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Sample records for airs atmospheric science

  1. Science Highlights and Lessons Learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Suda, Jarrod; Licata, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on the NASA Earth Observing System Aqua spacecraft are facility instruments designed to support measurements of atmospheric temperature, water vapor and a wide range of atmospheric constituents in support of weather forecasting and scientific research in climate and atmospheric chemistry. This paper is an update to the science highlights from a paper by the authors released last year and also looks back at the lessons learned and future needs of the scientific community. These lessons not only include requirements on the measurements, but scientific shortfalls as well. Results from the NASA Science Community Workshop in IR and MW Sounders relating to AIRS and AMSU requirements and concerns are covered and reflect much of what has been learned and what is needed for future atmospheric sounding from Low Earth Orbit.

  2. Atmospheric science: Ancient air caught by shooting stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Buick, Roger

    2016-05-01

    Ashes of ancient meteors recovered from a 2.7-billion-year-old lake bed imply that the upper atmosphere was rich in oxygen at a time when all other evidence implies that the atmosphere was oxygen-free. See Letter p.235

  3. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  4. PAST AND PRESENT: 50 YEARS OF AIR QUALITY MODELING RESEARCH AND ITS APPLICATIONS BY THE NOAA ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES MODELING DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NOAA Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division (ASMD) celebrated its Golden Jubilee in September 2005. The partnership between NOAA and EPA began when the Air Pollution Unit of the Public Health Service, which later became part of the EPA, requested the Weather Bureau provide ...

  5. Atmospheric science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Ackerman, Thomas; Clarke, Antony; Goodman, Jindra; Levin, Zev; Tomasko, Martin; Toon, O. Brian; Whitten, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The following types of experiments for a proposed Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility are described: (1) growth of liquid water drop populations; (2) coalescence; (3) drop breakup; (4) breakup of freezing drops; (5) ice nucleation for large aerosols or bacteria; (6) scavenging of gases, for example, SO2 oxidation; (7) phoretic forces, i.e., thermophoresis versus diffusiophoresis; (8) Rayleigh bursting of drops; (9) charge separation due to collisions of rimed and unrimed ice; (10) charged drop dynamics; (11) growth of particles in other planetary atmospheres; and (12) freezing and liquid-liquid evaporation. The required capabilities and desired hardware for the facility are detailed.

  6. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect

    Randerson, D.

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  7. Air ions and aerosol science

    SciTech Connect

    Tammet, H.

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4{endash}1.8 nm. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. AFOSR (Air Force Office of Scientific Research) Chemical & Atmospheric Sciences Program Review (29th).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    August 1952 as a Research Administrator. He brought with him a varied teaching and industrial experience, interrupted by 3 years as an Officer in the...34 and was selected Outstanding Senior by Sigma Delta Phi. After graduation he spent the next five years teaching science and coaching in Ohio high schools...63,900, FY 83 SENIOR RESEARCH PERSONNEL: Dr. K. I. Lazaar PUBLICATIONS: "Intramolecular Unsymmetrical OHO Bonds. Thermochemistry ," K. I. Lazaar and S

  9. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  10. Atmospheric and Space Sciences: Neutral Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiǧit, Erdal

    2015-09-01

    The SpringerBriefs on Atmospheric and Space Sciences in two volumes presents a concise and interdisciplinary introduction to the basic theory, observation & modeling of atmospheric and ionospheric coupling processes on Earth. The goal is to contribute toward bridging the gap between meteorology, aeronomy, and planetary science. In addition recent progress in several related research topics, such atmospheric wave coupling and variability, is discussed. Volume 1 will focus on the atmosphere, while Volume 2 will present the ionosphere— the plasma environment. Volume 1 is aimed primarily at (research) students and researchers that would like to gain quick insight in atmospheric sciences and current research. It also is a useful tool for professors who would like to develop a course in atmospheric physics.

  11. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE PAGES

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  12. Atmospheric chemistry and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S; Marley, Nancy A

    2003-04-07

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  13. AIRS - the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigsten, Bjorn H.; Fetzer, Eric; Fishbein, Evan; Lee, Sung-Yung; Paganao, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched in 2002, along with two companion microwave sounders. This AIRS sounding suite is the most advanced atmospheric sounding system to date, with measurement accuracies far surpassing those of current weather satellites. From its sun synchronous polar orbit, the AIRS system provides more than 90% of the globe every 24 hours. Much of the post-launch period has been devoted to optimizing the 'retrieval' system used to derive atmospheric and other parameters from the observations and to validate those parameters. The geophysical parameters have been produced since the beginning of 2003 - the first data were released to the public in mid-2003, and future improved versions will be released periodically. The ongoing calibration/validation effort has confirmed that the system is very accurate and stable. There are a number of applications for the AIRS products, ranging from numerical weather prediction - where positive impact on forecast accuracy has already been demonstrated, to atmospheric research - where the AIRS water vapor products near the surface and in the mid and upper troposphere as well as in the stratosphere promise to make it possible to characterize and model phenomena that are key for short-term atmospheric processes, from weather patterns to long-term processes, such as interannual variability and climate change.

  14. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  15. UTSI atmospheric science program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.

    1977-01-01

    Two areas of research were carried out concerned with meteorological and environmental inputs to aviation systems. One effort dealt with the investigation of wind fields about bluff geometries typical of buildings or other man made obstructions to the surface wind and the behavior of craft flying through these disturbed wind fields. The second effort was the definition and mathematical models of atmospheric wind shear associated with thunderstorms, stable boundary layers, and synoptic fronts. These mathematical models can be utilized in flight simulators to train pilots and flight crews and to develop instrumentation for landing in adverse wind shear conditions.

  16. Check out the Atmospheric Science User Forum

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-11-17

    article title:  Check out the Atmospheric Science User Forum     View larger image ... ASDC would like to bring your attention to the Atmospheric Science User Forum. The purpose of this forum is to improve user service, ...

  17. The Atmospheric Sciences: Problems and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Atmospheric Sciences.

    Over the years, the Committee on Atmospheric Sciences of the National Research Council has published a number of scientific and technical reports dealing with many aspects of the atmospheric sciences. This publication is an attempt to present to a broad audience this information about problems and research in the atmospheric sciences. Chapters…

  18. Check out the Atmospheric Science User Forum

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-11-16

    Check out the Atmospheric Science User Forum Tuesday, November 15, 2016 The ASDC would like to bring your attention to the Atmospheric Science User Forum. The purpose of this forum is to improve user service, quality, and efficiency of NASA atmospheric science data. The forum intends to provide a quick and easy way to facilitate ...

  19. Improved Methodology for Surface and Atmospheric Soundings, Error Estimates, and Quality Control Procedures: the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 AIRS/AMSU retrieval algorithm is now operational at the Goddard DISC. AIRS Version-6 level-2 products are generated near real-time at the Goddard DISC and all level-2 and level-3 products are available starting from September 2002. This paper describes some of the significant improvements in retrieval methodology contained in the Version-6 retrieval algorithm compared to that previously used in Version-5. In particular, the AIRS Science Team made major improvements with regard to the algorithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the cloud clearing and retrieval procedures; and 3) derive error estimates and use them for Quality Control. Significant improvements have also been made in the generation of cloud parameters. In addition to the basic AIRS/AMSU mode, Version-6 also operates in an AIRS Only (AO) mode which produces results almost as good as those of the full AIRS/AMSU mode. This paper also demonstrates the improvements of some AIRS Version-6 and Version-6 AO products compared to those obtained using Version-5.

  20. Science in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Sherrie; Jacobs, Gera; Anderson, Tara Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Young children are naturally curious. The desire to question, hypothesize, explore, and investigate is part of their very being. This inherent sense of inquiry provides the foundation for science with young children, from inquisitive toddlers to curious third-graders. Early childhood educators can build on children's questions, eagerness, and…

  1. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  2. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  3. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  4. Atmospheric science on the Galileo mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, D. M.; Colin, L.; Hansen, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The atmospheric science goals of the Galileo mission, and instruments of the probe and orbiter are described. The current data available, and the goals of the Galileo mission concerning the chemical composition of the Jovian atmosphere; the thermal structure of the atmosphere; the nature of cloud particles and cloud layering; the radiative energy balance; atmospheric dynamics; and the upper atmosphere are discussed. The objectives and operations of the atmospheric structure instrument, neutral mass spectrometer, helium abundance interferometer, nephelometer, net flux radiometer, lightning and radio emission detector, solid state imaging system, NIR mapping spectrometer, photopolarimeter radiometer, and UV spectrometer are examined.

  5. Air Sensor Guidebook | Science Inventory | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scientific conference (Apps and Sensors for Air Pollution-2012). Low cost air quality sensors ($100-$2500) are now commercially available in a wide variety of designs and capabilities. This is an emerging technology area and one that is quickly evolving. Even so, their availability has resulted in questions from many as to how they might be used appropriately. This document attempts to provide useful information concerning some of those questions. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s (NERL’s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA’s mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD’s research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA’s strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and pol

  6. Atmospheric science: Energy and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohoe, Aaron

    2016-12-01

    The latitude of the tropical rainbelt is constrained by the energy balance between hemispheres. An expansion of this theory that includes longitudinal variations of atmospheric heating can predict regional changes in tropical precipitation.

  7. Regional Assimilation of NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Lapenta, William; Jediovec, Gary J.; McCarty, William; Mecikalski, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center seeks to accelerate the infusion of NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) observations, data assimilation and modeling research into NW S forecast operations and decision-making. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), is expected to advance climate research and weather prediction into the 21 st century. It is one of six instruments onboard Aqua, a satellite that is part of NASA s Earth Observing System. AIRS, along with two partner microwave sounding instruments, represents the most advanced atmospheric sounding system ever deployed in space. The system is capable of measuring the atmospheric temperature in the troposphere with radiosonde accuracies of 1 K over 1 km-thick layers under both clear and cloudy conditions, while the accuracy of the derived moisture profiles will exceed that obtained by radiosondes. It is imperative that the scientific community is prepared to take full advantage of next-generation satellite data that will become available within the next decade. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure designed to optimally assimilate AIRS data at high spatial resolution over both land and ocean. The assimilation system used in this study is the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) developed at the Forecast System Laboratory used extensively around the globe. Results will focus on quality control issues associated with AIRS, optimal assimilation strategies, and the impact of the AIRS data on subsequent numerical forecasts at 12 km produced by the next generation Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model.

  8. Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School (PASS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Clarence D.; Hathaway, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project (PASS) Project was granted a one-year no cost extension for 2001-2002. In year three of the project, objectives and strategies were modified based on the previous year-end evaluation. The recommendations were incorporated and the program was replicated within most of the remaining elementary schools in Portsmouth, Virginia and continued in the four middle schools. The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project is a partnership, which includes Norfolk State University, Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME), NASA Langley Research Center, and the City of Portsmouth, Virginia Public Schools. The project seeks to strengthen the knowledge of Portsmouth Public Schools students in the field of atmospheric sciences and enhance teacher awareness of hands on activities in the atmospheric sciences. The project specifically seeks to: 1) increase the interest and participation of elementary and middle school students in science and mathematics; 2) strengthen existing science programs; and 3) facilitate greater achievement in core subjects, which are necessary for math, science, and technical careers. Emphasis was placed on providing training activities, materials and resources for elementary students (grades 3 - 5) and middle school students (grades 6 - 8), and teachers through a CHROME club structure. The first year of the project focused on introducing elementary students to concepts and activities in atmospheric science. Year two of the project built on the first year's activities and utilizes advanced topics and activities appropriate for middle school students. During the third year of the project, in addition to the approaches used in years one and two, emphasis was placed on activities that enhanced the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL).

  9. Where are the atmospheric sciences going?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierly, Eugene W.

    The question of the direction of the atmospheric sciences is a difficult one, and it cannot be answered in a definitive way or with a high degree of certainty. I would like to try to give you my biased viewpoint on the situation in atmospheric sciences today, as far as the research aspect is concerned.The field of atmospheric sciences today is full to overflowing with top-notch scientific research programs. At the same time, funds for conducting this research are limited and much more difficult to obtain now than in previous years. To paraphrase the words of Charles Dickens in his Tale of Two Cities, “It is the best of times; it is the worst of times.”

  10. Scholarship for women in atmospheric sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The fourth annual June Bacon-Bercey Scholarship for Women in Atmospheric Sciences has been awarded to Becky Ross, a first-year graduate student in atmospheric science at Purdue University. Ms. Ross is from Waterloo, Iowa, and received her bachelor's degree in physics from Bryn Mawr College in 1980. For her master's degree she is investigating small-scale structure in the mesoscale cellular convection with a research group under E. M. Agee that will, it is hoped, indicate more clearly how the final steady state convection is formed. She plans to obtain a Ph.D. and continue in research, either academic or private.

  11. Laser applications to atmospheric sciences: A bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A bibliography is given of 1460 references of the applications of lasers to atmospheric sciences. The subjects covered include: aerosols; clouds; the distribution and motion of atmospheric natural and man-made constituents; winds; temperature; turbulence; scintillation; elastic, Raman and resonance scattering; fluorescence; absorption and transmission; the application of the Doppler effect and visibility. Instrumentation, in particular lidar, is included, also data handling, and interpretation of the data for meteorological processes. Communications, geodesy and rangefinding are not included as distinct areas. The application to the atmosphere is covered, but not the ocean or its surface.

  12. Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an STS-66 mission onboard photo of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis showing the payload of the third Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission. During the ATLAS missions, international teams of scientists representing many disciplines combined their expertise to seek answers to complex questions about the atmospheric and solar conditions that sustain life on Earth. The ATLAS program specifically investigated how Earth's middle and upper atmospheres and climate are affected by by the sun and by products of industrial and agricultural activities on Earth. Thirteen ATLAS instruments supported experiments in atmospheric sciences, solar physics, space plasma physics, and astronomy. The instruments were mounted on two Spacelab pallets in the Space Shuttle payload bay. The ATLAS-3 mission continued a variety of atmospheric and solar studies to improve understanding of the Earth's atmosphere and its energy input from the sun. A key scientific objective was to refine existing data on variations in the fragile ozone layer of the atmosphere. The Orbiter Atlantis was launched on November 3, 1994 for the ATLAS-3 mission (STS-66).

  13. Extreme atmospheric electron densities created by extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutjes, Casper; Camporeale, Enrico; Ebert, Ute; Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia

    2016-04-01

    A sufficient density of free electrons and strong electric fields are the basic requirements to start any electrical discharge. In the context of thunderstorm discharges it has become clear that in addition droplets and or ice particles are required to enhance the electric field to values above breakdown. In our recent study [1] we have shown that these three ingredients have to interplay to allow for lightning inception, triggered by an extensive air shower event. The extensive air showers are a very stochastic natural phenomenon, creating highly coherent bursts of extreme electron density in our atmosphere. Predicting these electron density bursts accurately one has to take the uncertainty of the input variables into account. To this end we use uncertainty quantification methods, like in [2], to post-process our detailed Monte Carlo extensive air shower simulations, done with the CORSIKA [3] software package, which provides an efficient and elegant way to determine the distribution of the atmospheric electron density enhancements. We will present the latest results. [1] Dubinova, A., Rutjes, C., Ebert, E., Buitink, S., Scholten, O., and Trinh, G. T. N. "Prediction of Lightning Inception by Large Ice Particles and Extensive Air Showers." PRL 115 015002 (2015) [2] G.J.A. Loeven, J.A.S. Witteveen, H. Bijl, Probabilistic collocation: an efficient nonintrusive approach for arbitrarily distributed parametric uncertainties, 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 2007, AIAA-2007-317 [3] Heck, Dieter, et al. CORSIKA: A Monte Carlo code to simulate extensive air showers. No. FZKA-6019. 1998.

  14. Atmospheric Brown Clouds- from science towards policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherestha, S.; Iyngararasan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABCs) and its interaction with climate change is an emerging environmental issue. Studies demonstrate that ABCs and its interaction with build-up of greenhouse gases significantly affect the regional climate, glacial melting, hydrological cycle, agriculture and public health. For the next decades, the regional aerosol effects will continue to play a major role in environmental management as long as current strong sources of air pollution remain. An integrated multi-pollutant multi-sectoral approach for addressing atmospheric issues will result in optimum environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Regional intergovernmental networks have been established to address air pollution issues in different parts of the globe. These intergovernmental networks could be empowered to promote integrated approach for addressing the atmospheric environmental issues.

  15. Atmospheric Science: Solving Challenges of Climate Change

    ScienceCinema

    Geffen, Charlette

    2016-07-12

    PNNL’s atmospheric science research provides data required to make decisions about challenges presented by climate change: Where to site power plants, how to manage water resources, how to prepare for severe weather events and more. Our expertise in fundamental observations and modeling is recognized among the national labs and the world.

  16. Atmospheric Science: Solving Challenges of Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Geffen, Charlette

    2015-08-05

    PNNL’s atmospheric science research provides data required to make decisions about challenges presented by climate change: Where to site power plants, how to manage water resources, how to prepare for severe weather events and more. Our expertise in fundamental observations and modeling is recognized among the national labs and the world.

  17. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  18. Atmospheric Science and the JIMO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter mission will intensely study Callisto, Ganymede and Eu- ropa for several years. During its orbital tour, there will be long periods (approximately 300 days) where the spacecraft is spiraling in from one satellite to the next, giving the perfect opportunity to study Jupiter's atmosphere. The obvious question is, 'Why do we need JIMO to do this, after Voyager, Galileo and the Cassini flyby?' Much like the satellite science from these missions, atmospheric science still has many outstanding questions, some of which were raised by these missions. In addition, virtually every measurable quantity on Jupiter varies both spatially and temporally, and previous missions did not supply the coverage needed to address them. The JIMO mission offers an outstanding opportunity for the global and long temporal coverage needed to answer these questions.

  19. Next-generation air measurement technologies | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a presentation at a workshop in Chicago on emerging air monitoring technologies, hosted by a local nonprofit. The audience is composed of a mixture of technical backgrounds. This presentation will be part of an opening panel and the goal is to give an overview of the state of science on emerging air sensor technology. This is a presentation at a workshop in Chicago on emerging air monitoring technologies, hosted by a local nonprofit. The audience is composed of a mixture of technical backgrounds. This presentation will be part of an opening panel and the goal is to give an overview of the state of science on emerging air sensor technology.

  20. Planetary Probe Entry Atmosphere Estimation Using Synthetic Air Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Chris; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops an atmospheric state estimator based on inertial acceleration and angular rate measurements combined with an assumed vehicle aerodynamic model. The approach utilizes the full navigation state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and attitude) to recast the vehicle aerodynamic model to be a function solely of the atmospheric state (density, pressure, and winds). Force and moment measurements are based on vehicle sensed accelerations and angular rates. These measurements are combined with an aerodynamic model and a Kalman-Schmidt filter to estimate the atmospheric conditions. The new method is applied to data from the Mars Science Laboratory mission, which landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars in August 2012. The results of the new estimation algorithm are compared with results from a Flush Air Data Sensing algorithm based on onboard pressure measurements on the vehicle forebody. The comparison indicates that the new proposed estimation method provides estimates consistent with the air data measurements, without the use of pressure measurements. Implications for future missions such as the Mars 2020 entry capsule are described.

  1. Education in Changing Communication in Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2009-12-01

    The “Training and Education” Programme in the European Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change ACCENT (www.accent-network.org, 2004-09) has aimed to introduce a shift in the mindset and approach to science communication among early career scientists and a wider audience. Training workshops in science communication organized across Europe and the Far East past the last five years dealt with the question where traditional lines of communication fail and how this can be remedied. In inspiring partnerships with stakeholder groups, opportunities were created for mutual learning and gaining experience in the process of translating air quality and climate change science to non-scientists. The core message is that the next generation of leaders in the field should make sure that the translation is scientifically acceptable, and should stay in control of the translation process. Evolving good practice in science communication education for future leaders in the field of atmospheric sciences in Europe and the Far East is illustrated based on ACCENT experiences.

  2. DESCRIPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Key differences among many types of air quality models are the way atmospheric advection and turbulent diffusion processes are treated. Gaussian models use analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equations. Lagrangian models use a hypothetical air parcel concept effecti...

  3. Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) Data Archive

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) originally consisted of an atmospheric chemistry program, an environmental meteorology program, a tropospheric aerosol program, and NARSTO activities. In 2004, the ASP was reconfigured to focus on aerosol radiative forcing of climate change: aerosol formation and evolution and aerosol properties that affect direct and indirect influences on climate and climate change. This included developing a comprehensive understanding of the atmospheric processes that control the transport, transformation, and fate of energy related trace chemicals and particulate matter. The current focus of the program is aerosol radiative forcing of climate. Effective October 1, 2009, The ASP merged with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM), with the overall program now called Atmospheric System Research. The overall research goal is one that was shared in common, i.e. to further the understanding of how the climate, as a system works, and to represent the understanding in computer models. The Office of Science and Brookhaven announced, ôA major benefit of the merge is expected to be a strengthening of the aerosol- and cloud-related research components of the programs by bringing together the ARM capabilities of continuous remote sensing measurements of cloud properties and aerosol influences on radiation with the ASP capabilities for in-situ characterization of aerosol properties, evolution, and cloud interactions.ö [http://www.asp.bnl.gov/#New] The ASP data archive has now been moved to a new location in order to be maintained with ARM data. The new url is http://iop.archive.arm.gov/arm-iop/0special-data/ASP_Campaigns_past/. BNL continues to maintain an excellent list of ASP-publications at http://www.asp.bnl.gov/asp_pubs.html

  4. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Tai, H.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The SuperSonic Transport (SST) development program within the US was based at the Langley Research Center as was the Apollo radiation testing facility (Space Radiation Effects Laboratory) with associated radiation research groups. It was natural for the issues of the SST to be first recognized by this unique combination of research programs. With a re-examination of the technologies for commercial supersonic flight and the possible development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), the remaining issues of the SST required resolution. It was the progress of SST radiation exposure research program founded by T. Foelsche at the Langley Research Center and the identified remaining issues after that project over twenty-five years ago which became the launch point of the current atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research project. Added emphasis to the need for reassessment of atmospheric radiation resulted from the major lowering of the recommended occupational exposure limits, the inclusion of aircrew as radiation workers, and the recognition of civil aircrew as a major source of occupational exposures. Furthermore, the work of Ferenc Hajnal of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory brought greater focus to the uncertainties in the neutron flux at high altitudes. A re-examination of the issues involved was committed at the Langley Research Center and by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). As a result of the NCRP review, a new flight package was assembled and flown during solar minimum at which time the galactic cosmic radiation is at a maximum (June 1997). The present workshop is the initial analysis of the new data from that flight. The present paper is an overview of the status of knowledge of atmospheric ionizing radiations. We will re-examine the exposures of the world population and examine the context of aircrew exposures with implications for the results of the present research. A condensed version of this report was given at the 1998

  5. Atmospheric Science and the CFC Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steed, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Industry involvement with developing atmospheric science and subsequent regulations to protect ozone was unusual. Chlorofluorocarbon manufacturers were research-based businesses accustomed to understanding the science behind product-related issues. When Lovelock's measurements in 1971 implied most of the cumulative production of CFCs remained in the atmosphere, global CFC producers funded academic research to identify natural sinks for the materials. The Fluorocarbon Program Panel (FPP) began in 1972, but changed focus to atmospheric photochemistry following Rowland and Molina's work in 1974. Despite early vociferous opposition, especially by the CFC-using aerosol industry, to any regulations, leaders among the producers worked to build their scientific understanding, expanding FPP funding and launching internal work in modeling and ozone trend analysis. The key first question for industry was not how much depletion might occur, but whether it would occur at all. If so, regardless of the amount, regulations and a major transition would be required in CFC-using industries, and the response would need to be global and prompt. So long as that basic question was in doubt, some businesses and countries would resist the economic cost of action. In the meantime, the producing industry worked to identify potential alternatives and to communicate atmospheric science to the downstream industries. Although the industry science effort was often disparaged as an attack on "real" science, my only assignment when I joined DuPont's Central Research Department in 1979 was to understand and contribute to the science, keeping both the company and our customers informed. Our modeling results were published freely. FPP funding led to better knowledge of the ClO + O rate constant, significantly increasing depletion in model calculations; supported the development of the techniques used to measure in situ atmospheric ClO, so important in later strengthening the case for chlorine

  6. Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) Operating Procedures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) is an air monitoring system designed for measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) pollutants simultaneously. This self-contained system consists of a CairPol CairClip NO2 sensor, a Thermo Scientific personal DataRAM PM2.5...

  7. Applications of ISES for the atmospheric sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The proposed Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES) will offer the opportunity for real-time access to measurements acquired aboard the Earth Observation System (Eos) satellite. These measurements can then be transmitted to remotely located ground based stations. The application of such measurements to issues related to atmospheric science which was presented to a workshop convened to review possible application of the ISES in earth sciences is summarized. The proposed protocol for Eos instruments requires that measurement results be available in a central data archive within 72 hours of acquiring data. Such a turnaround of raw satellite data to the final product will clearly enhance the timeliness of the results. Compared to the time that results from many current satellite programs, the 72 hour turnaround may be considered real time. Examples are discussed showing how real-time measurements from one or more of the proposed Eos instruments could have been applied to the study of certain issues important to global atmospheric chemistry. Each of the examples discussed is based upon a field mission conducted during the past five years. Each of these examples will emphasize how real-time data could have been used to alter the course of a field experiment, thereby enhancing the scientific output. For the examples, brief overviews of the scientific rationale and objectives, the region of operation, the measurements aboard the aircraft, and finally how one or more of the proposed Eos instruments could have provided data to enhance the productivity of the mission are discussed.

  8. Jupiter Atmospheric Science in the Next Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, G.; Stallard, T.; Baines, K.; Sayanagi, K. M.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Hofstadter, M.; de Pater, I.; Edgington, S.; Morales-Juberias, R.; Livengood, T.; Huestis, D.; Marty, B.; Hartogh, P.; Atkinson, D.; Moses, J.

    2009-09-01

    The exploration of Jupiter has played a pivotal role in the development of our understanding of the history of our solar system; it has served as a paradigm for the interpretation of exoplanetary systems around other stars, and as a fundamental laboratory for the myriad of physiochemical phenomena evident on the gas giants. Yet, despite great successes in the studies of Jupiter over four centuries of research, our characterisation of Jupiter remains incomplete. Jupiter's atmosphere is distinguished from Saturn's and the Ice Giants by its larger mass, dynamic "weather layer", multiple long-lived vortices and the smaller significance of seasonal variability. We review the scientific goals for Jovian exploration in the coming decade: 1. The bulk composition (e.g. heavy elements, isotopes), cooling history and internal structure (the existence of a core) of Jupiter as signatures of planetary formation and evolutionary models, along with comparisons to the other gas giants. 2. The development of a global three-dimensional understanding of the structure, meteorology and chemistry of the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere; the mechanisms for transport of energy, momentum and chemical species (tracers) vertically and horizontally, and the role of moist convection. 3. The coupling of the deep motions within the interior to the dynamical manifestations observed in the visible cloud layers. 4. Interactions between the lower neutral atmosphere and the upper atmosphere (thermosphere, ionosphere, magnetosphere), along with energy sources and redistribution responsible for aurora, radiolytic chemistry and high thermospheric temperatures. 5. Time-variable phenomena over a range of timescales to determine the underlying mechanisms and significance of the evolution of discrete atmospheric features, quasi-periodic global upheavals, energetic particle precipitation, asteroidal/cometary impacts and wave activity. These themes for Jupiter science will reveal the connections

  9. The OMI Atmospheric Science Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. E.; Ahmad, S. P.; Levelt, P. F.; Bhartia, P. K.; Hilsenrath, E.; Leppelmeier, G. W.

    2003-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), will provide measurements in the UV and Visible spectral regions (1560 wavelength bands between 270 and 500 nm with approximately 0.5 nm spectral resolution). OMI will continue the long-term Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) column ozone record and will focus on monitoring the ozone layer, ozone depleting trace gases (BrO and OClO), atmospheric pollutants (tropospheric ozone, NO2, SO2, and HCHO), clouds and aerosols characteristics, and surface spectral UV irradiance and erythemal surface UV-B flux. OMI is a contribution of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR) in collaboration with the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), to NASA's Aura mission. It will be flown on the Aura spacecraft (early 2004) in a sun-synchronous polar orbit with equator crossing time approximately at 1:38 p.m in the ascending mode. The standard atmospheric chemistry and dynamics products derived from OMI, and from the other two Aura sensors, the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), will be archived at the NASA GES DAAC. OMI atmospheric data products will provide continuity to the over 30 year long-term ozone data records obtained from the heritage atmospheric data missions including Nimbus-4 BUV and Nimbus-7 SBUV, and a series of TOMS instruments, also archived at the NASA GES DAAC. The standard satellite data sets, as well as regional subsets, related ancillary data sets, and data analysis tools are freely available to the public for the Earth System Science studies, environmental applications, and educational use. This presentation will provide an overview of the OMI instrument, data processing, data products, and the data services provided by the NASA GES DAAC's Upper Atmosphere Data Support team to the user in the areas of accessing data products, documentation, browse, and data analysis software.

  10. The One Atmosphere Glow Discharge in Air: Phenomenology and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Gadri, Rami; Sherman, Daniel M.; Chen, Zhiyu; Karakaya, Fuat; Reece Roth, J.

    1999-10-01

    The existence of an atmospheric pressure RF glow plasma with the characteristics of a classical low pressure DC glow discharge has been experimentally and theoretically demonstrated [1, 2]. At the UTK Plasma Sciences Laboratory, the One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP) in air has been applied to a wide range of plasma processing applications. The technology is simple, technically attractive, and suitable for online treatment of webs and 3-dimensional workpieces. A parallel plate reactor and a Remote Exposure Reactor (RER) have been developed for direct plasma immersion and remote exposure, respectively. The RER is based on generating active species capable of sterilization and surface treatment in a uniform surface layer of the OAUGDP on planar panels [3], and convecting the active species to a remote chamber where the workpiece is located. A related surface plasma has been developed for indoor air filtration systems. In addition, the surface plasma on flat panels modified the boundary layer in wind tunnel tests to produce electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow effects that can be used to increase or decrease aerodynamic drag [3]. [1] Massines et al., J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 83, N 6, pp 2950-2957, Mar. 1998. [2] J. R. Roth, "Industrial Plasma Engineering" Vol. I: Principles. Inst. Phys. Pub., Bristol and philadelphia, ISBN 0-7503-0318-2, 1995. [3] Roth et al., AIAA Paper 98-0328, 36th AIAA Meeting, Reno NV, 1998, Jan. 12-15.

  11. Renewable energy and the atmospheric sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T. Y.; Takenaka, H.; Watanabe, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takamura, T.; Kurino, T.

    2013-12-01

    The demand for renewable energy in social energy systems has grown in recent years. In the atmospheric sciences, the energy balances and dynamics in the atmosphere are studied on both local and global scales, and thus estimation of renewable energy is an important practical application. For instance, shortwave solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface is an essential quantity for evaluating the photovoltaic (PV) power generation. Indeed, shortwave solar radiation can be calculated by a radiative transfer solver and an accurate electromagnetic wave scattering theory. A beneficial application of atmospheric sciences is obtaining of solar radiation on the basis of geostationary satellite measurements. Such satellites provide data covering most parts of the Earth every 30 min to 1 h. Geo-parameters such as cloud and aerosol properties are needed for calculating the amount of solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface. Multispectral images acquired by geostationary satellites allow for such geo-parameters to be evaluated. Additionally, polar-orbiting Earth observation satellites are also needed for improving data analysis techniques. For instance, multispectral imagers (e.g., MODIS) and cloud radars (e.g., CloudSat) aboard polar-orbiting satellites can be used to reveal the relationship between multispectral imaging results and the vertical structure of clouds. The EarthCARE (JAXA, ESA, NICT) and the GCOM-C (JAXA) satellites that will be launched in the middle of 2010-era are also used for improving cloud and aerosol process. This paper presents a method using satellite data to evaluate the optical and microphysical parameters of clouds that affect solar radiation. Also presented is a method for evaluating solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface. A new research project in Japan, JST-CREST-EMS (Energy Management System)-TEEDDA (Terrestrial Energy Estimation by Diurnal Data Analyses), which was started in October 2012, is also introduced.

  12. Lighter-than-Air Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reviews practical applications, particularly in scientific research, of hot air balloons. Recent U.S. governmental projects in near-space research are described. Lists (1) major accomplishments of scientific ballooning, including discoveries in cosmic ray particles, gamma and x-rays, and other radiation; (2) measurement of fluorocarbon…

  13. The Canadian Clean Air Regulatory Agenda Mercury Science Program.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Heather A

    2011-10-01

    The Clean Air Regulatory Agenda (CARA) Mercury Science Program was developed to provide scientific information to support regulatory activities and accountability pertaining to atmospheric emissions of mercury in Canada. The first phase of the science program, entitled "Setting-the-Baseline", sought to achieve the following: identify key indicators of the state-of-the-Canadian environment with respect to the transport, fate and effects of mercury; define these indicators; and, understand the processes that relate these indicators to anthropogenic emissions of mercury. To achieve these outcomes, a consultative process was used to identify the scientific needs of the agenda for mercury; understand Canada's scientific capacity; and, develop a plan to fulfill these scientific needs. The science plan that emerged from this process was structured around the themes of atmospheric monitoring, landscape-based risk assessment, ecological risk assessment, ecosystem modeling, and trends. Implementation of the science plan necessitated a multi-disciplinary and extensively partnered program. To date, the CARA Mercury Science Program is producing coordinated science at the national-scale that aims to directly assess the effectiveness of the CARA for mercury and for many of Canada's other mercury-related policies.

