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Sample records for airs atmospheric science

  1. Science Highlights and Lessons Learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Suda, Jarrod; Licata, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on the NASA Earth Observing System Aqua spacecraft are facility instruments designed to support measurements of atmospheric temperature, water vapor and a wide range of atmospheric constituents in support of weather forecasting and scientific research in climate and atmospheric chemistry. This paper is an update to the science highlights from a paper by the authors released last year and also looks back at the lessons learned and future needs of the scientific community. These lessons not only include requirements on the measurements, but scientific shortfalls as well. Results from the NASA Science Community Workshop in IR and MW Sounders relating to AIRS and AMSU requirements and concerns are covered and reflect much of what has been learned and what is needed for future atmospheric sounding from Low Earth Orbit.

  2. Atmospheric science: Ancient air caught by shooting stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Buick, Roger

    2016-05-01

    Ashes of ancient meteors recovered from a 2.7-billion-year-old lake bed imply that the upper atmosphere was rich in oxygen at a time when all other evidence implies that the atmosphere was oxygen-free. See Letter p.235

  3. PAST AND PRESENT: 50 YEARS OF AIR QUALITY MODELING RESEARCH AND ITS APPLICATIONS BY THE NOAA ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES MODELING DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NOAA Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division (ASMD) celebrated its Golden Jubilee in September 2005. The partnership between NOAA and EPA began when the Air Pollution Unit of the Public Health Service, which later became part of the EPA, requested the Weather Bureau provide ...

  4. Atmospheric science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Ackerman, Thomas; Clarke, Antony; Goodman, Jindra; Levin, Zev; Tomasko, Martin; Toon, O. Brian; Whitten, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The following types of experiments for a proposed Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility are described: (1) growth of liquid water drop populations; (2) coalescence; (3) drop breakup; (4) breakup of freezing drops; (5) ice nucleation for large aerosols or bacteria; (6) scavenging of gases, for example, SO2 oxidation; (7) phoretic forces, i.e., thermophoresis versus diffusiophoresis; (8) Rayleigh bursting of drops; (9) charge separation due to collisions of rimed and unrimed ice; (10) charged drop dynamics; (11) growth of particles in other planetary atmospheres; and (12) freezing and liquid-liquid evaporation. The required capabilities and desired hardware for the facility are detailed.

  5. Air ions and aerosol science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammet, Hannes

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4-1.8 nm.

  6. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect

    Randerson, D.

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  7. PREFACE: SPECIAL SECTION OF THE JOURNAL OF AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PM AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association contains 17 peer-reviewed scientific papers that were presented at the specialty conference, “Particulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences, Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human Health,” that w...

  8. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  9. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE PAGES

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  10. Atmospheric chemistry and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S; Marley, Nancy A

    2003-04-07

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  11. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  12. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Project Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, R. C., Jr.; Wilson, J. W.; Whitehead, A. H.; Goldhagen, P. E.

    1999-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) and the National Academy of Science (NAS) established that the uncertainty in the data and models associated with the high-altitude radiation environment could and should be reduced. In response, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) created the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Project under the auspices of the High Speed Research (HSR) Program Office at the Langley Research Center. NASA's HSR Program was developed to address the potential of a second-generation supersonic transport. A critical element focussed on the environmental issues, including the threat to crew and passengers posed by atmospheric radiation. Various international investigators were solicited to contribute instruments to fly on an ER-2 aircraft at altitudes similar to those proposed for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). A list of participating investigators, their institutions, and instruments with quantities measured is presented. The flight series took place at solar minimum (radiation maximum) with northern, southern, and east/west flights. The investigators analyzed their data and presented preliminary results at the AIR Workshop in March, 1998. A review of these results are included.

  13. Improved Methodology for Surface and Atmospheric Soundings, Error Estimates, and Quality Control Procedures: the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 AIRS/AMSU retrieval algorithm is now operational at the Goddard DISC. AIRS Version-6 level-2 products are generated near real-time at the Goddard DISC and all level-2 and level-3 products are available starting from September 2002. This paper describes some of the significant improvements in retrieval methodology contained in the Version-6 retrieval algorithm compared to that previously used in Version-5. In particular, the AIRS Science Team made major improvements with regard to the algorithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the cloud clearing and retrieval procedures; and 3) derive error estimates and use them for Quality Control. Significant improvements have also been made in the generation of cloud parameters. In addition to the basic AIRS/AMSU mode, Version-6 also operates in an AIRS Only (AO) mode which produces results almost as good as those of the full AIRS/AMSU mode. This paper also demonstrates the improvements of some AIRS Version-6 and Version-6 AO products compared to those obtained using Version-5.

  14. Science in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Sherrie; Jacobs, Gera; Anderson, Tara Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Young children are naturally curious. The desire to question, hypothesize, explore, and investigate is part of their very being. This inherent sense of inquiry provides the foundation for science with young children, from inquisitive toddlers to curious third-graders. Early childhood educators can build on children's questions, eagerness, and…

  15. Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.; Lee, Gregory; Ross, Floyd; Sokol, Daniel; Bolisay, Linden

    2015-11-01

    Over the past several years, we have explored a possible new approach to Venus upper atmosphere exploration by applying recent Northrop (non-NASA) development programs and have come up with a new class of exploration vehicle: an atmospheric rover. We will discuss a possible suite of instruments and measurements to study the current climate through detailed characterization of cloud level atmosphere and to understand the processes that control climate on Earth-like planets.Our Venus atmospheric rover concept, the Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP), is a hypersonic entry vehicle with an ultra-low ballistic coefficient that transitions to a semi-buoyant air vehicle (AV) after entering the Venus atmosphere. Prior to entry, the AV fully deploys to enable lifting entry and eliminates the need for an aeroshell. The mass savings realized by eliminating the aeroshell allows VAMP to accommodate significantly more instruments compared to previous Venus in situ exploration missions. VAMP targets the global Venus atmosphere between 50-65 km altitudes and would be an ideal, stable platform for atmospheric and surface interaction measurements. We will present a straw man concept of VAMP, including its science instrument accommodation capability and platform’s physical characteristics (mass, power, wingspan, etc). We will discuss the various instrument options.VAMP’s subsonic flight regime starts at ~94 km and after <1 hour, the AV will reach its cruise altitude of ~65 km. During this phase of flight, the VAMP sensor suite will acquire a pre-defined set of upper atmosphere measurements. The nominal VAMP lifetime at cruise altitude is several months to a year, providing numerous circumnavigation cycles of Venus at mid-latitude. The stability of the AV and its extended residence time provide the very long integration times required for isotopic mass analysis. VAMP communicates with the orbiter, which provides data relay and possibly additional science measurements

  16. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  17. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  18. Status of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher R.

    1996-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program with a scheduled launch on the first post meridian platform in the year 2000. AIRS is designed to provide both new and more accurate data about the atmosphere, land, and oceans for application to climate studies and weather prediction. Among the important parameters to be derived from AIRS observations are atmospheric temperature profiles with an average accuracy of 1 K in 1 kilometer layers in the troposphere and surface temperatures with an average accuracy of 0.5 K. The AIRS measurement technique is based on very sensitive passive infrared remote sensing using a precisely calibrated, high resolution grating spectrometer operating in the 3.7 micrometers to 15.4 micrometers region. The instrument concept uses passively cooled multi-aperture eschelle array spectrometer approach in combination with advanced state-of-the-art focal plane and cryogenic refrigerator technology to achieve unparalleled performance capability in a practical long life configuration. AIRS is a key component of NASA's global change research program, and is expected to play an important role in the converged National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System, now under study. This paper provides a brief description of the AIRS instrument design and focuses on the current development status of hardware currently being fabricated for the engineering model. In particular, the paper will address the status and expected performance of the AIRS focal plane assembly, the cryocooler, and components of the optical spectrometer.

  19. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  20. Bursts of intermediate ions in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hõrrak, U.; Salm, J.; Tammet, H.

    1998-06-01

    The mobility spectrum of air ions has been measured at Tahkuse Observatory in Estonia for several years. The average concentration of intermediate ions with mobilities of 0.05-0.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 in atmospheric air is about 50 cm-3. On the level of this low background, high concentration bursts of intermediate air ions occur occasionally. A burst can be followed by subsequent evolution of intermediate ions into larger ones. To explain the bursts of intermediate air ions, two hypotheses can be advanced: (1)A burst of neutral particles occurs due to homogeneous nucleation, and the particles are charged by the attachment of cluster ions. (2) The cluster ions grow by ion-induced nucleation in proper environmental conditions.

  1. Regional Assimilation of NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Lapenta, William; Jediovec, Gary J.; McCarty, William; Mecikalski, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center seeks to accelerate the infusion of NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) observations, data assimilation and modeling research into NW S forecast operations and decision-making. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), is expected to advance climate research and weather prediction into the 21 st century. It is one of six instruments onboard Aqua, a satellite that is part of NASA s Earth Observing System. AIRS, along with two partner microwave sounding instruments, represents the most advanced atmospheric sounding system ever deployed in space. The system is capable of measuring the atmospheric temperature in the troposphere with radiosonde accuracies of 1 K over 1 km-thick layers under both clear and cloudy conditions, while the accuracy of the derived moisture profiles will exceed that obtained by radiosondes. It is imperative that the scientific community is prepared to take full advantage of next-generation satellite data that will become available within the next decade. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure designed to optimally assimilate AIRS data at high spatial resolution over both land and ocean. The assimilation system used in this study is the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) developed at the Forecast System Laboratory used extensively around the globe. Results will focus on quality control issues associated with AIRS, optimal assimilation strategies, and the impact of the AIRS data on subsequent numerical forecasts at 12 km produced by the next generation Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model.

  2. Extreme atmospheric electron densities created by extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutjes, Casper; Camporeale, Enrico; Ebert, Ute; Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia

    2016-04-01

    A sufficient density of free electrons and strong electric fields are the basic requirements to start any electrical discharge. In the context of thunderstorm discharges it has become clear that in addition droplets and or ice particles are required to enhance the electric field to values above breakdown. In our recent study [1] we have shown that these three ingredients have to interplay to allow for lightning inception, triggered by an extensive air shower event. The extensive air showers are a very stochastic natural phenomenon, creating highly coherent bursts of extreme electron density in our atmosphere. Predicting these electron density bursts accurately one has to take the uncertainty of the input variables into account. To this end we use uncertainty quantification methods, like in [2], to post-process our detailed Monte Carlo extensive air shower simulations, done with the CORSIKA [3] software package, which provides an efficient and elegant way to determine the distribution of the atmospheric electron density enhancements. We will present the latest results. [1] Dubinova, A., Rutjes, C., Ebert, E., Buitink, S., Scholten, O., and Trinh, G. T. N. "Prediction of Lightning Inception by Large Ice Particles and Extensive Air Showers." PRL 115 015002 (2015) [2] G.J.A. Loeven, J.A.S. Witteveen, H. Bijl, Probabilistic collocation: an efficient nonintrusive approach for arbitrarily distributed parametric uncertainties, 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 2007, AIAA-2007-317 [3] Heck, Dieter, et al. CORSIKA: A Monte Carlo code to simulate extensive air showers. No. FZKA-6019. 1998.

  3. Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School (PASS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Clarence D.; Hathaway, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project (PASS) Project was granted a one-year no cost extension for 2001-2002. In year three of the project, objectives and strategies were modified based on the previous year-end evaluation. The recommendations were incorporated and the program was replicated within most of the remaining elementary schools in Portsmouth, Virginia and continued in the four middle schools. The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project is a partnership, which includes Norfolk State University, Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME), NASA Langley Research Center, and the City of Portsmouth, Virginia Public Schools. The project seeks to strengthen the knowledge of Portsmouth Public Schools students in the field of atmospheric sciences and enhance teacher awareness of hands on activities in the atmospheric sciences. The project specifically seeks to: 1) increase the interest and participation of elementary and middle school students in science and mathematics; 2) strengthen existing science programs; and 3) facilitate greater achievement in core subjects, which are necessary for math, science, and technical careers. Emphasis was placed on providing training activities, materials and resources for elementary students (grades 3 - 5) and middle school students (grades 6 - 8), and teachers through a CHROME club structure. The first year of the project focused on introducing elementary students to concepts and activities in atmospheric science. Year two of the project built on the first year's activities and utilizes advanced topics and activities appropriate for middle school students. During the third year of the project, in addition to the approaches used in years one and two, emphasis was placed on activities that enhanced the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL).

  4. Where are the atmospheric sciences going?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierly, Eugene W.

    The question of the direction of the atmospheric sciences is a difficult one, and it cannot be answered in a definitive way or with a high degree of certainty. I would like to try to give you my biased viewpoint on the situation in atmospheric sciences today, as far as the research aspect is concerned.The field of atmospheric sciences today is full to overflowing with top-notch scientific research programs. At the same time, funds for conducting this research are limited and much more difficult to obtain now than in previous years. To paraphrase the words of Charles Dickens in his Tale of Two Cities, “It is the best of times; it is the worst of times.”

  5. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  6. Laser applications to atmospheric sciences: A bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A bibliography is given of 1460 references of the applications of lasers to atmospheric sciences. The subjects covered include: aerosols; clouds; the distribution and motion of atmospheric natural and man-made constituents; winds; temperature; turbulence; scintillation; elastic, Raman and resonance scattering; fluorescence; absorption and transmission; the application of the Doppler effect and visibility. Instrumentation, in particular lidar, is included, also data handling, and interpretation of the data for meteorological processes. Communications, geodesy and rangefinding are not included as distinct areas. The application to the atmosphere is covered, but not the ocean or its surface.

  7. Atmospheric science: Blown with the wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Guang

    2014-02-01

    Wind systems determine the transport pathways of air pollutants such as ozone. Simulations with a chemistry-climate model suggest that decadal shifts in atmospheric circulation have helped shape season-specific trends in surface ozone levels in Hawaii since the 1990s.

  8. Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an STS-66 mission onboard photo of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis showing the payload of the third Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission. During the ATLAS missions, international teams of scientists representing many disciplines combined their expertise to seek answers to complex questions about the atmospheric and solar conditions that sustain life on Earth. The ATLAS program specifically investigated how Earth's middle and upper atmospheres and climate are affected by by the sun and by products of industrial and agricultural activities on Earth. Thirteen ATLAS instruments supported experiments in atmospheric sciences, solar physics, space plasma physics, and astronomy. The instruments were mounted on two Spacelab pallets in the Space Shuttle payload bay. The ATLAS-3 mission continued a variety of atmospheric and solar studies to improve understanding of the Earth's atmosphere and its energy input from the sun. A key scientific objective was to refine existing data on variations in the fragile ozone layer of the atmosphere. The Orbiter Atlantis was launched on November 3, 1994 for the ATLAS-3 mission (STS-66).

  9. Atmospheric Science: Solving Challenges of Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Geffen, Charlette

    2015-08-05

    PNNL’s atmospheric science research provides data required to make decisions about challenges presented by climate change: Where to site power plants, how to manage water resources, how to prepare for severe weather events and more. Our expertise in fundamental observations and modeling is recognized among the national labs and the world.

  10. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Tai, H.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The SuperSonic Transport (SST) development program within the US was based at the Langley Research Center as was the Apollo radiation testing facility (Space Radiation Effects Laboratory) with associated radiation research groups. It was natural for the issues of the SST to be first recognized by this unique combination of research programs. With a re-examination of the technologies for commercial supersonic flight and the possible development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), the remaining issues of the SST required resolution. It was the progress of SST radiation exposure research program founded by T. Foelsche at the Langley Research Center and the identified remaining issues after that project over twenty-five years ago which became the launch point of the current atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research project. Added emphasis to the need for reassessment of atmospheric radiation resulted from the major lowering of the recommended occupational exposure limits, the inclusion of aircrew as radiation workers, and the recognition of civil aircrew as a major source of occupational exposures. Furthermore, the work of Ferenc Hajnal of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory brought greater focus to the uncertainties in the neutron flux at high altitudes. A re-examination of the issues involved was committed at the Langley Research Center and by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). As a result of the NCRP review, a new flight package was assembled and flown during solar minimum at which time the galactic cosmic radiation is at a maximum (June 1997). The present workshop is the initial analysis of the new data from that flight. The present paper is an overview of the status of knowledge of atmospheric ionizing radiations. We will re-examine the exposures of the world population and examine the context of aircrew exposures with implications for the results of the present research. A condensed version of this report was given at the 1998

  11. DESCRIPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Key differences among many types of air quality models are the way atmospheric advection and turbulent diffusion processes are treated. Gaussian models use analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equations. Lagrangian models use a hypothetical air parcel concept effecti...

  12. Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) Operating Procedures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) is an air monitoring system designed for measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) pollutants simultaneously. This self-contained system consists of a CairPol CairClip NO2 sensor, a Thermo Scientific personal DataRAM PM2.5...

  13. Lighter-than-Air Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reviews practical applications, particularly in scientific research, of hot air balloons. Recent U.S. governmental projects in near-space research are described. Lists (1) major accomplishments of scientific ballooning, including discoveries in cosmic ray particles, gamma and x-rays, and other radiation; (2) measurement of fluorocarbon…

  14. Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) Data Archive

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) originally consisted of an atmospheric chemistry program, an environmental meteorology program, a tropospheric aerosol program, and NARSTO activities. In 2004, the ASP was reconfigured to focus on aerosol radiative forcing of climate change: aerosol formation and evolution and aerosol properties that affect direct and indirect influences on climate and climate change. This included developing a comprehensive understanding of the atmospheric processes that control the transport, transformation, and fate of energy related trace chemicals and particulate matter. The current focus of the program is aerosol radiative forcing of climate. Effective October 1, 2009, The ASP merged with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM), with the overall program now called Atmospheric System Research. The overall research goal is one that was shared in common, i.e. to further the understanding of how the climate, as a system works, and to represent the understanding in computer models. The Office of Science and Brookhaven announced, ôA major benefit of the merge is expected to be a strengthening of the aerosol- and cloud-related research components of the programs by bringing together the ARM capabilities of continuous remote sensing measurements of cloud properties and aerosol influences on radiation with the ASP capabilities for in-situ characterization of aerosol properties, evolution, and cloud interactions.ö [http://www.asp.bnl.gov/#New] The ASP data archive has now been moved to a new location in order to be maintained with ARM data. The new url is http://iop.archive.arm.gov/arm-iop/0special-data/ASP_Campaigns_past/. BNL continues to maintain an excellent list of ASP-publications at http://www.asp.bnl.gov/asp_pubs.html

  15. Atmospheric Science and the CFC Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steed, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Industry involvement with developing atmospheric science and subsequent regulations to protect ozone was unusual. Chlorofluorocarbon manufacturers were research-based businesses accustomed to understanding the science behind product-related issues. When Lovelock's measurements in 1971 implied most of the cumulative production of CFCs remained in the atmosphere, global CFC producers funded academic research to identify natural sinks for the materials. The Fluorocarbon Program Panel (FPP) began in 1972, but changed focus to atmospheric photochemistry following Rowland and Molina's work in 1974. Despite early vociferous opposition, especially by the CFC-using aerosol industry, to any regulations, leaders among the producers worked to build their scientific understanding, expanding FPP funding and launching internal work in modeling and ozone trend analysis. The key first question for industry was not how much depletion might occur, but whether it would occur at all. If so, regardless of the amount, regulations and a major transition would be required in CFC-using industries, and the response would need to be global and prompt. So long as that basic question was in doubt, some businesses and countries would resist the economic cost of action. In the meantime, the producing industry worked to identify potential alternatives and to communicate atmospheric science to the downstream industries. Although the industry science effort was often disparaged as an attack on "real" science, my only assignment when I joined DuPont's Central Research Department in 1979 was to understand and contribute to the science, keeping both the company and our customers informed. Our modeling results were published freely. FPP funding led to better knowledge of the ClO + O rate constant, significantly increasing depletion in model calculations; supported the development of the techniques used to measure in situ atmospheric ClO, so important in later strengthening the case for chlorine

  16. Lessons Learned from AIRS: Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric Temperatures Using Only Shortwave AIRS Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of shortwave channels available to the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to improve the determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures. The AIRS instrument is compared with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on-board the MetOp-A satellite. The objectives of the AIRS/AMSU were to (1) provide real time observations to improve numerical weather prediction via data assimilation, (2) Provide observations to measure and explain interannual variability and trends and (3) Use of AIRS product error estimates allows for QC optimized for each application. Successive versions in the AIRS retrieval methodology have shown significant improvement.

  17. Renewable energy and the atmospheric sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T. Y.; Takenaka, H.; Watanabe, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takamura, T.; Kurino, T.

    2013-12-01

    The demand for renewable energy in social energy systems has grown in recent years. In the atmospheric sciences, the energy balances and dynamics in the atmosphere are studied on both local and global scales, and thus estimation of renewable energy is an important practical application. For instance, shortwave solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface is an essential quantity for evaluating the photovoltaic (PV) power generation. Indeed, shortwave solar radiation can be calculated by a radiative transfer solver and an accurate electromagnetic wave scattering theory. A beneficial application of atmospheric sciences is obtaining of solar radiation on the basis of geostationary satellite measurements. Such satellites provide data covering most parts of the Earth every 30 min to 1 h. Geo-parameters such as cloud and aerosol properties are needed for calculating the amount of solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface. Multispectral images acquired by geostationary satellites allow for such geo-parameters to be evaluated. Additionally, polar-orbiting Earth observation satellites are also needed for improving data analysis techniques. For instance, multispectral imagers (e.g., MODIS) and cloud radars (e.g., CloudSat) aboard polar-orbiting satellites can be used to reveal the relationship between multispectral imaging results and the vertical structure of clouds. The EarthCARE (JAXA, ESA, NICT) and the GCOM-C (JAXA) satellites that will be launched in the middle of 2010-era are also used for improving cloud and aerosol process. This paper presents a method using satellite data to evaluate the optical and microphysical parameters of clouds that affect solar radiation. Also presented is a method for evaluating solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface. A new research project in Japan, JST-CREST-EMS (Energy Management System)-TEEDDA (Terrestrial Energy Estimation by Diurnal Data Analyses), which was started in October 2012, is also introduced.

  18. Atmospheric Effects on Cosmic Ray Air Showers Observed with HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma Ray detector (HAWC), currently under construction on the Sierra Negra volcano near Puebla, Mexico, can be used to study solar physics with its scaler data acquisition system. Increases in the scaler rates are used to observe GeV cosmic rays from solar flares while decreases in the rates show the heliospheric disturbances associated with coronal mass ejections. However, weather conditions and height-dependent state variables such as pressure and temperature affect the production of extensive particle air showers that can be detected by the scaler system. To see if these atmospheric effects can be removed, we obtained local weather data from the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) and the local weather station at HAWC. The scaler pulse rates were then correlated to the pressure and temperature. We present data from a Forbush decrease observed by HAWC following a significant coronal mass ejection in April 2013, and describe our efforts to remove atmospheric variations from the scaler counts. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation’s REU program through NSF Award AST-1004881 to the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  19. AIRS Data Support at NASA Goddard Earth Science DISC DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S.; Qin, J.; Sharma, A.

    2002-05-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is selected by NASA to fly on the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar orbiting platform, EOS Aqua, which is launched in April 2002. AIRS, together with Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB), is designed to meet the requirements of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise climate research program and the NOAA operational weather forecasting The data products from the AIRS/AMSU/HSB will be archived and distributed at the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC) located in the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DAAC) in later 2002. This new dataset consists of radiances, geo-locations and atmospheric products, such as, temperature, humidity, cloud and ozone, providing measurements for temperature at an accuracy of 1 o C in layers 1 km thick and humidity with an accuracy of 20 % in layers 2 km thick in the troposphere. The data will be freely available via WWW interfaces, or an FTP containing subsetted and reformatted data products. The GES DISC DAAC Search and Order allows users to search for data by following particular paths down the hierarchy. This simple point-and- click navigational web interface shows temporal and spatial coverage, item size, description and browse images for AIRS data and one can customize search using spatial,temporal, attribute and parameter search. The EOS Data Gateway (EDG) is another user interface for searching and ordering the AIRS data together with other data products obtained from EOS instruments. The Atmospheric Dynamics Data Support Team (ADDST) at the GES DISC/DAAC will provide various services to assist users in understanding, accessing, and using AIRS data product. The ADDST has been developing tools to read, visualize and analyze the AIRS data, channel/parameter subsetting of AIRS HDF-EOS data products and supplying documentation and readme et al. Other services provided by the ADDST will contain assistance

  20. THE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL EVALUATION TOOL (AMET); AIR QUALITY MODULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation reviews the development of the Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool (AMET) air quality module. The AMET tool is being developed to aid in the model evaluation. This presentation focuses on the air quality evaluation portion of AMET. Presented are examples of the...

  1. Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneja, Viney P.; Blunden, Jessica; Roelle, Paul A.; Schlesinger, William H.; Knighton, Raymond; Niyogi, Dev; Gilliam, Wendell; Jennings, Greg; Duke, Clifford S.

    The first Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science was held at the Bolger Center in Potomac, Maryland from 4 to 8 June 2006. This international conference assembled approximately 350 people representing 25 nations from 5 continents, with disciplines ranging from atmospheric chemistry to soil science. The workshop was designed as an open forum in which participants could openly exchange the most current knowledge and learn about numerous international perspectives regarding agricultural air quality. Participants represented many stakeholder groups concerned with the growing need to assess agricultural impacts on the atmosphere and to develop beneficial policies to improve air quality. The workshop focused on identifying methods to improve emissions inventories and best management practices for agriculture. Workshop participants also made recommendations for technological and methodological improvements in current emissions measurement and modeling practices. The workshop commenced with a session on agricultural emissions and was followed by international perspectives from the United States, Europe, Australia, India, and South America. This paper summarizes the findings and issues of the workshop and articulates future research needs. These needs were identified in three general areas: (1) improvement of emissions measurement; (2) development of appropriate emission factors; and (3) implementation of best management practices (BMPs) to minimize negative environmental impacts. Improvements in the appropriate measurements will inform decisions regarding US farming practices. A need was demonstrated for a national/international network to monitor atmospheric emissions from agriculture and their subsequent depositions to surrounding areas. Information collected through such a program may be used to assess model performance and could be critical for evaluating any future regulatory policies or BMPs. The workshop concluded that efforts to maximize

  2. Atmospheric Science using CRISM EPF Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, M. J.; Clancy, R. T.; Arvidson, R.; Smith, M. D.; Murchie, S. L.; McGuire, P. C.

    2006-12-01

    Near the end of September 2006, the MRO/CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars; Murchie et al., 2006, JGR, in press.) will acquire its first observations of Mars. MRO's Primary Science Phase beginning in early November. One of CRISM's investigations is characterization of seasonal variations in dust and ice aerosols and trace gases using a systematic, global grid of hyperspectral measurements of emission phase functions (EPFs) acquired repetitively throughout the Martian year. EPFs will also be obtained as part of each of approximately 5000 "targeted" observations of surface geologic features. EPF measurements allow accurate determination of column abundances of water vapor, CO, dust and ice aerosols, and their seasonal variations (e.g., Clancy et al., 2003, 108(E9), 5098). EPFs are measured using eleven superimposed images within which the slit field-of-view is swept across a target point on the Martian surface. When EPFs are taken as part of a global grid, 10x spatial pixel binning will be used in all of the images, providing data at 150-200 m/pixel. In the targeted observations, the central image will be obtained at either full resolution or with 2x binning (15-38 m/pixel). In all cases, hyperspectral data (545 wavelengths) will be taken during each of the 11 superimposed scans. There are two types of global EPF grids, one with better temporal sampling and one with better spatial sampling of the atmosphere. The "atmospheric monitoring campaign" consists one Martian day of pole-to-pole EPF's every ~9°\\ of solar longitude (Ls). There is sufficient time for 8 EPFs in an orbit, one approximately every 22°\\ of latitude. Alternate orbits (projected onto the planet) are offset in latitude by about 11°\\ north or south to increase latitudinal resolution. Longitude spacing between the orbits is about 27°. The "seasonal change campaign" occurs approximately every ~36°\\ of Ls. A grid similar to that executed during the atmospheric monitoring

  3. Air plasma jet with hollow electrodes at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup

    2007-05-15

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet with air is produced through hollow electrodes and dielectric with a hole of 1 mm diam. The plasma jet device is operated by injecting pressurized air into the electrode hole. The air plasma jet device at average powers less than 5 W exhibits a cold plasma jet of about 2 cm in length and near the room temperature, being low enough to treat thermally sensitive materials. Preliminary studies on the discharge characteristics and application tests are also presented by comparing the air plasma jet with the nitrogen and argon plasma jet.

  4. Air circulation under reduced atmospheric pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillhouse, Lendell E.

    The control of heat exchange is vital for plant life in off-world, low pressure, greenhouses. The ability to control this process was limited by methodology and technology. Mathematical models, based on classical mechanics are created to enhance our control capabilities. Data is collected using various sensors placed inside the Low Pressure Test Bed (LPTB) Chamber at Kennedy Space Center. Data from those sensors became non-linear at various pressures below 25 kPa. We introduced mathematical calibration corrections and found that sensor data linearity could be extended to a greater range of pressures. These calibration corrections allow for sensor calibration corrections in operational environments that differ from the environment of calibration (normal Earth atmospheric pressure).

  5. A Space and Atmospheric Visualization Science System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Blanchard, P.; Mankofsky, A.; Goodrich, C.; Kamins, D.; Kulkarni, R.; Mcnabb, D.; Moroh, M.

    1994-01-01

    SAVS (a Space and Atmospheric Visualization Science system) is an integrated system with user-friendly functionality that employs a 'push-button' software environment that mimics the logical scientific processes in data acquisition, reduction, analysis, and visualization. All of this is accomplished without requiring a detailed understanding of the methods, networks, and modules that link the tools and effectively execute the functions. This report describes SAVS and its components, followed by several applications based on generic research interests in interplanetary and magnetospheric physics (IMP/ISTP), active experiments in space (CRRES), and mission planning focused on the earth's thermospheric, ionospheric, and mesospheric domains (TIMED). The final chapters provide a user-oriented description of interface functionalities, hands-on operations, and customized modules, with details of the primary modules presented in the appendices. The overall intent of the report is to reflect the accomplishments of the three-year development effort and to introduce potential users to the power and utility of the integrated data acquisition, analysis, and visualization system.

  6. Global atmospheric change and research needs in environmental health sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.D. ); Reed, D.J. )

    1991-12-01

    On November 6-7, 1989, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) held a conference on Global Atmospheric Change and Human Health. As a result, and in the months since this conference, many important areas of research have been identified with regard to the impacts of climatic changes on human health. To develop comprehensive research programs that address important human health issues related to global warming, it is necessary to begin by recognizing that some of the health effects will be direct such as those due to temperature changes, and others will be indirect consequences of environmental alterations resulting in crop loss, changing disease vectors, population migration, etc. It should also be recognized that the conditions leading to global warming have importance to human health and the environment other than through increasing concentrations of CO[sub 2] in the atmosphere, rising surface temperatures, and rising sea levels. Much of the increase in CO[sub 2] in the atmosphere is due to the increased combustion of fossil fuels for transportation and electric power production. Over the next 30 years, the demand for electrical power is expected to grow at a rate of 2 to 4% per year in the United States alone, and even faster growth is likely for developing countries. Much of this energy will be derived from the combustion of fossil fuels, including coal, which result in pollutant emissions to the air such as metals, radioactivity, SO[sub x], NO[sub x], and particles. Therefore, with increasing concentrations of CO[sub 2] there will not only be the effects of global warming on health, but also increasing concentrations of many serious air pollutants in urban areas, including the precursors of acid rain and acid deposition over large regional areas.

  7. Atmospheric Sciences Information Resources in the United States--An Overview for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layman, Mary; Smith, Shirley

    1993-01-01

    Presents an overview of the types of information and information sources available in the field of atmospheric sciences. Included are major library collections; organizations; government programs, including air pollution control regulations; electronic databases; and networking resources. Addresses are provided for all sources, and definitions of…

  8. Bitz, Ginoux, Jacobson, Nizkorodov, and Yang Receive 2013 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2014-07-01

    Thank you, Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU for bestowing this humbling honor on me. Thank you, Dr. Ramanathan, for your gracious nomination. Thank you to all my mentors, colleagues, students, special friends, parents, children, and even critics, over the years who supported my pushing the envelope to better understand the impacts of black carbon on climate and air pollution health through numerical modeling.

  9. Air plasma jet with hollow electrodes at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet with air is produced through hollow electrodes and dielectric with a hole of 5W exhibits a cold plasma jet of about 2cm in length and near the room temperature, being low enough to treat thermally sensitive materials. Preliminary studies on the discharge characteristics and application tests are also presented by comparing the air plasma jet with the nitrogen and argon plasma jet.

  10. Development and test of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Paul G.; Bates, Jerry C.; Miller, Christopher R.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; O'Callaghan, Fred; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Karnik, Avinash R.

    1999-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) has been developed for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program for a scheduled launch on the EOS PM-1 spacecraft in December 2000. AIRS, working in concert with complementary microwave instrumentation on EOS PM-1 is designed to provide both new and more accurate data about the atmosphere, land and oceans for application to NASA climate studies and NOAA and DOD weather prediction. Among the important parameters to be derived from AIRS observations are atmospheric temperature profiles with an average accuracy of 1 K in 1 kilometer (km) layers in the troposphere, humidity profiles to 10% accuracy and surface temperatures with an average accuracy of 0.5 K. The AIRS measurement technique is based on passive IR remote sensing using a precisely calibrated, high spectral resolution grating spectrometer operating in the 3.7 - 15.4 micrometer region. The instrument concept uses a passively cooled multi- aperture echelle array spectrometer approach in combination with advanced state of the art focal plane and cryogenic refrigerator technology to achieve unparalleled performance capability in a practical long life configuration. The AIRS instrument, which has been under development since 1991, has been fully integrated and has completed successfully a comprehensive performance verification program. Performance verification included thermal vacuum testing, environmental qualification and a full range of spatial, spectral and radiometric calibrations, which have demonstrated outstanding spectrometric performance. This paper provides a brief overview of the AIRS mission and instrument design along with key results from the test program.

  11. Gap-dependent transitions of atmospheric microplasma in open air

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Hong-Yu; Huang, Bo-Shiun

    2011-04-15

    We report on the gap dependence of the planar atmospheric microplasma in air. We investigate the transitions of the dielectric barrier discharge in open air, including the random walk filaments (plasma columns), localized filaments, stochastic filaments, and diffuse discharge. A star-shaped filamentary discharge pattern is observed after the formation of the localized filaments. The liquid drops found on the dielectric surface further become a confining pattern for star-shaped discharge. We also demonstrate the applications of the insulating pattern for the use of the plasma display in open air by the handwritten characters with UV adhesive.

  12. Smartphone Air Quality and Atmospheric Aerosol Characterization for Public Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, S. B.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality is a major global concern. Tracking and monitoring air quality provides individuals with the knowledge to make personal decisions about their health and investigate the environment in which they live. Satellite remote sensing and ground-based observations (e.g. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA Aerosol Robotic Network) of air quality is spatially and temporarlly limited and often neglects to provide individuals with the freedom to understand their own personal environment using their personal observations. Given the ubiquitous nature of smartphones, individuals have access to powerful processing and sensing capabilities. When coupled with the appropriate sensor parameters, filters, and algorithms, smartphones can be used both for 'citizen science' air quality applications and 'professional' scientific atmospheric investigations, alike, simplifying data analysis, processing, and improving deployment efficiency. We evaluate the validity of smartphone technology for air quality investigations using standard Cimel CE 318 sun photometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroradiometer (FTIR) observations at specific locations.

  13. Temperature Measurement in Microhollow Cathode Discharges in Atmospheric Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Rolf; Toedter, Olaf; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    1998-10-01

    By reducing the diameter of the cathode opening in hollow cathode discharge geometry to values on the order of one hundred micrometers we were able to operate the discharges in a direct current mode at atmospheric pressure in air. The possibility to operate microhollow cathode discharges (MHCD) in parallel [1] in atmospheric air opens a wide range of applications. At atmospheric pressures, the electric power of a single discharge was measured as 8W. The power density in the microhollow exceeds 1MW/cm^3. This leads to strong thermal loading of the electrodes. In order to study the thermal properties of the discharge we have used a method based on emission spectroscopy. The rotational structure of the emitted lines corresponding to the second positive system of nitrogen contains information on the neutral gas temperature. Taking the apparatus profile into account the temperature of the rotational excited molecules can be estimated by a comparison of simulated and measured data. Measurements on MHCD up to atmospheric pressure show an increase in the neutral gas temperature to values exceeding 1000K. In addition to the gas temperature the electrode temperatures were measured and the thermodynamic behavior of the electrode configuration was calculated. [1] W. Shi, K.H. Schoenbach Parallel Operation of Microhollow Cathode Discharges, ICOPS98, Raleigh, NC, USA, 1998 This work was funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) in cooperation with the DDR&E Air Plasma Ramparts MURI program, and by the Department of Energy, Advanced Energy Division.

  14. An atmospheric history of ethane from South Pole firn air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, K. M.; Lang, P.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2009-12-01

    Ethane (C2H6) is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon in the atmosphere and is important to tropospheric photochemistry. Sources of ethane include natural gas and oil leaks, automotive emissions and biomass burning, with smaller contributions from oceanic, vegetative, and soil emissions. The primary loss pathway for ethane is via reaction with hydroxyl radical, which controls ethane seasonality and lifetime (1-2 months during summer). There is a relatively limited database of atmospheric ethane measurements, which is insufficient to characterize long-term trends in the sources and sinks of this compound or to determine anthropogenic influence on the ethane budget. In this study, an atmospheric history of ethane over the past century is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, in conjunction with a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Eighty firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 season. The flasks were shipped back and analyzed by high resolution GC/MS at UCI. Firn air dating was based on the measured CO2 profile and known atmospheric history of CO2. Ethane levels in the firn increased from about 132 ppt in the deepest sample, to 259 ppt at 106 m, then decreased to 230 ppt at 30 m. Dating based on mean CO2 ages indicates that the ethane levels over Antarctica roughly doubled (from 130 to 260 ppt) between 1930 and the 1980’s. Over this time period, ethane increased at a rate of about 0.7 ppt yr-1 from 1930-1950 and 3.2 ppt yr-1 from 1950-1987. Ethane levels stabilized during the 1980’s and declined by approximately 1.8 ppt yr-1 from 1988-2004. Surface air measurements from several high latitude southern hemisphere sites indicate that the modern mean atmospheric ethane level is approximately 200 ppt.

  15. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  16. Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, Douglas J.; Stern, Abraham C.; Baer, Marcel D.; Levin, Yan; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2013-04-01

    Chemistry occurring at or near the surfaces of aqueous droplets and thin films in the atmosphere influences air quality and climate. Molecular dynamics simulations are becoming increasingly useful for gaining atomic-scale insight into the structure and reactivity of aqueous interfaces in the atmosphere. Here we review simulation studies of atmospherically relevant aqueous liquid-air interfaces, with an emphasis on ions that play important roles in the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols. In addition to surveying results from simulation studies, we discuss challenges to the refinement and experimental validation of the methodology for simulating ion adsorption to the air-water interface, and recent advances in elucidating the driving forces for adsorption. We also review the recent development of a dielectric continuum theory that is capable of reproducing simulation and experimental data on ion behavior at aqueous interfaces. MDB and CJM acknowledge support from the US Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle. MDB is supported by the Linus Pauling Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship Program at PNNL.

  17. Dessler, Jimenez, Klein, and Nenes Receive 2012 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Athanasios Nenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2013-11-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU awards one of the four Ascent Awards to Professor Athanasios Nenes, of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering of the Georgia Institute of Technology, for the creation of thermodynamical models for tropospheric aerosols and the development of physically based aerosol-cloud parameterizations. In addition, he is recognized for the design of instrumentation and techniques to characterize the hygroscopicity and activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and also for contributions to the understanding of the role of aerosols in climate and air quality.

  18. Atmosphere, Science (Experimental): 5343.08.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Sandra Kay

    This unit of instruction deals with a study of the general atmosphere by layers with an emphasis on physical characteristics. The formation of layers in the atmosphere and the energy relationships that exist between them are also discussed. No requisites for prior course work, experience, or courses to be taken concurrently are required for…

  19. Space Science in Action: Earth's Atmosphere [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the layers of the atmosphere and why each is important to the survival of life on the planet. Students discover why the atmosphere is responsible for weather and see how special aircraft actually fly into hurricanes. Students build their own working barometer in a hands-on activity. Contents…

  20. Ideas in Practice: Studies in Atmospheric Pollution For Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the content and structure of an enviromental course offered by the Department of Engineering Technology at Western Kentucky University. The course focuses on atmospheric pollution and is designed for science teachers currently teaching in the school system. (JR)

  1. Sensitivity Analysis for Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO2 Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a thermal infrared sensor able to retrieve the daily atmospheric state globally for clear as well as partially cloudy field-of-views. The AIRS spectrometer has 2378 channels sensing from 15.4 micrometers to 3.7 micrometers, of which a small subset in the 15 micrometers region has been selected, to date, for CO2 retrieval. To improve upon the current retrieval method, we extended the retrieval calculations to include a prior estimate component and developed a channel ranking system to optimize the channels and number of channels used. The channel ranking system uses a mathematical formalism to rapidly process and assess the retrieval potential of large numbers of channels. Implementing this system, we identifed a larger optimized subset of AIRS channels that can decrease retrieval errors and minimize the overall sensitivity to other iridescent contributors, such as water vapor, ozone, and atmospheric temperature. This methodology selects channels globally by accounting for the latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal dependencies of the subset. The new methodology increases accuracy in AIRS CO2 as well as other retrievals and enables the extension of retrieved CO2 vertical profiles to altitudes ranging from the lower troposphere to upper stratosphere. The extended retrieval method for CO2 vertical profile estimation using a maximum-likelihood estimation method. We use model data to demonstrate the beneficial impact of the extended retrieval method using the new channel ranking system on CO2 retrieval.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  3. Atmospheric transport and deposition of acidic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Although general principles which govern atmospheric chemistry of sulfur are understood, a purely theoretical estimation of the magnitude of the processes is not likely to be useful. Furthermore, the data base necessary to make empirical estimates does not yet exist. The sulfur budget of the atmosphere appears to be dominated by man-associated sulfur. The important processes in deposition of man-associated sulfur are wet deposition of sulfate and dry deposition of SO/sub 2/. The relative importance of sulfate and SO/sub 2/ to sulfur deposition (input to watersheds) depends on the air concentrations, and either compound may be the greater contributor depending on conditions. (PSB)

  4. Generation of subnanosecond electron beams in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2009-11-01

    Optimum conditions for the generation of runaway electron beams with maximum current amplitudes and densities in nanosecond pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are determined. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with a current amplitude of ˜30 A, a current density of ˜20 A/cm2, and a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps has been observed behind the output foil of an air-filled diode. It is shown that the position of the SAEB current maximum relative to the voltage pulse front exhibits a time shift that varies when the small-size collector is moved over the foil surface.

  5. Improved AIRS/AMSU Surface and Atmospheric Soundings Under Partial Cloud Cover Using an AIRS Only Cloud Clearing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Dr. Joel

    2007-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4,2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. This paper describes the latest scientific advances made in the AIRS Science Team Version 5.0 retrieval algorithm. Starting in early 2007, the Goddard DAAC will use this algorithm to analyze near real time AIRS/AMSU observations. These products are then made available to the scientific community for research purposes. The products include twice daily measurements of the Earth's three dimensional global temperature, water vapor, and ozone distribution as well as cloud cover. In addition, accurate twice daily measurements of the earth's land and ocean temperatures are derived and reported. Scientists use this important set of observations for two major uses. They provide important information for climate studies of global and regional variability and trends of different aspects of the earth's atmosphere. They also provide information for researchers to improve the skill of weather forecasting. A very important new product of the AIRS Version 5 algorithm is accurate case-by-case error estimates of the retrieved products. This heightens their utility for use in both weather and climate applications. These error estimates are also used directly for quality control of the retrieved products.

  6. Communicating Air Pollution Science to the Public and Politicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2008-12-01

    Air pollution is a problem that involves a large number of chemical species and complex reactions between them. At the beginning of the 21st century, both, the public and politicians still find the science difficult to understand, and so, often mistrust the presentation of data and the scientific principles behind air quality. Yet, there are a range of important issues associated with air pollution that concern lay people and policy makers. These issues hence have to be presented in a clear and simple way so that informed judgements can be made. Traditionally, the media was the main way to disseminate scientific discovery, but novel methods for engaging scientists in the transfer of scientific know-how to politicians and the general public have emerged in recent years. Scientists receive relatively little training in the area of communication, and often find engaging in more public debates difficult. These including V.I.P. meetings, Public Open Forum, Cafe Scientifique and various games and role plays. Such outreach events expose us to new challenges, and the skills required to communicate to non-scientists become an increasingly important part of being a scientist. Here, we present some examples of evolving best practice in the European Network of Excellence on Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT).

  7. Propulsion Selection for 85kft Remotely Piloted Atmospheric Science Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Mockler, Ted; Maldonado, Jaime; Hahn, Andrew; Cyrus, John; Schmitz, Paul; Harp, Jim; King, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    for unmanned military spyplanes in the early 1980's. Now adapting hardware developed for reconaissance at 65-70 kft to the interests of atmospheric science at 80-90 kft, their efforts should yield an aero powerplant that pushes the altitude limits of subsonic air breathing propulsion.

  8. An Atmospheric Science Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard; Qu, Zheng; Bowman, Kevin; Eldering, Annmarie

    2010-01-01

    An atmospheric sounding mission starts with a wide range of concept designs involving measurement technologies, observing platforms, and observation scenarios. Observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) is a technical approach to evaluate the relative merits of mission and instrument concepts. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the OSSE team has developed an OSSE environment that allows atmospheric scientists to systematically explore a wide range of mission and instrument concepts and formulate a science traceability matrix with a quantitative science impact analysis. The OSSE environment virtually creates a multi-platform atmospheric sounding testbed (MAST) by integrating atmospheric phenomena models, forward modeling methods, and inverse modeling methods. The MAST performs OSSEs in four loosely coupled processes, observation scenario exploration, measurement quality exploration, measurement quality evaluation, and science impact analysis.

  9. Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science, Mission 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul D. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The first Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission, planned for late 1990, includes experiments in four areas: Atmospheric Science, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, and Astronomy. The atmospheric science investigations will study the composition of the atmosphere in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The solar physics investigations will measure the total energy output of the sun. The space plasma physics investigations will study the charged particle and plasma environment of the earth. The astronomy investigation will study astronomical sources of radiation in the ultraviolet wavelengths that are inaccessible to observers on earth. Most of the experimental equipment has been flown before on one of the Spacelab missions. Brief descriptions of the experiments are given.

  10. Fire Influences on Atmospheric Composition, Air Quality, and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Field, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Fires impact atmospheric composition through their emissions, which range from long-lived gases to short-lived gases and aerosols. Effects are typically larger in the tropics and boreal regions but can also be substantial in highly populated areas in the northern mid-latitudes. In all regions, fire can impact air quality and health. Similarly, its effect on large-scale atmospheric processes, including regional and global atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing, can be substantial, but this remains largely unexplored. The impacts are primarily realised in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere but can also be noticeable in upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region, for the most intense fires. In this review, we summarise the recent literature on findings related to fire impact on atmospheric composition, air quality and climate. We explore both observational and modelling approaches and present information on key regions and on the globe as a whole. We also discuss the current and future directions in this area of research, focusing on the major advances in emission estimates, the emerging efforts to include fire as a component in Earth system modelling and the use of modelling to assess health impacts of fire emissions.

  11. Toxic air contaminants in urban atmospheres: Experience in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiber, James N.

    In addition to the criteria gaseous and particulate air pollutants which have been the subject of intensive regulation for many years in the U.S., there exists in the atmosphere of cities and surrounding areas a number of trace toxic contaminants which are of increasing public health and regulatory concern. In California, these Toxic Air Contaminants (TACs) are assessed and regulated by a multi-step process required by legislation. Risk assessment for chemicals which are considered potential TACs involves the gathering and analysis of information on emissions, exposures, toxicology, and epidemiology by two California Agencies, the Air Resources Board and Department of Health Services (now linked by the California Environmental Protection Agency) and an independent Scientific Review Panel. Eighteen chemicals have been designated as TACs since the process started in 1982, including perchloroethylene, formaldehyde, vinyl chloride, and 1,3-butadiene which are mentioned in some detail in this review. Future challenges for risk assessment and management are posed by such issues as gross mixtures, for example, from products of incomplete combustion; transport and deposition out of the originating air basin; contributions of natural sources to ambient levels; and the impact of the list of 189 hazardous air pollutants in the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments on California's TAC identification-regulation process. The issues involved in a vigorous pursuit of risk reduction from TACs are discussed based upon experience in California.

  12. Benzene Dissociation in DC Atmospheric Pressure Air Glow Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunqi; Stark, Robert H.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2001-10-01

    By using a micro-hollow cathode discharge (MHCD) as an electron source to lower or eliminate the cathode fall voltage, a glow discharge could be operated in a dc atmospheric pressure air [1]. The effect of this glow discharge plasma on VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) remediation, particularly, benzene remediation, has been studied. A higher than 90 % destruction rate has been obtained by flowing a 300 ppm benzene/ dry air mixture through the plasma filament. The plasma is confined by a dielectric to a cross-section of 1 mm by 1.5 mm and extends over a depth of 0.8 mm. With a flow rate of 100 sccm, the residence time of the gas in the plasma column is 0.7 ms. A destruction efficiency of more than 0.5 L/kJ has been measured. The energy efficiency is 0.9 g/kWh which is comparable to that achieved by low pressure glow discharges in benzene/ noble gas mixtures [2]. References: [1] R. H. Stark and K. H. Schoenbach, "Direct Current Glow Discharges in Atmospheric Air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3568 (2001). [2] D. L. McCorkle, W. Ding, C. Ma and L. A. Pinnaduwage, "Dissociation of Benzene and Methylene Chloride Based on Enhanced Dissociative Electron Attachment to Highly Excited Molecules," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32, 46 (1999). Acknowledgments: This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  13. Cold Micro-Plasma Jets in Atmospheric Pressure Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A. H.; Suddala, S.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2003-10-01

    Direct current microhollow cathode discharges (MHCDs) have been operated in air, nitrogen and oxygen at pressures of one atmosphere. The electrodes are 250 μm thick molybdenum foils, separated by an alumina insulator of the same thickness. A cylindrical hole with a diameter in the 100 μm range is drilled through all layers. By flowing gases at high pressure through this hole, plasma jets with radial dimensions on the same order as the microhole dimensions, and with lengths of up to one centimeter are generated. The gas temperature in these jets was measured by means of a micro-thermocouple. The lowest temperatures of close to room temperature were measured when the flow changed from laminar to turbulent. The results of spectral emission and absorption studies indicate high concentrations of byproducts, such as ozone, when the discharge is operated in air or oxygen. This work is supported by the U.S Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

  14. Atmospheric science: Pacific trade wind intensifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The unprecedented recent intensification of the Pacific trade winds cannot simply be explained by natural variability alone. Now research finds that the more local influence of sulfate aerosols of human and volcanic origin play a significant role, in addition to the Pacific's coupling to the Atlantic Ocean via the 'atmospheric bridge'.

  15. VISUAL DATA MINING IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the use of simple visual tools to explore multivariate spatially-referenced data. It describes interactive approaches such as linked brushing, and dynamic methods such as the grand tour. applied to studying the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS)....

  16. Atmospheric Research -- Sensors and Science in the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohl, John E.; Armstrong, John C.; Larson, Shane L.

    2010-10-01

    HARBOR (High Altitude Reconnaissance Balloon for Outreach and Research) is a program in which scientific payloads are designed, constructed, and flown by students using weather balloons to reach the edge of space. Ten flights have been completed involving over forty high school and college students. Students work together to build sensor and flight systems and to analyze the resulting data. Measurements include temperature, wind, turbulence, humidity, particulates, gas concentrations, balloon and flight dynamics, etc. The HARBOR program provides a mission oriented structure that is based on aerospace industry standards. As a result, a positive employment track record is becoming established with program graduates. Similar results are being observed in graduate school applications. HARBOR is now being expanded to include tethered and short duration flights. Tethered flights at elementary schools will allow us to do air quality measurements and involve primary students in science. A new collaboration will study atmospheric inversion layers using short flights with smaller payloads that will be jettisoned at lower altitudes and quickly recovered.

  17. Integrating the Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences at Millersville University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    , the B.S. in Integrated Earth Systems will serve those students who find excitement at the boundaries of these disciplines, and prepare them for careers in this emerging field. The ISS program will target high school students of the highest caliber who demonstrate strong aptitude in mathematics and the physical sciences, who will need a minimum amount of remedial work. These select students will be exposed to courses in Earth Systems: Cycles and Interactions, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Air-Sea Interaction, Boundary Layers and Turbulence, Climate Variability and Global Change, Atmosphere-Ocean Modeling, Solar-Terrestrial Interactions, Weather Systems Science, Earth Observing Systems, Remote Sensing and more, as part of the ISS curriculum. This paper will highlight the MU-DES programs and learning initiatives and expand and elaborate on the new program in ISS.

  18. Natural sources of atmospheric aerosols influencing air quality across Europe.

    PubMed

    Viana, M; Pey, J; Querol, X; Alastuey, A; de Leeuw, F; Lükewille, Anke

    2014-02-15

    Atmospheric aerosols are emitted by natural and anthropogenic sources. Contributions from natural sources to ambient aerosols vary widely with time (inter-annual and seasonal variability) and as a function of the distance to source regions. This work aims to identify the main natural sources of atmospheric aerosols affecting air quality across Europe. The origin, frequency, magnitude, and spatial and temporal variability of natural events were assessed for the years 2008 and 2009. The main natural sources of atmospheric aerosols identified were African dust, sea spray and wildfires. Primary biological particles were not included in the present work. Volcanic eruptions did not affect air quality significantly in Europe during the study period. The impact of natural episodes on air quality was significant in Southern and Western Europe (Cyprus, Spain, France, UK, Greece, Malta, Italy and Portugal), where they contributed to surpass the PM10 daily and annual limit values. In Central and Northern Europe (Germany, Austria and Latvia) the impact of these events was lower, as it resulted in the exceedance of PM daily but not annual limit values. Contributions from natural sources to mean annual PM10 levels in 2008 and 2009 ranged between 1 and 2 μg/m(3) in Italy, France and Portugal, between 1 and 4 μg/m(3) in Spain (10 μg/m(3) when including the Canary Islands), 5 μg/m(3) in UK, between 3 and 8 μg/m(3) in Greece, and reached up to 13 μg/m(3) in Cyprus. The evaluation of the number of monitoring stations per country reporting natural exceedances of the daily limit value (DLV) is suggested as a potential tool for air quality monitoring networks to detect outliers in the assessment of natural contributions. It is strongly suggested that a reference methodology for the identification and quantification of African dust contributions should be adopted across Europe. PMID:24342088

  19. About the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-03

    ... part of NASA's Earth Science enterprise and the U.S. Global Change Research Program , and is one of several Distributed Active ... to understanding the causes and processes of global climate change and the consequences of human activities on the climate.   ...

