GIS to road data and dispersion modelled outdoor concentrations of NOx (annual mean, 250 × 250 m resolution). Results Living within 50 m of a road (measured by GIS) with traffic intensity of >10 cars/minute (compared with no road within this distance) was associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = (1.1-2.8), and with asthma symptoms last 12 months. No statistically significant effects were seen for traffic exposure at workplace address, daily time spent in traffic, or commuting time to work, after adjustment for confounders. A combined total exposure estimate did not give a stronger association with asthma prevalence or asthma symptoms. Conclusions Traffic exposure at close proximity to residential address showed association with asthma prevalence and asthma

  9. An Initial Study of Airport Arrival Heinz Capacity Benefits Due to Improved Scheduling Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyn, Larry; Erzberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    The long-term growth rate in air-traffic demand leads to future air-traffic densities that are unmanageable by today's air-traffic control system. I n order to accommodate such growth, new technology and operational methods will be needed in the next generation air-traffic control system. One proposal for such a system is the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC). One of the precepts of AAC is to direct aircraft using trajectories that are sent via an air-ground data link. This greatly improves the accuracy in directing aircraft to specific waypoints at specific times. Studies of the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) have shown that increased scheduling accuracy enables increased arrival capacity at CTAS equipped airports.

  10. Piloted simulation of a ground-based time-control concept for air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Green, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A joint simulation was carried out using a piloted simulator and an advanced-concept air traffic control simulation to study the acceptability and accuracy of the ground-based four-dimensional descent advisor (DA), an automation aid based on accurate models of aircraft performance and weather conditions. In the piloted simulation, airline crews executed controller-issued descent advisories along standard curved-path arrival routes and were able to achieve an arrival-time precision of plus or minus 20 s at the metering fix. An analysis of errors generated in turns resulted in a further enhancement of the DA algorithm.

  11. SARDA: An Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is an integrated decision support tool for airlines and air traffic control tower enabling surface collaborative decision making (CDM) and departure metering in order to enhance efficiency of surface operations at congested airports. The presentation describes the concept and architecture of the SARDA as a CDM tool, and the results from a human-in-the-loop simulation of the tool conducted in 2012 at the FutureFlight Central, the tower simulation facility. Also, presented is the current activities and future plan for SARDA development. The presentation was given at the meeting with the FAA senior advisor of the Surface Operations Office.

  12. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  13. An observation tool to study air traffic control and flightdeck collaboration.

    PubMed

    Cox, Gemma; Sharples, Sarah; Stedmon, Alex; Wilson, John

    2007-07-01

    The complex systems of the flightdeck (FD) and the Air Traffic Control Centre (ATC) are characterised by numerous concurrently operating and interacting communication channels between people and between people and machines/computer systems. This paper describes work in support of investigating the impact of changes to technologies and responsibilities within this system with respect to human factors. It focuses primarily on the introduction of datalink (text-based communication rather than traditional radio communication) and the move towards freeflight (pilot-mediated air traffic control). Air traffic management investigations have outlined these specific changes as strategies to enable further increases in the volume of air traffic. A systems approach was taken and field studies were conducted. Small numbers of domain experts such as air traffic controllers (ATCOs) were involved in the field-based observations of how people interact with systems and each other. This paper summarises the overall research approach taken and then specifically reports on the field-based observations including the justification, development, and findings of the observation tool used. The observation tool examined information propagation through the air traffic control-flightdeck (ATC-FD) system, and resulted in models of possible information trajectories through the system. PMID:17498641

  14. Four-dimensional guidance problem with control delays. [in air traffic control automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagarajan, N.

    1976-01-01

    This paper, assuming steady wind and zero sideslip, presents a discrete-time mathematical model to obtain a control law and three-dimensional flight path to guide an aircraft in a given time from a given initial state (position, velocity and heading) to a prescribed final state subject to the constraints on airspeed acceleration, and pitch and bank angles of the aircraft. For ease in implementing the control law, the control inputs are assumed to be delayed and are applied in a sequential fashion. The guidance problem is formulated as a discrete nonlinear optimal control problem with time delays in dynamics and a cost functional of Bolza form. With a quadratic penalty function to handle terminal constraints on velocity and heading, a solution technique to the control problem based on conjugate gradient algorithm is investigated. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the applicability of this approach to solution of a terminal area guidance problem in an automated air traffic control environment.

  15. Design and evaluation of an air traffic control Final Approach Spacing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Erzberger, Heinz; Green, Steven M.; Nedell, William

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design and simulator evaluation of an automation tool for assisting terminal radar approach controllers in sequencing and spacing traffic onto the final approach course. The automation tool, referred to as the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST), displays speed and heading advisories for arriving aircraft as well as sequencing information on the controller's radar display. The main functional elements of FAST are a scheduler that schedules and sequences the traffic, a four-dimensional trajectory synthesizer that generates the advisories, and a graphical interface that displays the information to the controller. FAST has been implemented on a high-performance workstation. It can be operated as a stand-alone in the terminal radar approach control facility or as an element of a system integrated with automation tools in the air route traffic control center. FAST was evaluated by experienced air traffic controllers in a real-time air traffic control simulation. simulation results summarized in the paper show that the automation tools significantly reduced controller work load and demonstrated a potential for an increase in landing rate.

  16. Surface Development and Test Facility (SDTF) New R&D Simulator for Airport Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorighi, Nancy S.

    1997-01-01

    A new simulator, the Surface Development and Test Facility (SDTF) is under construction at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Jointly funded by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and NASA, the SDTF will be a testbed for airport surface automation technologies of the future. The SDTF will be operational in the third quarter of 1998. The SDTF will combine a virtual tower with simulated ground operations to allow evaluation of new technologies for safety, effectiveness, reliability, and cost benefit. The full-scale level V tower will provide a seamless 360 degree high resolution out-the-window view, and a full complement of ATC (air traffic control) controller positions. The imaging system will be generated by two fully-configured Silicon Graphics Onyx Infinite Reality computers, and will support surface movement of up to 200 aircraft and ground vehicles. The controller positions, displays and consoles can be completely reconfigured to match the unique layout of any individual airport tower. Dedicated areas will accommodate pseudo-airport ramp controllers, pseudo-airport operators, and pseudo-pilots. Up to 33 total personnel positions will be able to participate in simultaneous operational scenarios. A realistic voice communication infrastructure will emulate the intercom and telephone communications of a real airport tower. Multi-channel audio and video recording and a sophisticated data acquisition system will support a wide variety of research and development areas, such as evaluation of automation tools for surface operations, human factors studies, integration of terminal area and airport technologies, and studies of potential airport physical and procedural modifications.

  17. Aircraft noise in the region of the Bucharest-Otopeni Airport. [noise pollution in airport environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costescu, M.; Gherghel, C.; Curtoglu, A.

    1974-01-01

    Aircraft noise, especially in the region adjoining airports, constitutes a problem that will be aggravated in the near future because of increasing aircraft traffic and the appearance of new types of large tonnage aircraft with continuously increasing powers and speeds. Criteria for the evaluation of aircraft noise are reported and some results of studies carried out in the region of Bucharest-Otopeni Airport are detailed.

  18. Research Of Airborne Precision Spacing to Improve Airport Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Baxley, Brian T.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2004, the European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) and the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation to mutually develop, modify, test, and evaluate systems, procedures, facilities, and devices to meet the need for safe and efficient air navigation and air traffic control in the future. In the United States and Europe, these efforts are defined within the architectures of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Program and Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) Program respectively. Both programs have identified Airborne Spacing as a critical component, with Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) as a key enabler. Increased interest in reducing airport community noise and the escalating cost of aviation fuel has led to the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures to reduce noise, emissions, and fuel usage compared to current procedures. To provide these operational enhancements, arrival flight paths into terminal areas are planned around continuous vertical descents that are closer to an optimum trajectory than those in use today. The profiles are designed to be near-idle descents from cruise altitude to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and are typically without any level segments. By staying higher and faster than conventional arrivals, CDAs also save flight time for the aircraft operator. The drawback is that the variation of optimized trajectories for different types and weights of aircraft requires the Air Traffic Controller to provide more airspace around an aircraft on a CDA than on a conventional arrival procedure. This additional space decreases the throughput rate of the destination airport. Airborne self-spacing concepts have been developed to increase the throughput at high-demand airports by managing the inter-arrival spacing to be more precise and consistent using on-board guidance. It has been proposed that the

  19. Innovative traffic control: Technology practice in Europe. International technology exchange program

    SciTech Connect

    Tignor, S.C.; Brown, L.L.; Butner, J.L.; Cunard, R.; Davis, S.C.

    1999-08-01

    This summary report describes a may 1998 transportation technology scanning tour of four European countries. The tour was co-sponsored by FHWA, AASHTO, and TRB. The tour team consisted of 10 traffic engineers who visited England, France, Germany, and Sweden to observe traffic control devices and methodology and to determine if any European practices should and could be recommended for use in the United States. This report is organized into five key chapters: Traffic Control Devices, Freeway Control, Operational Practices, Information Management, and Administrative Practices. Among the devices and practices recommended for further study for US adoption are specific freeway pavement markings, variable speed control, lane control signals, intelligent speed adaptation, innovative intersection control, and variable message signs that incorporate pictograms. The report includes statements for proposed research problems.

  20. Nextgen Technologies for Mid-Term and Far-Term Air Traffic Control Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes technologies for mid-term and far-term air traffic control operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The technologies were developed and evaluated with human-in-the-loop simulations in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. The simulations were funded by several research focus areas within NASA's Airspace Systems program and some were co-funded by the FAA's Air Traffic Organization for Planning, Research and Technology.

  1. CTAS and NASA Air Traffic Management Fact Sheets for En Route Descent Advisor and Surface Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine

    2004-01-01

    The Surface Management System (SMS) is a decision support tool that will help controllers, traffic managers, and NAS users manage the movements of aircraft on the surface of busy airports, improving capacity, efficiency, and flexibility. The Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project at NASA is developing SMS in cooperation with the FAA's Free Flight Phase 2 (FFP2) pro5ram. SMS consists of three parts: a traffic management tool, a controller tool, and a National Airspace System (NAS) information tool.

  2. Whiffing the Airport Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David

    2008-01-01

    An airport interview is an initial interview for a senior administrative position conducted at an airport hotel not too far from the campus in question. Meeting at an airport enables a search committee to interview a large number of candidates in a short period of time with a degree of confidentiality. At the conclusion of the airport interviews,…

  3. Training of U.S. Air Traffic Controllers. (IDA Report No. R-206).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, James H.; And Others

    The report reviews the evolution of existing national programs for air traffic controller training, estimates the number of persons requiring developmental and supplementary training, examines present controller selection and training programs, investigates performance measurement methods, considers standardization and quality control, discusses…

  4. From Cellular Attractor Selection to Adaptive Signal Control for Traffic Networks.

    PubMed

    Tian, Daxin; Zhou, Jianshan; Sheng, Zhengguo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    The management of varying traffic flows essentially depends on signal controls at intersections. However, design an optimal control that considers the dynamic nature of a traffic network and coordinates all intersections simultaneously in a centralized manner is computationally challenging. Inspired by the stable gene expressions of Escherichia coli in response to environmental changes, we explore the robustness and adaptability performance of signalized intersections by incorporating a biological mechanism in their control policies, specifically, the evolution of each intersection is induced by the dynamics governing an adaptive attractor selection in cells. We employ a mathematical model to capture such biological attractor selection and derive a generic, adaptive and distributed control algorithm which is capable of dynamically adapting signal operations for the entire dynamical traffic network. We show that the proposed scheme based on attractor selection can not only promote the balance of traffic loads on each link of the network but also allows the global network to accommodate dynamical traffic demands. Our work demonstrates the potential of bio-inspired intelligence emerging from cells and provides a deep understanding of adaptive attractor selection-based control formation that is useful to support the designs of adaptive optimization and control in other domains. PMID:26972968

  5. From Cellular Attractor Selection to Adaptive Signal Control for Traffic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Daxin; Zhou, Jianshan; Sheng, Zhengguo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    The management of varying traffic flows essentially depends on signal controls at intersections. However, design an optimal control that considers the dynamic nature of a traffic network and coordinates all intersections simultaneously in a centralized manner is computationally challenging. Inspired by the stable gene expressions of Escherichia coli in response to environmental changes, we explore the robustness and adaptability performance of signalized intersections by incorporating a biological mechanism in their control policies, specifically, the evolution of each intersection is induced by the dynamics governing an adaptive attractor selection in cells. We employ a mathematical model to capture such biological attractor selection and derive a generic, adaptive and distributed control algorithm which is capable of dynamically adapting signal operations for the entire dynamical traffic network. We show that the proposed scheme based on attractor selection can not only promote the balance of traffic loads on each link of the network but also allows the global network to accommodate dynamical traffic demands. Our work demonstrates the potential of bio-inspired intelligence emerging from cells and provides a deep understanding of adaptive attractor selection-based control formation that is useful to support the designs of adaptive optimization and control in other domains. PMID:26972968

  6. From Cellular Attractor Selection to Adaptive Signal Control for Traffic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Daxin; Zhou, Jianshan; Sheng, Zhengguo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jianming

    2016-03-01

    The management of varying traffic flows essentially depends on signal controls at intersections. However, design an optimal control that considers the dynamic nature of a traffic network and coordinates all intersections simultaneously in a centralized manner is computationally challenging. Inspired by the stable gene expressions of Escherichia coli in response to environmental changes, we explore the robustness and adaptability performance of signalized intersections by incorporating a biological mechanism in their control policies, specifically, the evolution of each intersection is induced by the dynamics governing an adaptive attractor selection in cells. We employ a mathematical model to capture such biological attractor selection and derive a generic, adaptive and distributed control algorithm which is capable of dynamically adapting signal operations for the entire dynamical traffic network. We show that the proposed scheme based on attractor selection can not only promote the balance of traffic loads on each link of the network but also allows the global network to accommodate dynamical traffic demands. Our work demonstrates the potential of bio-inspired intelligence emerging from cells and provides a deep understanding of adaptive attractor selection-based control formation that is useful to support the designs of adaptive optimization and control in other domains.

  7. Development of software standards for advanced transportation control systems. Final report. Volume 1. A model for roadway traffic control software

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, D.; Hendrickson, C.

    1993-06-01

    A systematic approach to traffic engineering software development could provide significant advantages with regard to software capability, flexibility and maintenance. Improved traffic controllers will likely be essential for many of the proposed intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS) applications. The report proposes a computable language, called TCBLKS (Traffic Control BLocKS), that could provide the foundation for constructing real time traffic engineering software. This computable language is designed to be configured by a graphical user interface that does not require extensive software engineering training to use, yet provides much more flexibility and capability than possible by simply changing program parameters. The model is based upon the function block metaphor commonly used for constructing robust and efficient real time industrial control systems.

  8. Traffic flow collection wireless sensor network node for intersection light control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu; Li, Xue

    2011-10-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is expected to be deployed in intersection to monitor the traffic flow continuously, and the monitoring datum can be used as the foundation of traffic light control. In this paper, a WSN based on ZigBee protocol for monitoring traffic flow is proposed. Structure, hardware and work flow of WSN nodes are designed. CC2431 from Texas Instrument is chosen as the main computational and transmission unit, and CC2591 as the amplification unit. The stability experiment and the actual environment experiment are carried out in the last of the paper. The results of experiments show that WSN has the ability to collect traffic flow information quickly and transmit the datum to the processing center in real time.

  9. Designing Scenarios for Controller-in-the-Loop Air Traffic Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kupfer, Michael; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher; Callantine, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Well prepared traffic scenarios contribute greatly to the success of controller-in-the-loop simulations. This paper describes each stage in the design process of realistic scenarios based on real-world traffic, to be used in the Airspace Operations Laboratory for simulations within the Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration 1 effort. The steps from the initial analysis of real-world traffic, to the editing of individual aircraft records in the scenario file, until the final testing of the scenarios before the simulation conduct, are all described. The iterative nature of the design process and the various efforts necessary to reach the required fidelity, as well as the applied design strategies, challenges, and tools used during this process are also discussed.