  14. Atmospheric Effects on Cosmic Ray Air Showers Observed with HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma Ray detector (HAWC), currently under construction on the Sierra Negra volcano near Puebla, Mexico, can be used to study solar physics with its scaler data acquisition system. Increases in the scaler rates are used to observe GeV cosmic rays from solar flares while decreases in the rates show the heliospheric disturbances associated with coronal mass ejections. However, weather conditions and height-dependent state variables such as pressure and temperature affect the production of extensive particle air showers that can be detected by the scaler system. To see if these atmospheric effects can be removed, we obtained local weather data from the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) and the local weather station at HAWC. The scaler pulse rates were then correlated to the pressure and temperature. We present data from a Forbush decrease observed by HAWC following a significant coronal mass ejection in April 2013, and describe our efforts to remove atmospheric variations from the scaler counts. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation’s REU program through NSF Award AST-1004881 to the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  15. THE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL EVALUATION TOOL (AMET); AIR QUALITY MODULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation reviews the development of the Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool (AMET) air quality module. The AMET tool is being developed to aid in the model evaluation. This presentation focuses on the air quality evaluation portion of AMET. Presented are examples of the...

  16. Citizen Science Opportunities for Monitoring Air Quality Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Citizen Science Opportunities for Monitoring Air Quality fact sheet provides information on what citizen science is and the tools and resources available for citizen scientists interested in monitoring air quality.

  17. A Space and Atmospheric Visualization Science System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Blanchard, P.; Mankofsky, A.; Goodrich, C.; Kamins, D.; Kulkarni, R.; Mcnabb, D.; Moroh, M.

    1994-01-01

    SAVS (a Space and Atmospheric Visualization Science system) is an integrated system with user-friendly functionality that employs a 'push-button' software environment that mimics the logical scientific processes in data acquisition, reduction, analysis, and visualization. All of this is accomplished without requiring a detailed understanding of the methods, networks, and modules that link the tools and effectively execute the functions. This report describes SAVS and its components, followed by several applications based on generic research interests in interplanetary and magnetospheric physics (IMP/ISTP), active experiments in space (CRRES), and mission planning focused on the earth's thermospheric, ionospheric, and mesospheric domains (TIMED). The final chapters provide a user-oriented description of interface functionalities, hands-on operations, and customized modules, with details of the primary modules presented in the appendices. The overall intent of the report is to reflect the accomplishments of the three-year development effort and to introduce potential users to the power and utility of the integrated data acquisition, analysis, and visualization system.

  18. Global atmospheric change and research needs in environmental health sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.D. ); Reed, D.J. )

    1991-12-01

    On November 6-7, 1989, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) held a conference on Global Atmospheric Change and Human Health. As a result, and in the months since this conference, many important areas of research have been identified with regard to the impacts of climatic changes on human health. To develop comprehensive research programs that address important human health issues related to global warming, it is necessary to begin by recognizing that some of the health effects will be direct such as those due to temperature changes, and others will be indirect consequences of environmental alterations resulting in crop loss, changing disease vectors, population migration, etc. It should also be recognized that the conditions leading to global warming have importance to human health and the environment other than through increasing concentrations of CO[sub 2] in the atmosphere, rising surface temperatures, and rising sea levels. Much of the increase in CO[sub 2] in the atmosphere is due to the increased combustion of fossil fuels for transportation and electric power production. Over the next 30 years, the demand for electrical power is expected to grow at a rate of 2 to 4% per year in the United States alone, and even faster growth is likely for developing countries. Much of this energy will be derived from the combustion of fossil fuels, including coal, which result in pollutant emissions to the air such as metals, radioactivity, SO[sub x], NO[sub x], and particles. Therefore, with increasing concentrations of CO[sub 2] there will not only be the effects of global warming on health, but also increasing concentrations of many serious air pollutants in urban areas, including the precursors of acid rain and acid deposition over large regional areas.

  19. Atmospheric Sciences Information Resources in the United States--An Overview for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layman, Mary; Smith, Shirley

    1993-01-01

    Presents an overview of the types of information and information sources available in the field of atmospheric sciences. Included are major library collections; organizations; government programs, including air pollution control regulations; electronic databases; and networking resources. Addresses are provided for all sources, and definitions of…

  20. Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneja, Viney P.; Blunden, Jessica; Roelle, Paul A.; Schlesinger, William H.; Knighton, Raymond; Niyogi, Dev; Gilliam, Wendell; Jennings, Greg; Duke, Clifford S.

    The first Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science was held at the Bolger Center in Potomac, Maryland from 4 to 8 June 2006. This international conference assembled approximately 350 people representing 25 nations from 5 continents, with disciplines ranging from atmospheric chemistry to soil science. The workshop was designed as an open forum in which participants could openly exchange the most current knowledge and learn about numerous international perspectives regarding agricultural air quality. Participants represented many stakeholder groups concerned with the growing need to assess agricultural impacts on the atmosphere and to develop beneficial policies to improve air quality. The workshop focused on identifying methods to improve emissions inventories and best management practices for agriculture. Workshop participants also made recommendations for technological and methodological improvements in current emissions measurement and modeling practices. The workshop commenced with a session on agricultural emissions and was followed by international perspectives from the United States, Europe, Australia, India, and South America. This paper summarizes the findings and issues of the workshop and articulates future research needs. These needs were identified in three general areas: (1) improvement of emissions measurement; (2) development of appropriate emission factors; and (3) implementation of best management practices (BMPs) to minimize negative environmental impacts. Improvements in the appropriate measurements will inform decisions regarding US farming practices. A need was demonstrated for a national/international network to monitor atmospheric emissions from agriculture and their subsequent depositions to surrounding areas. Information collected through such a program may be used to assess model performance and could be critical for evaluating any future regulatory policies or BMPs. The workshop concluded that efforts to maximize

  1. Dessler, Jimenez, Klein, and Nenes Receive 2012 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Athanasios Nenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2013-11-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU awards one of the four Ascent Awards to Professor Athanasios Nenes, of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering of the Georgia Institute of Technology, for the creation of thermodynamical models for tropospheric aerosols and the development of physically based aerosol-cloud parameterizations. In addition, he is recognized for the design of instrumentation and techniques to characterize the hygroscopicity and activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and also for contributions to the understanding of the role of aerosols in climate and air quality.

  2. Space Science in Action: Earth's Atmosphere [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the layers of the atmosphere and why each is important to the survival of life on the planet. Students discover why the atmosphere is responsible for weather and see how special aircraft actually fly into hurricanes. Students build their own working barometer in a hands-on activity. Contents…

  3. Atmosphere, Science (Experimental): 5343.08.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Sandra Kay

    This unit of instruction deals with a study of the general atmosphere by layers with an emphasis on physical characteristics. The formation of layers in the atmosphere and the energy relationships that exist between them are also discussed. No requisites for prior course work, experience, or courses to be taken concurrently are required for…

  4. Ideas in Practice: Studies in Atmospheric Pollution For Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the content and structure of an enviromental course offered by the Department of Engineering Technology at Western Kentucky University. The course focuses on atmospheric pollution and is designed for science teachers currently teaching in the school system. (JR)

  5. Smartphone Air Quality and Atmospheric Aerosol Characterization for Public Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, S. B.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality is a major global concern. Tracking and monitoring air quality provides individuals with the knowledge to make personal decisions about their health and investigate the environment in which they live. Satellite remote sensing and ground-based observations (e.g. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA Aerosol Robotic Network) of air quality is spatially and temporarlly limited and often neglects to provide individuals with the freedom to understand their own personal environment using their personal observations. Given the ubiquitous nature of smartphones, individuals have access to powerful processing and sensing capabilities. When coupled with the appropriate sensor parameters, filters, and algorithms, smartphones can be used both for 'citizen science' air quality applications and 'professional' scientific atmospheric investigations, alike, simplifying data analysis, processing, and improving deployment efficiency. We evaluate the validity of smartphone technology for air quality investigations using standard Cimel CE 318 sun photometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroradiometer (FTIR) observations at specific locations.

  6. Developing of a New Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, John M.; deAngelis, Giovanni; Goldhagen, Paul; Wilson, John W.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of the research leading to the 1998 AIR workshop and the subsequent analysis, the neutron issues posed by Foelsche et al. and further analyzed by Hajnal have been adequately resolved. We are now engaged in developing a new atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) model for use in epidemiological studies and air transportation safety assessment. A team was formed to examine a promising code using the basic FLUKA software but with modifications to allow multiple charged ion breakup effects. A limited dataset of the ER-2 measurements and other cosmic ray data will be used to evaluate the use of this code.

  7. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) ER-2 Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Hsiang; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) produces chemically active radicals in biological tissues that alter the cell function or result in cell death. The AIR ER-2 flight measurements will enable scientists to study the radiation risk associated with the high-altitude operation of a commercial supersonic transport. The ER-2 radiation measurement flights will follow predetermined, carefully chosen courses to provide an appropriate database matrix which will enable the evaluation of predictive modeling techniques. Explicit scientific results such as dose rate, dose equivalent rate, magnetic cutoff, neutron flux, and air ionization rate associated with those flights are predicted by using the AIR model. Through these flight experiments, we will further increase our knowledge and understanding of the AIR environment and our ability to assess the risk from the associated hazard.

  8. Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, Douglas J.; Stern, Abraham C.; Baer, Marcel D.; Levin, Yan; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2013-04-01

    Chemistry occurring at or near the surfaces of aqueous droplets and thin films in the atmosphere influences air quality and climate. Molecular dynamics simulations are becoming increasingly useful for gaining atomic-scale insight into the structure and reactivity of aqueous interfaces in the atmosphere. Here we review simulation studies of atmospherically relevant aqueous liquid-air interfaces, with an emphasis on ions that play important roles in the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols. In addition to surveying results from simulation studies, we discuss challenges to the refinement and experimental validation of the methodology for simulating ion adsorption to the air-water interface, and recent advances in elucidating the driving forces for adsorption. We also review the recent development of a dielectric continuum theory that is capable of reproducing simulation and experimental data on ion behavior at aqueous interfaces. MDB and CJM acknowledge support from the US Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle. MDB is supported by the Linus Pauling Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship Program at PNNL.

  9. Propulsion Selection for 85kft Remotely Piloted Atmospheric Science Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Mockler, Ted; Maldonado, Jaime; Hahn, Andrew; Cyrus, John; Schmitz, Paul; Harp, Jim; King, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    for unmanned military spyplanes in the early 1980's. Now adapting hardware developed for reconaissance at 65-70 kft to the interests of atmospheric science at 80-90 kft, their efforts should yield an aero powerplant that pushes the altitude limits of subsonic air breathing propulsion.

  10. Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science, Mission 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul D. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The first Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission, planned for late 1990, includes experiments in four areas: Atmospheric Science, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, and Astronomy. The atmospheric science investigations will study the composition of the atmosphere in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The solar physics investigations will measure the total energy output of the sun. The space plasma physics investigations will study the charged particle and plasma environment of the earth. The astronomy investigation will study astronomical sources of radiation in the ultraviolet wavelengths that are inaccessible to observers on earth. Most of the experimental equipment has been flown before on one of the Spacelab missions. Brief descriptions of the experiments are given.

  11. Thermal decomposition of dolomite under CO2-air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subagjo, Wulandari, Winny; Adinata, Pratitis Mega; Fajrin, Anita

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a study on thermal decomposition of dolomite under CO2-air. Calcination was carried out non-isothermally by using thermogravimetry analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC) with a heating rate of 10°C/minute in an air atmosphere as well as 10 vol% CO2 and 90 vol% air atmosphere from 25 to 950°C. In addition, a thermodynamic modeling was also carried out to simulate dolomite calcination in different level of CO2-air atmosphere by using FactSage® 7.0. The the main constituents of typical dolomite from Gresik, East Java include MgCO3 (magnesite), CaCO3 (calcite), Ca(OH)2, CaO, MgO, and less than 1% of metal impurities. Based on the kinetics analysis from TGA results, it is found that non-isothermal dolomite calcination in 10 vol% CO2 atmosphere is occurred in a two-stage reaction; the first stage is the decomposition of magnesite at 650-740 °C with activation energy of 161.23 kJ/mol, and the second stage is the decomposition of calcite at 775-820 °C with activation energy of 162.46 kJ/mol. The magnesite decomposition is found to follow nucleation reaction mechanism of Avrami Eroveyef (A3), while calcite decomposition follows second order chemical reaction equation. Thermodynamic modeling supports these kinetic analyses. The results of this research give insight to the kinetics of dolomite decomposition in CO2-air atmosphere.

  12. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  13. VISUAL DATA MINING IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the use of simple visual tools to explore multivariate spatially-referenced data. It describes interactive approaches such as linked brushing, and dynamic methods such as the grand tour. applied to studying the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS)....

  14. Application of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Data to Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, David; Gaiser, Steve; Chahine, Moustafa T.

    2004-01-01

    The application of hyper spectral radiometric data to climate research requires very high absolute radiometric accuracy and stability. We use cloud-free tropical ocean data from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIR) Calibration Data Subset (ADCS) to show that the radiometric precision and stability required climate applications has been achieved. The sea surface skin temperatures derived from the AIRS 2616cm-1 super window channel are stable relative to the RTG.SST at the better than 8 mK/year level, and the spectral calibration is stable at the 1 ppm/year level. The excellent stability and accuracy are the result of the implementation of AIRS as a grating array spectrometer, which is cooled and stabilized within 10 mK at 155 K. Analysis of daily measurements of the temperature gradient between the surface and 7 km altitude show that the AIRS Calibration Data Subset has applications which extend its original intent for calibration support to climate research. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua satellite was launched into polar orbit in May 2002. AIRS covers the spectral region from 640 to 2700 cm-1 with 2378 independent channels and represents the first of a new generation of hyper spectral resolution sounders in support of global sounding data for weather forecasting and climate research.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  16. Atmospheric Soundings from AIRS/AMSU in Partial Cloud Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Atlas, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous use of AIRS/AMSU-A observations allow for the determination of accurate atmospheric soundings under partial cloud cover conditions. The methodology involves the determination of the radiances AIRS would have seen if the AIRS fields of view were clear, called clear column radiances, and use of these radiances to infer the atmospheric and surface conditions giving rise to these clear column radiances. Susskind et al. demonstrate via simulation that accurate temperature soundings and clear column radiances can be derived from AIRS/AMSU-A observations in cases of up to 80% partial cloud cover, with only a small degradation in accuracy compared to that obtained in clear scenes. Susskind and Atlas show that these findings hold for real AIRS/AMSU-A soundings as well. For data assimilation purposes, this small degradation in accuracy is more than offset by a significant increase in spatial coverage (roughly 50% of global cases were accepted, compared to 3.6% of the global cases being diagnosed as clear), and assimilation of AIRS temperature soundings in partially cloudy conditions resulted in a larger improvement in forecast skill than when AIRS soundings were assimilated only under clear conditions. Alternatively, derived AIRS clear column radiances under partial cloud cover could also be used for data assimilation purposes. Further improvements in AIRS sounding methodology have been made since the results shown in Susskind and Atlas . A new version of the AIRS/AMSU-A retrieval algorithm, Version 4.0, was delivered to the Goddard DAAC in February 2005 for production of AIRS derived products, including clear column radiances. The major improvement in the Version 4.0 retrieval algorithm is with regard to a more flexible, parameter dependent, quality control. Results are shown of the accuracy and spatial distribution of temperature-moisture profiles and clear column radiances derived from AIRS/AMSU-A as a function of fractional cloud cover using the Version 4

  17. Atmospheric Research -- Sensors and Science in the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohl, John E.; Armstrong, John C.; Larson, Shane L.

    2010-10-01

    HARBOR (High Altitude Reconnaissance Balloon for Outreach and Research) is a program in which scientific payloads are designed, constructed, and flown by students using weather balloons to reach the edge of space. Ten flights have been completed involving over forty high school and college students. Students work together to build sensor and flight systems and to analyze the resulting data. Measurements include temperature, wind, turbulence, humidity, particulates, gas concentrations, balloon and flight dynamics, etc. The HARBOR program provides a mission oriented structure that is based on aerospace industry standards. As a result, a positive employment track record is becoming established with program graduates. Similar results are being observed in graduate school applications. HARBOR is now being expanded to include tethered and short duration flights. Tethered flights at elementary schools will allow us to do air quality measurements and involve primary students in science. A new collaboration will study atmospheric inversion layers using short flights with smaller payloads that will be jettisoned at lower altitudes and quickly recovered.

  18. About the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-08

    ... of NASA's Earth Science enterprise and the U.S. Global Change Research Program , and is one of several Distributed Active Archive ... to understanding the causes and processes of global climate change and the consequences of human activities on the climate.   ...

  19. Sensitivity Analysis for Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO2 Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a thermal infrared sensor able to retrieve the daily atmospheric state globally for clear as well as partially cloudy field-of-views. The AIRS spectrometer has 2378 channels sensing from 15.4 micrometers to 3.7 micrometers, of which a small subset in the 15 micrometers region has been selected, to date, for CO2 retrieval. To improve upon the current retrieval method, we extended the retrieval calculations to include a prior estimate component and developed a channel ranking system to optimize the channels and number of channels used. The channel ranking system uses a mathematical formalism to rapidly process and assess the retrieval potential of large numbers of channels. Implementing this system, we identifed a larger optimized subset of AIRS channels that can decrease retrieval errors and minimize the overall sensitivity to other iridescent contributors, such as water vapor, ozone, and atmospheric temperature. This methodology selects channels globally by accounting for the latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal dependencies of the subset. The new methodology increases accuracy in AIRS CO2 as well as other retrievals and enables the extension of retrieved CO2 vertical profiles to altitudes ranging from the lower troposphere to upper stratosphere. The extended retrieval method for CO2 vertical profile estimation using a maximum-likelihood estimation method. We use model data to demonstrate the beneficial impact of the extended retrieval method using the new channel ranking system on CO2 retrieval.

  20. Comparing Unique Title Coverage of Web of Science and Scopus in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Philip; Lascar, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The current journal titles in earth and atmospheric sciences, that are unique to each of two databases, Web of Science and Scopus, were identified using different methods. Comparing by subject category shows that Scopus has hundreds of unique titles, and Web of Science just 16. The titles unique to each database have low SCImago Journal Rank…

  1. Atmospheric transport and deposition of acidic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Although general principles which govern atmospheric chemistry of sulfur are understood, a purely theoretical estimation of the magnitude of the processes is not likely to be useful. Furthermore, the data base necessary to make empirical estimates does not yet exist. The sulfur budget of the atmosphere appears to be dominated by man-associated sulfur. The important processes in deposition of man-associated sulfur are wet deposition of sulfate and dry deposition of SO/sub 2/. The relative importance of sulfate and SO/sub 2/ to sulfur deposition (input to watersheds) depends on the air concentrations, and either compound may be the greater contributor depending on conditions. (PSB)

  2. Generation of subnanosecond electron beams in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2009-11-01

    Optimum conditions for the generation of runaway electron beams with maximum current amplitudes and densities in nanosecond pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are determined. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with a current amplitude of ˜30 A, a current density of ˜20 A/cm2, and a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps has been observed behind the output foil of an air-filled diode. It is shown that the position of the SAEB current maximum relative to the voltage pulse front exhibits a time shift that varies when the small-size collector is moved over the foil surface.

  3. Communicating Air Pollution Science to the Public and Politicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2008-12-01

    Air pollution is a problem that involves a large number of chemical species and complex reactions between them. At the beginning of the 21st century, both, the public and politicians still find the science difficult to understand, and so, often mistrust the presentation of data and the scientific principles behind air quality. Yet, there are a range of important issues associated with air pollution that concern lay people and policy makers. These issues hence have to be presented in a clear and simple way so that informed judgements can be made. Traditionally, the media was the main way to disseminate scientific discovery, but novel methods for engaging scientists in the transfer of scientific know-how to politicians and the general public have emerged in recent years. Scientists receive relatively little training in the area of communication, and often find engaging in more public debates difficult. These including V.I.P. meetings, Public Open Forum, Cafe Scientifique and various games and role plays. Such outreach events expose us to new challenges, and the skills required to communicate to non-scientists become an increasingly important part of being a scientist. Here, we present some examples of evolving best practice in the European Network of Excellence on Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT).

  4. Applications of airborne remote sensing in atmospheric sciences research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafin, R. J.; Szejwach, G.; Phillips, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for airborne remote sensing for atmospheric sciences research. Passive and active techniques from the microwave to visible bands are discussed. It is concluded that technology has progressed sufficiently in several areas that the time is right to develop and operate new remote sensing instruments for use by the community of atmospheric scientists as general purpose tools. Promising candidates include Doppler radar and lidar, infrared short range radiometry, and microwave radiometry.

  5. Science payload. [of outer planet atmospheric entry probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, H.

    1974-01-01

    The representative science payload of an outer planet atmospheric entry probe is described. The instrumental details are based on experiments that have been successfully flown in the atmospheres of Earth and Venus. The incorporation of these instruments into an outer planet probe requires a strong interaction between instrument designer and probe designer. The installation of the instruments into a 250 lb entry probe is illustrated.

  6. 2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, DL

    2011-05-04

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.

  7. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible.

  8. Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric Temperatures Using Only Shortwave AIRS Channels: The AIRS Version 6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002 together with ASMU-A and HSB to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmosphere sounding system (Pagano et al 2003). The theoretical approach used to analyze AIRS/AMSU/HSB data in the presence of clouds in the AIRS Science Team Version 3 at-launch algorithm, and that used in the Version 4 post-launch algorithm, have been published previously. Significant theoretical and practical improvements have been made in the analysis of AIRS/AMSU data since the Version 4 algorithm. Most of these have already been incorporated in the AIRS Science Team Version 5 algorithm (Susskind et al 2010), now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm contains three significant improvements over Version 4. Improved physics in Version 5 allowed for use of AIRS clear column radiances (R(sub i)) in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations were used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances (R(sub i)) for all channels. This new approach allowed for the generation of accurate Quality Controlled values of R(sub i) and T(p) under more stressing cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contained a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 contained for the first time an approach to provide AIRS soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new AIRS Only sounding methodology was developed as a backup to AIRS Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Susskind et al 2010 shows that Version 5 AIRS Only sounding are only slightly degraded from the AIRS/AMSU soundings, even at large fractional cloud

  9. Fire Influences on Atmospheric Composition, Air Quality, and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Field, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Fires impact atmospheric composition through their emissions, which range from long-lived gases to short-lived gases and aerosols. Effects are typically larger in the tropics and boreal regions but can also be substantial in highly populated areas in the northern mid-latitudes. In all regions, fire can impact air quality and health. Similarly, its effect on large-scale atmospheric processes, including regional and global atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing, can be substantial, but this remains largely unexplored. The impacts are primarily realised in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere but can also be noticeable in upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region, for the most intense fires. In this review, we summarise the recent literature on findings related to fire impact on atmospheric composition, air quality and climate. We explore both observational and modelling approaches and present information on key regions and on the globe as a whole. We also discuss the current and future directions in this area of research, focusing on the major advances in emission estimates, the emerging efforts to include fire as a component in Earth system modelling and the use of modelling to assess health impacts of fire emissions.

  10. Visualization Techniques in Space and Atmospheric Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P. (Editor); Bredekamp, Joseph H. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Unprecedented volumes of data will be generated by research programs that investigate the Earth as a system and the origin of the universe, which will in turn require analysis and interpretation that will lead to meaningful scientific insight. Providing a widely distributed research community with the ability to access, manipulate, analyze, and visualize these complex, multidimensional data sets depends on a wide range of computer science and technology topics. Data storage and compression, data base management, computational methods and algorithms, artificial intelligence, telecommunications, and high-resolution display are just a few of the topics addressed. A unifying theme throughout the papers with regards to advanced data handling and visualization is the need for interactivity, speed, user-friendliness, and extensibility.

  11. Global mapping of minor atmospheric constituents with AIRS on EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, H. H.; Haskins, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating-array spectrometer on EOS. It covers the region from 650 to 3000/cm with spectral resolution of 1200. The prime objective of AIRS is the global retrieval of temperature and water vapor profiles and of surface temperatures. The wide spectral coverage of AIRS permits the measurement of a number of additional atmospheric and surface parameters. Of particular interest is the potential to produce daily global maps of the spatial distribution of the more abundant of the minor gases, e.g. ozone, CO, CH4, and N2O. This potential capability for CH4 and N2O is strongly affected by cloud residual. Using the CH4 band at 1306/cm as example, spatial averaging of AIRS data is required to measure a 10 percent change in the nominal CH4 column abundance. At 1300/cm, this requires cloud clearing at the 0.3 percent level. The mapping capability for ozone and CO in terms of rural/urban abundance patterns is not likely to be impacted with cloud-clearing residuals as high as 5 percent.

  12. Coupled Inertial Navigation and Flush Air Data Sensing Algorithm for Atmosphere Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kutty, Prasad; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for atmospheric state estimation based on a coupling between inertial navigation and flush air data-sensing pressure measurements. The navigation state is used in the atmospheric estimation algorithm along with the pressure measurements and a model of the surface pressure distribution to estimate the atmosphere using a nonlinear weighted least-squares algorithm. The approach uses a high-fidelity model of atmosphere stored in table-lookup form, along with simplified models propagated along the trajectory within the algorithm to aid the solution. Thus, the method is a reduced-order Kalman filter in which the inertial states are taken from the navigation solution and atmospheric states are estimated in the filter. The algorithm is applied to data from the Mars Science Laboratory entry, descent, and landing from August 2012. Reasonable estimates of the atmosphere are produced by the algorithm. The observability of winds along the trajectory are examined using an index based on the observability Gramian and the pressure measurement sensitivity matrix. The results indicate that bank reversals are responsible for adding information content. The algorithm is applied to the design of the pressure measurement system for the Mars 2020 mission. A linear covariance analysis is performed to assess estimator performance. The results indicate that the new estimator produces more precise estimates of atmospheric states than existing algorithms.

  13. Beyond the atmosphere: Early years of space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    From the rocket measurements of the upper atmosphere and Sun that began in 1946, space science gradually emerged as a new field of scientific activity. The course of the United State space program is viewed in an historical context. Major emphasis is on NASA and its programs. The funding, staffing, organization, and priorities of the space program were reviewed.

  14. Coupled Inertial Navigation and Flush Air Data Sensing Algorithm for Atmosphere Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kutty, Prasad; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for atmospheric state estimation that is based on a coupling between inertial navigation and flush air data sensing pressure measurements. In this approach, the full navigation state is used in the atmospheric estimation algorithm along with the pressure measurements and a model of the surface pressure distribution to directly estimate atmospheric winds and density using a nonlinear weighted least-squares algorithm. The approach uses a high fidelity model of atmosphere stored in table-look-up form, along with simplified models of that are propagated along the trajectory within the algorithm to provide prior estimates and covariances to aid the air data state solution. Thus, the method is essentially a reduced-order Kalman filter in which the inertial states are taken from the navigation solution and atmospheric states are estimated in the filter. The algorithm is applied to data from the Mars Science Laboratory entry, descent, and landing from August 2012. Reasonable estimates of the atmosphere and winds are produced by the algorithm. The observability of winds along the trajectory are examined using an index based on the discrete-time observability Gramian and the pressure measurement sensitivity matrix. The results indicate that bank reversals are responsible for adding information content to the system. The algorithm is then applied to the design of the pressure measurement system for the Mars 2020 mission. The pressure port layout is optimized to maximize the observability of atmospheric states along the trajectory. Linear covariance analysis is performed to assess estimator performance for a given pressure measurement uncertainty. The results indicate that the new tightly-coupled estimator can produce enhanced estimates of atmospheric states when compared with existing algorithms.

  15. Natural sources of atmospheric aerosols influencing air quality across Europe.

    PubMed

    Viana, M; Pey, J; Querol, X; Alastuey, A; de Leeuw, F; Lükewille, Anke

    2014-02-15

    Atmospheric aerosols are emitted by natural and anthropogenic sources. Contributions from natural sources to ambient aerosols vary widely with time (inter-annual and seasonal variability) and as a function of the distance to source regions. This work aims to identify the main natural sources of atmospheric aerosols affecting air quality across Europe. The origin, frequency, magnitude, and spatial and temporal variability of natural events were assessed for the years 2008 and 2009. The main natural sources of atmospheric aerosols identified were African dust, sea spray and wildfires. Primary biological particles were not included in the present work. Volcanic eruptions did not affect air quality significantly in Europe during the study period. The impact of natural episodes on air quality was significant in Southern and Western Europe (Cyprus, Spain, France, UK, Greece, Malta, Italy and Portugal), where they contributed to surpass the PM10 daily and annual limit values. In Central and Northern Europe (Germany, Austria and Latvia) the impact of these events was lower, as it resulted in the exceedance of PM daily but not annual limit values. Contributions from natural sources to mean annual PM10 levels in 2008 and 2009 ranged between 1 and 2 μg/m(3) in Italy, France and Portugal, between 1 and 4 μg/m(3) in Spain (10 μg/m(3) when including the Canary Islands), 5 μg/m(3) in UK, between 3 and 8 μg/m(3) in Greece, and reached up to 13 μg/m(3) in Cyprus. The evaluation of the number of monitoring stations per country reporting natural exceedances of the daily limit value (DLV) is suggested as a potential tool for air quality monitoring networks to detect outliers in the assessment of natural contributions. It is strongly suggested that a reference methodology for the identification and quantification of African dust contributions should be adopted across Europe.

  16. Improving Regional Forecast by Assimilating Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles into WRF Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background type, and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are derived from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators were used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture data for each profile location and pressure level. The analyses were then used to conduct a month-long series of regional forecasts over the continental U.S. The long-term impacts of AIRS profiles on forecast were assessed against verifying NAM analyses and stage IV precipitation data.

  17. Measured Spacecraft Dynamic Effects on Atmospheric Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Gell, David A.; Lay, Richard R.

    1997-01-01

    On September 1991, NASA launched the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. In addition to its atmospheric science mission, spacecraft dynamic effects on science measurements were analyzed. The investigation included two in-flight experiments to determine how each on-board instrument, subsystem and environmental disturbance contributed to the spacecraft dynamic response and how these disturbances affected science measurements. Three case studies are presented which show the impact of spacecraft dynamic response on science measurements. In the first case, correlation of independent atmospheric meridional wind measurements taken by two instruments with the spacecraft dynamic response demonstrated that excessive vibration (exceeding instrument pointing requirements) resulted in wind measurement disagreement. In the second case, solar array disturbances produced a spacecraft response signature on radiometer measurements. The signature explicitly demonstrated that if an instrument has sufficient spatial and temporal resolution, spacecraft dynamic response could impact measurements. In the final case, correlation of an instrument's fine sun sensor data and CO2 measurements demonstrated the effect of temporal and spatial sampling resolution and active pointing control on science measurements. The sun sensor had a frequency modulated characteristic due to spacecraft vibration and the periodic scanning of another instrument which was not present on the CO2 measurements.

  18. The Impact of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles on Short-term Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William

    2007-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced spacebased atmospheric sounding systems. The combined AlRS/AMSU system provides radiance measurements used to retrieve temperature profiles with an accuracy of 1 K over 1 km layers under both clear and partly cloudy conditions, while the accuracy of the derived humidity profiles is 15% in 2 km layers. Critical to the successful use of AIRS profiles for weather and climate studies is the use of profile quality indicators and error estimates provided with each profile Aside form monitoring changes in Earth's climate, one of the objectives of AIRS is to provide sounding information of sufficient accuracy such that the assimilation of the new observations, especially in data sparse region, will lead to an improvement in weather forecasts. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate highresolution AIRS profile data in a regional analysis/forecast model. The paper will focus on the impact of AIRS profiles on a rapidly developing east coast storm and will also discuss preliminary results for a 30-day forecast period, simulating a quasi-operation environment. Temperature and moisture profiles were obtained from the prototype version 5.0 EOS science team retrieval algorithm which includes explicit error information for each profile. The error profile information was used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture data for every profile location and pressure level for assimilation into the ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS). The AIRS-enhanced analyses were used as initial fields for the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) system used by the SPORT project for regional weather forecast studies. The ADASWRF system will be run on CONUS domain with an emphasis on the east coast. The preliminary assessment of the impact of the AIRS profiles will focus on quality control issues associated with AIRS

  19. Observation of the water cycle from space with the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahine, M. T.; Waliser, D. E.; Fetzer, E. J.; Olsen, E. T.