  20. A Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Hampton University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, W. R.; McCormick, M. P.; Russell, J. M.; Anderson, J.; Kireev, S.; Loughman, R. P.; Smith, W. L.

    2006-12-01

    With this presentation we discuss the status of plans for a Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Hampton University. Hampton University is a privately endowed, non-profit, non-sectarian, co-educational, and historically black university with 38 baccalaureate, 14 masters, and 4 doctoral degree programs. The graduate program in physics currently offers advanced degrees with concentration in Atmospheric Science. The 10 students now enrolled benefit substantially from the research experience and infrastructure resident in the university's Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS), which is celebrating its tenth anniversary. Promoting a greater diversity of participants in geosciences is an important objective for CAS. To accomplish this, we require reliable pipelines of students into the program. One such pipeline is our undergraduate minor in Space, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences (SEAS minor). This minor concentraton of study is contributing to awareness of geosciences on the Hampton University campus, and beyond, as our students matriculate and join the workforce, or pursue higher degrees. However, the current graduate program, with its emphasis on physics, is not necessarily optimal for atmospheric scientists, and it limits our ability to recruit students who do not have a physics degree. To increase the base of candidate students, we have proposed creation of a Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, which could attract students from a broader range of academic disciplines. The revised curriculum would provide for greater concentration in atmospheric and planetary sciences, yet maintain a degree of flexibility to allow for coursework in physics or other areas to meet the needs of individual students. The department would offer the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, and maintain the SEAS minor. The university's administration and faculty have approved our plan for this new department pending authorization by the university's board of trustees, which will

  1. Comparing Unique Title Coverage of Web of Science and Scopus in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Philip; Lascar, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The current journal titles in earth and atmospheric sciences, that are unique to each of two databases, Web of Science and Scopus, were identified using different methods. Comparing by subject category shows that Scopus has hundreds of unique titles, and Web of Science just 16. The titles unique to each database have low SCImago Journal Rank…

  2. AIRS Science Data Services at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Info Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Theobald, M.; Vollmer, B.; Hua, X.; Won, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a very high spectral resolution passive infrared sounder with more than 2000 well-calibrated spectral channels measuring in the range of 3.74 - 15.4 micron. The AIRS instrument was successfully launched aboard the NASA Aqua spacecraft in May, 2002 and has been providing global coverage ever since. The infrared radiance data product is stable to 10 mK/year and accurate to better than 250 mK. The AIRS product is the most accurate and stable set of hyperspectral infrared radiance spectra measurements made in space to date, and its meets the criteria identified by the National Research Council for climate data records. In addition, working in tandem with an Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) instrument, AIRS provides a three-dimensional view of the geophysical properties of the Earth's atmosphere. The geophysical products provide daily global temperature profiles at an accuracy of 1 K per 1 km thick layer in the troposphere and moisture profiles at an accuracy of 20% per 2 km thick layer in the lower troposphere (20% - 60% in the upper troposphere). AIRS standard swath and grid data products are available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The latest version of AIRS products (Version 5) has many improvements over previous versions including better temperature and water vapor profiles, enhanced Level 2 temperature data products over land and polar regions, first-time retrievals of carbon monoxide and methane, improvements to ozone retrievals, warning 'flags' to identify concentrations of sulfur dioxide and dust and overall improvements error and quality flag parameterization. In addition to the AIRS standard products, the swath-based AIRS products are also produced in near real time (NRT) at the GES DISC facility using the same core science algorithms as in the regular science data production but using predicted ephemeris in place of definitive ephemeris data

  3. Coupled Inertial Navigation and Flush Air Data Sensing Algorithm for Atmosphere Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kutty, Prasad; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for atmospheric state estimation that is based on a coupling between inertial navigation and flush air data sensing pressure measurements. In this approach, the full navigation state is used in the atmospheric estimation algorithm along with the pressure measurements and a model of the surface pressure distribution to directly estimate atmospheric winds and density using a nonlinear weighted least-squares algorithm. The approach uses a high fidelity model of atmosphere stored in table-look-up form, along with simplified models of that are propagated along the trajectory within the algorithm to provide prior estimates and covariances to aid the air data state solution. Thus, the method is essentially a reduced-order Kalman filter in which the inertial states are taken from the navigation solution and atmospheric states are estimated in the filter. The algorithm is applied to data from the Mars Science Laboratory entry, descent, and landing from August 2012. Reasonable estimates of the atmosphere and winds are produced by the algorithm. The observability of winds along the trajectory are examined using an index based on the discrete-time observability Gramian and the pressure measurement sensitivity matrix. The results indicate that bank reversals are responsible for adding information content to the system. The algorithm is then applied to the design of the pressure measurement system for the Mars 2020 mission. The pressure port layout is optimized to maximize the observability of atmospheric states along the trajectory. Linear covariance analysis is performed to assess estimator performance for a given pressure measurement uncertainty. The results indicate that the new tightly-coupled estimator can produce enhanced estimates of atmospheric states when compared with existing algorithms.

  4. Improving Regional Forecast by Assimilating Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles into WRF Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background type, and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are derived from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators were used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture data for each profile location and pressure level. The analyses were then used to conduct a month-long series of regional forecasts over the continental U.S. The long-term impacts of AIRS profiles on forecast were assessed against verifying NAM analyses and stage IV precipitation data.

  5. Bitz, Ginoux, Jacobson, Nizkorodov, and Yang Receive 2013 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Ping Yang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2014-07-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU awards one of the five Ascent Awards to Professor Ping Yang of the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Texas A&M University for significant contributions to atmospheric scattering, radiative transfer, and remote sensing.

  6. Carbonyl atmospheric reaction products of aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermeyer, Genevieve; Aschmann, Sara M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet

    To convert gaseous carbonyls to oximes during sampling, an XAD-4 resin denuder system pre-coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine and followed by analysis with methane positive chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure carbonyls in ambient air samples in Riverside, CA. In conjunction with similar analyses of environmental chamber OH radical-initiated reactions of o- and p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, ethylbenzene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 1,4-butanediol, we identified benzaldehyde, o-, m- and p-tolualdehyde and acetophenone and the dicarbonyls glyoxal, methylglyoxal, biacetyl, ethylglyoxal, 1,4-butenedial, 3-hexene-2,5-dione, 3-oxo-butanal, 1,4-butanedial and malonaldehyde in the ambient air samples. As discussed, these carbonyls and dicarbonyls can be formed from the OH radical-initiated reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons and other volatile organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere, and we conclude that in situ atmospheric formation is a major source of these carbonyls in our Riverside, CA, ambient air samples.

  7. The Impact of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles on Short-term Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William

    2007-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced spacebased atmospheric sounding systems. The combined AlRS/AMSU system provides radiance measurements used to retrieve temperature profiles with an accuracy of 1 K over 1 km layers under both clear and partly cloudy conditions, while the accuracy of the derived humidity profiles is 15% in 2 km layers. Critical to the successful use of AIRS profiles for weather and climate studies is the use of profile quality indicators and error estimates provided with each profile Aside form monitoring changes in Earth's climate, one of the objectives of AIRS is to provide sounding information of sufficient accuracy such that the assimilation of the new observations, especially in data sparse region, will lead to an improvement in weather forecasts. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate highresolution AIRS profile data in a regional analysis/forecast model. The paper will focus on the impact of AIRS profiles on a rapidly developing east coast storm and will also discuss preliminary results for a 30-day forecast period, simulating a quasi-operation environment. Temperature and moisture profiles were obtained from the prototype version 5.0 EOS science team retrieval algorithm which includes explicit error information for each profile. The error profile information was used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture data for every profile location and pressure level for assimilation into the ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS). The AIRS-enhanced analyses were used as initial fields for the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) system used by the SPORT project for regional weather forecast studies. The ADASWRF system will be run on CONUS domain with an emphasis on the east coast. The preliminary assessment of the impact of the AIRS profiles will focus on quality control issues associated with AIRS

  8. Applications of airborne remote sensing in atmospheric sciences research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafin, R. J.; Szejwach, G.; Phillips, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for airborne remote sensing for atmospheric sciences research. Passive and active techniques from the microwave to visible bands are discussed. It is concluded that technology has progressed sufficiently in several areas that the time is right to develop and operate new remote sensing instruments for use by the community of atmospheric scientists as general purpose tools. Promising candidates include Doppler radar and lidar, infrared short range radiometry, and microwave radiometry.

  9. Science payload. [of outer planet atmospheric entry probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, H.

    1974-01-01

    The representative science payload of an outer planet atmospheric entry probe is described. The instrumental details are based on experiments that have been successfully flown in the atmospheres of Earth and Venus. The incorporation of these instruments into an outer planet probe requires a strong interaction between instrument designer and probe designer. The installation of the instruments into a 250 lb entry probe is illustrated.

  10. 2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, DL

    2011-05-04

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.

  11. Special issue of Atmospheric Environment for Particulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences, Exposure, and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlebrook, Ann; Turner, Jay; Solomon, Paul A.

    2004-10-01

    In response to epidemiological studies published over 20 years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source-atmospheric accumulation/receptor-exposure-dose-health effects paradigm (adopted from NRC, 2001) from different perspectives or along different parts of the paradigm. The atmospheric sciences communities consider the emissions of particles and precursors from sources, their transport and transformation in air to receptor locations, and finally removal from the atmosphere. The exposure communities' interest is to examine the pathways by which pollution or PM, in this case, approaches and enters the body, typically by trying to relate PM concentrations at a central location(s) to exposure and perhaps dose. Both the atmospheric sciences and exposure communities approach the paradigm from left to right. In contrast, the health effects communities have studied health outcomes, including hospital admissions, school absences, disease rates and deaths in human populations, and potential mechanisms of biological actions in laboratory settings. In general, the health effects communities' approach the paradigm from right to left attempting to correlate an observed adverse health effect with dose or exposure measures. For the most part, research results are reported in scientific publications and conferences for each community respectively. Over the years, there has been little effort to integrate information from these diverse groups in a substantive way. While a major attempt took place in 1998 at the Chapel Hill workshop (Albritton and Greenbaum, 1998), little has occurred since.

  12. Experiments on cylindrically converging blast waves in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hideo; Nakamura, Yuichi

    1980-06-01

    Cylindrically converging blast waves have been produced in normal atmospheric conditions by the detonation of the explosives, pentaerythritoltetranitrate, (PETN), over cylindrical surfaces. The shocks generated in this way are so strong that the fronts propagating through the air become luminous of themselves. The production and the propagation of the shocks have been monitored with a framing camera and a streak camera, and the time-space relations of the shock propagations have been determined using an electrical ionization probing system. The results have shown that the trajectory of the shock fronts near the axis of the cylinder can be approximately represented by the Guderley's formula.

  13. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karl D

    2006-11-01

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed. PMID:17279961

  14. Cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, J. F.; Price, R. O.; Bowman, A.; Chiavarini, R. L.; Stacey, M.; Schoenbach, K. H.; Mohamed, A.-A H.; Swanson, R. J.

    2008-06-16

    By flowing atmospheric pressure air through a direct current powered microhollow cathode discharge, we were able to generate a 2 cm long plasma jet. With increasing flow rate, the flow becomes turbulent and temperatures of the jet are reduced to values close to room temperature. Utilizing the jet, yeast grown on agar can be eradicated with a treatment of only a few seconds. Conversely, animal studies show no skin damage even with exposures ten times longer than needed for pathogen extermination. This cold plasma jet provides an effective mode of treatment for yeast infections of the skin.

  15. Cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, J. F.; Mohamed, A.-A. H.; Price, R. O.; Swanson, R. J.; Bowman, A.; Chiavarini, R. L.; Stacey, M.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2008-06-01

    By flowing atmospheric pressure air through a direct current powered microhollow cathode discharge, we were able to generate a 2cm long plasma jet. With increasing flow rate, the flow becomes turbulent and temperatures of the jet are reduced to values close to room temperature. Utilizing the jet, yeast grown on agar can be eradicated with a treatment of only a few seconds. Conversely, animal studies show no skin damage even with exposures ten times longer than needed for pathogen extermination. This cold plasma jet provides an effective mode of treatment for yeast infections of the skin.

  16. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2006-11-15

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed.

  17. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karl D

    2006-11-01

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed.

  18. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2006-11-01

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed.

  19. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible.

  20. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible. PMID:15703706

  1. Urban air pollution and atmospheric diffusion research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Datong; Whitney, Joseph B.; Yap, David

    1987-11-01

    Air pollution has become a serious problem in China as a result of that country's efforts in the last 30 years to become a great industrial power. The burning of coal, which currently provides over 70% of all China's energy needs, is a major source of air pollution. Because Chinese coal is high in sulfur and ash content and because most combustion devices in China have low efficiencies, SO2 and particulate emissions are a serious problem and are comparable to or exceed those found in many countries that are much more industrialized. Although most coal is burned in North China, acid precipitation is most severe in South China because of the lack of buffering loess dust found in the former region. The Chinese government has already taken major steps to mitigate air pollution, such as relocating polluting industries, supplying coal with lower sulfur content, using gas instead of coal for residential heating, and levying fines on industries that exceed pollution standards. Atmospheric environmental impact assessment (AEIA) is also required for all major new projects. This article describes three types of mathematical diffusion models and field and wind-tunnel experiments that are used in such assessments. The Chinese authorities believe that a range of technological, managerial, locational, and behavioral changes must be effected before the air of Chinese cities can be significantly improved.

  2. The balance model of oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The study of turnover of carbon and oxygen is an important line of scientific investigation. This line takes on special significance in conditions of soil degradation, which leads to the excess content of carbon dioxide and, as result, decrease of oxygen in the atmosphere. The aim of this article is a statement the balance model of oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air (ratio O/C) depending on consumption and assimilation by plants of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the value of the oxidation-reduction potential (Eh). Basis of model was the following: green vascular plants are facultative heterotrophic organisms with symbiotic digestion and nutrition. According to the trophology viewpoint, the plant consumption of organic compounds broadens greatly a notion about the plant nutrition and ways of its regulation. In particular, beside the main known cycle of carbon: plant - litter - humus - carbon dioxide - plant, there is the second carbon cycle (turnover of organic compounds): plant - litter - humus - DOM - plant. The biogeochemical meaning of consumption of organic compounds by plants is that plants build the structural and functional blocks of biological macromolecules in their bodies. It provides receiving of a certain "energy payoff" by plants, which leads to increase of plant biomass by both an inclusion of allochthonous organic molecules in plant tissues, and positive effect of organic compounds on plant metabolic processes. One more of powerful ecological consequence of a heterotrophic nutrition of green plants is oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air. As the organic molecules in the second biological cycle of carbon are built in plants without considerable chemical change, the atmospheric air is enriched on that amount of oxygen, which would be required on oxidation of the organic molecules absorbed by plants, in result. It was accepted that: plant-soil system was climax, the plant community was grassy, initial contents of carbon in phytomass was accepted

  3. Visualization Techniques in Space and Atmospheric Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P. (Editor); Bredekamp, Joseph H. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Unprecedented volumes of data will be generated by research programs that investigate the Earth as a system and the origin of the universe, which will in turn require analysis and interpretation that will lead to meaningful scientific insight. Providing a widely distributed research community with the ability to access, manipulate, analyze, and visualize these complex, multidimensional data sets depends on a wide range of computer science and technology topics. Data storage and compression, data base management, computational methods and algorithms, artificial intelligence, telecommunications, and high-resolution display are just a few of the topics addressed. A unifying theme throughout the papers with regards to advanced data handling and visualization is the need for interactivity, speed, user-friendliness, and extensibility.

  4. Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric Temperatures Using Only Shortwave AIRS Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind,Joel

    2009-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. AIRS is a grating spectrometer with a number of linear arrays of detectors with each detector sensitive to outgoing radiation in a characteristic frequency v(sub i) with a spectral band pass delta v(sub i) of roughly v(sub i) /1200. AIRS contains 2378 spectral channels covering portions of the spectral region 650 cm(exp -1) (15.38 gm) - 2665 cm(exp -1)' (3.752 micrometers). These spectral regions contain significant absorption features from two CO2 absorption bands, the 15 micrometer (longwave) CO2 band, and the 4.3 micrometer (shortwave) CO, absorption band. There are also two atmospheric window regions, the 12 micrometerm - 8 micrometer (longwave) window, and the 4.17 micrometer - 3.75 micrometer (shortwave) window. Historically, determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures from satellite observations was performed using primarily observations in the longwave window and CO2 absorption regions. One reason for this was concerns about the effects, during the day, of reflected sunlight and non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) on the observed radiances in the shortwave portion of the spectrum. According to cloud clearing theory, more accurate soundings of both surface skin and atmospheric temperatures can be obtained under partial cloud cover conditions if one uses the longwave channels to determine cloud cleared radiances R(sub i) for all channels, and uses R(sub i) only from shortwave channels in the determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures. This procedure is now being used by the AIRS Science Team in preparation for the AIRS Version 6 Retrieval Algorithm. This paper describes how the effects on the radiances of solar radiation reflected by clouds and the Earth's surface, and also of non-LTE, are accounted for in the analysis of the data. Results are presented for both

  5. Using Unmanned Air Systems to Monitor Methane in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, Jacqueline; Smith, Jeremy Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Methane is likely to be an important contributor to global warming, and our current knowledge of its sources, distributions, and transport is insufficient. It is estimated that there could be from 7.5 to 400 billion tons carbon-equivalent of methane in the arctic region, a broad range that is indicative of the uncertainty within the Earth Science community. Unmanned Air Systems (UASs) are often used for combat or surveillance by the military, but they also have been used for Earth Science field missions. In this study, we will analyze the utility of the NASA Global Hawk and the Aurora Flight Sciences Orion UASs compared to the manned DC-8 aircraft for conducting a methane monitoring mission. The mission will focus on the measurement of methane along the boundaries of Arctic permafrost thaw and melting glaciers. The use of Long Endurance UAS brings a new range of possibilities including the ability to obtain long- term and persistent observations and to significantly augment methane measurements/retrievals collected by satellite. Furthermore, we discuss the future of long endurance UAS and their potential for science applications in the next twenty to twenty-five years.

  6. Beyond the atmosphere: Early years of space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    From the rocket measurements of the upper atmosphere and Sun that began in 1946, space science gradually emerged as a new field of scientific activity. The course of the United State space program is viewed in an historical context. Major emphasis is on NASA and its programs. The funding, staffing, organization, and priorities of the space program were reviewed.

  7. Atmospheric Modelling for Air Quality Study over the complex Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surapipith, Vanisa; Panday, Arnico; Mukherji, Aditi; Banmali Pradhan, Bidya; Blumer, Sandro

    2014-05-01

    An Atmospheric Modelling System has been set up at International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) for the assessment of Air Quality across the Himalaya mountain ranges. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.5 has been implemented over the regional domain, stretching across 4995 x 4455 km2 centred at Ichhyakamana , the ICIMOD newly setting-up mountain-peak station (1860 m) in central Nepal, and covering terrains from sea-level to the Everest (8848 m). Simulation is carried out for the winter time period, i.e. December 2012 to February 2013, when there was an intensive field campaign SusKat, where at least 7 super stations were collecting meteorology and chemical parameters on various sites. The very complex terrain requires a high horizontal resolution (1 × 1 km2), which is achieved by nesting the domain of interest, e.g. Kathmandu Valley, into 3 coarser ones (27, 9, 3 km resolution). Model validation is performed against the field data as well as satellite data, and the challenge of capturing the necessary atmospheric processes is discussed, before moving forward with the fully coupled chemistry module (WRF-Chem), having local and regional emission databases as input. The effort aims at finding a better understanding of the atmospheric processes and air quality impact on the mountain population, as well as the impact of the long-range transport, particularly of Black Carbon aerosol deposition, to the radiative budget over the Himalayan glaciers. The higher rate of snowcap melting, and shrinkage of permafrost as noticed by glaciologists is a concern. Better prediction will supply crucial information to form the proper mitigation and adaptation strategies for saving people lives across the Himalayas in the changing climate.

  8. Measured Spacecraft Dynamic Effects on Atmospheric Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Gell, David A.; Lay, Richard R.

    1997-01-01

    On September 1991, NASA launched the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. In addition to its atmospheric science mission, spacecraft dynamic effects on science measurements were analyzed. The investigation included two in-flight experiments to determine how each on-board instrument, subsystem and environmental disturbance contributed to the spacecraft dynamic response and how these disturbances affected science measurements. Three case studies are presented which show the impact of spacecraft dynamic response on science measurements. In the first case, correlation of independent atmospheric meridional wind measurements taken by two instruments with the spacecraft dynamic response demonstrated that excessive vibration (exceeding instrument pointing requirements) resulted in wind measurement disagreement. In the second case, solar array disturbances produced a spacecraft response signature on radiometer measurements. The signature explicitly demonstrated that if an instrument has sufficient spatial and temporal resolution, spacecraft dynamic response could impact measurements. In the final case, correlation of an instrument's fine sun sensor data and CO2 measurements demonstrated the effect of temporal and spatial sampling resolution and active pointing control on science measurements. The sun sensor had a frequency modulated characteristic due to spacecraft vibration and the periodic scanning of another instrument which was not present on the CO2 measurements.

  9. The 26th AFOSR chemical and atmospheric sciences program review FY81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, W. G.; Myers, L. E.; Stallings, S. A.

    1982-03-01

    A review is presented of research efforts sponsored by the Directorate of Chemical and Atmospheric Sciences which have completed their period of support. Illustrated accounts resulting from the basic research programs in the Atmospheric and Chemical Sciences are highlighted. The Atmospheric Sciences is concerned with meteorology and upper atmospheric structure and dynamics. The meteorology focuses on mesoscale meteorology, cloud physics, and atmospheric dynamics. The Chemical Sciences deal with Chemical Techniques, Chemical Structures, Surface Chemistry, Chemical Dynamics, and Synthesis and properties of Materials.

  10. Urban Air Pollution: State of the Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seinfeld, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate matter found in urban air. Explains progress made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of air pollution, the effects of precursors on ozone, the role of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the principal benefit of methanol-fueled vehicles. (RT)

  11. Air Quality Measurements for Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality measurements and the methods used to conduct them are vital to advancing our knowledge of the source-to-receptor-to-health effects continuum1-3. This information then forms the basis for evaluating and managing air quality to protect human health and welfa...

  12. Hurricane Isabel, Amount of Atmospheric Water Vapor Observed By AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    These false-color images show the amount of atmospheric water vapor observed by AIRS two weeks prior to the passage of Hurricane Isabel, and then when it was a Category 5 storm. The region shown includes parts of South America and the West Indies. Puerto Rico is the large island below the upper left corner.

    Total water vapor represents the depth of a layer if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the surface. The color bar on the right sides of the plots give the thickness of this layer in millimeters (mm). The first image, from August 28, shows typical tropical water vapor amounts over the ocean: between roughly 25 and 50 mm, or 1 to 2 inches. The highest values of roughly 80 mm, seen as a red blob over South America, corresponds to intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms pull in water vapor from surrounding regions and concentrate it, with much of it then falling as rain.

    Figure 1 shows total water during the passage of Hurricane Isabel on September 13. The storm is apparent: the ring of moderate values surrounding a very strong maximum of 100 mm. Total water of more than 80 mm is unusual, and these values correspond to the intense thunderstorms contained within Isabel. The thunderstorms--and the large values of total water--are fed by evaporation from the ocean in the hurricane's high winds. The water vapor near the center of the storm does not remain there long, since hurricane rain rates as high 50 mm (2 inches) per hour imply rapid cycling of the water we observe. Away from the storm the amount of total water vapor is rather low, associated with fair weather where air that ascended near the storm's eye returns to earth, having dropped its moisture as rain. Also seen in the second images are two small regions of about 70 mm of total water over south America. These are yet more thunderstorms, though likely much more benign than those in Isabel.

    The

  13. Data Assimilation and Regional Forecasts Using Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses, which in turn should lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles with an accuracy comparable to that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profiles--obtained from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm-into a regional configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background field type, a methodology for ingesting AIRS profiles as separate over-land and over-water retrievals with different error characteristics, and utilization of level-by-level quality indicators to select only the highest quality data. The assessment of the impact of the AIRS profiles on WRF-Var analyses will focus on intelligent use of the quality indicators, optimized tuning of the WRF-Var, and comparison of analysis soundings to radiosondes. The analyses will be used to conduct a month-long series of regional forecasts over the continental U.S. The long-tern1 impact of AIRS profiles on forecast will be assessed against verifying radiosonde and stage IV precipitation data.

  14. Characteristics Of A Dielectric Barrier Discharge In Atmospheric Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, C. K.; Chin, O. H.; Thong, K. L.

    2009-07-01

    Parallel plate dielectric barrier discharges consisting of two electrodes with glass (ɛr = 7.5) and alumina (ɛr = 9.0) as the dielectric barrier were constructed. The system is powered by a variable 20 kV high voltage supply which is capable of delivering unipolar voltage pulses at frequency of 0.1-2.5 kHz and sinusoidal voltages at 6.5 kHz and above. At atmospheric pressure, the discharges exhibit either diffuse or filamentary appearance depending on parameters which include the series capacitance established by the electrodes with the dielectric barrier and varying air gap, dielectric material, and frequency of the supply voltages. This DBD system is built for the study of bacterial sterilization.

  15. Quality Assessment of Collection 6 MODIS Atmospheric Science Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, V. S.; Ridgway, B.; Platnick, S. E.; Devadiga, S.; Mauoka, E.

    2015-12-01

    Since the launch of the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively, atmosphere and land data acquired by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor on-board these satellites have been reprocessed five times at the MODAPS (MODIS Adaptive Processing System) located at NASA GSFC. The global land and atmosphere products use science algorithms developed by the NASA MODIS science team investigators. MODAPS completed Collection 6 reprocessing of MODIS Atmosphere science data products in April 2015 and is currently generating the Collection 6 products using the latest version of the science algorithms. This reprocessing has generated one of the longest time series of consistent data records for understanding cloud, aerosol, and other constituents in the earth's atmosphere. It is important to carefully evaluate and assess the quality of this data and remove any artifacts to maintain a useful climate data record. Quality Assessment (QA) is an integral part of the processing chain at MODAPS. This presentation will describe the QA approaches and tools adopted by the MODIS Land/Atmosphere Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team to assess the quality of MODIS operational Atmospheric products produced at MODAPS. Some of the tools include global high resolution images, time series analysis and statistical QA metrics. The new high resolution global browse images with pan and zoom have provided the ability to perform QA of products in real time through synoptic QA on the web. This global browse generation has been useful in identifying production error, data loss, and data quality issues from calibration error, geolocation error and algorithm performance. A time series analysis for various science datasets in the Level-3 monthly product was recently developed for assessing any long term drifts in the data arising from instrument errors or other artifacts. This presentation will describe and discuss some test cases from the

  16. Atmospheric Release Assessment Program (ARAP) Science and Technology Base Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ermak, D L; Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S

    2002-05-10

    ARAP s integrated suite of research, development, and operational programs is focused on the creation of capabilities for predicting the consequences of atmospheric releases of hazardous materials. The foundation of ARAP lies in its science and technology base in multi-scale meteorological and dispersion modeling, field experiments, and software systems (databases, real-time data acquisition software, and remote-access tools). Scientific and technological advancements are integrated into DOENNSA s operational National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at LLNL to support emergency response, pre-event planning, preparedness, and consequence analysis. Some recent ARAP development highlights are described below.

  17. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division Program Report, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    In 1990, the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division begins its 17th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to decades and from local to global. Our modeling is now reaching out from its atmospheric focus to treat linkages with the oceans and the land. In this report, we describe the Division's goal and organizational structure. We also provide tables and appendices describing the Division's budget, personnel, models, and publications. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The relationship between ozone formation and air temperature in the atmospheric surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Savkin, Denis; Tolmachev, Gennadii

    2016-04-01

    Studying the formation and dynamics of ozone in the atmosphere is important due to several reasons. First, the contribution of tropospheric ozone to the global greenhouse effect is only slightly less than that of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. Second, tropospheric ozone acts as a strong poison that has negative effects on human health, animals, and vegetation. Third, being a potent oxidizer, ozone destroys almost all materials, including platinum group metals and compounds. Fourthly, ozone is formed in situ from precursors as a result of photochemical processes, but not emitted into the atmosphere by any industrial enterprises directly. In this work, we present some results of the study aimed at the revealing relationship between ozone formation rate and surface air temperature in the background atmosphere. It has been found that this relationship is nonlinear. Analysis of the possible reasons showed that the nonlinear character of this relationship may be due to a nonlinear increase in the reaction constants versus air temperature and a quadratic increase in the concentration of hydrocarbons with increasing temperature. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science contract no.14.613.21.0013 (ID: RFMEFI61314X0013).

  19. Promoting Interests in Atmospheric Science at a Liberal Arts Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussev, S.; Sherengos, P. M.; Limpasuvan, V.; Xue, M.

    2007-12-01

    Coastal Carolina University (CCU) students in Computer Science participated in a project to set up an operational weather forecast for the local community. The project involved the construction of two computing clusters and the automation of daily forecasting. Funded by NSF-MRI, two high-performance clusters were successfully established to run the University of Oklahoma's Advance Regional Prediction System (ARPS). Daily weather predictions are made over South Carolina and North Carolina at 3-km horizontal resolution (roughly 1.9 miles) using initial and boundary condition data provided by UNIDATA. At this high resolution, the model is cloud- resolving, thus providing detailed picture of heavy thunderstorms and precipitation. Forecast results are displayed on CCU's website (https://marc.coastal.edu/HPC) to complement observations at the National Weather Service in Wilmington N.C. Present efforts include providing forecasts at 1-km resolution (or finer), comparisons with other models like Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the examination of local phenomena (like water spouts and tornadoes). Through these activities the students learn about shell scripting, cluster operating systems, and web design. More importantly, students are introduced to Atmospheric Science, the processes involved in making weather forecasts, and the interpretation of their forecasts. Simulations generated by the forecasts will be integrated into the contents of CCU's course like Fluid Dynamics, Atmospheric Sciences, Atmospheric Physics, and Remote Sensing. Operated jointly between the departments of Applied Physics and Computer Science, the clusters are expected to be used by CCU faculty and students for future research and inquiry-based projects in Computer Science, Applied Physics, and Marine Science.

  20. Ozone generation using atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buntat, Z.; Smith, I. R.; Razali, N. A. M.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents results from a study into the generation of ozone by a stable atmospheric glow discharge, using dry air as the feeding gas for ozone generation. The power supply is 50 Hz ac, with the use of a perforated aluminium sheet for the electrodes and soda lime glass as a dielectric layer in a parallel-plate configuration, stabilizing the generation process and enabling ozone to be produced. The stable glow discharge spreads uniformly at a gas breakdown voltage below 4.8 kV and requires only 330 mW discharge power, with a limitation of 3 mm on the maximum gap spacing for the dry air. With the technique providing a high collision rate between the electrons and gas molecules during the discharge process, a high ozone yield is obtained. An analysis of the effect on the production rate of parameters such as the input voltage, gas flow rate and reaction chamber dimensions resulted in a highest efficiency of production of almost 350 g kWh-1 and confirms its potential as an important ozone generation technology.

  1. Radio Emission in Atmospheric Air Showers Measured by LOPES-30

    SciTech Connect

    Isar, P. G.

    2008-01-24

    When Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) interact with particles in the Earth's atmosphere, they produce a shower of secondary particles propagating towards the ground. These relativistic particles emit synchrotron radiation in the radio frequency range when passing the Earth's magnetic field. The LOPES (LOFAR Prototype Station) experiment investigates the radio emission from these showers in detail and will pave the way to use this detection technique for large scale applications like in LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) and the Pierre Auger Observatory. The LOPES experiment is co-located and measures in coincidence with the air shower experiment KASCADE-Grande at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. LOPES has an absolute amplitude calibration array of 30 dipole antennas (LOPES-30). After one year of measurements of the single East-West polarization by all 30 antennas, recently, the LOPES-30 set-up was configured to perform dual-polarization measurements. Half of the antennas have been configured for measurements of the North-South polarization. Only by measuring at the same time both, the E-W and N-S polarization components of the radio emission, the geo-synchrotron effect as the dominant emission mechanism in air showers can be verified. The status of the measurements, including the absolute calibration procedure of the dual-polarized antennas as well as analysis of dual-polarized event examples are reported.

  2. ONE ATMOSPHERE MODELING FOR AIR QUALITY: BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS THAT TRANSITION RESEARCH INTO APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Miultiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is a "one atmosphere" chemical transport model that simulates the transport and fate of air pollutants from urban to continental scales and from daily to annual time intervals.

  3. Atmospheric Science Measurements by the EOS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James

    1999-01-01

    Scheduled for Launch in July 2001, the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is to be the first satellite instrument to provide full global lidar profiling of clouds and aerosol in the earth's atmosphere. GLAS is an EOS program instrument that is on its own satellite, now called the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite. The instrument is both a surface laser ranging system and an atmospheric profiling lidar. A most important surface measurement for the instrument is to study the change in the mass balance of the polar ice sheets by measuring the change in regional altitudes to an accuracy of 1.5 cm per year. The strategy to combine the surface measurement with a Cloud and aerosol lidar profiling mission is based on the compatibility of the altimetry instrument requirements with those for the required lidar measurements. The primary atmospheric science goal of the GLAS cloud and aerosol measurement is to determine the radiative forcing and vertically resolved atmospheric heating rate due to cloud and aerosol by directly observing the vertical structure and magnitude of cloud and aerosol parameters that are important for the radiative balance of the earth-atmosphere system, but which are ambiguous or impossible to obtain from existing or planned passive remote sensors. A further goal is to directly measure the height of atmospheric transition layers (inversions) which are important for dynamics and mixing, the planetary boundary layer and lifting condensation level.

  4. Nanosecond Enhancements of the Atmospheric Electron Density by Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutjes, C.; Camporeale, E.; Ebert, U.; Buitink, S.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Witteveen, J.

    2015-12-01

    As is well known a sufficient density of free electrons and strong electric fields are the basic requirements to start any electrical discharge. In the context of thunderstorm discharges it has become clear that in addition droplets and or ice particles are required to enhance the electric field to values above breakdown. In our recent study [1] we have shown that these three ingredients have to interplay to allow for lightning inception, triggered by an extensive air shower event. The extensive air showers are a very stochastic natural phenomenon, creating highly coherent sub-nanosecond enhancements of the atmospheric electron density. Predicting these electron density enhancements accurately one has to take the uncertainty of the input variables into account. For this study we use the initial energy, inclination and altitude of first interaction, which will influence the evolution of the shower significantly. To this end, we use the stochastic collocation method, [2] to post-process our detailed Monte Carlo extensive air shower simulations, done with the CORSIKA [3] software package, which provides an efficient and elegant way to determine the distribution of the atmospheric electron density enhancements. [1] Dubinova, A., Rutjes, C., Ebert, E., Buitink, S., Scholten, O., and Trinh, G. T. N. "Prediction of Lightning Inception by Large Ice Particles and Extensive Air Showers." PRL 115 015002 (2015)[2] G.J.A. Loeven, J.A.S. Witteveen, H. Bijl, Probabilistic collocation: an efficient nonintrusive approach for arbitrarily distributed parametric uncertainties, 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 2007, AIAA-2007-317[3] Heck, Dieter, et al. CORSIKA: A Monte Carlo code to simulate extensive air showers. No. FZKA-6019. 1998.

  5. Applications of multigrid software in the atmospheric sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Garcia, R.; Gross, B.; Hack, J.; Haidvogel, D.; Pizzo, V.

    1992-01-01

    Elliptic partial differential equations from different areas in the atmospheric sciences are efficiently and easily solved utilizing the multigrid software package named MUDPACK. It is demonstrated that the multigrid method is more efficient than other commonly employed techniques, such as Gaussian elimination and fixed-grid relaxation. The efficiency relative to other techniques, both in terms of storage requirement and computational time, increases quickly with grid size.

  6. Atmospheric sciences division. Annual report, fiscal year 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Raynor, G. S.

    1981-12-01

    The research activities of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of the Department of Energy and Environment for FY 1981 are presented. Facilities and major items of equipment are described. Research programs are summarized in three categories, modeling, field and laboratory experiments and data management and analysis. Each program is also described individually with title, principal investigator, sponsor and funding levels for FY 1981 and FY 1982. Future plans are summarized. Publications for FY 1981 are listed with abstracts. A list of personnel is included.

  7. Teaching Earth Science Using Hot Air Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, James; Shaffer, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Constructing model hot air balloons is an activity that captures the imaginations of students, enabling teachers to present required content to minds that are open to receive it. Additionally, there are few activities that lend themselves to integrating so much content across subject areas. In this article, the authors describe how they have…

  8. Teaching Science: Air Pressure "Eggs-periments."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can introduce students to various scientific concept concerning motion, air composition, and heat by conducting an experiment: A peeled, hard-boiled egg is sucked into a bottle neck slightly smaller than the egg, after the bottle has been filled and emptied of hot water. Also discusses how students' understanding of the…

  9. Professional development for graduate students in the atmospheric sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haacker, R.; Sloan, V.

    2015-12-01

    The field of atmospheric sciences is rapidly changing, and with it, the employment outlook for recent graduate students. Weather and climate applications for society and the private industry are in demand and have increased significantly over the last few years, creating new employment opportunities for atmospheric scientists. It is therefore more important than ever that our graduates are well prepared for the newly emerging careers. The Bureau's Occupational Outlook predicts that opportunities for atmospheric scientists will increase more rapidly in the private industry than in other sectors (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). Employers in the private sector indicate that, while job applicants often bring the required scientific training, there is a gap between the technical and professional skills needed in those positions and those possessed by graduates. Job candidates were found to be most lacking in written and oral communication skills, adaptability, and project management (Chronicle for Higher Education, 2012). The geoscience community needs to come together to better prepare our graduate students. While some of this work can be done within academic institutions, partnerships with mentoring programs and the private industry are essential. In this paper we will present one approach taken by the Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) program to improve its students' skills in project management, collaborating, communication, problem solving, and essential leadership skills.

  10. Atmospheric Sciences Meet Astronomy: Mutual Benefits from two Different Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausch, Wolfgang; Noll, Stefan; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Kondrak, Matthias; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Przybilla, Norbert; Lakićević, Maša; Zeilinger, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Light from astronomical targets has to pass the Earth's atmosphere when being observed by ground-based telescope facilities. The signal detected by modern astronomical spectrographs is significantly influenced by molecular absorption and airglow emission. The first mainly arises from various species in the lower, thus denser atmosphere, whereas the latter is caused by chemiluminescence in the mesopause region and above. As ground-based astronomical spectrographs are optimised from the near-UV to the mid-infrared regime (0.3....25μm), a number of absorption features from numerous species are directly visible (e.g. H2O, CO2, CH4, O2, O3,...). The same is true for the airglow emission arising e.g. from the hydroxyl radical and oxygen. The high resolution provided by some spectrographs and their frequent usage allows a detailed investigation of atmospheric lines. Usually being a source of noise for astronomers, which needs to be corrected for, this influence can be used to precisely analyse the composition and the state of the Earth's atmosphere above an observatory. On the other hand, a good knowledge of this allows astronomers to better correct for this influence. Thus, both, atmospheric and astronomical sciences highly benefit from a good understanding of the atmospheric state above an observatory. During the past years we conducted several studies to link astronomical and atmospheric data. For this purpose we use data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) operated by the European Southern Observatory, and the Cerro Armazones Observatory (OCA, University of Bochum, Germany; Universidad Católica del Norte, Chile), both located in the Chilean Atacama desert. The three spectrographs used in our studies are X-Shooter@VLT (resolving power R˜3300...18000, wavelength range λ=0.3...2.5μm), UVES@VLT (R˜20.000....110.000, λ=0.3....1.1μm), and BESO@OCA (R=50000@Hα=0.656μm, λ=0.38 - 0.84μm). In addition, we use atmospheric data obtained with the satellites

  11. Atmospheric Sciences Meet Astronomy: Mutual Benefits from two Different Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausch, Wolfgang; Noll, Stefan; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Kondrak, Matthias; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Przybilla, Norbert; Lakićević, Maša; Zeilinger, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Light from astronomical targets has to pass the Earth's atmosphere when being observed by ground-based telescope facilities. The signal detected by modern astronomical spectrographs is significantly influenced by molecular absorption and airglow emission. The first mainly arises from various species in the lower, thus denser atmosphere, whereas the latter is caused by chemiluminescence in the mesopause region and above. As ground-based astronomical spectrographs are optimised from the near-UV to the mid-infrared regime (0.3....25μm), a number of absorption features from numerous species are directly visible (e.g. H2O, CO2, CH4, O2, O3,...). The same is true for the airglow emission arising e.g. from the hydroxyl radical and oxygen. The high resolution provided by some spectrographs and their frequent usage allows a detailed investigation of atmospheric lines. Usually being a source of noise for astronomers, which needs to be corrected for, this influence can be used to precisely analyse the composition and the state of the Earth's atmosphere above an observatory. On the other hand, a good knowledge of this allows astronomers to better correct for this influence. Thus, both, atmospheric and astronomical sciences highly benefit from a good understanding of the atmospheric state above an observatory. During the past years we conducted several studies to link astronomical and atmospheric data. For this purpose we use data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) operated by the European Southern Observatory, and the Cerro Armazones Observatory (OCA, University of Bochum, Germany; Universidad Católica del Norte, Chile), both located in the Chilean Atacama desert. The three spectrographs used in our studies are X-Shooter@VLT (resolving power R˜3300...18000, wavelength range λ=0.3...2.5μm), UVES@VLT (R˜20.000....110.000, λ=0.3....1.1μm), and BESO@OCA (R=50000@Hα=0.656μm, λ=0.38 ‑ 0.84μm). In addition, we use atmospheric data obtained with the satellites

  12. Enhancing climate literacy by melding the atmospheric and geospatial sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupigny-Giroux, L.; Toolin, R.; Morrissey, L.; Fortney, M. D.; Hogan, S.; Pontius, J.; Berryman, B.; Shafer, J.; Atkins, N.; Shepherd, M.; Mote, T. L.; Raphael, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Climate literacy involves an understanding of the interconnectedness of various components of the climate system over space and time, as well as the influence of humans on that system and the ability to use that understanding to "act accordingly". Understanding the climate system relies on techniques that include statistics, modelling, visualization and geospatial technologies such as remote sensing and geographic information science (GIS). The melding of these geospatial technologies with the atmospheric and climate sciences has become increasingly common and ubiquitous from the nightly weather presentations to the weekly U.S. Drought Monitor. This presentation will delve into the successes and ongoing challenges for a climate literate society that exist at the transdisciplinary border of the atmospheric and geospatial sciences. Two National Science Foundation (NSF) funded programs will be highlighted. The first is the Satellites, Weather and Climate (SWAC) professional development program for K-12 teachers and the second is the Diversity Climate Network (D-ClimNet) for high school to graduate students.

  13. Alternative cloud clearing methodologies for the atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnet, C. D.; Goldberg, M.; King, Thomas; Nalli, Nicholas; Wolf, Walter; Zhou, Lihang; Wei, Jennifer

    2005-08-01

    Traditional cloud clearing methods utilize a clear estimate of the atmosphere inferred from a microwave sounder to extrapolate cloud cleared radiances (CCR's) from a spatial interpolation of multiple cloudy infrared footprints. Unfortunately, sounders have low information content in the lower atmosphere due to broad weighting functions, interference from surface radiance and the microwave radiances can also suffer from uncorrected side-lobe contamination. Therefore, scenes with low altitude clouds can produce errant CCR's that, in-turn, produce errant sounding products. Radiances computed from the corrupted products can agree with the measurements within the error budget making detection and removal of the errant scenes impractical; typically, a large volume of high quality retrievals are rejected in order to remove a few errant scenes. In this paper we compare and contrast the yield and accuracy of the traditional approach with alternative methods of obtaining CCR's. The goal of this research is three-fold: (1) to have a viable approach if the microwave instruments fail on the EOS-AQUA platform; (2) to improve the accuracy and reliability of infrared products derived from CCR's; and (3) to investigate infrared approaches for geosynchronous platforms where microwave sounding is difficult. The methods discussed are (a) use of assimilation products, (b) use of a statistical regression trained on cloudy radiances, (c) an infrared multi-spectral approach exploiting the non-linearity of the Planck function, and (d) use of clear MODIS measurements in the AIRS sub-pixel space. These approaches can be used independently of the microwave measurements; however, they also enhance the traditional approach in the context of quality control, increased spatial resolution, and increased information content.

  14. Study of short atmospheric pressure dc glow microdischarge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Bogdanov, Eugene; Chirtsov, Alexander; Emelin, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen and oxygen atoms; ozone molecule; and different nitrogen and oxygen ions with different plasmochemical reactions between them. Simulations predicted the main regions of the dc glow discharges including cathode and anode sheath and plasma of negative glow, Faraday dark space and transition region. Gas heating plays an important role in shaping the discharge profiles. The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen

  15. Significant Advances in the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Molnar, Gyula

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. The Goddard DISC has analyzed AIRS/AMSU observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, using the AIRS Science Team Version-S retrieval algorithm. These products have been used by many researchers to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. The AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval, which will become operation in mid-20l2, contains many significant theoretical and practical improvements compared to Version-5 which should further enhance the utility of AIRS products for both climate and weather applications. In particular, major changes have been made with regard to the algOrithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the retrieval procedure; 3) compute Outgoing Longwave Radiation; and 4) determine Quality Control. This paper will describe these advances found in the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm and demonstrate the improvement of AIRS Version-6 products compared to those obtained using Version-5,

  16. Introduction: Addressing Air Pollution and Health Science Questions to Inform Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health (AQAH) is the sixth and final in a series of special journal issues (Solomon 2010, 2011a, b; Solomon et al. 2011; Solomon 2012) associated with the 2010 Air Pollution and Heath Conference: Bridging the Gap between Sources ...

  17. Recent Science from the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Katie; Lee, James; Punjabi, Shalini; Carpenter, Lucy; Lewis, Alastair; Moller, Sarah; Mendes Neves, Luis; Fleming, Zoe; Evans, Mat; Arnold, Steve; Hopkins, James

    2013-04-01

    The Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (16,848°N, 24.871°W), a subtropical marine boundary layer atmospheric monitoring station situated at Calhau on the island of São Vicente, has been in operation since October 2006. Almost continuous measurements of the trace gases O3, CO, NMVOC, NO, and NO2 have been obtained. Other data from the CVAO, for example of greenhouse gases, aerosol (physical and chemical parameters), halocarbons, halogen oxides, are also available over various timescales (see http://ncasweb.leeds.ac.uk/capeverde/ for more details). Through the newly EU funded Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, atmospheric measurements of mercury began in 2011. The observatory has hosted a number of field campaigns including Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer experiment (RHaMBLe) in 2007 (Lee et al., 2010) which focussed on halogen chemistry and Seasonal Oxidant Study (SOS) in 2009 which looked at how the oxidation chemistry varied seasonally. The prevailing strong on-shore winds bring marine air masses with varying inputs of Saharan dust and of long range transport from North American Europe, thus the CVAO is an appealing location for both short and long term research into a variety of atmospheric phenomena. Aged air masses from North America, Europe, and Africa influence the measurements at the observatory, but fresh emissions from coastal Africa and the ocean may also play a major role. Through the use of the UK Met office's NAME model (http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/modelling-systems/dispersion-model) it has recently been possible to classify the air received by the site and this has since been employed in further interpretation of the datasets (Carpenter et al., 2010). Measurements from the last six years will be presented at the conference together with comparisons with the output of the CAM-Chem global chemistry transport model (Read et al., 2012). The CVAO is a global GAW (Global Atmospheric Watch) station and so data is

  18. Air Pollution and Weather: Activities and Demonstrations for Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Henry S.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a number of concepts (turbulence, dispersion, vertical temperature distribution, atmospheric stability and instability, and inversions) which are prerequisite to understanding how weather affects air quality. Describes classroom demonstrations effective in introducing these concepts to students at the elementary, secondary and college…

  19. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  20. Improved methodology for surface and atmospheric soundings, error estimates, and quality control procedures: the atmospheric infrared sounder science team version-6 retrieval algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John M.; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) science team version-6 AIRS/advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU) retrieval algorithm is now operational at the Goddard Data and Information Services Center (DISC). AIRS version-6 level-2 products are generated near real time at the Goddard DISC and all level-2 and level-3 products are available starting from September 2002. Some of the significant improvements in retrieval methodology contained in the version-6 retrieval algorithm compared to that previously used in version-5 are described. In particular, the AIRS science team made major improvements with regard to the algorithms used to (1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; (2) generate the initial state used to start the cloud clearing and retrieval procedures; and (3) derive error estimates and use them for quality control. Significant improvements have also been made in the generation of cloud parameters. In addition to the basic AIRS/AMSU mode, version-6 also operates in an AIRS only (AO) mode, which produces results almost as good as those of the full AIRS/AMSU mode. The improvements of some AIRS version-6 and version-6 AO products compared to those obtained using version-5 are also demonstrated.

  1. Taking Science On-air with Google+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cost has long been a deterrent when trying to stream live events to large audiences. While streaming providers like UStream have free options, they include advertising and typically limit broadcasts to originating from a single location. In the autumn of 2011, Google premiered a new, free, video streaming tool -- Hangouts on Air -- as part of their Google+ social network. This platform allows up to ten different computers to stream live content to an unlimited audience, and automatically archives that content to YouTube. In this article we discuss best practices for using this technology to stream events over the internet.

  2. Urban Climate Effects on Air Pollution and Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoul, Tara; Bloss, William; Pope, Francis

    2016-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone, adversely affects the environment and human health. The presence of chlorine nitrate (ClNO2) in the troposphere can enhance ozone (O3) formation as it undergoes photolysis, releasing chlorine reactive atoms (Cl) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), both of which enhance tropospheric ozone formation. The importance of new sources of tropospheric ClNO2 via heterogeneous processes has recently been highlighted. This study employed a box model, using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM version 3.2) to assess the effect of ClNO2 on air quality in urban areas within the UK. The model updated to include ClNO2 production, photolysis, a comprehensive parameterisation of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) uptake, and ClNO2 production calculated from bulk aerosol composition. The model simulation revealed the presence of ClNO2 enhances the formation of NO2, organic peroxy radical (CH3O2), O3, and hydroxyl radicals (OH) when compared with simulations excluding ClNO2. In addition, the study examined the effect of temperature variation upon ClNO2 formation. The response of ClNO2 to temperature was analysed to identify the underlying drivers, of particular importance when assessing the response of atmospheric chemistry processes under potential future climates.

  3. Chaotic characteristics of corona discharges in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Xiangyu; Zhang Qiaogen; Wang Xiuhuan; Sun Fu; Zha Wei; Jia Zhijie

    2008-11-15

    A point-plane electrode system in atmospheric air is established to investigate the mechanism of the corona discharge. By using this system, the current pulses of the corona discharges under the 50 Hz ac voltage are measured using partial discharge (PD) measurement instrument and constitute the point-plane voltage-current (V-I) characteristic equation together with the voltage. Then, this paper constructs the nonlinear circuit model and differential equations of the system in an attempt to give the underlying dynamic mechanism based on the nonlinear V-I characteristics of the point-plane corona discharges. The results show that the chaotic phenomenon is found in the corona circuit by the experimental study and nonlinear dynamic analysis. The basic dynamic characteristics, including the Lyapunov exponent, the existence of the strange attractors, and the equilibrium points, are also found and analyzed in the development process of the corona circuit. Moreover, the time series of the corona current pulses obtained in the experiment is used to demonstrate the chaotic characteristics of the corona current based on the nonlinear dynamic circuit theory and the experimental basis. It is pointed out that the corona phenomenon is not a purely stochastic phenomenon but a short term deterministic chaotic activity.

  4. Progress Towards AIRS Science Team Version-7 at SRT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Kouvaris, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing level-3 Climate Data Records (CDRs) from AIRS that have been proven useful to scientists in understanding climate processes. CDRs are gridded level-3 products which include all cases passing AIRS Climate QC. SRT has made significant further improvements to AIRS Version-6. At the last Science Team Meeting, we described results using SRT AIRS Version-6.22. SRT Version-6.22 is now an official build at JPL called 6.2.4. Version-6.22 results are significantly improved compared to Version-6, especially with regard to water vapor and ozone profiles. We have adapted AIRS Version-6.22 to run with CrIS/ATMS, at the Sounder SIPS which processed CrIS/ATMS data for August 2014. JPL AIRS Version-6.22 uses the Version-6 AIRS tuning coefficients. AIRS Version-6.22 has at least two limitations which must be improved before finalization of Version-7: Version-6.22 total O3 has spurious high values in the presence of Saharan dust over the ocean; and Version-6.22 retrieved upper stratospheric temperatures are very poor in polar winter. SRT Version-6.28 addresses the first concern. John Blaisdell ran the analog of AIRS Version-6.28 in his own sandbox at JPL for the 14th and 15th of every month in 2014 and all of July and October for 2014. AIRS Version-6.28a is hot off the presses and addresses the second concern.

  5. Atmospheric Sciences Program summaries of research in FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document describes the activities and products of the Atmospheric Science Program of the Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, in FY 1993. Each description contains the project`s title; three-year funding history; the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date. Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states its goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used. This document has been indexed to aid the reader in locating research topics, participants, and research institutions in the text and the project descriptions. Comprehensive subject, principal investigator, and institution indexes are provided at the end of the text for this purpose. The comprehensive subject index includes keywords from the introduction and chapter texts in addition to those from the project descriptions.

  6. 75 FR 4069 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods Subcommittee (AAMMS or... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS); Meeting and Public...