  10. Tailored fog climatology for Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leander, R.

    2010-07-01

    Like many airports, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is vulnerable to climate change. The airport is situated in a complex and fragile urban area where fundamental changes take place in design and use of the region. To maintain its competitive position, the airport is beginning to respond to changes in weather and climate by formulating adaptation strategies, based on tailored climate information. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (AAS) and Air Trafic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) are working together to provide just that type of information. Due to safety regulations, reduced horizontal visibility on airports can have an immediate impact on the availability of runways and hence the airport capacity. Fog is therefore one of the most relevant meteorological phenomena to airport operations. A study has started in which the statistics of fog occurrence and visibility at Amsterdam Airport are assessed. The aim is describing the current climate (from 1970 onward) as well as making projections into the future (up to 2040). For the latter, the identification and attribution of trends is relevant. Another point of interrest is the spatial pattern of fog potential over the airport, in particular the related questions whether some runways are more prone to fog occurrence than others and whether these runways require a separate forecast. To answer these questions it is crucial to distinguish between large-scale and local influences. The preliminary results of this study are presented here.

  11. Multiobjective Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Signal Control Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houli, Duan; Zhiheng, Li; Yi, Zhang

    2010-12-01

    We propose a new multiobjective control algorithm based on reinforcement learning for urban traffic signal control, named multi-RL. A multiagent structure is used to describe the traffic system. A vehicular ad hoc network is used for the data exchange among agents. A reinforcement learning algorithm is applied to predict the overall value of the optimization objective given vehicles' states. The policy which minimizes the cumulative value of the optimization objective is regarded as the optimal one. In order to make the method adaptive to various traffic conditions, we also introduce a multiobjective control scheme in which the optimization objective is selected adaptively to real-time traffic states. The optimization objectives include the vehicle stops, the average waiting time, and the maximum queue length of the next intersection. In addition, we also accommodate a priority control to the buses and the emergency vehicles through our model. The simulation results indicated that our algorithm could perform more efficiently than traditional traffic light control methods.

  12. Engineering Social Justice into Traffic Control for Self-Driving Vehicles?

    PubMed

    Mladenovic, Milos N; McPherson, Tristram

    2016-08-01

    The convergence of computing, sensing, and communication technology will soon permit large-scale deployment of self-driving vehicles. This will in turn permit a radical transformation of traffic control technology. This paper makes a case for the importance of addressing questions of social justice in this transformation, and sketches a preliminary framework for doing so. We explain how new forms of traffic control technology have potential implications for several dimensions of social justice, including safety, sustainability, privacy, efficiency, and equal access. Our central focus is on efficiency and equal access as desiderata for traffic control design. We explain the limitations of conventional traffic control in meeting these desiderata, and sketch a preliminary vision for a next-generation traffic control tailored to address better the demands of social justice. One component of this vision is cooperative, hierarchically distributed self-organization among vehicles. Another component of this vision is a priority system enabling selection of priority levels by the user for each vehicle trip in the network, based on the supporting structure of non-monetary credits. PMID:26231407

  13. Distributed input/output subsystem for traffic signal control. Final report, December 1993-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, D.; Schwem, C.

    1995-07-01

    The `distributed input/output sybsystem` is an electrical interface between a traffic device controller, its sensors (typically loop detectors), and its actuators (typically signal lamps), Spread-spectrum signals from the controller are carried over a pair of 110VAC wires that supply power to the devices. Control modules at the actuators decode these signals and implement only the commands that are addressed to their devices. The process also works in reverse for sensors, using the same hardware elements. This interface greatly reduces the quantity of wiring installed at traffic signals and can be easily expanded to accommodate additional sensors and actuators. This can substantially reduce labor and material costs. This project demonstrated distributed control modules for several ITS applications: traffic signal lamps, ramp meters, loop detectors and variable message signs.

  14. Verbal workload in distributed air traffic management. [considering pilot controller interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Pardo, B.; Wempe, T. E.; Huff, E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of alternative traffic management possibilities on task performance and pilot controller verbal workloads were studied. Two new rule structures - sequencing and advisory - in addition to vectoring were studied in conjunction with CRT pilot displays incorporating traffic situation displays with and without aircraft flight path predictors. The sequencing and advisory systems gave increasing control responsibility to the pilots. It was concluded that distributed management systems could in practice significantly reduce controller verbal workload without reducing system performance. Implications of this conclusion suggest that distributed management would allow controllers to handle a larger volume of traffic safely either as a normal operating procedure or as a failure mode alternative in a highly automated ground centered system.

  15. In-Trail Procedure Air Traffic Control Procedures Validation Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartrand, Ryan C.; Hewitt, Katrin P.; Sweeney, Peter B.; Graff, Thomas J.; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2007, Airservices Australia (Airservices) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a validation experiment of the air traffic control (ATC) procedures associated with the Automatic Dependant Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) In-Trail Procedure (ITP). ITP is an Airborne Traffic Situation Awareness (ATSA) application designed for near-term use in procedural airspace in which ADS-B data are used to facilitate climb and descent maneuvers. NASA and Airservices conducted the experiment in Airservices simulator in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve current operational air traffic controllers participated in the experiment, which identified aspects of the ITP that could be improved (mainly in the communication and controller approval process). Results showed that controllers viewed the ITP as valid and acceptable. This paper describes the experiment design and results.

  16. Chaos analysis and delayed-feedback control in a discrete dynamic coupled map traffic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yaling; Shi, Zhongke

    2015-03-01

    The presence of chaos in traffic flow is studied using a modified discrete dynamic coupled map model which is derived from both the flow-density-speed fundamental diagram and Del Castillo's speed-density model. The modified model employs occupancy as its new variable and introduces a coupling strength with the consideration of effect of the front adjacent vehicle. And we analyze its stability of the control system and provide a procedure to design the decentralized delayed-feedback controllers for the traffic control system. These theoretical results are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  17. Technical Seminar: "Modeling and Optimization in Air Traffic Management"

    NASA Video Gallery

    Traffic Flow Management (TFM) is the efficient organization of traffic flows to meet demand taking into account capacity constraints at airports and in en route airspace. TFM involves thousands of ...

  18. LH2 airport requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the facilities and equipment which will be required at a representative airport is provided so liquid hydrogen LH2 can be used as fuel in long range transport aircraft in 1995-2000. A complete facility was conceptually designed, sized to meet the projected air traffic requirement. The facility includes the liquefaction plant, LH2, storage capability, and LH2 fuel handling system. The requirements for ground support and maintenance for the LH2 fueled aircraft were analyzed. An estimate was made of capital and operating costs which might be expected for the facility. Recommendations were made for design modifications to the reference aircraft, reflecting results of the analysis of airport fuel handling requirements, and for a program of additional technology development for air terminal related items.

  19. Vehicular motion in counter traffic flow through a series of signals controlled by a phase shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Tobita, Kazuhiro

    2012-10-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of counter traffic flow through a sequence of signals (traffic lights) controlled by a phase shift. There are two lanes for the counter traffic flow: the first lane is for east-bound vehicles and the second lane is for west-bound vehicles. The green-wave strategy is studied in the counter traffic flow where the phase shift of signals in the second lane has opposite sign to that in the first lane. A nonlinear dynamic model of the vehicular motion is presented by nonlinear maps at a low density. There is a distinct difference between the traffic flow in the first lane and that in the second lane. The counter traffic flow exhibits very complex behavior on varying the cycle time, the phase difference, and the split. Also, the fundamental diagram is derived by the use of the cellular automaton (CA) model. The dependence of east-bound and west-bound vehicles on cycle time, phase difference, and density is clarified.

  20. Cognitive Task Analysis of En Route Air Traffic Control: Model Extension and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Richard E.; And Others

    Phase II of a project extended data collection and analytic procedures to develop a model of expertise and skill development for en route air traffic control (ATC). New data were collected by recording the Dynamic Simulator (DYSIM) performance of five experts with a work overload problem. Expert controllers were interviewed in depth for mental…

  1. Evaluation of Pushback Decision-Support Tool Concept for Charlotte Douglas International Airport Ramp Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon C.; Malik, Waqar; Lee, Hanbong; Dulchinos, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new departure pushback decision-support tool (DST) for airport ramp-tower controllers. It is based on NASA's Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) collaborative decision-making concept, except with the modification that the gate releases now are controlled by tactical pushback (or gate-hold) advisories instead of strategic pre-assignments of target pushback times to individual departure flights. The proposed ramp DST relies on data exchange with the airport traffic control tower (ATCT) to coordinate pushbacks with the ATCT's flow-management intentions under current operational constraints, such as Traffic Management Initiative constraints. Airlines would benefit in reduced taxi delay and fuel burn. The concept was evaluated in a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment with current ramp-tower controllers at the Charlotte Douglas International Airport as participants. The results showed that the tool helped reduce taxi time by one minute per flight and overall departure flight fuel consumption by 10-12% without reducing runway throughput. Expect Departure Clearance Time (EDCT) conformance also was improved when advisories were provided. These benefits were attained without increasing the ramp-tower controllers' workload. Additionally, the advisories reduced the ATCT controllers' workload.

  2. Controlling Air Traffic (Simulated) in the Presence of Automation (CATS PAu) 1995: A Study of Measurement Techniques for Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Jennifer R.

    1995-01-01

    As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.

  3. Traffic control devices, visibility, and railroad grade crossings. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers contained in this volume are primarily from the 74th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board and the Symposium for Improving Visibility for the Night Traveler, which was held in May 1994 in Washington, D.C. They concern traffic signs and signals, highway visibility, and rail-highway grade crossing safety and research, addressing some of the problems and issues facing urban engineers as they grapple with the ever more complex traffic system. Readers with a specific interest in traffic control devices will find papers related to effective uses of variable message signs, comprehension of various types of traffic control devices and their effects on driver behavior, pedestrian crosswalk time requirements, and empirical analysis of two-way stop-controlled intersections. Readers with an interest in delineation and illumination will find papers on minimum retroreflectivity requirements, pavement marking visibility and detectability, curve delineation, traffic sign reading distances at night, and apparent nighttime color of pavement marking products. Closing out this Record are papers addressing the application of GIS to rail-highway crossing safety and the accuracy of U.S. Department of Transportation rail-highway grade crossing accident prediction models.

  4. Predicting Human Error in Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools and Free Flight Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2001-01-01

    The document is a set of briefing slides summarizing the work the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project is doing on predicting air traffic controller and airline pilot human error when using new decision support software tools and when involved in testing new air traffic control concepts. Previous work in this area is reviewed as well as research being done jointly with the FAA. Plans for error prediction work in the AATT Project are discussed. The audience is human factors researchers and aviation psychologists from government and industry.

  5. Operational air traffic control requirements for the new Voice Switching and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, N.

    1984-01-01

    Final user requirements defined for the Voice Switching and Control System (VSCS) to be implemented for ATC functions as part of the Area Control Facility (ACF) concept for the National Airspace System (NAS) are described. The VSCS will be communications equipment at operational stations, supervisory positions, and support systems, the switching system itself, and interfaces between the VSCS and other systems. Supervisory users will include the Area Manager, Traffic Management Coordinator, a Military Operations Specialists, a Weather Coordinator, a NAS manager, Maintenance, and a flight Data Communications Specialist. The VSCS will supply computerized communications capability within and among ATC centers. Details of the efforts used to define the system requirements are recounted, noting the heavy reliance on recommendations from active ATC personnel.

  6. Model-Based Design of Air Traffic Controller-Automation Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romahn, Stephan; Callantine, Todd J.; Palmer, Everett A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A model of controller and automation activities was used to design the controller-automation interactions necessary to implement a new terminal area air traffic management concept. The model was then used to design a controller interface that provides the requisite information and functionality. Using data from a preliminary study, the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) was used to help validate the model as a computational tool for describing controller performance.

  7. Parameter optimization in AQM controller design to support TCP traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Yang, Oliver W.

    2004-09-01

    TCP congestion control mechanism has been widely investigated and deployed on Internet in preventing congestion collapse. We would like to employ modern control theory to specify quantitatively the control performance of the TCP communication system. In this paper, we make use of a commonly used performance index called the Integral of the Square of the Error (ISE), which is a quantitative measure to gauge the performance of a control system. By applying the ISE performance index into the Proportional-plus-Integral controller based on Pole Placement (PI_PP controller) for active queue management (AQM) in IP routers, we can further tune the parameters for the controller to achieve an optimum control minimizing control errors. We have analyzed the dynamic model of the TCP congestion control under this ISE, and used OPNET simulation tool to verify the derived optimized parameters of the controllers.

  8. Model-free approach to optimal signal light timing for system-wide traffic control

    SciTech Connect

    Spall, J.C.; Chin, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    A long-standing problem in traffic engineering is to optimize the flow of vehicles through a given road network. Improving the timing of the traffic signals at intersections in the network is generally the most powerful and cost-effective means of achieving this goal. However, because of the many complex aspects of a traffic system-human behavioral considerations, vehicle flow interactions within the network, weather effects, traffic accidents, long-term (e.g., seasonal) variation, etc.-it has been notoriously difficult to determine the optimal signal light timing. This is especially the case on a system- wide (multiple intersection) basis. Much of this difficulty has stemmed from the need to build extremely complex open-loop models of the traffic dynamics as a component of the control strategy. This paper presents a fundamentally different approach for optimal light timing that eliminates the need for such an open-loop model. The approach is based on a neural network (or other function approximator) serving as the basis for the control law, with the weight estimation occurring in closed-loop mode via the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) algorithm. Since the SPSA algorithm requires only loss function measurements (no gradients of the loss function), there is no open-loop model required for the weight estimation. The approach is illustrated by simulation on a six-intersection network with moderate congestion and stochastic, nonlinear effects.

  9. Traffic scenario generation technique for piloted simulation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Wells, Douglas C.

    1985-01-01

    Piloted simulation studies of cockpit traffic display concepts require the development of representative traffic scenarios. With the exception of specific aircraft interaction issues, most research questions can be addressed using traffic scenarios consisting of prerecorded aircraft movements merged together to form a desired traffic pattern. Prerecorded traffic scenarios have distinct research advantages, allowing control of traffic encounters with repeatability of scenarios between different test subjects. A technique is described for generation of prerecorded jet transport traffic scenarios suitable for use in piloted simulation studies. Individual flight profiles for the aircraft in the scenario are created interactively with a computer program designed specifically for this purpose. The profiles are then time-correlated and merged into a complete scenario. This technique was used to create traffic scenarios for the Denver, Colorado area with operations centered at Stapleton International Airport. Traffic scenarios for other areas may also be created using this technique, with appropriate modifications made to the navigation fix locations contained in the flight profile generation program.

  10. Airport Pricing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    downward adjustments in welfare maximizing tolls may well cause the optimal values of these to be negative. Insofar as subsidization is considered unacceptable for whichever reason, our results warn that the most efficient among the non-negative tolls may actually be a zero toll; the pure congestion toll may actually decrease welfare compared to the base case. The model in this paper contains a few simplifying assumptions that may be relaxed in future work. Load factors and aircraft capacity are fixed in this model for simplicity. In a more advanced version of this model, load factors and aircraft capacity can be endogenized. This makes the derivation of the optimality conditions far more complicated, but it should be feasible in a numerical experiment. One can also add a fourth layer to the model, describing the airport's optimization problem. For example, the airport can maximize profits under a cost recovery constraint. The model then deals with interactions between four types of agents. No distinction is made between peak and off-peak traffic in this paper. Finally, the results of the numerical exercise in this paper need to be checked against an asymmetric equilibrium.