    2007-12-01

    AIRS is one of six instruments on board the Aqua satellite, part of NASA's Earth Observing System launched in a sun synchronous near polar orbit on May 4, 2002. AIRS and its partner microwave instrument, AMSU A, provide high quality data facilitating studies of the global water and energy cycles, climate variation and trends, and the response of the climate system to increased greenhouse gases. The exceptional stability of the AIRS instrument provides a climate record of thermal infrared radiance spectra spanning the 3.74 15.4 mm spectral band with 2378 channels at a nominal resolution of 1/1200. (Chahine et al, in BAMS, July 2006) Accurate knowledge of the vertical distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere is critically important to the determination of the warming the Earth will experience as a result of anthropogenic forcing. Comparison of the AIRS specific humidity product to state of the art climate models has shown most models exhibit a pattern of drier than observed (by 10 25%) in the tropics below 800 hPa and moister than observed (by 25 100%) between 300 and 600 hPa in the extra tropics (Pierce et al, GRL 2006). The AIRS water vapor measurements also reveal tropospheric moisture perturbations that are much larger than those depicted in previous NCAR/NCEP reanalysis and ECMWF analysis datasets, both of which have been widely used as observations to validate models. This suggests that the impact of convection induced downdrafts on the atmospheric boundary layer is significantly underestimated in both ECMWF and NCEP reanalysis (Fu et al., GRL 2006). AIRS data have led to the discovery of significant differences in the lower troposphere moisture and temperature fields during the spatial temporal evolution of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO). The anomalous lower troposphere temperature structure is observed in detail by AIRS for the Indian and western Pacific Oceans, while it remains much less well defined in the NCEP temperature fields (Tian et al

  20. Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric Temperatures Using Only Shortwave AIRS Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind,Joel

    2009-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. AIRS is a grating spectrometer with a number of linear arrays of detectors with each detector sensitive to outgoing radiation in a characteristic frequency v(sub i) with a spectral band pass delta v(sub i) of roughly v(sub i) /1200. AIRS contains 2378 spectral channels covering portions of the spectral region 650 cm(exp -1) (15.38 gm) - 2665 cm(exp -1)' (3.752 micrometers). These spectral regions contain significant absorption features from two CO2 absorption bands, the 15 micrometer (longwave) CO2 band, and the 4.3 micrometer (shortwave) CO, absorption band. There are also two atmospheric window regions, the 12 micrometerm - 8 micrometer (longwave) window, and the 4.17 micrometer - 3.75 micrometer (shortwave) window. Historically, determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures from satellite observations was performed using primarily observations in the longwave window and CO2 absorption regions. One reason for this was concerns about the effects, during the day, of reflected sunlight and non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) on the observed radiances in the shortwave portion of the spectrum. According to cloud clearing theory, more accurate soundings of both surface skin and atmospheric temperatures can be obtained under partial cloud cover conditions if one uses the longwave channels to determine cloud cleared radiances R(sub i) for all channels, and uses R(sub i) only from shortwave channels in the determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures. This procedure is now being used by the AIRS Science Team in preparation for the AIRS Version 6 Retrieval Algorithm. This paper describes how the effects on the radiances of solar radiation reflected by clouds and the Earth's surface, and also of non-LTE, are accounted for in the analysis of the data. Results are presented for both

  1. [Atmospheric air pollution: a risk factor for COPD?].

    PubMed

    Allain, Y-M; Roche, N; Huchon, G

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of COPD worldwide but other risk factors have been recognized. Air pollution is one of them, but its exact role in the development of COPD is hard to demonstrate. Its physiological effects on lung function have only been studied since the nineties by long and tedious cohort studies. Difficulties arise from the heterogeneity of air pollution (gas and particles); thus, its respiratory effects have to be examined for every component separately, and in different populations. It is also necessary to analyse the effects of atmospheric pollution in the short and the long term, considering both its physiological, clinical and toxicological effects, from childhood to adulthood. These factors make it difficult to obtain statistically significant results. Nevertheless, most studies seem to point to a role of air pollution in the development of COPD via oxydative stress but further studies are needed to confirm the exact effect of each component of air pollution on the respiratory tract. These studies could lead to improved public health policies and results are awaited that would identify at-risk populations, decide appropriate preventive measures and propose documented thresholds in pollution exposure... thereby limiting the spread of COPD.

  2. Urban air pollution and atmospheric diffusion research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Datong; Whitney, Joseph B.; Yap, David

    1987-11-01

    Air pollution has become a serious problem in China as a result of that country's efforts in the last 30 years to become a great industrial power. The burning of coal, which currently provides over 70% of all China's energy needs, is a major source of air pollution. Because Chinese coal is high in sulfur and ash content and because most combustion devices in China have low efficiencies, SO2 and particulate emissions are a serious problem and are comparable to or exceed those found in many countries that are much more industrialized. Although most coal is burned in North China, acid precipitation is most severe in South China because of the lack of buffering loess dust found in the former region. The Chinese government has already taken major steps to mitigate air pollution, such as relocating polluting industries, supplying coal with lower sulfur content, using gas instead of coal for residential heating, and levying fines on industries that exceed pollution standards. Atmospheric environmental impact assessment (AEIA) is also required for all major new projects. This article describes three types of mathematical diffusion models and field and wind-tunnel experiments that are used in such assessments. The Chinese authorities believe that a range of technological, managerial, locational, and behavioral changes must be effected before the air of Chinese cities can be significantly improved.

  3. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division Program Report, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    In 1990, the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division begins its 17th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to decades and from local to global. Our modeling is now reaching out from its atmospheric focus to treat linkages with the oceans and the land. In this report, we describe the Division's goal and organizational structure. We also provide tables and appendices describing the Division's budget, personnel, models, and publications. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Atmospheric Release Assessment Program (ARAP) Science and Technology Base Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ermak, D L; Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S

    2002-05-10

    ARAP s integrated suite of research, development, and operational programs is focused on the creation of capabilities for predicting the consequences of atmospheric releases of hazardous materials. The foundation of ARAP lies in its science and technology base in multi-scale meteorological and dispersion modeling, field experiments, and software systems (databases, real-time data acquisition software, and remote-access tools). Scientific and technological advancements are integrated into DOENNSA s operational National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at LLNL to support emergency response, pre-event planning, preparedness, and consequence analysis. Some recent ARAP development highlights are described below.

  5. The balance model of oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The study of turnover of carbon and oxygen is an important line of scientific investigation. This line takes on special significance in conditions of soil degradation, which leads to the excess content of carbon dioxide and, as result, decrease of oxygen in the atmosphere. The aim of this article is a statement the balance model of oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air (ratio O/C) depending on consumption and assimilation by plants of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the value of the oxidation-reduction potential (Eh). Basis of model was the following: green vascular plants are facultative heterotrophic organisms with symbiotic digestion and nutrition. According to the trophology viewpoint, the plant consumption of organic compounds broadens greatly a notion about the plant nutrition and ways of its regulation. In particular, beside the main known cycle of carbon: plant - litter - humus - carbon dioxide - plant, there is the second carbon cycle (turnover of organic compounds): plant - litter - humus - DOM - plant. The biogeochemical meaning of consumption of organic compounds by plants is that plants build the structural and functional blocks of biological macromolecules in their bodies. It provides receiving of a certain "energy payoff" by plants, which leads to increase of plant biomass by both an inclusion of allochthonous organic molecules in plant tissues, and positive effect of organic compounds on plant metabolic processes. One more of powerful ecological consequence of a heterotrophic nutrition of green plants is oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air. As the organic molecules in the second biological cycle of carbon are built in plants without considerable chemical change, the atmospheric air is enriched on that amount of oxygen, which would be required on oxidation of the organic molecules absorbed by plants, in result. It was accepted that: plant-soil system was climax, the plant community was grassy, initial contents of carbon in phytomass was accepted

  6. Version 5 Release Status and Plans: AIRS Science Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Steven Z.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of version 5 of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) software. The overarching goal for version 5 is to enhance AIRS software to expand its utility for climate research and to improve the impact on weather forecasting.

  7. Promoting Interests in Atmospheric Science at a Liberal Arts Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussev, S.; Sherengos, P. M.; Limpasuvan, V.; Xue, M.

    2007-12-01

    Coastal Carolina University (CCU) students in Computer Science participated in a project to set up an operational weather forecast for the local community. The project involved the construction of two computing clusters and the automation of daily forecasting. Funded by NSF-MRI, two high-performance clusters were successfully established to run the University of Oklahoma's Advance Regional Prediction System (ARPS). Daily weather predictions are made over South Carolina and North Carolina at 3-km horizontal resolution (roughly 1.9 miles) using initial and boundary condition data provided by UNIDATA. At this high resolution, the model is cloud- resolving, thus providing detailed picture of heavy thunderstorms and precipitation. Forecast results are displayed on CCU's website (https://marc.coastal.edu/HPC) to complement observations at the National Weather Service in Wilmington N.C. Present efforts include providing forecasts at 1-km resolution (or finer), comparisons with other models like Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the examination of local phenomena (like water spouts and tornadoes). Through these activities the students learn about shell scripting, cluster operating systems, and web design. More importantly, students are introduced to Atmospheric Science, the processes involved in making weather forecasts, and the interpretation of their forecasts. Simulations generated by the forecasts will be integrated into the contents of CCU's course like Fluid Dynamics, Atmospheric Sciences, Atmospheric Physics, and Remote Sensing. Operated jointly between the departments of Applied Physics and Computer Science, the clusters are expected to be used by CCU faculty and students for future research and inquiry-based projects in Computer Science, Applied Physics, and Marine Science.

  8. Modification of various metals by volume discharge in air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulepov, Mikhail A.; Erofeev, Mikhail V.; Oskomov, Konstantin V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2015-12-01

    The results of the modification of stainless steel, niobium and titanium by volume discharge induced by a beam of runaway electrons in air under normal pressure are presented. Changes in the chemical composition of the surface layers of metal by the action of the discharge, structural changes and changes of hardness were studied. It has been found that the concentration of oxygen and carbon in the surface layers of the samples depend on the number of discharge pulses. The aim of this work is to find possible application of this type of discharge in science and industrial production.

  9. Using Unmanned Air Systems to Monitor Methane in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, Jacqueline; Smith, Jeremy Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Methane is likely to be an important contributor to global warming, and our current knowledge of its sources, distributions, and transport is insufficient. It is estimated that there could be from 7.5 to 400 billion tons carbon-equivalent of methane in the arctic region, a broad range that is indicative of the uncertainty within the Earth Science community. Unmanned Air Systems (UASs) are often used for combat or surveillance by the military, but they also have been used for Earth Science field missions. In this study, we will analyze the utility of the NASA Global Hawk and the Aurora Flight Sciences Orion UASs compared to the manned DC-8 aircraft for conducting a methane monitoring mission. The mission will focus on the measurement of methane along the boundaries of Arctic permafrost thaw and melting glaciers. The use of Long Endurance UAS brings a new range of possibilities including the ability to obtain long- term and persistent observations and to significantly augment methane measurements/retrievals collected by satellite. Furthermore, we discuss the future of long endurance UAS and their potential for science applications in the next twenty to twenty-five years.

  10. Applications of multigrid software in the atmospheric sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Garcia, R.; Gross, B.; Hack, J.; Haidvogel, D.; Pizzo, V.

    1992-01-01

    Elliptic partial differential equations from different areas in the atmospheric sciences are efficiently and easily solved utilizing the multigrid software package named MUDPACK. It is demonstrated that the multigrid method is more efficient than other commonly employed techniques, such as Gaussian elimination and fixed-grid relaxation. The efficiency relative to other techniques, both in terms of storage requirement and computational time, increases quickly with grid size.

  11. Atmospheric sciences division. Annual report, fiscal year 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Raynor, G. S.

    1981-12-01

    The research activities of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of the Department of Energy and Environment for FY 1981 are presented. Facilities and major items of equipment are described. Research programs are summarized in three categories, modeling, field and laboratory experiments and data management and analysis. Each program is also described individually with title, principal investigator, sponsor and funding levels for FY 1981 and FY 1982. Future plans are summarized. Publications for FY 1981 are listed with abstracts. A list of personnel is included.

  12. Professional development for graduate students in the atmospheric sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haacker, R.; Sloan, V.

    2015-12-01

    The field of atmospheric sciences is rapidly changing, and with it, the employment outlook for recent graduate students. Weather and climate applications for society and the private industry are in demand and have increased significantly over the last few years, creating new employment opportunities for atmospheric scientists. It is therefore more important than ever that our graduates are well prepared for the newly emerging careers. The Bureau's Occupational Outlook predicts that opportunities for atmospheric scientists will increase more rapidly in the private industry than in other sectors (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). Employers in the private sector indicate that, while job applicants often bring the required scientific training, there is a gap between the technical and professional skills needed in those positions and those possessed by graduates. Job candidates were found to be most lacking in written and oral communication skills, adaptability, and project management (Chronicle for Higher Education, 2012). The geoscience community needs to come together to better prepare our graduate students. While some of this work can be done within academic institutions, partnerships with mentoring programs and the private industry are essential. In this paper we will present one approach taken by the Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) program to improve its students' skills in project management, collaborating, communication, problem solving, and essential leadership skills.

  13. Atmospheric Krypton and Xenon Measurements from Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Malespin, C. A.; Franz, H.; Manning, H. L.; Trainer, M. G.; Wong, M. H.; Brunner, A.; Atreya, S. K.; Pepin, R. O.; Jones, J. H.; Owen, T. C.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The heavy noble gases krypton and xenon are important tracers of planetary processes from accretion to differentiation and to atmospheric escape. Their abundance and stable isotopic ratios are also indicative of sources as well. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the Curiosity rover has measured the Martian atmosphere and reported on the volume mixing ratio of its major constituents (Mahaffy et al., 2013). Here we report the abundance and isotopic ratios of Kr and Xe in the atmosphere of Mars as obtained by semi-static operation of the SAM quadrupole mass spectrometer. Viking provided the first in situ detection of these gases (Owen et al, 1977), suggesting upper limits of 300 ppb for Kr and 80 ppb for Xe, based upon calibration gases with terrestrial isotopic abundances. The abundances of individual isotopes as well as their ratios to one another have been derived from martian meteorite samples by many investigators (e.g., Becker & Pepin, 1984; Bogard & Garrison, 1998). The SAM heavy noble gas data complement the argon isotopic data reported in Mahaffy et al., 2013. Becker, R. H., & Pepin, R. O. (1984). The case for a Martian origin of the shergottites: Nitrogen and noble gases in EETA 79001. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 69(2), 225-242. Bogard, D. D., & Garrison, D. H. (1998). Relative abundances of argon, krypton, and xenon in the Martian atmosphere as measured in Martian meteorites. Geochimica et cosmochimica acta, 62(10), 1829-1835. Mahaffy, et al., (2013) Abundance and isotopic composition of gases in the martian atmosphere from the Curiosity rover. Science 341, 263-266 Owen, T. et al.,(1977). The composition of the atmosphere at the surface of Mars. Journal of Geophysical research, 82(28), 4635-4639.

  14. Atmospheric Sciences Meet Astronomy: Mutual Benefits from two Different Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausch, Wolfgang; Noll, Stefan; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Kondrak, Matthias; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Przybilla, Norbert; Lakićević, Maša; Zeilinger, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Light from astronomical targets has to pass the Earth's atmosphere when being observed by ground-based telescope facilities. The signal detected by modern astronomical spectrographs is significantly influenced by molecular absorption and airglow emission. The first mainly arises from various species in the lower, thus denser atmosphere, whereas the latter is caused by chemiluminescence in the mesopause region and above. As ground-based astronomical spectrographs are optimised from the near-UV to the mid-infrared regime (0.3....25μm), a number of absorption features from numerous species are directly visible (e.g. H2O, CO2, CH4, O2, O3,...). The same is true for the airglow emission arising e.g. from the hydroxyl radical and oxygen. The high resolution provided by some spectrographs and their frequent usage allows a detailed investigation of atmospheric lines. Usually being a source of noise for astronomers, which needs to be corrected for, this influence can be used to precisely analyse the composition and the state of the Earth's atmosphere above an observatory. On the other hand, a good knowledge of this allows astronomers to better correct for this influence. Thus, both, atmospheric and astronomical sciences highly benefit from a good understanding of the atmospheric state above an observatory. During the past years we conducted several studies to link astronomical and atmospheric data. For this purpose we use data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) operated by the European Southern Observatory, and the Cerro Armazones Observatory (OCA, University of Bochum, Germany; Universidad Católica del Norte, Chile), both located in the Chilean Atacama desert. The three spectrographs used in our studies are X-Shooter@VLT (resolving power R˜3300...18000, wavelength range λ=0.3...2.5μm), UVES@VLT (R˜20.000....110.000, λ=0.3....1.1μm), and BESO@OCA (R=50000@Hα=0.656μm, λ=0.38 - 0.84μm). In addition, we use atmospheric data obtained with the satellites

  15. Air Quality Measurements for Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality measurements and the methods used to conduct them are vital to advancing our knowledge of the source-to-receptor-to-health effects continuum1-3. This information then forms the basis for evaluating and managing air quality to protect human health and welfa...

  16. Urban Air Pollution: State of the Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seinfeld, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate matter found in urban air. Explains progress made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of air pollution, the effects of precursors on ozone, the role of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the principal benefit of methanol-fueled vehicles. (RT)

  17. Indoor Air Quality Science and Technology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understand indoor air in homes, schools, and offices. Most of us spend much of our time indoors. The air that we breathe in our homes, in schools, and in offices can put us at risk for health problems. Some pollutants can be chemicals, gases, and living or

  18. Hurricane Isabel, Amount of Atmospheric Water Vapor Observed By AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    These false-color images show the amount of atmospheric water vapor observed by AIRS two weeks prior to the passage of Hurricane Isabel, and then when it was a Category 5 storm. The region shown includes parts of South America and the West Indies. Puerto Rico is the large island below the upper left corner.

    Total water vapor represents the depth of a layer if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the surface. The color bar on the right sides of the plots give the thickness of this layer in millimeters (mm). The first image, from August 28, shows typical tropical water vapor amounts over the ocean: between roughly 25 and 50 mm, or 1 to 2 inches. The highest values of roughly 80 mm, seen as a red blob over South America, corresponds to intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms pull in water vapor from surrounding regions and concentrate it, with much of it then falling as rain.

    Figure 1 shows total water during the passage of Hurricane Isabel on September 13. The storm is apparent: the ring of moderate values surrounding a very strong maximum of 100 mm. Total water of more than 80 mm is unusual, and these values correspond to the intense thunderstorms contained within Isabel. The thunderstorms--and the large values of total water--are fed by evaporation from the ocean in the hurricane's high winds. The water vapor near the center of the storm does not remain there long, since hurricane rain rates as high 50 mm (2 inches) per hour imply rapid cycling of the water we observe. Away from the storm the amount of total water vapor is rather low, associated with fair weather where air that ascended near the storm's eye returns to earth, having dropped its moisture as rain. Also seen in the second images are two small regions of about 70 mm of total water over south America. These are yet more thunderstorms, though likely much more benign than those in Isabel.

    The

  19. Data Assimilation and Regional Forecasts Using Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses, which in turn should lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles with an accuracy comparable to that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profiles--obtained from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm-into a regional configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background field type, a methodology for ingesting AIRS profiles as separate over-land and over-water retrievals with different error characteristics, and utilization of level-by-level quality indicators to select only the highest quality data. The assessment of the impact of the AIRS profiles on WRF-Var analyses will focus on intelligent use of the quality indicators, optimized tuning of the WRF-Var, and comparison of analysis soundings to radiosondes. The analyses will be used to conduct a month-long series of regional forecasts over the continental U.S. The long-tern1 impact of AIRS profiles on forecast will be assessed against verifying radiosonde and stage IV precipitation data.

  20. Data Assimilation and Regional Forecasts using Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabodsky, Brad; Chou, Shih-Hung; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses, which in turn should lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which, together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles with an accuracy comparable to that of radionsondes. The purpose of this poster is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profiles, obtained from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm, into a regional configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using WRF-Var. The poster focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background field type, a methodology for ingesting AIRS profiles as separate over-land and over-water retrievals with different error characteristics, and utilization of level-by-level quality indicators to select only the highest quality data. The assessment of the impact of the AIRS profiles on WRF-Var analyses will focus on intelligent use of the quality indicators, optimized tuning of the WRF-Var, and comparison of analysis soundings to radiosondes. The analyses are used to conduct a month-long series of regional forecasts over the continental U.S. The long-term impact of AIRS profiles on forecast will be assessed against NAM analyses and stage IV precipitation data.

  1. The relationship between ozone formation and air temperature in the atmospheric surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Savkin, Denis; Tolmachev, Gennadii

    2016-04-01

    Studying the formation and dynamics of ozone in the atmosphere is important due to several reasons. First, the contribution of tropospheric ozone to the global greenhouse effect is only slightly less than that of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. Second, tropospheric ozone acts as a strong poison that has negative effects on human health, animals, and vegetation. Third, being a potent oxidizer, ozone destroys almost all materials, including platinum group metals and compounds. Fourthly, ozone is formed in situ from precursors as a result of photochemical processes, but not emitted into the atmosphere by any industrial enterprises directly. In this work, we present some results of the study aimed at the revealing relationship between ozone formation rate and surface air temperature in the background atmosphere. It has been found that this relationship is nonlinear. Analysis of the possible reasons showed that the nonlinear character of this relationship may be due to a nonlinear increase in the reaction constants versus air temperature and a quadratic increase in the concentration of hydrocarbons with increasing temperature. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science contract no.14.613.21.0013 (ID: RFMEFI61314X0013).

  2. Recent Science from the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Katie; Lee, James; Punjabi, Shalini; Carpenter, Lucy; Lewis, Alastair; Moller, Sarah; Mendes Neves, Luis; Fleming, Zoe; Evans, Mat; Arnold, Steve; Hopkins, James

    2013-04-01

    The Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (16,848°N, 24.871°W), a subtropical marine boundary layer atmospheric monitoring station situated at Calhau on the island of São Vicente, has been in operation since October 2006. Almost continuous measurements of the trace gases O3, CO, NMVOC, NO, and NO2 have been obtained. Other data from the CVAO, for example of greenhouse gases, aerosol (physical and chemical parameters), halocarbons, halogen oxides, are also available over various timescales (see http://ncasweb.leeds.ac.uk/capeverde/ for more details). Through the newly EU funded Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, atmospheric measurements of mercury began in 2011. The observatory has hosted a number of field campaigns including Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer experiment (RHaMBLe) in 2007 (Lee et al., 2010) which focussed on halogen chemistry and Seasonal Oxidant Study (SOS) in 2009 which looked at how the oxidation chemistry varied seasonally. The prevailing strong on-shore winds bring marine air masses with varying inputs of Saharan dust and of long range transport from North American Europe, thus the CVAO is an appealing location for both short and long term research into a variety of atmospheric phenomena. Aged air masses from North America, Europe, and Africa influence the measurements at the observatory, but fresh emissions from coastal Africa and the ocean may also play a major role. Through the use of the UK Met office's NAME model (http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/modelling-systems/dispersion-model) it has recently been possible to classify the air received by the site and this has since been employed in further interpretation of the datasets (Carpenter et al., 2010). Measurements from the last six years will be presented at the conference together with comparisons with the output of the CAM-Chem global chemistry transport model (Read et al., 2012). The CVAO is a global GAW (Global Atmospheric Watch) station and so data is

  3. Atmospheric Sciences Program summaries of research in FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document describes the activities and products of the Atmospheric Science Program of the Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, in FY 1993. Each description contains the project`s title; three-year funding history; the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date. Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states its goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used. This document has been indexed to aid the reader in locating research topics, participants, and research institutions in the text and the project descriptions. Comprehensive subject, principal investigator, and institution indexes are provided at the end of the text for this purpose. The comprehensive subject index includes keywords from the introduction and chapter texts in addition to those from the project descriptions.

  4. Atmospheric Sciences Program summaries of research in FY 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-11-01

    This document describes the activities and products of the Atmospheric Science Program of the Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, in FY 1993. Each description contains the project's title; three-year funding history; the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project's objectives, products, approach, and results to date. Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states its goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used. This document has been indexed to aid the reader in locating research topics, participants, and research institutions in the text and the project descriptions. Comprehensive subject, principal investigator, and institution indexes are provided at the end of the text for this purpose. The comprehensive subject index includes keywords from the introduction and chapter texts in addition to those from the project descriptions.

  5. Nanosecond Enhancements of the Atmospheric Electron Density by Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutjes, C.; Camporeale, E.; Ebert, U.; Buitink, S.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Witteveen, J.

    2015-12-01

    As is well known a sufficient density of free electrons and strong electric fields are the basic requirements to start any electrical discharge. In the context of thunderstorm discharges it has become clear that in addition droplets and or ice particles are required to enhance the electric field to values above breakdown. In our recent study [1] we have shown that these three ingredients have to interplay to allow for lightning inception, triggered by an extensive air shower event. The extensive air showers are a very stochastic natural phenomenon, creating highly coherent sub-nanosecond enhancements of the atmospheric electron density. Predicting these electron density enhancements accurately one has to take the uncertainty of the input variables into account. For this study we use the initial energy, inclination and altitude of first interaction, which will influence the evolution of the shower significantly. To this end, we use the stochastic collocation method, [2] to post-process our detailed Monte Carlo extensive air shower simulations, done with the CORSIKA [3] software package, which provides an efficient and elegant way to determine the distribution of the atmospheric electron density enhancements. [1] Dubinova, A., Rutjes, C., Ebert, E., Buitink, S., Scholten, O., and Trinh, G. T. N. "Prediction of Lightning Inception by Large Ice Particles and Extensive Air Showers." PRL 115 015002 (2015)[2] G.J.A. Loeven, J.A.S. Witteveen, H. Bijl, Probabilistic collocation: an efficient nonintrusive approach for arbitrarily distributed parametric uncertainties, 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 2007, AIAA-2007-317[3] Heck, Dieter, et al. CORSIKA: A Monte Carlo code to simulate extensive air showers. No. FZKA-6019. 1998.

  6. Radio Emission in Atmospheric Air Showers Measured by LOPES-30

    SciTech Connect

    Isar, P. G.

    2008-01-24

    When Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) interact with particles in the Earth's atmosphere, they produce a shower of secondary particles propagating towards the ground. These relativistic particles emit synchrotron radiation in the radio frequency range when passing the Earth's magnetic field. The LOPES (LOFAR Prototype Station) experiment investigates the radio emission from these showers in detail and will pave the way to use this detection technique for large scale applications like in LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) and the Pierre Auger Observatory. The LOPES experiment is co-located and measures in coincidence with the air shower experiment KASCADE-Grande at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. LOPES has an absolute amplitude calibration array of 30 dipole antennas (LOPES-30). After one year of measurements of the single East-West polarization by all 30 antennas, recently, the LOPES-30 set-up was configured to perform dual-polarization measurements. Half of the antennas have been configured for measurements of the North-South polarization. Only by measuring at the same time both, the E-W and N-S polarization components of the radio emission, the geo-synchrotron effect as the dominant emission mechanism in air showers can be verified. The status of the measurements, including the absolute calibration procedure of the dual-polarized antennas as well as analysis of dual-polarized event examples are reported.

  7. Atmospheric Sciences Research in the US EPA climate program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, P. L.

    The program is designed to assess, evaluate, and predict the ecological, environmental, and human health consequences of global change, including the interaction of plant and animal communities with the climate system. Additional supporting areas of research in the program include: assessment and research to develop techniques to mitigate and adapt to climate change; development of emission factors and chemical models to understand and describe the production, transport, and fate of radiatively important trace gases; and evaluation of the relationship between global climate change and changes in region climate and air quality. The research agenda, with emphasis on the atmospheric chemistry and climatological aspects of the program is reviewed.

  8. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  9. Atmospheric science experiments applicable to Space Shuttle Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. S.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Fichtl, G. H.; Vaughan, W. W.; Goodman, S. J.; Robertson, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    The present lack of a lower atmosphere research satellite program for the 1980s has prompted consideration of the Space Shuttle/Spacelab system as a means of flying sensor complements geared toward specific research problems, as well as continued instrument development. Three specific examples of possible science questions related to precipitation are discussed: (1) spatial structure of mesoscale cloud and precipitation systems, (2) lightning and storm development, and (3) cyclone intensification over oceanic regions. Examples of space sensors availab le to provide measurements needed in addressing these questions are also presented. Distinctive aspects of low-earth orbit experiments would be high resolution, multispectral sensing of atmospheric phenomena by complements of instruments, and more efficient sensor development through reflights of specific hardware packages.

  10. Atmospheric Results from the MGS Horizon Science Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, T. Z.; Murphy, J. R.; Hollingsworth, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The Horizon Science Experiment (HORSE) utilizes the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly (MHSA) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbiter to measure 15-micron band thermal emission from the Martian atmosphere. During the first two phases of aerobraking, from September 1997 to May 1998, and from September 1998 to March 1999, one of the four MGS quadrants was pointed well onto the planet consistently during the near-periapsis aerobraking passes, allowing the device to obtain data on the latitudinal variation of middle atmospheric temperature (0.2 - 2.0 mbar). Of particular interest during the first phase (L(sub s) = 182 - 300 deg) were the effects of a prominent dust storm at L(sub s) =224 deg, and wavelike behavior in the strong temperature gradient near the north polar cap. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. DORIS applications for solid earth and atmospheric sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent; Jayles, Christian; Rolland, Lucie

    2007-12-01

    DORIS is a French precise orbit determination system. However, in the past four years, through the creation of the International DORIS Service, a larger international cooperation was involved. Furthermore, the precision of its scientific applications (geodesy, geophysics) gradually improved and expanded to new fields (atmospheric sciences), leading, for example, to the publication of a special issue of the Journal of Geodesy. The goal of this manuscript is to present and explain these changes and to put them in perspective with current results obtained with other space geodetic techniques, such as GPS or Satellite Laser Ranging.

  12. Atmospheric sciences program at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, James R.; Jafferis, William

    1988-01-01

    A very keen awareness of the impact of lightning threat on ground operations exists at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) because of the high frequency of thunderstorm occurrences in Florida. The majority of thunder events occur in the summertime, initiated by solar heating of the land. Merritt Island, where KSC is located, produces its own thunderstorms under light flow conditions; because some are small, their importance might be unappreciated at first glance. The impress of these facts, and others of pertinence, on the KSC atmospheric sciences development program will be discussed, priorities enumerated, and a review of development projects presented.

  13. Significant Advances in the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Molnar, Gyula

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. The Goddard DISC has analyzed AIRS/AMSU observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, using the AIRS Science Team Version-S retrieval algorithm. These products have been used by many researchers to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. The AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval, which will become operation in mid-20l2, contains many significant theoretical and practical improvements compared to Version-5 which should further enhance the utility of AIRS products for both climate and weather applications. In particular, major changes have been made with regard to the algOrithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the retrieval procedure; 3) compute Outgoing Longwave Radiation; and 4) determine Quality Control. This paper will describe these advances found in the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm and demonstrate the improvement of AIRS Version-6 products compared to those obtained using Version-5,

  14. Introduction: Addressing Air Pollution and Health Science Questions to Inform Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health (AQAH) is the sixth and final in a series of special journal issues (Solomon 2010, 2011a, b; Solomon et al. 2011; Solomon 2012) associated with the 2010 Air Pollution and Heath Conference: Bridging the Gap between Sources ...

  15. Teaching Science: Air Pressure "Eggs-periments."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can introduce students to various scientific concept concerning motion, air composition, and heat by conducting an experiment: A peeled, hard-boiled egg is sucked into a bottle neck slightly smaller than the egg, after the bottle has been filled and emptied of hot water. Also discusses how students' understanding of the…

  16. Teaching Earth Science Using Hot Air Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, James; Shaffer, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Constructing model hot air balloons is an activity that captures the imaginations of students, enabling teachers to present required content to minds that are open to receive it. Additionally, there are few activities that lend themselves to integrating so much content across subject areas. In this article, the authors describe how they have…

  17. Using Case Studies as a Tool for Teaching Science Policy within the Atmospheric and Space Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, G.; Hooke, W.

    2006-12-01

    Earth system science is a field where policy, societal, & economic aspects are becoming increasingly important as our society becomes more dependent on activities and technologies that affect and are affected by the Earth system. It is important that present and future scientists are prepared to fully participate in the challenging opportunities that lie ahead, including communicating to policy makers, making public policy decisions, & communicating science to the public. One way of providing a better foundation is to integrate policy and science at universities. Therefore, the American Meteorological Society Policy Program (APP) is developing materials for university science policy curricula and the AMS Summer Policy Colloquium. In providing policy education activities and promoting policy research, the APP hopes to encourage more people to enter the field of science policy, contribute to and enhance the current policy dialogue, and create a clearinghouse for science policy case studies. Case studies are an excellent method to study policy issues in the atmospheric and space sciences for the following reasons: issues are too complex to be handled by any single factor (economic, social, or political science); purpose is to identify and analyze the impacts rather than test theoretical hypotheses; problems involve large number of participants (government at various levels, industries, and researchers); and study requires giving alternatives and consequence analysis for policy makers. Lessons learned will be presented on implementation of science policy case studies at the AMS Summer Policy Colloquium and George Mason University.