  7. Significant Science from a Saturn Atmospheric Entry Probe Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Atkinson, D. H.; Atreya, S. K.; Colaprete, A.; Spilker, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    A single planet cannot be understood in isolation. Comparative studies of gas and ice giant planets' atmospheres are needed to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system and the giant planets, formation of giant planet atmospheres, and to provide a valuable link to extrasolar planets. Giant planets' tropospheres and interiors contain material from the epoch of solar system formation. Some of these materials are expected to be unprocessed and thus would reflect the protosolar nebula's composition at the time and location of each planet's formation. Other materials will have been extensively processed, reflecting a planet's evolutionary processes. Beginning with the Pioneer and Voyager flybys, space flight missions began assembling data sets needed for these comparisons. The Galileo orbiter and probe mission provided both remote sensing and the first in situ studies of Jupiter's atmosphere. Comparable understanding of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune would provide an important comparative planetology context for the Galileo Jupiter results. The Cassini orbiter continues to yield a wealth of discoveries about Saturn's atmosphere from its remote sensing measurements, and its "Proximal Orbits" (2016 and 2017) will provide knowledge of Saturn's internal structure to complement the Juno mission's measurements at Jupiter. A Saturn entry probe mission, to complement the Galileo Probe investigations at Jupiter, would complete a solid basis for improved understanding of both Jupiter and Saturn, and an important stepping stone to understanding Uranus and Neptune, and the formation and evolution of the solar system. The draft "2012 Planetary Science Decadal Survey" (PSDS), released in March 2011, supports the high priority of a Saturn entry probe mission, recommending its addition to NASA's New Frontiers Program. It lists two levels of science objectives: Tier 1, highest-priority objectives that any New Frontiers implementation must achieve; and Tier 2, high priorities

  8. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  9. Atmospheric Results from the MGS Horizon Science Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, T. Z.; Murphy, J. R.; Hollingsworth, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The Horizon Science Experiment (HORSE) utilizes the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly (MHSA) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbiter to measure 15-micron band thermal emission from the Martian atmosphere. During the first two phases of aerobraking, from September 1997 to May 1998, and from September 1998 to March 1999, one of the four MGS quadrants was pointed well onto the planet consistently during the near-periapsis aerobraking passes, allowing the device to obtain data on the latitudinal variation of middle atmospheric temperature (0.2 - 2.0 mbar). Of particular interest during the first phase (L(sub s) = 182 - 300 deg) were the effects of a prominent dust storm at L(sub s) =224 deg, and wavelike behavior in the strong temperature gradient near the north polar cap. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. SOARS: Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windham, T. L.; Hagan, M. E.

    2001-05-01

    SOARS, a model program, has developed a unique mutli-year mentoring and learning community to support, teach, and guide college students from diverse backgrounds. SOARS is dedicated to increasing the number of African American, American Indian, and Hispanic/Latino students enrolled in master's and doctoral degree programs in the atmospheric and related sciences with the goal of supporting the development of a diverse, internationally competitive and globally engaged workforce within the scientific community. Since its 1996 inception, 51 undergraduates have participated. All 51 completed or are on schedule to complete their undergraduate degrees with a major in an atmospheric or related science. Currently 17 protégés are in graduate programs. Eight have completed M.S. degrees; two are Ph.D. candidates. SOARS has a retention rate of 82 percent. The SOARS learning community provides multi-year programing for protégés that includes educational and research opportunities, mentoring, career counseling and guidance, and the possibility of financial support for a graduate level program. Protégés spend their summers at NCAR, participate in ongoing research projects, an eight week scientific writing and communication workshop, and scientific seminars. They benefit from long-term mentoring from respected scientists and professionals, learn about career opportunities, practice leadership and are encouraged to complete a graduate program in an atmospheric or related science. In this presentation we highlight the SOARS program structure and objectives with particular emphasis on the mentoring model that is fundamental to SOARS. We conclude with a summary of SOARS protégés' contributions to the broader scientific community which include oral and poster presentations at national and regional scientific conferences, as well as co-authorship of refereed journal articles.

  11. Science Laboratories and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Some of the issues surrounding the indoor air quality (IAQ) problems presented by science labs are discussed. Described are possible contaminants in labs, such as chemicals and biological organisms, and ways to lessen accidents arising from these sources are suggested. Some of the factors contributing to comfort, such as temperature levels, are…

  12. Using Case Studies as a Tool for Teaching Science Policy within the Atmospheric and Space Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, G.; Hooke, W.

    2006-12-01

    Earth system science is a field where policy, societal, & economic aspects are becoming increasingly important as our society becomes more dependent on activities and technologies that affect and are affected by the Earth system. It is important that present and future scientists are prepared to fully participate in the challenging opportunities that lie ahead, including communicating to policy makers, making public policy decisions, & communicating science to the public. One way of providing a better foundation is to integrate policy and science at universities. Therefore, the American Meteorological Society Policy Program (APP) is developing materials for university science policy curricula and the AMS Summer Policy Colloquium. In providing policy education activities and promoting policy research, the APP hopes to encourage more people to enter the field of science policy, contribute to and enhance the current policy dialogue, and create a clearinghouse for science policy case studies. Case studies are an excellent method to study policy issues in the atmospheric and space sciences for the following reasons: issues are too complex to be handled by any single factor (economic, social, or political science); purpose is to identify and analyze the impacts rather than test theoretical hypotheses; problems involve large number of participants (government at various levels, industries, and researchers); and study requires giving alternatives and consequence analysis for policy makers. Lessons learned will be presented on implementation of science policy case studies at the AMS Summer Policy Colloquium and George Mason University.

  13. Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

    This text, a revision and extension of the first three editions, consists of papers discussing the basic considerations in sampling air for specific purposes, sampler calibration, systems components, sample collectors, and descriptions of air-sampling instruments. (BT)

  14. AIRS Data Subsetting Service at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) DISC/DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.; Qin, Jianchun; Li, Jason; Gerasimov, Irina; Savtchenko, Andrey

    2004-01-01

    The AIRS mission, as a combination of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB), brings climate research and weather prediction into 21st century. From NASA' Aqua spacecraft, the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments measure humidity, temperature, cloud properties and the amounts of greenhouse gases. The AIRS also reveals land and sea- surface temperatures. Measurements from these three instruments are analyzed . jointly to filter out the effects of clouds from the IR data in order to derive clear-column air-temperature profiles and surface temperatures with high vertical resolution and accuracy. Together, they constitute an advanced operational sounding data system that have contributed to improve global modeling efforts and numerical weather prediction; enhance studies of the global energy and water cycles, the effects of greenhouse gases, and atmosphere-surface interactions; and facilitate monitoring of climate variations and trends. The high data volume generated by the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments and the complexity of its data format (Hierarchical Data Format, HDF) are barriers to AIRS data use. Although many researchers are interested in only a fraction of the data they receive or request, they are forced to run their algorithms on a much larger data set to extract the information of interest. In order to better server its users, the GES DISC/DAAC, provider of long-term archives and distribution services as well science support for the AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products, has developed various tools for performing channels, variables, parameter, spatial and derived products subsetting, resampling and reformatting operations. This presentation mainly describes the web-enabled subsetting services currently available at the GES DISC/DAAC that provide subsetting functions for all the Level 1B and Level 2 data products from the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments.

  15. Evolving Best Practice in Learning About Air Quality and Climate Change Science in ACCENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.

    2008-12-01

    Learning about air quality and climate change science has developed into a transdisciplinary impact generator, moulded by academic-stakeholder partnerships, where complementary skills and competences lead to a culture of dialogue, mutual learning and decision-making. These sweeping changes are mirrored in the evolving best practice within the European Network of Excellence on Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT). The Training and Education Programme in ACCENT pursues an integrated approach and innovative avenues to sharing knowledge and communicating air quality and climate change science to various end-user groups, including teachers, policy makers, stakeholders, and the general public. Early career scientists are involved in the process, and are trained to acquire new knowledge in a variety of learning communities and environments. Here, examples of both the open system of teaching within ACCENT training workshops for early career scientists, and the engagement of non-academic audiences in the joint learning process are presented.

  16. Role of the Atmospheric Sciences for Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleissl, J. P.; Lave, M.; Urquhart, B. G.; Mathiesen, P. J.; Bosch, J. L.; Chow, C. W.; Luoma, J. K.; Jamaly, M.; Nottrott, A. A.; Wegener, J.

    2011-12-01

    Solar energy is the fastest growing renewable energy source. Public interest, practically unlimited solar resources, and dramatic cost reductions have fueled the hopes for grid parity of solar energy production and dramatic growth of the industry. However, the variability of the solar fuel presents perceived and real challenges that can increase grid-integration costs of solar energy. Variability in global irradiance at the surface is dominated by solar geometry and atmospheric transmissivity effects with clouds explaining the majority of the non-geometry variance. Atmospheric scientists can play a major role in quantifying resource variability and improving solar forecasting models. I will start by presenting the state of the solar energy industry. Various studies of scaling of solar variability in space and time will be reviewed. Solar forecasting tools such as satellites, sky imagery, and numerical weather prediction will be introduced and state-of-the-art applications in the solar forecasting industry will be reviewed. Directions for RD&D in the atmospheric sciences will be presented.

  17. Communications Blackout Prediction for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, David; Edquist, Karl

    2005-01-01

    When a supersonic spacecraft enters a planetary atmosphere with v >> v(sub sound), a shock layer forms in the front of the body. An ionized sheath of plasma develops around the spacecraft, which results from the ionization of the atmospheric constituents as they are compressed and heated by the shock or heated within the boundary layer next to the surface. When the electron density surrounding the spacecraft becomes sufficiently high, communications can be disrupted (attenuation/blackout). During Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL's) atmospheric entry there will likely be a communication outage due to charged particles on the order of 60 to 100 seconds using a UHF link frequency looking out the shoulders of the wake region to orbiting relay asset. A UHF link looking out the base region would experience a shorter duration blackout, about 35 seconds for the stressed trajectory and possibly no blackout for the nominal trajectory. There is very little likelihood of a communications outage using X-band (however, X-band is not currently planned to be used during peak electron density phase of EDL).

  18. NIST gravimetrically prepared atmospheric level methane in dry air standards suite.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Carney, Jennifer; Guenther, Franklin R

    2012-04-17

    The Gas Metrology Group at the National Institute of Standards and Technology was tasked, by a congressional climate change act, to support the atmospheric measurement community through standards development of key greenhouse gases. This paper discusses the development of a methane (CH(4)) primary standard gas mixture (PSM) suite to support CH(4) measurement needs over a large amount-of-substance fraction range 0.3-20,000 μmol mol(-1), but with emphasis at the atmospheric level 300-4000 nmol mol(-1). Thirty-six CH(4) in dry air PSMs were prepared in 5.9 L high-pressure aluminum cylinders with use of a time-tested gravimetric technique. Ultimately 14 of these 36 PSMs define a CH(4) standard suite covering the nominal ambient atmospheric range of 300-4000 nmol mol(-1). Starting materials of pure CH(4) and cylinders of dry air were exhaustively analyzed to determine the purity and air composition. Gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to determine a CH(4) response for each of the 14 PSMs where the reproducibility of average measurement ratios as a standard error was typically (0.04-0.26) %. An ISO 6134-compliant generalized least-squares regression (GenLine) program was used to analyze the consistency of the CH(4) suite. All 14 PSMs passed the u-test with residuals between the gravimetric and the GenLine solution values being between -0.74 and 1.31 nmol mol(-1); (0.00-0.16)% relative absolute. One of the 14 PSMs, FF4288 at 1836.16 ± 0.75 nmol mol(-1) (k = 1) amount-of-substance fraction, was sent to the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), the Republic of Korea's National Metrology Institute, for comparison. The same PSM was subsequently sent to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for analysis to their standards. Results show agreement between KRISS-NIST of +0.13% relative (+2.3 nmol mol(-1)) and NOAA-NIST of -0.14% relative (-2.54 nmol mol(-1)).

  19. 1997 Canadian acid rain assessment. Volume 2: Atmospheric science assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The introduction to this report summarizes the approach and conclusions of a 1990 assessment of long-range transport and acid deposition in Canada from the perspective of the atmospheric sciences. It then presents the results of research activities conducted since the previous assessment. Chapter 2 examines the impact to date of the emission control programs in reducing wet and dry sulfate deposition, effects on acid aerosols and visibility, and regional-scale model development, evaluation, and application. Section 3 describes the application of two regional-scale acid deposition models, the Atmospheric Environment Service Lagrangian long-range transport model and the Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model, to develop projections of the efficacy of currently legislated sulfur dioxide emission control programs in reducing sulfate deposition. The focus is on eastern Canada from 1986--1990 to 2010, when controls will have been fully implemented. The final chapter summarizes key findings of the atmospheric science component of the acid deposition program with a view to identifying requirements for additional scientific work to support policy development on the acid rain and other air issues.

  20. Aura Atmospheric Data Products and Their Availability from NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Gopalan, A.; Smith, P.; Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's EOS-Aura spacecraft was launched successfully on July 15, 2004. The four instruments onboard the spacecraft are the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HBDLS). The Aura instruments are designed to gather earth sciences measurements across the ultraviolet, visible, infra-red, thermal and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Aura will provide over 70 distinct standard atmospheric data products for use in ozone layer and surface UV-B monitoring, air quality forecast, and atmospheric chemistry and climate change studies (http://eosaura.gsfc.nasa.gov/). These products include earth-atmosphere radiances and solar spectral irradiances; total column, tropospheric, and profiles of ozone and other trace gases, surface W-B flux; clouds and aerosol characteristics; and temperature, geopotential height, and water vapor profiles. The MLS, OMI, and HIRDLS data products will be archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), while data from TES will be archived at NASA Langley Research Center DAAC. Some of the standard products which have gone through quick preliminary checks are already archived at the GES DAAC (http://daac.nsfc.nasa.gov/) and are available to the Aura science team and data validation team members for data validation; and to the application and visualization software developers, for testing their application modules. Once data are corrected for obvious calibration problems and partially validated using in-situ observations, they would be made available to the broader user community. This presentation will provide details of the whole suite of Aura atmospheric data products, and the time line of the availability of the rest of the preliminary products and of the partially validated provisional products. Software and took available for data access, visualization, and data

  1. A visiting scientist program in atmospheric sciences for the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, M. H.

    1989-01-01

    A visiting scientist program was conducted in the atmospheric sciences and related areas at the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres. Research was performed in mathematical analysis as applied to computer modeling of the atmospheres; development of atmospheric modeling programs; analysis of remotely sensed atmospheric, surface, and oceanic data and its incorporation into atmospheric models; development of advanced remote sensing instrumentation; and related research areas. The specific research efforts are detailed by tasks.

  2. Version 5 product improvements from the atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Manning, Evan; Friedman, Steve; Broberg, Steven E.; Licata, Stephen J.; Elliott, Denis A.; Irion, Fredrick W.; Kahn, Brian H.; Fishbein, Evan; Olsen, Edward; Granger, Stephanie; Susskind, Joel; Keita, Fricky; Blaisdell, John; Strow, Larrabee; DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Barnet, Chris

    2006-12-01

    The AIRS instrument was launched in May 2002 into a polar sun-synchronous orbit onboard the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. Since then we have released three versions of the AIRS data product to the scientific community. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles and trace gas amounts. The first version of software, Version 2.0 was available to scientists shortly after launch with Version 3.0 released to the public in June 2003. Like all AIRS product releases, all products are accessible to the public in order to have the best user feedback on issues that appear in the data. Fortunately the products have had exceptional accuracy and stability. This paper presents the improvement between AIRS Version 4.0 and Version 5.0 products and shows examples of the new products available in Version 5.0.

  3. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Modeling for Combined Meteorology and Air Quality Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric Eulerian grid models for mesoscale and larger applications require sub-grid models for turbulent vertical exchange processes, particularly within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PSL). In combined meteorology and air quality modeling systems consistent PSL modeling of wi...

  4. Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP) — Air Vehicle Concept and Entry CONOPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, D.; Lee, G.; Polidan, R.; Bolisay, L.; Barnes, N.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the continued development of the Northrop Grumman/L’GARDE team’s long-lived, maneuverable platform to explore the Venus upper atmosphere. It focuses on the air vehicle design and entry CONOPs and their interdependencies.

  5. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division: Program report, FY 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    In 1988 the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division began its 15th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to years, and from kilometers to global, respectively. For this report, we have chosen to show a subset of results from several projects to illustrate the breadth, depth, and diversity of the modeling activities that are a major part of the Division's research, development, and application efforts. In addition, the recent reorganization of the Division, including the merger of another group with the Division, is described, and the budget, personnel, models, and publications are reviewed. 95 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields in Thunderstorms through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers.

    PubMed

    Schellart, P; Trinh, T N G; Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Scholten, O; Ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Ebert, U; Koehn, C; Rutjes, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J M; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Holties, H A; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Moldon, J; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D J; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P

    2015-04-24

    We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunderstorms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the atmospheric electric field, these patterns can be well reproduced by state-of-the-art simulation codes. This in turn provides a novel way to study atmospheric electric fields.

  7. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields in Thunderstorms through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers.

    PubMed

    Schellart, P; Trinh, T N G; Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Scholten, O; Ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Ebert, U; Koehn, C; Rutjes, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J M; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Holties, H A; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Moldon, J; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D J; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P

    2015-04-24

    We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunderstorms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the atmospheric electric field, these patterns can be well reproduced by state-of-the-art simulation codes. This in turn provides a novel way to study atmospheric electric fields. PMID:25955053

  8. Photovoltaics and materials science: helping to meet the environmental imperatives of clean air and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moomaw, William R.

    1991-02-01

    Human activity is altering the composition of the atmosphere in unprecedented ways. Fossil fuel combustion, which currently releases 5.6 billion metric tons of carbon annually, in combination with deforestation, has increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide 25% above pre-industrial levels. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases trap infrared radiation from the earth altering its thermal balance. While carbon dioxide is anticipated to contribute about one-half of human induced global warming, the world energy sector is responsible for an estimated 57% of future global warming when contributions from additional combustion related pollutants are included. In order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide even at current elevated levels, computer models suggest the need to reduce emission rates by approximately 75%. Present patterns of energy use are also contributing to major air pollution problems. An analysis of policy options shows that a combination of vastly improved energy efficiency strategies and carbon free energy production technologies are essential to simultaneously slow the rate of global warming and improve air quality. This paper summarizes current knowledge of the greenhouse effect and its consequences, and examines how photovoltaic electricity can contribute to atmospheric stabilization goals. Some specific examples and strategies will be given that may accelerate the rate at which photovoltaic technologies can penetrate the market. Should these strategies succeed, it will have majot implications for materials science including increased attention to pollution problems associated with the manufacture of many promising photovoltaic technologies.

  9. PROTECTING ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES WITH THE CLEAN AIR ACT: THE ROLE OF SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  10. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Contrasting characteristics of sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air and atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen glow discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Liu, D. X.; Iza, F.; Rong, M. Z.; Kong, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Glow discharges in air are often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for numerous chamber-free applications. This is due to the ubiquitous presence of air and the perceived abundance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in air plasmas. In this paper, sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air plasmas are shown to produce a low concentration of excited oxygen atoms but an abundance of excited nitrogen species, UV photons and ozone molecules. This contrasts sharply with the efficient production of excited oxygen atoms in comparable helium-oxygen discharges. Relevant reaction chemistry analysed with a global model suggests that collisional excitation of O2 by helium metastables is significantly more efficient than electron dissociative excitation of O2, electron excitation of O and ion-ion recombination. These results suggest different practical uses of the two oxygen-containing atmospheric discharges, with air plasmas being well suited for nitrogen and UV based chemistry and He-O2 plasmas for excited atomic oxygen based chemistry.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  12. Science from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Noble, Sarah; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. The spacecraft impacted the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE’s science objectives were twofold: (1) Determine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for particles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exospheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) acquired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wavelength range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. Among the preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longitudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lunar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization processes. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent “shroud” of small dust particles between 0

  13. Rapid Development of Bespoke Unmanned Platforms for Atmospheric Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobester, A.; Johnston, S. J.; Scanlan, J. P.; Hart, E. E.; O'Brien, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    The effective deployment of airborne atmospheric science instruments often hinges on the development cycle time of a suitable platform, one that is capable of delivering them to the desired altitude range for a specified amount of time, along a pre-determined trajectory. This could be driven by the need to respond rapidly to sudden, unexpected events (e.g., volcano eruptions, nuclear fallout, etc.) or simply to accommodate the iterative design and flight test cycle of the instrument developer. A shorter development cycle time would also afford us the ability to quickly adapt the hardware and control logic in response to unexpected results during an experimental campaign. We report on recent developments aimed at meeting this demand. As part of the Atmospheric Science Through Robotic Aircraft (ASTRA) initiative we have investigated the use of rapid prototyping technologies to this end, both on the 'airframe' of the platform itself and on the on-board systems. We show how fast multi-disciplinary design optimization techniques, coupled with computer-controlled additive manufacturing (3D printing) and laser cutting methods and electronic prototyping (using standard, modular, programmable building blocks) can lead to the delivery of a fully customized platform integrating a given instrument in a timescale of the order of ten days. Specific examples include the design and testing of a balloon-launched glider sensorcraft and a stratospheric balloon system. The 'vehicle' for the latter was built on a 3D printer using a copolymer thermoplastic material and fitted with a sacrificial protective 'cage' laser-cut from an open-cell foam. The data logging, tracking, sensor integration and communications services of the platform were constructed using the .net Gadgeteer open source hardware kit. The flight planning and eventual post-flight recovery of the system is enabled by a generic, stochastic trajectory simulation tool, also developed as part of the ASTRA initiative. This

  14. Lifetimes and fates of toxic air contaminants in California's atmosphere, June 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    1993-06-01

    The report presents information concerning the nature and rate of removal of toxic air pollutants (TAPs) from the atmosphere and any products formed; it also addresses the formation of possible TAPs in the atmosphere. It contains a comprehensive review of the atmospheric chemistry of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, N-nitrosomorpholine, and dialkylnitrosamines. It also outlines the atmospheric lifetimes of 23 possible TAPs, including: hexachlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, dimethyl sulfate, propylene oxide, chlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, benxyl chloride, acrylonitrile, toluene diisocyanates, and 1,4-dioxane. It also reviews possible atmospheric formation of TAPs. Acrolein, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and PAHs are shown to be present in the atmosphere largely due to atmospheric reactions. Another section describes an investigation of the mutagenicity of products of simulated atmospheric reactions of gasoline and terpenes (emitted from vegetation). These may not be major sources of ambient mutagenicity in California.

  15. [Influence of atmospheric transport on air pollutant levels at a mountain background site of East China].

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Bin; Xu, Ju-Yang; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Ji, Xian-Xin

    2014-08-01

    Transport characteristics of air pollutants transported to the background atmosphere of East China were investigated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) 4.8 model driven by NCEP reanalysis data during June 2011 to May 2012. Based on the air pollutants monitoring data collected at the National atmospheric background monitoring station (Wuyishan station) in Fujian Province, characteristics of different clustered air masses as well as the origins of highly polluted air masses were further examined. The results showed that 65% of all the trajectories, in which air masses mainly passed over highly polluted area of East China, Jiangxi province and upper air in desert areas of Northwest China, carried polluted air to the station, while the rest of trajectories (35%) with air masses originated from ocean could effectively remove air pollutants at the Wuyishan station. However, the impact on the air pollutants for each air mass group varied with seasons. Elevated SO2 concentrations observed at the background station were mainly influenced by coal burning activities in Northern China during heating season. The high CO concentrations were likely associated with the pollutants emission in the process of coal production and consumption in Anhui province. The elevated NO(x), O3, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were mostly impacted by East China with high levels of air pollutants.

  16. Jupiter Atmospheric Science with JIMO: Linking Science Objectives and Measurement Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanover, N. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Although the primary focus of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission will be the characterization and study of Jupiter's icy moons, there will be opportunities throughout the mission for unprecendented observations of Jupiter. With an adaptable suite of payload instruments, the atmospheric data collected by JIMO can help to answer fundamental questions about the largest planet in our solar system that remain after (or were generated by) previous spacecraft reconnaissance (e.g. Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini). Near-IR (0.7-4 micron) spectral imaging will most likely be used to identify mineralogies and ices on the Jovian satellites by virtue of their spectral signatures. This same capability is very well tailored for studies of Jovian atmospheric dynamics and structure. Near-IR methane absorption bands allow 2-D mapping of the horizontal wind field at size scales to tens of kms, as well as the height dependence of this field above the ammonia cloud deck (700 to a few mbar), constraining current models of atmospheric vertical structure. Likewise, atmospheric ice aerosols with unique spectroscopic signatures (ammonia ice near 1.5, 2.0, and 2.8 microns and water ice between 3.0 - 3.5 microns) can be detected and mapped using spectral difference imaging or spectrally inclusive principal-component methods. Spectral imaging of the Jovian aurora via (3)H(+) emission lines between 3 - 4 microns can be used to spatially map the interplay between the satellites) Jupiter's magnetosphere, and Jupiter's atmosphere. Each of these measurements addresses one or more fundamental questions related to the energy balance in Jupiter's atmosphere. All of these tunable imaging objectives can be achieved using acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF's), which have been used for years in ground-based observing instruments and which have been proposed for numerous planetary missions. The application of this technology to the science objectives of both the icy satellites and Jovian

  17. Experimental Determination of the Mass of Air Molecules from the Law of Atmospheres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayn, Carl H.; Galvin, Vincent, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A gas pressure gauge has been constructed for use in a student experiment involving the law of atmospheres. From pressure data obtained at selected elevations the average mass of air molecules is determined and compared to that calculated from the molecular weights and percentages of constituents to the air. (Author/BB)

  18. Development of Level 3 (gridded) products for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, Stephanie L.; Leroy, Stephen S.; Manning, Evan M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Oliphant, Robert B.; Braverman, Amy; Lee, Sung-Yung; Lambrigtsen, Bjom H.

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) sounding system is a suite of infrared and microwave instruments flown as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) onboard the Aqua platform. The AIRS dataset provides a daily, global view of Earth processes at a finer vertical resolution than ever before. However, analysis of the AIRS data is a daunting task given the sheer volume and complexity of the data. The volume of data produced by the EOS project is unprecedented; the AIRS project alone will produce many terabytes of data over the lifetime of the mission. This paper describes development of AIRS Level 3 data products that will help to alleviate problems of access and usability.

  19. The impact of AIRS atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles on hurricane forecasts: Ike (2008) and Irene (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jing; Li, Jun; Schmit, Timothy J.; Li, Jinlong; Liu, Zhiquan

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) measurements are a valuable supplement to current observational data, especially over the oceans where conventional data are sparse. In this study, two types of AIRS-retrieved temperature and moisture profiles, the AIRS Science Team product (SciSup) and the single field-of-view (SFOV) research product, were evaluated with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis data over the Atlantic Ocean during Hurricane Ike (2008) and Hurricane Irene (2011). The evaluation results showed that both types of AIRS profiles agreed well with the ECMWF analysis, especially between 200 hPa and 700 hPa. The average standard deviation of both temperature profiles was approximately 1 K under 200 hPa, where the mean AIRS temperature profile from the AIRS SciSup retrievals was slightly colder than that from the AIRS SFOV retrievals. The mean SciSup moisture profile was slightly drier than that from the SFOV in the mid troposphere. A series of data assimilation and forecast experiments was then conducted with the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system for hurricanes Ike and Irene. The results showed an improvement in the hurricane track due to the assimilation of AIRS clear-sky temperature profiles in the hurricane environment. In terms of total precipitable water and rainfall forecasts, the hurricane moisture environment was found to be affected by the AIRS sounding assimilation. Meanwhile, improving hurricane intensity forecasts through assimilating AIRS profiles remains a challenge for further study.

  20. Pesticides in the atmosphere of the Mississippi River Valley, part II - Air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, W.T.; Majewski, M.S.; Goolsby, D.A.; Wiebe, F.W.; Coupe, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Weekly composite air samples were collected from early April through to mid-September 1995 at three paired urban and agricultural sites along the Mississippi River region of the Midwestern United States. The paired sampling sites were located in Mississippi, Iowa, and Minnesota. A background site, removed from dense urban and agricultural areas, was located on the shore of Lake Superior in Michigan. Each sample was analyzed for 49 compounds; of these, 21 of 26 herbicides, 13 of 19 insecticides, and 4 of 4 related transformation products were detected during the study, with most pesticides detected in more than one sample. The maximum number of pesticides detected in an air sample was 18. Herbicides were the predominant type of pesticide detected at every site. Detection frequencies of most herbicides were similar at the urban and agricultural sites in Iowa and Minnesota. In Mississippi, herbicides generally were detected more frequently at the agricultural site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and carbaryl, which are used in agricultural and non-agricultural settings, were detected more frequently in urban sites than agricultural sites in Mississippi and Iowa. Methyl parathion was detected in 70% of the samples from the Mississippi agricultural site and at the highest concentration (62 ng/m3 air) of any insecticide measured in the study. At the background site, dacthal (100%), atrazine (35%), cyanazine (22%), and the (primarily atrazine) triazine transformation products CIAT (35%) and CEAT (17%) were detected most frequently, suggesting their potential for long-range atmospheric transport. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Do-It-Yourself Air Sensors – Exploring the Atmosphere and Turning on Light Bulbs!?

    EPA Science Inventory

    These are educational slides that will be presented in a webinar to the National Science Teachers Association. Topics covered include general air quality, current EPA research, and EPA's particle sensor kit that is a classroom activity.

  2. Simulation and theory of ions at atmospherically relevant aqueous liquid-air interfaces.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Douglas J; Stern, Abraham C; Baer, Marcel D; Levin, Yan; Mundy, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry occurring at or near the surface of aqueous droplets and thin films in the atmosphere influences air quality and climate. Molecular dynamics simulations are becoming increasingly useful for gaining atomic-scale insight into the structure and reactivity of aqueous interfaces in the atmosphere. Here we review simulation studies of atmospherically relevant aqueous liquid-air interfaces, with an emphasis on ions that play important roles in the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols. In addition to surveying results from simulation studies, we discuss challenges to the refinement and experimental validation of the methodology for simulating ion adsorption to the air-water interface and recent advances in elucidating the driving forces for adsorption. We also review the recent development of a dielectric continuum theory capable of reproducing simulation and experimental data on ion behavior at aqueous interfaces.

  3. Atmospheric studies from the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing atmospheric structure reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Maue, A.; Withers, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entered the martian atmosphere on Aug. 6, 2012 landing in Gale crater (4.6°S, 137.4°E) in the local mid-afternoon. Aerodynamic accelerations were measured during descent and atmospheric density, pressure and temperature profiles have been calculated from this data. Using an averaging technique developed for the NASA Phoenix Mars mission, the profiles are extended to 134.1 km, twice that of the engineering reconstruction. Large-scale temperature oscillations in the MSL temperature profile are suggestive of thermal tides. Comparing the MSL temperature profile with measured Mars Climate Sounder temperature profiles and Mars Climate Database model output highlights the presence of diurnal tides. Derived vertical wavelengths for the diurnal migrating tide are larger than predicted from idealized tidal theory, indicating an added presence of nonmigrating diurnal tides. Sub-CO2 condensation mesospheric temperatures, very similar to the Pathfinder temperature profile, allude to the possibility of CO2 clouds. This is however not supported by recent observations and models.

  4. SAVS: A Space and Atmospheric Visualization Science system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Mankofsky, A.; Blanchard, P.; Goodrich, C.; McNabb, D.; Kamins, D.

    1995-01-01

    The research environment faced by space and atmospheric scientists in the 1990s is characterized by unprecedented volumes of new data, by ever-increasing repositories of unexploited mission files, and by the widespread use of empirical and large-scale computational models needed for the synthesis of understanding across data sets and discipline boundaries. The effective analysis and interpretation of such massive amounts of information have become the subjects of legitimate concern. With SAVS (a Space and Atmospheric Visualization Science System), we address these issues by creating a 'push-button' software environment that mimics the logical scientific processes in data acquisition, reduction, and analysis without requiring a detailed understanding of the methods, networks, and modules that link the tools and effectively execute the functions. SAVS provides (1) a customizable framework for accessing a powerful set of visualization tools based on the popular AVS visualization software with hooks to PV-Wave and access to Khoros modules, (2) a set of mathematical and statistical tools, (3) an extensible library of discipline-specific functions and models (e.g., MSIS, IRI, Feldstein Oval, IGRF, satellite tracking with CADRE-3, etc.), and (4) capabilities for local and remote data base access. The system treats scalar, vector, and image data, and runs on most common Unix workstations. We present a description of SAVS and its components, followed by several applications based on generic research interests in interplanetary and magnetospheric physics (IMP/ISTP), active experiments in space (CRRES), and mission planning focused on the Earth's thermospheric, ionospheric, and mesospheric domains (TIMED).

  5. DISCOVER-AQ: an innovative approach to study the vertical distribution of air quality constituents in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Crawford, James H.; Müller, Markus; Mikoviny, Tomas; Cady-Pereira, Karen E.

    2014-05-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is a multi-year NASA research project to improve remote sensing of air quality from space. Satellite-based measurements of air pollutants typically provide information integrated over the total atmospheric column while it is the lowermost part of the atmosphere that is of interest from a public health perspective. DISCOVER-AQ has implemented a new field observation strategy to collect a comprehensive dataset on the vertical distribution of air pollutants in the atmosphere. In situ measurements from the NASA P-3B Airborne Science Laboratory generate profile information of air quality constituents over a set of selected ground monitoring sites. Ground and profile information is tied to column information collected by active and passive remote sensors looking downward from a second King Air aircraft flying higher in the atmosphere above the P-3B. Vertical profiles of air pollutants are measured repetitively during different times of the day and under different meteorological conditions occurring in the timeframe of 1-month field campaigns. Targeted regions in the U.S. affected by poor air quality include the Washington/Baltimore metropolitan area (June/July 2011), the San Joaquin Valley in California (January/February 2013), the Houston metropolitan area (September 2013) and the Northern Front Range area in Colorado (June/July 2014). Herein, we will present the DISCOVER-AQ project to the European community and show preliminary analyses of the obtained data. The latter will focus on non-methane hydrocarbons and ammonia, being the species measured by our newly developed airborne PTR-ToF-MS instrument (see session AS4.17). In situ ammonia data collected over the San Joaquin Valley are in promising agreement with satellite data obtained from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). Web site: http://discover-aq.larc.nasa.gov/ Funding

  6. Bitz, Ginoux, Jacobson, Nizkorodov, and Yang Receive 2013 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2014-07-01

    I am truly honored to accept the Ascent Award from the Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU. The amazingly dynamic and intellectually stimulating atmospheric sciences community always makes my annual trips to the AGU Fall Meeting a real treat. I feel really fortunate to be a member of this vibrant community.

  7. Final Technical Report for earmark project "Atmospheric Science Program at the University of Louisville"

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, Timothy Edward

    2014-02-11

    We have completed a 3-year project to enhance the atmospheric science program at the University of Louisville, KY (est. 2008). The goals were to complete an undergraduate atmospheric science laboratory (Year 1) and to hire and support an assistant professor (Years 2 and 3). Both these goals were met on schedule, and slightly under budget.

  8. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  9. Atmospheric profiles at the southern Pierre Auger Observatory and their relevance to air shower measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Keilhauer, B.; Bluemer, J.; Engel, R.; Gora, D.; Homola, P.; Klages, H.; Pekala, J.; Risse, M.; Unger, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.

    2005-07-01

    The dependence of atmospheric conditions on altitude and time have to be known at the site of an air shower experiment for accurate reconstruction of extensive air showers and their simulations. The height-profile of atmospheric depth is of particular interest as it enters directly into the reconstruction of longitudinal shower development and of the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays. For the southern part of the Auger Observatory, the atmosphere has been investigated in a number of campaigns with meteorological radio soundings and with continuous measurements of ground-based weather stations. Focusing on atmospheric depth and temperature profiles, temporal variations are described and monthly profiles are developed. Uncertainties of the monthly atmospheres that are currently applied in the Auger reconstruction are discussed.

  10. Communications Blackout Predictions for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, David D.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is expected to be a long-range, long-duration science laboratory rover on the Martian surface. MSL will provide a significant milestone that paves the way for future landed missions to Mars. NASA is studying options to launch MSL as early as 2009. There are three elements to the spacecraft; carrier (cruise stage), entry vehicle, and rover. The rover will have a UHF proximity link as the primary path for EDL communications and may have an X-band direct-to-Earth link as a back-up. Given the importance of collecting critical event telemetry data during atmospheric entry, it is important to understand the ability of a signal link to be maintained, especially during the period near peak convective heating. The received telemetry during entry (or played back later) will allow for the performance of the Entry-Descent-Landing technologies to be assessed. These technologies include guided entry for precision landing, a new sky-crane landing system and powered descent. MSL will undergo an entry profile that may result in a potential communications blackout caused by ionized particles for short periods near peak heating. The vehicle will use UHF and possibly X-band during the entry phase. The purpose of this rep0rt is to quantify or bound the likelihood of any such blackout at UHF frequencies (401 MHz) and X-band frequencies (8.4 GHz). Two entry trajectory scenarios were evaluated: a stressful entry trajectory to quantify an upper-bound for any possible blackout period, and a nominal trajectory to quantify likelihood of blackout for such cases.

  11. Communications Blackout Predictions for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, David D.; Edquist, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is expected to be a long-range, long-duration science laboratory rover on the Martian surface. MSL will provide a significant milestone that paves the way for future landed missions to Mars. NASA is studying options to launch MSL as early as 2009. MSL will be the first mission to demonstrate the new technology of 'smart landers', which include precision landing and hazard avoidance in order to -land at scientifically interesting sites that would otherwise be unreachable. There are three elements to the spacecraft; carrier (cruise stage), entry vehicle, and rover. The rover will have an X-band direct-to-Earth (DTE) link as well as a UHF proximity link. There is also a possibility of an X-band proximity link. Given the importance of collecting critical event telemetry data during atmospheric entry, it is important to understand the ability of a signal link to be maintained, especially during the period near peak convective heating. The received telemetry during entry (or played back later) will allow for the performance of the Entry-Descent-Landing technologies to be assessed. These technologies include guided entry for precision landing, hazard avoidance, a new sky-crane landing system and powered descent. MSL will undergo an entry profile that may result in a potential communications blackout caused by ionized plasma for short periods near peak heating. The vehicle will use UHF and possibly X-band during the entry phase. The purpose of this report is to quantify or bound the likelihood of any such blackout at UHF frequencies (401 MHz) and X-band frequencies (8.4 GHz). Two entry trajectory scenarios were evaluated: a stressful entry trajectory to quantify an upper-bound for any possible blackout period, and a nominal likely trajectory to quantify likelihood of blackout for such cases.

  12. Effects of 10.6-mu Laser Induced Air Chemistry on the Atmospheric Refractive Index.

    PubMed

    Wood, A D; Camac, M; Gerry, E T

    1971-08-01

    Atmospheric absorption of 10.6-mu radiation can either heat or cool the air, depending upon atmospheric conditions. Absorption by CO(2) is essentially from the (100) to the (001) states. The depleted (100) state is rapidly replenished by energy transfer from translation, cooling the atmosphere. The (001) state slowly transfers energy through the N(2) back to translation, eventually heating the atmosphere. Cooling increases the density and index of refraction, and the resulting gradient tends to focus a gaussian beam. This partially offsets the usual heating effects and associated ray divergence.

  13. An objective definition of air mass types affecting Athens, Greece; the corresponding atmospheric pressure patterns and air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Sindosi, O A; Katsoulis, B D; Bartzokas, A

    2003-08-01

    This work aims at defining characteristic air mass types that dominate in the region of Athens, Greece during the cold (November-March) and the warm (May-September) period of the year and also at evaluating the corresponding concentration levels of the main air pollutants. For each air mass type, the mean atmospheric pressure distribution (composite maps) over Europe and the Mediterranean is estimated in order to reveal the association of atmospheric circulation with air pollution levels in Athens. The data basis for this work consists of daily values of thirteen meteorological and six pollutant parameters covering the period 1993-97. The definition of the characteristic air mass types is attempted objectively by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The results show that during the cold period of the year there are six prevailing air mass types (at least 3% of the total number of days) and six infrequent ones. The examination of the corresponding air pollution concentration levels shows that the primary air pollutants appear with increased concentrations when light or southerly winds prevail. This is usually the case when a high pressure system is located over the central Mediterranean or a low pressure system lays over south Italy, respectively. Low levels of the primary pollutants are recorded under northeasterly winds, mainly caused by a high pressure system over Ukraine. During the warm period of the year, the southwestern Asia thermal low and the subtropical anticyclone of the Atlantic Ocean affect Greece. Though these synoptic systems cause almost stagnant conditions, four main air mass types are dominant and ten others, associated with extreme weather, are infrequent. Despite the large amounts of total solar radiation characterizing this period, ozone concentrations remain at low levels in central Athens because of its destruction by nitric oxide.

  14. Development and case study of a science-based software platform to support policy making on air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Lao, Yanwen; Jang, Carey; Lin, Chen-Jen; Xing, Jia; Wang, Shuxiao; Fu, Joshua S; Deng, Shuang; Xie, Junping; Long, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementations of a novel software platform that supports real-time, science-based policy making on air quality through a user-friendly interface. The software, RSM-VAT, uses a response surface modeling (RSM) methodology and serves as a visualization and analysis tool (VAT) for three-dimensional air quality data obtained by atmospheric models. The software features a number of powerful and intuitive data visualization functions for illustrating the complex nonlinear relationship between emission reductions and air quality benefits. The case study of contiguous U.S. demonstrates that the enhanced RSM-VAT is capable of reproducing the air quality model results with Normalized Mean Bias <2% and assisting in air quality policy making in near real time.

  15. Challenges and opportunities of cloud computing for atmospheric sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Montes, Diego A.; Añel, Juan A.; Pena, Tomás F.; Wallom, David C. H.

    2016-04-01

    Cloud computing is an emerging technological solution widely used in many fields. Initially developed as a flexible way of managing peak demand it has began to make its way in scientific research. One of the greatest advantages of cloud computing for scientific research is independence of having access to a large cyberinfrastructure to fund or perform a research project. Cloud computing can avoid maintenance expenses for large supercomputers and has the potential to 'democratize' the access to high-performance computing, giving flexibility to funding bodies for allocating budgets for the computational costs associated with a project. Two of the most challenging problems in atmospheric sciences are computational cost and uncertainty in meteorological forecasting and climate projections. Both problems are closely related. Usually uncertainty can be reduced with the availability of computational resources to better reproduce a phenomenon or to perform a larger number of experiments. Here we expose results of the application of cloud computing resources for climate modeling using cloud computing infrastructures of three major vendors and two climate models. We show how the cloud infrastructure compares in performance to traditional supercomputers and how it provides the capability to complete experiments in shorter periods of time. The monetary cost associated is also analyzed. Finally we discuss the future potential of this technology for meteorological and climatological applications, both from the point of view of operational use and research.

  16. Air Quality Science and Regulatory Efforts Require Geostationary Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Allen, D. J.; Stehr, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Air quality scientists and regulatory agencies would benefit from the high spatial and temporal resolution trace gas and aerosol data that could be provided by instruments on a geostationary platform. More detailed time-resolved data from a geostationary platform could be used in tracking regional transport and in evaluating mesoscale air quality model performance in terms of photochemical evolution throughout the day. The diurnal cycle of photochemical pollutants is currently missing from the data provided by the current generation of atmospheric chemistry satellites which provide only one measurement per day. Often peak surface ozone mixing ratios are reached much earlier in the day during major regional pollution episodes than during local episodes due to downward mixing of ozone that had been transported above the boundary layer overnight. The regional air quality models often do not simulate this downward mixing well enough and underestimate surface ozone in regional episodes. Having high time-resolution geostationary data will make it possible to determine the magnitude of this lower-and mid-tropospheric transport that contributes to peak eight-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations. We will show ozone and PM(sub 2.5) episodes from the CMAQ model and suggest ways in which geostationary satellite data would improve air quality forecasting. Current regulatory modeling is typically being performed at 12 km horizontal resolution. State and regional air quality regulators in regions with complex topography and/or land-sea breezes are anxious to move to 4-km or finer resolution simulations. Geostationary data at these or finer resolutions will be useful in evaluating such models.

  17. Large-Scale Atmospheric Variability in AIRS CO2 and O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Jiang, X.; Chahine, M.; Yung, Y.; Olsen, E.; Chen, L.

    2006-12-01

    We present a modeling analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) from AIRS with results from two atmospheric chemistry and transport models (CTMs), in the context of the large-scale atmospheric transport. AIRS data, from selected periods in 2003 are retrieved applying the Vanishing Partial Derivative (VPD) method (Chahine et al. [GRL, 2005] and the presentation by Chahine et al., this meeting). Corresponding model results are simulated by 2-D and 3-D atmospheric CTMs. The AIRS retrieved and model simulated CO2 mixing ratios, averaged over 300-500 hPa, are compared with the Matsueda et al. observations in the tropics between 9 and 13 km (see the presentation by Jiang et al., this meeting). The latitudinal distributions of O3, both retrieved and simulated, are compared with ozonesonde data. Both comparisons show reasonable agreement. We then examine the spatiotemporal variabilities of CO2 and O3 and their correlation, both in the AIRS data and model results. Our objective is to better understand the AIRS observed atmospheric variability in CO2 that is associated with underlying large-scale atmospheric transport, particularly the stratosphere-troposphere- exchange (STE) at northern high latitudes in spring and the Asian monsoon summer circulation over South Asia.

  18. Atmospheric infrared sounder on AIRS with emphasis on level 2 products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sung-Yung; Fetzer, Eric; Granger, Stephanie; Hearty, Thomas; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Manning, Evan M.; Olsen, Edward; Pagano, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched aboard EOS Aqua in May of 2002. AIRS is a grating spectrometer with almost 2400 channels covering the 3.74 to 15.40 micron spectral region with a nominal spectral resolution ((nu)/(delta)(nu)) of 1200, with some gaps. In addition, AIRS has 4 channels in the NIR/VIS region. The AIRS operates in conjunction with the microwave sounders Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) and Humidity Sounder of Brazil (HSB). The microwave sounders are mainly used for cloud clearing of IR radiances, or to remove the effect of cloud on the IR radiances.

  19. Technology Needs Assessment of an Atmospheric Observation System for Multidisciplinary Air Quality/Meteorology Missions, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, U. R.; Bortner, M. H.; Grenda, R. N.; Brehm, W. F.; Frippel, G. G.; Alyea, F.; Kraiman, H.; Folder, P.; Krowitz, L.

    1982-01-01

    The technology advancements that will be necessary to implement the atmospheric observation systems are considered. Upper and lower atmospheric air quality and meteorological parameters necessary to support the air quality investigations were included. The technology needs were found predominantly in areas related to sensors and measurements of air quality and meteorological measurements.

  20. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  1. Semantic Data Access Services at NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffer, E.; Hertz, J.; Kusterer, J.

    2012-12-01

    The corpus of Earth Science data products at the Atmospheric Science Data Center at NASA's Langley Research Center comprises a widely heterogeneous set of products, even among those whose subject matter is very similar. Two distinct data products may both contain data on the same parameter, for instance, solar irradiance; but the instruments used, and the circumstances under which the data were collected and processed, may differ significantly. Understanding the differences is critical to using the data effectively. Data distribution services must be able to provide prospective users with enough information to allow them to meaningfully compare and evaluate the data products offered. Semantic technologies - ontologies, triple stores, reasoners, linked data - offer functionality for addressing this issue. Ontologies can provide robust, high-fidelity domain models that serve as common schema for discovering, evaluating, comparing and integrating data from disparate products. Reasoning engines and triple stores can leverage ontologies to support intelligent search applications that allow users to discover, query, retrieve, and easily reformat data from a broad spectrum of sources. We argue that because of the extremely complex nature of scientific data, data distribution systems should wholeheartedly embrace semantic technologies in order to make their data accessible to a broad array of prospective end users, and to ensure that the data they provide will be clearly understood and used appropriately by consumers. Toward this end, we propose a distribution system in which formal ontological models that accurately and comprehensively represent the ASDC's data domain, and fully leverage the expressivity and inferential capabilities of first order logic, are used to generate graph-based representations of the relevant relationships among data sets, observational systems, metadata files, and geospatial, temporal and scientific parameters to help prospective data consumers

  2. Dessler, Jimenez, Klein, and Nenes Receive 2012 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Andrew E. Dessler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2013-11-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU awards one of the four Ascent Awards to Professor Andrew E. Dessler of the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Texas A&M University for fundamental contributions to the understanding of stratospheric-tropospheric exchange processes and the physics of ozone depletion and for attempts to unravel water vapor and cloud feedbacks in the climate system. In addition, he is commended for his ceaseless work in communicating the science of climate change to the public.

  3. Atmospheric light air ion concentrations and related meteorologic factors in Rezekne city, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Skromulis, Andris; Noviks, Gotfrids

    2012-04-01

    The well-minded impact of light negative air ions on human organism is still under discussion. The measurements of air ions are not widespread in Latvia yet. The paper presents new results of air pollution evaluation in Rezekne city. Measurements of positive and negative air ion concentrations in Rezekne city were taken during the spring, summer and autumn 2009 and during the winter 2010. Measurements were taken by portative air ions counter "Sapfir-3M" in eight different points of Rezekne city thrice a day. The concentrations of positive and negative air ions with mobility factor k > or = 0.4 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) were measured. Temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, direction, etc., were also taken into account. The approximate interconnection between ionization and chemical and mechanical air pollution in relation with meteorological conditions was analyzed. The highest level of air ion concentration was observed in mornings, whereas in afternoons this concentration level decreased due to the growth of anthropogenic air pollution in the city, as light air ions, because of their charge, promoted the coagulation and the settlement of pollution particles. This regularity is typical for summer, whereas in spring, autumn and winter it is not characteristic. The unipolarity factor was usually less than 1 in mornings, but usually larger than 1 in afternoons especially in the most polluted city areas where minor concentration of air ions was detected. The ionization level is an original indicator of energetic saturation and aerosol pollution of atmospheric air.

  4. Carbon dioxide capture from atmospheric air using sodium hydroxide spray.

    PubMed

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Keith, David W; Lowry, Gregory V

    2008-04-15

    In contrast to conventional carbon capture systems for power plants and other large point sources, the system described in this paper captures CO2 directly from ambient air. This has the advantages that emissions from diffuse sources and past emissions may be captured. The objective of this research is to determine the feasibility of a NaOH spray-based contactor for use in an air capture system by estimating the cost and energy requirements per unit CO2 captured. A prototype system is constructed and tested to measure CO2 absorption, energy use, and evaporative water loss and compared with theoretical predictions. A numerical model of drop collision and coalescence is used to estimate operating parameters for a full-scale system, and the cost of operating the system per unit CO2 captured is estimated. The analysis indicates that CO2 capture from air for climate change mitigation is technically feasible using off-the-shelf technology. Drop coalescence significantly decreases the CO2 absorption efficiency; however, fan and pump energy requirements are manageable. Water loss is significant (20 mol H2O/mol CO2 at 15 degrees C and 65% RH) but can be lowered by appropriately designing and operating the system. The cost of CO2 capture using NaOH spray (excluding solution recovery and CO2 sequestration, which may be comparable) in the full-scale system is 96 $/ton-CO2 in the base case, and ranges from 53 to 127 $/ton-CO2 under alternate operating parameters and assumptions regarding capital costs and mass transfer rate. The low end of the cost range is reached by a spray with 50 microm mean drop diameter, which is achievable with commercially available spray nozzles.

  5. Organics in the atmosphere: From air pollution to biogeochemical cycles and climate (Vilhelm Bjerknes Medal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Organics are key players in the biosphere-atmosphere-climate interactions. They have also a significant anthropogenic component due to primary emissions or interactions with pollution. The organic pool in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of compounds of variable reactivity and properties, variable content in C, H, O, N and other elements depending on their origin and their history in the atmosphere. Multiphase atmospheric chemistry is known to produce organic acids with high oxygen content, like oxalic acid. This water soluble organic bi-acid is used as indicator for cloud processing and can form complexes with atmospheric Iron, affecting Iron solubility. Organics are also carriers of other nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus. They also interact with solar radiation and with atmospheric water impacting on climate. In line with this vision for the role of organics in the atmosphere, we present results from a global 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model on the role of gaseous and particulate organics in atmospheric chemistry, accounting for multiphase chemistry and aerosol ageing in the atmosphere as well as nutrients emissions, atmospheric transport and deposition. Historical simulations and projections highlight the human impact on air quality and atmospheric deposition to the oceans. The results are put in the context of climate change. Uncertainties and implications of our findings for biogeochemical and climate modeling are discussed.

  6. The Study of the Atmosphere in the Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to justify the inclusion of meteorology within the science curriculum. Reflects upon the nature of science and some current issues in science education, and examines the reality of including meteorology within worldwide science curricula. Contains 37 references. (Author/DDR)

  7. Means of atmospheric air pollution reduction during drilling wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkitsa, L.; Yatsyshyn, T.; Lyakh, M.; Sydorenko, O.

    2016-08-01

    The process of drilling oil and gas wells is the source of air pollution through drilling mud evaporation containing hazardous chemical substances. The constructive solution for cleaning device of downhole tool that contains elements covering tube and clean the surface from the mud in the process of rising from the well is offered. Inside the device is filled with magnetic fluid containing the substance neutralizing hazardous substances. The use of the equipment proposed will make it possible to avoid penetration of harmful substances into the environment and to escape the harmful effects of aggressive substances for staff health and increase rig's fire safety.

  8. GENESIS SciFlo: Enabling Multi-Instrument Atmospheric Science Using Grid Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Tang, B.; Manipon, G.; Yunck, T.; Fetzer, E.; Braverman, A.; Dobinson, E.

    2004-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of web services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations will include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-strato-sphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we are developing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable web services and executable operators into a distributed computing flow (operator tree). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out

  9. Development and test of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Paul G.; Bates, Jerry C.; Miller, Christopher R.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; O'Callaghan, Fred; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Karnik, Avinash R.