  11. Dynamic routing control in heterogeneous tactical networks with multiple traffic priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecko, Mariusz A.; Wong, Larry; Kang, Jaewong; Cichocki, Andrzej; Kaul, Vikram; Samtani, Sunil

    2012-05-01

    To efficiently use alternate paths during periods of congestion, we have devised prioritized Dynamic Routing Control Agent (pDRCA) that (1) selects best links to meet the bandwidth and delay requirements of traffic, (2) provides load-balancing and traffic prioritization when multiple topologies are available, and (3) handles changes in link quality and traffic demand, and link outages. pDRCA provides multiplatform load balancing to maximize SATCOM (both P2P and multi-point) and airborne links utilization. It influences link selection by configuring the cost metrics on a router's interface, which does not require any changes to the routing protocol itself. It supports service differentiation of multiple traffic priorities by providing more network resources to the highest priority flows. pDRCA does so by solving an optimization problem to find optimal links weights that increase throughput and decrease E2E delay; avoid congested, low quality, and long delay links; and exploit path diversity in the network. These optimal link weights are sent to the local agents to be configured on individual routers per traffic priority. The pDRCA optimization algorithm has been proven effective in improving application performance. We created a variety of different test scenarios by varying traffic profile and link behavior (stable links, varying capacity, and link outages). In the scenarios where high priority traffic experienced significant loss without pDRCA, the average loss was reduced from 49.5% to 13% and in some cases dropped to 0%. Currently, pDRCA is integrated with an open-source software router and priority queues on Linux as a component of Open Tactical Router (OTR), which is being developed by ONR DTCN program.

  12. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training.

    PubMed

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI) and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning. PMID:27311017

  13. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training

    PubMed Central

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI) and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning. PMID:27311017

  14. Landing-Time-Controlled Management Of Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Tobias, Leonard

    1988-01-01

    Conceptual system controls aircraft with old and new guidance equipment. Report begins with overview of concept, then reviews controller-interactive simulations. Describes fuel-conservative-trajectory algorithm, based on equations of motion for controlling landing time. Finally, presents results of piloted simulations.

  15. 76 FR 50809 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Airport Traffic Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... characteristics include replacement of the current Runway 25 Localizer (LOC) antenna and shelter with a Mark 20 or Mark 20A LOC antenna and shelter, and relocation of the Runway 25 LOC antenna array to a location...

  16. Cruise-Efficient Short Takeoff and Landing (CESTOL): Potential Impact on Air Traffic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couluris, G. J.; Signor, D.; Phillips, J.

    2010-01-01

    separated from each other geographically and in altitude during tenninal airspace approach and departure operations, and each use a different arrival runway. AvTeminal implements its unique Focal-point Scheduling Process to sequence, space and delay aircraft to resolve spacing and overtake conflicts among flights in the airspace and airport system serving KEWR. This Process effectively models integrated arrival and departure operations. AvTerminal assesses acceptance rates and delay magnitude and causality at selected locations, including en route outer boundary fixes, tenninal airspace arrival and departure boundary fixes, terminal airspace arrival merge and departure diverge fixes, and runway landing and takeoff runways. The analysis compares the resulting capacity impacts, flight delays and delay sources between CESTOL and conventional KEWR operations. AvTerminal quantitative results showed that CESTOL has significant capability to increase airport arrival acceptance rates (35-40% at KEWR) by taking advantage of otherwise underused airspace and runways where available. The study extrapolates the AvTerminal-derived KEWR peak arrival and departure acceptance rates to estimate capacity parameter values for each of the OEP airports in the ACES modeling of traffic through the entire NAS network. The extrapolations of acceptance rates allow full, partial or no achievement of CESTOL capacity gains at an OEP airport as determined by assessments of the degree to which local procedures allow leveraging of CESTOL capabilities. These assessments consider each OEP airport's runway geometries, runway system configurations, airport and airspace operations, and potential CESTOL traffic loadings. The ACES modeling, simulates airport and airspace spacing constraints imposed by airport runway system, terminal and en route air traffic control and traffic flow management operations using airport acceptance rates representing conventional-aircraft-only and CESTOL-mixed operations. CEOL

  17. Continental Land Mass Air Traffic Control (COLM ATC). [using three artificial satellite configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecar, J. A.; Henrich, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The application of various satellite systems and techniques relative to providing air traffic control services for the continental United States was studied. Three satellite configurations were reviewed. The characteristics and capabilities of the satellites are described. The study includes consideration for the various ranging waveforms, multiple access alternatives, and the power and bandwidth required as a function of the number of users.

  18. Hematological and immunological effects of stress of air traffic controllers in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Viana, Marcelo Tavares; Fraga, Simone do Nascimento; Carneiro, Severino Marcos de Oliveira; Galvão, Bruno Henrique Andrade; Bezerra, Alice Andrade; de Castro, Célia Maria Machado Barbosa; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that stress and emotional reactions can affect immune responses in animals and humans. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate hematological and immunological effects of stress on air traffic controllers. Methods Thirty air traffic controllers and 15 aeronautical information service operators were evaluated. The groups were divided as information service operators with 10 years or more of experience (AIS≥10) and with less than 10 years in the profession (AIS<10) and air traffic controllers with 10 years or more of experience (ATCo≥10) and with less than 10 years in the profession (ATCo<10). Blood samples were drawn at 8:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. The paired t-test was used to compare monocyte and nitric oxide concentrations and ANOVA was used for the other parameters. Results The ATCo≥10 group presented a significantly lower phagocytosis rate of monocytes at 2:00 p.m. compared to 8:00 a.m. Moreover, the ATCo≥10 group presented lower hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, platelet and leukocyte levels, and increased cortisol concentrations at 8:00 a.m. compared to the other groups. Additionally, this group had lower phagocytosis rate of monocytes, and hemoglobin, platelet, leukocyte, basophils and nitric oxide levels at 2:00 p.m. compared to the other groups. Conclusion Stress seems to greatly affect immune responses of air traffic controllers with more than ten years of experience. PMID:23049295

  19. Draft Cognitive Skills Training Program for En-Route Air Traffic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Richard E.

    This document begins with a discussion of the cognitive task analysis (CTA) that was commissioned by the Federal Aviation Administration to identify the cognitive skills-related training needs of en-route air traffic controllers. Concluding the introductory section are a brief list of recommendations regarding the design of a training program…

  20. 75 FR 74128 - Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) Compliance Dates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... agencies. \\1\\ 74 FR 66732, December 16, 2009. \\2\\ 65 FR 78923, December 18, 2000. \\3\\ 68 FR 65496, November 20, 2003. \\4\\ 72 FR 72574, December 21, 2007. Purpose of This Notice The FHWA is interested in... Federal Highway Administration Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) Compliance Dates...

  1. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations...

  2. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  3. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  4. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  5. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  6. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  7. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. The standards... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other...

  8. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. The standards... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other...

  9. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. The standards... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other...

  10. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. The standards... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other...

  11. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. The standards... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other...

  12. [Modeling the vehicle pollution in the urban streets before and during the Beijing Olympic Games traffic control period].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Xie, Shao-dong

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate the vehicle pollution situation in the streets in Beijing and the abatement during the Olympic Games, the OSPM model was applied to calculate the concentrations of PM10, CO, NO2 and O3 inside the urban streets of Beijing before and during the Olympic traffic controlling period in July, 2008. The modeled concentrations before the traffic control are 146 micog/m3, 3.83 mg/m3, 114.4 microg/m3 and 4.71 x 10(-1), while after the traffic control are 112 microg/m3, 3.16 mg/m3, 102.4 microg/m3 and 5.31 x 10(-9) , with the reduction rates of 23.4%, 20.5%, 10.5% and -12.5%, respectively. The research on these concentration changes and the daily variations of the pollutants reveals: the concentration of PM10 is most influenced by the traffic control; the concentration of CO presents the most similar daily variation with the traffic flow; the reduction of NO2 concentration is limited, indicating the influence of other factors other than the traffic emission; the concentration of O3 increases after the traffic control, which means the traffic management measures can not abate the O3 pollution in the street. Furthermore, the comparison between the calculation results in different types of street canyons reveals that the fleet composition and street geometry impact the concentration changes. In a word, the vehicle pollution inside the streets of Beijing before the traffic control is relatively serious, as the concentrations of PM10, CO and NO2, all approach or exceed the Grade II National Air Quality Standard; the traffic control measures take effect in reducing the primary pollutants, but the secondary pollutants may increase after the traffic control. PMID:20358809

  13. A novel solution for car traffic control based on radiometric microwave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Denisov, Alexander; Speziale, Victor

    2014-05-01

    The significant problem of traffic in big cities, connected with huge and building up quantity of automobile cars, demands for novel strategies, based on nonconventional solutions, in order to improve system traffic control, especially at crossroads. As well known, the usual solution is based on the time relay, which requires the installation of a fixed traffic interval (signal light switching) at a crossroad; this solution is low cost, but does not account for the actual traffic conditions. Therefore, in the recent years, attention is towards to new designs, where the monitoring of the and control of traffic is carried out by using various methods including, optical, the infrared, magnetic, radar tracking, acoustical ones. In this work, we discuss the deployment of high sensitivity radiometric systems and radiometers(sensor) in the microwave range [1, 2]. In fact, the radiometer as "sensor" can provide an always updated information about the car traffic in any weather condition and in absence or low visibility conditions. In fact, the radiometric sensor detects the cars thanks to the different behavior of the car roofs which reflect the cold sky whereas the road asphalt is visible as warm object (at around outside temperature). [1] A. G. Denisov, V. P. Gorishnyak, S. E. Kuzmin et al., "Some experiments concerning resolution of 32 sensors passive 8mm wave imaging system," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (ISSTT '09), Charlottesville, Va, USA, April 2009. [2] F. Soldovieri, A. Natale, V. Gorishnyak, A. Pavluchenko, A. Denisov, and L. Chen, "Radiometric Imaging for Monitoring and Surveillance Issues," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, Article ID 272561, 8 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/272561.

  14. Effects of Automation Types on Air Traffic Controller Situation Awareness and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethumadhavan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office has proposed the introduction of automated systems to help air traffic controllers handle the increasing volume of air traffic in the next two decades (JPDO, 2007). Because fully automated systems leave operators out of the decision-making loop (e.g., Billings, 1991), it is important to determine the right level and type of automation that will keep air traffic controllers in the loop. This study examined the differences in the situation awareness (SA) and collision detection performance of individuals when they worked with information acquisition, information analysis, decision and action selection and action implementation automation to control air traffic (Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000). When the automation was unreliable, the time taken to detect an upcoming collision was significantly longer for all the automation types compared with the information acquisition automation. This poor performance following automation failure was mediated by SA, with lower SA yielding poor performance. Thus, the costs associated with automation failure are greater when automation is applied to higher order stages of information processing. Results have practical implications for automation design and development of SA training programs.

  15. A passive brain-computer interface application for the mental workload assessment on professional air traffic controllers during realistic air traffic control tasks.

    PubMed

    Aricò, P; Borghini, G; Di Flumeri, G; Colosimo, A; Pozzi, S; Babiloni, F

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been a fast-growing concept in the neuroscience field. The passive brain-computer interface (p-BCI) systems allow to improve the human-machine interaction (HMI) in operational environments, by using the covert brain activity (eg, mental workload) of the operator. However, p-BCI technology could suffer from some practical issues when used outside the laboratories. In particular, one of the most important limitations is the necessity to recalibrate the p-BCI system each time before its use, to avoid a significant reduction of its reliability in the detection of the considered mental states. The objective of the proposed study was to provide an example of p-BCIs used to evaluate the users' mental workload in a real operational environment. For this purpose, through the facilities provided by the École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse (France), the cerebral activity of 12 professional air traffic control officers (ATCOs) has been recorded while performing high realistic air traffic management scenarios. By the analysis of the ATCOs' brain activity (electroencephalographic signal-EEG) and the subjective workload perception (instantaneous self-assessment) provided by both the examined ATCOs and external air traffic control experts, it has been possible to estimate and evaluate the variation of the mental workload under which the controllers were operating. The results showed (i) a high significant correlation between the neurophysiological and the subjective workload assessment, and (ii) a high reliability over time (up to a month) of the proposed algorithm that was also able to maintain high discrimination accuracies by using a low number of EEG electrodes (~3 EEG channels). In conclusion, the proposed methodology demonstrated the suitability of p-BCI systems in operational environments and the advantages of the neurophysiological measures with respect to the subjective ones. PMID:27590973

  16. Taiwan's traffic control bundle and the elimination of nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome among healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Yen, M-Y; Lin, Y-E; Lee, C-H; Ho, M-S; Huang, F-Y; Chang, S-C; Liu, Y-C

    2011-04-01

    The traffic control bundle consists of procedures designed to help prevent epidemic nosocomial infection. We retrospectively studied the serial infection control measures to determine factors most effective in preventing nosocomial infections of healthcare workers (HCWs) during the 2003 Taiwanese severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic. Fever screening stations, triage of fever patients, separating SARS patients from other patients, separation of entrances and passageways between patients and HCWs, and increasing hand-washing facilities all demonstrated a protective effect for HCWs (univariate analysis; P<0.05). By multiple logistic regression: (i) checkpoint alcohol dispensers for glove-on hand rubbing between zones of risk, and (ii) fever screening at the fever screen station outside the emergency department, were the significant methods effectively minimising nosocomial SARS infection of HCWs (P<0.05). The traffic control bundle should be implemented in future epidemics as a tool to achieve strict infection control measures. PMID:21316802

  17. Flexible traffic control of the synfire-mode transmission by inhibitory modulation: Nonlinear noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, Takashi; Okada, Masato; Reyes, Alex D.; Câteau, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    Intermingled neural connections apparent in the brain make us wonder what controls the traffic of propagating activity in the brain to secure signal transmission without harmful crosstalk. Here, we reveal that inhibitory input but not excitatory input works as a particularly useful traffic controller because it controls the degree of synchrony of population firing of neurons as well as controlling the size of the population firing bidirectionally. Our dynamical system analysis reveals that the synchrony enhancement depends crucially on the nonlinear membrane potential dynamics and a hidden slow dynamical variable. Our electrophysiological study with rodent slice preparations show that the phenomenon happens in real neurons. Furthermore, our analysis with the Fokker-Planck equations demonstrates the phenomenon in a semianalytical manner.

  18. Real-time optical path control method that utilizes multiple support vector machines for traffic prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Hiroshi; Mori, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-ichi

    2016-02-01

    An effective solution to the continuous Internet traffic expansion is to offload traffic to lower layers such as the L2 or L1 optical layers. One possible approach is to introduce dynamic optical path operations such as adaptive establishment/tear down according to traffic variation. Path operations cannot be done instantaneously; hence, traffic prediction is essential. Conventional prediction techniques need optimal parameter values to be determined in advance by averaging long-term variations from the past. However, this does not allow adaptation to the ever-changing short-term variations expected to be common in future networks. In this paper, we propose a real-time optical path control method based on a machinelearning technique involving support vector machines (SVMs). A SVM learns the most recent traffic characteristics, and so enables better adaptation to temporal traffic variations than conventional techniques. The difficulty lies in determining how to minimize the time gap between optical path operation and buffer management at the originating points of those paths. The gap makes the required learning data set enormous and the learning process costly. To resolve the problem, we propose the adoption of multiple SVMs running in parallel, trained with non-overlapping subsets of the original data set. The maximum value of the outputs of these SVMs will be the estimated number of necessary paths. Numerical experiments prove that our proposed method outperforms a conventional prediction method, the autoregressive moving average method with optimal parameter values determined by Akaike's information criterion, and reduces the packet-loss ratio by up to 98%.