  18. AIRS Data Mining Service at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) DISC DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, G. A.; Qin, J.; Pham, L.; Lynnes, C.; Eng, E.; Li, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a high-resolution infrared (IR) sounder with 2378 spectral channels flying on the EOS Aqua platform with two operational microwave sounders, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Measurements from the three instruments are analyzed jointly to filter out the effects of clouds from the IR data in order to derive clear-column air-temperature profiles and surface temperatures with high vertical resolution and accuracy. Together, these three instruments constitute an advanced operational sounding data system that have contributed to improve global modeling efforts and numerical weather prediction; enhance studies of the global energy and water cycles, the effects of greenhouse gases, and atmosphere-surface interactions; and facilitate monitoring of climate variations and trends. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center/Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC) provides long-term archive and distribution services for AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products as well science support to assist users in understanding, accessing and using the AIRS data products. However, the high data volume generated by the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments and the complexity of its data format (Hierarchical Data Format, HDF) are barriers to AIRS data use. Although many researchers are interested in only a fraction of the data they receive or request, they are forced to run their algorithms on a much larger data set to extract the information of interest. In order to address this problem, the GES DAAC is expanding its data mining system to accept AIRS user's algorithms by providing online tools for spectral channels and value added product sub-settings, as well as spatial, temporal and user defined profile sub-settings. This presentation will show details of the AIRS components of the GES DAAC data mining system including technical description, input data and returning products

  19. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  20. Study of short atmospheric pressure dc glow microdischarge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Bogdanov, Eugene; Chirtsov, Alexander; Emelin, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen and oxygen atoms; ozone molecule; and different nitrogen and oxygen ions with different plasmochemical reactions between them. Simulations predicted the main regions of the dc glow discharges including cathode and anode sheath and plasma of negative glow, Faraday dark space and transition region. Gas heating plays an important role in shaping the discharge profiles. The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen

  1. Air Pollution and Weather: Activities and Demonstrations for Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Henry S.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a number of concepts (turbulence, dispersion, vertical temperature distribution, atmospheric stability and instability, and inversions) which are prerequisite to understanding how weather affects air quality. Describes classroom demonstrations effective in introducing these concepts to students at the elementary, secondary and college…

  2. Analytic innovations for air quality modeling | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The presentation provides an overview of ongoing research activities at the U.S. EPA, focusing on improving long-term emission projections and the development of decision support systems for coordinated environmental, climate and energy planning. This presentation will be given on October 10th, 2016, at the Johns Hopkins Dept. of Environmental Health and Engineering as part of the Environmental Science and Management Seminar Series.

  3. Communications Blackout Prediction for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, David; Edquist, Karl

    2005-01-01

    When a supersonic spacecraft enters a planetary atmosphere with v >> v(sub sound), a shock layer forms in the front of the body. An ionized sheath of plasma develops around the spacecraft, which results from the ionization of the atmospheric constituents as they are compressed and heated by the shock or heated within the boundary layer next to the surface. When the electron density surrounding the spacecraft becomes sufficiently high, communications can be disrupted (attenuation/blackout). During Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL's) atmospheric entry there will likely be a communication outage due to charged particles on the order of 60 to 100 seconds using a UHF link frequency looking out the shoulders of the wake region to orbiting relay asset. A UHF link looking out the base region would experience a shorter duration blackout, about 35 seconds for the stressed trajectory and possibly no blackout for the nominal trajectory. There is very little likelihood of a communications outage using X-band (however, X-band is not currently planned to be used during peak electron density phase of EDL).

  4. 75 FR 4069 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods Subcommittee (AAMMS or... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS); Meeting and Public...

  5. Progress Towards AIRS Science Team Version-7 at SRT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Kouvaris, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing level-3 Climate Data Records (CDRs) from AIRS that have been proven useful to scientists in understanding climate processes. CDRs are gridded level-3 products which include all cases passing AIRS Climate QC. SRT has made significant further improvements to AIRS Version-6. At the last Science Team Meeting, we described results using SRT AIRS Version-6.22. SRT Version-6.22 is now an official build at JPL called 6.2.4. Version-6.22 results are significantly improved compared to Version-6, especially with regard to water vapor and ozone profiles. We have adapted AIRS Version-6.22 to run with CrIS/ATMS, at the Sounder SIPS which processed CrIS/ATMS data for August 2014. JPL AIRS Version-6.22 uses the Version-6 AIRS tuning coefficients. AIRS Version-6.22 has at least two limitations which must be improved before finalization of Version-7: Version-6.22 total O3 has spurious high values in the presence of Saharan dust over the ocean; and Version-6.22 retrieved upper stratospheric temperatures are very poor in polar winter. SRT Version-6.28 addresses the first concern. John Blaisdell ran the analog of AIRS Version-6.28 in his own sandbox at JPL for the 14th and 15th of every month in 2014 and all of July and October for 2014. AIRS Version-6.28a is hot off the presses and addresses the second concern.

  6. Taking Science On-air with Google+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cost has long been a deterrent when trying to stream live events to large audiences. While streaming providers like UStream have free options, they include advertising and typically limit broadcasts to originating from a single location. In the autumn of 2011, Google premiered a new, free, video streaming tool -- Hangouts on Air -- as part of their Google+ social network. This platform allows up to ten different computers to stream live content to an unlimited audience, and automatically archives that content to YouTube. In this article we discuss best practices for using this technology to stream events over the internet.

  7. Aura Atmospheric Data Products and Their Availability from NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Gopalan, A.; Smith, P.; Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's EOS-Aura spacecraft was launched successfully on July 15, 2004. The four instruments onboard the spacecraft are the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HBDLS). The Aura instruments are designed to gather earth sciences measurements across the ultraviolet, visible, infra-red, thermal and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Aura will provide over 70 distinct standard atmospheric data products for use in ozone layer and surface UV-B monitoring, air quality forecast, and atmospheric chemistry and climate change studies (http://eosaura.gsfc.nasa.gov/). These products include earth-atmosphere radiances and solar spectral irradiances; total column, tropospheric, and profiles of ozone and other trace gases, surface W-B flux; clouds and aerosol characteristics; and temperature, geopotential height, and water vapor profiles. The MLS, OMI, and HIRDLS data products will be archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), while data from TES will be archived at NASA Langley Research Center DAAC. Some of the standard products which have gone through quick preliminary checks are already archived at the GES DAAC (http://daac.nsfc.nasa.gov/) and are available to the Aura science team and data validation team members for data validation; and to the application and visualization software developers, for testing their application modules. Once data are corrected for obvious calibration problems and partially validated using in-situ observations, they would be made available to the broader user community. This presentation will provide details of the whole suite of Aura atmospheric data products, and the time line of the availability of the rest of the preliminary products and of the partially validated provisional products. Software and took available for data access, visualization, and data

  8. Urban Climate Effects on Air Pollution and Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoul, Tara; Bloss, William; Pope, Francis

    2016-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone, adversely affects the environment and human health. The presence of chlorine nitrate (ClNO2) in the troposphere can enhance ozone (O3) formation as it undergoes photolysis, releasing chlorine reactive atoms (Cl) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), both of which enhance tropospheric ozone formation. The importance of new sources of tropospheric ClNO2 via heterogeneous processes has recently been highlighted. This study employed a box model, using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM version 3.2) to assess the effect of ClNO2 on air quality in urban areas within the UK. The model updated to include ClNO2 production, photolysis, a comprehensive parameterisation of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) uptake, and ClNO2 production calculated from bulk aerosol composition. The model simulation revealed the presence of ClNO2 enhances the formation of NO2, organic peroxy radical (CH3O2), O3, and hydroxyl radicals (OH) when compared with simulations excluding ClNO2. In addition, the study examined the effect of temperature variation upon ClNO2 formation. The response of ClNO2 to temperature was analysed to identify the underlying drivers, of particular importance when assessing the response of atmospheric chemistry processes under potential future climates.

  9. Thermogravimetric analysis of rice husks in an air atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Mansaray, K.G.; Ghaly, A.E.

    1998-08-01

    In rice-producing countries, large amounts of rice husks are generated as waste material for which there is no ready use and in some cases may have a negative value because of the cost of disposal. Most of these countries depend on fossil fuels for their energy uses, and rice husk can be used to supplement such energy sources using thermochemical conversion processes. However, efficient operation of thermochemical conversion systems requires a thorough understanding of the influence of the influence of the composition and thermal properties of rice husks on their behavior during the conversion process. In this study, the thermal behavior of four rice husk varieties (Lemont, ROK 14, CP 4, and Pa Potho) was examined at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50 C/min) in stationary air atmosphere. The thermal degradation rate in active and passive pyrolysis zones, the initial degradation temperature, and the residual weight at 600 C were determined. Increasing the heating rate increased both the thermal degradation rate and the residual weight and decreased the initial degradation temperature. The higher the cellulosic content of the rice husk, the higher the thermal degradation rate and the initial degradation temperature. Also, higher ash content in the rice husk resulted in higher residual weight at 600 C.

  10. A visiting scientist program in atmospheric sciences for the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, M. H.

    1989-01-01

    A visiting scientist program was conducted in the atmospheric sciences and related areas at the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres. Research was performed in mathematical analysis as applied to computer modeling of the atmospheres; development of atmospheric modeling programs; analysis of remotely sensed atmospheric, surface, and oceanic data and its incorporation into atmospheric models; development of advanced remote sensing instrumentation; and related research areas. The specific research efforts are detailed by tasks.

  11. Science Laboratories and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Some of the issues surrounding the indoor air quality (IAQ) problems presented by science labs are discussed. Described are possible contaminants in labs, such as chemicals and biological organisms, and ways to lessen accidents arising from these sources are suggested. Some of the factors contributing to comfort, such as temperature levels, are…

  12. AIRS Data Subsetting Service at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) DISC/DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.; Qin, Jianchun; Li, Jason; Gerasimov, Irina; Savtchenko, Andrey

    2004-01-01

    The AIRS mission, as a combination of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB), brings climate research and weather prediction into 21st century. From NASA' Aqua spacecraft, the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments measure humidity, temperature, cloud properties and the amounts of greenhouse gases. The AIRS also reveals land and sea- surface temperatures. Measurements from these three instruments are analyzed . jointly to filter out the effects of clouds from the IR data in order to derive clear-column air-temperature profiles and surface temperatures with high vertical resolution and accuracy. Together, they constitute an advanced operational sounding data system that have contributed to improve global modeling efforts and numerical weather prediction; enhance studies of the global energy and water cycles, the effects of greenhouse gases, and atmosphere-surface interactions; and facilitate monitoring of climate variations and trends. The high data volume generated by the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments and the complexity of its data format (Hierarchical Data Format, HDF) are barriers to AIRS data use. Although many researchers are interested in only a fraction of the data they receive or request, they are forced to run their algorithms on a much larger data set to extract the information of interest. In order to better server its users, the GES DISC/DAAC, provider of long-term archives and distribution services as well science support for the AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products, has developed various tools for performing channels, variables, parameter, spatial and derived products subsetting, resampling and reformatting operations. This presentation mainly describes the web-enabled subsetting services currently available at the GES DISC/DAAC that provide subsetting functions for all the Level 1B and Level 2 data products from the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments.

  13. The Impact of Physical Atmosphere on Air Quality and the Utility of Satellite Observations in Air Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Park, Y. H.; Doty, K.; Khan, M. N.; Dornblaser, B.

    2012-12-01

    Physical atmosphere significantly impacts air quality as it regulates production, accumulation, and transport of atmospheric pollutants. Consequently, air quality simulations are greatly influenced by the uncertainties that emanates from the simulation of physical atmosphere. Since air quality model predictions are increasingly being used in health studies, regulatory applications, and policy making, reducing such uncertainties in model simulations is of outmost importance. This paper describes some of the critical aspects of physical atmosphere affecting air quality models that can be improved by utilizing satellite observations. Retrievals of skin temperature, surface albedo, surface insolation, cloud top temperature and cloud reflectance obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) by NASA/MSFC GOES Product Generation System (GPGS) have been utilized to improve the air quality simulations used in the State Implementation Plan (SIP) attainment demonstrations. Satellite observations of ground temperature are used to recover surface moisture and heat capacity and thereby improving model simulation of air temperature. Observations of clouds are utilized to improve the photochemical reaction rates within the photochemical model and also to assimilate clouds in the meteorological model. These techniques have been implemented and tested in some of the widely used air quality decision modeling systems such as MM5/WRF/CMAQ/CAMx. The results from these activities show significant improvements in air quality simulations.

  14. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division: Program report, FY 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    In 1988 the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division began its 15th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to years, and from kilometers to global, respectively. For this report, we have chosen to show a subset of results from several projects to illustrate the breadth, depth, and diversity of the modeling activities that are a major part of the Division's research, development, and application efforts. In addition, the recent reorganization of the Division, including the merger of another group with the Division, is described, and the budget, personnel, models, and publications are reviewed. 95 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Assimilation of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles using WRF-Var

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William

    2008-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model contains a three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var), which allows a user to join data from multiple sources into one coherent analysis. WRF-Var combines observations with a background field traditionally generated using a previous model forecast through minimization of a cost function. In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations may be able to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The combined AIRS/AMSU system provides radiance measurements used as input to a sophisticated retrieval scheme which has been shown to produce temperature profiles with an accuracy of 1 K over 1 km layers and humidity profiles with accuracy of 15% in 2 km layers in both clear and partly cloudy conditions. The retrieval algorithm also provides estimates of the accuracy of the retrieved values at each pressure level, allowing the user to select profiles based on the required error tolerances of the application. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high-resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background field type using gen_be and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics in the WRF-Var. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are obtained from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators are used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture

  16. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, functional groups at the surface of retained particle complex iron available in the cell. In response to a reduction in concentrations of requisite iron, a functional deficiency can result intracellularly. Superoxide production by the cell exposed to a particle increases ferrireduction which facilitates import of iron with the objective being the reversal of the metal deficiency. Failure to resolve the functional iron deficiency following cell exposure to particles activates kinases and transcription factors resulting in a release of inflammatory mediators and inflammation. Tissue injury is the end product of this disruption in iron homeostasis initiated by the particle exposure. Elevation of available iron to the cell precludes deficiency of the metal and either diminishes or eliminates biological effects.General Significance: Recognition of the pathway for biological effects after particle exposure to involve a functional deficiency of iron suggests novel therapies such as metal supplementation (e.g. inhaled and oral). In addition, the demonstration of a shared mechanism of biological effects allows understanding the common clinical, physiological, and pathological presentation fol

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  18. Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

    This text, a revision and extension of the first three editions, consists of papers discussing the basic considerations in sampling air for specific purposes, sampler calibration, systems components, sample collectors, and descriptions of air-sampling instruments. (BT)

  19. Rapid Development of Bespoke Unmanned Platforms for Atmospheric Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobester, A.; Johnston, S. J.; Scanlan, J. P.; Hart, E. E.; O'Brien, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    The effective deployment of airborne atmospheric science instruments often hinges on the development cycle time of a suitable platform, one that is capable of delivering them to the desired altitude range for a specified amount of time, along a pre-determined trajectory. This could be driven by the need to respond rapidly to sudden, unexpected events (e.g., volcano eruptions, nuclear fallout, etc.) or simply to accommodate the iterative design and flight test cycle of the instrument developer. A shorter development cycle time would also afford us the ability to quickly adapt the hardware and control logic in response to unexpected results during an experimental campaign. We report on recent developments aimed at meeting this demand. As part of the Atmospheric Science Through Robotic Aircraft (ASTRA) initiative we have investigated the use of rapid prototyping technologies to this end, both on the 'airframe' of the platform itself and on the on-board systems. We show how fast multi-disciplinary design optimization techniques, coupled with computer-controlled additive manufacturing (3D printing) and laser cutting methods and electronic prototyping (using standard, modular, programmable building blocks) can lead to the delivery of a fully customized platform integrating a given instrument in a timescale of the order of ten days. Specific examples include the design and testing of a balloon-launched glider sensorcraft and a stratospheric balloon system. The 'vehicle' for the latter was built on a 3D printer using a copolymer thermoplastic material and fitted with a sacrificial protective 'cage' laser-cut from an open-cell foam. The data logging, tracking, sensor integration and communications services of the platform were constructed using the .net Gadgeteer open source hardware kit. The flight planning and eventual post-flight recovery of the system is enabled by a generic, stochastic trajectory simulation tool, also developed as part of the ASTRA initiative. This

  20. Science from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Noble, Sarah; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. The spacecraft impacted the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE’s science objectives were twofold: (1) Determine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for particles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exospheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) acquired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wavelength range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. Among the preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longitudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lunar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization processes. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent “shroud” of small dust particles between 0

  1. NIST gravimetrically prepared atmospheric level methane in dry air standards suite.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Carney, Jennifer; Guenther, Franklin R

    2012-04-17

    The Gas Metrology Group at the National Institute of Standards and Technology was tasked, by a congressional climate change act, to support the atmospheric measurement community through standards development of key greenhouse gases. This paper discusses the development of a methane (CH(4)) primary standard gas mixture (PSM) suite to support CH(4) measurement needs over a large amount-of-substance fraction range 0.3-20,000 μmol mol(-1), but with emphasis at the atmospheric level 300-4000 nmol mol(-1). Thirty-six CH(4) in dry air PSMs were prepared in 5.9 L high-pressure aluminum cylinders with use of a time-tested gravimetric technique. Ultimately 14 of these 36 PSMs define a CH(4) standard suite covering the nominal ambient atmospheric range of 300-4000 nmol mol(-1). Starting materials of pure CH(4) and cylinders of dry air were exhaustively analyzed to determine the purity and air composition. Gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to determine a CH(4) response for each of the 14 PSMs where the reproducibility of average measurement ratios as a standard error was typically (0.04-0.26) %. An ISO 6134-compliant generalized least-squares regression (GenLine) program was used to analyze the consistency of the CH(4) suite. All 14 PSMs passed the u-test with residuals between the gravimetric and the GenLine solution values being between -0.74 and 1.31 nmol mol(-1); (0.00-0.16)% relative absolute. One of the 14 PSMs, FF4288 at 1836.16 ± 0.75 nmol mol(-1) (k = 1) amount-of-substance fraction, was sent to the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), the Republic of Korea's National Metrology Institute, for comparison. The same PSM was subsequently sent to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for analysis to their standards. Results show agreement between KRISS-NIST of +0.13% relative (+2.3 nmol mol(-1)) and NOAA-NIST of -0.14% relative (-2.54 nmol mol(-1)).

  2. Improved Surface and Tropospheric Temperatures Determined Using Only Shortwave Channels: The AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard DISC has generated products derived from AIRS/AMSU-A observations, starting from September 2002 when the AIRS instrument became stable, using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. The AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm will be finalized in September 2011. This paper describes some of the significant improvements contained in the Version-6 retrieval algorithm, compared to that used in Version-5, with an emphasis on the improvement of atmospheric temperature profiles, ocean and land surface skin temperatures, and ocean and land surface spectral emissivities. AIRS contains 2378 spectral channels covering portions of the spectral region 650 cm(sup -1) (15.38 micrometers) - 2665 cm(sup -1) (3.752 micrometers). These spectral regions contain significant absorption features from two CO2 absorption bands, the 15 micrometers (longwave) CO2 band, and the 4.3 micrometers (shortwave) CO2 absorption band. There are also two atmospheric window regions, the 12 micrometer - 8 micrometer (longwave) window, and the 4.17 micrometer - 3.75 micrometer (shortwave) window. Historically, determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures from satellite observations was performed using primarily observations in the longwave window and CO2 absorption regions. According to cloud clearing theory, more accurate soundings of both surface skin and atmospheric temperatures can be obtained under partial cloud cover conditions if one uses observations in longwave channels to determine coefficients which generate cloud cleared radiances R(sup ^)(sub i) for all channels, and uses R(sup ^)(sub i) only from shortwave channels in the determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures. This procedure is now being used in the AIRS Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm. Results are presented for both daytime and nighttime conditions showing improved Version-6 surface and atmospheric soundings under partial cloud cover.

  3. SAVS: A Space and Atmospheric Visualization Science system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Mankofsky, A.; Blanchard, P.; Goodrich, C.; McNabb, D.; Kamins, D.

    1995-01-01

    The research environment faced by space and atmospheric scientists in the 1990s is characterized by unprecedented volumes of new data, by ever-increasing repositories of unexploited mission files, and by the widespread use of empirical and large-scale computational models needed for the synthesis of understanding across data sets and discipline boundaries. The effective analysis and interpretation of such massive amounts of information have become the subjects of legitimate concern. With SAVS (a Space and Atmospheric Visualization Science System), we address these issues by creating a 'push-button' software environment that mimics the logical scientific processes in data acquisition, reduction, and analysis without requiring a detailed understanding of the methods, networks, and modules that link the tools and effectively execute the functions. SAVS provides (1) a customizable framework for accessing a powerful set of visualization tools based on the popular AVS visualization software with hooks to PV-Wave and access to Khoros modules, (2) a set of mathematical and statistical tools, (3) an extensible library of discipline-specific functions and models (e.g., MSIS, IRI, Feldstein Oval, IGRF, satellite tracking with CADRE-3, etc.), and (4) capabilities for local and remote data base access. The system treats scalar, vector, and image data, and runs on most common Unix workstations. We present a description of SAVS and its components, followed by several applications based on generic research interests in interplanetary and magnetospheric physics (IMP/ISTP), active experiments in space (CRRES), and mission planning focused on the Earth's thermospheric, ionospheric, and mesospheric domains (TIMED).

  4. Citizen Science Air Sensor Project with Clean Air Carolina and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientists are partnering with Clean Air Carolina (CAC) in Charlotte, N.C., and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI) in Cherokee, N.C., to conduct a citizen science air quality project in these regions.

  5. Final Technical Report for earmark project "Atmospheric Science Program at the University of Louisville"

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, Timothy Edward

    2014-02-11

    We have completed a 3-year project to enhance the atmospheric science program at the University of Louisville, KY (est. 2008). The goals were to complete an undergraduate atmospheric science laboratory (Year 1) and to hire and support an assistant professor (Years 2 and 3). Both these goals were met on schedule, and slightly under budget.

  6. Potential Industrial Applications of the One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP) Operating in Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece Roth, J.

    2004-11-01

    The majority of industrial plasma processing with glow discharges has been conducted at pressures below 10 torr. This tends to limit applications to high value workpieces as a result of the high capital cost of vacuum systems and the production constraints of batch processing. It has long been recognized that glow discharge plasmas would play a much larger industrial role if they could be generated at one atmosphere. The One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP), developed at the University of Tennessee's Plasma Sciences Laboratory, is a non-thermal RF plasma operating on displacement currents with the time-resolved characteristics of a classical low pressure DC normal glow discharge. As a glow discharge, the OAUGDP operates with maximum electrical efficiency at the Stoletow point, where the energy input per ion-electron pair is a minimum [1, 2]. Several interdisciplinary teams have investigated potential applications of the OAUGDP. These teams included collaborators from the UTK Textiles and Nonwovens Development Center (TANDEC), and the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microbiology, and Food Science and Technology, as well as the NASA Langley Research Center. The potential applications of the OAUGDP have all been at one atmosphere and room temperature, using air as the working gas. These applications include sterilizing medical and dental equipment; sterilizable air filters to deal with the "sick building syndrome"; removal of soot from Diesel engine exhaust; subsonic plasma aerodynamic effects, including flow re-attachment to airfoils and boundary layer modification; electrohydrodynamic (EDH) flow control of working gases; increasing the surface energy of materials; improving the adhesion of paints and electroplated layers: improving the wettability and wickability of fabrics; stripping of photoresist; and plasma deposition and directional etching of potential microelectronic relevance. [1] J. R. Roth, Industrial Plasma Engineering

  7. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Modeling for Combined Meteorology and Air Quality Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric Eulerian grid models for mesoscale and larger applications require sub-grid models for turbulent vertical exchange processes, particularly within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PSL). In combined meteorology and air quality modeling systems consistent PSL modeling of wi...

  8. PROTECTING ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES WITH THE CLEAN AIR ACT: THE ROLE OF SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  9. Communications Blackout Predictions for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, David D.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is expected to be a long-range, long-duration science laboratory rover on the Martian surface. MSL will provide a significant milestone that paves the way for future landed missions to Mars. NASA is studying options to launch MSL as early as 2009. There are three elements to the spacecraft; carrier (cruise stage), entry vehicle, and rover. The rover will have a UHF proximity link as the primary path for EDL communications and may have an X-band direct-to-Earth link as a back-up. Given the importance of collecting critical event telemetry data during atmospheric entry, it is important to understand the ability of a signal link to be maintained, especially during the period near peak convective heating. The received telemetry during entry (or played back later) will allow for the performance of the Entry-Descent-Landing technologies to be assessed. These technologies include guided entry for precision landing, a new sky-crane landing system and powered descent. MSL will undergo an entry profile that may result in a potential communications blackout caused by ionized particles for short periods near peak heating. The vehicle will use UHF and possibly X-band during the entry phase. The purpose of this rep0rt is to quantify or bound the likelihood of any such blackout at UHF frequencies (401 MHz) and X-band frequencies (8.4 GHz). Two entry trajectory scenarios were evaluated: a stressful entry trajectory to quantify an upper-bound for any possible blackout period, and a nominal trajectory to quantify likelihood of blackout for such cases.

  10. Communications Blackout Predictions for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, David D.; Edquist, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is expected to be a long-range, long-duration science laboratory rover on the Martian surface. MSL will provide a significant milestone that paves the way for future landed missions to Mars. NASA is studying options to launch MSL as early as 2009. MSL will be the first mission to demonstrate the new technology of 'smart landers', which include precision landing and hazard avoidance in order to -land at scientifically interesting sites that would otherwise be unreachable. There are three elements to the spacecraft; carrier (cruise stage), entry vehicle, and rover. The rover will have an X-band direct-to-Earth (DTE) link as well as a UHF proximity link. There is also a possibility of an X-band proximity link. Given the importance of collecting critical event telemetry data during atmospheric entry, it is important to understand the ability of a signal link to be maintained, especially during the period near peak convective heating. The received telemetry during entry (or played back later) will allow for the performance of the Entry-Descent-Landing technologies to be assessed. These technologies include guided entry for precision landing, hazard avoidance, a new sky-crane landing system and powered descent. MSL will undergo an entry profile that may result in a potential communications blackout caused by ionized plasma for short periods near peak heating. The vehicle will use UHF and possibly X-band during the entry phase. The purpose of this report is to quantify or bound the likelihood of any such blackout at UHF frequencies (401 MHz) and X-band frequencies (8.4 GHz). Two entry trajectory scenarios were evaluated: a stressful entry trajectory to quantify an upper-bound for any possible blackout period, and a nominal likely trajectory to quantify likelihood of blackout for such cases.

  11. Citizen Science Air Monitoring in the Ironbound Community ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) mission is to protect human health and the environment. To move toward achieving this goal, EPA is facilitating identification of potential environmental concerns, particularly in vulnerable communities. This includes actively supporting citizen science projects and providing communities with the information and assistance they need to conduct their own air pollution monitoring efforts. The Air Sensor Toolbox for Citizen Scientists1 was developed as a resource to meet stakeholder needs. Examples of materials developed for the Toolbox and ultimately pilot tested in the Ironbound Community in Newark, New Jersey are reported here. The Air Sensor Toolbox for Citizen Scientists is designed as an online resource that provides information and guidance on new, low-cost compact technologies used for measuring air quality. The Toolbox features resources developed by EPA researchers that can be used by citizens to effectively collect, analyze, interpret, and communicate air quality data. The resources include information about sampling methods, how to calibrate and validate monitors, options for measuring air quality, data interpretation guidelines, and low-cost sensor performance information. This Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) project provided an opportunity for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) to work collaboratively with EPA Region 2 to provide the Ironbound Community with a “Toolbox” specific for c

  12. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields in Thunderstorms through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers.

    PubMed

    Schellart, P; Trinh, T N G; Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Scholten, O; Ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Ebert, U; Koehn, C; Rutjes, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J M; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Holties, H A; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Moldon, J; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D J; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P

    2015-04-24

    We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunderstorms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the atmospheric electric field, these patterns can be well reproduced by state-of-the-art simulation codes. This in turn provides a novel way to study atmospheric electric fields.

  13. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Contrasting characteristics of sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air and atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen glow discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Liu, D. X.; Iza, F.; Rong, M. Z.; Kong, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Glow discharges in air are often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for numerous chamber-free applications. This is due to the ubiquitous presence of air and the perceived abundance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in air plasmas. In this paper, sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air plasmas are shown to produce a low concentration of excited oxygen atoms but an abundance of excited nitrogen species, UV photons and ozone molecules. This contrasts sharply with the efficient production of excited oxygen atoms in comparable helium-oxygen discharges. Relevant reaction chemistry analysed with a global model suggests that collisional excitation of O2 by helium metastables is significantly more efficient than electron dissociative excitation of O2, electron excitation of O and ion-ion recombination. These results suggest different practical uses of the two oxygen-containing atmospheric discharges, with air plasmas being well suited for nitrogen and UV based chemistry and He-O2 plasmas for excited atomic oxygen based chemistry.

  14. The Role of Radiation and Other Renascent Subfields in Atmospheric Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiscombe, W. J.; Ramanathan, V.

    1985-10-01

    The horizons of atmospheric science are undergoing a considerable expansion as a result of intense interest in problems of climate. This has caused somewhat of a renaissance in hitherto-neglected subfields of atmospheric science. Focusing on atmospheric radiation as the renascent subfield of most direct concern to us, we describe the exciting research and educational challenges that lie ahead in this subfield, and offer possible ways in which these challenges might be met.

  15. Challenges and opportunities of cloud computing for atmospheric sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Montes, Diego A.; Añel, Juan A.; Pena, Tomás F.; Wallom, David C. H.

    2016-04-01

    Cloud computing is an emerging technological solution widely used in many fields. Initially developed as a flexible way of managing peak demand it has began to make its way in scientific research. One of the greatest advantages of cloud computing for scientific research is independence of having access to a large cyberinfrastructure to fund or perform a research project. Cloud computing can avoid maintenance expenses for large supercomputers and has the potential to 'democratize' the access to high-performance computing, giving flexibility to funding bodies for allocating budgets for the computational costs associated with a project. Two of the most challenging problems in atmospheric sciences are computational cost and uncertainty in meteorological forecasting and climate projections. Both problems are closely related. Usually uncertainty can be reduced with the availability of computational resources to better reproduce a phenomenon or to perform a larger number of experiments. Here we expose results of the application of cloud computing resources for climate modeling using cloud computing infrastructures of three major vendors and two climate models. We show how the cloud infrastructure compares in performance to traditional supercomputers and how it provides the capability to complete experiments in shorter periods of time. The monetary cost associated is also analyzed. Finally we discuss the future potential of this technology for meteorological and climatological applications, both from the point of view of operational use and research.

  16. Satellite Occultation Measurements-Contributions to Middle Atmosphere Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.

    2003-12-01

    Solar occultation measurements from earth-orbit began with two orbits of data from aboard Apollo during the Apollo-Soyuz test project flight in 1975. The instrument was called SAM for the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement. It was a simple proof-of-principle, one-spectral channel experiment that led to the long-duration occultation measurement series beginning in 1978 with the launch of SAM II aboard Nimbus 7. SAGE I, II, and III followed with increasing instrument complexity and capability. SAGE II and III are presently in orbit providing excellent high vertically-resolved measurements of aerosol, ozone, and other constituents. Other occultation sensors for long-duration measurements were launched in the 1990s including HALOE and POAM. This paper will present a historical overview of satellite occultation missions from 1975 to the present. The fundamentals of the occultation technique will be presented along with its advantages and comparison with other remote sensors. The occultation sensors, to-date, have produced exceedingly important measurements that have contributed to atmospheric and climate science. These have included such measurements as: the naming and characterization of Polar Stratospheric Clouds; aerosol and ozone associated with the wintertime polar vortex phenomena; ozone, HCl and HF trends associated with the effects of CFCs; the impact of volcanic aerosols; and aerosol and cirrus cloud distributions and trends. As the lead-off paper in this session, examples of the above data will be presented. Finally, some "lessons-learned" from these occultation missions will be discussed.

  17. Semantic Data Access Services at NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffer, E.; Hertz, J.; Kusterer, J.

    2012-12-01

    The corpus of Earth Science data products at the Atmospheric Science Data Center at NASA's Langley Research Center comprises a widely heterogeneous set of products, even among those whose subject matter is very similar. Two distinct data products may both contain data on the same parameter, for instance, solar irradiance; but the instruments used, and the circumstances under which the data were collected and processed, may differ significantly. Understanding the differences is critical to using the data effectively. Data distribution services must be able to provide prospective users with enough information to allow them to meaningfully compare and evaluate the data products offered. Semantic technologies - ontologies, triple stores, reasoners, linked data - offer functionality for addressing this issue. Ontologies can provide robust, high-fidelity domain models that serve as common schema for discovering, evaluating, comparing and integrating data from disparate products. Reasoning engines and triple stores can leverage ontologies to support intelligent search applications that allow users to discover, query, retrieve, and easily reformat data from a broad spectrum of sources. We argue that because of the extremely complex nature of scientific data, data distribution systems should wholeheartedly embrace semantic technologies in order to make their data accessible to a broad array of prospective end users, and to ensure that the data they provide will be clearly understood and used appropriately by consumers. Toward this end, we propose a distribution system in which formal ontological models that accurately and comprehensively represent the ASDC's data domain, and fully leverage the expressivity and inferential capabilities of first order logic, are used to generate graph-based representations of the relevant relationships among data sets, observational systems, metadata files, and geospatial, temporal and scientific parameters to help prospective data consumers

  18. Behavior of self-confined spherical layer of light radiation in the air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torchigin, V. P.; Torchigin, A. V.

    2004-07-01

    Behavior of thin spherical layer of intensive light in an inhomogeneous atmosphere is considered. It is shown that the behavior is similar to puzzling and mysterious behavior of ball lightnings. Under assumption that ball lightning moves along the gradient of atmosphere air density process of ball lightning penetration in a salon of a flying airplane is analyzed.