    1999-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) has been developed for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program for a scheduled launch on the EOS PM-1 spacecraft in December 2000. AIRS, working in concert with complementary microwave instrumentation on EOS PM-1, is designed to provide both new and more accurate data about the atmosphere, land and oceans for application to climate studies and weather prediction. Among the important parameters to be derived from AIRS observations are atmospheric temperature profiles with an average accuracy of 1 K in 1 kilometer (km) layers in the troposphere, humidity profiles to 10% accuracy and surface temperatures with an average accuracy of 0.5 K. The AIRS measurement technique is based on passive IR remote sensing using a precisely calibrated grating spectrometer operating in the 3.7 - 15.4 micrometer region. The instrument concept uses a passively cooled array spectrometer approach in combination with advanced state of the art focal plan and cryogenic refrigerator technology to achieve high performance in a practical long life configuration. The AIRS instrument has successfully completed a comprehensive performance verification program conducted at the Lockheed Martin IR Imaging Systems (LMIRIS) AIRS Test and Calibration Facility (ATCF), which was specially designed for precise spectroradiometric testing of space instrumentation. This paper provides a brief overview of the AIRS mission and instrument design, ATCF test capabilities, along with key results.

  10. Results from CrIS-ATMS Obtained Using the AIRS Science Team Retrieval Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.; Iredell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua in May 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB (which subsequently failed early in the mission), to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. AIRS/AMSU had two primary objectives. The first objective was to provide real-time data products available for use by the operational Numerical Weather Prediction Centers in a data assimilation mode to improve the skill of their subsequent forecasts. The second objective was to provide accurate unbiased sounding products with good spatial coverage that are used to generate stable multi-year climate data sets to study the earth's interannual variability, climate processes, and possibly long-term trends. AIRS/AMSU data for all time periods are now being processed using the state of the art AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval methodology. The Suomi-NPP mission was launched in October 2011 as part of a sequence of Low Earth Orbiting satellite missions under the "Joint Polar Satellite System" (JPSS). NPP carries CrIS and ATMS, which are advanced infra-red and microwave atmospheric sounders that were designed as follow-ons to the AIRS and AMSU instruments. The main objective of this work is to assess whether CrIS/ATMS will be an adequate replacement for AIRS/AMSU from the perspective of the generation of accurate and consistent long term climate data records, or if improved instruments should be developed for future flight. It is critical for CrIS/ATMS to be processed using an algorithm similar to, or at least comparable to, AIRS Version-6 before such an assessment can be made. We have been conducting research to optimize products derived from CrIS/ATMS observations using a scientific approach analogous to the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm. Our latest research uses Version-5.70 of the CrIS/ATMS retrieval algorithm, which is otherwise analogous to AIRS Version-6, but does not yet contain the benefit of use of a Neural-Net first guess start-up system

  11. Communicating air pollution science to the public and politicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.; Schuepbach, E.

    2006-12-01

    Air pollution of the 21^st century is a problem that involves a large number of chemical species and complex reactions between them. Both the public and politicians finds the science difficult to understand, and so, often mistrust the presentation of data and the scientific principles behind air quality. Yet, there are a range of important issues associated with air pollution that concern lay people and policy makers and hence, they have to be presented in a clear and simple way so that informed judgements can be made. Traditionally, the media was the main way to disseminate scientific discovery, but novel methods for engaging scientists in the transfer of scientific know-how to politicians and the general public have emerged in recent years. Scientists receive relatively little training in the area of communication, and often find engaging in more public debates difficult. These including V.I.P. meetings, Public Open Forum, Café Scientifique and various games and role plays. Such outreach events expose us to new challenges, and the skills required to communicate to non-scientists become an increasingly important part of being a scientist.

  12. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  13. Influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on marine air intrusion toward the East Antarctic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Naoyuki; Hirasawa, Naohiko; Koga, Seizi; Matsushita, Junji; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi

    2016-09-01

    Marine air intrusions into Antarctica play a key role in high-precipitation events. Here we use shipboard observations of water vapor isotopologues between Australia and Syowa on the East Antarctic coast to elucidate the mechanism by which large-scale circulation influences marine air intrusions. The temporal isotopic variations at Syowa reflect the meridional movement of a marine air front. They are also associated with atmospheric circulation anomalies that enhance the southward movement of cyclones over the Southern Ocean. The relationship between large-scale circulation and the movement of the front is explained by northerly winds which, in association with cyclones, move toward the Antarctic coast and push marine air with isotopically enriched moisture into the inland covered by glacial air with depleted isotopic values. Future changes in large-scale circulation may have a significant impact on the frequency and intensity of marine air intrusion into Antarctica.

  14. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue Fang, Jing

    2015-10-15

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  15. Air exchange rates from atmospheric CO2 daily cycle

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, João Dias; Mateus, Mário; Batterman, Stuart; da Silva, Manuel Gameiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for measuring ventilation air exchange rates (AERs). The method belongs to the class of tracer gas techniques, but is formulated in the light of systems theory and signal processing. Unlike conventional CO2 based methods that assume the outdoor ambient CO2 concentration is constant, the proposed method recognizes that photosynthesis and respiration cycle of plants and processes associated with fuel combustion produce daily, quasi-periodic, variations in the ambient CO2 concentrations. These daily variations, which are within the detection range of existing monitoring equipment, are utilized for estimating ventilation rates without the need of a source of CO2 in the building. Using a naturally-ventilated residential apartment, AERs obtained using the new method compared favorably (within 10%) to those obtained using the conventional CO2 decay fitting technique. The new method has the advantages that no tracer gas injection is needed, and high time resolution results are obtained. PMID:26236090

  16. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Si-ze; Liu, Dongping; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue

    2013-05-15

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  17. Air ion measurements as a source of information about atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hõrrak, Urmas; Mirme, Aadu; Salm, Jaan; Tamm, Eduard; Tammet, Hannes

    The mobility spectra of air ions recorded in the course of routine atmospheric electric measurements contain information about atmospheric aerosols. The mobility spectrum of air ions is correlated with the size spectrum of aerosol particles. Two procedures of conversion (and conversion errors) are considered in this paper assuming the steady state of charge distribution. The first procedure uses the fraction model of the aerosol particle size distribution and algebraic solution of the conversion problem. The second procedure uses the parametric KL model of the particle size distribution and the least square fitting of the mobility measurements. The procedures were tested using simultaneous side-by-side measurements of air ion mobilities and aerosol particle size distributions at a rural site during a monthly period. The comparison of results shows a promising agreement between the measured and calculated size spectra in the common size range. A supplementary information about nanometer particles was obtained from air ion measurements.

  18. Characteristics of radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges with air using bare metal electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huabo; Sun Wenting; Li Heping; Bao Chengyu; Zhang Xiaozhang

    2006-10-16

    In this letter, an induced gas discharge approach is proposed and described in detail for obtaining a uniform atmospheric-pressure glow discharge with air in a {gamma} mode using water-cooled, bare metal electrodes driven by radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) power supply. A preliminary study on the discharge characteristics of the air glow discharge is also presented in this study. With this induced gas discharge approach, radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges using bare metal electrodes with other gases which cannot be ignited directly as the plasma working gas, such as nitrogen, oxygen, etc., can also be obtained.

  19. Atmospheric profile retrieval with AIRS data and validation at the ARM CART site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuebao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Wenjian; Wang, Fang

    2005-09-01

    The physical retrieval algorithm of atmospheric temperature and moisture distribution from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) radiances is presented. The retrieval algorithm is applied to AIRS clearsky radiance measurements. The algorithm employs a statistical retrieval followed by a subsequent nonlinear physical retrieval. The regression coefficients for the statistical retrieval are derived from a dataset of global radiosonde observations (RAOBs) comprising atmospheric temperature, moisture, and ozone profiles. Evaluation of the retrieved profiles is performed by a comparison with RAOBs from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) in Oklahoma, U. S. A. Comparisons show that the physicallybased AIRS retrievals agree with the RAOBs from the ARM CART site with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 1 K on average for temperature profiles above 850 hPa, and approximately 10% on average for relative humidity profiles. With its improved spectral resolution, AIRS depicts more detailed structure than the current Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounder when comparing AIRS sounding retrievals with the operational GOES sounding products.

  20. Prediction of asthma exacerbations among children through integrating air pollution, upper atmosphere, and school health surveillances.

    PubMed

    Jayawardene, Wasantha Parakrama; Youssefagha, Ahmed Hassan; Lohrmann, David Kurt; El Afandi, Gamal Salah

    2013-01-01

    Climatic factors and air pollution are important in predicting asthma exacerbations among children. This study was designed to determine if a relationship exists between asthma exacerbations among elementary school children and the combined effect of daily upper atmosphere observations (temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and mixing ratio) and daily air pollution (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) and, if so, to predict asthma exacerbations among children using a mathematical model. Using an ecological study design, school health records of 168,825 students in elementary schools enrolled in "Health eTools for Schools" within 49 Pennsylvania counties were analyzed. Data representing asthma exacerbations were originally recorded by school nurses as the type of treatment given to a student during a clinic visit on a particular day. Daily upper atmosphere measurements from ground level to the 850-mb pressure level and air pollution measurements were obtained. A generalized estimating equation model was used to predict the occurrence of >48 asthma exacerbations, the daily mean for 2008-2010. The greatest occurrence of asthma among school children was in the fall, followed by summer, spring, and winter. Upper atmosphere temperature, dew point, mixing ratio, and six air pollutants as well as their interactions predicted the probability of asthma exacerbations occurring among children. Monitoring of upper atmosphere observation data and air pollutants over time can be a reliable means for predicting increases of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children. Such predictions could help parents and school officials implement effective precautionary measures.

  1. Level 1B products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, H. H.; Overoye, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. A discussion is given of the objectives of the AIRS experiment, including requirements on the data products. We summarize the instrument characteristics, including sensitivity, noise, and spectral response, and preflight calibration results leading to the estimate of the calibration accuracy. The Level 1B calibration algorithm is presented as well as the results of in-flight stability and sensitivity measurements.

  2. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnson, V.; Clem, J.; Deangelis, G.

    The Super Sonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant passengers and crew by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in effects due to particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Standing Committee provided recommendations on SST radiobiological issues and operational requirements. The lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies of effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in 2000 and more recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes brings renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  3. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) Research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits 1990 with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum June 1997 and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  4. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research: SST-present.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Goldhagen, P; Rafnsson, V; Clem, J M; De Angelis, G; Friedberg, W

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented. PMID:14727657

  5. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  6. Summary of Atmospheric Ionizing AIR Research: SST-Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; deAngelis, G.; Friedberg, W.; Clem, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of the radiation exposure limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection with the classification of aircrew as radiation workers renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  7. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Research: SST - Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; DeAngelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent (1990) lowering of recommended exposure limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  8. Scientific Infrastructure to Support Atmospheric Science and Aerosol Science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs at Barrow, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, D. A.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Dexheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific infrastructure to support atmospheric science and aerosol science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programs at Barrow, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's located at Barrow, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site. The site provides a scientific infrastructure and data archives for the international Arctic research community. The infrastructure at Barrow has been in place since 1998, with many improvements since then. Barrow instruments include: scanning precipitation Radar-cloud radar, Doppler Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Manual and state-of-art automatic Balloon sounding systems, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), Millimeter cloud radar, High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) along with all the standard metrological measurements. Data from these instruments is placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments are at Barrow and the challenges of maintaining these instruments in an Arctic site.

  9. Cold atmospheric air plasma jet for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Juergen F.; Price, Robert O.; Stacey, Michael; Swanson, R. James; Bowman, Angela; Chiavarini, Robert L.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2008-10-01

    By flowing ambient air through the discharge channel of a microhollow cathode geometry, we were able to sustain a stable 1.5-2 cm long afterglow plasma jet with dc voltages of only a few hundred volts. The temperature in this expelled afterglow plasma is close to room temperature. Emission spectra show atomic oxygen, hydroxyl ions and various nitrogen compounds. The low heavy-particle temperature allows us to use this exhaust stream on biological samples and tissues without thermal damage. The high levels of reactive species suggest an effective treatment for pathological skin conditions caused, in particular, by infectious agents. In first experiments, we have successfully tested the efficacy on Candida kefyr (a yeast), E.coli, and a matching E.coli strain-specific virus. All pathogens investigated responded well to the treatment. In the yeast case, complete eradication of the organism in the treated area could be achieved with an exposure of 90 seconds at a distance of 5 mm. A 10-fold increase of exposure, to 900 seconds caused no observable damage to murine integument.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics and predictability in the atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Ghil, M.; Kimoto, M.; Neelin, J.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Systematic applications of nonlinear dynamics to studies of the atmosphere and climate are reviewed for the period 1987-1990. Problems discussed include paleoclimatic applications, low-frequency atmospheric variability, and interannual variability of the ocean-atmosphere system. Emphasis is placed on applications of the successive bifurcation approach and the ergodic theory of dynamical systems to understanding and prediction of intraseasonal, interannual, and Quaternary climate changes.

  11. Atmospheric Risk Assessment for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Allen; Vasavada, Ashwin; Cianciolo, Alicia; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Dan; Hinson, David; Lewis, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. As with previous Mars landers, atmospheric conditions during entry, descent, and landing directly impact the performance of MSL's EDL system. While the vehicle's novel guided entry system allows it to "fly out" a range of atmospheric uncertainties, its trajectory through the atmosphere creates a variety of atmospheric sensitivities not present on previous Mars entry systems and landers. Given the mission's stringent landing capability requirements, understanding the atmosphere state and spacecraft sensitivities takes on heightened importance. MSL's guided entry trajectory differs significantly from recent Mars landers and includes events that generate different atmospheric sensitivities than past missions. The existence of these sensitivities and general advancement in the state of Mars atmospheric knowledge has led the MSL team to employ new atmosphere modeling techniques in addition to past practices. A joint EDL engineering and Mars atmosphere science and modeling team has been created to identify the key system sensitivities, gather available atmospheric data sets, develop relevant atmosphere models, and formulate methods to integrate atmosphere information into EDL performance assessments. The team consists of EDL engineers, project science staff, and Mars atmospheric scientists from a variety of institutions. This paper provides an overview of the system performance sensitivities that have driven the atmosphere modeling approach, discusses the atmosphere data sets and models employed by the team as a result of the identified sensitivities, and introduces the tools used to translate atmospheric knowledge into quantitative EDL performance assessments.

  12. A 35 Year Earth Science Data Record of Gridded IR Atmospheric Radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halem, M.; Chapman, D.; Nguyen, P.

    2008-12-01

    We present the generation of a 35 year Earth Science Data Record (ESDR) of gridded level 1B atmospheric radiances at a 250 km spatial resolution from sources of satellite data including the Vertical Temperature Profiler Radiometer (VTPR), High Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS2/3/4), and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). We use the MODIS long wave channels to validate the calibration of the AIRS and HIRS data. VTPR is an operational 8-spectral channel infrared sounding system with an IFOV around 55km at nadir that operated from 1972 to 1979. The HIRS/2 sensor is a 20 spectral channel instrument with an IFOV approx. 20km, that flew from 1979 to 2001 forming a 22 year record. HIRS/3, is an advanced HIRS sounder that flew on NOAA 15-17 from 1998 to the present. HIRS/4, essentially the same as HIRS/3 except for an IFOV of 10 km has flown on the ESA Met 0p A from 2006 to present. AIRS on Aqua satellite launched on May 2002 has 2374 spectral channels from 3.7 μm to 15 μm and is well calibrated as compared with MODIS channels on the same satellite. Based on the Aqua Senior Project Review of available flight fuel, power and orbital maneuvers, the assessed life span of the satellite Aqua is estimated to be 2013. No such gridded data products of just the observed IR radiances are available since the emphasis for these sensors was the inference of temperature profiles from the observations for use in weather analysis and prediction. We have developed a system, SOAR, that provides gridded radiance data for AIRS and MODIS radiances that can meet the precision and accuracy required for a Fundamental Data Record (FDR). We are exploiting the IBM Cell blade cluster (at UMBC) of 250 processors to geolocate and grid the entire data volume of AIRS and MODIS instruments employing a data intensive raycasting algorithm. The Observation Coverage (obscov) based geolocation significantly improves gridded accuracy by 1 Kelvin Brightness Temperature over most regions on Earth, when

  13. Critical Evaluation of Air-Liquid Interface Exposure Devices for In Vitro Assessment of Atmospheric Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of cells to atmospheric pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of attached cells submerged in liquid medium. However, there is still limited understanding of the ideal ALI device design features that permit reproducible a...

  14. Characteristics of a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric air with a liquid electrolytic electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Shevera, I. V.; Kozak, Ya. Yu.; Kentesh, G. V.

    2014-06-01

    The spatial, electric, and radiative characteristics of a pulse-periodic nanosecond discharge between an electrode based on a system of blades and the distilled water surface as well as an aqueous solution of zinc sulfate in atmospheric air are considered.

  15. Compact 180-kV Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by femtosecond laser filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Arantchouk, L. Larour, J.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2014-03-10

    We developed a compact Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by a single femtosecond laser beam undergoing filamentation. Voltage pulses of 180 kV could be generated with a subnanosecond jitter. The same laser beam was also used to initiate simultaneously guided discharges up to 21 cm long at the output of the generator.

  16. PREFACE: SPECIAL ISSUE OF ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PM AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a continuing effort to improve communications among the atmospheric sciences, policy, and health communities, an international specialty conference was initiated in 2001 that took place in April 2003 in Pittsburgh, PA. The conference entitled, "Particulate Matter: Atmospheric...

  17. Bitz, Ginoux, Jacobson, Nizkorodov, and Yang Receive 2013 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping

    2014-07-01

    I am honored and humbled that the AGU Atmospheric Sciences section decided to select me as one of the five recipients of the 2013 Ascent Award and would like to thank the selection committee for this recognition.

  18. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  19. Reconstructing the recent methane atmospheric budget using firn air methane stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapart, Célia Julia; Martinerie, Patricia; Witrant, Emmanuel; Monteil, Guillaume; Banda, Narcisa; Houweling, Sander; Krol, Maarten; Chappellaz, Jerome; van de Wal, Roderik; Sperlich, Peter; van der Veen, Carina; Sturges, Bill; Blunier, Thomas; Schwander, Jakob; Etheridge, David; Röckmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and large uncertainties exist concerning the future evolution of its atmospheric abundance. Analyzing methane mixing and stable isotope ratios in air trapped in polar ice sheets helps in reconstructing the evolution of its sources and sinks in the past. This is important to improve predictions of atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios in the future under the influence of a changing climate. We present an attempt to reconcile methane stable isotopes δ13C(CH4) and δD(CH4) records from 11 (for δ13C(CH4)) and 5 (for δD(CH4)) boreholes in firn from both Greenland and Antarctica to reconstruct a consistent methane atmospheric history over the last 50 years. In the firn, the atmospheric signal is altered mainly by diffusion and gravitation. These processes are taken into account by firn air transport models. We show that for δ13C(CH4) the atmospheric signal is of the same order of magnitude as the firn fractionation which, together with other uncertainties such as inter-calibration problems, complicates the reconstruction of a consistent δ13C(CH4) history from multi-site firn air data. For δD(CH4), the atmospheric signal is about 10 times larger than firn fractionation, therefore the reconstruction is much less sensitive to firn processes. This large signal allows a very consistent reconstruction from firn air from both Antarctica and Arctic firn air data. The δD(CH4) firn air scenarios from both poles are used as input in an atmospheric inverse model to calculate the contribution of the different sources and sinks responsible for the atmospheric changes in methane observed for the past decades. Our preliminary results show that the δD(CH4) signature of the global methane source became more enriched from 1950 to the mid-1980's and started to decrease later on and we show that it is likely caused by changes in enriched sources such as: fossil or combustion sources.

  20. Final Technical Report: Science and technology reviews of FACE[Free Air Carbon Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, Boyd R.

    1998-03-23

    The purpose of this grant was to bring together the principals of all known facilities that had been developed, principals who had submitted proposals to develop FACE facilities, and principals who want to develop proposals for facilities. In addition, critical program personnel from potential funding agencies and a few high level science administrators were invited to observe the proceedings and to visit a working FACE facility. The objectives of this study are to conduct a three-day international meeting on scientific aspects of research with the new and developing free air carbon enrichment (FACE) technology. Immediately following the science meeting, conduct a two-day international meeting on experimental protocols to be applied in FACE research. To conduct a four day international meeting on the assessment of the responses of forest ecosystems to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. The three meetings supported by this grant were all highly successful meetings and resulted in the formation of an organized and identified working group with the acronym InterFACE (International Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) working group.

  1. Atmospheric Precipitable Water and its association with Surface Air Temperatures over Different Climate Regims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, H.; Fetzer, E. J.; Olsene, E. T.; Granger, S. L.; Kahn, B. H.; Fishbein, E. F.; Chen, L.; Teixeira, J.; Lambrigtsen, B. H.

    2008-12-01

    As a greenhouse gas and a key component in the hydrologic cycle, atmospheric water vapor is very important in the earth's climate system. The relationship between air temperature and water vapor content at the surface and in different layers of the atmosphere have been examined in many studies in trying to better understand the magnitude of water vapor feedback in our climate system. Studies have found large spatial variability and large regional and vertical deviations from the Clapeyron-Clausius relation of constant relative humidity. However, there is an ongoing need to understand the climatology of the relationship between the surface air temperature and total column water vapor, and to examine any potential thresholds associated with sudden changes in this relationship as air temperatures continue to increase. This study uses 5-year total precipitable water vapor records measured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounders (AIRS) and surface air temperature to examine their relationships at tropical to mid latitude conditions found at 60°S- 60°N for winter and summer seasons. In addition, the relationships will be examined for different climate regimes based on Koppen's system. This will help distinguish the geographical regions and physical processes where different relationships are found. This information will improve our understanding of the regional patterns of water vapor feedback associated with warming climate.

  2. Electromagnetic scattering: applications to atmospheric sciences and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric particles (cloud droplets, ice crystals and aerosol particles) scatter and absorb solar radiation and thermal infrared emission, and play an important role in the radiation budget in the earth-atmosphere coupled system, and hence are essential to the earth's climate. In this talk I will briefly review electromagnetic scattering research with a focus on applications to atmospheric radiation parameterization and remote sensing. Specifically, I will review state-of-the-art modeling capabilities in computing the single-scattering properties of dielectric particles. Furthermore, I will illustrate some examples of relevant applications.

  3. Fiscal year 1997 summary report of the NOAA Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Poole-Kober, E.M.; Viebrock, H.J.

    1998-06-01

    During Fiscal Year 1997, the Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division provided meteorological and modeling support to the US Environmental Protection Agency. Research efforts emphasized the development and evaluation of air quality models using numerical and physical techniques supported by field studies. Among the significant research studies were the continued development and evaluation of Models-3; development of a community multiscale air quality modeling system; continued development and application of air quality models for mercury, dioxin, and heavy metals; evaluation of enhanced human exposure models; analysis and modeling of dust resuspension data; study of buoyant puff dispersion in the convective boundary layer; and development of methodologies to estimate the drift of airborne agricultural pesticides.

  4. Bitz, Ginoux, Jacobson, Nizkorodov, and Yang Receive 2013 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Sergey Nizkorodov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2014-07-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU awards one of the five Ascent Awards to Professor Sergey Nizkorodov of the Department of Chemistry at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) for elucidating at the molecular level the formation, growth, and reactions of organic molecules in the atmosphere.

  5. Camilla Visits Upper Atmosphere in the Name of Science

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar Dynamics Observatory mascot, Camilla, goes for a balloon ride to study solar radiation in the upper atmosphere caused by a solar storm. This video is a comprised of five separate videos showi...

  6. Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP) Science Vehicle Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Polidan, R.; Sokol, D.; Bolisay, L.; Barnes, N.

    2015-04-01

    We will update the VAMP design and discuss plans for future trade studies, analyses, and prototyping to advance the concept and we will discuss how VAMP will enable opportunities for novel long duration scientific studies of the Venus atmosphere.

  7. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; White, Tim; Cespedes, Ernesto; Bowerman, Biays; Bush, John

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three explosive

  8. Advancing Solid Earth Science through Improved Atmosphere Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niell, A. E.

    2004-01-01

    We proposed to investigate and develop better models for the effect of the hydrostatic and water vapor components of the neutral atmosphere on delay for VLBI and GPS by using a Numerical Weather Model to better simulate realistic atmosphere conditions. By using a raytrace calculation through the model atmosphere at the times of actual VLBI observations, the potential improvement in geodetic results can be evaluated. Also, by calculating the actual variation of delays with elevation and azimuth, the errors in current mapping function models can be assessed. The VLBI data to be initially analyzed are the fifteen days of the CONT02 sessions of 2002 October which included eight stations. There are three segments to the research. 1) The PSU/NCAR fifth generation mesoscale numerical weather model (MM5) will be used to provide the state of the atmosphere with highest horizontal resolution of 3 km. 2) A three-dimensional raytrace program will be developed to determine the delays through the model atmosphere at the times and in the directions of the VLBI observations for each of the sites. 3) The VLBI data will be analyzed using both standard models for the atmosphere mapping functions and the mapping functions derived from the NWM raytracing.

  9. Hot, cold, and annual reference atmospheres for Edwards Air Force Base, California (1975 version)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Reference atmospheres pertaining to summer (hot), winter (cold), and mean annual conditions for Edwards Air Force Base, California, are presented from surface to 90 km altitude (700 km for the annual model). Computed values of pressure, kinetic temperature, virtual temperature, and density and relative differences percentage departure from the Edwards reference atmospheres, 1975 (ERA-75) of the atmospheric parameters versus altitude are tabulated in 250 m increments. Hydrostatic and gas law equations were used in conjunction with radiosonde and rocketsonde thermodynamic data in determining the vertical structure of these atmospheric models. The thermodynamic parameters were all subjected to a fifth degree least-squares curve-fit procedure, and the resulting coefficients were incorporated into Univac 1108 computer subroutines so that any quantity may be recomputed at any desired altitude using these subroutines.

  10. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lee Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-14

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  11. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  12. Air Pollution and the Social Sciences: Formulating and Implementing Control Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Paul B., Ed.

    The social science literature, dealing with air quality, up to mid-1970 is reviewed and synthesized in five separately authored chapters, one for each of sociology, psychology, political science, law and economies. In addition to suggesting what each discipline can contribute to the solution of the air pollution problem, gaps in the literature are…

  13. Air and Weather Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit focuses on: (1) the importance of air and air pressure in students' everyday lives; (2) oxidation…

  14. The effect of the atmospheric condition on the extensive air shower analysis at the Telescope Array experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tokuno, H.; Kakimoto, F.; Tomida, T.

    2011-09-22

    The accuracies in determination of air shower parameters such as longitudinal profiles or primary energies with the fluorescence detection technique are strongly dependent on atmospheric conditions of the molecular and aerosol components. Moreover, air fluorescence photon yield depends on the atmospheric density, and the transparency of the air for fluorescence photons depends on the atmospheric conditions from EAS to FDs. In this paper, we describe the atmospheric monitoring system in the Telescope Array (TA experiment), and the impact of the atmospheric conditions in air shower reconstructions. The systematic uncertainties of the determination of the primary cosmic ray energies and of the measurement of depth of maximum development (X{sub max}) of EASs due to atmospheric variance are evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

  16. Atmospheric Sciences. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Vincent J.; Mohnen, Volker A.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide includes the following sections: (1) Solar Radiation and Its Interaction with the Earth's Atmosphere System; (2) The Water Cycle; (3) Fundamentals of Air…

  17. Development of Atmospheric Air 85Kr Monitoring Methodology on the Territory of the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yury

    2014-05-01

    Highly sensitive, low-background and high-performance method of beta-radioactivity measurements of the gas samples was developed in mid-eighties at Khlopin Radium institute. This method was based on the use of the serial automated installation for liquid scintillation measurements and special scintillating cells. Cells were equipped with the gas valve, and their internal surface were covered by a thin layer of organic scintillator. This method found was successfully was applied for 85Kr activity measurements in atmospheric krypton samples and for 85Kr concentration measurements in atmospheric air. For the first time, method developed for 85Kr activity measurements, was practically tested in May - June, 1986, while studying radioactive pollution characteristics in the air basin of Russia and Ukraine after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Thus for sampling of atmospheric krypton the industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at air-separating plants, located in the cities of Cherepovets, Lipetsk, Krivoi Rog and Enakiyevo was used. In the end of April and in the first half of May it was determined that 1,5-fold excess concentrations of 85Kr in atmospheric air were observed in atmospheric air of considerable part of the European territory of Russia and Ukraine During the period from 1987 to 1991 this method was used for monitoring of 85Kr on the territory of the former USSR in the air basin of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at 14 large air-separating plants was also used for sampling. Six of them were situated in Russia (Novomoskovsk, Lipetsk, Cherepovets, Chelyabinsk, Nizhni Tagil, Orsk). Seven - in Ukraine (Enakiyevo, Kommunarsk, Krivoi Rog, Makeyevka, Mariupol, Severodonetsk, Dneprodzerzhinsk). One plant was situated in Temirtau, in Kazakhstan. The analysis indicated that in Krivoi Rog; Dneprozhzerzhinsk; Severodonetsk; Makeyevka; Mariupol; Enakiyevo; Kommunarsk; Novomoskovsk and Cherepovets the average 85Kr concentration in

  18. Elemental Mercury Sources and Its Diurnal Variation in the Fort Worth, Texas Atmosphere - Robert Talbot, Xin Lan, Barry Lefer, and James Flynn Institute for Multidimensional Air Quality Studies Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 Email: rtalbot@uh.edu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Lan, X.; Lefer, B. L.; Flynn, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    Elemental mercury (Hg(0)) was measured with two and a half minute time resolution during the month of June 2011 in an area located to the northwest of Fort Worth, Texas. Time series data showed four distinct multiday periods with characteristically different average mixing ratios. From 27 May to 01 June Hg(0) averaged ~135 ppqv, over the period of 01 June to 12 June Hg(0) was 170 ppqv, from 13 June to 21 June Hg(0) was ~130 ppqv, and finally from 24 June to 30 June Hg(0) was ~125 ppqv. A short interval occurring from 21 June to 24 June showed elevated Hg(0) of ~160 ppqv. There was a distinct diurnal variation in Hg(0) during the entire study period that reached its highest levels at night with a characteristic peak-to-peak difference of 50-60 ppqv. The daily Hg(0) increases and decreases appeared to follow directly the rise and collapse of the mixed layer, as determined with Ceilometer measurements. On some nights there were sharp spikes in Hg(0) which lasted an hour or more, with the largest one reaching 750 ppqv or about a 5-fold enhancement over the running mean value of ~150 ppqv. Backward trajectories indicated that the airflow during nighttime was from southerly directions, more specifically from the Houston area. The sharp spikes likely originated from more local natural gas compressor stations scattered throughout the upwind area, or from a natural gas power station located in the area as well. We will utilize the suite of chemical and meteorological measurements conducted during the campaign to facilitate source identification on specific nights. These data should provide new information on as yet unexplored sources of atmospheric mercury.

  19. Long-term air temperature variation in the Karkonosze mountains according to atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migała, Krzysztof; Urban, Grzegorz; Tomczyński, Karol

    2016-07-01

    The results of meteorological measurements carried out continuously on Mt Śnieżka in Karkonosze mountains since 1880 well document the warming observed on a global scale. Data analysis indicates warming expressed by an increase in the mean annual air temperature of 0.8 °C/100 years. A much higher temperature increase was recorded in the last two decades at the turn of the twenty-first century. Mean decade air temperatures increased from -0.1 to 1.5 °C. It has been shown that there are relationships between air temperature at Mt Śnieżka and global mechanisms of atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Thermal conditions of the Karkonosze (Mt Śnieżka) accurately reflect global climate trends and impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, macrotypes of atmospheric circulation in Europe (GWL) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The increase in air temperature during the 1989-2012 solar magnetic cycle may reveal a synergy effect to which astrophysical effects and atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects contribute, modified by constantly increasing anthropogenic factors.

  20. Simulation of cold atmospheric plasma component composition and particle densities in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsanov, Gennady; Chirtsov, Alexander; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy

    2015-11-01

    Recently discharges in air at atmospheric pressure were the subject of numerous studies. Of particular interest are the cold streams of air plasma, which contains large amounts of chemically active species. It is their action can be decisive in the interaction with living tissues. Therefore, in addition to its physical properties, it is important to know the component composition and particle densities. The goal was to develop a numerical model of atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge in air with the definition of the component composition of plasma. To achieve this goal the task was divided into two sub-tasks, in the first simulated microdischarge atmospheric pressure in air using a simplified set of plasma chemical reactions in order to obtain the basic characteristics of the discharge, which are the initial approximations in the problem of the calculation of the densities with detailed plasma chemistry, including 53 spices and over 600 chemical reactions. As a result of the model was created, which can be adapted for calculating the component composition of plasma of various sources. Calculate the density of particles in the glow microdischarges and dynamics of their change in time.

  1. Simulation of cold atmospheric plasma component composition and particle densities in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsanov, Gennady; Bekasov, Vladimir; Eliseev, Stepan; Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Sisoev, Sergey

    2015-11-01

    Recently discharges in air at atmospheric pressure were the subject of numerous studies. Of particular interest are the cold streams of air plasma, which contains large amounts of chemically active species. It is their action can be decisive in the interaction with living tissues. Therefore, in addition to its physical properties, it is important to know the component composition and particle densities. The goal was to develop a numerical model of atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge in air with the definition of the component composition of plasma. To achieve this goal the task was broken down into two sub-tasks, in the first simulated microdischarge atmospheric pressure in air using a simplified set of plasma chemical reactions in order to obtain the basic characteristics of the discharge, which are the initial approximations in the problem of the calculation of the densities with detailed plasma chemistry, including 53 spices and over 600 chemical reactions. As a result of the model was created, which can be adapted for calculating the component composition of plasma of various sources. Calculate the density of particles in the glow microdischarges and dynamics of their change in time.

  2. Satellite observation of atmospheric methane: intercomparison between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, M.; Xiong, X.; Saitoh, N.; Warner, J.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, L.; Weng, F.

    2015-10-01

    Space-borne observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) have been made using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua satellite since August 2002 and the Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) since April 2009. This study compared the GOSAT TANSO-FTS thermal infrared (TIR) version 1.0 CH4 product with the collocated AIRS version 6 CH4 product using data from 1 August 2010 to 30 June 2012, including the CH4 mixing ratios and the total column amounts. The results show that at 300-600 hPa, where both AIRS and GOSAT-TIR CH4 have peak sensitivities, they agree very well, but GOSAT-TIR retrievals tend to be higher than AIRS in layer 200-300 hPa. At 300 hPa the CH4 mixing ratio from GOSAT-TIR is, on average, 10.3 ± 31.8 ppbv higher than that from AIRS, and at 600 hPa GOSAT-TIR retrieved CH4 is -16.2 ± 25.7 ppbv lower than AIRS CH4. Comparison of the total column amount of CH4 shows that GOSAT-TIR agrees with AIRS to within 1 % in the mid-latitude regions of Southern Hemisphere and in tropics. In the mid to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, GOSAT-TIR is ~ 1-2 % lower than AIRS, and in the high-latitude regions of Southern Hemisphere the difference of GOSAT from AIRS varies from -3 % in October to +2 % in July. The difference between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals is mainly due to the difference in retrieval algorithms and instruments itself, and the larger difference in the high latitude regions is associated with the low information content and small degree of freedoms of the retrieval. The degree of freedom of GOSAT-TIR retrievals is lower than that of AIRS also indicates that the constraint in GOSAT-TIR retrieval may be too strong. From the good correlation between AIRS and GOSAT-TIR retrievals and the seasonal variation they observed we are confident that the thermal infrared measurements from AIRS and GOSAT-TIR can provide

  3. Satellite observation of atmospheric methane: intercomparison between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Mingmin; Xiong, Xiaozhen; Saitoh, Naoko; Warner, Juying; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Liangfu; Weng, Fuzhong; Fan, Meng

    2016-08-01

    Space-borne observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) have been made using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua satellite since August 2002 and the Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) since April 2009. This study compared the GOSAT TANSO-FTS thermal infrared (TIR) version 1.0 CH4 product with the collocated AIRS version 6 CH4 product using data from 1 August 2010 to 30 June 2012, including the CH4 mixing ratios and the total column amounts. The results show that at 300-600 hPa, where both AIRS and GOSAT-TIR CH4 have peak sensitivities, they agree very well, but GOSAT-TIR retrievals tend to be higher than AIRS in layer 200-300 hPa. At 300 hPa the CH4 mixing ratio from GOSAT-TIR is, on average, 10.3 ± 31.8 ppbv higher than that from AIRS, and at 600 hPa GOSAT-TIR retrieved CH4 is -16.2 ± 25.7 ppbv lower than AIRS CH4. Comparison of the total column amount of CH4 shows that GOSAT-TIR agrees with AIRS to within 1 % in the mid-latitude regions of the Southern Hemisphere and in the tropics. In the mid to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, comparison shows that GOSAT-TIR is ˜ 1-2 % lower than AIRS, and in the high-latitude regions of the Southern Hemisphere the difference of GOSAT from AIRS varies from -3 % in October to +2 % in July. The difference between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals is mainly due to the difference in retrieval algorithms and instruments themselves, and the larger difference in the high-latitude regions is associated with the low information content and small degrees of freedom of the retrieval. The degrees of freedom of GOSAT-TIR retrievals are lower than that of AIRS, which also indicates that the constraint in GOSAT-TIR retrievals may be too strong. From the good correlation between AIRS and GOSAT-TIR retrievals and the seasonal variation they observed, we are confident that the thermal infrared

  4. Time evolution of nanosecond runaway discharges in air and helium at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Yatom, S.; Vekselman, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2012-12-15

    Time- and space-resolved fast framing photography was employed to study the discharge initiated by runaway electrons in air and He gas at atmospheric pressure. Whereas in the both cases, the discharge occurs in a nanosecond time scale and its front propagates with a similar velocity along the cathode-anode gap, the later stages of the discharge differ significantly. In air, the main discharge channels develop and remain in the locations with the strongest field enhancement. In He gas, the first, diode 'gap bridging' stage, is similar to that obtained in air; however, the development of the discharge that follows is dictated by an explosive electron emission from micro-protrusions on the edge of the cathode. These results allow us to draw conclusions regarding the different conductivity of the plasma produced in He and air discharges.

  5. Air-vegetation exchange of SOCs as a control of atmospheric concentrations and residence times

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbuckle, K.C.; Eisenreich, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) such as the polychlorinated biphenyls exhibit seasonal maxima in atmospheric concentrations with highest values in the warm summer. This generally believed to result from the effect of temperature on SOC vapor pressure with direct and important implications to global transport. The authors have conducted a series of field experiments whereby air samples were collected above an ombrotrophic, forested bog in northern MN at a frequency of 6 day{sup {minus}1} during the fall, winter, spring and summer. Samples of Sphagnum moss and other vegetation were also collected on each occasion. All samples were analyzed for PCBs, low MW PAHs, gaseous hydrocarbons and selected pesticides. Meteorological and soils data were collected during all experiments (air and soil temperature, wind direction and velocity, RH). Diurnal concentration data, air-plant and air-soil partition coefficients and probable mechanisms and kinetics of SOC-plant interactions will be presented.

  6. Generation of large-area and glow-like surface discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ying; Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Wang, Xueyang; Qi, Zhihua; Ji, Longfei; Li, Bin; Liu, Dongping

    2016-08-01

    A large-area (6 cm × 6 cm) air surface dielectric barrier discharge has been generated at atmospheric pressure by using well-aligned and micron-sized dielectric tubes with tungsten wire electrodes. Intensified CCD images with an exposure time of 5 ns show that the uniform surface air discharge can be generated during the rising and falling time of pulsed DC voltage. Current and voltage and optical measurements confirm the formation of glow-like air discharges on the surface of micron-sized dielectric tubes. Simulation results indicate that the microelectrode configuration contributes to the formation of strong surface electric field and plays an important role in the generation of uniform surface air discharge.

  7. Storms, floods, and the science of atmospheric rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralph, F.M.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a stream of water thousands of kilometers long and as wide as the distance between New York City and Washington, D. C., flowing toward you at 30 miles per hour. No, this is not some hypothetical physics problemit is a real river, carrying more water than 7-15 Mississippi Rivers combined. But it is not on land. It's a river of water vapor in the atmosphere. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow corridors of water vapor transport in the lower atmosphere that traverse long swaths of the Earth's surface as they bind together the atmospheric water cycle (Figure 1). The characteristic (indeed defining) dimensions of these ARs are (1) integrated water vapor (IWV) concentrations such that if all the vapor in the atmospheric column were condensed into liquid water, the result would be a layer 2 or more centimeters thick; (2) wind speeds of greater than 12.5 meters per second in the lowest 2 kilometers; and (3) a shape that is long and narrow, no more than 400-500 kilometers wide, and extending for thousands of kilometers, sometimes across entire ocean basins.

  8. a Mesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System for Simulations of Topographically Induced Atmospheric Flow and Air Pollution Dispersion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boybeyi, Zafer

    A mesoscale atmospheric dispersion modeling system has been developed to investigate mesoscale circulations and associated air pollution dispersion, including effects of terrain topography, large water bodies and urban areas. The system is based on a three-dimensional mesoscale meteorological model coupled with two dispersion models (an Eulerian dispersion model and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model). The mesoscale model is hydrostatic and based on primitive equations formulated in a terrain-following coordinate system with a E-varepsilon turbulence closure scheme. The Eulerian dispersion model is based on numerical solution of the advection-diffusion equation to allow one to simulate releases of non-buoyant pollutants (especially from area and volume sources). The Lagrangian particle dispersion model allows one to simulate releases of buoyant pollutants from arbitrary sources (particularly from point and line sources). The air pollution dispersion models included in the system are driven by the meteorological information provided by the mesoscale model. Mesoscale atmospheric circulations associated with sea and lake breezes have been examined using the mesoscale model. A series of model sensitivity studies were performed to investigate the effects of different environmental parameters on these circulations. It was found that the spatial and temporal variation of the sea and lake breeze convergence zones and the associated convective activities depend to a large extent on the direction and the magnitude of the ambient wind. Dispersion of methyl isocyanate gas from the Bhopal accident was investigated using the mesoscale atmospheric dispersion modeling system. A series of numerical experiments were performed to investigate the possible role of the mesoscale circulations on this industrial gas episode. The temporal and spatial variations of the wind and turbulence fields were simulated with the mesoscale model. The dispersion characteristics of the accidental

  9. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative

  10. Atmospheric organochlorine pollutants and air-sea exchange of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, D.A.; Bidleman, T.F.; Rice, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been found in Arctic fish, marine mammals, birds, and plankton for some time. The lack of local sources and remoteness of the region imply long-range transport and deposition of contaminants into the Arctic from sources to the south. While on the third Soviet-American Joint Ecological Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (August 1988), high-volume air samples were taken and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated camphenes, and chlordane (listed in order of abundance, highest to lowest) were quantified. The air-sea gas exchange of HCH was estimated at 18 stations during the cruise. Average alpha-HCH concentrations in concurrent atmosphere and surface water samples were 250 pg m-3 and 2.4 ng L-1, respectively, and average gamma-HCH concentrations were 68 pg m-3 in the atmosphere and 0.6 ng L-1 in surface water. Calculations based on experimentally derived Henry's law constants showed that the surface water was undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere at most stations (alpha-HCH, average 79% saturation; gamma-HCH, average 28% saturation). The flux for alpha-HCH ranged from -47 ng m-2 day-1 (sea to air) to 122 ng m-2 d-1 (air to sea) and averaged 25 ng m-2 d-1 air to sea. All fluxes of gamma-HCH were from air to sea, ranged from 17 to 54 ng m-2 d-1, and averaged 31 ng m-2 d-1.

  11. Atmospheric organochlorine pollutants and air-sea exchange of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Bering and Chukchi seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinckley, Daniel A.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Rice, Clifford P.

    1991-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been found in Arctic fish, marine mammals, birds, and plankton for some time. The lack of local sources and remoteness of the region imply long-range transport and deposition of contaminants into the Arctic from sources to the south. While on the third Soviet-American Joint Ecological Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (August 1988), high-volume air samples were taken and analyzed for Organochlorine pesticides. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated camphenes, and chlordane (listed in order of abundance, highest to lowest) were quantified. The air-sea gas exchange of HCH was estimated at 18 stations during the cruise. Average α-HCH concentrations in concurrent atmosphere and surface water samples were 250 pg m-3 and 2.4 ng L-1, respectively, and average γ-HCH concentrations were 68 pg m-3 in the atmosphere and 0.6 ng L-1 in surface water. Calculations based on experimentally derived Henry's law constants showed that the surface water was undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere at most stations (α-HCH, average 79% saturation; γ-HCH, average 28% saturation). The flux for α-HCH ranged from -47 ng m-2 day-1 (sea to air) to 122 ng m-2 d-1 (air to sea) and averaged 25 ng m-2 d-1 air to sea. All fluxes of γ-HCH were from air to sea, ranged from 17 to 54 ng m-2 d-1, and averaged 31 ng m-2 d-1.

  12. Atmospheric total precipitable water from AIRS and ECMWF during Antarctic summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hengchun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Bromwich, David H.; Fishbein, Evan F.; Olsen, Edward T.; Granger, Stephanie L.; Lee, Sung-Yung; Chen, Luke; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.

    2007-10-01

    This study compares the atmospheric total precipitable water (PWV) obtained by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) with radiosondes and the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis products during December 2003 and January 2004. We find that PWV from AIRS Level 3 (daily gridded) data is about 9% drier while ECMWF is 14% moister than sondes at the two grid points closest to the Dome C radiosonde site on the Antarctic Plateau at 3233 m elevation. The largest ECMWF moist biases occur on warmer days at Dome C. When AIRS Level 3 data are compared with ECMWF over the entire Antarctic continent, AIRS and ECMWF PWV have similar variability (correlation coefficients are predominantly 0.8 or higher), but with AIRS drier over most of the Antarctic by a consistent offset of about 0.1-0.2 mm. Because of this constant difference, the largest percentage differences are found over the highland areas of about 2500 meters and above, where absolute water vapor amounts are smallest.

  13. [Respirable mineral fibers in atmospheric air of Wrocław].

    PubMed

    Woźniak, H; Wiecek, E; Pelc, W; Dobrucka, D; Król, M; Opalska, B

    1994-01-01

    Serpentine asbestos from the Naslawice mine, which contains mineral impurities of the serpentinite group--chrysotile and antigortie, has been used to built school sports grounds as well as roads and playgrounds within residential areas. The study was aimed to measure concentrations of respirable mineral fibres in the atmospheric air at the time children were playing on one of the playgrounds as well as at four other sites of Wroclaw. Air samples were collected using individual dosimeters and distributions of length and concentration of fibres were measured by means of a laser fiber monitor FM7400. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry were used to determine the mineral composition of raw material collected from the playground. Morphology of particles of dust from the atmospheric air was analysed by means of electronic microscopy. It was found that the concentration of mineral fibres in the air in question depended on the number of children playing, namely when 7 children were playing the concentration value was equal to 165 fibres/litre and 549 fibres/litre with the number of 20 children. The concentration of fibres in a flat in the vicinity of the playground covered with serpentinite was about 11 times higher than at a street crossing with heavy traffic of motor vehicles. Antigorite and chrysotile were found in samples of raw material used to cover the playground. Numerous particles of fibrous structure were observed in the electronic microscopy image of air dust samples collected from the playground.

  14. Evaluation of the NOAA CAREERS Weather Camp's Effectiveness in Promoting Atmospheric Science amongst High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olgin, J. G.; Fitzgerald, R. M.; Morris, V. R.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA Center for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) sponsors the Channeling Atmospheric Research into Educational Experiences Reaching Students program (CAREERS); a program that manages a network of weather camps for students in secondary education with particular focus on increasing access for students from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds. Hosted by a college or university, the primary mission goals of the program are to engage students in discussions, lectures and interactive projects to better learn and comprehend a suite of atmospheric science disciplines (i.e. weather forecasting, environmental modeling, atmospheric data acquisition), and guide talented students towards higher education to pursue careers in atmospheric science primarily, or toward other STEM field professions. The need to evaluate and analyze the program's efficacy is crucial for continued growth and sustainability. Therefore a means to identify and measure the success of the program's initiatives will be addressed. Two Hispanic serving institutions, the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and the University of Puerto Rico in Mayaguez (UPRM), both hosted the CAREER weather camps during the summers of 2012 and 2013, and provide the basis of this initial analysis. Participants performed entrance surveys of their knowledge of atmospheric science prior to the course. They were then re-evaluated through exit surveys over the topics covered during the weather camp. These data will be analyzed to correlate which program activities worked best in increasing participant awareness (i.e. geology tours of the local area, discussion on local climate variations, geophysical and geochemical demonstrations), and comprehension of atmospheric science. A comparison between the two universities on their uniqueness in program design and execution will also highlight those activities that best progressed CAREERS' program goals. Results from this analysis, along with possible new strategies for improved

  15. Increasing Access to Atmospheric Science Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K. L.; LaPan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Science Directorate (SD) at NASA's Langley Research Center conducts cutting edge research in fundamental atmospheric science topics including radiation and climate, air quality, active remote sensing, and upper atmospheric composition. These topics matter to the public, as they improve our understanding of our home planet. Thus, we have had ongoing efforts to improve public access to the results of our research. These efforts have accelerated with the release of the February OSTP memo. Our efforts can be grouped in two main categories: 1. Visual presentation techniques to improve science understanding: For fundamental concepts such as the Earth's energy budget, we have worked to display information in a more "digestible" way for lay audiences with more pictures and fewer words. These audiences are iPad-lovers and TV-watchers with shorter attention spans than audiences of the past. They are also educators and students who need a basic understanding of a concept delivered briefly to fit into busy classroom schedules. We seek to reach them with a quick, visual message packed with important information. This presentation will share several examples of visual techniques, such as infographics (e.g., a history of lidar at Langley and a timeline of atmospheric research, ozone garden diagrams (http://science-edu.larc.nasa.gov/ozonegarden/ozone-cycle.php); history of lidar at LaRC; DISCOVER-AQ maps. It will also share examples of animations and interactive graphics (DISCOVER-AQ); and customized presentations (e.g., to explain the energy budget or to give a general overview of research). One of the challenges we face is a required culture shift between the way scientists traditionally share knowledge with each other and the way these public audiences ingest knowledge. A cross-disciplinary communications team in SD is crucial to bridge that gap. 2. Lay research summaries to make research more accessible: Peer-reviewed publications are a primary product of the SD, with more

  16. Atmospheric pressure air-plasma jet evolved from microdischarges: Eradication of E. coli with the jet

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Kang, Won Seok; Hong, Yoo Beom; Yi, Won Ju; Uhm, Han Sup

    2009-12-15

    An atmospheric-pressure air-plasma jet operating at 60 Hz ac is presented. A plasma jet with a length of 23 mm was produced by feeding air through a porous alumina dielectric installed between an outer electrode and a hollow inner electrode. Microdischarges in the porous alumina are ejected as a plasma jet from the outer electrode through a 1 mm hole, showing that the temperature of the jet decreases to a value close to the room temperature. The jet disinfects E. coli cells very effectively, eradicating them with an exposure of a few seconds to the jet flame.

  17. Continuous culture of Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages in "normal" air atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Mirovský, P

    1989-01-01

    The growth of six strains of Plasmodium falciparum in 5% CO2, 5% O2, 90% N2 and normal air atmosphere was determined daily by microscopical examination of blood films. All strains were able to grow in flasks without additional gas mixture but significantly lower parasitaemia was observed within the first five days of cultivation. Attempt at cultivating in petri dishes without candle jar technique failed but parasites survived in plasticine sealed dishes. The cultivation in air cannot be recommended for cultures initiated from cryopreserved material or low parasitaemia (0.1-0.3%) cultures. PMID:2504654

  18. A plasma needle for generating homogeneous discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xuechen; Yuan Ning; Jia Pengying; Chen Junying

    2010-09-15

    Homogeneous discharge in air is often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for industrial applications. In this paper, we present a method whereby stable homogeneous discharge in open air can be generated by a simple plasma needle. The discharge mechanism is discussed based on the spatially resolved light emission waveforms from the plasma. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to determine electron energy and rotational temperature, and results indicate that both electron energy and rotational temperature increase with increasing the applied voltage. The results are analyzed qualitatively based on the discharge mechanism.

  19. Improving SLCF Science in the Himalayan Region: ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, A. K.; Pradhan, B. B.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    What fraction of the black carbon arriving on Yala Glacier in Langtang, Nepal, is from cooking fires in the houses in the valley below? What fraction is from elsewhere in rural Nepal? What fraction is from industrial and transport sources in Kathmandu? What fraction is from northern India and beyond? What fraction is from the high altitude forest fires that take place during March or April? Effectively mitigating the impacts of black carbon and other short-lived climate forcers requires detailed understanding not just of emissions and impacts, but also of the atmospheric transport pathways that connect the two. In mountainous areas of the Hindu-Kush Himalaya detailed quantitative knowledge about emissions, atmospheric processes, and impacts is still largely missing. The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) is an intergovernmental organization covering Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, China, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. ICIMOD's recently established Atmosphere Initiative not only assesses mitigation options and contributes to policy and capacity building in the region, but also works actively to promote collaboration among researchers in the region, while building up an in-house team whose research will address key questions about SLCF. In Spring 2013 ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative, in collaboration with the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) in Potsdam, Germany, carried out the largest field campaign to date in Nepal, hosting instruments belonging to dozens of institutions around the world, at nine field site within and upwind of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The dataset that has been collected gives unprecedented insights into the emissions and atmospheric processes taking place downwind of and within the largest urban agglomeration in the Himalaya region. Meanwhile, in collaboration with national partner institutions, ICIMOD is in the process of setting up one atmospheric observatory each in Bhutan and in

  20. The defective nature of ice Ic and its implications for atmospheric science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhs, W. F.; Hansen, T. C.

    2009-04-01

    ) Evidence that nitric acid increases relative humidity in low-temperature cirrus clouds. Science 303, 516-520. [4] T Peter, C Marcolli, P Spaichinger, T Corti, MC Baker & T Koop (2006) When dry air is too humid. Science 314, 1399-1402. [5] JE Shilling, MA Tolbert, OB Toon, EJ Jensen, BJ Murray & AK Bertram (2006) Measurements of the vapor pressure of cubic ice and their implications for atmospheric ice clouds. Geophys.Res.Lett. 33, 026671. [6] TC Hansen, MM Koza & WF Kuhs (2008) Formation and annealing of cubic ice: I Modelling of stacking faults. J.Phys.Cond.Matt. 20, 285104. [7] TC Hansen, MM Koza, P Lindner & WF Kuhs (2008) Formation and annealing of cubic ice: II. Kinetic study. J.Phys.Cond.Matt. 20, 285105. [8] WF Kuhs, G Genov, DK Staykova & AN Salamatin (2004) Ice perfection and the onset of anomalous preservation of gas hydrates. Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys. 6, 4917-4920. [9] BJ Murray, DA Knopf & AK Bertram (2005) The formation of cubic ice under conditions relevant to Earth's atmosphere. Nature 434, 292-205.