  19. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Perinatal Mortality: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Andréa Paula Peneluppi; Gouveia, Nelson; Machado, Reinaldo Paul Pérez; de Souza, Miriam Regina; Alencar, Gizelton Pereira; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; de Almeida, Márcia Furquim

    2009-01-01

    Background Ambient levels of air pollution may affect the health of children, as indicated by studies of infant and perinatal mortality. Scientific evidence has also correlated low birth weight and preterm birth, which are important determinants of perinatal death, with air pollution. However, most of these studies used ambient concentrations measured at monitoring sites, which may not consider differential exposure to pollutants found at elevated concentrations near heavy-traffic roadways. Objectives Our goal was to examine the association between traffic-related pollution and perinatal mortality. Methods We used the information collected for a case–control study conducted in 14 districts in the City of São Paulo, Brazil, regarding risk factors for perinatal deaths. We geocoded the residential addresses of cases (fetal and early neonatal deaths) and controls (children who survived the 28th day of life) and calculated a distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) measure considering all roads contained in a buffer surrounding these homes. Results Logistic regression revealed a gradient of increasing risk of early neonatal death with higher exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Mothers exposed to the highest quartile of the DWTD compared with those less exposed exhibited approximately 50% increased risk (adjusted odds ratio = 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.67–3.19). Associations for fetal mortality were less consistent. Conclusions These results suggest that motor vehicle exhaust exposures may be a risk factor for perinatal mortality. PMID:19165399

  20. Minimizing the disruptive effects of prospective memory in simulated air traffic control.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E; Remington, Roger W

    2013-09-01

    Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. In two experiments, we examined the utility of external aids for facilitating air traffic management in a simulated air traffic control task with prospective memory requirements. Participants accepted and handed-off aircraft and detected aircraft conflicts. The prospective memory task involved remembering to deviate from a routine operating procedure when accepting target aircraft. External aids that contained details of the prospective memory task appeared and flashed when target aircraft needed acceptance. In Experiment 1, external aids presented either adjacent or nonadjacent to each of the 20 target aircraft presented over the 40-min test phase reduced prospective memory error by 11% compared with a condition without external aids. In Experiment 2, only a single target aircraft was presented a significant time (39-42 min) after presentation of the prospective memory instruction, and the external aids reduced prospective memory error by 34%. In both experiments, costs to the efficiency of nonprospective memory air traffic management (nontarget aircraft acceptance response time, conflict detection response time) were reduced by nonadjacent aids compared with no aids or adjacent aids. In contrast, in both experiments, the efficiency of the prospective memory air traffic management (target aircraft acceptance response time) was facilitated by adjacent aids compared with nonadjacent aids. Together, these findings have potential implications for the design of automated alerting systems to maximize multitask performance in work settings where operators monitor and control demanding perceptual displays. PMID:24059825

  1. Minimizing the Disruptive Effects of Prospective Memory in Simulated Air Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Remington, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. In two experiments, we examined the utility of external aids for facilitating air traffic management in a simulated air traffic control task with prospective memory requirements. Participants accepted and handed-off aircraft and detected aircraft conflicts. The prospective memory task involved remembering to deviate from a routine operating procedure when accepting target aircraft. External aids that contained details of the prospective memory task appeared and flashed when target aircraft needed acceptance. In Experiment 1, external aids presented either adjacent or non-adjacent to each of the 20 target aircraft presented over the 40min test phase reduced prospective memory error by 11% compared to a condition without external aids. In Experiment 2, only a single target aircraft was presented a significant time (39min–42min) after presentation of the prospective memory instruction, and the external aids reduced prospective memory error by 34%. In both experiments, costs to the efficiency of non-prospective memory air traffic management (non-target aircraft acceptance response time, conflict detection response time) were reduced by non-adjacent aids compared to no aids or adjacent aids. In contrast, in both experiments, the efficiency of the prospective memory air traffic management (target aircraft acceptance response time) was facilitated by adjacent aids compared to non-adjacent aids. Together, these findings have potential implications for the design of automated alerting systems to maximize multi-task performance in work settings where operators monitor and control demanding perceptual displays. PMID:24059825

  2. Structural evolution of the Brazilian airport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Rocha, Luis E. C.

    2009-04-01

    The aviation sector is profitable, but sensitive to economic fluctuations, geopolitical constraints and governmental regulations. As for other means of transportation, the relation between origin and destination results in a complex map of routes, which can be complemented with information associated with the routes themselves, for instance, frequency, traffic load and distance. The theory of networks provides a natural framework for investigating the dynamics on the resulting structure. Here, we investigate the structure and evolution of the Brazilian airport network (BAN) as regards several quantities: routes, connections, passengers and cargo. Some structural features are in accordance with previous results for other airport networks. The analysis of the evolution of the BAN shows that its structure is dynamic, with changes in the relative relevance of some airports and routes. The results indicate that the connections converge to specific routes. The network shrinks at the route level but grows in number of passengers and amount of cargo, which more than doubled during the period studied.

  3. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-2: Effects of Communications Delays and Winds in Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Communications Delays and Winds on Air Traffic Controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth East-side airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from self-separation algorithms displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Simulation System. Winds tested did not affect the acceptability ratings. Communications delays tested included 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS.

  4. Concentrations, sources and geochemistry of airborne particulate matter at a major European airport.

    PubMed

    Amato, Fulvio; Moreno, Teresa; Pandolfi, Marco; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Delgado, Ana; Pedrero, Manuel; Cots, Nuria

    2010-04-01

    Monitoring of aerosol particle concentrations (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(1)) and chemical analysis (PM(10)) was undertaken at a major European airport (El Prat, Barcelona) for a whole month during autumn 2007. Concentrations of airborne PM at the airport were close to those at road traffic hotspots in the nearby Barcelona city, with means measuring 48 microg PM(10)/m(3), 21 microg PM(2.5)/m(3) and 17 microg PM(1)/m(3). Meteorological controls on PM at El Prat are identified as cleansing daytime sea breezes with abundant coarse salt particles, alternating with nocturnal land-sourced winds which channel air polluted by industry and traffic (PM(1)/PM(10) ratios > 0.5) SE down the Llobregat Valley. Chemical analyses of the PM(10) samples show that crustal PM is dominant (38% of PM(10)), followed by total carbon (OC + EC, 25%), secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA, 20%), and sea salt (6%). Local construction work for a new airport terminal was an important contributor to PM(10) crustal levels. Source apportionment modelling PCA-MLRA identifies five factors: industrial/traffic, crustal, sea salt, SIA, and K(+) likely derived from agricultural biomass burning. Whereas most of the atmospheric contamination concerning ambient air PM(10) levels at El Prat is not attributable directly to aircraft movement, levels of carbon are unusually high (especially organic carbon), as are metals possibly sourced from tyre detritus/smoke in runway dust (Ba, Zn, Mo) and from brake dust in ambient PM(10) (Cu, Sb), especially when the airport is at its most busy. We identify microflakes of aluminous alloys in ambient PM(10) filters derived from corroded fuselage and wings as an unequivocal and highly distinctive tracer for aircraft movement. PMID:20383366

  5. Integrated Analysis of Airport Capacity and Environmental Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Shahab; Long, Dou; Hart, George; Eckhause, Jeremy; Hemm, Robert; Busick, Andrew; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Murphy, Charles; Poage, James

    2010-01-01

    LMI conducted an integrated analysis of airport capacity and environmental constraints. identifying and ranking the key factors limiting achievement of NextGen capacity goals. The primary metric used was projected throughput, which was estimated for the years 2015 and 2025 based on the unconstrained demand forecast from the Federal Aviation Administration, and planned improvements including those proposed in the NextGen plan. A set of 310 critical airports was identified.. collectively accounting for more than 99 percent of domestic air traffic volume; a one-off analytical approach was used to isolate the constraint being assessed. The study considered three capacity constraints (runway.. taxiway, and gate) and three environmental constraints (fuel, NO(x) emissions, and noise). For the ten busiest airports, runway and noise are the primary and secondary constraints in both 2015 and 2025. For the OEP 35 airports and overall for the remaining airports, the most binding constraint is noise. Six of the 10 busiest airports, will face runway constraints in 2025, and 95 will face gate constraints. Nearly every airport will be subject to constraints due to emissions and NOx. Runway and taxi constraints are more concentrated in the large airports: environmental constraints are present at almost every airport regardless of size.

  6. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory...

  7. Productivity Analysis of Public and Private Airports: A Causal Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Gorjidooz, Javad

    2007-01-01

    Around the world, airports are being viewed as enterprises, rather than public services, which are expected to be managed efficiently and provide passengers with courteous customer services. Governments are, increasingly, turning to the private sectors for their efficiency in managing the operation, financing, and development, as well as providing security for airports. Operational and financial performance evaluation has become increasingly important to airport operators due to recent trends in airport privatization. Assessing performance allows the airport operators to plan for human resources and capital investment as efficiently as possible. Productivity measurements may be used as comparisons and guidelines in strategic planning, in the internal analysis of operational efficiency and effectiveness, and in assessing the competitive position of an airport in transportation industry. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the operational and financial efficiencies of 22 major airports in the United States and Europe. These airports are divided into three groups based on private ownership (7 British Airport Authority airports), public ownership (8 major United States airports), and a mix of private and public ownership (7 major European Union airports. The detail ownership structures of these airports are presented in Appendix A. Total factor productivity (TFP) model was utilized to measure airport performance in terms of financial and operational efficiencies and to develop a benchmarking tool to identify the areas of strength and weakness. A regression model was then employed to measure the relationship between TFP and ownership structure. Finally a Granger causality test was performed to determine whether ownership structure is a Granger cause of TFP. The results of the analysis presented in this paper demonstrate that there is not a significant relationship between airport TFP and ownership structure. Airport productivity and efficiency is

  8. Collecting traffic data at all-way stop-controlled intersections

    SciTech Connect

    Kyte, M.; Marek, J.

    1989-04-01

    The 1985 Highway Capacity Manual establishes delay as the primary measure of effectiveness for determining the level of service of a signalized intersection. Delay is a useful measure because it is meaningful to both the transportation engineer and the layperson. The lack of an adequate database, however, prevents the use of delay as a parameter for evaluating all-way stop-controlled (AWSC) intersections. The University of Idaho, in cooperation with the Idaho Transportation Department, has initiated a study of the traffic flow characteristics of AWSC intersections with an emphasis on determining the effect of traffic flow rates on delay. The objective of this work is to establish a methodology for determining level of service and for estimating intersection capacity under different operating conditions. Because this study is empirically based, the first priority is to gather a sufficient database for a variety of traffic and geometric conditions. Collection of delay data, however, is labor intensive, often requiring two or more persons per approach. This article describes a method for collecting and analyzing intersection traffic flow and delay data. This method significantly reduces the time, cost, and labor required for data collection and analysis, as compared with other available methods.

  9. Traffic jam at adjustable tollgates controlled by line length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We present the stochastic model for the jam formation at the tollgates of which the number is adjusted by synchronizing with the jam's length. We study the jam formation and its fluctuation in front of the adjustable tollgates on a highway. Controlling the number of tollgates has an important effect on the jam formation. The jams are classified into three kinds: (a) localized jam, (b) synchronized jam, and (c) growing jam. The jamming transitions from the localized jam, through the synchronized jam, to the growing jam occur with increasing inflow probability. At an intermediate inflow, the jam fluctuates largely by synchronizing with the number of tollgates. When the inflow probability is higher than the sum of outflow probabilities at tollgates, the jam continues to grow and diverge with time. The dependence of the fluctuating jam on the inflow probability is clarified.

  10. A Belief-Based Model of Air Traffic Controllers Performing Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    A model of an air traffic controller performing a separation assurance task was produced. The model was designed to be simple to use and deploy in a simulator, but still provide realistic behavior. The model is based upon an evaluation of the safety function of the controller for separation assurance, and utilizes fast and frugal heuristics and belief networks to establish a knowledge set for the controller model. Based on this knowledge set, the controller acts to keep aircraft separated. Validation results are provided to demonstrate the model s performance.

  11. The fully actuated traffic control problem solved by global optimization and complementarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Isabel M.; de Lurdes de Oliveira Simões, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Global optimization and complementarity are used to determine the signal timing for fully actuated traffic control, regarding effective green and red times on each cycle. The average values of these parameters can be used to estimate the control delay of vehicles. In this article, a two-phase queuing system for a signalized intersection is outlined, based on the principle of minimization of the total waiting time for the vehicles. The underlying model results in a linear program with linear complementarity constraints, solved by a sequential complementarity algorithm. Departure rates of vehicles during green and yellow periods were treated as deterministic, while arrival rates of vehicles were assumed to follow a Poisson distribution. Several traffic scenarios were created and solved. The numerical results reveal that it is possible to use global optimization and complementarity over a reasonable number of cycles and determine with efficiency effective green and red times for a signalized intersection.

  12. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Consequences of Slot Transactions on Airport Congestion and Environmental Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyratne, Ruwantissa I.R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent trends in the liberalization of market access by many commercial airlines have opened the skies to virtually unlimited flights between many countries. However, this liberalization is stultified by the lack of airport capacity to accommodate the many flights that are generated by demand for capacity. Accordingly, the allocation of slots for open skies airlines remain dependent on the expansion and effective management of airport capacity. This article examines the ramifications of slot allocation on traffic peaking at airports and environmental concerns, which may emerge with this activity.

  14. Analysis and Modeling of Ground Operations at Hub Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Stephen (Technical Monitor); Andersson, Kari; Carr, Francis; Feron, Eric; Hall, William D.

    2000-01-01

    Building simple and accurate models of hub airports can considerably help one understand airport dynamics, and may provide quantitative estimates of operational airport improvements. In this paper, three models are proposed to capture the dynamics of busy hub airport operations. Two simple queuing models are introduced to capture the taxi-out and taxi-in processes. An integer programming model aimed at representing airline decision-making attempts to capture the dynamics of the aircraft turnaround process. These models can be applied for predictive purposes. They may also be used to evaluate control strategies for improving overall airport efficiency.

  15. Automation for "Direct-to" Clearances in Air-Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; McNally, David

    2006-01-01

    A method of automation, and a system of computer hardware and software to implement the method, have been invented to assist en-route air-traffic controllers in the issuance of clearances to fly directly to specified waypoints or navigation fixes along straight paths that deviate from previously filed flight plans. Such clearances, called "direct-to" clearances, have been in use since before the invention of this method and system.

  16. Extravehicular Activity/Air Traffic Control (EVA/ATC) test report. [communication links to the astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaro, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    During extravehicular activity (EVA), communications between the EVA astronaut and the space shuttle orbiter are maintained by means of transceiver installed in the environmental support system backpack. Onboard the orbiter, a transceiver line replaceable unit and its associated equipment performs the task of providing a communications link to the astronaut in the extravehicular activity/air traffic control (EVA/ATC) mode. Results of the acceptance tests that performed on the system designed and fabricated for EVA/ATC testing are discussed.

  17. Using Historical Data to Automatically Identify Air-Traffic Control Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd A.; Wu, Yuefeng; Tretto, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    This project seeks to develop statistical-based machine learning models to characterize the types of errors present when using current systems to predict future aircraft states. These models will be data-driven - based on large quantities of historical data. Once these models are developed, they will be used to infer situations in the historical data where an air-traffic controller intervened on an aircraft's route, even when there is no direct recording of this action.

  18. A review of smoking policies in airports around the world

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Frances A; Soong, Andrea; Kleb, Cerise; Grant, Ashley; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review smoking policies of major international airports, to compare these policies with corresponding incountry tobacco control legislation and to identify areas of improvement for advancing smoke-free policy in airports. Methods We reviewed smoking policies of 34 major international airports in five world regions, and collected data on current national and subnational legislation on smoke-free indoor places in the corresponding airport locations. We then compared airport smoking policies with local legislation. Additionally, we collected anecdotal information concerning smoking rules and practices in specific airports from an online traveller website. Results We found that 52.9% of the airports reviewed had indoor smoking rooms or smoking areas; smoking policy was unknown or unstated for two airports. 55.9% of the airports were located in countries where national legislation allowed designated smoking rooms and areas, while 35.3% were in smoke-free countries. Subnational legislation restricted smoking in 60% of the airport locations, while 40% were smoke-free. 71.4% of the airport locations had subnational legislation that allowed smoke-free laws to be more stringent than at the national level, but only half of these places had enacted such laws. Conclusions Despite the increasing presence of smoke-free places and legal capacity to enact stricter legislation at the local level, airports represent a public and occupational space that is often overlooked in national or subnational smoke-free policies. Secondhand smoke exposure in airports can be reduced among travellers and workers by implementing and enforcing smoke-free policies in airports. Additionally, existing information on smoke-free legislation lacks consistent terminology and definitions, which are needed to inform future tobacco control policy within airports and in the law. PMID:24638966

  19. Future Air Traffic Growth and Schedule Model User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, William M. (Technical Monitor); Smith, Jeremy C.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    2004-01-01

    The Future Air Traffic Growth and Schedule Model was developed as an implementation of the Fratar algorithm to project future traffic flow between airports in a system and of then scheduling the additional flights to reflect current passenger time-of-travel preferences. The methodology produces an unconstrained future schedule from a current (or baseline) schedule and the airport operations growth rates. As an example of the use of the model, future schedules are projected for 2010 and 2022 for all flights arriving at, departing from, or flying between all continental United States airports that had commercial scheduled service for May 17, 2002. Inter-continental US traffic and airports are included and the traffic is also grown with the Fratar methodology to account for their arrivals and departures to the continental US airports. Input data sets derived from the Official Airline Guide (OAG) data and FAA Terminal Area Forecast (TAF) are included in the examples of the computer code execution.