  19. The impact of AIRS atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles on hurricane forecasts: Ike (2008) and Irene (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jing; Li, Jun; Schmit, Timothy J.; Li, Jinlong; Liu, Zhiquan

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) measurements are a valuable supplement to current observational data, especially over the oceans where conventional data are sparse. In this study, two types of AIRS-retrieved temperature and moisture profiles, the AIRS Science Team product (SciSup) and the single field-of-view (SFOV) research product, were evaluated with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis data over the Atlantic Ocean during Hurricane Ike (2008) and Hurricane Irene (2011). The evaluation results showed that both types of AIRS profiles agreed well with the ECMWF analysis, especially between 200 hPa and 700 hPa. The average standard deviation of both temperature profiles was approximately 1 K under 200 hPa, where the mean AIRS temperature profile from the AIRS SciSup retrievals was slightly colder than that from the AIRS SFOV retrievals. The mean SciSup moisture profile was slightly drier than that from the SFOV in the mid troposphere. A series of data assimilation and forecast experiments was then conducted with the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system for hurricanes Ike and Irene. The results showed an improvement in the hurricane track due to the assimilation of AIRS clear-sky temperature profiles in the hurricane environment. In terms of total precipitable water and rainfall forecasts, the hurricane moisture environment was found to be affected by the AIRS sounding assimilation. Meanwhile, improving hurricane intensity forecasts through assimilating AIRS profiles remains a challenge for further study.

  20. Experimental Determination of the Mass of Air Molecules from the Law of Atmospheres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayn, Carl H.; Galvin, Vincent, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A gas pressure gauge has been constructed for use in a student experiment involving the law of atmospheres. From pressure data obtained at selected elevations the average mass of air molecules is determined and compared to that calculated from the molecular weights and percentages of constituents to the air. (Author/BB)

  1. Development of Level 3 (gridded) products for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, Stephanie L.; Leroy, Stephen S.; Manning, Evan M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Oliphant, Robert B.; Braverman, Amy; Lee, Sung-Yung; Lambrigtsen, Bjom H.

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) sounding system is a suite of infrared and microwave instruments flown as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) onboard the Aqua platform. The AIRS dataset provides a daily, global view of Earth processes at a finer vertical resolution than ever before. However, analysis of the AIRS data is a daunting task given the sheer volume and complexity of the data. The volume of data produced by the EOS project is unprecedented; the AIRS project alone will produce many terabytes of data over the lifetime of the mission. This paper describes development of AIRS Level 3 data products that will help to alleviate problems of access and usability.

  2. The Study of the Atmosphere in the Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to justify the inclusion of meteorology within the science curriculum. Reflects upon the nature of science and some current issues in science education, and examines the reality of including meteorology within worldwide science curricula. Contains 37 references. (Author/DDR)

  3. Pesticides in the atmosphere of the Mississippi River Valley, part II - Air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, W.T.; Majewski, M.S.; Goolsby, D.A.; Wiebe, F.W.; Coupe, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Weekly composite air samples were collected from early April through to mid-September 1995 at three paired urban and agricultural sites along the Mississippi River region of the Midwestern United States. The paired sampling sites were located in Mississippi, Iowa, and Minnesota. A background site, removed from dense urban and agricultural areas, was located on the shore of Lake Superior in Michigan. Each sample was analyzed for 49 compounds; of these, 21 of 26 herbicides, 13 of 19 insecticides, and 4 of 4 related transformation products were detected during the study, with most pesticides detected in more than one sample. The maximum number of pesticides detected in an air sample was 18. Herbicides were the predominant type of pesticide detected at every site. Detection frequencies of most herbicides were similar at the urban and agricultural sites in Iowa and Minnesota. In Mississippi, herbicides generally were detected more frequently at the agricultural site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and carbaryl, which are used in agricultural and non-agricultural settings, were detected more frequently in urban sites than agricultural sites in Mississippi and Iowa. Methyl parathion was detected in 70% of the samples from the Mississippi agricultural site and at the highest concentration (62 ng/m3 air) of any insecticide measured in the study. At the background site, dacthal (100%), atrazine (35%), cyanazine (22%), and the (primarily atrazine) triazine transformation products CIAT (35%) and CEAT (17%) were detected most frequently, suggesting their potential for long-range atmospheric transport. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. GENESIS SciFlo: Enabling Multi-Instrument Atmospheric Science Using Grid Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Tang, B.; Manipon, G.; Yunck, T.; Fetzer, E.; Braverman, A.; Dobinson, E.

    2004-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of web services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations will include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-strato-sphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we are developing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable web services and executable operators into a distributed computing flow (operator tree). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out

  5. Do-It-Yourself Air Sensors – Exploring the Atmosphere and Turning on Light Bulbs!?

    EPA Science Inventory

    These are educational slides that will be presented in a webinar to the National Science Teachers Association. Topics covered include general air quality, current EPA research, and EPA's particle sensor kit that is a classroom activity.

  6. Protecting national parks from air pollution effects: Making sausage from science and policy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill; Blett, Tamara; Malm, William C.; Alexander, Ruth; Doremus, Holly

    2016-01-01

    The story of air pollution research, policy development, and management in national parks is a fascinating blend of cultural change, vision, interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration, and science-policy-management-stakeholder collaborations. Unable to ignore the loss of iconic vistas from regional haze and loss of fish from acid rain in the 1980s, the National Park Service (NPS) embraced an obligation to protect resources from threats originating outside park boundaries. Upholding the Organic Act requirement for parks to remain "unimpaired" for the enjoyment of future generations, and using the Clean Air Act statement that NPS has an “affirmative responsibility” to protect park resources, NPS has supported, and effectively used, research as a means to protect lands, waters, and vistas from a mostly unseen threat. Using visibility and atmospheric nitrogen deposition as examples, we will illustrate some success stories where NPS led the way to benefit not only parks, but the Nation.

  7. Atmospheric effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna García, R.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, A.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-09-01

    Atmospheric parameters, such as pressure (P), temperature (T) and density (ρ∝P/T), affect the development of extensive air showers initiated by energetic cosmic rays. We have studied the impact of atmospheric variations on extensive air showers by means of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The rate of events shows a ˜10% seasonal modulation and ˜2% diurnal one. We find that the observed behaviour is explained by a model including the effects associated with the variations of P and ρ. The former affects the longitudinal development of air showers while the latter influences the Molière radius and hence the lateral distribution of the shower particles. The model is validated with full simulations of extensive air showers using atmospheric profiles measured at the site of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  8. Development and case study of a science-based software platform to support policy making on air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Lao, Yanwen; Jang, Carey; Lin, Chen-Jen; Xing, Jia; Wang, Shuxiao; Fu, Joshua S; Deng, Shuang; Xie, Junping; Long, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementations of a novel software platform that supports real-time, science-based policy making on air quality through a user-friendly interface. The software, RSM-VAT, uses a response surface modeling (RSM) methodology and serves as a visualization and analysis tool (VAT) for three-dimensional air quality data obtained by atmospheric models. The software features a number of powerful and intuitive data visualization functions for illustrating the complex nonlinear relationship between emission reductions and air quality benefits. The case study of contiguous U.S. demonstrates that the enhanced RSM-VAT is capable of reproducing the air quality model results with Normalized Mean Bias <2% and assisting in air quality policy making in near real time.

  9. Atmospheric profiles at the southern Pierre Auger Observatory and their relevance to air shower measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Keilhauer, B.; Bluemer, J.; Engel, R.; Gora, D.; Homola, P.; Klages, H.; Pekala, J.; Risse, M.; Unger, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.

    2005-07-01

    The dependence of atmospheric conditions on altitude and time have to be known at the site of an air shower experiment for accurate reconstruction of extensive air showers and their simulations. The height-profile of atmospheric depth is of particular interest as it enters directly into the reconstruction of longitudinal shower development and of the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays. For the southern part of the Auger Observatory, the atmosphere has been investigated in a number of campaigns with meteorological radio soundings and with continuous measurements of ground-based weather stations. Focusing on atmospheric depth and temperature profiles, temporal variations are described and monthly profiles are developed. Uncertainties of the monthly atmospheres that are currently applied in the Auger reconstruction are discussed.

  10. Operational readiness for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the earth observing system aqua spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, T.; Aumann, H.; Chahine, M.; Karnik, A.; Goodson, G.; Schindler, R.; Elliot, D. A.; Hofstadter, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the AIRS science objectives, the instrument design and operation, the in-flight operational scenario, and the calibration plan. All aspects of the program are addressed here to demonstrate that the AIRS program is ready to transition to the flight segment of the program.

  11. Scientific Infrastructure to Support Atmospheric Science and Aerosol Science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs at Barrow, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, D. A.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Dexheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific infrastructure to support atmospheric science and aerosol science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programs at Barrow, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's located at Barrow, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site. The site provides a scientific infrastructure and data archives for the international Arctic research community. The infrastructure at Barrow has been in place since 1998, with many improvements since then. Barrow instruments include: scanning precipitation Radar-cloud radar, Doppler Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Manual and state-of-art automatic Balloon sounding systems, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), Millimeter cloud radar, High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) along with all the standard metrological measurements. Data from these instruments is placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments are at Barrow and the challenges of maintaining these instruments in an Arctic site.

  12. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  13. Measurements of vertical air currents in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, K O

    1931-01-01

    To summarize, the experiments with balloons, sailplanes and light airplanes conducted thus far, reveal the vertical velocities of the air to be primarily dependent on the vertical temperature distribution. Stable stratifications result in up-and-down currents forced by the contour of the ground, which are readily recognized in flight and, if need be, may be avoided.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics and predictability in the atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Ghil, M.; Kimoto, M.; Neelin, J.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Systematic applications of nonlinear dynamics to studies of the atmosphere and climate are reviewed for the period 1987-1990. Problems discussed include paleoclimatic applications, low-frequency atmospheric variability, and interannual variability of the ocean-atmosphere system. Emphasis is placed on applications of the successive bifurcation approach and the ergodic theory of dynamical systems to understanding and prediction of intraseasonal, interannual, and Quaternary climate changes.

  15. Atmospheric Risk Assessment for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Allen; Vasavada, Ashwin; Cianciolo, Alicia; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Dan; Hinson, David; Lewis, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. As with previous Mars landers, atmospheric conditions during entry, descent, and landing directly impact the performance of MSL's EDL system. While the vehicle's novel guided entry system allows it to "fly out" a range of atmospheric uncertainties, its trajectory through the atmosphere creates a variety of atmospheric sensitivities not present on previous Mars entry systems and landers. Given the mission's stringent landing capability requirements, understanding the atmosphere state and spacecraft sensitivities takes on heightened importance. MSL's guided entry trajectory differs significantly from recent Mars landers and includes events that generate different atmospheric sensitivities than past missions. The existence of these sensitivities and general advancement in the state of Mars atmospheric knowledge has led the MSL team to employ new atmosphere modeling techniques in addition to past practices. A joint EDL engineering and Mars atmosphere science and modeling team has been created to identify the key system sensitivities, gather available atmospheric data sets, develop relevant atmosphere models, and formulate methods to integrate atmosphere information into EDL performance assessments. The team consists of EDL engineers, project science staff, and Mars atmospheric scientists from a variety of institutions. This paper provides an overview of the system performance sensitivities that have driven the atmosphere modeling approach, discusses the atmosphere data sets and models employed by the team as a result of the identified sensitivities, and introduces the tools used to translate atmospheric knowledge into quantitative EDL performance assessments.

  16. Technology Needs Assessment of an Atmospheric Observation System for Multidisciplinary Air Quality/Meteorology Missions, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, U. R.; Bortner, M. H.; Grenda, R. N.; Brehm, W. F.; Frippel, G. G.; Alyea, F.; Kraiman, H.; Folder, P.; Krowitz, L.

    1982-01-01

    The technology advancements that will be necessary to implement the atmospheric observation systems are considered. Upper and lower atmospheric air quality and meteorological parameters necessary to support the air quality investigations were included. The technology needs were found predominantly in areas related to sensors and measurements of air quality and meteorological measurements.

  17. Air Quality Science and Regulatory Efforts Require Geostationary Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Allen, D. J.; Stehr, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Air quality scientists and regulatory agencies would benefit from the high spatial and temporal resolution trace gas and aerosol data that could be provided by instruments on a geostationary platform. More detailed time-resolved data from a geostationary platform could be used in tracking regional transport and in evaluating mesoscale air quality model performance in terms of photochemical evolution throughout the day. The diurnal cycle of photochemical pollutants is currently missing from the data provided by the current generation of atmospheric chemistry satellites which provide only one measurement per day. Often peak surface ozone mixing ratios are reached much earlier in the day during major regional pollution episodes than during local episodes due to downward mixing of ozone that had been transported above the boundary layer overnight. The regional air quality models often do not simulate this downward mixing well enough and underestimate surface ozone in regional episodes. Having high time-resolution geostationary data will make it possible to determine the magnitude of this lower-and mid-tropospheric transport that contributes to peak eight-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations. We will show ozone and PM(sub 2.5) episodes from the CMAQ model and suggest ways in which geostationary satellite data would improve air quality forecasting. Current regulatory modeling is typically being performed at 12 km horizontal resolution. State and regional air quality regulators in regions with complex topography and/or land-sea breezes are anxious to move to 4-km or finer resolution simulations. Geostationary data at these or finer resolutions will be useful in evaluating such models.

  18. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  19. An objective definition of air mass types affecting Athens, Greece; the corresponding atmospheric pressure patterns and air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Sindosi, O A; Katsoulis, B D; Bartzokas, A

    2003-08-01

    This work aims at defining characteristic air mass types that dominate in the region of Athens, Greece during the cold (November-March) and the warm (May-September) period of the year and also at evaluating the corresponding concentration levels of the main air pollutants. For each air mass type, the mean atmospheric pressure distribution (composite maps) over Europe and the Mediterranean is estimated in order to reveal the association of atmospheric circulation with air pollution levels in Athens. The data basis for this work consists of daily values of thirteen meteorological and six pollutant parameters covering the period 1993-97. The definition of the characteristic air mass types is attempted objectively by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The results show that during the cold period of the year there are six prevailing air mass types (at least 3% of the total number of days) and six infrequent ones. The examination of the corresponding air pollution concentration levels shows that the primary air pollutants appear with increased concentrations when light or southerly winds prevail. This is usually the case when a high pressure system is located over the central Mediterranean or a low pressure system lays over south Italy, respectively. Low levels of the primary pollutants are recorded under northeasterly winds, mainly caused by a high pressure system over Ukraine. During the warm period of the year, the southwestern Asia thermal low and the subtropical anticyclone of the Atlantic Ocean affect Greece. Though these synoptic systems cause almost stagnant conditions, four main air mass types are dominant and ten others, associated with extreme weather, are infrequent. Despite the large amounts of total solar radiation characterizing this period, ozone concentrations remain at low levels in central Athens because of its destruction by nitric oxide.

  20. Undergraduate Research Program in Atmospheric Science: Houston Ozone Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P. A.; Balimuttajjo, M.; Damon, D.; Herridge, A.; Hromis, A. G.; Litwin, D.; Wright, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Minority University Consortium for Earth and Space Sciences (MUCESS) composed of the University of Houston-Downtown (UHD), Medgar Evers College (City University of New York), South Carolina State University, is an undergraduate atmospheric science program funded by NSF. The program's goal is to increase the participation of minority universities in STEM activities and careers by providing students with the knowledge and skills needed to perform weather balloon launches, interpret ozone and temperature variations in the troposphere and stratosphere. Ozone profiles up to 30 km altitude are obtained via an instrument payload attached to a weather balloon. The payload instrumentation consists of an EN-SCI ECC ozonesonde and an iMET radiosonde. The data is transmitted to a base station in real time and includes pressure, temperature, humidity, and GPS coordinates This presentation is directed towards comparing our 2011 Houston data to data that either UHD or the University of Houston (UH) has collected. Our launches are primarily on Sunday, and UH's on Friday. Our primary objective is to identify ground level ozone variations on Sunday and compare with weekday levels as tropospheric ozone is largely controlled by anthropogenic activities. Ozone levels vary depending on the time of year, temperature, rain, wind direction, chemical plant activities, private and commercial traffic patterns.etc. Our limited Friday launches, supported by UH data, indicate that ground level ozone is generally elevated in contrast to Sunday data, For example, our Friday July 2011 launch detected elevated low-altitude ozone levels with ground level ozone levels of 42 nb that increased to 46 nb from 500 m to 1 km. Other peaks are at 2.7 km (44 nb) and 6km (41 nb), decreasing to 17 nb at the tropopause (12 km). Overall, Sunday low altitude ozone levels are generally lower. Our Sunday ground level ozone data ranges from a low of 25 nb on July 11 to a high of 50 nb on August 1. A combination of

  1. Flush Air Data Sensing System for Trans-Atmospheric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth, Joel

    2006-10-01

    With the emergence of multiple companies attempting to tap the space tourism market, as well as NASA's return to the moon initiative, an inexpensive but reliable means of determining wind relative vehicle attitude is becoming a necessity. The traditional means of obtaining air data (altitude, Mach number, angles of attack and sideslip) using fixed pitot probes and directional flow vanes is not viable for collecting data on high supersonic and hypersonic vehicles, due to the high temperatures and dynamic pressures. The solution is to use a matrix of flush mounted pressure ports on the vehicle nose or on an outboard wing leading edge. Since the ports will be located behind a detached shock wave at supersonic velocities, the temperatures will remain substantially lower. A Flush Air Data Sensing (FADS) system can also be used for subsonic conditions, although it must be calibrated for the effects of the vehicle geometry. The physics of air behavior and the mathematics of the solution algorithm will be presented. Several relevant examples of planned vehicles will be presented.

  2. Constructing an AIRS Climatology for Data Visualization and Analysis to Serve the Climate Science and Application Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Feng; Keim, Elaine; Hearty, Thomas J.; Wei, Jennifer; Savtchenko, Andrey; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for NASA sounders: the present Aqua AIRS mission and the succeeding SNPP CrIS mission. The AIRS mission is entering its 15th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing longwave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released product from the version 6 algorithm in early 2013. Giovanni, a Web-based application developed by the GES DISC, provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data without having to download the data. Most important variables from version 6 AIRS product are available in Giovanni. We are developing a climatology product using 14-year AIRS retrievals. The study can be a good start for the long term climatology from NASA sounders: the AIRS and the succeeding CrIS. This presentation will show the impacts to the climatology product from different aggregation methods. The climatology can serve climate science and application communities in data visualization and analysis, which will be demonstrated using a variety of functions in version 4 Giovanni. The highlights of these functions include user-defined monthly and seasonal climatology, inter annual seasonal time series, anomaly analysis.

  3. Organics in the atmosphere: From air pollution to biogeochemical cycles and climate (Vilhelm Bjerknes Medal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Organics are key players in the biosphere-atmosphere-climate interactions. They have also a significant anthropogenic component due to primary emissions or interactions with pollution. The organic pool in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of compounds of variable reactivity and properties, variable content in C, H, O, N and other elements depending on their origin and their history in the atmosphere. Multiphase atmospheric chemistry is known to produce organic acids with high oxygen content, like oxalic acid. This water soluble organic bi-acid is used as indicator for cloud processing and can form complexes with atmospheric Iron, affecting Iron solubility. Organics are also carriers of other nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus. They also interact with solar radiation and with atmospheric water impacting on climate. In line with this vision for the role of organics in the atmosphere, we present results from a global 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model on the role of gaseous and particulate organics in atmospheric chemistry, accounting for multiphase chemistry and aerosol ageing in the atmosphere as well as nutrients emissions, atmospheric transport and deposition. Historical simulations and projections highlight the human impact on air quality and atmospheric deposition to the oceans. The results are put in the context of climate change. Uncertainties and implications of our findings for biogeochemical and climate modeling are discussed.

  4. PREFACE: SPECIAL ISSUE OF ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PM AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a continuing effort to improve communications among the atmospheric sciences, policy, and health communities, an international specialty conference was initiated in 2001 that took place in April 2003 in Pittsburgh, PA. The conference entitled, "Particulate Matter: Atmospheric...

  5. Results from CrIS-ATMS Obtained Using the AIRS Science Team Retrieval Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.; Iredell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua in May 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB (which subsequently failed early in the mission), to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. AIRS/AMSU had two primary objectives. The first objective was to provide real-time data products available for use by the operational Numerical Weather Prediction Centers in a data assimilation mode to improve the skill of their subsequent forecasts. The second objective was to provide accurate unbiased sounding products with good spatial coverage that are used to generate stable multi-year climate data sets to study the earth's interannual variability, climate processes, and possibly long-term trends. AIRS/AMSU data for all time periods are now being processed using the state of the art AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval methodology. The Suomi-NPP mission was launched in October 2011 as part of a sequence of Low Earth Orbiting satellite missions under the "Joint Polar Satellite System" (JPSS). NPP carries CrIS and ATMS, which are advanced infra-red and microwave atmospheric sounders that were designed as follow-ons to the AIRS and AMSU instruments. The main objective of this work is to assess whether CrIS/ATMS will be an adequate replacement for AIRS/AMSU from the perspective of the generation of accurate and consistent long term climate data records, or if improved instruments should be developed for future flight. It is critical for CrIS/ATMS to be processed using an algorithm similar to, or at least comparable to, AIRS Version-6 before such an assessment can be made. We have been conducting research to optimize products derived from CrIS/ATMS observations using a scientific approach analogous to the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm. Our latest research uses Version-5.70 of the CrIS/ATMS retrieval algorithm, which is otherwise analogous to AIRS Version-6, but does not yet contain the benefit of use of a Neural-Net first guess start-up system

  6. Air pollution forecasting in Ankara, Turkey using air pollution index and its relation to assimilative capacity of the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Genc, D Deniz; Yesilyurt, Canan; Tuncel, Gurdal

    2010-07-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of CO, NO, NO(2), SO(2), and PM(10), measured between 1999 and 2000, at traffic-impacted and residential stations in Ankara were investigated. Air quality in residential areas was found to be influenced by traffic activities in the city. Pollutant ratios were proven to be reliable tracers to differentiate between different sources. Air pollution index (API) of the whole city was calculated to evaluate the level of air quality in Ankara. Multiple linear regression model was developed for forecasting API in Ankara. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.79 and 0.63 for different time periods. The assimilative capacity of Ankara atmosphere was calculated in terms of ventilation coefficient (VC). The relation between API and VC was investigated and found that the air quality in Ankara was determined by meteorology rather than emissions.

  7. Carbon dioxide capture from atmospheric air using sodium hydroxide spray.

    PubMed

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Keith, David W; Lowry, Gregory V

    2008-04-15

    In contrast to conventional carbon capture systems for power plants and other large point sources, the system described in this paper captures CO2 directly from ambient air. This has the advantages that emissions from diffuse sources and past emissions may be captured. The objective of this research is to determine the feasibility of a NaOH spray-based contactor for use in an air capture system by estimating the cost and energy requirements per unit CO2 captured. A prototype system is constructed and tested to measure CO2 absorption, energy use, and evaporative water loss and compared with theoretical predictions. A numerical model of drop collision and coalescence is used to estimate operating parameters for a full-scale system, and the cost of operating the system per unit CO2 captured is estimated. The analysis indicates that CO2 capture from air for climate change mitigation is technically feasible using off-the-shelf technology. Drop coalescence significantly decreases the CO2 absorption efficiency; however, fan and pump energy requirements are manageable. Water loss is significant (20 mol H2O/mol CO2 at 15 degrees C and 65% RH) but can be lowered by appropriately designing and operating the system. The cost of CO2 capture using NaOH spray (excluding solution recovery and CO2 sequestration, which may be comparable) in the full-scale system is 96 $/ton-CO2 in the base case, and ranges from 53 to 127 $/ton-CO2 under alternate operating parameters and assumptions regarding capital costs and mass transfer rate. The low end of the cost range is reached by a spray with 50 microm mean drop diameter, which is achievable with commercially available spray nozzles.

  8. Means of atmospheric air pollution reduction during drilling wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkitsa, L.; Yatsyshyn, T.; Lyakh, M.; Sydorenko, O.

    2016-08-01

    The process of drilling oil and gas wells is the source of air pollution through drilling mud evaporation containing hazardous chemical substances. The constructive solution for cleaning device of downhole tool that contains elements covering tube and clean the surface from the mud in the process of rising from the well is offered. Inside the device is filled with magnetic fluid containing the substance neutralizing hazardous substances. The use of the equipment proposed will make it possible to avoid penetration of harmful substances into the environment and to escape the harmful effects of aggressive substances for staff health and increase rig's fire safety.

  9. Communicating air pollution science to the public and politicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.; Schuepbach, E.

    2006-12-01

    Air pollution of the 21^st century is a problem that involves a large number of chemical species and complex reactions between them. Both the public and politicians finds the science difficult to understand, and so, often mistrust the presentation of data and the scientific principles behind air quality. Yet, there are a range of important issues associated with air pollution that concern lay people and policy makers and hence, they have to be presented in a clear and simple way so that informed judgements can be made. Traditionally, the media was the main way to disseminate scientific discovery, but novel methods for engaging scientists in the transfer of scientific know-how to politicians and the general public have emerged in recent years. Scientists receive relatively little training in the area of communication, and often find engaging in more public debates difficult. These including V.I.P. meetings, Public Open Forum, Café Scientifique and various games and role plays. Such outreach events expose us to new challenges, and the skills required to communicate to non-scientists become an increasingly important part of being a scientist.

  10. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue Fang, Jing

    2015-10-15

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  11. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  12. Improved Products for Assimilation and Model Validation from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft was launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS acquires hyperspectral infrared radiances in the 3.7-15.4 micrometer spectral region with spectral resolution of better than 1200. Key channels from the AIRS Level 1B calibrated radiance product are currently assimilated into operational weather forecasts at NCEP and other international agencies. Additional Level 2 products for assimilation include the AIRS cloud cleared radiances and the geophysical retrieved temperature and water vapor profiles. The AIRS products are also used to validate climate model vertical and horizontal biases and transport of water vapor and key trace gases including Carbon Dioxide and Ozone. The wide variety of products available from the AIRS make it well suited to study processes affecting the interaction of these products.

  13. Influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on marine air intrusion toward the East Antarctic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Naoyuki; Hirasawa, Naohiko; Koga, Seizi; Matsushita, Junji; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi

    2016-09-01

    Marine air intrusions into Antarctica play a key role in high-precipitation events. Here we use shipboard observations of water vapor isotopologues between Australia and Syowa on the East Antarctic coast to elucidate the mechanism by which large-scale circulation influences marine air intrusions. The temporal isotopic variations at Syowa reflect the meridional movement of a marine air front. They are also associated with atmospheric circulation anomalies that enhance the southward movement of cyclones over the Southern Ocean. The relationship between large-scale circulation and the movement of the front is explained by northerly winds which, in association with cyclones, move toward the Antarctic coast and push marine air with isotopically enriched moisture into the inland covered by glacial air with depleted isotopic values. Future changes in large-scale circulation may have a significant impact on the frequency and intensity of marine air intrusion into Antarctica.

  14. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Si-ze; Liu, Dongping; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue

    2013-05-15

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  15. Internal gravity wave-atmospheric wind interaction - A cause of clear air turbulence.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekofske, K.; Liu, V. C.

    1972-01-01

    The interaction between an internal gravity wave (IGW) and a vertical wind shear is discussed as a possible cause in the production of clear air turbulence in the free atmosphere. It is shown that under certain typical condition the interaction of an IGW with a background wind shear near a critical level provides a mechanism for depositing sufficient momentum in certain regions of the atmosphere to significantly increase the local mean wind shear and to lead to the production of turbulence.

  16. Camilla Visits Upper Atmosphere in the Name of Science

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar Dynamics Observatory mascot, Camilla, goes for a balloon ride to study solar radiation in the upper atmosphere caused by a solar storm. This video is a comprised of five separate videos showi...

  17. Prediction of asthma exacerbations among children through integrating air pollution, upper atmosphere, and school health surveillances.

    PubMed

    Jayawardene, Wasantha Parakrama; Youssefagha, Ahmed Hassan; Lohrmann, David Kurt; El Afandi, Gamal Salah

    2013-01-01

    Climatic factors and air pollution are important in predicting asthma exacerbations among children. This study was designed to determine if a relationship exists between asthma exacerbations among elementary school children and the combined effect of daily upper atmosphere observations (temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and mixing ratio) and daily air pollution (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) and, if so, to predict asthma exacerbations among children using a mathematical model. Using an ecological study design, school health records of 168,825 students in elementary schools enrolled in "Health eTools for Schools" within 49 Pennsylvania counties were analyzed. Data representing asthma exacerbations were originally recorded by school nurses as the type of treatment given to a student during a clinic visit on a particular day. Daily upper atmosphere measurements from ground level to the 850-mb pressure level and air pollution measurements were obtained. A generalized estimating equation model was used to predict the occurrence of >48 asthma exacerbations, the daily mean for 2008-2010. The greatest occurrence of asthma among school children was in the fall, followed by summer, spring, and winter. Upper atmosphere temperature, dew point, mixing ratio, and six air pollutants as well as their interactions predicted the probability of asthma exacerbations occurring among children. Monitoring of upper atmosphere observation data and air pollutants over time can be a reliable means for predicting increases of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children. Such predictions could help parents and school officials implement effective precautionary measures.

  18. Air exchange rates from atmospheric CO2 daily cycle.

    PubMed

    Carrilho, João Dias; Mateus, Mário; Batterman, Stuart; da Silva, Manuel Gameiro

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new approach for measuring ventilation air exchange rates (AERs). The method belongs to the class of tracer gas techniques, but is formulated in the light of systems theory and signal processing. Unlike conventional CO2 based methods that assume the outdoor ambient CO2 concentration is constant, the proposed method recognizes that photosynthesis and respiration cycle of plants and processes associated with fuel combustion produce daily, quasi-periodic, variations in the ambient CO2 concentrations. These daily variations, which are within the detection range of existing monitoring equipment, are utilized for estimating ventilation rates without the need of a source of CO2 in the building. Using a naturally-ventilated residential apartment, AERs obtained using the new method compared favorably (within 10%) to those obtained using the conventional CO2 decay fitting technique. The new method has the advantages that no tracer gas injection is needed, and high time resolution results are obtained.

  19. Air exchange rates from atmospheric CO2 daily cycle

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, João Dias; Mateus, Mário; Batterman, Stuart; da Silva, Manuel Gameiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for measuring ventilation air exchange rates (AERs). The method belongs to the class of tracer gas techniques, but is formulated in the light of systems theory and signal processing. Unlike conventional CO2 based methods that assume the outdoor ambient CO2 concentration is constant, the proposed method recognizes that photosynthesis and respiration cycle of plants and processes associated with fuel combustion produce daily, quasi-periodic, variations in the ambient CO2 concentrations. These daily variations, which are within the detection range of existing monitoring equipment, are utilized for estimating ventilation rates without the need of a source of CO2 in the building. Using a naturally-ventilated residential apartment, AERs obtained using the new method compared favorably (within 10%) to those obtained using the conventional CO2 decay fitting technique. The new method has the advantages that no tracer gas injection is needed, and high time resolution results are obtained. PMID:26236090

  20. Atmospheric Sciences. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Vincent J.; Mohnen, Volker A.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide includes the following sections: (1) Solar Radiation and Its Interaction with the Earth's Atmosphere System; (2) The Water Cycle; (3) Fundamentals of Air…

  1. A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

  2. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed in situ from methane and air and from butane and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickels, C. A.; Mack, C. M.; Pieprzak, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Carburizing experiments were conducted at 927 °C (1700 °F) and 843 °C (1550 °F) using furnace atmospheres formed from methane and air and from butane and air introduced directly into the carburizing furnace. Gas flow rates were low to promote equilibration of the reaction products within the furnace. The air flow rate was held constant while the methane or butane flow was automatically regulated to maintain a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. In comparing the results of these experiments with earlier results obtained using propane and air, several differences were noted: (a) The methane content of the furnace atmosphere, measured by infrared analysis, was about twice as great when methane was the feed gas rather than propane or butane. This was true despite the fact that the mean residence time of the gas within the furnace was greater in the methane experiments. Methane appears to be less effective than propane or butane in reducing the CO2 and H2O contents to the levels required for carburizing. (b) There was a greater tendency for the CO content of the furnace atmosphere to decrease at high carbon potentials when methane is used instead of propane or butane. The decrease in CO content is due to hydrogen dilution caused by sooting in the furnace vestibule. These differences in behavior make propane or butane better suited than methane for in situ generation of carburizing atmospheres. However, there is no difference in the amount of carburizing occurring at a specified carbon potential when methane, propane, or butane are used as the feed gas in this process.

  3. Tropical Storm Beryl as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: AIRS Microwave Image

    This is an infrared image of Tropical Storm Beryl in the western Atlantic, from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on July 20, 2006, 1:30 am local time. This AIRS image shows the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the hurricane. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds. Where there are no clouds the AIRS instrument reads the infrared signal from the surface of the Earth, revealing warmer temperatures (red). This infrared image shows three large regions of strong convection surrounding the core of the storm. The largest, on the northern edge of the core, also appears in the companion microwave image to contain intense precipitation.