  1. The influence of scales of atmospheric motion on air pollution over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo; Mendes, Manuel; Jerez, Sonia; Gouveia, Célia Marina

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is determined by the combination of different factors, namely, emissions, physical constrains, meteorology and chemical processes [1,2,3]. The relative importance of such factors is influenced by their interaction on diverse scales of atmospheric motion. Each scale depicts different meteorological conditions, which, when combined with the different air pollution sources and photochemistry, result in varying ambient concentrations [2]. Identifying the dominant scales of atmospheric motion over a given airshed can be of great importance for many applications such as air pollution and pollen dispersion or wind energy management [2]. Portugal has been affected by numerous air pollution episodes during the last decade. These episodes are often related to peak emissions from local industry or transport, but can also be associated to regional transport from other urban areas or to exceptional emission events, such as forest fires. This research aims to identify the scales of atmospheric motion which contribute to an increase of air pollution. A method is proposed for differentiating between the scales of atmospheric motion that can be applied on a daily basis from data collected at several wind-measuring sites in a given airshed and to reanalysis datasets. The method is based on the daily mean wind recirculation and the mean and standard deviation between sites. The determination of the thresholds between scales is performed empirically following the approach of Levy et al. [2] and also through a automatic statistical approach computed taking into account the tails of the distributions (e.g. 95% and 99% percentile) of the different wind samples. A comparison is made with two objective approaches: 1) daily synoptic classification for the same period over the region [4] and 2) a 3-D backward trajectory approach [5,6] for specific episodes. Furthermore, the outcomes are expected to support the Portuguese authorities on the implementation of strategies for a

  2. Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

    1999-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general. PMID:10548806

  3. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-05-15

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU{sub m}, where U{sub m} is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  4. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-05-01

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ˜5 × 1010 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU m , where U m is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  5. Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

    1999-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general.

  6. Atmospheric Parameter Climatologies from AIRS: Monitoring Short-, and Longer-Term Climate Variabilities and 'Trends'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Gyula; Susskind, Joel

    2008-01-01

    The AIRS instrument is currently the best space-based tool to simultaneously monitor the vertical distribution of key climatically important atmospheric parameters as well as surface properties, and has provided high quality data for more than 5 years. AIRS analysis results produced at the GODDARD/DAAC, based on Versions 4 & 5 of the AIRS retrieval algorithm, are currently available for public use. Here, first we present an assessment of interrelationships of anomalies (proxies of climate variability based on 5 full years, since Sept. 2002) of various climate parameters at different spatial scales. We also present AIRS-retrievals-based global, regional and 1x1 degree grid-scale "trend"-analyses of important atmospheric parameters for this 5-year period. Note that here "trend" simply means the linear fit to the anomaly (relative the mean seasonal cycle) time series of various parameters at the above-mentioned spatial scales, and we present these to illustrate the usefulness of continuing AIRS-based climate observations. Preliminary validation efforts, in terms of intercomparisons of interannual variabilities with other available satellite data analysis results, will also be addressed. For example, we show that the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) interannual spatial variabilities from the available state-of-the-art CERES measurements and from the AIRS computations are in remarkably good agreement. Version 6 of the AIRS retrieval scheme (currently under development) promises to further improve bias agreements for the absolute values by implementing a more accurate radiative transfer model for the OLR computations and by improving surface emissivity retrievals.

  7. Characterization of an atmospheric pressure air plasma source for polymer surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shujun; Tang, Jiansheng

    2013-10-01

    An atmospheric pressure air plasma source was generated through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It was used to modify polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces with very high throughput. An equivalent circuit model was used to calculate the peak average electron density. The emission spectrum from the plasma was taken and the main peaks in the spectrum were identified. The ozone density in the down plasma region was estimated by Absorption Spectroscopy. NSF and ARC-ODU

  8. Ozone production by nanoporous dielectric barrier glow discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J. H.; Koo, I. G.; Choi, M. Y.; Lee, W. M.

    2008-03-10

    This study is aimed at demonstrating plasma-chemical ozone production based on low temperature atmospheric pressure glow discharge through nanoporous dielectric barriers. The 20 kHz ac driven discharge is formed in air or oxygen gas flowing in the axial direction of the cylindrical plasma reactor containing four parallel aluminum rods covered with nanoporous alumina films. The discharge utilizing nanoporous dielectric barrier is more uniform and more energy efficient in ozone generation than the discharge through smooth-surface dielectric barriers.

  9. Characteristics of a glow discharge in atmospheric pressure air over the water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Chuchman, M. P.; Mesarosh, L. V.

    2014-06-01

    The current-voltage characteristics, the amount of cathode fall, and the spectra of plasma radiation from different spatial domains are presented versus the molecular band intensity of products arising in an atmospheric-pressure air glow discharge over the distilled water surface. The plasma electron temperature is also reported. The distance to a liquid cathode or anode is varied from 1 to 10 mm at a discharge mean current of 10-36 mA.

  10. NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) Experience with Aircraft Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, J.; Sorlie, S.; Parker, L.; Mason, K. L.; Rinsland, P.; Kusterer, J.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade the NASA Langley ASDC has archived and distributed a variety of aircraft mission data sets. These datasets posed unique challenges for archiving from the rigidity of the archiving system and formats to the lack of metadata. The ASDC developed a state-of-the-art data archive and distribution system to serve the atmospheric sciences data provider and researcher communities. The system, called Archive - Next Generation (ANGe), is designed with a distributed, multi-tier, serviced-based, message oriented architecture enabling new methods for searching, accessing, and customizing data. The ANGe system provides the ease and flexibility to ingest and archive aircraft data through an ad hoc workflow or to develop a new workflow to suit the providers needs. The ASDC will describe the challenges encountered in preparing aircraft data for archiving and distribution. The ASDC is currently providing guidance to the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Earth Venture-1 project on developing collection, granule, and browse metadata as well as supporting the ADAM (Airborne Data For Assessing Models) site.

  11. Atmospheric Science Program. Summaries of research in FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report provides descriptions for all projects funded by ESD under annual contracts in FY 1994. Each description contains the project`s title; three-year funding history (in thousands of dollars); the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date (for most projects older than one year). Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states it goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used.

  12. Air exposure of coral is a significant source of dimethylsulfide (DMS) to the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Frances E.; Bell, Thomas G.; Yang, Mingxi; Suggett, David J.; Steinke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Corals are prolific producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). High atmospheric concentrations of the DMSP breakdown product dimethylsulfide (DMS) have been linked to coral reefs during low tides. DMS is a potentially key sulfur source to the tropical atmosphere, but DMS emission from corals during tidal exposure is not well quantified. Here we show that gas phase DMS concentrations (DMSgas) increased by an order of magnitude when three Indo-Pacific corals were exposed to air in laboratory experiments. Upon re-submersion, an additional rapid rise in DMSgas was observed, reflecting increased production by the coral and/or dissolution of DMS-rich mucus formed by the coral during air exposure. Depletion in DMS following re-submersion was likely due to biologically-driven conversion of DMS to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry showed downregulated photosynthesis during air exposure but rapid recovery upon re-submersion, suggesting that DMS enhances coral tolerance to oxidative stress during a process that can induce photoinhibition. We estimate that DMS emission from exposed coral reefs may be comparable in magnitude to emissions from other marine DMS hotspots. Coral DMS emission likely comprises a regular and significant source of sulfur to the tropical marine atmosphere, which is currently unrecognised in global DMS emission estimates and Earth System Models. PMID:27796323

  13. Emission of burning emulsified diesel oil with sodium sulfate in salty atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Pan, Jenq-Yih

    2003-01-01

    The effects of sodium sulfate in fuel oil and salty atmospheric air on the emission characteristics of furnaces or boilers burned with emulsified diesel oils are considered in this study. An industrial cylindrical furnace made of stainless steel associated with an automatic oil-fired burner was used for the emission measurements. Both neat diesel oil and emulsified diesel oil with distilled water were used as the tested oils. A homogenizing and emulsifying machine was employed to stir the diesel oil and sodium sulfate powder into a homogeneous oil mixture, and to prepare emulsions of micro-droplets of water dispersed in diesel oil. The experimental results showed that the existence of sodium chloride in atmospheric air enhanced SO2 formation. The use of emulsified diesel oil with 300-ppm sodium sulfate as fuel reduced the burning gas temperature and NOx emission while increased O2 emission. Moreover, the presence of sodium chloride in atmospheric air hindered the completeness of the combustion process and thus resulted in lower burning efficiency and larger excess oxygen emission. PMID:14672327

  14. Venturi air-jet vacuum ejectors for high-volume atmospheric sampling on aircraft platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald F.; Sachse, Glen W.; Young, Douglas C.; Wade, Larry O.; Burney, Lewis G.

    1992-01-01

    Documentation of the installation and use of venturi air-jet vacuum ejectors for high-volume atmospheric sampling on aircraft platforms is presented. Information on the types of venturis that are useful for meeting the pumping requirements of atmospheric-sampling experiments is also presented. A description of the configuration and installation of the venturi system vacuum line is included with details on the modifications that were made to adapt a venturi to the NASA Electra aircraft at GSFC, Wallops Flight Facility. Flight test results are given for several venturis with emphasis on applications to the Differential Absorption Carbon Monoxide Measurement (DACOM) system at LaRC. This is a source document for atmospheric scientists interested in using the venturi systems installed on the NASA Electra or adapting the technology to other aircraft.

  15. Circular polarization of radio emission from air showers probes atmospheric electric fields in thunderclouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gia Trinh, Thi Ngoc; Scholten, Olaf; Buitink, Stijn; Corstanje, Arthur; Ebert, Ute; Enriquez, Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Horandel, Jörg R.; Nelles, Anna; Schellart, Pim; Rachen, Jorg; Rossetto, Laura; Rutjes, Casper; ter Veen, Sander; Thoudam, Satyendra

    2016-04-01

    When a high-energy cosmic-ray particle enters the upper layer of the atmosphere, it generates many secondary high-energy particles and forms a cosmic-ray-induced air shower. In the leading plasma of this shower electric currents are induced that emit electromagnetic radiation. These radio waves can be detected with LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope. Events have been collected under fair-weather conditions as well as under atmospheric conditions where thunderstorms occur. For the events under the fair weather conditions the emission process is well understood by present models. For the events measured under the thunderstorm conditions, we observe a large fraction of the circular polarization near the core of the shower which is not shown in the events under the fair-weather conditions. This can be explained by the change of direction of the atmospheric electric fields with altitude. Therefore, measuring the circular polarization of radio emission from cosmic ray extensive air showers during the thunderstorm conditions helps to have a better understanding about the structure of atmospheric electric fields in the thunderclouds.

  16. Open Air Silicon Deposition by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma under Local Ambient Gas Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report open air silicon (Si) deposition by combining a silane free Si deposition technology and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. Recently, material processing in open air has been investigated intensively. While a variety of materials have been deposited, there were only few reports on Si deposition due to the susceptibility to contamination and the hazardous nature of source materials. Since Si deposition is one of the most important processes in device fabrication, we have developed open air silicon deposition technologies in BEANS project. For a clean and safe process, a local ambient gas control head was designed. Process gas leakage was prevented by local evacuation, and air contamination was shut out by inert curtain gas. By numerical and experimental investigations, a safe and clean process condition with air contamination less than 10 ppm was achieved. Si film was deposited in open air by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under the local ambient gas control. The film was microcrystalline Si with the crystallite size of 17 nm, and the Hall mobility was 2.3 cm2/V .s. These properties were comparable to those of Si films deposited in a vacuum chamber. This research has been conducted as one of the research items of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization ``BEANS'' project.

  17. Permeation of atmospheric gases through polymer O-rings used in flasks for air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, P.; Leuenberger, M.; Sirignano, C.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Langenfelds, R.; Brand, W. A.; Tohjima, Y.

    2004-02-01

    Permeation of various gases through elastomeric O-ring seals can have important effects on the integrity of atmospheric air samples collected in flasks and measured some time later. Depending on the materials and geometry of flasks and valves and on partial pressure differences between sample and surrounding air, the concentrations of different components of air can be significantly altered during storage. The influence of permeation is discussed for O2/N2, Ar/N2, CO2, δ13C in CO2, and water vapor. Results of sample storage tests for various flask and valve types and different storage conditions are presented and are compared with theoretical calculations. Effects of permeation can be reduced by maintaining short storage times and small partial pressure differences and by using a new valve design that buffers exchange of gases with surrounding air or by using less permeable materials (such as Kel-F) as sealing material. General awareness of possible permeation effects helps to achieve more reliable measurements of atmospheric composition with flask sampling techniques.

  18. Improved Temperature Sounding and Quality Control Methodology Using AIRS/AMSU Data: The AIRS Science Team Version 5 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John M.; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm in terms of its three most significant improvements over the methodology used in the AIRS Science Team Version 4 retrieval algorithm. Improved physics in Version 5 allows for use of AIRS clear column radiances in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances .R(sub i) for all channels. This new approach allows for the generation of more accurate values of .R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contains a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 also contains for the first time an approach to provide AIRS soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new AIRS Only sounding methodology, referred to as AIRS Version 5 AO, was developed as a backup to AIRS Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Results are shown comparing the relative performance of the AIRS Version 4, Version 5, and Version 5 AO for the single day, January 25, 2003. The Goddard DISC is now generating and distributing products derived using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. This paper also described the Quality Control flags contained in the DISC AIRS/AMSU retrieval products and their intended use for scientific research purposes.

  19. Characteristics of Water Vapor Under Partially Cloudy Conditions: Observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishbein, E.

    2003-12-01

    The variability and quality of tropical water vapor derived from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are characterized. Profiles of water vapor, temperature and surface characteristics (states) are derived from coincident Advance Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and 3x3 sets of AIRS footprints. States are obtained under partially cloudy conditions by estimating the radiances emitted from the clear portions of the AIRS footprints. This procedure, referred to as cloud clearing, amplifies the measurement noise, and the amplification increases with cloud amount and uniformity. Cumulus and stratus cloud amount are related to the water vapor saturation, and noise amplification and water vapor amount may be partially correlated. The correlations between the uncertainty of retrieved water vapor, cloudiness and noise amplification are characterized. Retrieved water vapor is generally good when the amplification is less than three. Water vapor profiles are compared with correlative data, such as radiosondes and numerical weather center analyses and are in relatively good agreement in the lower troposphere

  20. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability.

  1. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

  2. Torrefaction and low temperature carbonization of oil palm fiber and Eucalyptus in nitrogen and air atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ke-Miao; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Ta-Chang

    2012-11-01

    Torrefaction is a pretreatment method for upgrading biomass as solid fuels. To provide flexible operations for effectively upgrading biomass at lower costs, the aim of this study was to investigate the properties of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus pretreated in nitrogen and air atmospheres at temperatures of 250-350°C for 1h. Based on energy and solid yield and introducing an energy-mass co-benefit index (EMCI), oil palm fiber pretreatment under nitrogen at 300°C provided the solid fuel with higher energy density and less volume compared to other temperatures. Pretreatment of oil palm fiber in air resulted in the fuel with low solid and energy yields and is therefore not recommended. For eucalyptus, nitrogen and air can be employed to upgrade the biomass, and the suggested temperatures are 325 and 275°C, respectively.

  3. Upward excursion limits from air saturation at 5 ATA (Atmospheres Absolute)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Present USN submarine rescue capability makes a prolonged exposure of the submarine crew to hyperbaric air a distinct possibility. The exposure may be to pressures as great as 5 atmospheres absolute (ATA), and for periods of time of up to 72 hours. A series of experimental dives were conducted to establish the safe, upward excursion from 5 ATA (132 FSWG); that is, the maximum, immediate reduction in pressure which these individuals can safely tolerate. This specifies the required pressure in the compartment of a mother submarine to which the rescued personnel would be transferred. In order to minimize the effects of pulmonary oxygen toxicity, the limits first were established using a nitrox equivalent of air at 5 ATA. The upward limit from 4.36 ATA (111 FSWG) was found to be 2.97 ATA (65 FSWG). Once this limit had been set, a series of dives were conducted to test this up limit from standard air at 5 ATA.

  4. NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Centers Near Real-Time Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, T.; Parker, L.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center has archived and distributed a variety of satellite mission data sets. NASA's goal in Earth science is to observe, understand, and model the Earth system to discover how it is changing, to better predict change, and to understand the consequences for life on Earth. The ASDC has collaborated with Science Teams to accommodate emerging science users in the climate and modeling communities. The ASDC has expanded its original role to support operational usage by related Earth Science satellites, support land and ocean assimilations, support of field campaigns, outreach programs, and application projects for agriculture and energy industries to bridge the gap between Earth science research results and the adoption of data and prediction capabilities for reliable and sustained use in Decision Support Systems (DSS). For example; these products are being used by the community performing data assimilations to regulate aerosol mass in global transport models to improve model response and forecast accuracy, to assess the performance of components of a global coupled atmospheric-ocean climate model, improve atmospheric motion vector (winds) impact on numerical weather prediction models, and to provide internet-based access to parameters specifically tailored to assist in the design of solar and wind powered renewable energy systems. These more focused applications often require Near Real-Time (NRT) products. Generating NRT products pose their own unique set challenges for the ASDC and the Science Teams. Examples of ASDC NRT products and challenges will be discussed.

  5. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovee, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles with accuracy comparable to that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimension variational (3DVAR) analysis component (WRF-Var). Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in both clear and partly cloudy regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts due to instability added in the forecast soundings by the AIRS profiles. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  6. 75 FR 54146 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods Subcommittee (AAMMS) to provide advice... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC), Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS) AGENCY:...

  7. NASA Airborne Science: Studying Earth From the Air

    NASA Video Gallery

    Journalists and social media followers were briefed on the goals of NASA's Earth science program and a half-dozen current or near-term Earth science missions, and learned about how a small fleet of...

  8. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue.

    PubMed

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their physicochemical properties can be widely spread all over the globe; as such they represent a serious threat to both humans and wildlife. According to Stockholm convention out of 24 officially recognized POPs, 16 are pesticides. The atmospheric life times of pesticides, up to now were estimated based on their gas-phase reactivity. It has been only speculated that sorption to aerosol particles may increase significantly the half-lives of pesticides in the atmosphere. The results presented here challenge the current view of the half-lives of pesticides in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and human health. We demonstrate that semivolatile pesticides which are mostly adsorbed on atmospheric aerosol particles are very persistent with respect to the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) that is the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere. The half-lives in particulate phase of difenoconazole, tetraconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, deltamethrin, cyprodinil, permethrin, and pendimethalin are in order of several days and even higher than one month, implying that these pesticides can be transported over long distances, reaching the remote regions all over the world; hence these pesticides shall be further evaluated prior to be confirmed as POPs. PMID:27628441

  9. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their physicochemical properties can be widely spread all over the globe; as such they represent a serious threat to both humans and wildlife. According to Stockholm convention out of 24 officially recognized POPs, 16 are pesticides. The atmospheric life times of pesticides, up to now were estimated based on their gas-phase reactivity. It has been only speculated that sorption to aerosol particles may increase significantly the half-lives of pesticides in the atmosphere. The results presented here challenge the current view of the half-lives of pesticides in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and human health. We demonstrate that semivolatile pesticides which are mostly adsorbed on atmospheric aerosol particles are very persistent with respect to the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) that is the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere. The half-lives in particulate phase of difenoconazole, tetraconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, deltamethrin, cyprodinil, permethrin, and pendimethalin are in order of several days and even higher than one month, implying that these pesticides can be transported over long distances, reaching the remote regions all over the world; hence these pesticides shall be further evaluated prior to be confirmed as POPs.

  10. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue

    PubMed Central

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their physicochemical properties can be widely spread all over the globe; as such they represent a serious threat to both humans and wildlife. According to Stockholm convention out of 24 officially recognized POPs, 16 are pesticides. The atmospheric life times of pesticides, up to now were estimated based on their gas-phase reactivity. It has been only speculated that sorption to aerosol particles may increase significantly the half‐lives of pesticides in the atmosphere. The results presented here challenge the current view of the half-lives of pesticides in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and human health. We demonstrate that semivolatile pesticides which are mostly adsorbed on atmospheric aerosol particles are very persistent with respect to the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) that is the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere. The half-lives in particulate phase of difenoconazole, tetraconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, deltamethrin, cyprodinil, permethrin, and pendimethalin are in order of several days and even higher than one month, implying that these pesticides can be transported over long distances, reaching the remote regions all over the world; hence these pesticides shall be further evaluated prior to be confirmed as POPs. PMID:27628441

  11. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue.

    PubMed

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2016-09-15

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their physicochemical properties can be widely spread all over the globe; as such they represent a serious threat to both humans and wildlife. According to Stockholm convention out of 24 officially recognized POPs, 16 are pesticides. The atmospheric life times of pesticides, up to now were estimated based on their gas-phase reactivity. It has been only speculated that sorption to aerosol particles may increase significantly the half-lives of pesticides in the atmosphere. The results presented here challenge the current view of the half-lives of pesticides in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and human health. We demonstrate that semivolatile pesticides which are mostly adsorbed on atmospheric aerosol particles are very persistent with respect to the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) that is the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere. The half-lives in particulate phase of difenoconazole, tetraconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, deltamethrin, cyprodinil, permethrin, and pendimethalin are in order of several days and even higher than one month, implying that these pesticides can be transported over long distances, reaching the remote regions all over the world; hence these pesticides shall be further evaluated prior to be confirmed as POPs.

  12. Air Enquirer's multi-sensor boxes as a tool for High School Education and Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morguí, Josep-Anton; Font, Anna; Cañas, Lidia; Vázquez-García, Eusebi; Gini, Andrea; Corominas, Ariadna; Àgueda, Alba; Lobo, Agustin; Ferraz, Carlos; Nofuentes, Manel; Ulldemolins, Delmir; Roca, Alex; Kamnang, Armand; Grossi, Claudia; Curcoll, Roger; Batet, Oscar; Borràs, Silvia; Occhipinti, Paola; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    An educational tool was designed with the aim of making more comprehensive the research done on Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the ClimaDat Spanish network of atmospheric observation stations (www.climadat.es). This tool is called Air Enquirer and it consist of a multi-sensor box. It is envisaged to build more than two hundred boxes to yield them to the Spanish High Schools through the Education department (www.educaixa.com) of the "Obra Social 'La Caixa'", who funds this research. The starting point for the development of the Air Enquirers was the experience at IC3 (www.ic3.cat) in the CarboSchools+ FP7 project (www.carboschools.cat, www.carboschools.eu). The Air Enquirer's multi-sensor box is based in Arduino's architecture and contains sensors for CO2, temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and both infrared and visible luminance. The Air Enquirer is designed for taking continuous measurements. Every Air Enquirer ensemble of measurements is used to convert values to standard units (water content in ppmv, and CO2 in ppmv_dry). These values are referred to a calibration made with Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry (Picarro®) under different temperature, pressure, humidity and CO2 concentrations. Multiple sets of Air Enquirers are intercalibrated for its use in parallel during the experiments. The different experiments proposed to the students will be outdoor (observational) or indoor (experimental, in the lab) focusing on understanding the biogeochemistry of GHGs in the ecosystems (mainly CO2), the exchange (flux) of gases, the organic matter production, respiration and decomposition processes, the influence of the anthropogenic activities on the gases (and particles) exchanges, and their interaction with the structure and composition of the atmosphere (temperature, water content, cooling and warming processes, radiative forcing, vertical gradients and horizontal patterns). In order to ensure Air Enquirers a high-profile research performance the experimental designs

  13. Electro-optic and holographic measurement techniques for the atmospheric sciences. [considering spacecraft simulation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.; Lemons, J. F.; Kurtz, R. L.; Liu, H.-K.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive examination is made of recent advanced research directions in the applications of electro-optical and holographic instrumentations and methods to atmospheric sciences problems. In addition, an overview is given of the in-house research program for environmental and atmospheric measurements with emphasis on particulates systems. Special treatment is made of the instrument methods and applications work in the areas of laser scattering spectrometers and pulsed holography sizing systems. Selected engineering tests data on space simulation chamber programs are discussed.

  14. Radiocarbon ( 14C) measurements to quantify sources of atmospheric carbon monoxide in urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klouda, George A.; Connolly, Michael V.

    Atmospheric air samples were collected during the winter of 1989-1990 in Albuquerque, NM, U.S.A., for radiocarbon ( 14C) analysis of carbon monoxide (CO). An experimental sample design was prepared to target periods when the concentration of CO exceeds the 9 μl l-1 (volume fraction), 8 h National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and during periods of attainment. Sampling sites, time of day, sampling duration, and meteorology were carefully considered so that source impacts be optimal. A balanced sampling factorial design was used to yield maximum information from the constraints imposed; the number of samples was limited by the number of sample canisters available, time and resources. Radiocarbon measurements of urban CO, " clean-air" CO background from Niwot Ridge, Colorado, average (wood) logs and oxygenated-gasolines were used in a three-source model to calculate the contribution of wood burning to the total atmospheric CO burden in Albuquerque. Results show that the estimated fractional contribution of residential wood combustion (Θ' Rwc) ranged from 0 to 0.30 of CO concentrations corrected for " clean-air" background. For these same samples, the respective CO concentrations attributed to wood burning range from 0 to 0.90 μmol mol -1 (mole fraction), well below the NAAQS. In all cases, fossil CO is the predominant source of ambient CO concentrations ranging from 0.96 to 6.34 μmol mol -1 A final comment is made on the potential of fossil CO measurements as an indirect tracer of atmospheric benzene, relevant to exposure risk estimates of motor vehicle emissions and occupational health and safety standards.

  15. Projects on Education, Research and International Training for Students and Junior Scientists in Atmospheric Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Y.; Chen, F.

    2003-12-01

    Stimulated by rapid economic development and the need for better environmental prediction, the atmospheric science communities in East Asia countries have enjoyed considerable growth over the past 10 years. As a result, the East Asia countries have established many exciting and innovative research facilities and projects focusing on atmospheric sciences. Two outstanding examples are the Earth Simulation System facility in Japan and the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) Project in Taiwan. These facilities and projects hold great promise for significant advancement in atmospheric sciences, and present important opportunities for education, research, and international training for American scientists, engineers and educators. Under the support of the International Programs Division of the National Science Foundation, we have established an AWARE (American Workforce and Research and Education, program at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). The purpose of this program is to establish an international linkage between the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the U.S. university community and educational, research and operational institutions in East Asia. Through this program, we provide opportunities for U.S. students and junior scientists to participate in important collaborative research projects between the U.S. and East Asia countries. In this paper, we will describe the program and the various ongoing collaborative research projects. We will also discuss the education, research, and international training experiences of U.S. students in these collaborative research projects.

  16. Cassini Imaging Science: initial results on Saturn's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Porco, C C; Baker, E; Barbara, J; Beurle, K; Brahic, A; Burns, J A; Charnoz, S; Cooper, N; Dawson, D D; Del Genio, A D; Denk, T; Dones, L; Dyudina, U; Evans, M W; Giese, B; Grazier, K; Helfenstein, P; Ingersoll, A P; Jacobson, R A; Johnson, T V; McEwen, A; Murray, C D; Neukum, G; Owen, W M; Perry, J; Roatsch, T; Spitale, J; Squyres, S; Thomas, P; Tiscareno, M; Turtle, E; Vasavada, A R; Veverka, J; Wagner, R; West, R

    2005-02-25

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) began observing Saturn in early February 2004. From analysis of cloud motions through early October 2004, we report vertical wind shear in Saturn's equatorial jet and a maximum wind speed of approximately 375 meters per second, a value that differs from both Hubble Space Telescope and Voyager values. We also report a particularly active narrow southern mid-latitude region in which dark ovals are observed both to merge with each other and to arise from the eruptions of large, bright storms. Bright storm eruptions are correlated with Saturn's electrostatic discharges, which are thought to originate from lightning. PMID:15731441

  17. Retrieval of Atmospheric and Surface Parameters from AIRS/AMSU/HSB Data Under Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Barnet, Chris; Blaisdell, John; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New state of the art methodology is described to analyze AIRS/AMSU/HSB data in the presence of multiple cloud formations. The methodology forms the basis for the AIRS Science Team algorithm which will be used to analyze AIRS/AMSU/HSB data on EOS Aqua. The cloud clearing methodology requires no knowledge of the spectral properties of the clouds. The basic retrieval methodology is general and extracts the maximum information from the radiances, consistent with the channel noise covariance matrix. The retrieval methodology minimizes the dependence of the solution on the first guess field and the first guess error characteristics. Results are shown for AIRS Science Team simulation studies with multiple cloud formations. These simulation studies imply that clear column radiances can be reconstructed under partial cloud cover with an accuracy comparable to single spot channel noise in the temperature and water vapor sounding regions, temperature soundings can be produced under partial cloud cover with RMS errors on the order of, or better than, 1deg K in 1 km thick layers from the surface to 700 mb, 1 km layers from 700 mb to 300 mb, 3 km layers from 300 mb to 30 mb, and 5 km layers from 30 mb to 1 mb, and moisture profiles can be obtained with an accuracy better than 20% absolute errors in 1 km layers from the surface to nearly 200 mb.

  18. Science of atmospheric phenomena with JEM-EUSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.; Słomiński, J.

    2015-11-01

    The main goal of the JEM-EUSO experiment is the study of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR, 1019-1021 e V), but the method which will be used (detection of the secondary light emissions induced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere) allows to study other luminous phenomena. The UHECRs will be detected through the measurement of the emission in the range between 290 and 430 m, where some part of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) emission also appears. This work discusses the possibility of using the JEM-EUSO Telescope to get new scientific results on TLEs. The high time resolution of this instrument allows to observe the evolution of TLEs with great precision just at the moment of their origin. The paper consists of four parts: review of the present knowledge on the TLE, presentation of the results of the simulations of the TLE images in the JEM-EUSO telescope, results of the Russian experiment Tatiana-2 and discussion of the possible progress achievable in this field with JEM-EUSO as well as possible cooperation with other space projects devoted to the study of TLE - TARANIS and ASIM. In atmospheric physics, the study of TLEs became one of the main physical subjects of interest after their discovery in 1989. In the years 1992 - 1994 detection was performed from satellite, aircraft and space shuttle and recently from the International Space Station. These events have short duration (milliseconds) and small scales (km to tens of km) and appear at altitudes 50 - 100 km. Their nature is still not clear and each new experimental data can be useful for a better understanding of these mysterious phenomena.

  19. Measurement of Electron Densities in a Pulsed Atmospheric Pressure Air Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipold, Frank; Stark, Robert H.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2000-10-01

    Microhollow cathode discharges have been shown to serve as plasma cathodes for atmospheric pressure air discharges [1]. The high pressure discharges are operated dc at currents from 10 mA up to 30 mA and at average electric fields of 1.25 kV/cm. The electron density in the dc discharge was measured by an interferometrique technique [2]. For a dc filamentary air discharge with a current of 10 mA, the radial electron density distribution was found to be parabolic with a total width of 660 μ m and an electron density of ne = 10^13 cm-3 in the center of the discharge. The diagnostic technique has now also been applied to pulsed discharges. It was found that the method provides electron densities measurements for discharges with durations as low as 5 μ s. The spatial distribution of the index of refraction in the pulsed discharge was obtained by shifting the discharge volume through the laser beam and by using an inversion method to obtain the radial index profile. For the electron density with a assumed parabolic profile, the maximum value was measured as 1.17*10^14 cm-3. (10 mA atmospheric pressure air discharge. The temperature profile was found to be gaussian with a half width of 1.3 mm. Acknowledgement This work was funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research in Cooperation with the DDR&E Air Plasma Ramparts MURI Program. References [1] Robert H. Stark and Karl H. Schoenbach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3770 (1999) [2] Frank Leipold, Robert H. Stark, and Karl H. Schoenbach, to appear in J. Phys. D., Appl. Phys.

  20. Dessler, Jimenez, Klein, and Nenes Receive 2012 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios

    2013-11-01

    It is a rare privilege and a deeply fulfilling experience to pursue science while helping shape future generations of scientists and engineers. To be awarded on top of it is humbling to say the least. I am deeply grateful to my nominator and supporters and thank the AGU Atmospheric Sciences Section Awards Committee for this honor. What makes the Ascent Award even more special is its strong vote of confidence for the future, which is both energizing and inspiring.

  1. On the origin and destination of atmospheric moisture and air mass over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Xu, Xiang-De; Yang, Shuai; Zhang, Wei

    2012-12-01

    The Tibet Plateau (TP) is a key region that imposes profound impacts on the atmospheric water cycle and energy budget of Asia, even the global climate. In this work, we develop a climatology of origin (destination) of air mass and moisture transported to (from) the TP using a Lagrangian moisture diagnosis combined with the forward and backward atmospheric tracking schemes. The climatology is derived from 6-h particle positions based on 5-year (2005-2009) seasonal summer trajectory dataset from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART using NCEP/GFS data as input, where the regional model atmosphere was globally filled with particles. The results show that (1) the dominant origin of the moisture supplied to the TP is a narrow tropical-subtropical band in the extended Arabian Sea covering a long distance from the Indian subcontinent to the Southern Hemisphere. Two additional moisture sources are located in the northwestern part of TP and the Bay of Bengal and play a secondary role. This result indicates that the moisture transporting to the TP more depends on the Indian summer monsoon controlled by large-scale circulation. (2) The moisture departing from the TP can be transported rapidly to East Asia, including East China, Korea, Japan, and even East Pacific. The qualitative similarity between the regions of diagnosed moisture loss and the pattern of the observed precipitation highlights the robustness of the role of the TP on precipitation over East Asia. (3) In contrast to the moisture origin confined in the low level, the origin and fate of whole column air mass over the TP is largely controlled by a strong high-level Asian anticyclone. The results show that the TP is a crossroad of air mass where air enters mainly from the northwest and northeast and continues in two separate streams: one goes southwestwards over the Indian Ocean and the other southeastwards through western North Pacific. Both of them partly enter the trade wind zone, which manifests the

  2. A Study of the Effects of Atmospheric Phenomena on Mars Science Laboratory Entry Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    At Earth during entry the shuttle has experienced what has come to be known as potholes in the sky or regions of the atmosphere where the density changes suddenly. Because of the small data set of atmospheric information where the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) parachute deploys, the purpose of this study is to examine the effect similar atmospheric pothole characteristics, should they exist at Mars, would have on MSL entry performance. The study considers the sensitivity of entry design metrics, including altitude and range error at parachute deploy and propellant use, to pothole like density and wind phenomena.

  3. Mixture model-based atmospheric air mass classification: a probabilistic view of thermodynamic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernin, Jérôme; Vrac, Mathieu; Crevoisier, Cyril; Chédin, Alain

    2016-10-01

    Air mass classification has become an important area in synoptic climatology, simplifying the complexity of the atmosphere by dividing the atmosphere into discrete similar thermodynamic patterns. However, the constant growth of atmospheric databases in both size and complexity implies the need to develop new adaptive classifications. Here, we propose a robust unsupervised and supervised classification methodology of a large thermodynamic dataset, on a global scale and over several years, into discrete air mass groups homogeneous in both temperature and humidity that also provides underlying probability laws. Temperature and humidity at different pressure levels are aggregated into a set of cumulative distribution function (CDF) values instead of classical ones. The method is based on a Gaussian mixture model and uses the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the parameters of the mixture. Spatially gridded thermodynamic profiles come from ECMWF reanalyses spanning the period 2000-2009. Different aspects are investigated, such as the sensitivity of the classification process to both temporal and spatial samplings of the training dataset. Comparisons of the classifications made either by the EM algorithm or by the widely used k-means algorithm show that the former can be viewed as a generalization of the latter. Moreover, the EM algorithm delivers, for each observation, the probabilities of belonging to each class, as well as the associated uncertainty. Finally, a decision tree is proposed as a tool for interpreting the different classes, highlighting the relative importance of temperature and humidity in the classification process.

  4. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Precipitation Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles in clear and cloudy regions with accuracy which approaches that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model using WRF-Var. Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in clear and partly cloudy regions, and uncontaminated portions of retrievals above clouds in overcast regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts resulting from improved thermodynamic fields. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  5. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia; Buitink, Stijn; Corstanje, Arthur; Ebert, Ute; Enriquez, Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Hoerandel, Joerg; Nelles, Anna; Schellart, Pim; Rachen, Joerg; Rutjes, Casper; ter Veen, Sander; Rossetto, Laura; Thoudam, Satyendra

    2016-04-01

    Energetic cosmic rays impinging on the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. In the leading plasma of this shower electric currents are induced that generate coherent radio wave emission that has been detected with LOFAR, a large and dense array of simple radio antennas primarily developed for radio-astronomy observations. Our measurements are performed in the 30-80 MHz frequency band. For fair weather conditions the observations are in excellent agreement with model calculations. However, for air showers measured under thunderstorm conditions we observe large differences in the intensity and polarization patterns from the predictions of fair weather models. We will show that the linear as well as the circular polarization of the radio waves carry clear information on the magnitude and orientation of the electric fields at different heights in the thunderstorm clouds. We will show that from the measured data at LOFAR the thunderstorm electric fields can be reconstructed. We thus have established the measurement of radio emission from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays as a new tool to probe the atmospheric electric fields present in thunderclouds in a non-intrusive way. In part this presentation is based on the work: P. Schellart et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 165001 (2015).

  6. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G. ); Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K. )

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  7. Potential for atmospheric-driven lead paint degradation in the South Coast Air Basin of California.

    PubMed

    Cohan, Alexander J; Edwards, Rufus D; Kleinman, Michael T; Dabdub, Donald

    2009-12-01

    Exposure to lead in paint or lead residues in house dust and soil is one of the leading environmental risks to the health of children in the United States. Components of photochemical smog can increase the degradation of binders in lead paint, leading to increased release of lead pigment granules to hands in surface contact or for deposition in house dust and soil. This study uses photochemical air quality modeling to map areas susceptible to increased lead paint degradation as a result of photochemical atmospheric pollutants to prioritize areas of concern. Typical air quality episodes in the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB) are modeled for the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. Results indicate that large areas of the SoCAB were susceptible to atmospheric-driven accelerated lead paint degradation. Inner city urban areas from central Los Angeles to Azusa and most of Orange County had the highest susceptibility to accelerated lead paint degradation, followed by inland locations near the San Bernardino Mountains. This study identifies photochemical oxidant gases as contributors to greater lead release from indoor painted surfaces in urban areas.

  8. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G.; Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K.

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  9. Characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Young; Jo, Wan-Kuen; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-09-01

    Although analysis of long-term data is necessary to obtain reliable information on characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution, it has rarely been performed. Therefore, a long-term evaluation of atmospheric visibility in characteristically different Korean cities, as well as a remote island, during 2001 to 2009, was performed in this study. In general, visibility decreased in the studied areas during the 9-yr study period. In addition, all areas displayed a distinct seasonal trend, with high visibility in the cold season relative to the warm season. Weekday visibility, however, did not significantly differ from weekend visibility. Similarly, the number of days per year for both low (<10 km) and high visibility (>19 km) fluctuated during the study period. Busan (a coastal city) exhibited the highest visibility, with an overall average of 17.6 km, followed by Daegu (a basin city), Ulsan (with concentrated petrochemical industries), Ullungdo (a remote island), and Seoul (the capital of Korea). Visibility was found to be significantly correlated with target air pollutants, except for ozone, for all metropolitan cities, whereas it was significantly correlated only with particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) and ozone on the remote island (Ullungdo). Among the metropolitan cities, Seoul exhibited the lowest visibility for both the PM10 standard exceedance and non-exceedance days, followed by Ulsan, Daegu, and Busan. The results of this study can be used to establish effective strategies for improving urban visibility and air quality. PMID:25603237

  10. Regional Precipitation Forecast with Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profile Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced technology in hyperspectral sensors such as the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS; Aumann et al. 2003) on NASA's polar orbiting Aqua satellite retrieve higher vertical resolution thermodynamic profiles than their predecessors due to increased spectral resolution. Although these capabilities do not replace the robust vertical resolution provided by radiosondes, they can serve as a complement to radiosondes in both space and time. These retrieved soundings can have a significant impact on weather forecasts if properly assimilated into prediction models. Several recent studies have evaluated the performance of specific operational weather forecast models when AIRS data are included in the assimilation process. LeMarshall et al. (2006) concluded that AIRS radiances significantly improved 500 hPa anomaly correlations in medium-range forecasts of the Global Forecast System (GFS) model. McCarty et al. (2009) demonstrated similar forecast improvement in 0-48 hour forecasts in an offline version of the operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) model when AIRS radiances were assimilated at the regional scale. Reale et al. (2008) showed improvements to Northern Hemisphere 500 hPa height anomaly correlations in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) global system with the inclusion of partly cloudy AIRS temperature profiles. Singh et al. (2008) assimilated AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional modeling system for a study of a heavy rainfall event during the summer monsoon season in Mumbai, India. This paper describes an approach to assimilate AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var; Barker et al. 2004). Section 2 describes the AIRS instrument and how the quality indicators are used to intelligently select the highest-quality data for assimilation

  11. Atmospheric and Science Complexity Effects on Surface Bidirectional Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, D. J. (Principal Investigator); Martonchik, J. V.; Sythe, W. D.; Hessom, C.

    1985-01-01

    Among the tools used in passive remote sensing of Earth resources in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions are measurements of spectral signature and bidirectional reflectance functions (BDRFs). Determination of surface properties using these observables is complicated by a number of factors, including: (1) mixing of surface components, such as soil and vegetation, (2) multiple reflections of radiation due to complex geometry, such as in crop canopies, and (3) atmospheric effects. In order to bridge the diversity in these different approaches, there is a need for a fundamental physical understanding of the influence of the various effects and a quantiative measure of their relative importance. In particular, we consider scene complexity effects using the example of reflection by vegetative surfaces. The interaction of sunlight with a crop canopy and interpretation of the spectral and angular dependence of the emergent radiation is basically a multidimensional radiative transfer problem. The complex canopy geometry, underlying soil cover, and presence of diffuse as well as collimated illumination will modify the reflectance characteristics of the canopy relative to those of the individual elements.

  12. Clouds in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the terrestrial atmosphere clouds are familiar as vast collections of small water drops or ice cyrstals suspended in the air. The study of clouds touches on many facets of armospheric science. The chemistry of clouds is tied to the chemistry of the surrounding atmosphere.

  13. Hurricane Frances as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and SeaWinds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows Hurricane Frances as captured by instruments onboard two different satellites: the AIRS infrared instrument onboard Aqua, and the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT. Both are JPL-managed instruments. AIRS data are used to create global three-dimensional maps of temperature, humidity and clouds, while scatterometers measure surface wind speed and direction over the ocean.

    The red vectors in the image show Frances' surface winds as measured by SeaWinds on QuikSCAT. The background colors show the temperature of clouds and surface as viewed in the infrared by AIRS, with cooler areas pushing to purple and warmer areas are pushing to red. The color scale on the right gives the temperatures in degrees Kelvin. (The top of the scale, 320 degrees Kelvin, corresponds to 117 degrees Fahrenheit, and the bottom, 180 degrees K is -135 degrees F.) The powerful circulation of this storm is evident from the combined data as well as the development of a clearly-defined central 'eye'. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds, so the light blue areas reveal the cold clouds tops associated with strong thunderstorms embedded within the storm. In cloud-free areas the infrared signal comes from Earth's surface, revealing warmer temperatures.

    The power of the SeaWinds scatterometer data set lies in its ability to generate global maps of wind speed and direction, giving us a snapshot of how the atmosphere is circulating. Weather prediction centers, including the Tropical Prediction Center - a branch of NOAA that monitors the creation of ocean-born storms, use scatterometer data to help it 'see' where these storms are brewing so that warnings can be issued and the storms, with often erratic motions, can be tracked.

    While the SeaWinds instrument isn't designed to gather hurricane data, having difficulty seeing the surface in heavy rain, it's data can be used in combination with other data sets to give us an insight into these storms. In

  14. The Role of Exposure Science in Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality standards and regulations are designed to protect public health and the environment. However, there are issues regarding whether the current standards and regulations should be adjusted to be more protective or to more effectively target air quality management activi...

  15. The Salty Science of the Aluminum-Air Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Chasteen, N. Dennis; Doherty, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Fruit batteries and saltwater batteries are excellent ways to explore simple circuits in the classroom. These are examples of air batteries in which metal reacts with oxygen in the air in order to generate free electrons, which flow through an external circuit and do work. Students are typically told that the salt or fruit water acts as an…

  16. Two-dimensional calculations of a continuous optical discharge in atmospheric-air flow (optical plasmatron)

    SciTech Connect

    Raizer, Yu.P.; Silant'ev, A.Yu.; Surzhikov, S.T.

    1987-11-01

    A two-dimensional gas-dynamic process in a continuous optical discharge, burning in subsonic atmospheric-air flow, is modeled numerically. The distortion of the light channel owing to refraction of the laser beam in the plasma created by it, the radiative energy losses, and radiant heat transfer were taken into account. It was found that in a hot jet instabilities and eddy structures appear behind the region of energy liberation. These effects do not affect the main part of the discharge, where the state is completely stable. The calculations showed that for an optical plasmatron in the free atmosphere the incoming flow primarily flows around the highly heated region, and penetrates into it only slightly. Depending on the velocity of the flow the refraction in the plasma can lead to both defocusing and additional focusing of the beam. The results agree qualitatively with available experimental data.

  17. Monitoring of atmospheric aerosol emissions using a remotely piloted air vehicle (RPV)-Borne Sensor Suite

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a small sensor system, the micro-atmospheric measurement system ({mu}-AMS), to monitor and track aerosol emissions. The system was developed to fly aboard a remotely piloted air vehicle, or other mobile platform, to provide real-time particle measurements in effluent plumes and to collect particles for chemical analysis. The {mu}-AMS instrument measures atmospheric parameters including particle mass concentration and size distribution, temperature, humidity, and airspeed, altitude and position (by GPS receiver) each second. The sensor data are stored onboard and are also down linked to a ground station in real time. The {mu}-AMS is battery powered, small (8 in. dia x 36 in.), and lightweight (15 pounds). Aerosol concentrations and size distributions from above ground explosive tests, airbone urban pollution, and traffic-produced particulates are presented.

  18. Revisiting Atmospheric Lead in NYC - Comparison of Archived Air Filters to Urban Park Sediments and Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chillrud, S. N.; Ross, J. M.; Yan, B.; Bopp, R.

    2015-12-01

    Urban lake sediments have the potential to be used for reconstructing history of aerosols, providing data before the start of urban air quality monitoring. In a previous study, the similarity between radionuclide and excess Pb inventories (57 g/m^2) in Central Park Lake (CPL) sediments and those same parameters in Central Park soils (CPS) was interpreted to indicate that urban lake sediment cores from CPL represent deposition of atmospheric aerosols over the history of the park, which was constructed in the 1860s. Furthermore, metal ratios and metal chronologies indicated that incineration was the major source of Pb to the NYC atmosphere over the 20th century. In this report, we compare the lake chronologies for metals to a set of archived air filters collected by the Department of Energy's Environmental Measurement Lab (EML). These weekly filters of total suspended particulates (TSP) were collected by a high volume sampler located in lower Manhattan for radionuclides as part of the program focused on documenting radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Metal concentrations measured in subsamples of the EML filters collected between the 1970s to 1990s showed Pb decreasing more slowly than the records of Pb added to gasoline. Metal ratios in the filters were similar to the ratios measured in CPL sediments; the Pb to Sn ratios were roughly 20:1 and the Pb to Zn ratios were in close to 1. The similarity of the ratios provides additional solid support that the CP Lake sediment cores reflect atmospheric inputs. The enrichment of Pb in the large aerosol particle fraction (TSP), relative to fine PM2.5 fraction, demonstrates that the resuspended NYC soils and their historical contaminant burden, are the primary, current source of Pb to NYC air.

  19. Sterilization effect of atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma on dental instruments

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Su-Jin; Huh, Jung-Bo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Chang, Brian Myung W.; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Autoclaves and UV sterilizers have been commonly used to prevent cross-infections between dental patients and dental instruments or materials contaminated by saliva and blood. To develop a dental sterilizer which can sterilize most materials, such as metals, rubbers, and plastics, the sterilization effect of an atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS After inoculating E. coli and B. subtilis the diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials were sterilized by exposing them to the plasma for different lengths of time (30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and, 240 seconds). The diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials were immersed in PBS solutions, cultured on agar plates and quantified by counting the colony forming units. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and significance was assessed by the LSD post hoc test (α=0.05). RESULTS The device was effective in killing E. coli contained in the plasma device compared with the UV sterilizer. The atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device contributed greatly to the sterilization of diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with E. coli and B. subtilis. Diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with E. coli was effective after 60 and 90 seconds. The diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with B. subtilis was effective after 120 and 180 seconds. CONCLUSION The atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device was effective in killing both E. coli and B. subtilis, and was more effective in killing E. coli than the UV sterilizer. PMID:23508991

  20. Improved Atmospheric Soundings and Error Estimates from Analysis of AIRS/AMSU Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5.0 retrieval algorithm became operational at the Goddard DAAC in July 2007 generating near real-time products from analysis of AIRS/AMSU sounding data. This algorithm contains many significant theoretical advances over the AIRS Science Team Version 4.0 retrieval algorithm used previously. Three very significant developments of Version 5 are: 1) the development and implementation of an improved Radiative Transfer Algorithm (RTA) which allows for accurate treatment of non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) effects on shortwave sounding channels; 2) the development of methodology to obtain very accurate case by case product error estimates which are in turn used for quality control; and 3) development of an accurate AIRS only cloud clearing and retrieval system. These theoretical improvements taken together enabled a new methodology to be developed which further improves soundings in partially cloudy conditions, without the need for microwave observations in the cloud clearing step as has been done previously. In this methodology, longwave C02 channel observations in the spectral region 700 cm-' to 750 cm-' are used exclusively for cloud clearing purposes, while shortwave C02 channels in the spectral region 2195 cm-' to 2395 cm-' are used for temperature sounding purposes. The new methodology for improved error estimates and their use in quality control is described briefly and results are shown indicative of their accuracy. Results are also shown of forecast impact experiments assimilating AIRS Version 5.0 retrieval products in the Goddard GEOS 5 Data Assimilation System using different quality control thresholds.

  1. Decline of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Arctic atmosphere and reversal of air-sea gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Jantunen, L. M.; Falconer, R. L.; Barrie, L. A.; Fellin, P.

    1995-02-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) are the most abundant organochlorine pesticides in the arctic atmosphere and ocean surface water. A compilation of measurements made between 1979-93 from stations in the Canadian and Norwegian Arctic and from cruises in the Bering and Chukchi seas indicates that atmospheric concentrations of α-HCH have declined significantly (p < 0.01), with a time for 50% decrease of about 4 y in summer-fall and 6 y in winter-spring. The 1992-93 levels of about 100 pg m-3 are 2-4 fold lower than values in the mid-1980s. The trend in γ-HCH is less pronounced, but a decrease is also suggested from measurements in the Canadian Arctic and the Bering-Chukchi seas. HCHs in ocean surface water have remained relatively constant since the early 1980s. The decline in atmospheric α-HCH has reversed the net direction of air-sea gas exchange to the point where some northern waters are now sources of the pesticide to the atmosphere instead of sinks.

  2. Comparison of halocarbon measurements in an atmospheric dry whole air sample

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Bradley D.; Harth, Christina M.; Kim, Jin Seog; Lee, Jeongsoon; Montzka, Stephen A.; Mühle, Jens; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-01-01

    The growing awareness of climate change/global warming, and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion, will require continued measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track atmospheric mole fractions and assess the impact of policy on emission rates, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. Precise measurements of these species aid in determining small changes in their atmospheric abundance. A common source of standards/scales and/or well-documented agreement of different scales used to calibrate the measurement instrumentation are key to understanding many sets of data reported by researchers. This report describes the results of a comparison study among National Metrology Institutes and atmospheric research laboratories for the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this study is to compare calibration standards/scales and the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. The results of this study show agreement among four independent calibration scales to better than 2.5% in almost all cases, with many of the reported agreements being better than 1.0%. PMID:26753167

  3. Long-period humidity variability in the Arctic atmosphere from upper-air observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurenko, A.; Khokhlova, A.

    2014-12-01

    Under climate change, atmospheric water content also tends to change. This gives rise to changes in the amount of moisture transferred, clouds and precipitation, as well as in hydrological regime. This work analyzes seasonal climatic characteristics of precipitated water in the Arctic atmosphere, by using 1972-2011 data from 55 upper-air stations located north of 60°N. Regions of maximum and minimum mean values and variability trends are determined. In the summer, water amount is shown to increase in nearly the whole of the latitudinal zone. The comparison with the similar characteristics of reanalysis obtained by the other authors shows a good agreement. Time variation in the atmosphere moisture transport crossing 70°N, which is calculated from observation data, is presented and compared with model results. The work is supported by the joint EC ERA.Net RUS and Russian Fundamental Research Fund Project "Arctic Climate Processes Linked Through the Circulation of the Atmosphere" (ACPCA) (project 12-05-91656-ЭРА_а).

  4. Simulation of a runaway electron avalanche developing in an atmospheric pressure air discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Oreshkin, E. V.; Barengolts, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2015-12-15

    To gain a better understanding of the operation of atmospheric pressure air discharges, the formation of a runaway electron beam at an individual emission site on the cathode has been numerically simulated. The model provides a description of the dynamics of the fast electrons emitted into an air gap from the surface of the emission zone by solving numerically two-dimensional equations for the electrons. It is supposed that the electric field at the surface of the emission zone is enhanced, providing conditions for continuous acceleration of the emitted electrons. It is shown that the formation of a runaway electron beam in a highly overvolted discharge is largely associated with avalanche-type processes and that the number of electrons in the avalanche reaches 50% of the total number of runaway electrons.