  20. Future Air Traffic Growth and Schedule Model, Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, William M. (Technical Monitor); Smith, Jeremy C.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    2004-01-01

    The Future Air Traffic Growth and Schedule Model was developed as an implementation of the Fratar algorithm to project future traffic flow between airports in a system and of then scheduling the additional flights to reflect current passenger time-of-travel preferences. The methodology produces an unconstrained future schedule from a current (or baseline) schedule and the airport operations growth rates. As an example of the use of the model, future schedules are projected for 2010 and 2022 for all flights arriving at, departing from, or flying between all continental United States airports that had commercial scheduled service for May 17, 2002. Inter-continental US traffic and airports are included and the traffic is also grown with the Fratar methodology to account for their arrivals and departures to the continental US airports. Input data sets derived from the Official Airline Guide (OAG) data and FAA Terminal Area Forecast (TAF) are included in the examples of the computer code execution.

  1. Bird Activity Analysis Using Avian Radar Information in Naval Air Station airport, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Herricks, E.

    2010-12-01

    The number of bird strikes on aircraft has increased sharply over recent years and airport bird hazard management has gained increasing attention in wildlife management and control. Evaluation of bird activity near airport is very critical to analyze the hazard of bird strikes. Traditional methods for bird activity analysis using visual counting provide a direct approach to bird hazard assessment. However this approach is limited to daylight and good visual conditions. Radar has been proven to be a useful and effective tool for bird detection and movement analysis. Radar eliminates observation bias and supports consistent data collection for bird activity analysis and hazard management. In this study bird activity data from the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island was collected by Accipiter Avian Radar System. Radar data was pre-processed by filtering out non-bird noises, including traffic vehicle, aircraft, insects, wind, rainfall, ocean waves and so on. Filtered data is then statistically analyzed using MATLAB programs. The results indicated bird movement dynamics in target areas near the airport, which includes (1) the daily activity varied at dawn and dusk; (2) bird activity varied by target area due to the habitat difference; and (3) both temporal and spatial movement patterns varied by bird species. This bird activity analysis supports bird hazard evaluation and related analysis and modeling to provide very useful information in airport bird hazard management planning.

  2. The Development of the Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor (MCTMA): Traffic Flow Management Research in a Multi-Facility Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine K.; Davis, Thomas J.; Levin, Kerry M.; Rowe, Dennis W.

    2001-01-01

    The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) is a decision-support tool for traffic managers and air traffic controllers that provides traffic flow visualization and other flow management tools. TMA creates an efficiently sequenced and safely spaced schedule for arrival traffic that meets but does not exceed specified airspace system constraints. TMA is being deployed at selected facilities throughout the National Airspace System in the US as part of the FAA's Free Flight Phase 1 program. TMA development and testing, and its current deployment, focuses on managing the arrival capacity for single major airports within single terminal areas and single en route centers. The next phase of development for this technology is the expansion of the TMA capability to complex facilities in which a terminal area or airport is fed by multiple en route centers, thus creating a multicenter TMA functionality. The focus of the multi-center TMA (McTMA) development is on the busy facilities in the Northeast comdor of the US. This paper describes the planning and development of McTMA and the challenges associated with adapting a successful traffic flow management tool for a very complex airspace.

  3. Analysis of the work of air traffic controllers of the approach control area (APP) of Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vargas, C V; Guimarães, L B de M; Sant'Anna, A M O

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a study on the activities of the air traffic controllers of the Approach Control Area (APP) of Porto Alegre, Brazil, in different real scenarios. Based on interviews, questionnaires and the analysis of film of real scenes, the following were identified and analyzed: i) the perceptions of risk and complexity of the different air traffic scenes observed; ii) the cognitive factors (knowledge, strategy and attention dynamics) involved in the task and iii) the perception of the controller's workload. The results showed that the task complexity depends on the weather conditions, the number and type of aircraft in observation and that the controllers perceive the scenes in a similar way irrespective of their time in the profession and the type of control (radar or coordination). Attention is the cognitive factor with the greatest impact on the work and mental demand has the greatest impact on workload followed by time demand. The literature on the controllers work in Brazil is scarce and, therefore, this study aimed to contribute to the understanding of the work in one APP in order to promote future changes in the very problematic Brazilian air traffic system. PMID:22316715

  4. Interdomain traffic engineering in ASON/GMPLS controlled multilayer optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Aihua; Zhu, Zhonghua; (Ray) Chen, Yung Jui

    2007-06-01

    Optical control planes such as automatically switched optical networks or generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) have been viewed as one key enabling technology for future broadband communication networks for their capabilities of dynamic provisioning of flexible and effective services. To support end-to-end service delivery in optical networks, one of the most challenging issues for the optical control plane to address is how to design traffic engineering (TE) under a heterogeneous interdomain scenario. We propose a dynamic TE scheme for interdomain multilayer optical networks that supports setting up paths transparently for both intradomain and interdomain requests. The proposed scheme also disseminates through advertisement precomputed cost tables pertaining to traffic quality of service requirements, which can help optimize the utilization of both all-optical and optical-electrical-optical resources during the TE process throughout the network. We studied the TE scheme in networks with either instantaneous status update or with periodical status update. Our simulation results show that in both cases the proposed TE scheme outperforms existing TE solutions by setting up intradomain and interdomain paths integrally using the cost tables. Furthermore, we find that optimal network status update interval should vary with traffic load.

  5. Identification of Communication and Coordination Issues in the US Air Traffic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John

    2001-01-01

    Today's air traffic control system is approaching the point of saturation, as evidenced by increasing delays across the National Airspace System (NAS). There exists an opportunity to enhance NAS efficiency and reduce delays by improving strategic communication throughout the ATC system. Although several measures have been taken to improve communication (e.g., Collaborative Decision Making tools), communication issues between ATC facilities remain. It is hypothesized that by identifying the key issues plaguing inter-facility strategic communication, steps can be taken to enhance these communications, and therefore ATC system efficiency. In this report, a series of site visits were performed at Boston and New York ATC facilities as well as at the Air Traffic Control System Command Center. The results from these site visits were used to determine the current communication and coordination structure of Traffic Management Coordinators, who hold a pivotal role in inter-facility communications. Several themes emerged from the study, including: ambiguity of organizational structure in the current ATC system, awkward coordination between ATC facilities, information flow issues, organizational culture issues, and negotiation behaviors used to cope with organizational culture issues.

  6. Flight tests using data link for air traffic control and weather information exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.; Scanlon, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    Message exchange for air traffic control (ATC) purposes via data link offers the potential benefits of increasing the airspace system safety and efficiency. This is accomplished by reducing communication errors and relieving the overloaded ATC radio frequencies, which hamper efficient message exchanges during peak traffic periods in many busy terminal areas. However, the many uses and advantages of data link create additional questions concerning the interface among the human-users and the cockpit and ground systems. A flight test was conducted in the NASA Langley B-737 airplane to contrast flight operations using current voice communications with the use of data link for transmitting both strategic and tactical ATC clearances during a typical commercial airline flight from takeoff to landing. Commercial airplane pilots were used as test subjects.

  7. Flight tests with a data link used for air traffic control information exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.; Scanlon, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies showed that air traffic control (ATC) message exchange with a data link offers the potential benefits of increased airspace system safety and efficiency. To accomplish these benefits, data link can be used to reduce communication errors and relieve overloaded ATC voice radio frequencies, which hamper efficient message exchange during peak traffic periods. Flight tests with commercial airline pilots as test subjects were conducted in the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle Boeing 737 airplane to contrast flight operations that used current voice communications with flight operations that used data link to transmit both strategic and tactical ATC clearances during a typical commercial airflight from takeoff to landing. The results of these tests that used data link as the primary communication source with ATC showed flight crew acceptance, a perceived reduction in crew work load, and a reduction in crew communication errors.

  8. Operation regimes and slower-is-faster effect in the control of traffic intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, D.; Mazloumian, A.

    2009-07-01

    The efficiency of traffic flows in urban areas is known to crucially depend on signal operation. Here, elements of signal control are discussed, based on the minimization of overall travel times or vehicle queues. Interestingly, we find different operation regimes, some of which involve a “slower-is-faster effect”, where a delayed switching reduces the average travel times. These operation regimes characterize different ways of organizing traffic flows in urban road networks. Besides the optimize-one-phase approach, we discuss the procedure and advantages of optimizing multiple phases as well. To improve the service of vehicle platoons and support the self-organization of “green waves”, it is proposed to consider the price of stopping newly arriving vehicles.

  9. Airborne Four-Dimensional Flight Management in a Time-based Air Traffic Control Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems are being developed which contain time-based (4D) trajectory predictions of aircraft. Airborne flight management systems (FMS) exist or are being developed with similar 4D trajectory generation capabilities. Differences between the ATC generated profiles and those generated by the airborne 4D FMS may introduce system problems. A simulation experiment was conducted to explore integration of a 4D equipped aircraft into a 4D ATC system. The NASA Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle cockpit simulator was linked in real time to the NASA Ames Descent Advisor ATC simulation for this effort. Candidate procedures for handling 4D equipped aircraft were devised and traffic scenarios established which required time delays absorbed through speed control alone or in combination with path stretching. Dissimilarities in 4D speed strategies between airborne and ATC generated trajectories were tested in these scenarios. The 4D procedures and FMS operation were well received by airline pilot test subjects, who achieved an arrival accuracy at the metering fix of 2.9 seconds standard deviation time error. The amount and nature of the information transmitted during a time clearance were found to be somewhat of a problem using the voice radio communication channel. Dissimilarities between airborne and ATC-generated speed strategies were found to be a problem when the traffic remained on established routes. It was more efficient for 4D equipped aircraft to fly trajectories with similar, though less fuel efficient, speeds which conform to the ATC strategy. Heavy traffic conditions, where time delays forced off-route path stretching, were found to produce a potential operational benefit of the airborne 4D FMS.

  10. The Challenges of Field Testing the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) in an Operational Air Traffic Control Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, Ty; Swenson, Harry N.

    1997-01-01

    The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), the sequence and schedule tool of the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), was evaluated at the Fort Worth Center (ZFW) in the summer of 1996. This paper describes the challenges encountered during the various phases of the TMA field evaluation, which included system (hardware and software) installation, personnel training, and data collection. Operational procedures were developed and applied to the evaluation process that would ensure air safety. The five weeks of field evaluation imposed minimal impact on the hosting facility and provided valuable engineering and human factors data. The collection of data was very much an opportunistic affair, due to dynamic traffic conditions. One measure of the success of the TMA evaluation is that, rather than remove TMA after the evaluation until it could be fully implemented, the prototype TMA is in continual use at ZFW as the fully operational version is readied for implementation.

  11. Preliminary Benefits Assessment of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Jeff; Idris, Husni; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    While en route, aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better meet their objectives including reduced delays, reduced fuel burn, and passenger comfort. Aircrew requests are currently made with limited to no information on surrounding traffic. Consequently, these requests are uninformed about a key ATC objective, ensuring traffic separation, and therefore less likely to be accepted than requests informed by surrounding traffic and that avoids creating conflicts. This paper studies the benefits of providing aircrews with on-board decision support to generate optimized trajectory requests that are probed and cleared of known separation violations prior to issuing the request to ATC. These informed requests are referred to as traffic aware strategic aircrew requests (TASAR) and leverage traffic surveillance information available through Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) In capability. Preliminary fast-time simulation results show increased benefits with longer stage lengths since beneficial trajectory changes can be applied over a longer distance. Also, larger benefits were experienced between large hub airports as compared to other airport sizes. On average, an aircraft equipped with TASAR reduced its travel time by about one to four minutes per operation and fuel burn by about 50 to 550 lbs per operation depending on the objective of the aircrew (time, fuel, or weighted combination of time and fuel), class of airspace user, and aircraft type. These preliminary results are based on analysis of approximately one week of traffic in July 2012 and additional analysis is planned on a larger data set to confirm these initial findings.

  12. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  13. Dimensions of air traffic control tower information needs: from information requests to display design.

    PubMed

    Durso, Francis T; Johnson, Brian R; Crutchfield, Jerry M

    2010-09-01

    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead, controllers were required to ask for precisely the information they needed during the scenarios. The information requests were classified using an elaboration of Zwaan and Radvansky's (1998) dimensions of situation models. The vast majority of requests were about three of the dimensions originally developed for reading comprehension: the protagonist, intentionality, and space. The information requests were also classified into 28 operational categories (e.g., aircraft identification, destination). From these results, the data were summarized, not just statistically, but by the creation of display-hypotheses. The display-hypotheses were organized according to the situation-model dimensions. Controllers preferred data blocks organized by the situation-model principle over those that violated this organization. The summary display-hypotheses were quite simple and accounted for the vast majority of the information requests controllers made. The display-hypotheses accounted for the information needs of controllers during routine as well as off-nominal events. PMID:20853983

  14. 42 CFR 71.47 - Special provisions relating to airports: Office and isolation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Requirements Upon Arrival at U.S... facilities. Each U.S. airport which receives international traffic shall provide without cost to...

  15. 42 CFR 71.47 - Special provisions relating to airports: Office and isolation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Requirements Upon Arrival at U.S... facilities. Each U.S. airport which receives international traffic shall provide without cost to...

  16. 42 CFR 71.47 - Special provisions relating to airports: Office and isolation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Requirements Upon Arrival at U.S... facilities. Each U.S. airport which receives international traffic shall provide without cost to...

  17. 42 CFR 71.47 - Special provisions relating to airports: Office and isolation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Requirements Upon Arrival at U.S... facilities. Each U.S. airport which receives international traffic shall provide without cost to...

  18. 76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...This action modifies the Palm Beach International Airport, FL, Class C airspace area by raising the floor of Class C airspace over Palm Beach County Park Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance safety and increase the efficiency of air traffic operations in the Palm Beach, FL, terminal...

  19. 14 CFR 105.23 - Parachute operations over or onto airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parachute operations over or onto airports... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.23 Parachute operations over or onto airports. No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot...

  20. 14 CFR 105.23 - Parachute operations over or onto airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parachute operations over or onto airports... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.23 Parachute operations over or onto airports. No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot...

  1. 14 CFR 105.23 - Parachute operations over or onto airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parachute operations over or onto airports... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.23 Parachute operations over or onto airports. No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot...

  2. 14 CFR 105.23 - Parachute operations over or onto airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parachute operations over or onto airports... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.23 Parachute operations over or onto airports. No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot...

  3. 14 CFR 105.23 - Parachute operations over or onto airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parachute operations over or onto airports... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.23 Parachute operations over or onto airports. No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot...

  4. Design Principles and Algorithms for Air Traffic Arrival Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Itoh, Eri

    2014-01-01

    This report presents design principles and algorithms for building a real-time scheduler of arrival aircraft based on a first-come-first-served (FCFS) scheduling protocol. The algorithms provide the conceptual and computational foundation for the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) of the Center/terminal radar approach control facilities (TRACON) automation system, which comprises a set of decision support tools for managing arrival traffic at major airports in the United States. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high-altitude airspace far away from the airport and low-altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time. This report is a revision of an earlier paper first presented as part of an Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) lecture series in September 1995. The authors, during vigorous discussions over the details of this paper, felt it was important to the air-trafficmanagement (ATM) community to revise and extend the original 1995 paper, providing more detail and clarity and thereby allowing future researchers to understand this foundational work as the basis for the TMA's scheduling algorithms.