    The image in figure 1 is created from microwave radiation emitted by Earth's atmosphere and received by the instrument. It shows where the heaviest rainfall is taking place (in blue) in the storm. Blue areas outside of the tropical storm, where there are either some clouds or no clouds indicate where the sea surface shines through.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a

  4. Storms, floods, and the science of atmospheric rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralph, F.M.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a stream of water thousands of kilometers long and as wide as the distance between New York City and Washington, D. C., flowing toward you at 30 miles per hour. No, this is not some hypothetical physics problemit is a real river, carrying more water than 7-15 Mississippi Rivers combined. But it is not on land. It's a river of water vapor in the atmosphere. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow corridors of water vapor transport in the lower atmosphere that traverse long swaths of the Earth's surface as they bind together the atmospheric water cycle (Figure 1). The characteristic (indeed defining) dimensions of these ARs are (1) integrated water vapor (IWV) concentrations such that if all the vapor in the atmospheric column were condensed into liquid water, the result would be a layer 2 or more centimeters thick; (2) wind speeds of greater than 12.5 meters per second in the lowest 2 kilometers; and (3) a shape that is long and narrow, no more than 400-500 kilometers wide, and extending for thousands of kilometers, sometimes across entire ocean basins.

  5. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) Research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits 1990 with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum June 1997 and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  6. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnson, V.; Clem, J.; Deangelis, G.

    The Super Sonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant passengers and crew by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in effects due to particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Standing Committee provided recommendations on SST radiobiological issues and operational requirements. The lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies of effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in 2000 and more recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes brings renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  7. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Research: SST - Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; DeAngelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent (1990) lowering of recommended exposure limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  8. Summary of Atmospheric Ionizing AIR Research: SST-Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; deAngelis, G.; Friedberg, W.; Clem, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of the radiation exposure limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection with the classification of aircrew as radiation workers renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  9. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  10. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research: SST-present.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Goldhagen, P; Rafnsson, V; Clem, J M; De Angelis, G; Friedberg, W

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  11. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative

  12. Effect of Atmospheric Pollutants on the Air Quality in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Bouchlaghem, Karim; Nsom, Blaise

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the evolution of Saharan dust advection when the PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter below 10 μm) concentration exceeds standard limits in different Tunisian sites. Meteorological and concentration data (from 2004 to 2010) obtained from several monitoring stations and in situ measurements were used to identify African dust change in seasonal occurrence, their source origin, and their impact on surface PM10 concentrations. We pointed out that the Saharan dust contribution caused frequently the surpassing of the maximum number of days in excess of EU standard limits as well as of the maximum yearly average in the Mediterranean Tunisian coasts. The maximum daily concentration reaches 439 μg/m3 during the Saharan events. The decrease in particulate levels recorded at the end of each event is due to the injection of European air masses and rainfalls. Primary pollutants peaks were much higher in winter than in summer which can be explained on the basis of the lower ventilation and mixing. PMID:22654641

  13. Final Technical Report: Science and technology reviews of FACE[Free Air Carbon Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, Boyd R.

    1998-03-23

    The purpose of this grant was to bring together the principals of all known facilities that had been developed, principals who had submitted proposals to develop FACE facilities, and principals who want to develop proposals for facilities. In addition, critical program personnel from potential funding agencies and a few high level science administrators were invited to observe the proceedings and to visit a working FACE facility. The objectives of this study are to conduct a three-day international meeting on scientific aspects of research with the new and developing free air carbon enrichment (FACE) technology. Immediately following the science meeting, conduct a two-day international meeting on experimental protocols to be applied in FACE research. To conduct a four day international meeting on the assessment of the responses of forest ecosystems to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. The three meetings supported by this grant were all highly successful meetings and resulted in the formation of an organized and identified working group with the acronym InterFACE (International Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) working group.

  14. Experimental study of the heat transfer process of air around atmospheric arc plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimi Meidanshahi, F.; Madanipour, Kh.; Shokri, Babak

    2011-05-01

    The experimental investigation of thermodynamic properties such heat and mass transfer of plasmas has many applications in different industries. Laboratory atmospheric arc plasma is studied in this work. The refractive index of the air around the plasma is changed because of convection phenomena. When the convection creates the air flowing around the plasma, the density and consequently, the refractive index of air are distributed symmetrically. Moiré deflectometry is a technique of wave front analysis which in both Talbot effect and moiré technique is applied for measuring phase objects. Deflection of light beam passing through the inhomogeneous medium is utilized to obtain the refractive index distribution. In experimental set-up, an expanded collimated He-Ne laser propagate through the arc plasma and the around air. The temperature distribution is obtained by use of thermo-optic coefficient of air. To calculate the thermo- optic coefficient and the refractive index of air for a given wavelength of light and given atmospheric conditions (air temperature, pressure, and humidity), the Edlén equation is used. The convective heat transfer coefficient is obtained by calculating the temperature gradient on the plasma border. This method is not expensive, complicated and sensitive to environmental vibrations.

  15. Evaluation of the NOAA CAREERS Weather Camp's Effectiveness in Promoting Atmospheric Science amongst High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olgin, J. G.; Fitzgerald, R. M.; Morris, V. R.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA Center for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) sponsors the Channeling Atmospheric Research into Educational Experiences Reaching Students program (CAREERS); a program that manages a network of weather camps for students in secondary education with particular focus on increasing access for students from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds. Hosted by a college or university, the primary mission goals of the program are to engage students in discussions, lectures and interactive projects to better learn and comprehend a suite of atmospheric science disciplines (i.e. weather forecasting, environmental modeling, atmospheric data acquisition), and guide talented students towards higher education to pursue careers in atmospheric science primarily, or toward other STEM field professions. The need to evaluate and analyze the program's efficacy is crucial for continued growth and sustainability. Therefore a means to identify and measure the success of the program's initiatives will be addressed. Two Hispanic serving institutions, the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and the University of Puerto Rico in Mayaguez (UPRM), both hosted the CAREER weather camps during the summers of 2012 and 2013, and provide the basis of this initial analysis. Participants performed entrance surveys of their knowledge of atmospheric science prior to the course. They were then re-evaluated through exit surveys over the topics covered during the weather camp. These data will be analyzed to correlate which program activities worked best in increasing participant awareness (i.e. geology tours of the local area, discussion on local climate variations, geophysical and geochemical demonstrations), and comprehension of atmospheric science. A comparison between the two universities on their uniqueness in program design and execution will also highlight those activities that best progressed CAREERS' program goals. Results from this analysis, along with possible new strategies for improved

  16. Increasing Access to Atmospheric Science Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K. L.; LaPan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Science Directorate (SD) at NASA's Langley Research Center conducts cutting edge research in fundamental atmospheric science topics including radiation and climate, air quality, active remote sensing, and upper atmospheric composition. These topics matter to the public, as they improve our understanding of our home planet. Thus, we have had ongoing efforts to improve public access to the results of our research. These efforts have accelerated with the release of the February OSTP memo. Our efforts can be grouped in two main categories: 1. Visual presentation techniques to improve science understanding: For fundamental concepts such as the Earth's energy budget, we have worked to display information in a more "digestible" way for lay audiences with more pictures and fewer words. These audiences are iPad-lovers and TV-watchers with shorter attention spans than audiences of the past. They are also educators and students who need a basic understanding of a concept delivered briefly to fit into busy classroom schedules. We seek to reach them with a quick, visual message packed with important information. This presentation will share several examples of visual techniques, such as infographics (e.g., a history of lidar at Langley and a timeline of atmospheric research, ozone garden diagrams (http://science-edu.larc.nasa.gov/ozonegarden/ozone-cycle.php); history of lidar at LaRC; DISCOVER-AQ maps. It will also share examples of animations and interactive graphics (DISCOVER-AQ); and customized presentations (e.g., to explain the energy budget or to give a general overview of research). One of the challenges we face is a required culture shift between the way scientists traditionally share knowledge with each other and the way these public audiences ingest knowledge. A cross-disciplinary communications team in SD is crucial to bridge that gap. 2. Lay research summaries to make research more accessible: Peer-reviewed publications are a primary product of the SD, with more

  17. Mitigating the Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence: Towards More Useful Micro Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-18

    outdoor turbulent environment. 25 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY Abdulrahim M., Watkins S., Segal R . and Sheridan J., “Dynamic Sensitivity to...Shortis M., Loxton B., Segal R . and Bil C., “Turbulence in the Atmospheric Wind: A Limiting Factor in MAV Operations”, 24th Bristol Unmanned Air

  18. Compact 180-kV Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by femtosecond laser filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantchouk, L.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Larour, J.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2014-03-01

    We developed a compact Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by a single femtosecond laser beam undergoing filamentation. Voltage pulses of 180 kV could be generated with a subnanosecond jitter. The same laser beam was also used to initiate simultaneously guided discharges up to 21 cm long at the output of the generator.

  19. Critical Evaluation of Air-Liquid Interface Exposure Devices for In Vitro Assessment of Atmospheric Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of cells to atmospheric pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of attached cells submerged in liquid medium. However, there is still limited understanding of the ideal ALI device design features that permit reproducible a...

  20. Compact 180-kV Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by femtosecond laser filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Arantchouk, L. Larour, J.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2014-03-10

    We developed a compact Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by a single femtosecond laser beam undergoing filamentation. Voltage pulses of 180 kV could be generated with a subnanosecond jitter. The same laser beam was also used to initiate simultaneously guided discharges up to 21 cm long at the output of the generator.

  1. Contribution of Atmospheric Diffusion Conditions to the Recent Improvement in Air Quality in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Kaicun; Su, Liangyuan

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed hourly mass concentration observations of PM2.5 (particulate matters with diameter less than 2.5 μm) at 512 stations in China from December 2013 to May 2015. We found that the mean concentrations of PM2.5 during the winter and spring of 2015 Dec. 2014 to Feb. 2015 and Mar. 2015 to May 2015) decreased by 20% and 14% compared to the previous year, respectively. Hazardous air-quality days decreased by 11% in 2015 winter, with more frequent good to unhealthy days; and the good and moderate air-quality days in 2015 spring increased by 9% corresponding to the less occurrence of unhealthy conditions. We compared the atmospheric diffusion conditions during these two years and quantified its contribution to the improvement of air quality during the first half of 2015 over China. Our results show that during the 2015 winter and spring, 70% and 57% of the 512 stations experienced more favorable atmospheric diffusion conditions compared to those of previous year. Over central and northern China, approximately 40% of the total decrease in PM2.5 during the 2015 winter can be attributed to the favorable atmospheric diffusion conditions. The atmospheric diffusion conditions during the spring of 2015 were not as favorable as in winter; and the average contributions of the atmospheric conditions were slight. PMID:27805030

  2. Contribution of Atmospheric Diffusion Conditions to the Recent Improvement in Air Quality in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Kaicun; Su, Liangyuan

    2016-11-01

    This study analyzed hourly mass concentration observations of PM2.5 (particulate matters with diameter less than 2.5 μm) at 512 stations in China from December 2013 to May 2015. We found that the mean concentrations of PM2.5 during the winter and spring of 2015 Dec. 2014 to Feb. 2015 and Mar. 2015 to May 2015) decreased by 20% and 14% compared to the previous year, respectively. Hazardous air-quality days decreased by 11% in 2015 winter, with more frequent good to unhealthy days; and the good and moderate air-quality days in 2015 spring increased by 9% corresponding to the less occurrence of unhealthy conditions. We compared the atmospheric diffusion conditions during these two years and quantified its contribution to the improvement of air quality during the first half of 2015 over China. Our results show that during the 2015 winter and spring, 70% and 57% of the 512 stations experienced more favorable atmospheric diffusion conditions compared to those of previous year. Over central and northern China, approximately 40% of the total decrease in PM2.5 during the 2015 winter can be attributed to the favorable atmospheric diffusion conditions. The atmospheric diffusion conditions during the spring of 2015 were not as favorable as in winter; and the average contributions of the atmospheric conditions were slight.

  3. Improving SLCF Science in the Himalayan Region: ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, A. K.; Pradhan, B. B.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    What fraction of the black carbon arriving on Yala Glacier in Langtang, Nepal, is from cooking fires in the houses in the valley below? What fraction is from elsewhere in rural Nepal? What fraction is from industrial and transport sources in Kathmandu? What fraction is from northern India and beyond? What fraction is from the high altitude forest fires that take place during March or April? Effectively mitigating the impacts of black carbon and other short-lived climate forcers requires detailed understanding not just of emissions and impacts, but also of the atmospheric transport pathways that connect the two. In mountainous areas of the Hindu-Kush Himalaya detailed quantitative knowledge about emissions, atmospheric processes, and impacts is still largely missing. The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) is an intergovernmental organization covering Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, China, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. ICIMOD's recently established Atmosphere Initiative not only assesses mitigation options and contributes to policy and capacity building in the region, but also works actively to promote collaboration among researchers in the region, while building up an in-house team whose research will address key questions about SLCF. In Spring 2013 ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative, in collaboration with the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) in Potsdam, Germany, carried out the largest field campaign to date in Nepal, hosting instruments belonging to dozens of institutions around the world, at nine field site within and upwind of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The dataset that has been collected gives unprecedented insights into the emissions and atmospheric processes taking place downwind of and within the largest urban agglomeration in the Himalaya region. Meanwhile, in collaboration with national partner institutions, ICIMOD is in the process of setting up one atmospheric observatory each in Bhutan and in

  4. Tropical Systems Research at the Universtiy of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, R. N.; Rankey, E.; Zhang, C.; Mooers, C. N.

    2004-12-01

    The global significance of the tropics is unquestionable. The tropical seas are the engine of earth's atmosphere and hydrosphere; they are the locus of major biodiversity; and most of the world's five billion inhabitants live in the tropics. At the same time these environments strongly influence both social and economic activities in various ways. Yet, in many ways, understanding of tropical systems lags that of other regions. To meet this need, RSMAS is developing an expansion of its already substantial focus on tropical systems. From its beginnings in the 1940s, the School's focus on the tropics was a natural result of its location adjacent to the Tropical Atlantic. During the subsequent decades, research interests have broadened and include the coupling between the two halves: the tropics and extratropics. The Faculty's involvement with the tropics spread to the Pacific and Indian Oceans, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf and beyond to higher latitudes. In the last five years, a majority of the Faculty have explored some aspect of the tropical hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, or geosphere in this important region. At present, all divisions, themes, and centers are involved significantly in the tropics. Over the years, research approaches have evolved from exploration and description to analysis, numerical simulation and inter-disciplinary integration. Now the Faculty is faced with the challenge of further integrating our science and applying some of the results to societal problems. To address these challenges, the present research foci build on existing strengths and develop novel and integrated research and a new and challenging curriculum focused on scientific, societal and economic aspects of the global tropics. Existing strengths in air-sea interaction and ocean-atmosphere coupling provides the platform for an expanded research program on hurricanes, the roles of the tropics in the global climate system, and coastal ocean-atmosphere-land interactions

  5. The defective nature of ice Ic and its implications for atmospheric science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhs, W. F.; Hansen, T. C.

    2009-04-01

    ) Evidence that nitric acid increases relative humidity in low-temperature cirrus clouds. Science 303, 516-520. [4] T Peter, C Marcolli, P Spaichinger, T Corti, MC Baker & T Koop (2006) When dry air is too humid. Science 314, 1399-1402. [5] JE Shilling, MA Tolbert, OB Toon, EJ Jensen, BJ Murray & AK Bertram (2006) Measurements of the vapor pressure of cubic ice and their implications for atmospheric ice clouds. Geophys.Res.Lett. 33, 026671. [6] TC Hansen, MM Koza & WF Kuhs (2008) Formation and annealing of cubic ice: I Modelling of stacking faults. J.Phys.Cond.Matt. 20, 285104. [7] TC Hansen, MM Koza, P Lindner & WF Kuhs (2008) Formation and annealing of cubic ice: II. Kinetic study. J.Phys.Cond.Matt. 20, 285105. [8] WF Kuhs, G Genov, DK Staykova & AN Salamatin (2004) Ice perfection and the onset of anomalous preservation of gas hydrates. Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys. 6, 4917-4920. [9] BJ Murray, DA Knopf & AK Bertram (2005) The formation of cubic ice under conditions relevant to Earth's atmosphere. Nature 434, 292-205.

  6. Air Purification Effect of Positively and Negatively Charged Ions Generated by Discharge Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Kazuo; Nojima, Hideo

    2001-08-01

    In this paper, the air purification effect of positively and negatively charged ions generated by discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure is reported. We have developed a novel ion generation device which consists of a cylindrical glass tube and attached inner and outer mesh electrodes. With the application of AC voltage between the electrodes, positively charged ions and negatively charged ions have been generated at atmospheric pressure. The ion densities of 3.0× 104--7.0× 104 counts/cm3 have been obtained with the AC voltage of 1.8-2.3 kV (effective value). We have examined the air purification properties of this device. By the operation of this device, the initial oxygen nitride (NO) density of 10 ppm in 1 m3 (in cigarette smoke) was decreased to 1 ppm after 30 min. The number of suspended germs in air has been significantly reduced by the use of this type of ion generation device.

  7. [Detection of potentially carcinogenic compounds persisting in atmospheric air and having high priority for hygienic regulation].

    PubMed

    Ingel', F I; Legostaeva, T B; Antipanova, N A; Krivtsova, E K; Iurtseva, N A

    2012-01-01

    The algorithm for the choice of potentially carcinogenic compounds (PCS) among emitted into air and results of the study, undertaken for realization of this algorithm are presented. The investigation was carried out in Magnitogorsk - Russian town of black metallurgy - in frames of the other study, aimed to evaluation of the influence of atmospheric pollution on children's health and genomic instability. The 11 PCS for further profound study of biological activity were selected out of more than 300 PCS, persisting in the air. The carcinogenic activity for 6 compounds out of these 11 ones was already have been found out before, that testifies correctness of the created approach and its adequacy for detection PCS in atmospheric air.

  8. Gas chromatograph analysis on closed air and nitrogen oxide storage atmospheres of recalcitrant seeds of Quercus Alba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of recalcitrant seeds remains an unsolved problem. This study investigated the quantitative gas analysis of nitrous oxide (N2O) and air atmospheres on the recalcitrant seeds of Quercus alba by using gas chromatograph. Ten seeds were placed in each sealed atmospheric system of air and 98/2% N...

  9. Atmospheric Science Program. Summaries of research in FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report provides descriptions for all projects funded by ESD under annual contracts in FY 1994. Each description contains the project`s title; three-year funding history (in thousands of dollars); the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date (for most projects older than one year). Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states it goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used.

  10. Science support for the atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    The experiment is a satellite solar occultation interferometer spectrometer experiment under development for flight on Spacelab 3. Launch is expected in March 1985. ATMOS will provide high spectral resolution (0.02/cm) and high spatial resolution (2 km from Shuttle altitude) data over the spectral range from 2 micrometers to 16 micrometers. This region of the spectrum is rich in absorption features of major and minor trace gases which are critical to the understanding of the chemistry and physics of the Earth's upper atmosphere. The broad objectives of the ATMOS experiment are to: identify and measure, on a global scale, the volume mixing ratios of known and newly discovered molecular species; determine vertical profiles for these species; and provide spectral data on the atmosphere for use in optimizing the design of future instruments to monitor specific gases.

  11. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  12. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lee Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-14

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  13. Measurement Science of the Intermittent Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    meridionally by 40 m), eight ultrasonic anemometers, two low-response thermometers, two low-response hygrometers, three quartz-crystal barometers , and...has been operating with eight sonics and three quartz-crystal barometers almost without interruption since June 2013 1 • The quartz-crystal... barometers have been arranged in the form of a triangle of 40 m spacing, and the barometer array has effectively detected atmospheric infrasound (including

  14. Air Pollution and the Social Sciences: Formulating and Implementing Control Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Paul B., Ed.

    The social science literature, dealing with air quality, up to mid-1970 is reviewed and synthesized in five separately authored chapters, one for each of sociology, psychology, political science, law and economies. In addition to suggesting what each discipline can contribute to the solution of the air pollution problem, gaps in the literature are…

  15. Air and Weather Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit focuses on: (1) the importance of air and air pressure in students' everyday lives; (2) oxidation…

  16. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; White, Tim; Cespedes, Ernesto; Bowerman, Biays; Bush, John

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three explosive

  17. The effect of the atmospheric condition on the extensive air shower analysis at the Telescope Array experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tokuno, H.; Kakimoto, F.; Tomida, T.

    2011-09-22

    The accuracies in determination of air shower parameters such as longitudinal profiles or primary energies with the fluorescence detection technique are strongly dependent on atmospheric conditions of the molecular and aerosol components. Moreover, air fluorescence photon yield depends on the atmospheric density, and the transparency of the air for fluorescence photons depends on the atmospheric conditions from EAS to FDs. In this paper, we describe the atmospheric monitoring system in the Telescope Array (TA experiment), and the impact of the atmospheric conditions in air shower reconstructions. The systematic uncertainties of the determination of the primary cosmic ray energies and of the measurement of depth of maximum development (X{sub max}) of EASs due to atmospheric variance are evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation.

  18. Hot, cold, and annual reference atmospheres for Edwards Air Force Base, California (1975 version)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Reference atmospheres pertaining to summer (hot), winter (cold), and mean annual conditions for Edwards Air Force Base, California, are presented from surface to 90 km altitude (700 km for the annual model). Computed values of pressure, kinetic temperature, virtual temperature, and density and relative differences percentage departure from the Edwards reference atmospheres, 1975 (ERA-75) of the atmospheric parameters versus altitude are tabulated in 250 m increments. Hydrostatic and gas law equations were used in conjunction with radiosonde and rocketsonde thermodynamic data in determining the vertical structure of these atmospheric models. The thermodynamic parameters were all subjected to a fifth degree least-squares curve-fit procedure, and the resulting coefficients were incorporated into Univac 1108 computer subroutines so that any quantity may be recomputed at any desired altitude using these subroutines.

  19. Wind tunnel experiments: cold-air pooling and atmospheric decoupling above a melting snow patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, R.; Paterna, E.; Horender, S.; Crivelli, P.; Lehning, M.

    2015-10-01

    The longevity of perennial snow fields is not fully understood but it is known that strong atmospheric stability and thus boundary layer decoupling limits the amount of (sensible and latent) heat that can be transmitted to the snow surface. The strong stability is typically caused by two factors, (i) the temperature difference between the (melting) snow surface and the near-surface atmosphere and (ii) cold-air pooling in topographic depressions. These factors are almost always a prerequisite for perennial snow fields to exist. For the first time, this contribution investigates the relative importance of the two factors in a controlled wind tunnel environment. Vertical profiles of sensible heat fluxes are measured using two-component hot wire and one-component cold-wire anemometry directly over the melting snow patch. The comparison between a flat snow surface and one that has a depression shows that atmospheric decoupling is strongly increased in the case of topographic sheltering but only for low to moderate wind speeds. For those conditions, the near-surface suppression of turbulent mixing was observed to be strongest and drainage flows were decoupled from the surface enhancing atmospheric stability and promoting the cold-air pooling over the single snow patch. Further work is required to systematically and quantitatively describe the flux distribution for varying terrain geometry, wind speeds and air temperatures.

  20. Development of Atmospheric Air 85Kr Monitoring Methodology on the Territory of the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yury

    2014-05-01

    Highly sensitive, low-background and high-performance method of beta-radioactivity measurements of the gas samples was developed in mid-eighties at Khlopin Radium institute. This method was based on the use of the serial automated installation for liquid scintillation measurements and special scintillating cells. Cells were equipped with the gas valve, and their internal surface were covered by a thin layer of organic scintillator. This method found was successfully was applied for 85Kr activity measurements in atmospheric krypton samples and for 85Kr concentration measurements in atmospheric air. For the first time, method developed for 85Kr activity measurements, was practically tested in May - June, 1986, while studying radioactive pollution characteristics in the air basin of Russia and Ukraine after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Thus for sampling of atmospheric krypton the industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at air-separating plants, located in the cities of Cherepovets, Lipetsk, Krivoi Rog and Enakiyevo was used. In the end of April and in the first half of May it was determined that 1,5-fold excess concentrations of 85Kr in atmospheric air were observed in atmospheric air of considerable part of the European territory of Russia and Ukraine During the period from 1987 to 1991 this method was used for monitoring of 85Kr on the territory of the former USSR in the air basin of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at 14 large air-separating plants was also used for sampling. Six of them were situated in Russia (Novomoskovsk, Lipetsk, Cherepovets, Chelyabinsk, Nizhni Tagil, Orsk). Seven - in Ukraine (Enakiyevo, Kommunarsk, Krivoi Rog, Makeyevka, Mariupol, Severodonetsk, Dneprodzerzhinsk). One plant was situated in Temirtau, in Kazakhstan. The analysis indicated that in Krivoi Rog; Dneprozhzerzhinsk; Severodonetsk; Makeyevka; Mariupol; Enakiyevo; Kommunarsk; Novomoskovsk and Cherepovets the average 85Kr concentration in

  1. Microwave absorptivity in the Saturn atmosphere from Cassini Radio Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliore, A. J.; Marouf, E. A.; Flasar, F. M.

    2011-12-01

    Since 2005, the Cassini spacecraft has collected data from numerous radio occultations by the atmosphere of Saturn. These occultations probed a wide range of latitudes, ranging from equatorial to near-polar. The radio system of Cassini transmits three coherent downlinks to Earth at S-Band (13.04 cm), X-Band (3.56 cm), and Ka-Band (0.94 cm) wavelengths. With the Deep Space Net 70 m receiving stations, The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is approximately 48 dB at X-Band, and 38 dB at S-band. At Ka-band, 34 m DSN stations are used, resulting in an SNR of about 41 dB. These SNRs are quite adequate to follow the signals through the top of the microwave-absorbing regions before the noise-floor is reached. By subtracting the refractive defocusing attenuation in the atmosphere (derived from the phase data) from the total attenuation, one obtains the attenuation due to absorption (dB0, which can then be inverted to obtain vertical profiles of absorptivity (dB km-1 ) at each of the three wavelengths. Preliminary results show the expected large effect of wavelength on the absorptivity profiles, with the shorter wavelength signals being absorbed higher in the atmosphere. These profiles can be used to estimate the vertical density profiles of known microwave absorbers, such as NH3 and PH3, examples of which are presented .This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, San Jose State University, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center with support from the Cassini program.

  2. Long-term air temperature variation in the Karkonosze mountains according to atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migała, Krzysztof; Urban, Grzegorz; Tomczyński, Karol

    2016-07-01

    The results of meteorological measurements carried out continuously on Mt Śnieżka in Karkonosze mountains since 1880 well document the warming observed on a global scale. Data analysis indicates warming expressed by an increase in the mean annual air temperature of 0.8 °C/100 years. A much higher temperature increase was recorded in the last two decades at the turn of the twenty-first century. Mean decade air temperatures increased from -0.1 to 1.5 °C. It has been shown that there are relationships between air temperature at Mt Śnieżka and global mechanisms of atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Thermal conditions of the Karkonosze (Mt Śnieżka) accurately reflect global climate trends and impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, macrotypes of atmospheric circulation in Europe (GWL) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The increase in air temperature during the 1989-2012 solar magnetic cycle may reveal a synergy effect to which astrophysical effects and atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects contribute, modified by constantly increasing anthropogenic factors.

  3. Improved Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Radiance Assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Chou, Shih-Hung; Jedlovec, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction (NWP) have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced impact. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast impact from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced impact. By doing this with regional scale models individual synoptic features (and the impact of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) that mimics the analysis methodology, domain, and observational datasets for the regional North American Mesoscale (NAM) model run at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) are run to examine the impact of each type of AIRS data set. The first configuration will assimilate the AIRS radiance data along with other conventional and satellite data using techniques implemented within the operational system; the second configuration will assimilate AIRS retrieved profiles instead of AIRS radiances in the same manner. Preliminary results of this study will be presented and focus on the analysis impact of the radiances and profiles for selected cases.

  4. NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Centers Near Real-Time Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, T.; Parker, L.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center has archived and distributed a variety of satellite mission data sets. NASA's goal in Earth science is to observe, understand, and model the Earth system to discover how it is changing, to better predict change, and to understand the consequences for life on Earth. The ASDC has collaborated with Science Teams to accommodate emerging science users in the climate and modeling communities. The ASDC has expanded its original role to support operational usage by related Earth Science satellites, support land and ocean assimilations, support of field campaigns, outreach programs, and application projects for agriculture and energy industries to bridge the gap between Earth science research results and the adoption of data and prediction capabilities for reliable and sustained use in Decision Support Systems (DSS). For example; these products are being used by the community performing data assimilations to regulate aerosol mass in global transport models to improve model response and forecast accuracy, to assess the performance of components of a global coupled atmospheric-ocean climate model, improve atmospheric motion vector (winds) impact on numerical weather prediction models, and to provide internet-based access to parameters specifically tailored to assist in the design of solar and wind powered renewable energy systems. These more focused applications often require Near Real-Time (NRT) products. Generating NRT products pose their own unique set challenges for the ASDC and the Science Teams. Examples of ASDC NRT products and challenges will be discussed.

  5. On the evaluation of air mass factors for atmospheric near-ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perliski, Lori M.; Solomon, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of UV-visible twilight absorption measurements of atmospheric chemical constituents is dependent on how well the optical path, or air mass factor, of light collected by the spectrometer is understood. A simple single scattering model and a Monte Carlo radiative transfer scheme have been developed to study the effects of multiple scattering, aerosol scattering, surface albedo and refraction on air mass factors for scattered light observations. At fairly short visible wavelengths (less than about 450 nm), stratospheric air mass factors are found to be relatively insensitive to multiple scattering, surface albedo and refraction, as well as aerosol scattering by background aerosols. Longer wavelengths display greater sensitivity to refraction and aerosol scattering. Tropospheric air mass factors are found to be highly dependent on aerosol scattering, surface albedo and, at long visible wavelengths (about 650 nm), refraction. Absorption measurements of NO2 and O4 are shown to support these conclusions.

  6. Time evolution of nanosecond runaway discharges in air and helium at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Yatom, S.; Vekselman, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2012-12-15

    Time- and space-resolved fast framing photography was employed to study the discharge initiated by runaway electrons in air and He gas at atmospheric pressure. Whereas in the both cases, the discharge occurs in a nanosecond time scale and its front propagates with a similar velocity along the cathode-anode gap, the later stages of the discharge differ significantly. In air, the main discharge channels develop and remain in the locations with the strongest field enhancement. In He gas, the first, diode 'gap bridging' stage, is similar to that obtained in air; however, the development of the discharge that follows is dictated by an explosive electron emission from micro-protrusions on the edge of the cathode. These results allow us to draw conclusions regarding the different conductivity of the plasma produced in He and air discharges.

  7. Sources of Atmospheric Pollutants Impacting Air and Water Quality in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertler, A. W.; Cahill, T. A.; Gillies, J.; Kuhns, H.

    2008-12-01

    Starting in the second half of the 20th century, decline in Lake Tahoe's water clarity and degradation in the basin's air quality have become major concerns due to its unique scenic features. Gaseous and particulate nitrogen (N) and particulate phosphorus (P) loading via direct atmospheric deposition and sediment transport to the lake have also been implicated as responsible for its eutrophication and decline in water clarity. Estimates suggest that atmospheric N deposition contributes 55% of the total N loading to the lake, while atmospheric P deposition contributes 15% of the total P loading. In order to improve both air quality and, as a consequence, water quality, it is necessary to develop an understanding of the sources of the atmospheric pollutants. Once this is accomplished, it is possible to implement cost-effective strategies to reduce this impact. This paper summarizes the findings of a series of studies performed to determine the levels and sources of ambient air pollutants in the basin. Projects have included the development of a Tahoe-specific emissions inventory, long-term measurements of road dust resuspension, modeling to determine the fraction of pollutants coming from in-basin vs. out-of-basin sources, particulate source apportionment, and estimates of nitric acid deposition. These studies found that the pollutants most closely connected to the decline in water quality come largely from within basin sources, as opposed to those coming from the Central Valley and upwind urban areas of California. These results indicate regulators need to control pollutant emissions within the Tahoe basin in order to reduce the impact of atmospheric pollutants on both air and water quality.

  8. Electro-optic and holographic measurement techniques for the atmospheric sciences. [considering spacecraft simulation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.; Lemons, J. F.; Kurtz, R. L.; Liu, H.-K.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive examination is made of recent advanced research directions in the applications of electro-optical and holographic instrumentations and methods to atmospheric sciences problems. In addition, an overview is given of the in-house research program for environmental and atmospheric measurements with emphasis on particulates systems. Special treatment is made of the instrument methods and applications work in the areas of laser scattering spectrometers and pulsed holography sizing systems. Selected engineering tests data on space simulation chamber programs are discussed.