  5. Sustained diffusive alternating current gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Zhongshan; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Larsson, Anders; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-12-01

    Rapid transition from glow discharge to thermal arc has been a common problem in generating stable high-power non-thermal plasmas especially at ambient conditions. A sustained diffusive gliding arc discharge was generated in a large volume in atmospheric pressure air, driven by an alternating current (AC) power source. The plasma column extended beyond the water-cooled stainless steel electrodes and was stabilized by matching the flow speed of the turbulent air jet with the rated output power. Comprehensive investigations were performed using high-speed movies measured over the plasma column, synchronized with simultaneously recorded current and voltage waveforms. Dynamic details of the novel non-equilibrium discharge are revealed, which is characterized by a sinusoidal current waveform with amplitude stabilized at around 200 mA intermediate between thermal arc and glow discharge, shedding light to the governing mechanism of the sustained spark-suppressed AC gliding arc discharge.

  6. Microstructure and DC electrical conductivity of spinel nickel ferrite sintered in air and nitrogen atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Baogang; Zhou, Kechao; Li, Zhiyou; Zhang, Dou; Zhang, Lei

    2010-11-15

    In recent years, the development of inert anode materials has gained considerable attention because such materials are capable of producing only environment-friendly O{sub 2} and saving energy during aluminum electrolysis. Nickel ferrite was prepared by a solid-state reaction as the inert anode in this study and its microstructures and direct current conductivities were analyzed in detail regarding the effects of different sintering atmospheres. A single-phase spinel structure was confirmed for all samples by X-ray powder diffraction. The grain sizes and the relative densities of the samples sintered in nitrogen increased by over 7 {mu}m and 10.8%, respectively, compared to those sintered in air. The direct current conductivities of the samples sintered in nitrogen showed a drastic increase compared to those sintered in air, believed to be due to the effects of increased Fe{sup 2+} ion concentration at octahedral sites and the increase of the relative density.

  7. A study of the glow discharge characteristics of contact electrodes at atmospheric pressure in air

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenzheng Sun, Guangliang Li, Chuanhui; Zhang, Rongrong

    2014-04-15

    Electric field distributions and discharge properties of rod-rod contact electrodes were studied under the condition of DBD for the steady generation of atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma (APGD) in air. We found that under the effect of the initial electrons generated in a nanometer-scale gap, the rod-rod cross-contact electrodes yielded APGD plasma in air. Regarding the rod-rod cross-contact electrodes, increasing the working voltage expanded the strong electric field area of the gas gap so that both discharge area and discharge power increased, and the increase in the number of contact points kept the initial discharge voltage unchanged and caused an increase in the plasma discharge area and discharge power. A mesh-like structure of cross-contact electrodes was designed and used to generate more APGD plasma, suggesting high applicability.

  8. Mossbauer study of iron-containing atmospheric aerosol in relation to the air pollution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopcewicz, B.; Kopcewicz, M.

    2003-04-01

    Observation and monitoring of the aerosol background in the troposphere is very important for atmospheric physics. It is the first step in studying antropogenic components and their impact on the climate. Iron (both Fe(II) and Fe(III)) plays an important role in the multiphase atmospheric chemistry of S(IV) as a catalyst as well as an oxidant, and a photolytic source of OH radical. In order to assess the extent in which the iron content in the troposphere may change and to which extent that change may be attributed to human activity, it is necessary to have a complete picture of the distribution of iron concentration and its variation. For these purposes the Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to analyze the iron compounds present in atmospheric aerosol. In this presentation we show results of measurements performed on the atmospheric aerosol collected in Poznan and Lodz (industrial cites in central Poland), Mikolajki (lake district, North-East Poland) and Kasprowy Wierch (mountain observatory, 1985 m a.s.l.). Depending to the sampling period and sampling site the significant changes in the iron concentration and chemical properties of the collected aerosol were observed. As a significant part of air pollution, especially in winter months, iron appeared in the form of iron sulfides, which were products of coal combustion. Also, iron oxyhydroxides and iron oxides, mostly hematite (bulk) and in the form of ultra fine particles in superparamagnetic state were observed. Results obtained from Mössbauer measurements were discussed in relation to the concentration of general air pollution.

  9. A Citation Analysis of Atmospheric Science Publications by Faculty at Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Rusty; Stephens, Jane; Hubbard, David; Pickett, Carmelita

    2013-01-01

    A citation analysis of publications produced by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences faculty at Texas A&M University was conducted. This study included a detailed analysis of 5,082 cited publications by source, format, and age. TAMU Libraries holdings were then assessed using the works cited within the context of the 80/20 rule. The sources…

  10. Active Learning in the Atmospheric Science Classroom and beyond through High-Altitude Ballooning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jill S. M.; Mitchell, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of high-altitude balloon (HAB) research into a variety of undergraduate atmospheric science classes as a means of increasing active student engagement in real-world, problem-solving events. Because high-altitude balloons are capable of reaching heights of 80,000-100,000 ft (24-30 km), they provide a…

  11. Proceedings of the third Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) science team meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1993 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held in Morman, Oklahoma. To put these papers in context, it is useful to consider the history and status of the ARM Program at the time of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  12. Two-dimensional calculations of a continuous optical discharge in atmospheric air flow (optical plasma generator)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raizer, Iu. P.; Silant'ev, A. Iu.; Surzhikov, S. T.

    1987-06-01

    Two-dimensional gasdynamic processes in a continuous optical discharge in subsonic flow of atmospheric air are simulated numerically with allowance for distortions of the light channel due to laser beam refraction in the generated plasma, radiative energy losses, and radiant heat transfer. It is found that instabilities and vortex structures are formed in the hot jet behind the energy release region; flow in this region is nonstationary but periodic. These effects are not observed in the main part of the discharge, which is quite stable. Depending on flow velocity, diffraction in the plasma may lead to both defocusing and focusing of the beam.

  13. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height Evolution with Lidar in Buenos Aires from 2008 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelko, Ezequiel Eduardo; Salvador, Jacobo Omar; Ristori, Pablo Roberto; Pallotta, Juan Vicente; Otero, Lidia Ana; Quel, Eduardo Jaime

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer top height evolution is obtained from 2008 to 2011 in Buenos Aires using the multiwavelength lidar located at CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET) (34°33' S; 58°30' W; 17 m asl). Algorithms recognition based on covariance wavelet transform are applied to obtain seasonal statistics. This method is being evaluated for use in the Lidar Network in Argentina and it is being deployed in Patagonia region currently. The technique operates in real time in both low and high aerosol loads and with almost no human supervision.

  14. Land use changes and its impacts on air quality and atmospheric patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, E. D.; Mazzoli, C. R.; Martins, L. D.; Martins, J. A.; Carvalho, V.; Andrade, M.

    2013-05-01

    Possible modifications on atmospheric patterns and air quality caused by land use changes are discussed in this work. With the increasing interest in alternative energy sources, mainly due to the replacement of fossil fuels, large part of the Brazilian territory is being used for sugar cane cultivation. The resultant modifications in land use and some activities associated to this crop are studied with some detail through numerical modeling of the atmosphere. The same tool was applied to study the effect of surface type and emission sources over urban areas in the neighborhoods of the cultivated areas, in particular those located in the Metropolitan Area of Campinas, inside the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The main focus of this work was to identify some relationship between these two types of land use modification and its influence on the regional atmospheric circulation patterns and air quality over agricultural and urban areas affected by biomass burning and the traditional sources of pollutants, such as industries and vehicles. First, the effect of urban areas was analyzed and it was possible to identify typical patterns associated with urban heat islands, especially over the city of Campinas. In this region, air temperature differences up to 3 K were detected during night time. During the day, due to the atmospheric conditions of the studied period, this effect was not significant. Afterwards, the effect of sugar cane cultivated regions was discussed. The results show that the regions of sugar cane grow can significantly modify the surface energy fluxes, with direct consequences to the standards of local temperature and humidity and over nearby regions. Sensitivity tests were carried out during part of September, 2007, through the substitution of the sugar cane by a generic crop in the model, and show that during the day the cultivated areas can present temperatures up to 0,65 k higher than those in the case of the generic one. Throughout the dispersion module

  15. Effects of Atmospheric Air Plasma Irradiation on pH of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Koga, Kazunori; Kitazaki, Satoshi; Uchida, Giichirou; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu

    We have studied the effects of atmospheric air plasma irradiation to water using a scalable dielectric barrier discharge device. Measurements of the pH of water treated by the plasmas have shown the pH decreases due to peroxide molecules generated by plasma irradiation and depends on material of water container. We also found this plasma treated water has little effect on the growth enhancement on Radish sprouts compare with plasma irradiation on dry seeds and the plasma irradiation can affect them through the water buffer of 0.2 mm in thickness.

  16. Spectrum of the Runaway Electron Beam Generated During a Nanosecond Discharge in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.

    2016-04-01

    The spectrum of supershort avalanche runaway electron beam generated in air at atmospheric pressure is experimentally investigated using a time-of-flight spectrometer and attenuation curves. It is shown that the maximum of the electron energy distribution for the main (second) group of electrons is less than the energy eUm, where Um is the maximal voltage across the gap, and the difference between these energies depends on the design of the cathode and the interelectrode gap in a gas diode. It is confirmed that there are three groups of electrons with different energies in the runaway electron beam spectrum.

  17. Energy distribution of runaway electrons generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Petin, V. K.; Rybka, D. V.; Shlyakhtun, S. V.

    2008-12-01

    The spectra of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air were investigated. The temporal characteristics of the beam current pulses, gap voltage, and discharge current in a gas diode were measured with a time resolution of ˜0.1 ns. A simple technique was developed for recovering electron spectra from the curves of beam attenuation by aluminum foils. The effect of the cathode design, electrode gap length, and generator parameters on the electron spectra were studied using seven setups. It is shown that generation of electrons with anomalously high energies requires the use of cathodes with increased curvature radius.

  18. Hurricane Alex as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for August 3, 2004 movie, slicing down the atmosphere with the AIRS infrared sensor

    These images of hurricane Alex were captured on August 3, 2004 at 1:30pm EDT. Located in the Atlantic Ocean located about 80 miles south-southeast of Charleston, South Carolina, Alex is now a category 2 hurricane with maximum sustained winds were near 100 mph (161 kph). Alex's center was about 65 miles (104 kilometers) northeast of Cape Hatteras and moving away from the U.S. coast.

    The major contribution to radiation (infrared light) that AIRS infrared channels sense comes from different levels in the atmosphere, depending upon the channel wavelength. To create the movies, a set of AIRS infrared channels were selected which probe the atmosphere at progressively deeper levels. If there were no clouds, the color in each frame would be nearly uniform until the Earth's surface is encountered. The tropospheric air temperature warms at a rate of 6 K (about 11 F) for each kilometer of descent toward the surface. Thus the colors would gradually change from cold to warm as the movie progresses.

    Clouds block the infrared radiation. Thus wherever there are clouds we can penetrate no deeper in infrared. The color remains fixed as the movie progresses, for that area of the image is 'stuck' to the cloud top temperature. The coldest temperatures around 220 K (about -65 F) come from altitudes of about 10 miles.

    We therefore see in a 'surface channel' at the end of the movie, signals from clouds as cold as 220 K and from Earth's surface at 310 K (about 100 F). The very coldest clouds are seen in deep convection thunderstorms over land. Images [figure removed for brevity, see original site] August 2, 2004, 1:30am ET Frame from August 2 movie, slicing down the atmosphere with the AIRS infrared sensor. Alex a tropical storm, sustained winds at 60 mph. The storm is 115 miles southeast of Charleston, South

  19. Hurricane Katrina as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: click on image for larger AIRS microwave image

    At 1:30 a.m. local time this morning, the remnants of (now Tropical Depression) Katrina were centered on the Mississippi-Tennessee border. This microwave image from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument on NASA's Aqua spacecrat shows that the area of most intense precipitation was concentrated to the north of the center of activity.

    The infrared image shows how the storms look through an AIRS Infrared window channel. Window channels measure the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the hurricane. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds, so the purple color indicates the cool cloud tops of the storm. In cloud-free areas, the infrared signal is retrieved at the Earth's surface, revealing warmer temperatures. Cooler areas are pushing to purple and warmer areas are pushing to red.

    The microwave image (figure 1) reveals where the heaviest precipitation in the hurricane is taking place. The blue areas within the storm show the location of this heavy precipitation. Blue areas outside of the storm where there are moderate or no clouds are where the cold (in the microwave sense) sea surface shines through.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard

  20. Validation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) over the Antarctic Plateau: Low Radiance, Low Humidity, and Thin Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the project has been to use specialized measurements collected at the Antarctic Plateau to provide validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) spectral radiances and some AIRS Level 2 products. As proposed, efforts conducted at the University of Wisconsin are focused on providing technical information, data, and software in support of the validation studies.

  1. Carbon Monoxide Distribution over Peninsular Malaysia from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jaso M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.

    2009-07-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. It daily coverage of ˜70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite traces gas remote sensing. AIRS, the part of a large international investment to upgrade the operational meteorological satellite systems, is first of the new generation of meteorological advanced sounders for operational and research use, Providing New Insights into Weather and Climate for the 21st Century. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous, an indoor and outdoor air pollutant, is not a significant greenhouse gas as it absorbs little infrared radiation from the Earth. However, it does have an influence on oxidization in the atmosphere through interaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH), which also react with methane, halocarbons and tropospheric ozone. It produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning, and that it has a role as a smog. The aim of this investigation is to study the (CO) carbon monoxide distribution over Peninsular Malaysia. The land use map of the Peninsular Malaysia was conducted by using CO total column amount, obtained from AIRS data, the map & data was processed and analyzed by using Photoshop & SigmaPlot 11.0 programs and compared for timing of various (day time) (28 August 2005 & 29 August 2007) for both direct comparison and the comparison using the same a priori profile, the CO concentrations in 28/8/2005 higher. The CO maps were generated using Kriging Interpolation technique. This interpolation technique produced high correlation coefficient, R2 and low root mean square error, RMS for CO. This study provided useful information for influence change of CO concentration on varies temperature.

  2. Quality Heterostructures from Two-Dimensional Crystals Unstable in Air by Their Assembly in Inert Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y; Mishchenko, A; Yu, G L; Khestanova, E; Rooney, A P; Prestat, E; Kretinin, A V; Blake, P; Shalom, M B; Woods, C; Chapman, J; Balakrishnan, G; Grigorieva, I V; Novoselov, K S; Piot, B A; Potemski, M; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Haigh, S J; Geim, A K; Gorbachev, R V

    2015-08-12

    Many layered materials can be cleaved down to individual atomic planes, similar to graphene, but only a small minority of them are stable under ambient conditions. The rest react and decompose in air, which has severely hindered their investigation and potential applications. Here we introduce a remedial approach based on cleavage, transfer, alignment, and encapsulation of air-sensitive crystals, all inside a controlled inert atmosphere. To illustrate the technology, we choose two archetypal two-dimensional crystals that are of intense scientific interest but are unstable in air: black phosphorus and niobium diselenide. Our field-effect devices made from their monolayers are conductive and fully stable under ambient conditions, which is in contrast to the counterparts processed in air. NbSe2 remains superconducting down to the monolayer thickness. Starting with a trilayer, phosphorene devices reach sufficiently high mobilities to exhibit Landau quantization. The approach offers a venue to significantly expand the range of experimentally accessible two-dimensional crystals and their heterostructures.

  3. Report on the search for atmospheric holes using airs image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinleitner, Lee A.

    1991-01-01

    Frank et al (1986) presented a very controversial hypothesis which states that the Earth is being bombarded by water-vapor clouds resulting from the disruption and vaporization of small comets. This hypothesis was based on single-pixel intensity decreases in the images of the earth's dayglow emissions at vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths using the DE-1 imager. These dark spots, or atmospheric holes, are hypothesized to be the result of VUV absorption by a water-vapor cloud between the imager and the dayglow-emitting region. Examined here is the VUV data set from the Auroral Ionospheric Remote Sensor (AIRS) instrument that was flown on the Polar BEAR satellite. AIRS was uniquely situated to test this hypothesis. Due to the altitude of the sensor, the holes should show multi-pixel intensity decreases in a scan line. A statistical estimate indicated that sufficient 130.4-nm data from AIRS existed to detect eight to nine such holes, but none was detected. The probability of this occurring is less than 1.0 x 10(exp -4). A statistical estimate indicated that sufficient 135.6-nm data from AIRS existed to detect approx. 2 holes, and two ambiguous cases are shown. In spite of the two ambiguous cases, the 135.6-nm data did not show clear support for the small-comet hypothesis. The 130.4-nm data clearly do not support the small-comet hypothesis.

  4. The United States' Next Generation of Atmospheric Composition and Coastal Ecosystem Measurements: NASA's Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, J.; Iraci, Laura T.; Al-Saddi, J.; Chance, K.; Chavez, F.; Chin, M.; Coble, P.; Davis, C.; DiGiacomo, P. M.; Edwards, D.; Eldering, A.; Goes, J.; Herman, J.; Hu, C.; Jacob, D. J.; Jordan, C.; Kawa, S. R.; Key, R.; Liu, X.; Lohrenz, S.; Mannino, A.; Natraj, V.; Neil, D.; Neu, J.; Newchurch, M.; Pickering, K.; Salisbury, J.; Sosik, H.; Subramaniam, A.; Tzortziou, M; Wang, J.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission was recommended by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Earth Science Decadal Survey to measure tropospheric trace gases and aerosols and coastal ocean phytoplankton, water quality, and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit, providing continuous observations within the field of view. To fulfill the mandate and address the challenge put forth by the NRC, two GEO-CAPE Science Working Groups (SWGs), representing the atmospheric composition and ocean color disciplines, have developed realistic science objectives using input drawn from several community workshops. The GEO-CAPE mission will take advantage of this revolutionary advance in temporal frequency for both of these disciplines. Multiple observations per day are required to explore the physical, chemical, and dynamical processes that determine tropospheric composition and air quality over spatial scales ranging from urban to continental, and over temporal scales ranging from diurnal to seasonal. Likewise, high-frequency satellite observations are critical to studying and quantifying biological, chemical, and physical processes within the coastal ocean. These observations are to be achieved from a vantage point near 95deg-100degW, providing a complete view of North America as well as the adjacent oceans. The SWGs have also endorsed the concept of phased implementation using commercial satellites to reduce mission risk and cost. GEO-CAPE will join the global constellation of geostationary atmospheric chemistry and coastal ocean color sensors planned to be in orbit in the 2020 time frame.

  5. A Community Hydrometeorology Laboratory for Fostering Collaborative Research by the Atmospheric and Hydrologic Sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, T.T.; Yates, D.N.; Leavesley, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    A new community laboratory for fostering collaborative research between the atmospheric and hydrologie sciences communities is described. This facility, located at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado, allows scientists from both communities to more easily focus resources and attention on interdisciplinary problems in atmospheric, hydrologic, and other related sciences. Researchers can remotely access the computing tools to use them or to download them to their own facility, or they can visit NCAR and use the laboratory with other scientists in joint research projects. An application of this facility is described, where scientists from NCAR, the University of Colorado, and the United States Geological Survey used quantitative precipitation estimates from weather radar to simulate a flash flood in the Buffalo Creek watershed in the mountainous Front Range near Denver, Colorado.

  6. Invisible Mars: Using Science on a Sphere to Explore Mars' Atmosphere Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. A.; Hsu, B. C.; Jones, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Science On a Sphere (SOS) is a room-sized, global display system that uses computers and video projectors to display planetary data onto a six foot diameter suspended sphere, analogous to a giant animated globe. The Sphere is used to explain complex processes in a way that is simultaneously intuitive and captivating. This presentation will describe how NASA's MAVEN mission Education/Public Outreach (E/PO) team is developing a Science On a Sphere (SOS) show, called Invisible Mars, which focuses on Mars' atmosphere loss. When completed, the playlist and script will be made freely available to SOS institutions. The MAVEN E/PO team will provide in-person and online trainings for SOS practitioners from science centers around the United States on the SOS script, graphics and MAVEN science and mission. This project is a collaborative effort between the University of California at Berkeley's Space Sciences Lab and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  7. Informational webinar for EPA STAR RFA on "Air, Climate and Energy (ACE) Centers: Science Supporting Solutions"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this webinar presentation is to discuss the application process and required elements for the Air, Climate and Energy (ACE) Centers: Science Supporting Solutions RFA. EPA is seeking research on the development of sound science to systematically inform policy makers...

  8. Bitz, Ginoux, Jacobson, Nizkorodov, and Yang Receive 2013 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Cecilia M. Bitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2014-07-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU awards one of the five Ascent Awards to Professor Cecilia M. Bitz of the Atmospheric Sciences Department at the University of Washington for advancing our ability to model climate in numerous ways, especially in relation to sea ice.

  9. What is in my air? Feds facilitating citizen science in the EPA Next Generation Air Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Preuss, P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in the development of small-scale and inexpensive air pollutant sensors, coupled with the ubiquitous use of wireless and mobile technology, will transform the field of air quality monitoring. For the first time, the general public may purchase air monitors, which can measure their personal exposure to NOx, Ozone, black carbon, and VOCs for a few hundred dollars. Concerned citizens may now gather the data for themselves to answer questions such as, ';what am I breathing?' and ';is my air clean?' The research and policy community will have access to real-time air quality data collected at the local and regional scale, making targeted protection of environmental health possible. With these benefits come many questions from citizen scientists, policymakers, and researchers. These include, what is the quality of the data? How will the public interpret data from the air sensors and are there guidelines to interpret that data? How do you know if the air sensor is trustworthy? Recognizing that this revolution in air quality monitoring will proceed regardless of the involvement of the government, the Innovation Team at the EPA Office of Research and Development, in partnership with the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance and the Office of Air and Radiation, seized the opportunity to ensure that users of next generation air sensors can realize the full potential benefits of these innovative technologies. These efforts include releasing an EPA Draft Roadmap for Next Generation Air Monitoring, testing air sensors under laboratory and field conditions, field demonstrations of new air sensor technology for the public, and building a community of air sensor developers, researchers, local, state and federal officials, and community members through workshops and a website. This presentation will review the status of those programs, highlighting the particular programs of interest to citizen scientists. The Next Generation Air Monitoring program may serve

  10. Atmospheric ammonia and its impacts on regional air quality over the megacity of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Nan, Jialiang; Shi, Chanzhen; Fu, Qingyan; Gao, Song; Wang, Dongfang; Cui, Huxiong; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Zhou, Bin

    2015-10-30

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) has great environmental implications due to its important role in ecosystem and global nitrogen cycle, as well as contribution to secondary particle formation. Here, we report long-term continuous measurements of NH3 at different locations (i.e. urban, industrial and rural) in Shanghai, China, which provide an unprecedented portrait of temporal and spatial characteristics of atmospheric NH3 in and around this megacity. In addition to point emission sources, air masses originated from or that have passed over ammonia rich areas, e.g. rural and industrial sites, increase the observed NH3 concentrations inside the urban area of Shanghai. Remarkable high-frequency NH3 variations were measured at the industrial site, indicating instantaneous nearby industrial emission peaks. Additionally, we observed strong positive exponential correlations between NH4(+)/(NH4(+)+NH3) and sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA) aerosols, PM2.5 mass concentrations, implying a considerable contribution of gas-to-particle conversion of ammonia to SNA aerosol formation. Lower temperature and higher humidity conditions were found to favor the conversion of gaseous ammonia to particle ammonium, particularly in autumn. Although NH3 is currently not included in China's emission control policies of air pollution precursors, our results highlight the urgency and importance of monitoring gaseous ammonia and improving its emission inventory in and around Shanghai.

  11. A new dynamical atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) model for epidemiological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Goldhagen, P. E.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    A new Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) model is currently being developed for use in radiation dose evaluation in epidemiological studies targeted to atmospheric flight personnel such as civilian airlines crewmembers. The model will allow computing values for biologically relevant parameters, e.g. dose equivalent and effective dose, for individual flights from 1945. Each flight is described by its actual three dimensional flight profile, i.e. geographic coordinates and altitudes varying with time. Solar modulated primary particles are filtered with a new analytical fully angular dependent geomagnetic cut off rigidity model, as a function of latitude, longitude, arrival direction, altitude and time. The particle transport results have been obtained with a technique based on the three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA, with a special procedure to deal with HZE particles. Particle fluxes are transformed into dose-related quantities and then integrated all along the flight path to obtain the overall flight dose. Preliminary validations of the particle transport technique using data from the AIR Project ER-2 flight campaign of measurements are encouraging. Future efforts will deal with modeling of the effects of the aircraft structure as well as inclusion of solar particle events. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  12. Advances in Atmospheric Radiation Measurements and Modeling Needed to Improve Air Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Atwell, William; Beck, Peter; Benton, Eric; Copeland, Kyle; Dyer, Clive; Gersey, Brad; Getley, Ian; Hands, Alex; Holland, Michael; Hong, Sunhak; Hwang, Junga; Jones, Bryn; Malone, Kathleen; Meier, Matthias M.; Mertens, Chris; Phillips, Tony; Ryden, Keith; Schwadron, Nathan; Wender, Stephen A.; Wilkins, Richard; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    Air safety is tied to the phenomenon of ionizing radiation from space weather, primarily from galactic cosmic rays but also from solar energetic particles. A global framework for addressing radiation issues in this environment has been constructed, but more must be done at international and national levels. Health consequences from atmospheric radiation exposure are likely to exist. In addition, severe solar radiation events may cause economic consequences in the international aviation community due to exposure limits being reached by some crew members. Impacts from a radiation environment upon avionics from high-energy particles and low-energy, thermalized neutrons are now recognized as an area of active interest. A broad community recognizes that there are a number of mitigation paths that can be taken relative to the human tissue and avionics exposure risks. These include developing active monitoring and measurement programs as well as improving scientific modeling capabilities that can eventually be turned into operations. A number of roadblocks to risk mitigation still exist, such as effective pilot training programs as well as monitoring, measuring, and regulatory measures. An active international effort toward observing the weather of atmospheric radiation must occur to make progress in mitigating radiation exposure risks. Stakeholders in this process include standard-making bodies, scientific organizations, regulatory organizations, air traffic management systems, aircraft owners and operators, pilots and crew, and even the public.

  13. Atmospheric ammonia and its impacts on regional air quality over the megacity of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Nan, Jialiang; Shi, Chanzhen; Fu, Qingyan; Gao, Song; Wang, Dongfang; Cui, Huxiong; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Zhou, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) has great environmental implications due to its important role in ecosystem and global nitrogen cycle, as well as contribution to secondary particle formation. Here, we report long-term continuous measurements of NH3 at different locations (i.e. urban, industrial and rural) in Shanghai, China, which provide an unprecedented portrait of temporal and spatial characteristics of atmospheric NH3 in and around this megacity. In addition to point emission sources, air masses originated from or that have passed over ammonia rich areas, e.g. rural and industrial sites, increase the observed NH3 concentrations inside the urban area of Shanghai. Remarkable high-frequency NH3 variations were measured at the industrial site, indicating instantaneous nearby industrial emission peaks. Additionally, we observed strong positive exponential correlations between NH4(+)/(NH4(+)+NH3) and sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA) aerosols, PM2.5 mass concentrations, implying a considerable contribution of gas-to-particle conversion of ammonia to SNA aerosol formation. Lower temperature and higher humidity conditions were found to favor the conversion of gaseous ammonia to particle ammonium, particularly in autumn. Although NH3 is currently not included in China's emission control policies of air pollution precursors, our results highlight the urgency and importance of monitoring gaseous ammonia and improving its emission inventory in and around Shanghai. PMID:26514559

  14. Multitechnique characterisation of 304L surface states oxidised at high temperature in steam and air atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamede, Anne-Sophie; Nuns, Nicolas; Cristol, Anne-Lise; Cantrel, Laurent; Souvi, Sidi; Cristol, Sylvain; Paul, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    In case of a severe accident occurring in a nuclear reactor, surfaces of the reactor coolant system (RCS), made of stainless steel (304L) rich in Cr (>10%) and Ni (8-12%), are oxidised. Fission products (FPs) are released from melt fuel and flow through the RCS. A part of them is deposited onto surfaces either by vapour condensation or by aerosol deposition mechanisms. To be able to understand the nature of interactions between these FPs and the RCS surfaces, a preliminary step is to characterize the RSC surface states in steam and air atmosphere at high temperatures. Pieces of 304L stainless steel have been treated in a flow reactor at two different temperatures (750 °C and 950 °C) for two different exposition times (24 h and 72 h). After surfaces analysing by a unique combination of surface analysis techniques (XPS, ToF-SIMS and LEIS), for 304L, the results show a deep oxide scale with multi layers and the outer layer is composed of chromium and manganese oxides. Oxide profiles differ in air or steam atmosphere. Fe2O3 oxide is observed but in minor proportion and in all cases no nickel is detected near the surface. Results obtained are discussed and compared with the literature data.

  15. FT-IR remote sensing of atmospheric species: Application to global change and air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    In this contribution, the author describes two applications of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to the monitoring of atmospheric compounds. Firstly, the author reports FTIR solar spectroscopy measurements carried out at ground level at NCAR and on airplanes employing a spectrometer of 0.06 cm{sup -1} resolution. Sample atmospheric spectra and fitting examples are presented for key species relevant to stratospheric chemistry and global change: ozone (O{sub 3}), a chlorofluorocarbon (CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}), a greenhouse gas (N{sub 2}O), HCl, NO and HNO{sub 3}. Secondly, the author briefly describes urban air pollution measurements at an intersection with heavy traffic in Tucson, AZ. Two FTIR spectrometers of 1 cm{sup -1} resolution were employed to carry out long-path open-path measurements of the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio and SF{sub 6}. Two FEAT and two LPUV instruments were employed for ancillary measurements of CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements of CO at two heights and a comparison of CO/CO{sub 2} ratios obtained by FEAT exhaust emission and FTIR ambient air measurements are reported.

  16. Atmospheric ammonia and its impacts on regional air quality over the megacity of Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Nan, Jialiang; Shi, Chanzhen; Fu, Qingyan; Gao, Song; Wang, Dongfang; Cui, Huxiong; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Zhou, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) has great environmental implications due to its important role in ecosystem and global nitrogen cycle, as well as contribution to secondary particle formation. Here, we report long-term continuous measurements of NH3 at different locations (i.e. urban, industrial and rural) in Shanghai, China, which provide an unprecedented portrait of temporal and spatial characteristics of atmospheric NH3 in and around this megacity. In addition to point emission sources, air masses originated from or that have passed over ammonia rich areas, e.g. rural and industrial sites, increase the observed NH3 concentrations inside the urban area of Shanghai. Remarkable high-frequency NH3 variations were measured at the industrial site, indicating instantaneous nearby industrial emission peaks. Additionally, we observed strong positive exponential correlations between NH4+/(NH4++NH3) and sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA) aerosols, PM2.5 mass concentrations, implying a considerable contribution of gas-to-particle conversion of ammonia to SNA aerosol formation. Lower temperature and higher humidity conditions were found to favor the conversion of gaseous ammonia to particle ammonium, particularly in autumn. Although NH3 is currently not included in China’s emission control policies of air pollution precursors, our results highlight the urgency and importance of monitoring gaseous ammonia and improving its emission inventory in and around Shanghai. PMID:26514559

  17. Molecular simulation study of the adsorption of naphthalene and ozone on atmospheric air/ice interfaces.

    PubMed

    Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P; Valsaraj, Kalliat T; Hung, Francisco R

    2011-08-25

    The adsorption of gas-phase naphthalene and ozone on atmospheric air/ice interfaces was investigated using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and potential of mean force (PMF) calculations. Naphthalene and ozone exhibit a strong preference to be adsorbed at the air/ice interface, rather than being dissolved into the bulk of the quasi-liquid layer (QLL) or incorporated into the ice crystals. When the air/ice interface is coated with increasing concentrations of naphthalene molecules, the QLL becomes thinner and surface adsorption of ozone is enhanced. Furthermore, ozone tends to adsorb on top of the naphthalene film, although significant penetration of ozone into this film is also observed. Naphthalene molecules tend to adopt a flat orientation on the air/ice interface. Less variation in the orientation was observed for lower concentrations of naphthalene, whereas variations in the ozone concentration do not affect the orientation of naphthalene molecules. However, as the concentration of ozone increases, most of the naphthalene molecules still prefer to stay close to the mobile water molecules in the QLL, but a significant fraction of the naphthalene molecules spends a considerable amount of time inside the thicker layer of ozone. We also monitored the number of contacts between naphthalene and ozone at the air/ice interface upon variations in the concentrations of these two species. These contacts were assumed to be proportional to the reaction rate between these two species. When the number of ozone molecules was held constant, the number of contacts showed a linear relationship to the number of naphthalene molecules. However, when the naphthalene concentration was held constant, for all systems we observed a linear relationship at low ozone concentrations and a plateau at high ozone concentrations.

  18. Bitz, Ginoux, Jacobson, Nizkorodov, and Yang Receive 2013 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Paul A. Ginoux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2014-07-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU awards one of the five Ascent Awards to Dr. Paul A. Ginoux of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for outstanding world-leading research on dust aerosols using observations and models that has contributed to a comprehensive scientific understanding of atmospheric aerosols."

  19. First Atmospheric Science Results from the Mars Exploration Rovers Mini-TES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Spanovich, Nicole; Banfield, Don; Budney, Charles J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Ghosh, Amitabha; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Smith, Peter; Whitney, Barbara; Christensen, Philip R.; Squyres, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal infrared spectra of the martian atmosphere taken by the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) were used to determine the atmospheric temperatures in the planetary boundary layer and the column-integrated optical depth of aerosols. Mini-TES observations show the diurnal variation of the martian boundary layer thermal structure, including a near-surface superadiabatic layer during the afternoon and an inversion layer at night. Upward-looking Mini-TES observations show warm and cool parcels of air moving through the Mini-TES field of view on a time scale of 30 seconds. The retrieved dust optical depth shows a downward trend at both sites.

  20. In situ measurement of atmospheric krypton and xenon on Mars with Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Malespin, C. A.; Franz, H. B.; Pepin, R. O.; Trainer, M. G.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Atreya, S. K.; Freissinet, C.; Jones, J. H.; Manning, H.; Owen, T.; Pavlov, A. A.; Wiens, R. C.; Wong, M. H.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2016-11-01

    Mars Science Laboratory's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation has measured all of the stable isotopes of the heavy noble gases krypton and xenon in the martian atmosphere, in situ, from the Curiosity Rover at Gale Crater, Mars. Previous knowledge of martian atmospheric krypton and xenon isotope ratios has been based upon a combination of the Viking mission's krypton and xenon detections and measurements of noble gas isotope ratios in martian meteorites. However, the meteorite measurements reveal an impure mixture of atmospheric, mantle, and spallation contributions. The xenon and krypton isotopic measurements reported here include the complete set of stable isotopes, unmeasured by Viking. The new results generally agree with Mars meteorite measurements but also provide a unique opportunity to identify various non-atmospheric heavy noble gas components in the meteorites. Kr isotopic measurements define a solar-like atmospheric composition, but deviating from the solar wind pattern at 80Kr and 82Kr in a manner consistent with contributions originating from neutron capture in Br. The Xe measurements suggest an intriguing possibility that isotopes lighter than 132Xe have been enriched to varying degrees by spallation and neutron capture products degassed to the atmosphere from the regolith, and a model is constructed to explore this possibility. Such a spallation component, however, is not apparent in atmospheric Xe trapped in the glassy phases of martian meteorites.

  1. Atmosphere Assessment for MARS Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Cantor, Bruce; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Daniel, Jr.; Rafkin, Scot; Chen, Allen; Kass, David; Mischna, Michael; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2013-01-01

    On August 6, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed on the surface of Mars. The Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) sequence was designed using atmospheric conditions estimated from mesoscale numerical models. The models, developed by two independent organizations (Oregon State University and the Southwest Research Institute), were validated against observations at Mars from three prior years. In the weeks and days before entry, the MSL "Council of Atmospheres" (CoA), a group of atmospheric scientists and modelers, instrument experts and EDL simulation engineers, evaluated the latest Mars data from orbiting assets including the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Mars Color Imager (MARCI) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), as well as Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The observations were compared to the mesoscale models developed for EDL performance simulation to determine if a spacecraft parameter update was necessary prior to entry. This paper summarizes the daily atmosphere observations and comparison to the performance simulation atmosphere models. Options to modify the atmosphere model in the simulation to compensate for atmosphere effects are also presented. Finally, a summary of the CoA decisions and recommendations to the MSL project in the days leading up to EDL is provided.

  2. Impacts of Atmospheric Modes of Variability on Air-Sea Heat Exchange in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.; Josey, Simon A.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Kontoyiannis, Harilaos; Raitsos, Dionissios E.

    2014-05-01

    The potential impacts on Red Sea surface heat exchange of various major modes of atmospheric variability are investigated using the NASA Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric reanalysis and the Objectively Analyzed Air-Sea Flux dataset (OAFlux) merged satellite+reanalysis dataset. The mode impacts on surface net heat flux are quantified by calculating the heat flux anomaly that corresponds to a unit positive value of each index for each grid point. The seasonal effects of the atmospheric forcing are investigated considering two and four typical seasons of a calendar year. Considering two seasons, the impacts are strongest during the winter-centered part of the year (October to March) mainly over the northern sub-basin. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic - West Russia Pattern (EAWR), and the Indian Monsoon Index (IMI) have the greatest effects. They generate negative anomalies (by definition additional ocean heat loss) of 7-12 W/m2 in the northern Red Sea basin mean net heat flux for a unit positive value of the mode index. During the summer (April to September), the signal is smaller and the East Atlantic (EA) and Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) modes have the strongest impact which is now located in the southern Red Sea (sub-basin anomalies of 4 W/m2 for unit positive mode index, negative for EA and positive for MEI). Results obtained by analysis carried out on the traditional four-season basis reveal that indices impact peaks during the typical boreal winter (DJF) with average anomalies of 12-18 W/m2 to be found in the northern part. It is noteworthy that during the winter, the EAWR generates negative anomalies around 30 W/m2 over the most of the central Red Sea. During the spring (MAM), summer (JJA) and autumn (SON) the anomalies are considerably lower, especially during the spring when the mode impacts are negligible. Atmospheric modes have a stronger effect on air-sea heat flux over the northern

  3. The Growing Network of Arctic Atmospheric Observatories Now Allows for Better Monitoring of Arctic Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA Barrow, Alaska, Atmospheric Baseline Observatory has been in continuous operation for 35 years monitoring a wide range of atmospheric parameters. Clear trends in concentrations of radiatively important trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, HFCs and CFCs, and nitrous oxide have been established at Barrow. In addition, measurements of both general background and episodic gas and aerosol events from industrial and forest fire sources in Russia, China, Europe and North America have been observed. Along with atmospheric stations in Alert and Eureka, Canada,and Summit, Greenland, individual air pollution events flowing into and across the Arctic Basin are being tracked in time and space. The large gap in similar monitoring across the Russian Arctic is being addressed by new stations/programs at Tiksi and Cherskiy, Russia that were upgraded in 2007/8. There is special interest in monitoring methane at Tiksi and Cherskiy as there is speculation that permafrost melting in the Arctic will release accelerating amounts of methane further driving greenhouse warming.

  4. Contact-Free Inactivation of Candida albicans Biofilms by Cold Atmospheric Air Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Tetsuji; Isbary, Georg; Heinlin, Julia; Karrer, Sigrid; Klämpfl, Tobias G.; Li, Yang-Fang; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia L.

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is one of the main species able to form a biofilm on almost any surface, causing both skin and superficial mucosal infections. The worldwide increase in antifungal resistance has led to a decrease in the efficacy of standard therapies, prolonging treatment time and increasing health care costs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of atmospheric plasma at room temperature for inactivating C. albicans growing in biofilms without thermally damaging heat-sensitive materials. This so-called cold atmospheric plasma is produced by applying high voltage to accelerate electrons, which ionize the surrounding air, leading to the production of charged particles, reactive species, and photons. A newly developed plasma device was used, which exhibits a large plasma-generating surface area of 9 by 13 cm (117 cm2). Different time points were selected to achieve an optimum inactivation efficacy range of ≥3 log10 to 5 log10 reduction in CFU per milliliter, and the results were compared with those of 70% ethanol. The results obtained show that contact-free antifungal inactivation of Candida biofilms by cold atmospheric plasma is a promising tool for disinfection of surfaces (and items) in both health care settings and the food industry, where ethanol disinfection should be avoided. PMID:22467505

  5. Heat treatment's effects on hydroxyapatite powders in water vapor and air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, A.; Baştan, F. E.; Erdoǧan, G.; Üstel, F.

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA; Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is the main chemical constituent of bone tissue (~70%) as well as HA which is a calcium phosphate based ceramic material forms inorganic tissue of bone and tooth as hard tissues is used in production of prosthesis for synthetic bone, fractured and broken bone restoration, coating of metallic biomaterials and dental applications because of its bio compatibility. It is known that Hydroxyapatite decomposes with high heat energy after heat treatment. Therefore hydroxyapatite powders that heated in water vapor will less decomposed phases and lower amorphous phase content than in air atmosphere. In this study high purity hydroxyapatite powders were heat treated with open atmosphere furnace and water vapor atmosphere with 900, 1000, 1200 °C. Morphology of same powder size used in this process by SEM analyzed. Chemical structures of synthesized coatings have been examined by XRD. The determination of particle size and morphological structure of has been characterized by Particle Sizer, and SEM analysis, respectively. Weight change of sample was recorded by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) during heating and cooling.

  6. Contact-free inactivation of Candida albicans biofilms by cold atmospheric air plasma.

    PubMed

    Maisch, Tim; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Isbary, Georg; Heinlin, Julia; Karrer, Sigrid; Klämpfl, Tobias G; Li, Yang-Fang; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia L

    2012-06-01

    Candida albicans is one of the main species able to form a biofilm on almost any surface, causing both skin and superficial mucosal infections. The worldwide increase in antifungal resistance has led to a decrease in the efficacy of standard therapies, prolonging treatment time and increasing health care costs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of atmospheric plasma at room temperature for inactivating C. albicans growing in biofilms without thermally damaging heat-sensitive materials. This so-called cold atmospheric plasma is produced by applying high voltage to accelerate electrons, which ionize the surrounding air, leading to the production of charged particles, reactive species, and photons. A newly developed plasma device was used, which exhibits a large plasma-generating surface area of 9 by 13 cm (117 cm(2)). Different time points were selected to achieve an optimum inactivation efficacy range of ≥3 log(10) to 5 log(10) reduction in CFU per milliliter, and the results were compared with those of 70% ethanol. The results obtained show that contact-free antifungal inactivation of Candida biofilms by cold atmospheric plasma is a promising tool for disinfection of surfaces (and items) in both health care settings and the food industry, where ethanol disinfection should be avoided.

  7. Electron density measurements in an atmospheric pressure air plasma by means of infrared heterodyne interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipold, Frank; Stark, Robert H.; El-Habachi, Ahmed; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2000-09-01

    An infrared heterodyne interferometer has been used to measure the spatial distribution of the electron density in direct current, atmospheric pressure discharges in air. Spatial resolution of the electron density in the high-pressure glow discharge with characteristic dimensions on the order of 100 µm required the use of a CO2 laser at a wavelength of 10.6 µm. For this wavelength and electron densities greater than 1011 cm-3 the index of refraction of the atmospheric air plasma is mainly determined by heavy particles rather than electrons. The electron contribution to the refractive index was separated from that of the heavy particles by taking the different relaxation times of the two particle species into account. With the discharge operated in a repetitive pulsed mode, the initial rapid change of the refractive index was assumed to be due to the increase in electron density, whereas the following slower rise is due to the decrease in gas density caused by gas heating. By reducing the time between pulses, direct current conditions were approached, and the electron density as well as the gas density, and gas temperature, respectively, were obtained through extrapolation. A computation inversion method was used to determine the radial distribution of the plasma parameters in the cylindrical discharge. For a direct-current filamentary discharge in air, at a current of 10 mA, the electron density was found to be 1013 cm-3 in the centre, decreasing to half of this value at a radial distance of 0.21 mm. Gaussian temperature profiles with σ = 1.1 mm and maximum values of 1000-2000 K in the centre were also obtained with, however, larger error margins than for electron densities.

  8. The Salty Science of the Aluminum-Air Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Chasteen, N. Dennis; Doherty, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Fruit batteries and saltwater batteries are excellent ways to explore simple circuits in the classroom. These are examples of air batteries in which metal reacts with oxygen in the air in order to generate free electrons, which flow through an external circuit and do work. Students are typically told that the salt or fruit water acts as an electrolyte to bring electrons from the anode to the cathode. That's true, but it leaves the battery as a black box. Physics teachers often don't have the background to explain the chemistry behind these batteries. We've written this paper to explore the electrochemistry behind an air battery using copper cathode, aluminum anode, and saltwater.

  9. Influence of the characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer on the vertical distribution of air pollutant in China's Yangtze River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenggang; Cao, Le

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution occurring in the atmospheric boundary layer is a kind of weather phenomenon which decreases the visibility of the atmosphere and results in poor air quality. Recently, the occurrence of the heavy air pollution events has become more frequent all over Asia, especially in Mid-Eastern China. In December 2015, the most severe air pollution in recorded history of China occurred in the regions of Yangtze River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. More than 10 days of severe air pollution (Air Quality Index, AQI>200) appeared in many large cities of China such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Baoding. Thus, the research and the management of the air pollution has attracted most attentions in China. In order to investigate the formation, development and dissipation of the air pollutions in China, a field campaign has been conducted between January 1, 2015 and January 28, 2015 in Yangtze River Delta of China, aiming at a intensive observation of the vertical structure of the air pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer during the time period with heavy pollution. In this study, the observation data obtained in the field campaign mentioned above is analyzed. The characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer and the vertical distribution of air pollutants in the city Dongshan located in the center of Lake Taihu are shown and discussed in great detail. It is indicated that the stability of the boundary layer is the strongest during the nighttime and the early morning of Dongshan. Meanwhile, the major air pollutants, PM2.5 and PM10 in the boundary layer, reach their maximum values, 177.1μg m-3 and 285μg m-3 respectively. The convective boundary layer height in the observations ranges from approximately 700m to 1100m. It is found that the major air pollutants tend to be confined in a relatively shallow boundary layer, which represents that the boundary layer height is the dominant factor for controlling the vertical distribution of the air pollutants. In

  10. Effect of non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on gingival wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been applied in the biomedical field for the improvement of various cellular activities. In dentistry, the healing of gingival soft tissue plays an important role in health and aesthetic outcomes. While the biomedical application of plasma has been thoroughly studied in dentistry, a detailed investigation of plasma-mediated human gingival fibroblast (HGF) migration for wound healing and its underlying biological mechanism is still pending. Therefore, the aim of this study is to apply a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAAPPJ) to HGF to measure the migration and to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the migration. After the characterization of NTAAPPJ by optical emission spectroscopy, the adherent HGF was treated with NTAAPPJ or air with a different flow rate. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, migration, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK3) were investigated. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. NTAAPPJ and air treatment with a flow rate of 250–1000 standard cubic centimetres per minute (sccm) for up to 30 s did not induce significant decreases in cell viability or membrane damage. A significant increase in the migration of mitomycin C-treated HGF was observed after 30 s of NTAAPPJ treatment compared to 30 s air-only treatment, which was induced by high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). An increase in migration-related gene expression and EGFR activation was observed following NTAAPPJ treatment in an air flow rate-dependent manner. This is the first report that NTAAPPJ treatment induces an increase in HGF migration without changing cell viability or causing membrane damage. HGF migration was related to an increase in intracellular ROS, changes in the expression of three of the migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK1), and EGFR activation. Therefore

  11. Effect of non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on gingival wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been applied in the biomedical field for the improvement of various cellular activities. In dentistry, the healing of gingival soft tissue plays an important role in health and aesthetic outcomes. While the biomedical application of plasma has been thoroughly studied in dentistry, a detailed investigation of plasma-mediated human gingival fibroblast (HGF) migration for wound healing and its underlying biological mechanism is still pending. Therefore, the aim of this study is to apply a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAAPPJ) to HGF to measure the migration and to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the migration. After the characterization of NTAAPPJ by optical emission spectroscopy, the adherent HGF was treated with NTAAPPJ or air with a different flow rate. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, migration, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK3) were investigated. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. NTAAPPJ and air treatment with a flow rate of 250-1000 standard cubic centimetres per minute (sccm) for up to 30 s did not induce significant decreases in cell viability or membrane damage. A significant increase in the migration of mitomycin C-treated HGF was observed after 30 s of NTAAPPJ treatment compared to 30 s air-only treatment, which was induced by high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). An increase in migration-related gene expression and EGFR activation was observed following NTAAPPJ treatment in an air flow rate-dependent manner. This is the first report that NTAAPPJ treatment induces an increase in HGF migration without changing cell viability or causing membrane damage. HGF migration was related to an increase in intracellular ROS, changes in the expression of three of the migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK1), and EGFR activation. Therefore

  12. Recruiting student in Sciences in Rural Environment: The Air Pollution Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubatova, A.; Pedersen, D.

    2011-12-01

    The number of students in sciences is declining and thus it is critical to employ a variety of initiatives to familiarize students with various topics in sciences as well as the university environment. In particular, this is a challenge in rural communities where many students do not have easy access to university campuses. Therefore, we have implemented a workshop for junior and senior high school students. We decided to run this workshop on the campus, as this provided not only exposure of the students to scientific and lecturing facilities, but also to life at the university. Holding the workshop on the university campus also enabled faculty and graduate students from several departments to participate, thus allowing for presentation of a wide variety of topics within atmospheric sciences. Our experiences with the continuously growing workshops - from 50 to 180 participating students - will be shared. Participants were students from both rural and urban areas. These workshops, therefore, contributed to our outreach and service to the local community and to students coming from the rural communities of the upper Midwest and Western states. The workshops are organized annually over the spring break, thus ensuring availability of facilities on the campus. The one-day workshop includes a short cycle of presentations focused on the characterization of atmospheric PM and several critical issues connected with it. The expert faculty members from several departments involved in such research present on global warming, air pollution, aerosol formation, measurement using an aircraft, the relation of emissions and energy production, and on modeling of atmospheric processes. This lecture series (each no longer than 15 min) was broken down by fun demonstrations to break the ice and attract students' attention. Following the presentations, students participated in demonstrations performed in the Chemistry Department. The demonstrations included several hands-on activities

  13. Physics and applications of atmospheric non-thermal air plasma with reference to environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marode, E.; Djermoune, D.; Dessante, P.; Deniset, C.; Ségur, P.; Bastien, F.; Bourdon, A.; Laux, C.

    2009-12-01

    Since air is a natural part of our environment, special attention is given to the study of plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure and their applications. This fact promoted the study of electrical conduction in air-like mixtures, i.e. mixtures containing an electronegative gas component. If the ionization growth is not limited its temporal evolution leads to spark formation, i.e. a thermal plasma of several thousand kelvins in a quasi-local thermodynamic equilibrium state. But before reaching such a thermal state, a plasma sets up where the electrons increase their energy characterized by an electron temperature Te much higher than that of heavy species T or T+ for the ions. Since the plasma is no longer characterized by only one temperature T, it is said to be in a non-thermal plasma (NTP) state. Practical ways are listed to prevent electron ionization from going beyond the NTP states. Much understanding of such NTP may be gathered from the study of the simple paradigmatic case of a discharge induced between a sharp positively stressed point electrode facing a grounded negative plane electrode. Some physical properties will be gathered from such configurations and links underlined between these properties and some associated applications, mostly environmental. Aerosol filtration and electrostatic precipitators, pollution control by removal of hazardous species contained in flue gas exhaust, sterilization applications for medical purposes and triggering fuel combustion in vehicle motors are among such applications nowadays.

  14. CMAQ (Community Multi-Scale Air Quality) atmospheric distribution model adaptation to region of Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázár, Dóra; Weidinger, Tamás

    2016-04-01

    For our days, it has become important to measure and predict the concentration of harmful atmospheric pollutants such as dust, aerosol particles of different size ranges, nitrogen compounds, and ozone. The Department of Meteorology at Eötvös Loránd University has been applying the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model several years ago, which is suitable for weather forecasting tasks and provides input data for various environmental models (e.g. DNDC). By adapting the CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) model we have designed a combined ambient air-meteorological model (WRF-CMAQ). In this research it is important to apply different emission databases and a background model describing the initial distribution of the pollutant. We used SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions) model for construction emission dataset from EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) inventories and GEOS-Chem model for initial and boundary conditions. Our model settings were CMAQ CB05 (Carbon Bond 2005) chemical mechanism with 108 x 108 km, 36 x 36 km and 12 x 12 km grids for regions of Europe, the Carpathian Basin and Hungary respectively. i) The structure of the model system, ii) a case study for Carpathian Basin (an anticyclonic weather situation at 21th September 2012) are presented. iii) Verification of ozone forecast has been provided based on the measurements of background air pollution stations. iv) Effects of model attributes (f.e. transition time, emission dataset, parameterizations) for the ozone forecast in Hungary are also investigated.

  15. Measurement of transient force produced by a propagating arc magnetohydrodynamic plasma actuator in quiescent atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young Joon; Sirohi, Jayant; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2015-10-01

    An experimental study was conducted on a magnetohydrodynamic plasma actuator consisting of two parallel, six inch long, copper electrodes flush mounted on an insulating ceramic plate. An electrical arc is generated by a  ∼1 kA current pulse at  ∼100 V across the electrodes. A self-induced Lorentz force drives the arc along the electrodes. The motion of the arc induces flow in the surrounding air through compression as well as entrainment, and generates a transient force, about  ∼4 ms in duration. Experiments were performed on a prototype actuator in quiescent atmospheric air to characterize the motion of the arc and the momentum transferred to the surrounding air. Measurements included transient force and total impulse generated by the actuator as well as the armature voltage and current. The arc shape and transit velocity were determined by high-speed imaging. A peak force of 0.4 N imparting an impulse of 0.68 mN-s was measured for a peak current of 1.2 kA. The force scaled with the square of the armature current and the impulse scaled linearly with the spent capacitor energy. The results provide insight into the mechanisms of body force generation and momentum transfer of a magnetohydrodynamic plasma actuator.

  16. Piezoelectric transformers for low-voltage generation of gas discharges and ionic winds in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michael J.; Go, David B.