  5. Use of Structure as a Basis for Abstraction in Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John

    2004-01-01

    The safety and efficiency of the air traffic control domain is highly dependent on the capabilities and limitations of its human controllers. Past research has indicated that structure provided by the airspace and procedures could aid in simplifying the controllers cognitive tasks. In this paper, observations, interviews, voice command data analyses, and radar analyses were conducted at the Boston Terminal Route Control (TRACON) facility to determine if there was evidence of controllers using structure to simplify their cognitive processes. The data suggest that controllers do use structure-based abstractions to simplify their cognitive processes, particularly the projection task. How structure simplifies the projection task and the implications of understanding the benefits structure provides to the projection task was discussed.

  6. Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor Operational Field Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd; Landry, Steven J.; Hoang, Ty; Nickelson, Monicarol; Levin, Kerry M.; Rowe, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    The Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor (McTMA) is a research prototype system which seeks to bring time-based metering into the mainstream of air traffic control (ATC) operations. Time-based metering is an efficient alternative to traditional air traffic management techniques such as distance-based spacing (miles-in-trail spacing) and managed arrival reservoirs (airborne holding). While time-based metering has demonstrated significant benefit in terms of arrival throughput and arrival delay, its use to date has been limited to arrival operations at just nine airports nationally. Wide-scale adoption of time-based metering has been hampered, in part, by the limited scalability of metering automation. In order to realize the full spectrum of efficiency benefits possible with time-based metering, a much more modular, scalable time-based metering capability is required. With its distributed metering architecture, multi-center TMA offers such a capability.

  7. Development concerns for satellite-based air traffic control surveillance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. D.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation directed toward the configuration of a practical system design which can form the baseline for assessing the applications and value of a satellite based air traffic surveillance system for future use in the National Airspace System (NAS) are described. This work initially studied the characteristics and capabilities of a satellite configuration which would operate compatibly with the signal structure and avionics of the next generation air traffic control secondary surveillance radar system, the Mode S system. A compatible satellite surveillance system concept is described and an analysis is presented of the link budgets for the various transmission paths. From this, the satellite characteristics are established involving a large multiple feed L band antenna of approximately 50 meter aperture dimension. Trade offs involved in several of the alternative large aperture antennas considered are presented as well as the influence of various antenna configurations on the performance capabilities of the surveillance system. The features and limitations of the use of large aperture antenna systems for air traffic surveillance are discussed. Tentative results of this continuing effort are summarized with a brief description of follow on investigations involving other space based antenna systems concepts.

  8. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C.; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results. PMID:22219692

  9. An RFID-based intelligent vehicle speed controller using active traffic signals.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver's attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results. PMID:22219692

  10. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure. This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  11. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure, This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  12. Effects of modeling errors on trajectory predictions in air traffic control automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Michael R. C.; Zhao, Yiyuan; Slattery, Rhonda

    1996-01-01

    Air traffic control automation synthesizes aircraft trajectories for the generation of advisories. Trajectory computation employs models of aircraft performances and weather conditions. In contrast, actual trajectories are flown in real aircraft under actual conditions. Since synthetic trajectories are used in landing scheduling and conflict probing, it is very important to understand the differences between computed trajectories and actual trajectories. This paper examines the effects of aircraft modeling errors on the accuracy of trajectory predictions in air traffic control automation. Three-dimensional point-mass aircraft equations of motion are assumed to be able to generate actual aircraft flight paths. Modeling errors are described as uncertain parameters or uncertain input functions. Pilot or autopilot feedback actions are expressed as equality constraints to satisfy control objectives. A typical trajectory is defined by a series of flight segments with different control objectives for each flight segment and conditions that define segment transitions. A constrained linearization approach is used to analyze trajectory differences caused by various modeling errors by developing a linear time varying system that describes the trajectory errors, with expressions to transfer the trajectory errors across moving segment transitions. A numerical example is presented for a complete commercial aircraft descent trajectory consisting of several flight segments.

  13. Software for Simulating Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Bilimoria, Karl; Grabbe, Shon; Chatterji, Gano; Sheth, Kapil; Mulfinger, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) is a system of software for performing computational simulations for evaluating advanced concepts of advanced air-traffic management. FACET includes a program that generates a graphical user interface plus programs and databases that implement computational models of weather, airspace, airports, navigation aids, aircraft performance, and aircraft trajectories. Examples of concepts studied by use of FACET include aircraft self-separation for free flight; prediction of air-traffic-controller workload; decision support for direct routing; integration of spacecraft-launch operations into the U.S. national airspace system; and traffic- flow-management using rerouting, metering, and ground delays. Aircraft can be modeled as flying along either flight-plan routes or great-circle routes as they climb, cruise, and descend according to their individual performance models. The FACET software is modular and is written in the Java and C programming languages. The architecture of FACET strikes a balance between flexibility and fidelity; as a consequence, FACET can be used to model systemwide airspace operations over the contiguous U.S., involving as many as 10,000 aircraft, all on a single desktop or laptop computer running any of a variety of operating systems. Two notable applications of FACET include: (1) reroute conformance monitoring algorithms that have been implemented in one of the Federal Aviation Administration s nationally deployed, real-time, operational systems; and (2) the licensing and integration of FACET with the commercially available Flight Explorer, which is an Internet- based, real-time flight-tracking system.

  14. Comprehensive Software Eases Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    To help air traffic control centers improve the safety and the efficiency of the National Airspace System, Ames Research Center developed the Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) software, which won NASA's 2006 "Software of the Year" competition. In 2005, Ames licensed FACET to Flight Explorer Inc., for integration into its Flight Explorer (version 6.0) software. The primary FACET features incorporated in the Flight Explorer software system alert airspace users to forecasted demand and capacity imbalances. Advance access to this information helps dispatchers anticipate congested sectors (airspace) and delays at airports, and decide if they need to reroute flights. FACET is now a fully integrated feature in the Flight Explorer Professional Edition (version 7.0). Flight Explorer Professional offers end-users other benefits, including ease of operation; automatic alerts to inform users of important events such as weather conditions and potential airport delays; and international, real-time flight coverage over Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and sections of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Flight Explorer Inc. recently broadened coverage by partnering with Honeywell International Inc.'s Global Data Center, Blue Sky Network, Sky Connect LLC, SITA, ARINC Incorporated, Latitude Technologies Corporation, and Wingspeed Corporation, to track their aircraft anywhere in the world.

  15. Detecting air traffic controller interventions in recorded air transportation system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yul

    In this study, I propose a systematic method of detecting aircraft deviation due to air traffic controller (ATC) intervention. The aircraft deviations associated with ATC interventions are detected using a heuristic algorithm developed from analyzing the actual positions of an aircraft to its filed flight plan when the aircraft trajectories were identified as having an encounter in a loss-of-separation incident. An actual (closed-loop) flight trajectory of the Cleveland Air Route Traffic Control Center (ZOB ARTCC) was collected from the FlightAware database. This was compared with the corresponding planned (open-loop) trajectory dataset generated by the Microsoft(c) Flight Simulator X (FSX). I implemented a conflict-detection algorithm in Matlab to identify open-loop flight trajectories that encounters in loss-of-separation. I analyzed the differences between the closed-loop and open-loop flight trajectories of aircrafts that were identified to have encounters in loss of separation. The analysis identified operationally significant deviations in the closed-loop trajectory data with respect to the horizontal paths of the aircrafts. I then developed and validated a heuristic algorithm, the ATC intervention detection algorithm, based on the findings from the analysis. When used with a test dataset to validate the algorithm, it achieved an 85.7% detection rate in detecting horizontal deviations made by the ATC in resolving identified conflicts, and a false-alarm rate of 68%. In addition to the ATC intervention detection algorithm, I present in this paper an analysis of deviated flight trajectories in an effort to display how the presented methodology can be utilized to provide insight into air traffic controller resolution strategies.

  16. STOL Traffic environment and operational procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlundt, R. W.; Dewolf, R. W.; Ausrotas, R. A.; Curry, R. E.; Demaio, D.; Keene, D. W.; Speyer, J. L.; Weinreich, M.; Zeldin, S.

    1972-01-01

    The expected traffic environment for an intercity STOL transportation system is examined, and operational procedures are discussed in order to identify problem areas which impact STOL avionics requirements. Factors considered include: traffic densities, STOL/CTOL/VTOL traffic mix, the expect ATC environment, aircraft noise models and community noise models and community noise impact, flight paths for noise abatement, wind considerations affecting landing, approach and landing considerations, STOLport site selection, runway capacity, and STOL operations at jetports, suburban airports, and separate STOLports.

  17. Automatic Speech Recognition in Air Traffic Control: a Human Factors Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Joakim

    1990-01-01

    The introduction of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology into the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system has the potential to improve overall safety and efficiency. However, because ASR technology is inherently a part of the man-machine interface between the user and the system, the human factors issues involved must be addressed. Here, some of the human factors problems are identified and related methods of investigation are presented. Research at M.I.T.'s Flight Transportation Laboratory is being conducted from a human factors perspective, focusing on intelligent parser design, presentation of feedback, error correction strategy design, and optimal choice of input modalities.

  18. Impact of Operating Context on the Use of Structure in Air Traffic Controller Cognitive Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Histon, Jonathan M.; Ragnarsdottir, Margret Dora; Major, Laura M.; Hansman, R. John

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of structure on air traffic controllers cognitive processes in the TRACON, En Route, and Oceanic environments. Radar data and voice command analyses were conducted to support hypotheses generated through observations and interviews conducted at the various facilities. Three general types of structure-based abstractions (standard flows, groupings, and critical points) have been identified as being used in each context, though the details of their application varied in accordance with the constraints of the particular operational environment. Projection emerged as a key cognitive process aided by the structure-based abstractions, and there appears to be a significant difference between how time-based versus spatial-based projection is performed by controllers. It is recommended that consideration be given to the value provided by the structure-based abstractions to the controller as well as to maintain consistency between the type (time or spatial) of information support provided to the controller.

  19. Pseudo Aircraft Systems - A multi-aircraft simulation system for air traffic control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weske, Reid A.; Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Aircraft Systems (PAS) is a computerized flight dynamics and piloting system designed to provide a high fidelity multi-aircraft real-time simulation environment to support Air Traffic Control research. PAS is composed of three major software components that run on a network of computer workstations. Functionality is distributed among these components to allow the system to execute fast enough to support real-time operation. PAS workstations are linked by an Ethernet Local Area Network, and standard UNIX socket protocol is used for data transfer. Each component of PAS is controlled and operated using a custom designed Graphical User Interface. Each of these is composed of multiple windows, and many of the windows and sub-windows are used in several of the components. Aircraft models and piloting logic are sophisticated and realistic and provide complex maneuvering and navigational capabilities. PAS will continually be enhanced with new features and improved capabilities to support ongoing and future Air Traffic Control system development.

  20. Improved Conflict Detection for Reducing Operational Errors in Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paielli, Russell A.; Erzberger, Hainz

    2003-01-01

    An operational error is an incident in which an air traffic controller allows the separation between two aircraft to fall below the minimum separation standard. The rates of such errors in the US have increased significantly over the past few years. This paper proposes new detection methods that can help correct this trend by improving on the performance of Conflict Alert, the existing software in the Host Computer System that is intended to detect and warn controllers of imminent conflicts. In addition to the usual trajectory based on the flight plan, a "dead-reckoning" trajectory (current velocity projection) is also generated for each aircraft and checked for conflicts. Filters for reducing common types of false alerts were implemented. The new detection methods were tested in three different ways. First, a simple flightpath command language was developed t o generate precisely controlled encounters for the purpose of testing the detection software. Second, written reports and tracking data were obtained for actual operational errors that occurred in the field, and these were "replayed" to test the new detection algorithms. Finally, the detection methods were used to shadow live traffic, and performance was analysed, particularly with regard to the false-alert rate. The results indicate that the new detection methods can provide timely warnings of imminent conflicts more consistently than Conflict Alert.

  1. Evidence of traffic-related pollutant control in soil-based sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS).

    PubMed

    Napier, F; Jefferies, C; Heal, K V; Fogg, P; Arcy, B J D; Clarke, R

    2009-01-01

    SUDS are being increasingly employed to control highway runoff and have the potential to protect groundwater and surface water quality by minimising the risks of both point and diffuse sources of pollution. While these systems are effective at retaining polluted solids by filtration and sedimentation processes, less is known of the detail of pollutant behaviour within SUDS structures. This paper reports on investigations carried out as part of a co-ordinated programme of controlled studies and field measurements at soft-engineered SUDS undertaken in the UK, observing the accumulation and behaviour of traffic-related heavy metals, oil and PAHs. The field data presented were collected from two extended detention basins serving the M74 motorway in the south-west of Scotland. Additional data were supplied from an experimental lysimeter soil core leaching study. Results show that basin design influences pollutant accumulation and behaviour in the basins. Management and/or control strategies are discussed for reducing the impact of traffic-related pollutants on the aqueous environment. PMID:19587419

  2. Objective Lightning Probability Forecasts for East-Central Florida Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winfred C.

    2013-01-01

    The forecasters at the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL, (NWS MLB) identified a need to make more accurate lightning forecasts to help alleviate delays due to thunderstorms in the vicinity of several commercial airports in central Florida at which they are responsible for issuing terminal aerodrome forecasts. Such forecasts would also provide safer ground operations around terminals, and would be of value to Center Weather Service Units serving air traffic controllers in Florida. To improve the forecast, the AMU was tasked to develop an objective lightning probability forecast tool for the airports using data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The resulting forecast tool is similar to that developed by the AMU to support space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) for use by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) in previous tasks (Lambert and Wheeler 2005, Lambert 2007). The lightning probability forecasts are valid for the time periods and areas needed by the NWS MLB forecasters in the warm season months, defined in this task as May-September.

  3. Managing emergencies and abnormal situations in air traffic control (part II): teamwork strategies.

    PubMed

    Malakis, Stathis; Kontogiannis, Tom; Kirwan, Barry

    2010-07-01

    Team performance has been studied in many safety-critical organizations including aviation, nuclear power plant, offshore oil platforms and health organizations. This study looks into teamwork strategies that air traffic controllers employ to manage emergencies and abnormal situations. Two field studies were carried out in the form of observations of simulator training in emergency and unusual scenarios of novices and experienced controllers. Teamwork strategies covered aspects of team orientation and coordination, information exchange, change management and error handling. Several performance metrics were used to rate the efficiency of teamwork and test the construct validity of a prototype model of teamwork. This is a companion study to an earlier investigation of taskwork strategies in the same field (part I) and contributes to the development of a generic model for Taskwork and Teamwork strategies in Emergencies in Air traffic Management (T(2)EAM). Suggestions are made on how to use T(2)EAM to develop training programs, assess team performance and improve mishap investigations. PMID:20116780

  4. Modeling Weather Impact on Airport Arrival Miles-in-Trail Restrictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao; Grabbe, Shon

    2013-01-01

    When the demand for either a region of airspace or an airport approaches or exceeds the available capacity, miles-in-trail (MIT) restrictions are the most frequently issued traffic management initiatives (TMIs) that are used to mitigate these imbalances. Miles-intrail operations require aircraft in a traffic stream to meet a specific inter-aircraft separation in exchange for maintaining a safe and orderly flow within the stream. This stream of aircraft can be departing an airport, over a common fix, through a sector, on a specific route or arriving at an airport. This study begins by providing a high-level overview of the distribution and causes of arrival MIT restrictions for the top ten airports in the United States. This is followed by an in-depth analysis of the frequency, duration and cause of MIT restrictions impacting the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) from 2009 through 2011. Then, machine-learning methods for predicting (1) situations in which MIT restrictions for ATL arrivals are implemented under low demand scenarios, and (2) days in which a large number of MIT restrictions are required to properly manage and control ATL arrivals are presented. More specifically, these predictions were accomplished by using an ensemble of decision trees with Bootstrap aggregation (BDT) and supervised machine learning was used to train the BDT binary classification models. The models were subsequently validated using data cross validation methods. When predicting the occurrence of arrival MIT restrictions under low demand situations, the model was able to achieve over all accuracy rates ranging from 84% to 90%, with false alarm ratios ranging from 10% to 15%. In the second set of studies designed to predict days on which a high number of MIT restrictions were required, overall accuracy rates of 80% were achieved with false alarm ratios of 20%. Overall, the predictions proposed by the model give better MIT usage information than what has been

  5. The influence of air traffic control message length and timing on pilot communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Daniel; Rodvold, Michelle

    1993-01-01

    The present paper outlines an approach to air traffic control (ATC) communication that is based on theories of dialogue organization and describes several steps or phases in routine controller-pilot communication. The introduction also describes several kinds of communication problems that often disrupt these steps, as well as how these problems may be caused by factors related to ATC messages, the communication medium (radio vs. data link) and task workload. Next, a part-task simulation study is described. This study focused on how problems in radio communication are related to message factors. More specifically, we examined if pilots are more likely to misunderstanding longer ATC messages. A more general goal of the study is to show that communication analysis can help trace where problem occur and why.