  9. Atmospheric organochlorine pollutants and air-sea exchange of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, D.A.; Bidleman, T.F.; Rice, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been found in Arctic fish, marine mammals, birds, and plankton for some time. The lack of local sources and remoteness of the region imply long-range transport and deposition of contaminants into the Arctic from sources to the south. While on the third Soviet-American Joint Ecological Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (August 1988), high-volume air samples were taken and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated camphenes, and chlordane (listed in order of abundance, highest to lowest) were quantified. The air-sea gas exchange of HCH was estimated at 18 stations during the cruise. Average alpha-HCH concentrations in concurrent atmosphere and surface water samples were 250 pg m-3 and 2.4 ng L-1, respectively, and average gamma-HCH concentrations were 68 pg m-3 in the atmosphere and 0.6 ng L-1 in surface water. Calculations based on experimentally derived Henry's law constants showed that the surface water was undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere at most stations (alpha-HCH, average 79% saturation; gamma-HCH, average 28% saturation). The flux for alpha-HCH ranged from -47 ng m-2 day-1 (sea to air) to 122 ng m-2 d-1 (air to sea) and averaged 25 ng m-2 d-1 air to sea. All fluxes of gamma-HCH were from air to sea, ranged from 17 to 54 ng m-2 d-1, and averaged 31 ng m-2 d-1.

  10. Atmospheric organochlorine pollutants and air-sea exchange of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, D.A.; Bidleman, T.F. ); Rice, C.P. )

    1991-04-15

    Organochlorine pesticides have been found in Arctic fish, marine mammals, birds, and plankton for some time. The lack of local sources and remoteness of the region imply long-range transport and deposition of contaminants into the Arctic from sources to the south. While on the third Soviet-American Joint Ecological Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (August 1988), high-volume air samples were taken and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated camphenes, and chlordane (listed in order of abundance, highest to lowest) were quantified. The air-sea gas exchange of HCH was estimated at 18 stations during the cruise. Average {alpha}-HCH concentrations in concurrent atmosphere and surface water samples were 250 pg/m{sup 3} and 2.4 ng/l, respectively, and average {gamma}-HCH concentrations were 68 pg/m{sup 3} in the atmosphere and 0.6 ng/l in surface water. Calculations based on experimentally derived Henry's law constants showed that the surface water was undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere at most stations ({alpha}-HCH, average 79% saturation; {gamma}-HCH, average 28% saturation). The flux for {alpha}-HCH ranged from {minus}47 ng/m{sup 2} day (sea to air) to 122 ng/m{sup 2} day (air to sea) and averaged 25 ng/m{sup 2} day air to sea. All fluxes of {gamma}-HCH were from air to sea, ranged from 17 to 54 ng/m{sup 2} day, and averaged 31 ng/m{sup 2} day.

  11. Cassini Imaging Science: initial results on Saturn's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Porco, C C; Baker, E; Barbara, J; Beurle, K; Brahic, A; Burns, J A; Charnoz, S; Cooper, N; Dawson, D D; Del Genio, A D; Denk, T; Dones, L; Dyudina, U; Evans, M W; Giese, B; Grazier, K; Helfenstein, P; Ingersoll, A P; Jacobson, R A; Johnson, T V; McEwen, A; Murray, C D; Neukum, G; Owen, W M; Perry, J; Roatsch, T; Spitale, J; Squyres, S; Thomas, P; Tiscareno, M; Turtle, E; Vasavada, A R; Veverka, J; Wagner, R; West, R

    2005-02-25

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) began observing Saturn in early February 2004. From analysis of cloud motions through early October 2004, we report vertical wind shear in Saturn's equatorial jet and a maximum wind speed of approximately 375 meters per second, a value that differs from both Hubble Space Telescope and Voyager values. We also report a particularly active narrow southern mid-latitude region in which dark ovals are observed both to merge with each other and to arise from the eruptions of large, bright storms. Bright storm eruptions are correlated with Saturn's electrostatic discharges, which are thought to originate from lightning.

  12. Testing Atmospheric Retrieval Modeling Assumptions for Transiting Planet Atmospheres: Preparatory science for the James Webb Space Telescope and beyond.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Line, Michael

    additional constraints on the stellar properties? 2. The "1D" Assumption: Atmospheres are inherently three-dimensional. Many exoplanet atmosphere models, especially within retrieval frameworks, assume 1D physics and chemistry when interpreting spectra. How does this "1D" atmosphere assumption bias our interpretation of exoplanet spectra? Do we have to consider global temperature variations such as day-night contrasts or hot spots? What about spatially inhomogeneous molecular abundances and clouds? How will this change our interpretations of phase resolved spectra? 3. Clouds/Hazes: Understanding how clouds/hazes impact transit spectra is absolutely critical if we are to obtain proper estimates of basic atmospheric quantities. How do the assumptions in cloud physics bias our inferences of molecular abundances in transmission? What kind of data (wavelengths, signal-to-noise, resolution) do we need to infer cloud composition, vertical extent, spatial distribution (patchy or global), and size distributions? The proposed work is relevant and timely to the scope of the NASA Exoplanet Research program. The proposed work aims to further develop the critical theoretical modeling tools required to rigorously interpret transiting exoplanet atmosphere data in order to maximize the science return from JWST and beyond. This work will serve as a benchmark study for defining the data (wavelength ranges, signal-to-noises, and resolutions) required from a modeling perspective to "characterize exoplanets and their atmospheres in order to inform target and operational choices for current NASA missions, and/or targeting, operational, and formulation data for future NASA observatories". Doing so will allow us to better "understand the chemical and physical processes of exoplanets (their atmospheres)" which will ultimately " improve understanding of the origins of exoplanetary systems" through robust planetary elemental abundance determinations.

  13. 75 FR 54871 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff... Officer (DFO), EPA Science Advisory Board (1400R), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  14. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA Aqua Spacecraft: A General Remote Sensing Tool for Understanding Atmospheric Structure, Dynamics and Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Fetzer, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft was launched on May 4, 2002. Early in the mission, the AIRS instrument demonstrated its value to the weather forecasting community with better than 6 hours of improvement on the 5 day forecast. Now with over eight years of consistent and stable data from AIRS, scientists are able to examine processes governing weather and climate and look at seasonal and interannual trends from the AIRSdata with high statistical confidence. Naturally, long-term climate trends require a longer data set, but indications are that the Aqua spacecraft and the AIRS instrument should last beyond 2018. This paper briefly describes the AIRS data products and presents some of the most significant findings involving the use of AIRS data in the areas of weather forecast improvement, climate processes and model validation, cloud and polar processes, and atmospheric composition (chemistry and dust).

  15. Thermal Characteristics of Air in the Problem of Hypersonic Motion of Bodies in the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhussan, K.; Morozov, D. O.; Stankevich, Yu. A.; Stanchits, L. K.; Stepanov, K. L.

    2014-07-01

    The thermal properties of hot air needed for describing the hypersonic motion of bodies in the Earth's atmosphere have been considered. Such motion, as is known, is accompanied by the propagation of strong shock waves analogous to waves generated by powerful explosions. Calculations have been made and data banks have been created for the equations of state and thermal characteristics of air in the temperature and density ranges corresponding to velocities of motion of bodies of up to 10 km/s at altitudes of 0-100 km. The formulation of the problem of hypersonic motion in the absence of thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed.

  16. Vistas in applied mathematics: Numerical analysis, atmospheric sciences, immunology

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishnan, A.V.; Dorodnitsyn, A.A.; Lions, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in the theory and application of numerical modeling techniques are discussed in papers contributed, primarily by Soviet scientists, on the occasion of the 60th birthday of Gurii I. Marchuk. Topics examined include splitting techniques for computations of industrial flows, the mathematical foundations of the k-epsilon turbulence model, splitting methods for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, the approximation of inhomogeneous hyperbolic boundary-value problems, multigrid methods, and the finite-element approximation of minimal surfaces. Consideration is given to dynamic modeling of moist atmospheres, satellite observations of the earth radiation budget and the problem of energy-active ocean regions, a numerical model of the biosphere for use with GCMs, and large-scale modeling of ocean circulation. Also included are several papers on modeling problems in immunology.

  17. Science of atmospheric phenomena with JEM-EUSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.; Słomiński, J.

    2015-11-01

    The main goal of the JEM-EUSO experiment is the study of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR, 1019-1021 e V), but the method which will be used (detection of the secondary light emissions induced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere) allows to study other luminous phenomena. The UHECRs will be detected through the measurement of the emission in the range between 290 and 430 m, where some part of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) emission also appears. This work discusses the possibility of using the JEM-EUSO Telescope to get new scientific results on TLEs. The high time resolution of this instrument allows to observe the evolution of TLEs with great precision just at the moment of their origin. The paper consists of four parts: review of the present knowledge on the TLE, presentation of the results of the simulations of the TLE images in the JEM-EUSO telescope, results of the Russian experiment Tatiana-2 and discussion of the possible progress achievable in this field with JEM-EUSO as well as possible cooperation with other space projects devoted to the study of TLE - TARANIS and ASIM. In atmospheric physics, the study of TLEs became one of the main physical subjects of interest after their discovery in 1989. In the years 1992 - 1994 detection was performed from satellite, aircraft and space shuttle and recently from the International Space Station. These events have short duration (milliseconds) and small scales (km to tens of km) and appear at altitudes 50 - 100 km. Their nature is still not clear and each new experimental data can be useful for a better understanding of these mysterious phenomena.

  18. The influence of scales of atmospheric motion on air pollution over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo; Mendes, Manuel; Jerez, Sonia; Gouveia, Célia Marina

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is determined by the combination of different factors, namely, emissions, physical constrains, meteorology and chemical processes [1,2,3]. The relative importance of such factors is influenced by their interaction on diverse scales of atmospheric motion. Each scale depicts different meteorological conditions, which, when combined with the different air pollution sources and photochemistry, result in varying ambient concentrations [2]. Identifying the dominant scales of atmospheric motion over a given airshed can be of great importance for many applications such as air pollution and pollen dispersion or wind energy management [2]. Portugal has been affected by numerous air pollution episodes during the last decade. These episodes are often related to peak emissions from local industry or transport, but can also be associated to regional transport from other urban areas or to exceptional emission events, such as forest fires. This research aims to identify the scales of atmospheric motion which contribute to an increase of air pollution. A method is proposed for differentiating between the scales of atmospheric motion that can be applied on a daily basis from data collected at several wind-measuring sites in a given airshed and to reanalysis datasets. The method is based on the daily mean wind recirculation and the mean and standard deviation between sites. The determination of the thresholds between scales is performed empirically following the approach of Levy et al. [2] and also through a automatic statistical approach computed taking into account the tails of the distributions (e.g. 95% and 99% percentile) of the different wind samples. A comparison is made with two objective approaches: 1) daily synoptic classification for the same period over the region [4] and 2) a 3-D backward trajectory approach [5,6] for specific episodes. Furthermore, the outcomes are expected to support the Portuguese authorities on the implementation of strategies for a

  19. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-05-15

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU{sub m}, where U{sub m} is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  20. Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

    1999-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general.

  1. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-05-01

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ˜5 × 1010 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU m , where U m is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  2. Atmospheric Parameter Climatologies from AIRS: Monitoring Short-, and Longer-Term Climate Variabilities and 'Trends'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Gyula; Susskind, Joel

    2008-01-01

    The AIRS instrument is currently the best space-based tool to simultaneously monitor the vertical distribution of key climatically important atmospheric parameters as well as surface properties, and has provided high quality data for more than 5 years. AIRS analysis results produced at the GODDARD/DAAC, based on Versions 4 & 5 of the AIRS retrieval algorithm, are currently available for public use. Here, first we present an assessment of interrelationships of anomalies (proxies of climate variability based on 5 full years, since Sept. 2002) of various climate parameters at different spatial scales. We also present AIRS-retrievals-based global, regional and 1x1 degree grid-scale "trend"-analyses of important atmospheric parameters for this 5-year period. Note that here "trend" simply means the linear fit to the anomaly (relative the mean seasonal cycle) time series of various parameters at the above-mentioned spatial scales, and we present these to illustrate the usefulness of continuing AIRS-based climate observations. Preliminary validation efforts, in terms of intercomparisons of interannual variabilities with other available satellite data analysis results, will also be addressed. For example, we show that the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) interannual spatial variabilities from the available state-of-the-art CERES measurements and from the AIRS computations are in remarkably good agreement. Version 6 of the AIRS retrieval scheme (currently under development) promises to further improve bias agreements for the absolute values by implementing a more accurate radiative transfer model for the OLR computations and by improving surface emissivity retrievals.

  3. Demonstrating the Operational Value of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Profiles in the Pre-Convective Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, Danielle; Zavodsky, Bradley; Stano, Geoffrey; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) is a project to transition those NASA observations and research capabilities to the weather forecasting community to improve the short-term regional forecasts. This poster reviews the work to demonstrate the value to these forecasts of profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on board the Aqua satellite with particular assistance in predicting thunderstorm forecasts by the profiles of the pre-convective environment.

  4. Characterization of an atmospheric pressure air plasma source for polymer surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shujun; Tang, Jiansheng

    2013-10-01

    An atmospheric pressure air plasma source was generated through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It was used to modify polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces with very high throughput. An equivalent circuit model was used to calculate the peak average electron density. The emission spectrum from the plasma was taken and the main peaks in the spectrum were identified. The ozone density in the down plasma region was estimated by Absorption Spectroscopy. NSF and ARC-ODU

  5. Atmospheric and Science Complexity Effects on Surface Bidirectional Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, D. J. (Principal Investigator); Martonchik, J. V.; Sythe, W. D.; Hessom, C.

    1985-01-01

    Among the tools used in passive remote sensing of Earth resources in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions are measurements of spectral signature and bidirectional reflectance functions (BDRFs). Determination of surface properties using these observables is complicated by a number of factors, including: (1) mixing of surface components, such as soil and vegetation, (2) multiple reflections of radiation due to complex geometry, such as in crop canopies, and (3) atmospheric effects. In order to bridge the diversity in these different approaches, there is a need for a fundamental physical understanding of the influence of the various effects and a quantiative measure of their relative importance. In particular, we consider scene complexity effects using the example of reflection by vegetative surfaces. The interaction of sunlight with a crop canopy and interpretation of the spectral and angular dependence of the emergent radiation is basically a multidimensional radiative transfer problem. The complex canopy geometry, underlying soil cover, and presence of diffuse as well as collimated illumination will modify the reflectance characteristics of the canopy relative to those of the individual elements.

  6. Air exposure of coral is a significant source of dimethylsulfide (DMS) to the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Frances E.; Bell, Thomas G.; Yang, Mingxi; Suggett, David J.; Steinke, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Corals are prolific producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). High atmospheric concentrations of the DMSP breakdown product dimethylsulfide (DMS) have been linked to coral reefs during low tides. DMS is a potentially key sulfur source to the tropical atmosphere, but DMS emission from corals during tidal exposure is not well quantified. Here we show that gas phase DMS concentrations (DMSgas) increased by an order of magnitude when three Indo-Pacific corals were exposed to air in laboratory experiments. Upon re-submersion, an additional rapid rise in DMSgas was observed, reflecting increased production by the coral and/or dissolution of DMS-rich mucus formed by the coral during air exposure. Depletion in DMS following re-submersion was likely due to biologically-driven conversion of DMS to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry showed downregulated photosynthesis during air exposure but rapid recovery upon re-submersion, suggesting that DMS enhances coral tolerance to oxidative stress during a process that can induce photoinhibition. We estimate that DMS emission from exposed coral reefs may be comparable in magnitude to emissions from other marine DMS hotspots. Coral DMS emission likely comprises a regular and significant source of sulfur to the tropical marine atmosphere, which is currently unrecognised in global DMS emission estimates and Earth System Models.

  7. Variable air temperature response of gas-phase atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls near a former manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, Mark H; Scholten, Cheryl A; Compher, Kevin

    2003-09-15

    Many investigations of gas-phase atmospheric PCB show a strong relationship between concentration and air temperature, especially near PCB sources. Comparative gas-phase atmospheric PCB trends during an annual temperature regime at two sites near a former PCB manufacturing plant and nearby PCB landfills in Anniston, AL, indicate a departure from this trend. The Mars Hill sampling site, located closest to the plant and landfills, shows an annual average sigmaPCB concentration of 27 ng m(-3) (ranging from 8.7 to 82 ng m(-3)) three times the average at Carter, 1.5 km away (9 ng m(-3), ranging from 1.1 to 39). However, total PCB and congener concentrations vary more with air temperature at Carter where PCB are evaporating from surfaces during warmer weather. The slopes of the Clausius-Clapeyron plots of 18 of the most concentrated congeners representing dichloro- through heptachlorobiphenyl homologues are significantly higher at the Carter site. While some of the atmospheric PCB at Mars Hill is derived from ground surface evaporation, the source of much of it apparently is the material buried in the landfills, which has different thermal properties than surface materials and is not in equilibrium with air temperature.

  8. Air exposure of coral is a significant source of dimethylsulfide (DMS) to the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Frances E.; Bell, Thomas G.; Yang, Mingxi; Suggett, David J.; Steinke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Corals are prolific producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). High atmospheric concentrations of the DMSP breakdown product dimethylsulfide (DMS) have been linked to coral reefs during low tides. DMS is a potentially key sulfur source to the tropical atmosphere, but DMS emission from corals during tidal exposure is not well quantified. Here we show that gas phase DMS concentrations (DMSgas) increased by an order of magnitude when three Indo-Pacific corals were exposed to air in laboratory experiments. Upon re-submersion, an additional rapid rise in DMSgas was observed, reflecting increased production by the coral and/or dissolution of DMS-rich mucus formed by the coral during air exposure. Depletion in DMS following re-submersion was likely due to biologically-driven conversion of DMS to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry showed downregulated photosynthesis during air exposure but rapid recovery upon re-submersion, suggesting that DMS enhances coral tolerance to oxidative stress during a process that can induce photoinhibition. We estimate that DMS emission from exposed coral reefs may be comparable in magnitude to emissions from other marine DMS hotspots. Coral DMS emission likely comprises a regular and significant source of sulfur to the tropical marine atmosphere, which is currently unrecognised in global DMS emission estimates and Earth System Models. PMID:27796323

  9. Formation of thermal flow fields and chemical transport in air and water by atmospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Tetsuji; Iwafuchi, Yutaka; Morfill, Gregor E.; Sato, Takehiko

    2011-05-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma is a potential tool for medical purposes, e.g. disinfection/sterilization. In order for it to be effective and functional, it is crucial to understand the transport mechanism of chemically reactive species in air as well as in liquid. An atmospheric plasma discharge was produced between a platinum pin electrode and the surface of water. The thermal flow field of a cold atmospheric plasma as well as its chemical components was measured. A gas flow with a velocity of around 15 m s-1 to the water's surface was shown to be induced by the discharge. This air flow induced a circulating flow in the water from the discharge point at the water's surface because of friction. It was also demonstrated that the chemical components generated in air dissolved in water and the properties of the water changed. The reactive species were believed to be distributed mainly by convective transport in water, because the variation in the pH profile indicated by a methyl red solution resembled the induced flow pattern.

  10. Reconstructing Atmospheric Histories of Halogenated Compounds to Preindustrial Times Using Antarctic Firn Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, J. E.; Mühle, J.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Weiss, R. F.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric histories of many halogenated trace gases remain poorly known, hampering understanding of lifetimes and anthropogenic impacts. A profile of air samples dating back to the late 19th century was collected from the firn at the Megadunes site in central Antarctica (80.78° S, 124.5° E) in January 2004. A number of anthropogenic halogenated compounds were measured in these samples using the AGAGE Medusa gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer instrumentation (B. R. Miller et al., in preparation). A firn gas-diffusion forward model based on the work of Schwander et al. (1993) was tuned to CO2 and 15N observations from the same Megadunes site. The age distribution of CO2 in diffusively mixed air samples collected at each depth was approximated by running short pulses through the forward model. The atmospheric histories of a number of halogenated compounds were then reconstructed using the iterative dating technique developed by Trudinger et al. (2002). The modeled age spread at this site is relatively broad, but interstitial air at the close-off zone is comparatively old with a mean age of about 100 years. Reconstructed histories show good agreement with direct measurements, although rapid changes are not well resolved. The mixing ratios of the deepest layer are within the range of preindustrial estimates, most notably for tetrafluoromethane. Schwander, J., J. M. Barnola, C. Andrie, M. Leuenberger, A. Ludin, D. Raynaud, B. Stauffer (1993). The Age of the Air in the Firn and the Ice at Summit, Greenland. J. Geophys. Res. 98(D2): 2831-2838. Trudinger, C. M., D. M. Etheridge, G. A. Sturrock, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, and A. McCulloch (2004). Atmospheric histories of halocarbons from analysis of Antarctic firn air: Methyl bromide, methyl chloride, chloroform, and dichloromethane. J. Geophys. Res. 109(D22310): doi:10.1029/2004JD004932.

  11. Clouds in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the terrestrial atmosphere clouds are familiar as vast collections of small water drops or ice cyrstals suspended in the air. The study of clouds touches on many facets of armospheric science. The chemistry of clouds is tied to the chemistry of the surrounding atmosphere.

  12. Proceedings of the third Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) science team meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1993 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held in Morman, Oklahoma. To put these papers in context, it is useful to consider the history and status of the ARM Program at the time of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  13. Active Learning in the Atmospheric Science Classroom and beyond through High-Altitude Ballooning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jill S. M.; Mitchell, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of high-altitude balloon (HAB) research into a variety of undergraduate atmospheric science classes as a means of increasing active student engagement in real-world, problem-solving events. Because high-altitude balloons are capable of reaching heights of 80,000-100,000 ft (24-30 km), they provide a…

  14. A Citation Analysis of Atmospheric Science Publications by Faculty at Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Rusty; Stephens, Jane; Hubbard, David; Pickett, Carmelita

    2013-01-01

    A citation analysis of publications produced by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences faculty at Texas A&M University was conducted. This study included a detailed analysis of 5,082 cited publications by source, format, and age. TAMU Libraries holdings were then assessed using the works cited within the context of the 80/20 rule. The sources…

  15. Responses of atmospheric electric field and air-earth current to variations of conductivity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, M.; Ogawa, T.

    1984-05-01

    A global circuit model is constructed to study responses of air-earth current and electric field to a variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity profile. The model includes the orography and the global distribution of thunderstorm generators. The conductivity varies with latitude and exponentially with altitude. The thunderstorm cloud is assumed to be a current generator with a positive source at the top and a negative one at the bottom. The UT diurnal variations of the global current and the ionospheric potential are evaluated considering the local-time dependence of thunderstorm activity. The global distribution of the electric field and the air-earth current are affected by the orography and latitudinal effects. Assuming a variation of conductivity profile, responses of atmospheric electrical parameters are investigated. The nonuniform decrement of the conductivity with altitude increases both the electric field and the air-earth current. The result suggests a possibility that the increment of the electric field and the air-earth current after a solar flare may be caused by this scheme, due to Forbush decrease.

  16. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability.

  17. Upward excursion limits from air saturation at 5 ATA (Atmospheres Absolute)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Present USN submarine rescue capability makes a prolonged exposure of the submarine crew to hyperbaric air a distinct possibility. The exposure may be to pressures as great as 5 atmospheres absolute (ATA), and for periods of time of up to 72 hours. A series of experimental dives were conducted to establish the safe, upward excursion from 5 ATA (132 FSWG); that is, the maximum, immediate reduction in pressure which these individuals can safely tolerate. This specifies the required pressure in the compartment of a mother submarine to which the rescued personnel would be transferred. In order to minimize the effects of pulmonary oxygen toxicity, the limits first were established using a nitrox equivalent of air at 5 ATA. The upward limit from 4.36 ATA (111 FSWG) was found to be 2.97 ATA (65 FSWG). Once this limit had been set, a series of dives were conducted to test this up limit from standard air at 5 ATA.

  18. Improved Temperature Sounding and Quality Control Methodology Using AIRS/AMSU Data: The AIRS Science Team Version 5 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John M.; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm in terms of its three most significant improvements over the methodology used in the AIRS Science Team Version 4 retrieval algorithm. Improved physics in Version 5 allows for use of AIRS clear column radiances in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances .R(sub i) for all channels. This new approach allows for the generation of more accurate values of .R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contains a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 also contains for the first time an approach to provide AIRS soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new AIRS Only sounding methodology, referred to as AIRS Version 5 AO, was developed as a backup to AIRS Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Results are shown comparing the relative performance of the AIRS Version 4, Version 5, and Version 5 AO for the single day, January 25, 2003. The Goddard DISC is now generating and distributing products derived using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. This paper also described the Quality Control flags contained in the DISC AIRS/AMSU retrieval products and their intended use for scientific research purposes.

  19. A Community Hydrometeorology Laboratory for Fostering Collaborative Research by the Atmospheric and Hydrologic Sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, T.T.; Yates, D.N.; Leavesley, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    A new community laboratory for fostering collaborative research between the atmospheric and hydrologie sciences communities is described. This facility, located at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado, allows scientists from both communities to more easily focus resources and attention on interdisciplinary problems in atmospheric, hydrologic, and other related sciences. Researchers can remotely access the computing tools to use them or to download them to their own facility, or they can visit NCAR and use the laboratory with other scientists in joint research projects. An application of this facility is described, where scientists from NCAR, the University of Colorado, and the United States Geological Survey used quantitative precipitation estimates from weather radar to simulate a flash flood in the Buffalo Creek watershed in the mountainous Front Range near Denver, Colorado.

  20. Invisible Mars: Using Science on a Sphere to Explore Mars' Atmosphere Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. A.; Hsu, B. C.; Jones, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Science On a Sphere (SOS) is a room-sized, global display system that uses computers and video projectors to display planetary data onto a six foot diameter suspended sphere, analogous to a giant animated globe. The Sphere is used to explain complex processes in a way that is simultaneously intuitive and captivating. This presentation will describe how NASA's MAVEN mission Education/Public Outreach (E/PO) team is developing a Science On a Sphere (SOS) show, called Invisible Mars, which focuses on Mars' atmosphere loss. When completed, the playlist and script will be made freely available to SOS institutions. The MAVEN E/PO team will provide in-person and online trainings for SOS practitioners from science centers around the United States on the SOS script, graphics and MAVEN science and mission. This project is a collaborative effort between the University of California at Berkeley's Space Sciences Lab and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  1. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovee, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles with accuracy comparable to that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimension variational (3DVAR) analysis component (WRF-Var). Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in both clear and partly cloudy regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts due to instability added in the forecast soundings by the AIRS profiles. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  2. NASA Airborne Science: Studying Earth From the Air

    NASA Video Gallery

    Journalists and social media followers were briefed on the goals of NASA's Earth science program and a half-dozen current or near-term Earth science missions, and learned about how a small fleet of...

  3. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their physicochemical properties can be widely spread all over the globe; as such they represent a serious threat to both humans and wildlife. According to Stockholm convention out of 24 officially recognized POPs, 16 are pesticides. The atmospheric life times of pesticides, up to now were estimated based on their gas-phase reactivity. It has been only speculated that sorption to aerosol particles may increase significantly the half-lives of pesticides in the atmosphere. The results presented here challenge the current view of the half-lives of pesticides in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and human health. We demonstrate that semivolatile pesticides which are mostly adsorbed on atmospheric aerosol particles are very persistent with respect to the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) that is the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere. The half-lives in particulate phase of difenoconazole, tetraconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, deltamethrin, cyprodinil, permethrin, and pendimethalin are in order of several days and even higher than one month, implying that these pesticides can be transported over long distances, reaching the remote regions all over the world; hence these pesticides shall be further evaluated prior to be confirmed as POPs.

  4. Wind tunnel experiments: cold-air pooling and atmospheric decoupling above a melting snow patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, Rebecca; Paterna, Enrico; Horender, Stefan; Crivelli, Philip; Lehning, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The longevity of perennial snowfields is not fully understood, but it is known that strong atmospheric stability and thus boundary-layer decoupling limit the amount of (sensible and latent) heat that can be transmitted from the atmosphere to the snow surface. The strong stability is typically caused by two factors, (i) the temperature difference between the (melting) snow surface and the near-surface atmosphere and (ii) cold-air pooling in topographic depressions. These factors are almost always a prerequisite for perennial snowfields to exist. For the first time, this contribution investigates the relative importance of the two factors in a controlled wind tunnel environment. Vertical profiles of sensible heat and momentum fluxes are measured using two-component hot-wire and one-component cold-wire anemometry directly over the melting snow patch. The comparison between a flat snow surface and one that has a depression shows that atmospheric decoupling is strongly increased in the case of topographic sheltering but only for low to moderate wind speeds. For those conditions, the near-surface suppression of turbulent mixing was observed to be strongest, and the ambient flow was decoupled from the surface, enhancing near-surface atmospheric stability over the single snow patch.

  5. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue

    PubMed Central

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their physicochemical properties can be widely spread all over the globe; as such they represent a serious threat to both humans and wildlife. According to Stockholm convention out of 24 officially recognized POPs, 16 are pesticides. The atmospheric life times of pesticides, up to now were estimated based on their gas-phase reactivity. It has been only speculated that sorption to aerosol particles may increase significantly the half‐lives of pesticides in the atmosphere. The results presented here challenge the current view of the half-lives of pesticides in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and human health. We demonstrate that semivolatile pesticides which are mostly adsorbed on atmospheric aerosol particles are very persistent with respect to the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) that is the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere. The half-lives in particulate phase of difenoconazole, tetraconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, deltamethrin, cyprodinil, permethrin, and pendimethalin are in order of several days and even higher than one month, implying that these pesticides can be transported over long distances, reaching the remote regions all over the world; hence these pesticides shall be further evaluated prior to be confirmed as POPs. PMID:27628441

  6. Air Enquirer's multi-sensor boxes as a tool for High School Education and Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morguí, Josep-Anton; Font, Anna; Cañas, Lidia; Vázquez-García, Eusebi; Gini, Andrea; Corominas, Ariadna; Àgueda, Alba; Lobo, Agustin; Ferraz, Carlos; Nofuentes, Manel; Ulldemolins, Delmir; Roca, Alex; Kamnang, Armand; Grossi, Claudia; Curcoll, Roger; Batet, Oscar; Borràs, Silvia; Occhipinti, Paola; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    An educational tool was designed with the aim of making more comprehensive the research done on Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the ClimaDat Spanish network of atmospheric observation stations (www.climadat.es). This tool is called Air Enquirer and it consist of a multi-sensor box. It is envisaged to build more than two hundred boxes to yield them to the Spanish High Schools through the Education department (www.educaixa.com) of the "Obra Social 'La Caixa'", who funds this research. The starting point for the development of the Air Enquirers was the experience at IC3 (www.ic3.cat) in the CarboSchools+ FP7 project (www.carboschools.cat, www.carboschools.eu). The Air Enquirer's multi-sensor box is based in Arduino's architecture and contains sensors for CO2, temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and both infrared and visible luminance. The Air Enquirer is designed for taking continuous measurements. Every Air Enquirer ensemble of measurements is used to convert values to standard units (water content in ppmv, and CO2 in ppmv_dry). These values are referred to a calibration made with Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry (Picarro®) under different temperature, pressure, humidity and CO2 concentrations. Multiple sets of Air Enquirers are intercalibrated for its use in parallel during the experiments. The different experiments proposed to the students will be outdoor (observational) or indoor (experimental, in the lab) focusing on understanding the biogeochemistry of GHGs in the ecosystems (mainly CO2), the exchange (flux) of gases, the organic matter production, respiration and decomposition processes, the influence of the anthropogenic activities on the gases (and particles) exchanges, and their interaction with the structure and composition of the atmosphere (temperature, water content, cooling and warming processes, radiative forcing, vertical gradients and horizontal patterns). In order to ensure Air Enquirers a high-profile research performance the experimental designs

  7. Retrieval of Atmospheric and Surface Parameters from AIRS/AMSU/HSB Data Under Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Barnet, Chris; Blaisdell, John; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New state of the art methodology is described to analyze AIRS/AMSU/HSB data in the presence of multiple cloud formations. The methodology forms the basis for the AIRS Science Team algorithm which will be used to analyze AIRS/AMSU/HSB data on EOS Aqua. The cloud clearing methodology requires no knowledge of the spectral properties of the clouds. The basic retrieval methodology is general and extracts the maximum information from the radiances, consistent with the channel noise covariance matrix. The retrieval methodology minimizes the dependence of the solution on the first guess field and the first guess error characteristics. Results are shown for AIRS Science Team simulation studies with multiple cloud formations. These simulation studies imply that clear column radiances can be reconstructed under partial cloud cover with an accuracy comparable to single spot channel noise in the temperature and water vapor sounding regions, temperature soundings can be produced under partial cloud cover with RMS errors on the order of, or better than, 1deg K in 1 km thick layers from the surface to 700 mb, 1 km layers from 700 mb to 300 mb, 3 km layers from 300 mb to 30 mb, and 5 km layers from 30 mb to 1 mb, and moisture profiles can be obtained with an accuracy better than 20% absolute errors in 1 km layers from the surface to nearly 200 mb.