    2015-12-28

    To generate a gas discharge (plasma) in atmospheric air requires an electric field that exceeds the breakdown threshold of ∼30 kV/cm. Because of safety, size, or cost constraints, the large applied voltages required to generate such fields are often prohibitive for portable applications. In this work, piezoelectric transformers are used to amplify a low input applied voltage (<30 V) to generate breakdown in air without the need for conventional high-voltage electrical equipment. Piezoelectric transformers (PTs) use their inherent electromechanical resonance to produce a voltage amplification, such that the surface of the piezoelectric exhibits a large surface voltage that can generate corona-like discharges on its corners or on adjacent electrodes. In the proper configuration, these discharges can be used to generate a bulk air flow called an ionic wind. In this work, PT-driven discharges are characterized by measuring the discharge current and the velocity of the induced ionic wind with ionic winds generated using input voltages as low as 7 V. The characteristics of the discharge change as the input voltage increases; this modifies the resonance of the system and subsequent required operating parameters.

  17. Influence of annealing atmospheres and synthetic air treatment on solution processed zinc oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, C.; Schierning, G.; Theissmann, R.; Schmechel, R.

    2012-08-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) based on active layers of zinc oxide prepared from a solution process were fabricated under different annealing conditions. The influence of the annealing gas as well as the influence of a subsequent exposure to synthetic air to the device properties is considered. Annealing under N2 or H2 atmosphere leads to a strong negative threshold voltage shift. With respect to known defect states in ZnO, two different donor states are suggested to be responsible for the negative threshold voltage. A subsequent synthetic air treatment causes in general a positive threshold voltage shift. However, transistors annealed under H2 degrade very fast under synthetic air in contrast to transistors annealed under N2. In order to obtain more information about the density of states (DOS) distribution, a transistor model for thin film transistors in the hopping transport regime (Vissenberg model) was utilized. For positive threshold voltages, the DOS distribution is independent from the gas treatment and the threshold voltage within the experimental accuracy. This indicates a shift of the Fermi-level within an exponentially decaying DOS. The change in the charge carrier density is either due to shallow donors or due to a charge transfer with acceptors at the surface. In contrast, for negative threshold voltages, the DOS distribution parameter rises, indicating a flatter DOS distribution. We suggest that the difference is due to the change from accumulation mode to the depletion mode of the device.

  18. Space Charge Transient Kinetic Characteristics in DC Air Corona Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinghua; Xian, Richang; Sun, Xuefeng; Wang, Tao; Lv, Xuebin; Chen, Suhong; Yang, Fan

    2014-08-01

    Investigating the corona mechanism plays a key role in enhancing the performance of electrical insulation systems. Numerical simulation offers a better understanding of the physical characteristics of air corona discharges. Using a two-dimensional axisymmetrical kinetics model, into which the photoionization effect is incorporated, the DC air corona discharge at atmosphere pressure is studied. The plasma model is based on a self-consistent, multi-component, and continuum description of the air discharge, which is comprised of 12 species and 22 reactions. The discharge voltage-current characteristic predicted by the model is found to be in quite good agreement with experimental measurements. The behavior of the electronic avalanche progress is also described. O2+ and N2+ are the dominant positive ions, and the values of O- and O2- densities are much smaller than that of the electron. The electron and positive ion have a low-density thin layer near the anode, which is a result of the surface reaction and absorption effect of the electrode. As time progresses, the electric field increases and extends along the cathode surface, whereas the cathode fall shrinks after the corona discharge hits the cathode; thus, in the cathode sheath, the electron temperature increases and the position of its peak approaches to the cathode. The present computational model contributes to the understanding of this physical mechanism, and suggests ways to improve the electrical insulation system.

  19. Simulation of radio emission from air showers in atmospheric electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Buitink, S.; Huege, T.; Falcke, H; Kuijpers, J.

    2010-02-25

    We study the effect of atmospheric electric fields on the radio pulse emitted by cos- mic ray air showers. Under fair weather conditions the dominant part of the radio emission is driven by the geomagnetic field. When the shower charges are accelerated and deflected in an electric field additional radiation is emitted. We simulate this effect with the Monte Carlo code REAS2, using CORSIKA-simulated showers as input. In both codes a routine has been implemented that treats the effect of the electric field on the shower particles. We find that the radio pulse is significantly altered in background fields of the order of ~100 V/cm and higher. Practically, this means that air showers passing through thunderstorms emit radio pulses that are not a reliable measure for the shower energy. Under other weather circumstances significant electric field effects are expected to occur rarely, but nimbostratus clouds can harbor fields that are large enough. In general, the contribution of the electric field to the radio pulse has polarization properties that are different from the geomagnetic pulse. In order to filter out radio pulses that have been affected by electric field effects, radio air shower experiments should keep weatherinformation and perform full polarization measurements of the radio signal.

  20. Atmospheric science facility pallet-only mode space transportation system payload (feasibility study), Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The economic and technical feasibility is assessed of employing a pallet-only mode for conducting Atmospheric Magnetospheric Plasmas-in-Space experiments. A baseline design incorporating the experiment and instrument descriptions is developed. The prime instruments are packaged into four pallets in a physical and functional manner compatible with the Space Transportation System capabilities and/or constraints and an orbiter seven-day mission timeline. Operational compatibility is verified between the orbiter/payload and supporting facilities. The development status and the schedule requirements applicable to the Atmospheric Science Facility mission are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented and discussed.

  1. Program report for FY 1984 and 1985 Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.B.; MacCracken, M.C.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gresho, P.M.; Luther, F.M.

    1986-08-01

    This annual report for the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division (G-Division) summarizes the activities and highlights of the past three years, with emphasis on significant research findings in two major program areas: the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its recent involvement in assessing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and new findings on the environmental consequences of nuclear war. The technical highlights of the many other research projects are also briefly reported, along with the Division's organization, budget, and publications.

  2. Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) Quality Assurance Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities in the United States are potentially impacted by a wide variety of environmental pollution sources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) encourages communities to advocate for environmental and public health mitigations and to raise awareness of air pol...

  3. Transporting Students into Thin Air: Using Science to Enhance Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Patricia; Rogowski, Nick; Hedt, Melissa; Rolfe, Nadeen

    2010-01-01

    The "Into Thin Air" unit, based on the book by Jon Krakauer, was designed as an interdisciplinary unit for a small group of academically gifted sixth-grade students. It included hands-on, minds-on activities that would immerse students in the scientific, social, and personal struggles people face while attempting to climb the world's tallest…

  4. Atmospheric properties reconstruction from the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein-Rathlou, Christina; Withers, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed on August 5, 2012 in Gale Crater on Mars (4.5 S, 137.4 E) [1]. The MSL entry vehicle measured accelerations and angular velocity during its descent through the Martian atmosphere using accelerometers and gyroscopes in an inertial measurement unit. We have applied smoothing techniques previously developed for the NASA Phoenix Mars mission [2] to these acceleration data. Smoothed accelerations were used in conjunction with the vehicle’s aerodynamic database to reconstruct atmospheric density, pressure and temperature profiles to above 120 km altitude. The density profile was estimated using axial accelerations in the drag force equation. Corresponding pressure and temperature profiles were calculated using the hydrostatic equilibrium and ideal gas law, respectively. In contrast to previous missions, MSL used a guided entry that resulted in periods of near-horizontal flight at approximately 20 km altitude [3], during which pressure could not be determined from hydrostatic equilibrium. Instead, atmospheric pressures at low altitudes were determined independently by the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) [4]. These were used in conjunction with accelerometer-derived densities to extend the atmospheric temperature profile through the period of near-horizontal flight. Although the results present only a snapshot of the regional atmospheric conditions at the time of entry, descent and landing of MSL, they have excellent vertical resolution and vertical extent, thereby complementing orbital observations. We will present an overview of our atmospheric reconstruction process, the derived atmospheric profiles, and preliminary scientific interpretation of the atmospheric results. References: [1] Vasavada, A.R. et al (2014), JGR-Planets, 119, 6, 1134-1161 [2] Withers, P. (2013) Planet. & Space Sci., 79-80, 52-55, [3] Dutta, S. et al. (2013) 23rd AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, AAS 13-309, [4] Schoenenberger, M. et al

  5. Atmospheric pressure resistive barrier air plasma jet induced bacterial inactivation in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Sarani, Abdollah; Gonzales, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    An atmospheric pressure resistive barrier air plasma jet is designed to inactivate bacteria in aqueous media in direct and indirect exposure modes of treatment. The resistive barrier plasma jet is designed to operate at both dc and standard 50-60 Hz low frequency ac power input and the ambient air at 50% humidity level was used as the operating gas. The voltage-current characteristics of the plasma jet were analyzed and the operating frequency of the discharge was measured to be 20 kHz and the plasma power was measured to be 26 W. The plasma jet rotational temperatures (Trot) are obtained from the optical emission spectra, from the N2C-B(2+) transitions by matching the experimental spectrum results with the Spectra Air (SPECAIR) simulation spectra. The reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were measured using optical emission spectroscopy and gas analyzers, for direct and indirect treatment modes. The nitric oxides (NO) were observed to be the predominant long lived reactive nitrogen species produced by the plasma. Three different bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), and Neisseria meningitidis (Gram-negative) were suspended in an aqueous media and treated by the resistive barrier air plasma jet in direct and indirect exposure modes. The results show that a near complete bacterial inactivation was achieved within 120 s for both direct and indirect plasma treatment of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria. Conversely, a partial inactivation of N. meningitidis was observed by 120 s direct plasma exposure and insignificant inactivation was observed for the indirect plasma exposure treatment. Plasma induced shifts in N. meningitidis gene expression was analyzed using pilC gene expression as a representative gene and the results showed a reduction in the expression of the pilC gene compared to untreated samples suggesting that the observed protection against NO may be regulated by other genes.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains research in the atmospheric sciences. Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at PNL are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, continental, and global scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. The redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. Eventually, large-scale experiments on cloud processing and redistribution of contaminants will be integrated into the national program on global change, investigating how energy pollutants affect aerosols and clouds and the transfer of radiant energy through them. As the significance of this effect becomes clear, its global impact on climate will be studied through experimental and modeling research. The description of ongoing atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: atmospheric studies in complex terrain, large-scale atmospheric transport and processing of emissions, and climate change. This report describes the progress in FY 1989 in each of these areas. A divider page summarizes the goals of each area and lists project titles that support research activities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Data On Convective Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, Danielle; Zavodsky, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) is a collaborative partnership between NASA and operational forecasting partners, including a number of National Weather Service (NWS) offices. SPoRT provides real-time NASA products and capabilities to its partners to address specific operational forecast challenges. The mission of SPoRT is to transition observations and research capabilities into operations to help improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional scale. Two areas of focus are data assimilation and modeling, which can to help accomplish SPoRT's programmatic goals of transitioning NASA data to operational users. Forecasting convective weather is one challenge that faces operational forecasters. Current numerical weather prediction (NWP) models that operational forecasters use struggle to properly forecast location, timing, intensity and/or mode of convection. Given the proper atmospheric conditions, convection can lead to severe weather. SPoRT's partners in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have a mission to protect the life and property of American citizens. This mission has been tested as recently as this 2011 severe weather season, which has seen more than 300 fatalities and injuries and total damages exceeding $10 billion. In fact, during the three day period from 25-27 April, 1,265 storms reports (362 tornado reports) were collected making this three day period one of most active in American history. To address the forecast challenge of convective weather, SPoRT produces a real-time NWP model called the SPoRT Weather Research and Forecasting (SPoRT-WRF), which incorporates unique NASA data sets. One of the NASA assets used in this unique model configuration is retrieved profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS).The goal of this project is to determine the impact that these AIRS profiles have on the SPoRT-WRF forecasts by comparing to a current operational model and a control SPoRT-WRF model

  8. Historical Research in the Atmospheric Sciences: The Value of Literature Reviews, Libraries, and Librarians.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David M.

    2004-07-01

    Based on a talk given at the sixth annual meeting of the Atmospheric Science Librarians International, this paper explores the author's experiences performing reviews of the scientific literature as a tool to advancing meteorology and studying the history of science. Three phases of performing literature searches with varying degrees of interaction with a research librarian are considered: do it yourself, librarian assisted, and librarian as collaborator. Examples are given for each phase: occluded fronts, conditional symmetric instability, and static instability terminology, respectively. Electronic availability of information is changing the relationship between scientists and librarians. Yet, despite these changes, books on library shelves and knowledgeable human librarians remain essential to the scientific enterprise.

  9. Role of water and discharge mode on modulating properties in an atmospheric air MHCD jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Chenying; Lei, Juzhang; Hu, Huimin; Zheng, Peichao; He, Wei

    2016-04-01

    A portable micro hollow cathode discharge (MHCD) device was designed in this paper to generate water-air plasma jet. The results showed that MHCD jet pattern was changed from self-pulsing discharge mode to DC mode with the increasing of voltage, and the critical voltage value of discharge mode increased with the rise of gas flow. In order to study the influences of discharge mode and water content on MHCD jet, the electrical characteristics and radicals were all measured in different conditions. We found that the length of jet decreased and temperature increased with raising water-air ratio, and during self-pulsing discharge mode, •OH content was extremely low because of the low energy of electron, but level of NO was raised with gradually increasing applied voltage. In DC mode, the results showed there was least NO content, on the other hand •OH content increased with rise of voltage and water-air ratio. O existed in both discharge modes and the effect of water content on the O production was complex. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  10. Atmospheric Chemistry Measurements in Schools and Outreach Activities with Low-cost Air Quality Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Z.; Monks, P. S.; McKenzie, K.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing range of low cost air quality sensors entering the market-place or being developed in-house in the last couple of years has led to many possibilities for using these instruments for public outreach activities or citizen science projects. A range of instruments sent out into local schools for the children to interpret and analyse the data and put the air quality in their area into context. A teaching package with tutorials has been developed to bring the data to life and link in with curriculum.The instruments have also been positioned around the city of Leicester in the UK to help understand the spatial variations in air quality and to assess the impact of retro-fitting buses on a busy bus route. The data is easily accessible online on a near real time basis and the various instruments can be compared with others around the country or the world from classrooms around the world.We will give an overview of the instrumentation with a comparison with commercial and cutting edge research instrumentation, the type of activities that were carried out and the public outreach forums where the data can be used.

  11. The Passy-2015 field experiment: wintertime atmospheric dynamics and air quality in a narrow alpine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paci, Alexandre; Staquet, Chantal

    2016-04-01

    Wintertime anticyclonic conditions lead to the formation of persistent stable boundary layers which may induce severe air pollution episodes in urban or industrialized area, particularly in mountain regions. The Arve river valley in the Northern Alps is very sensitive to this phenomenon, in particular close to the city of Passy (Haute-Savoie), 20 km down valley past Chamonix. This place is indeed one of the worst place in France regarding air quality, the concentration of fine particles and Benzo(a)pyrene (a carcinogenic organic compound) regularly exceeding the EU legal admissible level during winter. Besides air quality measurements, such as the ones presently carried in the area by the local air quality agency Air Rhône-Alpes or in the DECOMBIO project led by LGGE, it is crucial to improve our knowledge of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and processes at the valley scale under these persistent stable conditions in order to improve our understanding on how it drives pollutant dispersion. These issues motivated the Passy-2015 field experiment which took place during the winter 2014-2015. A relatively large set-up of instruments was deployed on a main measurement site in the valley center and on four other satellite sites. It includes several remote sensing instruments, a surface flux station, a 10 m instrumented tower, a large aperture scintillometer, a fog monitoring station among others. Most of the instruments were present from early January to the end of February. During two intensive observation periods, 6-14 February and 17-20 February, the instrumental set-up was completed on the main site with high frequency radio-soundings (up to one per 1h30), a tethered balloon, a remote controlled drone quadcopter and a sodar. The field campaign, the instruments, the meteorological situations observed and preliminary results will be presented. This field experiment is part of the Passy project funded by ADEME through the French national programme LEFE/INSU and

  12. Science on Spacelab. [astronomy, high energy astrophysics, life sciences, and solar, atmospheric and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmerling, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Spacelab was developed by the European Space Agency for the conduction of scientific and technological experiments in space. Spacelab can be taken into earth orbit by the Space Shuttle and returned to earth after a period of 1-3 weeks. The Spacelab modular system of pallets, pressurized modules, and racks can contain large payloads with high power and telemetry requirements. A working group has defined the 'Atmospheres, Magnetospheres, and Plasmas-in-Space' project. The project objectives include the absolute measurement of solar flux in a number of carefully selected bands at the same time at which atmospheric measurements are made. NASA is committed to the concept that the scientist is to play a key role in its scientific programs.

  13. Introductory Atmospheric Sciences at a Liberal Arts University (1995-99).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morss, Dean A.

    2000-10-01

    Ulanski surveyed various atmospheric sciences faculty, on a national basis, to define the extent to which specific liberal arts approaches and techniques were used in their classes. This study used Ulanski's questionnaire to investigate the students' perceptions of those same questions. The student survey was conducted for eight semesters to gather a sufficient dataset for comparison with Ulanski's results. Based upon the results from the students, as compared to the faculty, the liberal arts teaching approaches Ulanski addressed are quite well covered in the Creighton atmospheric sciences classes, or within other clearly identified portions of the Creighton curriculum. In addition, the students feel they are given explicitly stated objectives and that the Creighton faculty incorporate goal-oriented instruction in attaining those goals. There is a strong sense among the students that cross-disciplinary and historical developments are an integral part of the Creighton approach. Overall, Creighton students feel quite strongly that the teaching tools used are innovative.

  14. Developing packages and integrating ontologies for Volcanoes, Plate Tectonics and Atmospheric Science Data Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, K.; Raskin, R.; McGuinness, D.; Fox, P.

    2007-12-01

    In support of a NASA-funded scientific application (SESDI; Semantically Enabled Science Data Integration Project; that needs to share volcano and climate data to investigate relationships between volcanism and global climate, we have generated a volcano and plate tectonic ontologies and leveraged and augmented the existing SWEET (Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology) ontoloy. Our goal is to create a package for integrating the relevant ontologies (meant to be shared and reused by a broad community of users) to provide access to the key volcanology, plate tectonic and atmospheric related databases. We present how we have put ontologies to work in this science application setting, and the methodologies employed to create the ontologies, map them to the underlying data and implement them for use by scientists. SESDI is an NASA/ESTO/ACCESS-funded project involving the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), McGuinness Associates Consulting, NASA/JPL and Virginia Polytechnic University.

  15. The Air Sensor Citizen Science Toolbox: A Collaboration in Community Air Quality Monitoring and Mapping

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research in Action: Collect air quality data to characterize near-road/near-source hotspots; Determine potential impact on nearby residences & roadways; Case study of successful use of such data; Relationship between distance to roadways and industrial sources, exposure to...

  16. Bitz, Ginoux, Jacobson, Nizkorodov, and Yang Receive 2013 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitz, Cecilia M.

    2014-07-01

    I am delighted and honored to receive this award. I am grateful to my nominators and to the AGU Atmospheric Sciences section for this recognition. Many of my students and colleagues have become my friends over the years. It has been a pleasure to share the joy of scientific discovery and companionship with them. I am also fortunate to have had teachers and advisors who inspired me and were generous with their time and encouragement.

  17. Energy of electrons generated during a subnanosecond breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, V. F. Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Rybka, D. V.

    2013-07-15

    The influence of the cathode design on the energy of the main group of electrons generated during a subnanosecond breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air was studied experimentally. The electron energy was measured using a time-of-flight spectrometer with a picosecond time resolution. It is shown that the energy of the main group of electrons increases with increasing cathode curvature radius. It is established using 400- to 650-{mu}m-thick aluminum foils that the electron energy reaches its maximum value in voltage pulses with abrupt trailing edges and amplitudes below the maximum amplitude. Electrons with maximum energies are generated with a stronger spatial and amplitude scatter than those with average energies.

  18. A simple atmospheric pressure room-temperature air plasma needle device for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Xiong, Z.; Zhao, F.; Xian, Y.; Xiong, Q.; Gong, W.; Zou, C.; Jiang, Z.; Pan, Y.

    2009-11-01

    Rather than using noble gas, room air is used as the working gas for an atmospheric pressure room-temperature plasma. The plasma is driven by submicrosecond pulsed directed current voltages. Several current spikes appear periodically for each voltage pulse. The first current spike has a peak value of more than 1.5 A with a pulse width of about 10 ns. Emission spectra show that besides excited OH, O, N2(C-B), and N2+(B-X) emission, excited NO, N2(B-A), H, and even N emission are also observed in the plasma, which indicates that the plasma may be more reactive than that generated by other plasma jet devices. Utilizing the room-temperature plasma, preliminary inactivation experiments show that Enterococcus faecalis can be killed with a treatment time of only several seconds.

  19. Surface cleaning of metals in air with a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, J.R.; Ku, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The authors report the use of active species generated in a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma reactor with a parallel-plate configuration to clean the surface of as-received metal samples from the machine shop floor. The experimental arrangement used to expose the 7 by 10 cm metal samples is shown. The lower parallel-plate electrode is a flat copper plate 22 by 22 cm, covered by a 5mm thick pyrex sheet. The upper electrode is formed by the bare metal sample plate, with the side to be cleaned facing the plasma. To assure plasma uniformity between the electrodes, it was helpful to direct a flow of air on the edges of the plasma volume. The cleanliness of the metal samples was determined with the standard sessile water drop test.

  20. Simulations of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharges in atmospheric pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Soo Bak, Moon; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2013-03-21

    This paper describes simulations of nanosecond pulse plasma formation between planer electrodes covered by dielectric barriers in air at atmospheric pressure and 340 K. The plasma formation process starts as electrons detach from negative ions of molecular oxygen that are produced from the previous discharge pulse. An ionization front is found to form close to the positively biased electrode and then strengthens and propagates towards the grounded electrode with increasing gap voltage. Charge accumulation and secondary emission from the grounded electrode eventually lead to sheath collapse. One interesting feature is a predicted reversal in gap potential due to the accumulated charge, even when there is no reversal in applied potential. The simulation results are compared to recent measurement of mid-gap electric field under the same discharge conditions [Ito et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 065002 (2011)].

  1. Characteristics of Low Power CH4/Air Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZHANG, Jun; XIAO, Dezhi; FANG, Shidong; SHU, Xingsheng; ZUO, Xiao; CHENG, Cheng; MENG, Yuedong; WANG, Shouguo

    2015-03-01

    A low power atmospheric pressure plasma jet driven by a 24 kHz AC power source and operated with a CH4/air gas mixture has been investigated by optical emission spectrometer. The plasma parameters including the electron excitation temperature, vibrational temperature and rotational temperature of the plasma jet at different discharge powers are diagnosed based on the assumption that the kinetic energy of the species obeys the Boltzmann distribution. The electron density at different power is also investigated by Hβ Stark broadening. The results show that the plasma source works under non-equilibrium conditions. It is also found that the vibrational temperature and rotational temperature increase with discharge power, whereas the electron excitation temperature seems to have a downward trend. The electron density increases from 0.8 × 1021 m-3 to 1.1 × 1021 m-3 when the discharge power increases from 53 W to 94 W.

  2. Atmospheric pressure discharge plasma decomposition for gaseous air contaminants -- Trichlorotrifluoroethane and trichloroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Tetsuji; Yamashita, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Tadashi; Masuda, Senichi

    1996-03-01

    The decomposition performance of gaseous environmental destructive contaminants in air by using atmospheric pressure discharged plasma including the surface discharge induced plasma chemical processing (SPCP) was examined. The main contaminants tested were chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene, typically. The discharge exciting frequency range studied was wide--50 Hz to 50 kHz. Results showed the low frequency discharge requires high voltage to inject high electric power in the gas and to decompose the contaminants. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer was used to analyze discharge products of dense CFC-113 or trichloroethylene. Among the detected products were HCl, CClFO, and CHCl{sub 3}. Two different electrode configurations; the silent discharge (coaxial) electrode and the coil-electrode were also tested and compared to each other as a gas reactor.

  3. Numerical study of atmospheric air flow in the vicinity of urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valger, S. A.; Fedorova, N. N.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The article is devoted to the numerical simulation of turbulent air flows in the vicinity of building complexes. The simulation was performed under isothermal assumption on the basis of 3D URANS equations supplemented with the k-ω SST turbulence model. The ANSYS Fluent Software was used as the main modeling tool. The atmospheric flow in the neighborhood of a building of a complex shape was carried out taking into account the surrounding objects. The numerical simulation was performed under the conditions of the experiments. The 3D structure of the flow in the vicinity of the building was obtained and the comparison of the calculation results with the experimental data on the pressure coefficient distribution on the walls of the building was performed.

  4. Characteristics of a Normal Glow Discharge Excited by DC Voltage in Atmospheric Pressure Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Zhao, Huanhuan; Jia, Pengying

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric pressure glow discharges were generated in an air gap between a needle cathode and a water anode. Through changing the ballast resistor and gas gap width between the electrodes, it has been found that the discharges are in normal glow regime judged from the current-voltage characteristics and visualization of the discharges. Results indicate that the diameter of the positive column increases with increasing discharge current or increasing gap width. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to calculate the electron temperature and vibrational temperature. Both the electron temperature and the vibrational temperature increases with increasing discharge current or increasing gap width. Spatially resolved measurements show that the maxima of electron temperature and vibrational temperature appeared in the vicinity of the needle cathode.

  5. Response of atmospheric pressure and air temperature to the solar events in October 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakyan, S. V.; Voronin, N. A.; Nikol'sky, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Variations in the main weather parameters were studied for effects of solar flares and magnetic storms: the air temperature T and the atmospheric pressure P. We report the results of our comparison of these parameters measured at the mountain meteorological observatory near Kislovodsk (2100 m above sea level) to the monitoring data on strong solargeomagnetic perturbations for October 2003. We observed a decrease in the value of P for medium and large flares (of the type M > 4) in nine cases (82%) and an increase in T after magnetic storms with K p > 5 in 16 cases (84%). Hence, the manifestation of solar flares and magnetic storms in weather parameter variations ( T and P) at an altitude of 2100 m was proven, and the contribution of the radiooptical three-step trigger mechanism to solar-weather relations was qualitatively confirmed.

  6. Atmospheric control of Aedes aegypti populations in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and its variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garín, A.; Bejarán, R. A.; Carbajo, A. E.; de Casas, S. C.; Schweigmann, N. J.

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main urban vector responsible for the transmission of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is located at the southern end of the world distribution of the species. The population abundance of Ae. aegypti is mainly regulated by environmental factors. We calculated the potential number of times that a female could lay eggs during its mean life expectancy, based on potential egg production and daily meteorological records. The model considers those variables implying physical hazard to the survival of Ae. aegypti, mosquito flying activity and oviposition. The results, obtained after calibration and validation of the model with field observations, show significant correlation (P<0.001) for different lags depending on the life stage. From these results, more favorable atmospheric conditions for Ae. aegypti reproduction (linked to the urban climatic change) can be observed. The climatic variability in the last decade resembles conditions at the end of 19th century.

  7. Fiscal year 1998 summary report of the NOAA Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Poole-Kober, E.M.; Viebrock, H.J.

    1999-06-01

    During Fiscal Year 1998, the Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division provided meteorological and modeling assistance to the US Environmental Protection Agency. Among the significant research studies and results were the following: publication and distribution of Models-3/Community Mutliscale Air Quality system; estimation of the nitrogen deposition to Chesapeake Bay, continued evaluation and application of air quality models for mercury, dioxin, and heavy metals, continued conduct of deposition velocity field studies over various major categories of land-use; conduct of the Ozark Isoprene Experiment to investigate biogenic isoprene emissions; analysis and modeling of dust resuspension data; continued study of buoyant puff dispersion in the convective boundary layer; and development of a standard practice for an objective statistical procedure for comparing air quality model outputs with field data.

  8. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a nearperfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a higheccentricity geocentric orbit. The launch, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, was visible from much of the eastern seaboard. Over the next 30 days, LADEE performed three phasing orbits, with near-perfect maneuvers that placed apogee at ever higher altitudes in preparation for rendezvous with the Moon. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any.

  9. Soot Surface Oxidation in Laminar Hydrocarbon/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Kim, C. H.; Faeth, G. M.; Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor); Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Soot surface oxidation was studied experimentally in laminar hydrocarbon/air diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were carried out along the axes of round fuel jets burning in coflowing dry air considering acetylene-nitrogen, ethylene, propyiene-nitrogen, propane and acetylene-benzene-nitrogen in the fuel stream. Measurements were limited to the initial stages of soot oxidation (carbon consumption less than 70%) where soot oxidation occurs at the surface of primary soot particles. The following properties were measured as a function of distance above the burner exit: soot concentrations by deconvoluted laser extinction, soot temperatures by deconvoluted multiline emission, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), concentrations of major stable gas species (N2, H2O, H2, O2, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H2, C2H6, C3H6, C3H8, and C6H6) by sampling and gas chromatography, concentrations of some radical species (H, OH, O) by deconvoluted Li/LiOH atomic absorption and flow velocities by laser velocimetry. For present test conditions, it was found that soot surface oxidation rates were not affected by fuel type, that direct rates of soot surface oxidation by O2 estimated from Nagle and Strickland-Constable (1962) were small compared to observed soot surface oxidation rates because soot surface oxidation was completed near the flame sheet where O2 concentrations were less than 3% by volume, and that soot surface oxidation rates were described by the OH soot surface oxidation mechanism with a collision efficiency of 0.14 and an uncertainty (95% confidence) of +/- 0.04 when allowing for direct soot surface oxidation by O2, which is in reasonably good agreement with earlier observations of soot surface oxidation rates in both premixed and diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure.

  10. Review of the Physical Science Facility Stack Air Sampling Probe Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2007-09-30

    This letter report reviews compliance of the current design of the Physical Science Facility (PSF) stack air sampling locations with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard. The review was based on performance criteria used for locating air sampling probes, the design documents provided and available information on systems previously tested for compliance with the criteria. Recommendations are presented for ways to bring the design into compliance with the requirements for the sampling probe placement.

  11. Study on Reduction of Time Lag for Laser-Induced Electrical Discharge in Atmospheric Air with Non-Uniform Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Daisuke

    1998-11-01

    Study on Reduction of Time Lag for Laser-Induced Electrical Discharge in Atmospheric Air with Non-Uniform Electric Field* , Daisuke Okano, Kyushu Tokai University, 9-1-1 Toroku, Kumamoto, Japan. -----As an electrical discharge can be inductively occurred [1] by a pulsed laser-produced plasma (PLPP) in a rod-to-plate air gap stressed by a DC high voltage(Va), the starting point of laser-induced electrical discharge (LIED) is almost delayed more than few microseconds from focusing the laser beam. It is expected that the LIED by a PLPP is effectively occurred by reducing the time lag. The aim of our research focuses on the reduction for the time lag of LIED using CO2- and YAG pulsed lasers. The typical results are summarized as follows.The time lag of LIED in an atmospheric air gap (30mm) stressed at Va=30 kV is strongly reduced to 33 using CO2- and YAG pulsed lasers. The mechanism for the time lag of LIED is due to the electron attachment and detachment. [1] M.Inoue, T.Takashima, D.Okano et.al., Bull. of Inst. of Industrial Sci. & technical res.in Kyushu Tokai University, No.11 (1995)165 in Japanese. . *This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)-no.10650295 of The Ministry of education, Science Sports and Culture in japan.

  12. Additional research on instabilities in atmospheric flow systems associated with clear air turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical and experimental fluid mechanics studies were conducted to investigate instabilities in atmospheric flow systems associated with clear air turbulence. The experimental portion of the program was conducted using an open water channel which allows investigation of flows having wide ranges of shear and density stratification. The program was primarily directed toward studies of the stability of straight, stratified shear flows with particular emphasis on the effects of velocity profile on stability; on studies of three-dimensional effects on the breakdown region in shear layers; on the the interaction of shear flows with long-wave length internal waves; and on the stability of shear flows consisting of adjacent stable layers. The results of these studies were used to evaluate methods used in analyses of CAT encounters in the atmosphere involving wave-induced shear layer instabilities of the Kelvin-Helmholta type. A computer program was developed for predicting shear-layer instability and CAT induced by mountain waves. This technique predicts specific altitudes and locations where CAT would be expected.

  13. Phenol production in benzene/air plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Role of radical and ionic routes.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Daniela; Franceschi, Pietro; Guella, Graziano; Tosi, Paolo

    2006-06-29

    Benzene can be efficiently converted into phenol when it is treated by either corona or dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas operating at atmospheric pressure in air or mixtures of N(2) and O(2). Phenol produced by corona discharge in an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (APCI) has been detected as the corresponding radical cation C(6)H(5)OH(+*) at m/z 94 by an ion trap mass spectrometer. On the other hand, phenol has been observed also as neutral product by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS) after treatment in a DBD plasma. Experiments aimed at shading light on the elementary processes responsible for benzene oxidation were carried out (i) by changing the composition of the gas in the corona discharge source; (ii) by using isotopically labeled reagents; and (iii) by investigating some relevant ion-molecule reactions (i.e. C(6)H(6)(+*) + O(2), C(6)H(5)(+) + O(2)) via selected guided ion beam measurements and with the help of ab initio calculations. The results of our approach show that ionic mechanisms do not play a significant role in phenol production, which can be better explained by radical reactions resulting in oxygen addition to the benzene ring followed by 1,2 H transfer.

  14. Interaction of Atmospheric-Pressure Air Microplasmas with Amino Acids as Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhuang, Jinxing; Zong, Zichao; Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that investigates potential applications of cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas in bioengineering, such as for bacterial inactivation and degradation of organic molecules in water. In order to enunciate mechanisms of bacterial inactivation at molecular or atomic levels, we investigated the interaction of atmospheric-pressure air microplasmas with amino acids in aqueous solution by using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Results show that the oxidation effect of plasma-induced species on the side chains of the amino acids can be categorized into four types, namely hydroxylation, nitration, dehydrogenation and dimerization. In addition, relative activities of amino acids resulting from plasma treatment come in descending order as follows: sulfur-containing carbon-chain amino acids > aromatic amino acids > five-membered ring amino acids > basic carbon-chain amino acids. Since amino acids are building blocks of proteins vital to the growth and reproduction of bacteria, these results provide an insight into the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by plasma. PMID:27183129

  15. OPERATION OF FUSION REACTORS IN ONE ATMOSPHERE OF AIR INSTEAD OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, J. Reece

    2009-07-26

    Engineering design studies of both magnetic and inertial fusion power plants have assumed that the plasma will undergo fusion reactions in a vacuum environment. Operation under vacuum requires an expensive additional major system for the reactor-a vacuum vessel with vacuum pumping, and raises the possibility of sudden unplanned outages if the vacuum containment is breached. It would be desirable in many respects if fusion reactors could be made to operate at one atmosphere with air surrounding the plasma, thus eliminating the requirement of a pressure vessel and vacuum pumping. This would have obvious economic, reliability, and engineering advantages for currently envisaged power plant reactors; it would make possible forms of reactor control not possible under vacuum conditions (i.e. adiabatic compression of the fusion plasma by increasing the pressure of surrounding gas); it would allow reactors used as aircraft engines to operate as turbojets or ramjets in the atmosphere, and it would allow reactors used as fusion rockets to take off from the surface of the earth instead of low earth orbit.

  16. Interaction of Atmospheric-Pressure Air Microplasmas with Amino Acids as Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhuang, Jinxing; Zong, Zichao; Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that investigates potential applications of cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas in bioengineering, such as for bacterial inactivation and degradation of organic molecules in water. In order to enunciate mechanisms of bacterial inactivation at molecular or atomic levels, we investigated the interaction of atmospheric-pressure air microplasmas with amino acids in aqueous solution by using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Results show that the oxidation effect of plasma-induced species on the side chains of the amino acids can be categorized into four types, namely hydroxylation, nitration, dehydrogenation and dimerization. In addition, relative activities of amino acids resulting from plasma treatment come in descending order as follows: sulfur-containing carbon-chain amino acids > aromatic amino acids > five-membered ring amino acids > basic carbon-chain amino acids. Since amino acids are building blocks of proteins vital to the growth and reproduction of bacteria, these results provide an insight into the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by plasma. PMID:27183129

  17. Functionalization of graphene by atmospheric pressure plasma jet in air or H2O2 environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weixin; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2016-03-01

    The functionalization of graphene, which deforms its band structure, can result in a metal-semiconductor transition. In this work, we report a facile strategy to oxidize single-layer graphene using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) that generates a variety of reactive plasma species at close to ambient temperature. We systematically characterized the oxygen content and chemical structure of the graphene films after plasma treatment under different oxidative conditions (ambient air atmosphere or hydrogen peroxide solution) by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Plasma-treated graphene films containing more than 40% oxygen were obtained in both oxidative environments. Interestingly, prolonged irradiation led to the reduction of graphene oxides. N-doping of graphene also occurred during the APPJ treatment in H2O2 solution; the nitrogen content of the doped graphene was dependent on the duration of irradiation and reached up to 8.1% within 40 min. Moreover, the H2O2 solution served as a buffer layer that prevented damage to the graphene during plasma irradiation. Four-point probe measurement revealed an increase in sheet resistance of the plasma-treated graphene, indicating the transition of the material property from semi-metallic to semiconducting.

  18. Interaction of Atmospheric-Pressure Air Microplasmas with Amino Acids as Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhuang, Jinxing; Zong, Zichao; Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that investigates potential applications of cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas in bioengineering, such as for bacterial inactivation and degradation of organic molecules in water. In order to enunciate mechanisms of bacterial inactivation at molecular or atomic levels, we investigated the interaction of atmospheric-pressure air microplasmas with amino acids in aqueous solution by using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Results show that the oxidation effect of plasma-induced species on the side chains of the amino acids can be categorized into four types, namely hydroxylation, nitration, dehydrogenation and dimerization. In addition, relative activities of amino acids resulting from plasma treatment come in descending order as follows: sulfur-containing carbon-chain amino acids > aromatic amino acids > five-membered ring amino acids > basic carbon-chain amino acids. Since amino acids are building blocks of proteins vital to the growth and reproduction of bacteria, these results provide an insight into the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by plasma.

  19. On the '-1' scaling of air temperature spectra in atmospheric surface layer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Katul, G. G.; Gentine, P.

    2015-12-01

    The spectral properties of scalar turbulence at high wavenumbers have been extensively studied in turbulent flows, and existing theories explaining the k-5/3 scaling within the inertial subrange appear satisfactory at high Reynolds numbers. Equivalent theories for the low wavenumber range have been comparatively lacking because boundary conditions prohibit attainment of such universal behavior. A number of atmospheric surface layer (ASL) experiments reported a k-1 scaling in air temperature spectra ETT(k) at low wavenumbers but other experiments did not. Here, the occurrence of a k-1 scaling in ETT(k) in an idealized ASL flow across a wide range of atmospheric stability regimes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Experiments reveal a k-1 scaling persisted across different atmospheric stability parameter values (ζ) ranging from mildly unstable to mildly stable conditions (-0.1< ζ < 0.2). As instability increases, the k-1 scaling vanishes. Based on a combined spectral and co-spectral budget models and upon using a Heisenberg eddy viscosity as a closure to the spectral flux transfer term, conditions promoting a k-1 scaling are identified. Existence of a k-1 scaling is shown to be primarily linked to an imbalance between the production and dissipation rates of half the temperature variance. The role of the imbalance between the production and dissipation rates of half the temperature variance in controlling the existence of a '-1' scaling suggests that the '-1' scaling in ETT(k) does not necessarily concur with the '-1' scaling in the spectra of longitudinal velocity Euu(k). This finding explains why some ASL experiments reported k-1 in Euu(k) but not ETT(k). It also differs from prior arguments derived from directional-dimensional analysis that lead to simultaneous k-1 scaling in Euu(k) and ETT(k) at low wavenumbers in a neutral ASL.

  20. Atmospheric properties measurements and data collection from a hot-air balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Steven M.; Olson, N.; Dalley, R. P.; Bone, W. J.; Kroutil, Robert T.; Herr, Kenneth C.; Hall, Jeff L.; Schere, G. J.; Polak, M. L.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Bodrero, Dennis M.; Borys, R. O.; Lowenthal, D.

    1995-02-01

    Tethered and free-flying manned hot air balloons have been demonstrated as platforms for various atmospheric measurements and remote sensing tasks. We have been performing experiments in these areas since the winter of 1993. These platforms are extremely inexpensive to operate, do not cause disturbances such as prop wash and high airspeeds, and have substantial payload lifting and altitude capabilities. The equipment operated and tested on the balloons included FTIR spectrometers, multi-spectral imaging spectrometer, PM10 Beta attenuation monitor, mid- and far-infrared cameras, a radiometer, video recording equipment, ozone meter, condensation nuclei counter, aerodynamic particle sizer with associated computer equipment, a tethersonde and a 2.9 kW portable generator providing power to the equipment. Carbon monoxide and ozone concentration data and particle concentrations and size distributions were collected as functions of altitude in a wintertime inversion layer at Logan, Utah and summertime conditions in Salt Lake City, Utah and surrounding areas. Various FTIR spectrometers have been flown to characterize chemical plumes emitted from a simulated industrial stack. We also flew the balloon into diesel and fog oil smokes generated by U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force turbine generators to obtain particle size distributions.

  1. Cold atmospheric air plasma sterilization against spores and other microorganisms of clinical interest.

    PubMed

    Klämpfl, Tobias G; Isbary, Georg; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Li, Yang-Fang; Zimmermann, Julia L; Stolz, Wilhelm; Schlegel, Jürgen; Morfill, Gregor E; Schmidt, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-08-01

    Physical cold atmospheric surface microdischarge (SMD) plasma operating in ambient air has promising properties for the sterilization of sensitive medical devices where conventional methods are not applicable. Furthermore, SMD plasma could revolutionize the field of disinfection at health care facilities. The antimicrobial effects on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of clinical relevance, as well as the fungus Candida albicans, were tested. Thirty seconds of plasma treatment led to a 4 to 6 log(10) CFU reduction on agar plates. C. albicans was the hardest to inactivate. The sterilizing effect on standard bioindicators (bacterial endospores) was evaluated on dry test specimens that were wrapped in Tyvek coupons. The experimental D(23)(°)(C) values for Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus atrophaeus, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus were determined as 0.3 min, 0.5 min, 0.6 min, and 0.9 min, respectively. These decimal reduction times (D values) are distinctly lower than D values obtained with other reference methods. Importantly, the high inactivation rate was independent of the material of the test specimen. Possible inactivation mechanisms for relevant microorganisms are briefly discussed, emphasizing the important role of neutral reactive plasma species and pointing to recent diagnostic methods that will contribute to a better understanding of the strong biocidal effect of SMD air plasma.

  2. Localized etching of polymer films using an atmospheric pressure air microplasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Honglei; Liu, Jingquan; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    A direct-write process device based on the atmospheric pressure air microplasma jet (AμPJ) has been developed for the localized etching of polymer films. The plasma was generated by the air discharge ejected out through a tip-nozzle (inner diameter of 100 μm), forming the microplasma jet. The AμPJ was capable of reacting with the polymer surface since it contains a high concentration of oxygen reactive species and thus resulted in the selective removal of polymer films. The experimental results demonstrated that the AμPJ could fabricate different microstructures on a parylene-C film without using any masks or causing any heat damage. The etch rate of parylene-C reached 5.1 μm min-1 and microstructures of different depth and width could also be realized by controlling two process parameters, namely, the etching time and the distance between the nozzle and the substrate. In addition, combining XPS analysis and oxygen-induced chemical etching principles, the potential etching mechanism of parylene-C by the AμPJ was investigated. Aside from the etching of parylene-C, micro-holes on the photoresist and polyimide film were successfully created by the AμPJ. In summary, maskless pattern etching of polymer films could be achieved using this AμPJ.

  3. Emission spectroscopy of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet operated with air at low frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, L.; Gallego, J. L.; Minotti, F.; Kelly, H.; Grondona, D.

    2015-03-01

    Low-temperature, high-pressure plasma jets have an extensive use in plasma biology and plasma medicine, such as pathogen deactivation, wound disinfection, stopping of bleeding without damage of healthy tissue, acceleration of wound healing, control of bio-film proliferation, etc. In this work, a spectroscopic characterization of a typical plasma jet, operated in air at atmospheric pressure, is reported. Within the spectrum of wavelengths from 200 to 450 nm all remarkable emissions of N2 were monitored. Spectra of the N2 2nd positive system (C3Πu-B3Πg) emitted in air are the most convenient for plasma diagnostics, since they enable to determine electronic Te, rotational Tr and vibrational Tv temperatures by fitting the experimental spectra with the simulated ones. We used SPECAIR software for spectral simulation and obtained the best fit with all these temperatures about 3500K. The conclusion that all temperatures are equal, and its relatively high value, is consistent with the results of a previous work, where it was found that the experimentally determined electrical characteristic was consistent with the model of a thermal arc discharge, together with a highly collisional cathode sheet.

  4. Cold Atmospheric Air Plasma Sterilization against Spores and Other Microorganisms of Clinical Interest

    PubMed Central

    Isbary, Georg; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Li, Yang-Fang; Zimmermann, Julia L.; Stolz, Wilhelm; Schlegel, Jürgen; Morfill, Gregor E.; Schmidt, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Physical cold atmospheric surface microdischarge (SMD) plasma operating in ambient air has promising properties for the sterilization of sensitive medical devices where conventional methods are not applicable. Furthermore, SMD plasma could revolutionize the field of disinfection at health care facilities. The antimicrobial effects on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of clinical relevance, as well as the fungus Candida albicans, were tested. Thirty seconds of plasma treatment led to a 4 to 6 log10 CFU reduction on agar plates. C. albicans was the hardest to inactivate. The sterilizing effect on standard bioindicators (bacterial endospores) was evaluated on dry test specimens that were wrapped in Tyvek coupons. The experimental D23°C values for Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus atrophaeus, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus were determined as 0.3 min, 0.5 min, 0.6 min, and 0.9 min, respectively. These decimal reduction times (D values) are distinctly lower than D values obtained with other reference methods. Importantly, the high inactivation rate was independent of the material of the test specimen. Possible inactivation mechanisms for relevant microorganisms are briefly discussed, emphasizing the important role of neutral reactive plasma species and pointing to recent diagnostic methods that will contribute to a better understanding of the strong biocidal effect of SMD air plasma. PMID:22582068

  5. Downward transport of ozone rich air and implications for atmospheric chemistry in the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, Tobias; Wei, Dandan; Chase, Randy J.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Schumacher, Courtney; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo A.; Freire, Livia S.; Jardine, Angela B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Nascimento dos Santos, Rosa M.; von Randow, Celso; dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Stoy, Paul C.; Tóta, Julio; Trowbridge, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    From April 2014 to January 2015, ozone (O3) dynamics were investigated as part of GoAmazon 2014/5 project in the central Amazon rainforest of Brazil. Just above the forest canopy, maximum hourly O3 mixing ratios averaged 20 ppbv (parts per billion on a volume basis) during the June-September dry months and 15 ppbv during the wet months. Ozone levels occasionally exceeded 75 ppbv in response to influences from biomass burning and regional air pollution. Individual convective storms transported O3-rich air parcels from the mid-troposphere to the surface and abruptly enhanced the regional atmospheric boundary layer by as much as 25 ppbv. In contrast to the individual storms, days with multiple convective systems produced successive, cumulative ground-level O3 increases. The magnitude of O3 enhancements depended on the vertical distribution of O3 within storm downdrafts and origin of downdrafts in the troposphere. Ozone mixing ratios remained enhanced for > 2 h following the passage of storms, which enhanced chemical processing of rainforest-emitted isoprene and monoterpenes. Reactions of isoprene and monoterpenes with O3 are modeled to generate maximum hydroxyl radical formation rates of 6 × 106 radicals cm-3s-1. Therefore, one key conclusion of the present study is that downdrafts of convective storms are estimated to transport enough O3 to the surface to initiate a series of reactions that reduce the lifetimes of rainforest-emitted hydrocarbons.

  6. Towards European-scale Air Quality operational services for GMES Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peuch, V.-H.; Rouil, L.; Tarrason, L.; Elbern, H.; Gems/Macc Regional Subprojects Teams

    2009-09-01

    Basing upon the experience gained in national operational or pre-operational air quality forecasting activities, as for instance Prév'Air in France or EURAD in Germany, a range of European scale services have been developing in the context of the EU-funded project GEMS (6th FP) and are now brought a step further in the new project MACC (7th FP). Within the GEMS project, analyses, hindcasts and forecasts from a range of state-of-the-art Regional Air Quality models have been performed on a quasi-operational daily basis since the beginning of 2008. The models cover Europe with horizontal resolutions ranging from 0.2° to 0.5°, and rely on ECMWF operational meteorological forecasts as well as on GEMS global "chemical weather” data, in the form of chemical boundary conditions for key medium to long-lived trace gases and aerosols. They also all consider the same high-resolution (~8km) anthropogenic and biogenic emissions inventories, developed by TNO (The Netherlands) and NKUA (Greece). Access in quasi Near-Real-Time to AQ monitoring data has been obtained for over 15 European countries through fruitful collaborations with national and regional monitoring agencies. This has provided an interesting context, unprecedented to such an extent, to jointly monitor the performances of regional Air Quality forecasts, assess uncertainties and elaborate ensemble products that build upon the models' spread and their respective skills (both in average and for the few days preceding each forecast). Also a hindcast run covering the whole year of 2003 and using chemical boundaries from GEMS global re-analysis of tropospheric reactive gases has been performed and studied. This year 2003 was indeed marked by several episodes in spring and summer (heat wave) with strong health impacts due (at least in part) to bad Air Quality. The GEMS project has ended in May 2009 and the MACC project has started. Within MACC, a stronger emphasis is put on the use of chemical data assimilation and on

  7. Earth Science Data and Applications for K-16 Education from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, C. S.; Chambers, L. H.; Alston, E. J.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate aims to stimulate public interest in Earth system science and to encourage young scholars to consider careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at Langley Research Center houses over 700 data sets related to Earth's radiation budget, clouds, aerosols and tropospheric chemistry that are being produced to increase academic understanding of the natural and anthropogenic perturbations that influence global climate change. However, barriers still exist in the use of these actual satellite observations by educators in the classroom to supplement the educational process. Thus, NASA is sponsoring the "Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and earth science for Teachers and Amateurs" (MY NASA DATA) project to systematically support educational activities by reducing the ASDC data holdings to `microsets' that can be easily accessible and explored by the K-16 educators and students. The microsets are available via Web site (http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov) with associated lesson plans, computer tools, data information pages, and a science glossary. A MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) has been populated with ASDC data such that users can create custom microsets online for desired time series, parameters and geographical regions. The LAS interface is suitable for novice to advanced users, teachers or students. The microsets may be visual representations of data or text output for spreadsheet analysis. Currently, over 148 parameters from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), Surface Radiation Budget (SRB), Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are available and provide important information on clouds, fluxes and cycles in the Earth system. Additionally, a MY NASA DATA OPeNDAP server has been established to facilitate file transfer of

  8. Variation of atmospheric air pollution under conditions of rapid economic change—Estonia 1994-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, V.; Tammet, H.; Truuts, T.

    Estonia is an example of a country with economy in transition whose atmospheric air pollution has been remarkably influenced by economic changes. During the period of 1994-1999 GDP increased by one-fourth, while agricultural production, electricity and heat production dropped by one-sixths during the studied period. These processes are reflected in the quantity of emissions and structure of air pollution. The study is based on the measurements of concentrations of pollutants at six Estonian Euroairnet monitoring stations—at three sites in the capital city and at three sites in remote areas. The pollutants concerned are the first-priority pollutants in the European Union legislation—nitrogen oxides, SO 2, O 3, particulate matter, and additionally CO. The study reveals that concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Estonia remain within the EU limit values except for ozone in remote areas. The main trend during the studied period was a significant, up to several times, decrease in concentrations of SO 2 and CO while the decrease of nitrogen oxides was less remarkable. The paper propose ratio of NO x/SO 2 as an index describing increasing transport loads and drop in use of sulphur-rich fuels—thus of structure of economy. The annual variation of pollutants is explained by seasonal variations of anthropogenic activity in conditions where local fuels are widely used for heating during winter. Air pollution in Estonian rural stations mostly originated from transboundary fluxes. The 1-3 day delay of the weekly minimum of pollutant concentrations and the wind roses allow to conclude that essential part of pollutants is imported from West Europe.

  9. Afterglow chemistry of atmospheric-pressure helium-oxygen plasmas with humid air impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Niemi, Kari; Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah; Graham, William G.

    2014-04-01

    The formation of reactive species in the afterglow of a radio-frequency-driven atmospheric-pressure plasma in a fixed helium-oxygen feed gas mixture (He+0.5%O2) with humid air impurity (a few hundred ppm) is investigated by means of an extensive global plasma chemical kinetics model. As an original objective, we explore the effects of humid air impurity on the biologically relevant reactive species in an oxygen-dependent system. After a few milliseconds in the afterglow environment, the densities of atomic oxygen (O) decreases from 1015 to 1013 cm-3 and singlet delta molecular oxygen (O2(1D)) of the order of 1015 cm-3 decreases by a factor of two, while the ozone (O3) density increases from 1014 to 1015 cm-3. Electrons and oxygen ionic species, initially of the order of 1011 cm-3, recombine much faster on the time scale of some microseconds. The formation of atomic hydrogen (H), hydroxyl radical (OH), hydroperoxyl (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and nitric acid (HNO3) resulting from the humid air impurity as well as the influence on the afterglow chemistry is clarified with particular emphasis on the formation of dominant reactive oxygen species (ROS). The model suggests that the reactive species predominantly formed in the afterglow are major ROS O2(1D) and O3 (of the order of 1015 cm-3) and rather minor hydrogen- and nitrogen-based reactive species OH, H2O2, HNO3 and NO2/NO3, of which densities are comparable to the O-atom density (of the order of 1013 cm-3). Furthermore, the model quantitatively reproduces the experimental results of independent O and O3 density measurements.

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory and Atmosphere Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kutty, Prasad; Schoenenberer, Mark; Shidner, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5th 2012, The Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle successfully entered Mars atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover on its surface. A Kalman filter approach has been implemented to reconstruct the entry, descent, and landing trajectory based on all available data. The data sources considered in the Kalman filtering approach include the inertial measurement unit accelerations and angular rates, the terrain descent sensor, the measured landing site, orbit determination solutions for the initial conditions, and a new set of instrumentation for planetary entry reconstruction consisting of forebody pressure sensors, known as the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System. These pressure measurements are unique for planetary entry, descent, and landing reconstruction as they enable a reconstruction of the freestream atmospheric conditions without any prior assumptions being made on the vehicle aerodynamics. Moreover, the processing of these pressure measurements in the Kalman filter approach enables the identification of atmospheric winds, which has not been accomplished in past planetary entry reconstructions. This separation of atmosphere and aerodynamics allows for aerodynamic model reconciliation and uncertainty quantification, which directly impacts future missions. This paper describes the mathematical formulation of the Kalman filtering approach, a summary of data sources and preprocessing activities, and results of the reconstruction.