  6. Progress on the Development of Future Airport Surface Wireless Communications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Budinger, James M.; Brooks, David E.; Franklin, Morgan; DeHart, Steve; Dimond, Robert P.; Borden, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Continuing advances in airport surface management and improvements in airport surface safety are required to enable future growth in air traffic throughout the airspace, as airport arrival and departure delays create a major system bottleneck. These airport management and safety advances will be built upon improved communications, navigation, surveillance, and weather sensing, creating an information environment supporting system automation. The efficient movement of the digital data generated from these systems requires an underlying communications network infrastructure to connect data sources with the intended users with the required quality of service. Current airport surface communications consists primarily of buried copper or fiber cable. Safety related communications with mobile airport surface assets occurs over 25 kHz VHF voice and data channels. The available VHF spectrum, already congested in many areas, will be insufficient to support future data traffic requirements. Therefore, a broadband wireless airport surface communications network is considered a requirement for the future airport component of the air transportation system. Progress has been made on defining the technology and frequency spectrum for the airport surface wireless communications network. The development of a test and demonstration facility and the definition of required testing and standards development are now underway. This paper will review the progress and planned future work.

  7. Air Traffic Controller Performance and Acceptability of Multiple UAS in a Simulated NAS Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas; Chiappe, Dan; Morales, Greg; Battiste, Vernol; Shively, Robert Jay

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that air traffic controllers (ATCos) rated UAS pilot verbal response latencies as acceptable when a 1.5 s delay was added to the UAS pilot responses, but a 5 s delay was rated as mostly unacceptable. In the present study we determined whether a 1.5 s added delay in the UAS pilots' verbal communications would affect ATCos interactions with UAS and other conventional aircraft when the number and speed of the UAS were manipulated. Eight radar-certified ATCos participated in this simulation. The ATCos managed a medium altitude sector containing arrival aircraft, en route aircraft, and one to four UAS. The UAS were conducting a surveillance mission and flew at either a "slow" or "fast" speed. We measured both UAS and conventional pilots' verbal communication latencies, and obtained ATCos' acceptability ratings for these latencies. Although the UAS pilot response latencies were longer than those of conventional pilots, the ATCos rated UAS pilot verbal communication latencies to be as acceptable as those of conventional pilots. Because the overall traffic load within the sector was held constant, ATCos only performed slightly worse when multiple UAS were in their sector compared to when only one UAS was in the sector. Implications of these findings for UAS integration in the NAS are discussed.

  8. Pilot and Controller Evaluations of Separation Function Allocation in Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David; Prevot, Thomas; Morey, Susan; Lewis, Timothy; Martin, Lynne; Johnson, Sally; Cabrall, Christopher; Como, Sean; Homola, Jeffrey; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; Mercer, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Two human-in-the-loop simulation experiments were conducted in coordinated fashion to investigate the allocation of separation assurance functions between ground and air and between humans and automation. The experiments modeled a mixed-operations concept in which aircraft receiving ground-based separation services shared the airspace with aircraft providing their own separation service (i.e., self-separation). Ground-based separation was provided by air traffic controllers without automation tools, with tools, or by ground-based automation with controllers in a managing role. Airborne self-separation was provided by airline pilots using self-separation automation enabled by airborne surveillance technology. The two experiments, one pilot-focused and the other controller-focused, addressed selected key issues of mixed operations, assuming the starting point of current-day operations and modeling an emergence of NextGen technologies and procedures. In the controller-focused experiment, the impact of mixed operations on controller performance was assessed at four stages of NextGen implementation. In the pilot-focused experiment, the limits to which pilots with automation tools could take full responsibility for separation from ground-controlled aircraft were tested. Results indicate that the presence of self-separating aircraft had little impact on the controllers' ability to provide separation services for ground-controlled aircraft. Overall performance was best in the most automated environment in which all aircraft were data communications equipped, ground-based separation was highly automated, and self-separating aircraft had access to trajectory intent information for all aircraft. In this environment, safe, efficient, and highly acceptable operations could be achieved for twice today's peak airspace throughput. In less automated environments, reduced trajectory intent exchange and manual air traffic control limited the safely achievable airspace throughput and

  9. Information Requirements for Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers in Support of a Mid-Term Wake Vortex Departure System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Daniel M.; Trujillo, Anna C.; Johnson, Edward J.; Domino, David A.

    2008-01-01

    A concept focusing on wind dependent departure operations has been developed the current version of this concept is called the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD). This concept takes advantage the fact that cross winds of sufficient velocity blow wakes generated by "heavy" and B757 category aircraft on the downwind runway away from the upwind runway. Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers would be responsible for authorization of the Procedure. An investigation of the information requirements necessary to for Supervisors to approve monitor and terminate the Procedure was conducted. Results clearly indicated that the requisite information is currently available in air traffic control towers and that additional information was not required.

  10. The Future of Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G.; Erzberger, Heinz; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for the control of terminal area traffic to improve productivity, referred to as the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS), is being developed at NASA's Ames Research Center under a joint program with the FAA. CTAS consists of a set of integrated tools that provide computer-generated advisories for en-route and terminal area controllers. The premise behind the design of CTAS has been that successful planning of traffic requires accurate trajectory prediction. Data bases consisting of representative aircraft performance models, airline preferred operational procedures and a three dimensional wind model support the trajectory prediction. The research effort has been the design of a set of automation tools that make use of this trajectory prediction capability to assist controllers in overall management of traffic. The first tool, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), provides the overall flow management between the en route and terminal areas. A second tool, the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST) provides terminal area controllers with sequence and runway advisories to allow optimal use of the runways. The TMA and FAST are now being used in daily operations at Dallas/Ft. Worth airport. Additional activities include the development of several other tools. These include: 1) the En Route Descent Advisor that assist the en route controller in issuing conflict free descents and ascents; 2) the extension of FAST to include speed and heading advisories and the Expedite Departure Path (EDP) that assists the terminal controller in management of departures; and 3) the Collaborative Arrival Planner (CAP) that will assist the airlines in operational decision making. The purpose of this presentation is to review the CTAS concept and to present the results of recent field tests. The paper will first discuss the overall concept and then discuss the status of the individual tools.

  11. Optimal Control and Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Urban Traffic Intersections

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yue J.; Malikopoulos, Andreas; Cassandras, Christos G.

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of coordinating online a continuous flow of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) crossing two adjacent intersections in an urban area. We present a decentralized optimal control framework whose solution yields for each vehicle the optimal acceleration/deceleration at any time in the sense of minimizing fuel consumption. The solu- tion, when it exists, allows the vehicles to cross the intersections without the use of traffic lights, without creating congestion on the connecting road, and under the hard safety constraint of collision avoidance. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation considering two intersections located in downtown Boston, and it is shown that coordination of CAVs can reduce significantly both fuel consumption and travel time.

  12. Supervised learning from human performance at the computationally hard problem of optimal traffic signal control on a network of junctions

    PubMed Central

    Box, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Optimal switching of traffic lights on a network of junctions is a computationally intractable problem. In this research, road traffic networks containing signallized junctions are simulated. A computer game interface is used to enable a human ‘player’ to control the traffic light settings on the junctions within the simulation. A supervised learning approach, based on simple neural network classifiers can be used to capture human player's strategies in the game and thus develop a human-trained machine control (HuTMaC) system that approaches human levels of performance. Experiments conducted within the simulation compare the performance of HuTMaC to two well-established traffic-responsive control systems that are widely deployed in the developed world and also to a temporal difference learning-based control method. In all experiments, HuTMaC outperforms the other control methods in terms of average delay and variance over delay. The conclusion is that these results add weight to the suggestion that HuTMaC may be a viable alternative, or supplemental method, to approximate optimization for some practical engineering control problems where the optimal strategy is computationally intractable. PMID:26064570

  13. Supervised learning from human performance at the computationally hard problem of optimal traffic signal control on a network of junctions.

    PubMed

    Box, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Optimal switching of traffic lights on a network of junctions is a computationally intractable problem. In this research, road traffic networks containing signallized junctions are simulated. A computer game interface is used to enable a human 'player' to control the traffic light settings on the junctions within the simulation. A supervised learning approach, based on simple neural network classifiers can be used to capture human player's strategies in the game and thus develop a human-trained machine control (HuTMaC) system that approaches human levels of performance. Experiments conducted within the simulation compare the performance of HuTMaC to two well-established traffic-responsive control systems that are widely deployed in the developed world and also to a temporal difference learning-based control method. In all experiments, HuTMaC outperforms the other control methods in terms of average delay and variance over delay. The conclusion is that these results add weight to the suggestion that HuTMaC may be a viable alternative, or supplemental method, to approximate optimization for some practical engineering control problems where the optimal strategy is computationally intractable. PMID:26064570

  14. A Cognitive Game Theoretic Analysis of Conflict Alerts in Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erev, Ido; Gopher, Daniel; Remington, Roger

    1999-01-01

    The current research was motivated by the recommendation made by a joint Government/Industry committee to introduce a new traffic control system, referred to as the Free Flight. This system is designed to use recent new technology to facilitate efficient and safe air transportation. We addressed one of the major difficulties that arise in the design of this and similar multi-agent systems: the adaptive (and slippery) nature of human agents. To facilitate a safe and efficient design of this multi-agent system, designers have to rely on assessments of the expected behavior of the different agents under various scenarios. Whereas the behavior of the computerized agents is predictable, the behavior of the human agents (including air traffic controllers and pilots) is not. Experimental and empirical observations suggest that human agents are likely to adjust their behavior to the design of the system. To see the difficulty that the adaptive nature of human agents creates assume that a good approximation of the way operators currently behave is available. Given this information an optimal design can be performed. The problem arises as the human operator will learn to adjust their behavior to the new system. Following this adjustment process the assumptions made by the designer concerning the operators behavior will no longer be accurate and the system might reach a suboptimal state. In extreme situations these potential suboptimal states might involve unnecessary risk. That is, the fact that operators learn in an adaptive fashion does not imply that the system will become safer as they gain experience. At least in the context of Safety dilemmas, experience can lead to a pareto deficient risk taking behavior.

  15. FIELD EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING AT CDG AIRPORTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaroson, R.

    2009-12-01

    Richard Ramaroson1,4, Klaus Schaefer2, Stefan Emeis2, Carsten Jahn2, Gregor Schürmann2, Maria Hoffmann2, Mikhael Zatevakhin3, Alexandre Ignatyev3. 1ONERA, Châtillon, France; 4SEAS, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; 2FZK, Garmisch, Germany; (3)FSUE SPbAEP, St Petersburg, Russia. 2-month field campaigns have been organized at CDG airports in autumn 2004 and summer 2005. Air quality and ground air traffic emissions have been monitored continuously at terminals and taxi-runways, along with meteorological parameters onboard trucks and with a SODAR. This paper analyses the commercial engine emissions characteristics at airports and their effects on gas pollutants and airborne particles coupled to meteorology. LES model results for PM dispersion coupled to microphysics in the PBL are compared to measurements. Winds and temperature at the surface and their vertical profiles have been stored with turbulence. SODAR observations show the time-development of the mixing layer depth and turbulent mixing in summer up to 800m. Active low level jets and their regional extent have been observed and analyzed. PM number and mass size distribution, morphology and chemical contents are investigated. Formation of new ultra fine volatile (UFV) particles in the ambient plume downstream of running engines is observed. Soot particles are mostly observed at significant level at high power thrusts at take-off (TO) and on touch-down whereas at lower thrusts at taxi and aprons ultra the UFV PM emissions become higher. Ambient airborne PM1/2.5 is closely correlated to air traffic volume and shows a maximum beside runways. PM number distribution at airports is composed mainly by volatile UF PM abundant at apron. Ambient PM mass in autumn is higher than in summer. The expected differences between TO and taxi emissions are confirmed for NO, NO2, speciated VOC and CO. NO/NO2 emissions are larger at runways due to higher power. Reactive VOC and CO are more produced at low powers during idling at

  16. iPort-VIS: Site Specific Fog Forecasting for Munich Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohn, M.; Vogel, G.; Mohr, C.; Schneider, W.; Bott, A.; Beckmann, B. R.; Röhner, P.

    2010-07-01

    The German ministry for economy and technology is instigating improved effectiveness and competiveness of the german aviation industry by funding an aviation research program. This supports among other activities forecasting techniques for various weather related phenomena affecting airport management and traffic including poor visibility. DWD attempts in cooperation with University Bonn and the German Aviation Control (DFS) to implement a site specific fog forecasting system for Munich International Airport. The planned system aims at coupling the one-dimensional version of the fog forecasting model PAFOG with the high-resolution model COSMO-DE of DWD. Local observations will be integrated using a nudging approach in order to best determine the initial conditions. Therefore, additional instruments will be installed close to the runways to provide an observational data base for both model initialization and model diagnostics. The presentation provides an overview of the project and links to other presentations during this conference which focus on the instrumental setup at the airport as well as the scientific aspects of the PAFOG model development at University Bonn. The integration of all components within DWD is outlined which includes technical aspects necessary to ensure a stable prototype to be evaluated at the end of the project. Current work on generating a suitable visualization to support the operational aviation forecast work and model diagnostics will be outlined.

  17. Workload-Matched Adaptive Automation Support of Air Traffic Controller Information Processing Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wright, Melanie C.; Clamann, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive automation (AA) has been explored as a solution to the problems associated with human-automation interaction in supervisory control environments. However, research has focused on the performance effects of dynamic control allocations of early stage sensory and information acquisition functions. The present research compares the effects of AA to the entire range of information processing stages of human operators, such as air traffic controllers. The results provide evidence that the effectiveness of AA is dependent on the stage of task performance (human-machine system information processing) that is flexibly automated. The results suggest that humans are better able to adapt to AA when applied to lower-level sensory and psychomotor functions, such as information acquisition and action implementation, as compared to AA applied to cognitive (analysis and decision-making) tasks. The results also provide support for the use of AA, as compared to completely manual control. These results are discussed in terms of implications for AA design for aviation.

  18. Perpetual factors involved in performance of air traffic controllers using a microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershzohn, G.

    1978-01-01

    The task involved the control of two simulated aircraft targets per trial, in a 37.0 -km radius terminal area, by means of conventional radar vectoring and/or speed control. The goal was to insure that the two targets crossed the Missed Approach Point (MAP) at the runway threshold exactly 60 sec apart. The effects on controller performance of the MLS configuration under wind and no-wind conditions were examined. The data for mean separation time between targets at the MAP and the range about that mean were analyzed by appropriate analyses of variance. Significant effects were found for mean separation times as a result of the configuration of the MLS and for interaction between the configuration and wind conditions. The analysis of variance for range indicated significantly poorer performance under the wind condition. These findings are believed to be a result of certain perceptual factors involved in radar air traffic control (ATC) using the MLS with separation of targets in time.

  19. Modification of Traffic-related Respiratory Response by Asthma Control in a Population of Car Commuters

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Golan, Rachel; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U.; Holguin, Fernando; Kewada, Priya; Winquist, Andrea; Flanders, W. Dana; Sarnat, Jeremy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Effects of traffic-related exposures on respiratory health are well documented, but little information is available about whether asthma control influences individual susceptibility. We analyzed data from the Atlanta Commuter Exposure study to evaluate modification of associations between rush-hour commuting, in-vehicle air pollution, and selected respiratory health outcomes by asthma control status. Methods Between 2009 and 2011, 39 adults participated in Atlanta Commuter Exposure, and each conducted two scripted rush-hour highway commutes. In-vehicle particulate components were measured during all commutes. Among adults with asthma, we evaluated asthma control by questionnaire and spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and other metrics of respiratory health were measured precommute and 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours postcommute. We used mixed effects linear regression to evaluate associations between commute-related exposures and postcommute changes in metrics of respiratory health by level of asthma control. Results We observed increased exhaled nitric oxide across all levels of asthma control compared with precommute measurements, with largest postcommute increases observed among participants with below-median asthma control (2 hours postcommute: 14.6% [95% confidence interval {CI} = 5.7, 24.2]; 3 hours postcommute: 19.5% [95% CI = 7.8, 32.5]). No associations between in-vehicle pollutants and percent of predicted FEV1 were observed, although higher PM2.5 was associated with lower FEV1 % predicted among participants with below-median asthma control (3 hours postcommute: −7.2 [95% CI = −11.8, −2.7]). Conclusions Level of asthma control may influence respiratory response to in-vehicle exposures experienced during rush-hour commuting. PMID:25901844

  20. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aviation Systems Division at the NASA Ames Research Center conducts leading edge research in air traffic management concepts and technologies. This overview will present concepts and simulation results for research in traffic flow management, safe and efficient airport surface operations, super density terminal area operations, separation assurance and system wide modeling and simulation. A brief review of the ongoing air traffic management technology demonstration (ATD-1) will also be presented. A panel discussion, with Mr. Davis serving as a panelist, on air traffic research will follow the briefing.

  1. Injury control strategies: extending the quality and quantity of data relating to road traffic accidents in children.

    PubMed Central

    Henson, R; Hadfield, J M; Cooper, S

    1999-01-01

    This review describes how an extended database of information can provide the opportunity to go beyond the traditionally distinct health, engineering, and education initiatives in order to identify the effectiveness of more overarching policies for injury control. Such information can be used to raise awareness and to encourage community participation in designing a road traffic accident prevention strategy. PMID:10191437

  2. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of an Early Psychological Intervention with Children Involved in Road Traffic Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Salter, Emma; Howse, Imogen; Yule, William; Taylor, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether an early intervention using a psychological debriefing format is effective in preventing psychological distress in child road traffic accident survivors. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Accident and Emergency Department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 158 children aged 7-18. Follow-up…

  3. Mental Effort and Performance as Determinants for the Dynamic Selection of Learning Tasks in Air Traffic Control Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salden, Ron J.C.M.; Paas, Fred; Broers, Nick J.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2004-01-01

    The differential effects of four task selection methods on training efficiency and transfer in computer-based training for Air Traffic Control were investigated. A non-dynamic condition, in which the learning tasks were presented to the participants in a fixed, predetermined sequence, was compared to three dynamic conditions, in which learning…

  4. Factors Influencing the Decisions and Actions of Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers in Three Plausible NextGen Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In the current air traffic management (ATM) system, pilots and air traffic controllers have well-established roles and responsibilities: pilots fly aircraft and are concerned with energy management, fuel efficiency, and passenger comfort; controllers separate aircraft and are concerned with safety and management of traffic flows. Despite having different goals and obligations, both groups must be able to effectively communicate and interact with each other for the ATM system to work. This interaction will become even more challenging as traffic volume increases dramatically in the near future. To accommodate this increase, by 2025 the national air transportation system in the U.S. will go through a transformation that will modernize the ATM system and make it safer, more effective, and more efficient. This new system, NextGen, will change how pilots and controllers perform their tasks by incorporating advanced technologies and employing new procedures. It will also distribute responsibility between pilots, controllers and automation over such tasks as maintaining aircraft separation. The present chapter describes three plausible concepts of operations that allocate different ATM responsibilities to these groups. We describe how each concept changes the role of each operator and the types of decisions and actions performed by them.

  5. 76 FR 70468 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Airport Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... OMB Review: Airport Security AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... other forms of information technology. Information Collection Requirement Title: Airport Security, 49... is seeking to renew its OMB control number 1542-0002, Airport Security, 49 CFR part 1542....

  6. [Development of New Mathematical Methodology in Air Traffic Control for the Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermann, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop new mathematical methodology for the analysis of hybrid systems of the type involved in Air Traffic Control (ATC) problems. Two directions of investigation were initiated. The first used the methodology of nonlinear generalized functions, whose mathematical foundations were initiated by Colombeau and developed further by Oberguggenberger; it has been extended to apply to ordinary differential. Systems of the type encountered in control in joint work with the PI and M. Oberguggenberger. This involved a 'mixture' of 'continuous' and 'discrete' methodology. ATC clearly involves mixtures of two sorts of mathematical problems: (1) The 'continuous' dynamics of a standard control type described by ordinary differential equations (ODE) of the form: {dx/dt = f(x, u)} and (2) the discrete lattice dynamics involved of cellular automata. Most of the CA literature involves a discretization of a partial differential equation system of the type encountered in physics problems (e.g. fluid and gas problems). Both of these directions requires much thinking and new development of mathematical fundamentals before they may be utilized in the ATC work. Rather than consider CA as 'discretization' of PDE systems, I believe that the ATC applications will require a completely different and new mathematical methodology, a sort of discrete analogue of jet bundles and/or the sheaf-theoretic techniques to topologists. Here too, I have begun work on virtually 'virgin' mathematical ground (at least from an 'applied' point of view) which will require considerable preliminary work.

  7. Investigating the Complexity of Transitioning Separation Assurance Tools into NextGen Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Ashley Nicole; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Homola, Jeffrey; Morey, Susan; Cabrall, Christopher; Mercer, Joey; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In a study, that introduced ground-based separation assurance automation through a series of envisioned transitional phases of concept maturity, it was found that subjective responses to scales of workload, situation awareness, and acceptability in a post run questionnaire revealed as-predicted results for three of the four study conditions but not for the third, Moderate condition. The trend continued for losses of separation (LOS) where the number of LOS events were far greater than expected in the Moderate condition. To offer an account of why the Moderate condition was perceived to be more difficult to manage than predicted, researchers examined the increase in amount and complexity of traffic, increase in communication load, and increased complexities as a result of the simulation's mix of aircraft equipage. Further analysis compared the tools presented through the phases, finding that controllers took advantage of the informational properties of the tools presented but shied away from using their decision support capabilities. Taking into account similar findings from other studies, it is suggested that the Moderate condition represented the first step into a "shared control" environment, which requires the controller to use the automation as a decision making partner rather than just a provider of information. Viewed in this light, the combination of tools offered in the Moderate condition was reviewed and some tradeoffs that may offset the identified complexities were suggested.

  8. Instructional Strategies for Teaching Judgment in Detecting Gaps for Crossing Streets with No Traffic Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerbuger, Dona

    2006-01-01

    This article provides instructional strategies for the concepts and skills of crossing streets that have no stop sign or traffic signal. Such situations include crossing the main street at intersections with stop signs for the secondary street, at roundabouts or traffic circles, separate right-turn lanes, and mid-block crosswalks. In these…

  9. IFR Operations at Non-Towered, Non-Radar Airports: Can we do Better Than One-at-a-Time?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, K.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new concept for operations in non-radar terminal airspace around small, nontowered airports. Currently, air traffic operations in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) at airfields without control towers and radar service are severely constrained by what is known as the one-in/one-out paradigm. Under these conditions only one operation (either arrival or departure) is allowed to occur at a time. Since these operations can take over 15 minutes to complete, capacity at these airports is severely restricted in IMC. The proposed concept is an attempt to break this current paradigm by applying emerging airborne and ground-based technologies to enable simultaneous operations by multiple aircraft in nonradar terminal airspace around small non-towered airports in IMC. The general philosophy underlying this concept of operations is the establishment of a newly defined area surrounding these airports called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Aircraft operating within the SCA are required to have a specified minimum level of equipage. Within the SCA, pilots are responsible for separating themselves from other similarly equipped aircraft through the use of new onboard systems and procedures. This concept also takes advantage of newly developed automation at the airport, which provides appropriate sequencing information to the pilots for safe and improved operations. Such operations would enhance the opportunity for point-to-point air taxi or charter operations into smaller airfields that are closer to a traveler s origin and destination. A description of this concept of operations and a simulation environment used for evaluation is provided in this paper.

  10. Scattering in remote sensing in the visible and microwave spectral range and in traffic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttger, U.; Kühne, R.; Thiessenhusene, K.-U.

    2003-05-01

    The treatment of scattering processes in remote sensing for interpretation of satellite data is demonstrated in the visible and microwave spectral range comparing the two spectral ranges. Analogies and distinctions in the treatment of the scattering processes are shown. Based on this cognition an approach for traffic simulation is outlined. Simulating the traffic of a part of a city, a whole city or a larger area in an acceptable time is one of the tasks in recent traffic research. One possible approach is the areal treatment of the road network. That means that single streets are not resolved but are introduced into simulations only by parameters that correspond to a specific traffic area resistance. The aim of this work is to outline such a possibility using experiences obtained from the theory of radiative transport to simulate scattering processes and applying them to the very complex system of traffic simulation.

  11. Integrated Traffic Flow Management Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon R.; Sridhar, Banavar; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2009-01-01

    A generalized approach is proposed to support integrated traffic flow management decision making studies at both the U.S. national and regional levels. It can consider tradeoffs between alternative optimization and heuristic based models, strategic versus tactical flight controls, and system versus fleet preferences. Preliminary testing was accomplished by implementing thirteen unique traffic flow management models, which included all of the key components of the system and conducting 85, six-hour fast-time simulation experiments. These experiments considered variations in the strategic planning look-ahead times, the replanning intervals, and the types of traffic flow management control strategies. Initial testing indicates that longer strategic planning look-ahead times and re-planning intervals result in steadily decreasing levels of sector congestion for a fixed delay level. This applies when accurate estimates of the air traffic demand, airport capacities and airspace capacities are available. In general, the distribution of the delays amongst the users was found to be most equitable when scheduling flights using a heuristic scheduling algorithm, such as ration-by-distance. On the other hand, equity was the worst when using scheduling algorithms that took into account the number of seats aboard each flight. Though the scheduling algorithms were effective at alleviating sector congestion, the tactical rerouting algorithm was the primary control for avoiding en route weather hazards. Finally, the modeled levels of sector congestion, the number of weather incursions, and the total system delays, were found to be in fair agreement with the values that were operationally observed on both good and bad weather days.

  12. Arf6 controls retromer traffic and intracellular cholesterol distribution via a phosphoinositide-based mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Marquer, Catherine; Tian, Huasong; Yi, Julie; Bastien, Jayson; Dall'Armi, Claudia; Yang-Klingler, YoungJoo; Zhou, Bowen; Chan, Robin Barry; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Small GTPases play a critical role in membrane traffic. Among them, Arf6 mediates transport to and from the plasma membrane, as well as phosphoinositide signalling and cholesterol homeostasis. Here we delineate the molecular basis for the link between Arf6 and cholesterol homeostasis using an inducible knockout (KO) model of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We find that accumulation of free cholesterol in the late endosomes/lysosomes of Arf6 KO MEFs results from mistrafficking of Niemann–Pick type C protein NPC2, a cargo of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR). This is caused by a selective increase in an endosomal pool of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) and a perturbation of retromer, which controls the retrograde transport of CI-M6PR via sorting nexins, including the PI4P effector SNX6. Finally, reducing PI4P levels in KO MEFs through independent mechanisms rescues aberrant retromer tubulation and cholesterol mistrafficking. Our study highlights a phosphoinositide-based mechanism for control of cholesterol distribution via retromer. PMID:27336679

  13. Allocation of Functions in a Far-Term Air Traffic Control Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homola, Jeffrey; Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Cabrall, Christopher; Prevot, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop exploration of a ground-based automated separation assurance concept was conducted that involved the allocation of certain functions between humans and automation. This exploration included operations that were sustained for prolonged periods of time with high levels of traffic in the presence of convective weather and scheduling constraints. An investigation into the acceptability of the defined roles and performance of tasks was conducted where it was found that the participants rated the concept and allocation of functions with a high level of acceptability. However, issues were encountered with the automation related to the detection of and response to tactical conflicts. Lower ratings were given on account of these concerns, and it was found that a key contributor to the underlying problems was transitioning aircraft and the uncertainty of their trajectories. Stemming from those results, participants responded that they would rather have direct control over aircraft transitions as well as more control over the tactical conflict resolution automation. In contrast, participants responded that they would rather have the automation place aircraft back on trajectory, and perform weather avoidance and scheduling tasks.

  14. Traffic Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Intelligent Vision Systems, Inc. (InVision) needed image acquisition technology that was reliable in bad weather for its TDS-200 Traffic Detection System. InVision researchers used information from NASA Tech Briefs and assistance from Johnson Space Center to finish the system. The NASA technology used was developed for Earth-observing imaging satellites: charge coupled devices, in which silicon chips convert light directly into electronic or digital images. The TDS-200 consists of sensors mounted above traffic on poles or span wires, enabling two sensors to view an intersection; a "swing and sway" feature to compensate for movement of the sensors; a combination of electronic shutter and gain control; and sensor output to an image digital signal processor, still frame video and optionally live video.

  15. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papasin, Richard; Gawdiak, Yuri; Maluf, David A.; Leidich, Christopher; Tran, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    Remote Tower Sensor Systems (RTSS) are proof-of-concept prototypes being developed by NASA/Ames Research Center (NASA/ARC) with collaboration with the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and NOAA (National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration). RTSS began with the deployment of an Airport Approach Zone Camera System that includes real-time weather observations at San Francisco International Airport. The goal of this research is to develop, deploy, and demonstrate remotely operated cameras and sensors at several major airport hubs and un-towered airports. RTSS can provide real-time weather observations of airport approach zone. RTSS will integrate and test airport sensor packages that will allow remote access to realtime airport conditions and aircraft status.

  16. Human factors issues in the use of artificial intelligence in air traffic control. October 1990 Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockaday, Stephen; Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the workshop was to explore the role of human factors in facilitating the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) to advanced air traffic control (ATC) automation concepts. AI is an umbrella term which is continually expanding to cover a variety of techniques where machines are performing actions taken based upon dynamic, external stimuli. AI methods can be implemented using more traditional programming languages such as LISP or PROLOG, or they can be implemented using state-of-the-art techniques such as object-oriented programming, neural nets (hardware or software), and knowledge based expert systems. As this technology advances and as increasingly powerful computing platforms become available, the use of AI to enhance ATC systems can be realized. Substantial efforts along these lines are already being undertaken at the FAA Technical Center, NASA Ames Research Center, academic institutions, industry, and elsewhere. Although it is clear that the technology is ripe for bringing computer automation to ATC systems, the proper scope and role of automation are not at all apparent. The major concern is how to combine human controllers with computer technology. A wide spectrum of options exists, ranging from using automation only to provide extra tools to augment decision making by human controllers to turning over moment-by-moment control to automated systems and using humans as supervisors and system managers. Across this spectrum, it is now obvious that the difficulties that occur when tying human and automated systems together must be resolved so that automation can be introduced safely and effectively. The focus of the workshop was to further explore the role of injecting AI into ATC systems and to identify the human factors that need to be considered for successful application of the technology to present and future ATC systems.

  17. 14 CFR 139.323 - Traffic and wind direction indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Traffic and wind direction indicators. 139... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.323 Traffic and wind direction indicators. In a manner authorized by...) A wind cone that visually provides surface wind direction information to pilots. For each...

  18. 14 CFR 139.323 - Traffic and wind direction indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Traffic and wind direction indicators. 139... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.323 Traffic and wind direction indicators. In a manner authorized by...) A wind cone that visually provides surface wind direction information to pilots. For each...

  19. 14 CFR 139.323 - Traffic and wind direction indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Traffic and wind direction indicators. 139... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.323 Traffic and wind direction indicators. In a manner authorized by...) A wind cone that visually provides surface wind direction information to pilots. For each...

  20. 14 CFR 139.323 - Traffic and wind direction indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Traffic and wind direction indicators. 139... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.323 Traffic and wind direction indicators. In a manner authorized by...) A wind cone that visually provides surface wind direction information to pilots. For each...