  11. Frigid air and frozen oceans: Educational outreach opportunities in Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perovich, D. K.; Codispoti, L. A.; Hawkey, J.

    2003-12-01

    Arctic research provides a marvelous venue for educational outreach activities. The polar regions, with snow and ice, months-long winter nights and summer days, and marine mammals such as seals, whales, and polar bears, has an intrinsic sense of adventure and interest. This interest provides an entry point for educational outreach activities, but does not guarantee success. Arctic researchers studying ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions have used a myriad of techniques for education outreach activities: web sites, classroom visits, lectures, news articles, and e-mail correspondence from the field. One such web site, http://arcss-oaii.hpl.umces.edu/outreach.htm, has been developed as a clearinghouse for researchers to share ideas, strategies, and techniques. For K-12 outreach, developing an ongoing effort with several classroom visits over the school year, is particularly effective. Classroom visits with brief lectures, replete with pictures, followed by an experiment or activity make it relatively straightforward to convey the enthusiasm and excitement of polar research. A more difficult task, however, is to integrate outreach activities into the curriculum. Collaborating with teachers is essential to achieve this integration. In public lectures, it is productive to first capture the audience's attention by describing what it is like to work in the polar regions, then discuss the science. It is important to distill the science to one or two key concepts and present them clearly and concisely. A recurring theme was that not only were outreach activities fun and satisfying, but they also enhanced the researchers understanding of the material.

  12. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  13. A-Train Data Depot: Integrating, Visualizing, and Extracting Cloudsat, CALIPSO, MODIS, and AIRS Atmospheric Measurements Along the A-Train Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steven; Stephens, Graeme; Winkler, Dave; Leptoukh, Greg; Reinke, Don; Smith, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The succession of US and international Earth observing satellites that follow each other, seconds to minutes apart, across the local afternoon equator crossing is called the ATrain. The A-Train consists of the following satellites, in order of equator crossing: OCO, EOS Aqua, CloudSat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, and EOS Aura. Flying in such formation increases the number of observations, validates observations, and enables coordination between science observations, resulting in a more complete virtual science platform (Kelly, 2000). The goal of this project is to create the first ever A-Train virtual data portal/center, the A-Train Data Depot (ATDD), to process, archive, access, visualize, analyze and correlate distributed atmosphere measurements from various A-Train instruments along A-Train tracks. The ATDD will enable the free movement of remotely located A-Train data so that they are combined to create a consolidated vertical view of the Earth's Atmosphere along the A-Train tracks. Once the infrastructure of the ATDD is in place, it will be easily evolved to serve data from all A-Train data measurements: one stop shopping. The innovative approach of analyzing and visualizing atmospheric profiles along the platforms track (i.e., time) will be accommodated by reusing the GSFC Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (ACDISC) visualization and analysis tool, GIOVANNI, existing data reduction tools, on-line archiving for fast data access, access to remote data without unnecessary data transfers, and data retrieval by users finding data desirable for further study. Initial measurements utilized include CALIPSO lidar backscatter, CloudSat radar reflectivity, clear air relative humidity, water vapor and temperature from AIRS, and cloud properties and aerosols from both MODIS. This will be foilowed by associated measurements from TVILS, =MI, HIRDLS, sad TES. Given the independent nature of instrumentlplatform development, the ATDD project has been met with

  14. Air Quality Impacts of Atmospheric Particles & Trace Gases: Field Studies in Diverse Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwaniki, George R.

    Air pollution impacts occur at all scales, meaning that policies and air quality management practices must be implemented and coordinated at the local, regional, national, and global scales. This dissertation is part of a continuing effort to improve our understanding of various air quality related issues in different environments. The dissertation consists of four studies. In the first study, wintertime chemical composition of water-soluble particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) was monitored in the Treasure Valley region near Boise, Idaho. This study was aimed at understanding the major drivers of wintertime PM2.5 within the locality of Boise and its suburbs. From this study, organics and particulate nitrate were the dominant contributors to the PM2.5 mass during wintertime. In the second study, particle size distribution, light scattering coefficient, speciated water soluble PM2.5, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration were monitored in a mixed deciduous forest in Northern Michigan during the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX-2009). The overall goal of this study was to understand on how emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) affect the gas-phase and particle-phase chemistry in the near-canopy environment, and the implications on local and regional air quality. From this study aerosol derived from the oxidation of BVOCs exhibited reduced hygroscopicity and CCN activation potential compared to aerosols derived from anthropogenic activities. The third study employed the eddy covariance (EC) technique to understand source-sink interactions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH 4), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in Xi'an, China. In this study urban vegetation were found to play a major role in regulating CO2 emissions within the city while vehicular activities were a major driver for CO and CH4 fluxes. In the fourth study, visibility degradation effects of

  15. Climate simulations with a new air-sea turbulent flux parameterization in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Junmei; Gao, Zhiqiu; Lenschow, Donald H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines climate simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (NCAR CAM3) using a new air-sea turbulent flux parameterization scheme. The current air-sea turbulent flux scheme in CAM3 consists of three basic bulk flux equations that are solved simultaneously by an iterative computational technique. We recently developed a new turbulent flux parameterization scheme where the Obukhov stability length is parameterized directly by using a bulk Richardson number, an aerodynamic roughness length, and a heat roughness length. Its advantages are that it (1) avoids the iterative process and thus increases the computational efficiency, (2) takes account of the difference between z0m and z0h and allows large z0m/z0h, and (3) preserves the accuracy of iteration. An offline test using Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) data shows that the original scheme overestimates the surface fluxes under very weak winds but the new scheme gives better results. Under identical initial and boundary conditions, the original CAM3 and CAM3 coupled with the new turbulent flux scheme are used to simulate the global distribution of air-sea surface turbulent fluxes, and precipitation. Comparisons of model outputs against the European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS), the Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux), and Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) show that: (1) the new scheme produces more realistic surface wind stress in the North Pacific and North Atlantic trade wind belts and wintertime extratropical storm track regions; (2) the latent heat flux in the Northern Hemisphere trade wind zones shows modest improvement in the new scheme, and the latent heat flux bias in the western boundary current region of the Gulf Stream is reduced; and (3) the simulated precipitation in the new scheme is closer to observation in the Asian monsoon

  16. The Air Sensor Citizen Science Toolbox: A Collaboration in Community Air Quality Monitoring and Mapping?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project GoalDevelop tools Citizen Scientists can use to assist them in conducting environmental monitoringResearch PlanIdentify a citizen science project as a potential pilot study locationEstablish their pollutant monitoring interestsDevelop a sensor package to meet their needs ...

  17. Post-launch lessons learned from the AIRS science data processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Evan M.; Friedman, Steven Z.; Chang, Albert Y.

    2003-11-01

    The AIRS Science Data Processing System, responsible for processing data from the 4-instrument AIRS suite, includes 14 separate executable programs and produces dozens of products. These executable programs and products conform to ECS standards for processing and archival at Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC. These standards include format and metadata constraints, and the PGE paradigm. Before launch the AIRS team defined and implemented all PGEs, created simulated test data, verified PGE performance with simulated and ground test data, and verified PGE integration within the GES DAAC processing and archiving systems. To support validation and continued software development, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a limited shadow production system, and received all instrument data after launch. This in-house system was not designed to process and serve all data, but rather to run experimental versions of our software and to run additional non-deliverable programs in support of validation. These pre-flight preparations paid off, and the first year after launch has been very active for the AIRS science data processing group. Still, lessons can be learned from our experiences during our first year of data processing and post-launch software development. These experiences and observations may be useful to science seams developing future Earth observing instruments.

  18. Modeling Activities in the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) conducts research pertinent to radiative forcing of climate change by atmospheric aerosols. The program consists of approximately 40 highly interactive peer-reviewed research projects that examine aerosol properties and processes and the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere. Principal components of the program are instrument development, laboratory experiments, field studies, theoretical investigations, and modeling. The objectives of the Program are to 1) improve the understanding of aerosol processes associated with light scattering and absorption properties and interactions with clouds that affect Earth's radiative balance and to 2) develop model-based representations of these processes that enable the effects of aerosols on Earth's climate system to be properly represented in global-scale numerical climate models. Although only a few of the research projects within ASP are explicitly identified as primarily modeling activities, modeling actually comprises a substantial component of a large fraction of ASP research projects. This document describes the modeling activities within the Program as a whole, the objectives and intended outcomes of these activities, and the linkages among the several modeling components and with global-scale modeling activities conducted under the support of the Department of Energy's Climate Sciences Program and other aerosol and climate research programs.

  19. Can citizen science produce good science? Testing the OPAL Air Survey methodology, using lichens as indicators of nitrogenous pollution.

    PubMed

    Tregidgo, Daniel J; West, Sarah E; Ashmore, Mike R

    2013-11-01

    Citizen science is having increasing influence on environmental monitoring as its advantages are becoming recognised. However methodologies are often simplified to make them accessible to citizen scientists. We tested whether a recent citizen science survey (the OPAL Air Survey) could detect trends in lichen community composition over transects away from roads. We hypothesised that the abundance of nitrophilic lichens would decrease with distance from the road, while that of nitrophobic lichens would increase. The hypothesised changes were detected along strong pollution gradients, but not where the road source was relatively weak, or background pollution relatively high. We conclude that the simplified OPAL methodology can detect large contrasts in nitrogenous pollution, but it may not be able to detect more subtle changes in pollution exposure. Similar studies are needed in conjunction with the ever-growing body of citizen science work to ensure that the limitations of these methods are fully understood. PMID:23631940

  20. Can citizen science produce good science? Testing the OPAL Air Survey methodology, using lichens as indicators of nitrogenous pollution.

    PubMed

    Tregidgo, Daniel J; West, Sarah E; Ashmore, Mike R

    2013-11-01

    Citizen science is having increasing influence on environmental monitoring as its advantages are becoming recognised. However methodologies are often simplified to make them accessible to citizen scientists. We tested whether a recent citizen science survey (the OPAL Air Survey) could detect trends in lichen community composition over transects away from roads. We hypothesised that the abundance of nitrophilic lichens would decrease with distance from the road, while that of nitrophobic lichens would increase. The hypothesised changes were detected along strong pollution gradients, but not where the road source was relatively weak, or background pollution relatively high. We conclude that the simplified OPAL methodology can detect large contrasts in nitrogenous pollution, but it may not be able to detect more subtle changes in pollution exposure. Similar studies are needed in conjunction with the ever-growing body of citizen science work to ensure that the limitations of these methods are fully understood.

  1. Direct measurement of the characteristic three-body electron attachment time in the atmospheric air in direct current electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Shutov, A. V.; Smetanin, I. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Zvorykin, V. D.

    2013-07-15

    We report the results of theoretical and experimental study of the characteristic time for three-body attachment of electrons produced by 100 fs UV laser pulse in the atmosphere air in the external DC electric field ranged from 0.2 to 10 kV/cm.

  2. 75 FR 64726 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts To Serve on the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... objectives in the context of the most recently revised ozone NAAQS and changes to atmospheric chemistry that... monitoring studies. Methods for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)--Advice on potential improvements to TO-15...: Atmospheric sciences, dispersion modeling, atmospheric chemistry, ecosystem modeling, aquatic...

  3. Cris-atms Retrievals Using an AIRS Science Team Version 6-like Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    CrIS is the infrared high spectral resolution atmospheric sounder launched on Suomi-NPP in 2011. CrISATMS comprise the IRMW Sounding Suite on Suomi-NPP. CrIS is functionally equivalent to AIRS, the high spectral resolution IR sounder launched on EOS Aqua in 2002 and ATMS is functionally equivalent to AMSU on EOS Aqua. CrIS is an interferometer and AIRS is a grating spectrometer. Spectral coverage, spectral resolution, and channel noise of CrIS is similar to AIRS. CrIS spectral sampling is roughly twice as coarse as AIRSAIRS has 2378 channels between 650 cm-1 and 2665 cm-1. CrIS has 1305 channels between 650 cm-1 and 2550 cm-1. Spatial resolution of CrIS is comparable to AIRS.

  4. Influence of air diffusion on the OH radicals and atomic O distribution in an atmospheric Ar (bio)plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, A.; Li, L.; Britun, N.; Snyders, R.; Vanraes, P.; Leys, C.

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of samples with plasmas in biomedical applications often occurs in ambient air. Admixing air into the discharge region may severely affect the formation and destruction of the generated oxidative species. Little is known about the effects of air diffusion on the spatial distribution of OH radicals and O atoms in the afterglow of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets. In our work, these effects are investigated by performing and comparing measurements in ambient air with measurements in a controlled argon atmosphere without the admixture of air, for an argon plasma jet. The spatial distribution of OH is detected by means of laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics (LIF), whereas two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) is used for the detection of atomic O. The spatially resolved OH LIF and O TALIF show that, due to the air admixture effects, the reactive species are only concentrated in the vicinity of the central streamline of the afterglow of the jet, with a characteristic discharge diameter of ˜1.5 mm. It is shown that air diffusion has a key role in the recombination loss mechanisms of OH radicals and atomic O especially in the far afterglow region, starting up to ˜4 mm from the nozzle outlet at a low water/oxygen concentration. Furthermore, air diffusion enhances OH and O production in the core of the plasma. The higher density of active species in the discharge in ambient air is likely due to a higher electron density and a more effective electron impact dissociation of H2O and O2 caused by the increasing electrical field, when the discharge is operated in ambient air.

  5. The effect of air density on atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from a long airborne object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Aleksandrov, N. L.; Raizer, Yu. P.; Konchakov, A. M.

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine minimum atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from an airborne vehicle at various altitudes up to 10 km. The problem was reduced to the determination of a condition for initiation of a viable positive leader from a conductive object in an ambient electric field. It was shown that, depending on air density and shape and dimensions of the object, critical atmospheric fields are governed by the condition for leader viability or that for corona onset. To establish quantitative criteria for reduced air densities, available observations of spark discharges in long laboratory gaps were analyzed, the effect of air density on leader velocity was discussed and evolution in time of the properties of plasma in the leader channel was numerically simulated. The results obtained were used to evaluate the effect of pressure on the quantitative relationships between the potential difference near the leader tip, leader current and its velocity; based on these relationships, criteria for steady development of a leader were determined for various air pressures. Atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from rods and ellipsoidal objects of various dimensions were calculated at different air densities. It was shown that there is no simple way to extend critical ambient fields obtained for some given objects and pressures to other objects and pressures.

  6. The Effect of Air Density on Atmospheric Electric Fields Required for Lightning Initiation from a Long Airborne Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Aleksandrov, N. L.; Raizer, Yu. Pl.; Konchankov, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine minimum atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from an airborne vehicle at various altitudes up to 10 km. The problem was reduced to the determination of a condition for initiation of a viable positive leader from a conductive object in an ambient electric field. It was shown that, depending on air density and shape and dimensions of the object, critical atmospheric fields are governed by the condition for leader viability or that for corona onset. To establish quantitative criteria for reduced air densities, available observations of spark discharges in long laboratory gaps were analyzed, the effect of air density on leader velocity was discussed and evolution in time of the properties of plasma in the leader channel was numerically simulated. The results obtained were used to evaluate the effect of pressure on the quantitative relationships between the potential difference near the leader tip, leader current and its velocity; based on these relationships, criteria for steady development of a leader were determined for various air pressures. Atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from rods and ellipsoidal objects of various dimensions were calculated at different air densities. It was shown that there is no simple way to extend critical ambient fields obtained for some given objects and pressures to other objects and pressures.

  7. Observations of Mars Neutral Atmosphere during the Polar Night by the Mars Express Radio Science Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, G. L.; Pätzold, M.; Tellmann, S.; Häusler, B.; Hinson, D. P.

    2006-09-01

    The Radio Science Experiment on Mars Express (MaRS) sounds the Martian atmophere and ionosphere making use of spacecraft radio signals at 3.6 and 13 cm-wavelength and an Earth-Mars occultation geometry. Vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, and density in the neutral atmosphere are obtained with an altitude resolution of only a few hundred meters. The elliptical orbit of Mars Express permits examination of a large range of local times and locations and therefore can be used to investigate latitudinal, diurnal, and seasonal variations of Mars atmosphere. Daytime atmospheric profiles collected from both hemispheres since March 2004 allow us to study the development of the atmosphere in the early morning and the polar night. The second occultation season, December 2004, produced 32 profiles located in the southern polar latitudes at an average solar longitude of about 130°. Approximately 30 profiles obtained during the fourth occultation season, July 2005-April 2006, provide data on the north polar region at latitudes above 70° and a solar longitude of about 271°. The polar night at 75° north shows a 142-145 K isothermal atmosphere up to an altitude of 40 km, which is at or close to the condensation line of CO2. A similar behavior is observed during the southern polar night at 80° south, but with a significant warming at longitudes passing through Hellas. Model calculations of a Martian General Circulation Model (GCM) developed by the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique de C.N.R.S. (LMD) support the interpretation of the observed atmospheric phenomena. The MaRS investigation is funded by the DLR Grant 50QP9909 and by the NASA Mars Program.

  8. The Venus Neutral Atmosphere from the Radio Science Experiment VeRa on Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellmann, Silvia; Haeusler, Bernd; Paetzold, Martin; Bird, Michael; Tyler, G. L.; Andert, Thomas; Remus, Stefan

    The Venus Express Radio Science Experiment VeRa performs regular radio-sounding experi-ments in the Venus neutral atmosphere and ionosphere using the spacecraft radio subsystem in the one-way radio mode at X-band (8.4 GHz) and S-band (2.3 GHz). An Ultra-Stable Oscilla-tor (USO) provides a high quality on-board frequency reference for refractivity measurements, from which electron density profiles in the ionosphere and profiles of pressure, temperature and neutral number density of the neutral atmosphere are derived. Radial profiles of neutral number density from the atmospheric-induced Doppler shift during the occultations cover the altitude range 40-90 km. These are then used to derive vertical profiles of temperature and pressure. The polar orbit of Venus Express provides the opportunity to study the troposphere and meso-sphere at all planetocentric latitudes under varying illumination conditions. Seven occultation seasons have occurred thus far during the Venus Express mission, resulting in a data set with more than 320 neutral atmospheric profiles. The thermal structure is investigated with regard to the latitudinal and temporal variability. The Venus mesosphere shows a high variability resulting from atmospheric waves and turbulence. Profiles of atmospheric static stability are found to be latitude dependent and nearly adiabatic in the middle cloud region. Abrupt changes in the static stability can occur at the boundaries of the middle cloud layer, the vertical dis-tribution of which shows a distinct latitudinal dependence. Correlations of wave activity with the static stability profile will be investigated

  9. Deactivating bacteria with RF Driven Hollow Slot Microplasmas in Open Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zengqi; Pruden, Amy; Sharma, Ashish; Collins, George

    2003-10-01

    A hollow slot discharge operating in open air at atmospheric pressure has demonstrated its ability to deactivate bacterial growth on nearby surfaces exposed to the RF driven plasma. The cold plasma exits from a hollow slot with a width of 0.2 mm and variable length of 1-35 cm. An internal electrode was powered by 13.56 MHz radio-frequency power at a voltage below 200 V. External electrically grounded slots face the work piece. The plasma plume extends millimeters to centimeter beyond the hollow slot toward the work piece to be irradiated. Argon-Oxygen gas mixtures, at 33 liters per minute flow, were passed through the electrodes and the downstream plasma was employed for the process, with treatment exposure time varied from 0.06 to 0.18 seconds. Bacterial cultures were fixed to 0.22 micron cellulose filter membranes and passed under the plasma at a controlled rate at a distance of about 5-10 millimeters from the grounded slot electrode. Preliminary studies on the effectiveness of the plasma for sterilization were carried out on E. coli. Cultures were grown overnight on the membranes after exposure and the resulting colony forming units (cfu) were determined in treated and untreated groups. In the plasma treated group, a 98.2% kill rate was observed with the lowest exposure time, and increased to 99.8% when the exposure time was tripled. These studies clearly demonstrate the ability of the RF-driven hollow slot atmospheric plasma to inhibit bacterial growth on surfaces.

  10. Impacts of near-future cultivation of biofuel feedstocks on atmospheric composition and local air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, K.; Folberth, G.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wild, O.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale production of feedstock crops for biofuels will lead to land use changes. We quantify the effects of realistic land use change scenarios for biofuel feedstock production on isoprene emissions and hence atmospheric composition and chemistry using the HadGEM2 model. Two feedstocks are considered: oil palm for biodiesel in the tropics and short rotation coppice (SRC) in the mid-latitudes. In total, 69 Mha of oil palm and 9 Mha of SRC are planted, each sufficient to replace just over 1% of projected global fossil fuel demand in 2020. Both planting scenarios result in increases in total global annual isoprene emissions of about 1%. In each case, changes in surface concentrations of ozone and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bSOA) are substantial at the regional scale, with implications for air quality standards. However, the changes in tropospheric burden of ozone and the OH radical, and hence effects on global climate, are negligible. Over SE Asia, one region of oil palm planting, increases in annual mean surface ozone and bSOA concentrations reach over 3 ppbv (+11%) and 0.4 μg m-3 (+10%) respectively for parts of Borneo, with monthly mean increases of up to 6.5 ppbv (+25%) and 0.5 μg m-3 (+12%). Under the SRC scenario, Europe experiences monthly mean changes of over 0.6 ppbv (+1%) and 0.1 μg m-3 (+5%) in June and July, with peak increases of over 2 ppbv (+3%) and 0.5 μg m-3 (+8 %). That appreciable regional atmospheric impacts result from low level planting scenarios demonstrates the need to include changes in emissions of reactive trace gases such as isoprene in life cycle assessments performed on potential biofuel feedstocks.

  11. Impacts of near-future cultivation of biofuel feedstocks on atmospheric composition and local air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, K.; Folberth, G.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wild, O.

    2011-09-01

    Large-scale production of feedstock crops for biofuels will lead to land-use changes. We quantify the effects of realistic land use change scenarios for biofuel feedstock production on isoprene emissions and hence atmospheric composition and chemistry using the HadGEM2 model. Two feedstocks are considered: oil palm for biodiesel in the tropics and short rotation coppice (SRC) in the mid-latitudes. In total, 69 Mha of oil palm and 92 Mha of SRC are planted, each sufficient to replace just over 1 % of projected global fossil fuel demand in 2020. Both planting scenarios result in increases in total global annual isoprene emissions of about 1 %. In each case, changes in surface concentrations of ozone and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bSOA) are significant at the regional scale and are detectable even at a global scale with implications for air quality standards. However, the changes in tropospheric burden of ozone and the OH radical, and hence effects on global climate, are negligible. The oil palm plantations and processing plants result in global average annual mean increases in ozone and bSOA of 38 pptv and 2 ng m-3 respectively. Over SE Asia, one region of planting, increases reach over 2 ppbv and 300 ng m-3 for large parts of Borneo. Planting of SRC causes global annual mean changes of 46 pptv and 3 ng m-3. Europe experiences peak monthly mean changes of almost 0.6 ppbv and 90 ng m-3 in June and July. Large areas of Central and Eastern Europe see changes of over 1.5 ppbv and 200 ng m-3 in the summer. That such significant atmospheric impacts from low level planting scenarios are discernible globally clearly demonstrates the need to include changes in emissions of reactive trace gases such as isoprene in life cycle assessments performed on potential biofuel feedstocks.

  12. A fully coupled regional atmospheric numerical model for integrated air quality and weather forecasting.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, S. R.; Longo, K. M.; Marecal, V.; Pirre, M.; Gmai, T.

    2012-04-01

    A new numerical modelling tool devoted to local and regional studies of atmospheric chemistry from surface to the lower stratosphere designed for both operational and research purposes will be presented. This model is based on the limited-area model CATT-BRAMS (Coupled Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, Freitas et al. 2009, Longo et al. 2010) which is a meteorological model (BRAMS) including transport processes of gaseous and aerosols (CATT model). BRAMS is a version of the RAMS model (Walko et al. 2000) adapted to better represent tropical and subtropical processes and several new features. CATT-BRAMS has been used operationally at CPTEC (Brazilian Center for Weather Prediction and Climate Studies) since 2003 providing coupled weather and air quality forecast. In the Chemistry-CATT-BRAMS (called hereafter CCATT-BRAMS) a chemical module is fully coupled to the meteorological/tracer transport model CATT-BRAMS. This module includes gaseous chemistry, photochemistry, scavenging and dry deposition. The CCATT-BRAMS model takes advantages of the BRAMS specific development for the tropics/subtropics and of the recent availability of preprocessing tools for chemical mechanisms and of fast codes for photolysis rates. Similarly to BRAMS this model is conceived to run for horizontal resolutions ranging from a few meters to more than a hundred kilometres depending on the chosen scientific objective. In the last decade CCATT-BRAMS has being broadly (or extensively) used for applications mainly over South America, with strong emphasis over the Amazonia area and the main South American megacities. An overview of the model development and main applications will be presented.

  13. Future emissions and atmospheric fate of HFC-1234yf from mobile air conditioners in Europe.

    PubMed

    Henne, Stephan; Shallcross, Dudley E; Reimann, Stefan; Xiao, Ping; Brunner, Dominik; O'Doherty, Simon; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    HFC-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) is under discussion for replacing HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) as a cooling agent in mobile air conditioners (MACs) in the European vehicle fleet. Some HFC-1234yf will be released into the atmosphere, where it is almost completely transformed to the persistent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Future emissions of HFC-1234yf after a complete conversion of the European vehicle fleet were assessed. Taking current day leakage rates and predicted vehicle numbers for the year 2020 into account, European total HFC-1234yf emissions from MACs were predicted to range between 11.0 and 19.2 Gg yr(-1). Resulting TFA deposition rates and rainwater concentrations over Europe were assessed with two Lagrangian chemistry transport models. Mean European summer-time TFA mixing ratios of about 0.15 ppt (high emission scenario) will surpass previously measured levels in background air in Germany and Switzerland by more than a factor of 10. Mean deposition rates (wet + dry) of TFA were estimated to be 0.65-0.76 kg km(-2) yr(-1), with a maxium of ∼2.0 kg km(-2) yr(-1) occurring in Northern Italy. About 30-40% of the European HFC-1234yf emissions were deposited as TFA within Europe, while the remaining fraction was exported toward the Atlantic Ocean, Central Asia, Northern, and Tropical Africa. Largest annual mean TFA concentrations in rainwater were simulated over the Mediterranean and Northern Africa, reaching up to 2500 ng L(-1), while maxima over the continent of about 2000 ng L(-1) occurred in the Czech Republic and Southern Germany. These highest annual mean concentrations are at least 60 times lower than previously determined to be a safe level for the most sensitive aquatic life-forms. Rainwater concentrations during individual rain events would still be 1 order of magnitude lower than the no effect level. To verify these results future occasional sampling of TFA in the atmospheric environment should be considered. If future HFC-1234yf

  14. Soot Oxidation in Hydrocarbon/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Soot oxidation was studied experimentally in laminar hydrocarbon/air diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were carried out along the axes of round jets burning in coflowing air considering acetylene, ethylene, propylene and propane as fuels. Measurements were limited to the initial stages of soot oxidation (carbon consumption less than 70%) where soot oxidation mainly occurs at the surface of primary soot particles. The following properties were measured as a function of distance above the burner exit: soot concentrations by deconvoluted laser extinction, soot temperatures by deconvoluted multiline emission, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), concentrations of stable major gas species (N2, H2O, H2, O2, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H2,C2H4, C2H6, C3H6, and C3H8) by sampling and gas chromatography, concentrations of some radical species (H, OH, O) by the deconvoluted Li/LiOH atomic absorption technique and flow velocities by laser velocimetry. It was found that soot surface oxidation rates are not particularly affected by fuel type for laminar diffusion flames and are described reasonably well by the OH surface oxidation mechanism with a collision efficiency of 0.10, (standard deviation of 0.07) with no significant effect of fuel type in this behavior; these findings are in good agreement with the classical laminar premixed flame measurements of Neoh et al. Finally, direct rates of surface oxidation by O2 were small compared to OH oxidation for present conditions, based on estimated O2 oxidation rates due to Nagle and Strickland-Constable (1962), because soot oxidation was completed near the flame sheet where O2 concentrations were less than 1.2% by volume.

  15. Soot Oxidation in Laminar Hydrocarbon/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Faeth, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Soot oxidation was studied experimentally in laminar hydrocarbon/air diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were carried out along the axes of round jets burning in coflowing air considering acetylene, ethylene, proplyene and propane as fuels. Measurements were limited to the initial stages of soot oxidation (carbon consumption less than 70%) where soot oxidation mainly occurs at the surface of primary soot particles. The following properties were measured as a function of distance above the burner exit: soot concentrations by deconvoluted laser extinction, soot temperatures by deconvoluted multiline emission, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), concentrations of stable major gas species (N2, H2O, H2, 02, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6, and C3H8) by sampling and gas chromatography, concentrations of some radical species (H, OH, O) by the deconvoluted Li/LiOH atomic absorption technique and flow velocities by laser velocimetry. It was found that soot surface oxidation rates are not particularly affected by fuel type for laminar diffusion flames and are described reasonably well by the OH surface oxidation mechanism with a collision efficiency of 0.10, (standard deviation of 0.07) with no significant effect of fuel type in this behavior; these findings are in good agreement with the classical laminar premixed flame measurements of Neoh et al. Finally, direct rates of surface oxidation by O2 were small compared to OH oxidation for present conditions, based on estimated O2 oxidation rates due to Nagle and Strickland-Constable, because soot oxidation was completed near the flame sheet where O2 concentrations were less than 1.2% by volume.

  16. Chemiluminescence-based multivariate sensing of local equivalence ratios in premixed atmospheric methane-air flames

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2011-09-07

    Chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, C2, and CO2 formed within the reaction zone of premixed flames depend upon the fuel-air equivalence ratio in the burning mixture. In the present paper, a new partial least square regression (PLS-R) based multivariate sensing methodology is investigated and compared with an OH*/CH* intensity ratio-based calibration model for sensing equivalence ratio in atmospheric methane-air premixed flames. Five replications of spectral data at nine different equivalence ratios ranging from 0.73 to 1.48 were used in the calibration of both models. During model development, the PLS-R model was initially validated with the calibration data set using the leave-one-out cross validation technique. Since the PLS-R model used the entire raw spectral intensities, it did not need the nonlinear background subtraction of CO2 emission that is required for typical OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibrations. An unbiased spectral data set (not used in the PLS-R model development), for 28 different equivalence ratio conditions ranging from 0.71 to 1.67, was used to predict equivalence ratios using the PLS-R and the intensity ratio calibration models. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R based multivariate calibration model matched the experimentally measured equivalence ratios within 7%; whereas, the OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibration grossly underpredicted equivalence ratios in comparison to measured equivalence ratios, especially under rich conditions ( > 1.2). The practical implications of the chemiluminescence-based multivariate equivalence ratio sensing methodology are also discussed.

  17. Atmospheric ammonia over China: emission estimates and impacts on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Yuanhong; Chen, Youfan; Henze, Daven

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere is an important precursor of inorganic aerosols, and its deposition through wet and dry processes can cause adverse effects on ecosystems. The ammonia emissions over China are particularly large due to intensive agricultural activities, yet our current estimates of Chinese ammonia emissions and associated consequences on air quality are subject to large errors. Here we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model to better quantify this issue. The TES satellite observations of ammonia concentrations and surface measurements of wet deposition fluxes are assimilated into the model to constrain the ammonia emissions over China. Optimized emissions show a strong seasonal variability with emissions in summer a factor of 3 higher than winter. We improve the bottom-up estimate of Chinese ammonia emissions from fertilizer use by using more practical feritilizer application rates for different crop types, which explains most of the discrepancies between our top-down estimates and prior emission estimates. We further use the GEOS-Chem adjoint at 0.25x0.3125 degree resolution to examine the sources contributing to the PM2.5 air pollution over North China. We show that wintertime PM2.5 over Beijing is largely contributed by residential and industrial sources, and ammonia emissions from agriculture activities. PM2.5 concentrations over North China are particularly sensitive to NH3 emissions in cold seasons due to strong nitrate formation. By converting shorted-lived nitric acid to aerosol nitrate, NH3 significantly promotes the regional transport influences of PM2.5 sources.

  18. Decay of femtosecond laser-induced plasma filaments in air, nitrogen, and argon for atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, N L; Bodrov, S B; Tsarev, M V; Murzanev, A A; Sergeev, Yu A; Malkov, Yu A; Stepanov, A N

    2016-07-01

    The temporal evolution of a plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided femtosecond laser pulse was studied experimentally and theoretically in air, nitrogen (with an admixture of ∼3% O_{2}), and argon in a wide range of gas pressures (from 2 to 760 Torr). Measurements by means of transverse optical interferometry and pulsed terahertz scattering techniques showed that plasma density in air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure reduces by an order of magnitude within 3-4 ns and that the decay rate decreases with decreasing pressure. The argon plasma did not decay within several nanoseconds for pressures of 50-760 Torr. We extended our theoretical model previously applied for atmospheric pressure air plasma to explain the plasma decay in the gases under study and to show that allowance for plasma channel expansion affects plasma decay at low pressures. PMID:27575227

  19. Decay of femtosecond laser-induced plasma filaments in air, nitrogen, and argon for atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, N. L.; Bodrov, S. B.; Tsarev, M. V.; Murzanev, A. A.; Sergeev, Yu. A.; Malkov, Yu. A.; Stepanov, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The temporal evolution of a plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided femtosecond laser pulse was studied experimentally and theoretically in air, nitrogen (with an admixture of ˜3% O2), and argon in a wide range of gas pressures (from 2 to 760 Torr). Measurements by means of transverse optical interferometry and pulsed terahertz scattering techniques showed that plasma density in air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure reduces by an order of magnitude within 3-4 ns and that the decay rate decreases with decreasing pressure. The argon plasma did not decay within several nanoseconds for pressures of 50-760 Torr. We extended our theoretical model previously applied for atmospheric pressure air plasma to explain the plasma decay in the gases under study and to show that allowance for plasma channel expansion affects plasma decay at low pressures.

  20. Impact of AIRS Thermodynamic Profiles on Precipitation Forecasts for Atmospheric River Cases Affecting the Western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Wick, Gary A.; Neiman, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This project is a collaborative activity between the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center and the NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) to evaluate a SPoRT Advanced Infrared Sounding Radiometer (AIRS: Aumann et al. 2003) enhanced moisture analysis product. We test the impact of assimilating AIRS temperature and humidity profiles above clouds and in partly cloudy regions, using the three-dimensional variational Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation (DA) system (Developmental Testbed Center 2012) to produce a new analysis. Forecasts of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model initialized from the new analysis are compared to control forecasts without the additional AIRS data. We focus on some cases where atmospheric rivers caused heavy precipitation on the US West Coast. We verify the forecasts by comparison with dropsondes and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Blended Total Precipitable Water product.

  1. The Venus Neutral Atmosphere from the Radio Science Experiment VeRa on Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellmann, S.; Haeusler, B.; Paetzold, M.; Bird, M. K.; Tyler, G. L.

    2008-12-01

    The Venus Express Radio Science Experiment VeRa is sounding the Venus neutral atmosphere and ionosphere using the spacecraft radio subsystem in the oneway radio link mode at X-band (8.4 GHz) and S- band (2.3 GHz). An Ultrastable Oscillator (USO) provides a high quality onboard frequency reference source for the derivation of electron density profiles in the ionosphere and profiles of pressure, temperature and neutral number density of the neutral atmosphere. Radial profiles of neutral number density derived from the occultations cover the altitude range 40 to 90 km, which are converted to vertical profiles of temperature and pressure. The polar orbit of Venus Express provides the opportunity to study the atmosphere at all planetocentric latitudes under varying illumination conditions. Five occultation seasons could be covered so far during the Venus Express mission resulting in a data set of more than 150 profiles of the neutral atmosphere. The thermal structure is investigated with regard to the latitudinal and temporal variability. A distinct cold collar region could be observed on both hemispheres. The tropopause altitude increases in this latitude region while the tropopause temperature shows a strong decrease. Profiles of static stability are found to be latitude-dependent and nearly adiabatic in the middle cloud region.

  2. The Influence of Shale Rock Fracturing Equipment Operation on Atmospheric Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacki, Marek; Macuda, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The hydraulic fracturing jobs performed on shale rocks are connected with atmospheric emissions of dusts and exhaust gases from high-power motors supplying pump aggregates used for fracturing operations and from other technological devices. The total power of motors driving technological systems depends on the specific character of deposit and well and may range between a dozen to tens of thousands kW. An exemplary set of technological systems used for frac jobs is presented in figure 1. The following substances are emitted to the atmosphere during engine operation, e.g. nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon oxide (CO), dust PM10, ammonia, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), benzene, toluene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein. As a consequence admissible concentrations of these substances in air can be exceeded. The influence of dust and gaseous emissions accompanying shale rock fracturing jobs is addressed in this paper. Model analyses were performed. An exemplary model of a process used for simulating propagation of atmospheric emissions in a specified calculation area (1,150 m × 1,150 m) were based on the analysis of hydraulic fracturing jobs performed in wells in Poland and abroad. For making calculations more actual, the model was located in the Gdańsk area and was ascribed its typical meteorological and orographic parameters. In the center of this area a rig site 150 m x 150 m was distinguished. The emission field was generated by 12 high-power engines supplying pump aggregates, 1680 kW each. The time of work of particular engines was established for 52 hrs (13 frac jobs, each lasting 4 hrs). It was assumed that all engines will operate simultaneously and using 100% of their power. Attention was paid to the correct modelling of the real emission field. Technical parameters of motors and the applied fuels were characterized. Emission indices were worked out by, e.g. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or European Environment Agency. The

  3. Fundamental remote sensing science research program: The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deering, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization (SRAEC) Project was established within the NASA Fundamental Remote Sensing Science Research Program to improve our understanding of the fundamental relationships of energy interactions between the sensor and the surface target, including the effect of the atmosphere. The current studies are generalized into the following five subject areas: optical scene modeling, Earth-space radiative transfer, electromagnetic properties of surface materials, microwave scene modeling, and scatterometry studies. This report has been prepared to provide a brief overview of the SRAEC Project history and objectives and to report on the scientific findings and project accomplishments made by the nineteen principal investigators since the project's initiation just over three years ago. This annual summary report derives from the most recent annual principal investigators meeting held January 29 to 31, 1985.

  4. Assessment of a Constructivist-Motivated Mentoring Program to Enhance the Teaching Skills of Atmospheric Science Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossman, Howard; Benedict, Jim; McGrath-Spangler, Erica; Van Roekel, Luke; Wells, Kelley

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative mentoring program in which graduate students (fellows) from a university atmospheric science research department team-taught environmental science classes with professors in a liberal arts college. The mentorship allowed fellows to develop and test the effectiveness of curriculum based on the Process Oriented…

  5. The Junior Science & Humanities Symposium: Management and Operations, 2003-2004. Theme--Atmosphere--The Other Ocean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document reviews the Pacific Region Junior Science and Humanities Symposium (PJSHS) program for 2003-2004 which is a 10-month, precollege student research program held in Japan. The theme is AtmosphereThe Other Ocean. The program includes a one-week symposium of student delegates who have completed research projects in the sciences or have…

  6. Global and Regional Seasonal Variability of Mid-Tropospheric CO2 as Measured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Olsen, Edward T.; Nguyen, Hai

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002 into a near polar sun-synchronous orbit. AIRS has 2378 infrared channels ranging from 3.7 ?m to 15.4 ?m and a 13.5 km footprint at nadir. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles and trace gas amounts for CO2, CO, SO2, O3 and CH4. AIRS CO2 climatologies have been shown to be useful for identifying anomalies associated with geophysical events such as El Nino-Southern Oscillation or Madden-Julian oscillation. In this study, monthly representations of mid-tropospheric CO2 are constructed from 10 years of AIRS Version 5 monthly Level 3 data. We compare the AIRS mid-tropospheric CO2 representations to ground-based measurements from the Scripps and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Modeling and Diagnostics Laboratory (NOAA CMDL) ground networks to better understand the phase lag of the CO2 seasonal cycle between the surface and middle troposphere. Results show only a small phase lag in the tropics that grows to approximately two months in the northern latitudes.

  7. Unique erosion features of hafnium cathode in atmospheric pressure arcs of air, nitrogen and oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorui, S.; Meher, K. C.; Kar, R.; Tiwari, N.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    Experimental investigation of cathode erosion in atmospheric pressure hafnium-electrode plasma torches is reported under different plasma environments along with the results of numerical simulation. Air, nitrogen and oxygen are the plasma gases considered. Distinct differences in the erosion features in different plasmas are brought out. Cathode images exhibiting a degree of erosion and measured erosion rates are presented in detail as a function of time of arc operation and arc current. Physical erosion rates are determined using high precision balance. The changes in the surface microstructures are investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Evolution of cathode chemistry is determined using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Numerical simulation with proper consideration of the plasma effects is performed for all the plasma gases. The important role of electromagnetic body forces in shaping the flow field and the distribution of pressure in the region is explored. It is shown that the mutual interaction between fluid dynamic and electromagnetic body forces may self-consistently evolve a situation of an extremely low cathode erosion rate.

  8. Photosensitized Production of Atmospherically Reactive Organic Compounds at the Air/Aqueous Interface

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on experiments that probe photosensitized chemistry at the air/water interface, a region that does not just connect the two phases but displays its own specific chemistry. Here, we follow reactions of octanol, a proxy for environmentally relevant soluble surfactants, initiated by an attack by triplet-state carbonyl compounds, which are themselves concentrated at the interface by the presence of this surfactant. Gas-phase products are determined using PTR-ToF-MS, and those remaining in the organic layer are determined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and HPLC-HRMS. We observe the photosensitized production of carboxylic acids as well as unsaturated and branched-chain oxygenated products, compounds that act as organic aerosol precursors and had been thought to be produced solely by biological activity. A mechanism that is consistent with the observations is detailed here, and the energetics of several key reactions are calculated using quantum chemical methods. The results suggest that the concentrating nature of the interface leads to its being a favorable venue for radical reactions yielding complex and functionalized products that themselves could initiate further secondary chemistry and new particle formation in the atmospheric environment. PMID:26068588

  9. Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanguo; Li, Ying; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Hongjie

    2013-07-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet.

  10. Time-resolved analysis and optical diagnostics of Trichel corona in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Qin, Yu; Zhao, Gao; Ouyang, Jiting

    2016-06-01

    Trichel pulses of negative corona discharge in atmospheric air are investigated in a needle-to-plate configuration. Time-resolved images of the pulsed discharge are recorded by using an ICCD camera. Light emission spectra of N2 molecules and \\text{N}2+ ions during the discharge are measured by optical diagnostics. The distributions of the positive \\text{N}2+ ions and the reduced electric field along the discharge channel are analyzed accordingly. The results show that the positive ions that can accumulate in space and distort the electric field play an important role on the formation of the Trichel pulse. The Trichel pulse is a mode transition between low-current Townsend discharge and high-current glow discharge. The rising time of the pulse corresponds to the breakdown and formation of glow discharge, and the decay time is related to destroy the process of positive ion clouds and the quenching of glow discharge. The time interval between the pulses is determined by the re-accumulation of positive ions near the cathode in the low-current Townsend discharge to form the positive ion clouds as well as a strongly-distorted electric field.

  11. Minimal Prospects for Radio Detection of Extensive Air Showers in the Atmosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, J. D.; Nelles, A.

    2016-07-01

    One possible approach for detecting ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos is to search for radio emission from extensive air showers created when they interact in the atmosphere of Jupiter, effectively utilizing Jupiter as a particle detector. We investigate the potential of this approach. For searches with current or planned radio telescopes we find that the effective area for detection of cosmic rays is substantial (˜3 × 107 km2), but the acceptance angle is so small that the typical geometric aperture (˜103 km2 sr) is less than that of existing terrestrial detectors, and cosmic rays also cannot be detected below an extremely high threshold energy (˜1023 eV). The geometric aperture for neutrinos is slightly larger, and greater sensitivity can be achieved with a radio detector on a Jupiter-orbiting satellite, but in neither case is this sufficient to constitute a practical detection technique. Exploitation of the large surface area of Jupiter for detecting ultra-high-energy particles remains a long-term prospect that will require a different technique, such as orbital fluorescence detection.

  12. Generating diffuse discharge via repetitive nanosecond pulses and line-line electrodes in atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Ge, Ya-Feng; Bin, Yu; Huang, Jia-Jia; Lin, Fo-Chan

    2013-10-01

    Diffuse discharge in atmospheric air can generate extremely high power density and large-scale non-thermal plasma. An achievable method of generating diffuse discharge is reported in this paper. Based on the resonance theory, a compact high-voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator (HRNPG) has been developed as discharge excitation source. The HRNPG mainly consists of repetitive charging circuit, Tesla transformer and sharpening switch. With the voltage lower than 1.0 kV, the primary repetitive charging circuit comprises two fast thyristors as low-voltage switches. A spiral Tesla transformer is designed to provide a peak transformation ratio of more than 100. The HRNPG prototype is capable of generating a pulse with over 100 kV peak voltage and ~30 ns rise-time at the repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Using the copper line electrodes with a diameter of 0.4 mm, the gaps with highly non-uniform electric field are structured. With the suitable gap spacing and applied pulse, the glow-like diffuse discharge has been generated in line-type and ring-type electrode pairs. Some typical images are presented. PMID:24182161

  13. Thermal degradation of diesel-contaminated peats in an air atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, R.A.; Ugursal, V.I.; Ghaly, A.E.; Mansaray, K.G.

    1999-06-01

    Peat, plant matter that is partially fossilized, is formed in poorly oxygenated wetlands where the rate at which the plant matter accumulates is greater than the rate at which it decomposes. Peat is a common solid fuel ranked among coal, coke, wood, and sugarcane bagasse. Peat has also been used to recover oil during the soil and water remediation processes. However, industrial utilization of peat in thermochemical conversion systems to liberate energy requires the knowledge of its thermal characteristics. In this study, the thermal behavior of peat (both uncontaminated and diesel-contaminated) was examined at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50 C/min) in a stationary air atmosphere using a thermogravimetric analysis technique between ambient temperature (25 C) and 600 C. The thermal degradation rate in active and passive pyrolysis zones, the initial degradation temperature, and the residual weight at 600 C were determined. Increasing the heating rate increased both the thermal degradation rate and the residual weight at 600 C and decreased the initial degradation temperature. The residual weight at 600 C was less than the ash content in all of the peat samples indicating the burnout of some of the mineral oxides, which have low melting and boiling temperatures, such as K{sub 2}O and P{sub 2}O. The results provide useful information about utilization of diesel-contaminated peat in thermochemical conversion systems, especially gasifiers, because of its high energy content and low ash content.

  14. Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed Discharges in Air at Atmospheric Pressure -- Experiment and Theory of Regime Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, David; Lacoste, Deanna; Laux, Christophe

    2009-10-01

    In atmospheric pressure air preheated from 300 to 1000 K, the Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed (NRP) method has been used to generate corona, glow, and spark discharges. Experiments have been performed to determine the parameter space (applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency, ambient gas temperature, and inter-electrode gap distance) of each discharge regime. Notably, there is a minimum gap distance for the existence of the glow regime that increases with decreasing gas temperature. A theory is developed to describe the Corona-to-Glow (C-G) and Glow-to-Spark (G-S) transitions for NRP discharges. The C-G transition is shown to depend on the Avalanche-to-Streamer Transition (AST) as well as the electric field strength in the positive column. The G-S transition is due to the thermal ionization instability. The minimum gap distance for the existence of the glow regime can be understood by considering that the applied voltage of the AST must be lower than that of the thermal ionization instability. This is a previously unknown criterion for generating glow discharges, as it does not correspond to the Paschen minimum or to the Meek-Raether criterion.

  15. Generating diffuse discharge via repetitive nanosecond pulses and line-line electrodes in atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Ge, Ya-Feng; Bin, Yu; Huang, Jia-Jia; Lin, Fo-Chan

    2013-10-01

    Diffuse discharge in atmospheric air can generate extremely high power density and large-scale non-thermal plasma. An achievable method of generating diffuse discharge is reported in this paper. Based on the resonance theory, a compact high-voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator (HRNPG) has been developed as discharge excitation source. The HRNPG mainly consists of repetitive charging circuit, Tesla transformer and sharpening switch. With the voltage lower than 1.0 kV, the primary repetitive charging circuit comprises two fast thyristors as low-voltage switches. A spiral Tesla transformer is designed to provide a peak transformation ratio of more than 100. The HRNPG prototype is capable of generating a pulse with over 100 kV peak voltage and ~30 ns rise-time at the repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Using the copper line electrodes with a diameter of 0.4 mm, the gaps with highly non-uniform electric field are structured. With the suitable gap spacing and applied pulse, the glow-like diffuse discharge has been generated in line-type and ring-type electrode pairs. Some typical images are presented.

  16. Generating diffuse discharge via repetitive nanosecond pulses and line-line electrodes in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Ge, Ya-Feng; Bin, Yu; Huang, Jia-Jia; Lin, Fo-Chan

    2013-10-01

    Diffuse discharge in atmospheric air can generate extremely high power density and large-scale non-thermal plasma. An achievable method of generating diffuse discharge is reported in this paper. Based on the resonance theory, a compact high-voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator (HRNPG) has been developed as discharge excitation source. The HRNPG mainly consists of repetitive charging circuit, Tesla transformer and sharpening switch. With the voltage lower than 1.0 kV, the primary repetitive charging circuit comprises two fast thyristors as low-voltage switches. A spiral Tesla transformer is designed to provide a peak transformation ratio of more than 100. The HRNPG prototype is capable of generating a pulse with over 100 kV peak voltage and ˜30 ns rise-time at the repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Using the copper line electrodes with a diameter of 0.4 mm, the gaps with highly non-uniform electric field are structured. With the suitable gap spacing and applied pulse, the glow-like diffuse discharge has been generated in line-type and ring-type electrode pairs. Some typical images are presented.

  17. Migration history of air-breathing fishes reveals Neogene atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, M.

    2004-05-01

    The migration history of an air-breathing fish group (Channidae; snakehead fishes) is used for reconstructing Neogene Eurasian precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns. The study shows that snakeheads are sensitive indicators of summer precipitation maxima in subtropical and temperate regions, and are present regularly if the wettest month exceeds 150 mm precipitation and 20 °C mean temperature. The analysis of 515 fossil freshwater fish deposits of the past 50 m.y. from Africa and Eurasia shows two continental-scale migration events from the snakeheads' center of origin in the south Himalayan region, events that can be related to changes in the Northern Hemisphere circulation pattern. The first migration, ca. 17.5 Ma, into western and central Eurasia may have been caused by a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone that brought western Eurasia under the influence of trade winds that produced a zonal and meridional precipitation gradient in Europe. During the second migration, between 8 and 4 Ma, into Africa and East Asia, snakeheads reached their present-day distribution. This migration could have been related to the intensification of the Asian monsoon that brought summer precipitation to their migratory pathways in East Africa Arabia and East Asia.

  18. Atmospheric pressure He-air plasma jet: Breakdown process and propagation phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Asma; Laroussi, Mounir; Pervez, Mohammad Rasel

    2013-06-01

    In this paper He-discharge (plasma jet/bullet) in atmospheric pressure air and its progression phenomenon has been studied experimentally using ICCD camera, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and calibrated dielectric probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse has applied to a plasma pencil to generate discharge in the helium gas channel. The discharge propagation speed was measured from the ICCD images. The axial electric field distribution in the plasma jet is inferred from the optical emission spectroscopic data and from the probe measurement. The correlation between the jet velocities, jet length with the pulse duration is established. It shows that the plasma jet is not isolated from the input voltage along its propagation path. The discharge propagation speed, the electron density and the local and average electric field distribution along the plasma jet axis predicted from the experimental results are in good agreement with the data predicted by numerical simulation of the streamer propagation presented in different literatures. The ionization phenomenon of the discharge predicts the key ionization parameters, such as speed, peak electric field in the front, and electron density. The maximum local electric field measured by OES is 95 kV/cm at 1.3 cm of the jet axis, and average EF measured by probe is 24 kV/cm at the same place of the jet. The average and local electron density estimated are in the order of 1011 cm-3 and it reaches to the maximum of 1012 cm-3.

  19. Characterization Of Nano-Second Laser Induced Plasmas From Al Target In Air At Atmospheric Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Hegazy, H.; Abdel-Rahim, F. M.; Nossair, A. M. A.; Allam, S. H.; El-Sherbini, Th. M.

    2008-09-23

    In the present work we study the effect of the laser beam energy on the properties of the plasma generated by focusing an intense laser beam on Al solid target in air at atmospheric pressure. Plasma is generated using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser at 1064 nm wavelength, 6 ns pulse duration with a maximum pulse energy of 750mJ. The emission spectrum is collected using an Echelle spectrometer equipped with ICCD camera Andor type. The measurements were performed at several delay times between 0 to 9 {mu}s. Measurements of temperature and electron density of the produced plasmas at different laser energies and at different delay times are described using different emission spectral lines. Based on LTE assumption, excitation temperature is determined from the Boltzmann plot using O I spectral lines at 777.34, 794.93, and 848.65 nm and the electron density is determined from Stark width of Al II at 281.6 and 466.3 nm. The determined density is compared with the density determined from H{sub {alpha}} spectral line.

  20. Low temperature, atmospheric pressure, direct current microplasma jet operated in air, nitrogen and oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A.-A. H.; Kolb, J. F.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    Micro-plasma jets in atmospheric pressure molecular gases (nitrogen, oxygen, air) were generated by blowing these gases through direct current microhollow cathode discharges (MHCDs). The tapered discharge channel, drilled through two 100 to 200 μm thick molybdenum electrodes separated by a 200 μm thick alumina layer, is 150 to 450 μm in diameter in the cathode and has an opening of 100 to 300 μm in diameter in the anode. Sustaining voltages are 400 to 600 V, the maximum current is 25 mA. The gas temperature of the microplasma inside the microhollow cathode varies between ~2000 K and ~1000 K depending on current, gas, and flow rate. Outside the discharge channel the temperature in the jet can be reduced by manipulating the discharge current and the gas flow to achieve values close to room temperature. This cold microplasma jet can be used for surface treatment of heat sensitive substances, and for sterilization of contaminated areas.