  8. Air-Sea Exchange and Atmospheric Cycling of Mercury in South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, C. M.; Liu, C. S.; Lamborg, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Limited knowledge exists concerning the role of the low-latitude marginal seas in mercury (Hg) emissions on a global scale, especially tropical-subtropical and monsoon-dominated marginal seas in East Asia. To assess this potential mobilization of Hg through air-sea gas exchange, we have determined the dissolved elemental Hg (DEM) and gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) concentrations in surface seawater and atmosphere, respectively, during seasonal oceanographic cruises to the SouthEast Asian Time-series Study (SEATS) station (18 oN, 116 oE) from 2003 to 2007. The sampling and analysis of GEM and DEM were performed on board ship by using an on-line mercury analyzer (GEMA). Over the SCS, the GEM concentrations are elevated 2-3 times above global background values, with higher enhancements in the winter when the northeast monsoon draws air from China. The impact of long-range transport, as controlled by seasonal monsoons, has on the Hg atmospheric distribution and cycling in the SCS. The DEM concentration varied seasonally, with a high in summer and a low in winter and showed a positive correlation with sea surface temperature (SST). The elevated DEM concentration in summer appears mainly abiologically driven. In winter, the SCS acts as a sink of atmosphere Hg0 as a result of low SST and high wind of the year, enhanced vertical mixing and elevated atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury. Annually, the SCS serves as a source of Hg0 to the atmosphere of 300±50 pmol m-2 d-1 (390±60 kmol Hg y-1, ~2.6% of global emission in ~1% of global ocean area), suggesting high regional Hg pollution impacts from the surrounding Mainland (mostly China).

  9. On the origin and destination of atmospheric moisture and air mass over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Xu, Xiang-De; Yang, Shuai; Zhang, Wei

    2012-12-01

    The Tibet Plateau (TP) is a key region that imposes profound impacts on the atmospheric water cycle and energy budget of Asia, even the global climate. In this work, we develop a climatology of origin (destination) of air mass and moisture transported to (from) the TP using a Lagrangian moisture diagnosis combined with the forward and backward atmospheric tracking schemes. The climatology is derived from 6-h particle positions based on 5-year (2005-2009) seasonal summer trajectory dataset from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART using NCEP/GFS data as input, where the regional model atmosphere was globally filled with particles. The results show that (1) the dominant origin of the moisture supplied to the TP is a narrow tropical-subtropical band in the extended Arabian Sea covering a long distance from the Indian subcontinent to the Southern Hemisphere. Two additional moisture sources are located in the northwestern part of TP and the Bay of Bengal and play a secondary role. This result indicates that the moisture transporting to the TP more depends on the Indian summer monsoon controlled by large-scale circulation. (2) The moisture departing from the TP can be transported rapidly to East Asia, including East China, Korea, Japan, and even East Pacific. The qualitative similarity between the regions of diagnosed moisture loss and the pattern of the observed precipitation highlights the robustness of the role of the TP on precipitation over East Asia. (3) In contrast to the moisture origin confined in the low level, the origin and fate of whole column air mass over the TP is largely controlled by a strong high-level Asian anticyclone. The results show that the TP is a crossroad of air mass where air enters mainly from the northwest and northeast and continues in two separate streams: one goes southwestwards over the Indian Ocean and the other southeastwards through western North Pacific. Both of them partly enter the trade wind zone, which manifests the

  10. The atmospheric footprint of preindustrial, anthropogenic, and contemporary air-sea fluxes of CO2 estimated from an ocean inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E.; Gruber, N. P.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2006-12-01

    Air-sea exchange is a primary determinant of the spatial pattern of atmospheric carbon dioxide, yet there are substantial gaps in our understanding of the impact of the oceans on these gradients. Recent inverse modeling studies have used ocean interior observations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other tracers and Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs) to estimate separately the natural air-sea flux that already existed in preindustrial times and the component of the air-sea flux that is due to the anthropogenic perturbation of atmospheric CO2. The sum of these components is the contemporary air-sea flux. Furthermore, the results from the ocean inversion have been combined with an analogous atmospheric inversion using surface observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and atmospheric transport models to estimate air- sea and air-land fluxes. This work suggested that there might be an unexpectedly large source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from tropical land regions. We use the air-sea fluxes estimated from this ocean inversion together with estimates of the seasonal cycle of these fluxes from ΔpCO2 observations and bulk parameterizations as boundary conditions for the Model for Ozone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART). The effects of preindustrial, anthropogenic, and contemporary air-sea fluxes on the spatial pattern of atmospheric CO2 are analyzed and the implications for ocean interior transport are discussed. In addition, we use atmospheric observations of 13C/12C isotopic ratios in carbon dioxide to independently test the finding of a large terrestrial source in the tropics, since the terrestrial biosphere discriminates against 13C much more strongly than the oceans.

  11. Vertical profile of tritium concentration in air during a chronic atmospheric HT release.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2003-03-01

    The vertical profiles of tritium gas and tritiated water concentrations in air, which would have an influence on the assessment of tritium doses as well as on the environmental monitoring of tritium, were measured in a chronic tritium gas release experiment performed in Canada in 1994. While both of the profiles were rather uniform during the day because of atmospheric mixing, large gradients of the profiles were observed at night. The gradient coefficients of the profiles were derived from the measurements. Correlations were analyzed between the gradient coefficients and meteorological conditions: solar radiation, wind speed, and turbulent diffusivity. It was found that the solar radiation was highly correlated with the gradient coefficients of tritium gas and tritiated water profiles and that the wind speed and turbulent diffusivity showed weaker correlations with those of tritiated water profiles. A one-dimensional tritium transport model was developed to analyze the vertical diffusion of tritiated water re-emitted from the ground into the atmosphere. The model consists of processes of tritium gas deposition to soil including oxidation into tritiated water, reemission of tritiated water, dilution of tritiated water in soil by rain, and vertical diffusion of tritiated water in the atmosphere. The model accurately represents the accumulation of tritiated water in soil water and the time variations and vertical profiles of tritiated water concentrations in air.

  12. Mixture model-based atmospheric air mass classification: a probabilistic view of thermodynamic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernin, Jérôme; Vrac, Mathieu; Crevoisier, Cyril; Chédin, Alain

    2016-10-01

    Air mass classification has become an important area in synoptic climatology, simplifying the complexity of the atmosphere by dividing the atmosphere into discrete similar thermodynamic patterns. However, the constant growth of atmospheric databases in both size and complexity implies the need to develop new adaptive classifications. Here, we propose a robust unsupervised and supervised classification methodology of a large thermodynamic dataset, on a global scale and over several years, into discrete air mass groups homogeneous in both temperature and humidity that also provides underlying probability laws. Temperature and humidity at different pressure levels are aggregated into a set of cumulative distribution function (CDF) values instead of classical ones. The method is based on a Gaussian mixture model and uses the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the parameters of the mixture. Spatially gridded thermodynamic profiles come from ECMWF reanalyses spanning the period 2000-2009. Different aspects are investigated, such as the sensitivity of the classification process to both temporal and spatial samplings of the training dataset. Comparisons of the classifications made either by the EM algorithm or by the widely used k-means algorithm show that the former can be viewed as a generalization of the latter. Moreover, the EM algorithm delivers, for each observation, the probabilities of belonging to each class, as well as the associated uncertainty. Finally, a decision tree is proposed as a tool for interpreting the different classes, highlighting the relative importance of temperature and humidity in the classification process.

  13. First Atmospheric Science Results from the Mars Exploration Rovers Mini-TES.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael D; Wolff, Michael J; Lemmon, Mark T; Spanovich, Nicole; Banfield, Don; Budney, Charles J; Clancy, R Todd; Ghosh, Amitabha; Landis, Geoffrey A; Smith, Peter; Whitney, Barbara; Christensen, Philip R; Squyres, Steven W

    2004-12-03

    Thermal infrared spectra of the martian atmosphere taken by the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) were used to determine the atmospheric temperatures in the planetary boundary layer and the column-integrated optical depth of aerosols. Mini-TES observations show the diurnal variation of the martian boundary layer thermal structure, including a near-surface superadiabatic layer during the afternoon and an inversion layer at night. Upward-looking Mini-TES observations show warm and cool parcels of air moving through the Mini-TES field of view on a time scale of 30 seconds. The retrieved dust optical depth shows a downward trend at both sites.

  14. First Atmospheric Science Results from the Mars Exploration Rovers Mini-TES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Spanovich, Nicole; Banfield, Don; Budney, Charles J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Ghosh, Amitabha; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Smith, Peter; Whitney, Barbara; Christensen, Philip R.; Squyres, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal infrared spectra of the martian atmosphere taken by the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) were used to determine the atmospheric temperatures in the planetary boundary layer and the column-integrated optical depth of aerosols. Mini-TES observations show the diurnal variation of the martian boundary layer thermal structure, including a near-surface superadiabatic layer during the afternoon and an inversion layer at night. Upward-looking Mini-TES observations show warm and cool parcels of air moving through the Mini-TES field of view on a time scale of 30 seconds. The retrieved dust optical depth shows a downward trend at both sites.

  15. Reflections on the history of indoor air science, focusing on the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Sundell, J

    2017-01-20

    The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science, 26 992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air. Topics of concern were first radon, environmental tobacco smoke, and lung cancer, followed by volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and sick building syndrome, house dust-mites, asthma and allergies, Legionnaires disease, and other airborne infections. Later emerged dampness/mold-associated allergies and today's concern with "modern exposures-modern diseases." Ventilation, thermal comfort, indoor air chemistry, semi-volatile organic compounds, building simulation by computational fluid dynamics, and fine particulate matter are common topics today. From their beginning in Denmark and Sweden, then in the USA, the indoor air sciences now show increasing activity in East and Southeast Asia.

  16. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Precipitation Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles in clear and cloudy regions with accuracy which approaches that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model using WRF-Var. Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in clear and partly cloudy regions, and uncontaminated portions of retrievals above clouds in overcast regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts resulting from improved thermodynamic fields. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  17. In situ measurement of atmospheric krypton and xenon on Mars with Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Malespin, C. A.; Franz, H. B.; Pepin, R. O.; Trainer, M. G.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Atreya, S. K.; Freissinet, C.; Jones, J. H.; Manning, H.; Owen, T.; Pavlov, A. A.; Wiens, R. C.; Wong, M. H.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2016-11-01

    Mars Science Laboratory's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation has measured all of the stable isotopes of the heavy noble gases krypton and xenon in the martian atmosphere, in situ, from the Curiosity Rover at Gale Crater, Mars. Previous knowledge of martian atmospheric krypton and xenon isotope ratios has been based upon a combination of the Viking mission's krypton and xenon detections and measurements of noble gas isotope ratios in martian meteorites. However, the meteorite measurements reveal an impure mixture of atmospheric, mantle, and spallation contributions. The xenon and krypton isotopic measurements reported here include the complete set of stable isotopes, unmeasured by Viking. The new results generally agree with Mars meteorite measurements but also provide a unique opportunity to identify various non-atmospheric heavy noble gas components in the meteorites. Kr isotopic measurements define a solar-like atmospheric composition, but deviating from the solar wind pattern at 80Kr and 82Kr in a manner consistent with contributions originating from neutron capture in Br. The Xe measurements suggest an intriguing possibility that isotopes lighter than 132Xe have been enriched to varying degrees by spallation and neutron capture products degassed to the atmosphere from the regolith, and a model is constructed to explore this possibility. Such a spallation component, however, is not apparent in atmospheric Xe trapped in the glassy phases of martian meteorites.

  18. Atmosphere Assessment for MARS Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Cantor, Bruce; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Daniel, Jr.; Rafkin, Scot; Chen, Allen; Kass, David; Mischna, Michael; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2013-01-01

    On August 6, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed on the surface of Mars. The Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) sequence was designed using atmospheric conditions estimated from mesoscale numerical models. The models, developed by two independent organizations (Oregon State University and the Southwest Research Institute), were validated against observations at Mars from three prior years. In the weeks and days before entry, the MSL "Council of Atmospheres" (CoA), a group of atmospheric scientists and modelers, instrument experts and EDL simulation engineers, evaluated the latest Mars data from orbiting assets including the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Mars Color Imager (MARCI) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), as well as Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The observations were compared to the mesoscale models developed for EDL performance simulation to determine if a spacecraft parameter update was necessary prior to entry. This paper summarizes the daily atmosphere observations and comparison to the performance simulation atmosphere models. Options to modify the atmosphere model in the simulation to compensate for atmosphere effects are also presented. Finally, a summary of the CoA decisions and recommendations to the MSL project in the days leading up to EDL is provided.

  19. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G. ); Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K. )

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  20. A VHF driven coaxial atmospheric air plasma: electrical and optical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrns, Brandon; Wooten, Daniel; Lindsay, Alexander; Shannon, Steven

    2012-05-01

    A coaxially driven VHF plasma source for atmospheric air plasmas has been built and characterized. Electrical and optical characterization of this source present a unique operating regime when compared to state of the art atmospheric systems such as dielectric barrier discharge, pulsed dc, microwave, or ac blown arc discharges. The discharge does not appear to produce streamers or arcs, but instead remains as a steady-state glow located at the end of the inner coaxial power feed. Plasma impedance was determined by comparing the loaded and unloaded impedance of the coaxial source RF input; this termination impedance was combined with a simple high-frequency global model to estimate an electron density of approximately 1011 cm-3 at 400 W delivered power in air. Optical emission characterization of the source shows a monotonic increase in emission with respect with power; the relative intensity of the peaks from excited species, however, remains constant over a power range from 300 to 600 W. This unique source geometry presents a possible pathway for high gas throughput, large area, high power density processes such as surface modification, air purification, media removal and chemical surface treatment.

  1. Characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Young; Jo, Wan-Kuen; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-09-01

    Although analysis of long-term data is necessary to obtain reliable information on characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution, it has rarely been performed. Therefore, a long-term evaluation of atmospheric visibility in characteristically different Korean cities, as well as a remote island, during 2001 to 2009, was performed in this study. In general, visibility decreased in the studied areas during the 9-yr study period. In addition, all areas displayed a distinct seasonal trend, with high visibility in the cold season relative to the warm season. Weekday visibility, however, did not significantly differ from weekend visibility. Similarly, the number of days per year for both low (<10 km) and high visibility (>19 km) fluctuated during the study period. Busan (a coastal city) exhibited the highest visibility, with an overall average of 17.6 km, followed by Daegu (a basin city), Ulsan (with concentrated petrochemical industries), Ullungdo (a remote island), and Seoul (the capital of Korea). Visibility was found to be significantly correlated with target air pollutants, except for ozone, for all metropolitan cities, whereas it was significantly correlated only with particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) and ozone on the remote island (Ullungdo). Among the metropolitan cities, Seoul exhibited the lowest visibility for both the PM10 standard exceedance and non-exceedance days, followed by Ulsan, Daegu, and Busan. The results of this study can be used to establish effective strategies for improving urban visibility and air quality.

  2. Potential for atmospheric-driven lead paint degradation in the South Coast Air Basin of California.

    PubMed

    Cohan, Alexander J; Edwards, Rufus D; Kleinman, Michael T; Dabdub, Donald

    2009-12-01

    Exposure to lead in paint or lead residues in house dust and soil is one of the leading environmental risks to the health of children in the United States. Components of photochemical smog can increase the degradation of binders in lead paint, leading to increased release of lead pigment granules to hands in surface contact or for deposition in house dust and soil. This study uses photochemical air quality modeling to map areas susceptible to increased lead paint degradation as a result of photochemical atmospheric pollutants to prioritize areas of concern. Typical air quality episodes in the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB) are modeled for the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. Results indicate that large areas of the SoCAB were susceptible to atmospheric-driven accelerated lead paint degradation. Inner city urban areas from central Los Angeles to Azusa and most of Orange County had the highest susceptibility to accelerated lead paint degradation, followed by inland locations near the San Bernardino Mountains. This study identifies photochemical oxidant gases as contributors to greater lead release from indoor painted surfaces in urban areas.

  3. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G.; Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K.

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  4. Comparison of toluene removal in air at atmospheric conditions by different corona discharges.

    PubMed

    Schiorlin, Milko; Marotta, Ester; Rea, Massimo; Paradisi, Cristina

    2009-12-15

    Different types of corona discharges, produced by DC of either polarity (+/-DC) and positive pulsed (+pulsed) high voltages, were applied to the removal of toluene via oxidation in air at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Mechanistic insight was obtained through comparison of the three different corona regimes with regard to process efficiency, products, response to the presence of humidity and, for DC coronas, current/voltage characteristics coupled with ion analysis. Process efficiency increases in the order +DC < -DC < +pulsed, with pulsed processing being remarkably efficient compared to recently reported data for related systems. With -DC, high toluene conversion and product selectivity were achieved, CO(2) and CO accounting for about 90% of all reacted carbon. Ion analysis, performed by APCI-MS (Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Mass Spectrometry), provides a powerful rationale for interpreting current/voltage characteristics of DC coronas. All experimental findings are consistent with the proposal that in the case of +DC corona toluene oxidation is initiated by reactions with ions (O(2)(+*), H(3)O(+) and their hydrates, NO(+)) both in dry as well as in humid air. In contrast, with -DC no evidence is found for any significant reaction of toluene with negative ions. It is also concluded that in humid air OH radicals are involved in the initial stage of toluene oxidation induced both by -DC and +pulsed corona.

  5. Sterilization of soybean powder with plasma treatment in atmospheric humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwami, R.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Nakayama, A.; Nakagawa, K.

    2013-10-01

    Sterilization of foods has been performed by conventional methods such as heat, steam and chemical solutions. However, these sterilization techniques could cause damages to the food material. It is considered that plasma sterilization at atmospheric pressure is one of the promising alternative methods because of the low temperature process. In our previous study, the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeusspores by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma produced in atmospheric humid air was investigated in order to develop low-temperature, low-cost and high-speed plasma sterilization technique. The results showed that the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeusspores was found to be dependent strongly on the humidity. In the present study, the plasma treatment technique in humid air is applied to sterilization of soybean powder. Effects of plasma sterilization were successfully confirmed by a colony counting method. It was found that the sterilization efficiency was increased by using the humid air as the discharge gas. In the conference, an improvement of the plasma treatment system to enhance the sterilization efficiency will be shown.

  6. Regional Precipitation Forecast with Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profile Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced technology in hyperspectral sensors such as the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS; Aumann et al. 2003) on NASA's polar orbiting Aqua satellite retrieve higher vertical resolution thermodynamic profiles than their predecessors due to increased spectral resolution. Although these capabilities do not replace the robust vertical resolution provided by radiosondes, they can serve as a complement to radiosondes in both space and time. These retrieved soundings can have a significant impact on weather forecasts if properly assimilated into prediction models. Several recent studies have evaluated the performance of specific operational weather forecast models when AIRS data are included in the assimilation process. LeMarshall et al. (2006) concluded that AIRS radiances significantly improved 500 hPa anomaly correlations in medium-range forecasts of the Global Forecast System (GFS) model. McCarty et al. (2009) demonstrated similar forecast improvement in 0-48 hour forecasts in an offline version of the operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) model when AIRS radiances were assimilated at the regional scale. Reale et al. (2008) showed improvements to Northern Hemisphere 500 hPa height anomaly correlations in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) global system with the inclusion of partly cloudy AIRS temperature profiles. Singh et al. (2008) assimilated AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional modeling system for a study of a heavy rainfall event during the summer monsoon season in Mumbai, India. This paper describes an approach to assimilate AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var; Barker et al. 2004). Section 2 describes the AIRS instrument and how the quality indicators are used to intelligently select the highest-quality data for assimilation

  7. Increasing the Use of Earth Science Data and Models in Air Quality Management.

    PubMed

    Milford, Jana B; Knight, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated the Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) as a 5-year, $17.5-million award with 19 principal investigators. AQAST aims to increase the use of Earth science products in air quality-related research and to help meet air quality managers' information needs. We conducted a Web-based survey and a limited number of follow-up interviews to investigate federal, state, tribal, and local air quality managers' perspectives on usefulness of Earth science data and models, and on the impact AQAST has had. The air quality managers we surveyed identified meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone and particulate matter, emissions from mobile sources, and interstate air pollution transport as top challenges in need of improved information. Most survey respondents viewed inadequate coverage or frequency of satellite observations, data uncertainty, and lack of staff time or resources as barriers to increased use of satellite data by their organizations. Managers who have been involved with AQAST indicated that the program has helped build awareness of NASA Earth science products, and assisted their organizations with retrieval and interpretation of satellite data and with application of global chemistry and climate models. AQAST has also helped build a network between researchers and air quality managers with potential for further collaborations.

  8. Program report for FY 1984 and 1985 Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.B.; MacCracken, M.C.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gresho, P.M.; Luther, F.M.

    1986-08-01

    This annual report for the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division (G-Division) summarizes the activities and highlights of the past three years, with emphasis on significant research findings in two major program areas: the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its recent involvement in assessing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and new findings on the environmental consequences of nuclear war. The technical highlights of the many other research projects are also briefly reported, along with the Division's organization, budget, and publications.

  9. Atmospheric science facility pallet-only mode space transportation system payload (feasibility study), Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The economic and technical feasibility is assessed of employing a pallet-only mode for conducting Atmospheric Magnetospheric Plasmas-in-Space experiments. A baseline design incorporating the experiment and instrument descriptions is developed. The prime instruments are packaged into four pallets in a physical and functional manner compatible with the Space Transportation System capabilities and/or constraints and an orbiter seven-day mission timeline. Operational compatibility is verified between the orbiter/payload and supporting facilities. The development status and the schedule requirements applicable to the Atmospheric Science Facility mission are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented and discussed.

  10. The United States' Next Generation of Atmospheric Composition and Coastal Ecosystem Measurements: NASA's Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, J.; Iraci, Laura T.; Al-Saddi, J.; Chance, K.; Chavez, F.; Chin, M.; Coble, P.; Davis, C.; DiGiacomo, P. M.; Edwards, D.; Eldering, A.; Goes, J.; Herman, J.; Hu, C.; Jacob, D. J.; Jordan, C.; Kawa, S. R.; Key, R.; Liu, X.; Lohrenz, S.; Mannino, A.; Natraj, V.; Neil, D.; Neu, J.; Newchurch, M.; Pickering, K.; Salisbury, J.; Sosik, H.; Subramaniam, A.; Tzortziou, M; Wang, J.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission was recommended by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Earth Science Decadal Survey to measure tropospheric trace gases and aerosols and coastal ocean phytoplankton, water quality, and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit, providing continuous observations within the field of view. To fulfill the mandate and address the challenge put forth by the NRC, two GEO-CAPE Science Working Groups (SWGs), representing the atmospheric composition and ocean color disciplines, have developed realistic science objectives using input drawn from several community workshops. The GEO-CAPE mission will take advantage of this revolutionary advance in temporal frequency for both of these disciplines. Multiple observations per day are required to explore the physical, chemical, and dynamical processes that determine tropospheric composition and air quality over spatial scales ranging from urban to continental, and over temporal scales ranging from diurnal to seasonal. Likewise, high-frequency satellite observations are critical to studying and quantifying biological, chemical, and physical processes within the coastal ocean. These observations are to be achieved from a vantage point near 95deg-100degW, providing a complete view of North America as well as the adjacent oceans. The SWGs have also endorsed the concept of phased implementation using commercial satellites to reduce mission risk and cost. GEO-CAPE will join the global constellation of geostationary atmospheric chemistry and coastal ocean color sensors planned to be in orbit in the 2020 time frame.

  11. Hurricane Frances as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and SeaWinds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows Hurricane Frances as captured by instruments onboard two different satellites: the AIRS infrared instrument onboard Aqua, and the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT. Both are JPL-managed instruments. AIRS data are used to create global three-dimensional maps of temperature, humidity and clouds, while scatterometers measure surface wind speed and direction over the ocean.

    The red vectors in the image show Frances' surface winds as measured by SeaWinds on QuikSCAT. The background colors show the temperature of clouds and surface as viewed in the infrared by AIRS, with cooler areas pushing to purple and warmer areas are pushing to red. The color scale on the right gives the temperatures in degrees Kelvin. (The top of the scale, 320 degrees Kelvin, corresponds to 117 degrees Fahrenheit, and the bottom, 180 degrees K is -135 degrees F.) The powerful circulation of this storm is evident from the combined data as well as the development of a clearly-defined central 'eye'. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds, so the light blue areas reveal the cold clouds tops associated with strong thunderstorms embedded within the storm. In cloud-free areas the infrared signal comes from Earth's surface, revealing warmer temperatures.

    The power of the SeaWinds scatterometer data set lies in its ability to generate global maps of wind speed and direction, giving us a snapshot of how the atmosphere is circulating. Weather prediction centers, including the Tropical Prediction Center - a branch of NOAA that monitors the creation of ocean-born storms, use scatterometer data to help it 'see' where these storms are brewing so that warnings can be issued and the storms, with often erratic motions, can be tracked.

    While the SeaWinds instrument isn't designed to gather hurricane data, having difficulty seeing the surface in heavy rain, it's data can be used in combination with other data sets to give us an insight into these storms. In

  12. The Role of Exposure Science in Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality standards and regulations are designed to protect public health and the environment. However, there are issues regarding whether the current standards and regulations should be adjusted to be more protective or to more effectively target air quality management activi...

  13. The Salty Science of the Aluminum-Air Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Chasteen, N. Dennis; Doherty, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Fruit batteries and saltwater batteries are excellent ways to explore simple circuits in the classroom. These are examples of air batteries in which metal reacts with oxygen in the air in order to generate free electrons, which flow through an external circuit and do work. Students are typically told that the salt or fruit water acts as an…

  14. Improved Atmospheric Soundings and Error Estimates from Analysis of AIRS/AMSU Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5.0 retrieval algorithm became operational at the Goddard DAAC in July 2007 generating near real-time products from analysis of AIRS/AMSU sounding data. This algorithm contains many significant theoretical advances over the AIRS Science Team Version 4.0 retrieval algorithm used previously. Three very significant developments of Version 5 are: 1) the development and implementation of an improved Radiative Transfer Algorithm (RTA) which allows for accurate treatment of non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) effects on shortwave sounding channels; 2) the development of methodology to obtain very accurate case by case product error estimates which are in turn used for quality control; and 3) development of an accurate AIRS only cloud clearing and retrieval system. These theoretical improvements taken together enabled a new methodology to be developed which further improves soundings in partially cloudy conditions, without the need for microwave observations in the cloud clearing step as has been done previously. In this methodology, longwave C02 channel observations in the spectral region 700 cm-' to 750 cm-' are used exclusively for cloud clearing purposes, while shortwave C02 channels in the spectral region 2195 cm-' to 2395 cm-' are used for temperature sounding purposes. The new methodology for improved error estimates and their use in quality control is described briefly and results are shown indicative of their accuracy. Results are also shown of forecast impact experiments assimilating AIRS Version 5.0 retrieval products in the Goddard GEOS 5 Data Assimilation System using different quality control thresholds.

  15. Monitoring of atmospheric aerosol emissions using a remotely piloted air vehicle (RPV)-Borne Sensor Suite

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a small sensor system, the micro-atmospheric measurement system ({mu}-AMS), to monitor and track aerosol emissions. The system was developed to fly aboard a remotely piloted air vehicle, or other mobile platform, to provide real-time particle measurements in effluent plumes and to collect particles for chemical analysis. The {mu}-AMS instrument measures atmospheric parameters including particle mass concentration and size distribution, temperature, humidity, and airspeed, altitude and position (by GPS receiver) each second. The sensor data are stored onboard and are also down linked to a ground station in real time. The {mu}-AMS is battery powered, small (8 in. dia x 36 in.), and lightweight (15 pounds). Aerosol concentrations and size distributions from above ground explosive tests, airbone urban pollution, and traffic-produced particulates are presented.

  16. Atmospheric air pollutants: CO in Nitrogen, 5 μmol/mol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelko, L. A.; Pankratov, V. V.; Pankov, A. A.; Ivahnenko, B. V.; Efremova, O. V.; Bakovec, N. V.; Mironchik, A. M.; Aleksandrov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the report on the COOMET supplementary comparison "Atmospheric air pollutants: CO in Nitrogen, 5 μmol/mol". Carbon monoxide (CO) is present in atmosphere due to different natural and anthropogenic sources. CO is a toxic gas and in concentrations higher than (3-5) μmol/mol it is hazardous to human health. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Revisiting Atmospheric Lead in NYC - Comparison of Archived Air Filters to Urban Park Sediments and Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chillrud, S. N.; Ross, J. M.; Yan, B.; Bopp, R.

    2015-12-01

    Urban lake sediments have the potential to be used for reconstructing history of aerosols, providing data before the start of urban air quality monitoring. In a previous study, the similarity between radionuclide and excess Pb inventories (57 g/m^2) in Central Park Lake (CPL) sediments and those same parameters in Central Park soils (CPS) was interpreted to indicate that urban lake sediment cores from CPL represent deposition of atmospheric aerosols over the history of the park, which was constructed in the 1860s. Furthermore, metal ratios and metal chronologies indicated that incineration was the major source of Pb to the NYC atmosphere over the 20th century. In this report, we compare the lake chronologies for metals to a set of archived air filters collected by the Department of Energy's Environmental Measurement Lab (EML). These weekly filters of total suspended particulates (TSP) were collected by a high volume sampler located in lower Manhattan for radionuclides as part of the program focused on documenting radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Metal concentrations measured in subsamples of the EML filters collected between the 1970s to 1990s showed Pb decreasing more slowly than the records of Pb added to gasoline. Metal ratios in the filters were similar to the ratios measured in CPL sediments; the Pb to Sn ratios were roughly 20:1 and the Pb to Zn ratios were in close to 1. The similarity of the ratios provides additional solid support that the CP Lake sediment cores reflect atmospheric inputs. The enrichment of Pb in the large aerosol particle fraction (TSP), relative to fine PM2.5 fraction, demonstrates that the resuspended NYC soils and their historical contaminant burden, are the primary, current source of Pb to NYC air.

  18. Sterilization effect of atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma on dental instruments

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Su-Jin; Huh, Jung-Bo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Chang, Brian Myung W.; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Autoclaves and UV sterilizers have been commonly used to prevent cross-infections between dental patients and dental instruments or materials contaminated by saliva and blood. To develop a dental sterilizer which can sterilize most materials, such as metals, rubbers, and plastics, the sterilization effect of an atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS After inoculating E. coli and B. subtilis the diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials were sterilized by exposing them to the plasma for different lengths of time (30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and, 240 seconds). The diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials were immersed in PBS solutions, cultured on agar plates and quantified by counting the colony forming units. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and significance was assessed by the LSD post hoc test (α=0.05). RESULTS The device was effective in killing E. coli contained in the plasma device compared with the UV sterilizer. The atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device contributed greatly to the sterilization of diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with E. coli and B. subtilis. Diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with E. coli was effective after 60 and 90 seconds. The diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with B. subtilis was effective after 120 and 180 seconds. CONCLUSION The atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device was effective in killing both E. coli and B. subtilis, and was more effective in killing E. coli than the UV sterilizer. PMID:23508991

  19. Comparison of halocarbon measurements in an atmospheric dry whole air sample

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Bradley D.; Harth, Christina M.; Kim, Jin Seog; Lee, Jeongsoon; Montzka, Stephen A.; Mühle, Jens; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-01-01

    The growing awareness of climate change/global warming, and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion, will require continued measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track atmospheric mole fractions and assess the impact of policy on emission rates, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. Precise measurements of these species aid in determining small changes in their atmospheric abundance. A common source of standards/scales and/or well-documented agreement of different scales used to calibrate the measurement instrumentation are key to understanding many sets of data reported by researchers. This report describes the results of a comparison study among National Metrology Institutes and atmospheric research laboratories for the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this study is to compare calibration standards/scales and the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. The results of this study show agreement among four independent calibration scales to better than 2.5% in almost all cases, with many of the reported agreements being better than 1.0%. PMID:26753167

  20. Long-period humidity variability in the Arctic atmosphere from upper-air observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurenko, A.; Khokhlova, A.

    2014-12-01

    Under climate change, atmospheric water content also tends to change. This gives rise to changes in the amount of moisture transferred, clouds and precipitation, as well as in hydrological regime. This work analyzes seasonal climatic characteristics of precipitated water in the Arctic atmosphere, by using 1972-2011 data from 55 upper-air stations located north of 60°N. Regions of maximum and minimum mean values and variability trends are determined. In the summer, water amount is shown to increase in nearly the whole of the latitudinal zone. The comparison with the similar characteristics of reanalysis obtained by the other authors shows a good agreement. Time variation in the atmosphere moisture transport crossing 70°N, which is calculated from observation data, is presented and compared with model results. The work is supported by the joint EC ERA.Net RUS and Russian Fundamental Research Fund Project "Arctic Climate Processes Linked Through the Circulation of the Atmosphere" (ACPCA) (project 12-05-91656-ЭРА_а).

  1. Decline of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Arctic atmosphere and reversal of air-sea gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Jantunen, L. M.; Falconer, R. L.; Barrie, L. A.; Fellin, P.

    1995-02-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) are the most abundant organochlorine pesticides in the arctic atmosphere and ocean surface water. A compilation of measurements made between 1979-93 from stations in the Canadian and Norwegian Arctic and from cruises in the Bering and Chukchi seas indicates that atmospheric concentrations of α-HCH have declined significantly (p < 0.01), with a time for 50% decrease of about 4 y in summer-fall and 6 y in winter-spring. The 1992-93 levels of about 100 pg m-3 are 2-4 fold lower than values in the mid-1980s. The trend in γ-HCH is less pronounced, but a decrease is also suggested from measurements in the Canadian Arctic and the Bering-Chukchi seas. HCHs in ocean surface water have remained relatively constant since the early 1980s. The decline in atmospheric α-HCH has reversed the net direction of air-sea gas exchange to the point where some northern waters are now sources of the pesticide to the atmosphere instead of sinks.

  2. Validation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) over the Antarctic Plateau: Low Radiance, Low Humidity, and Thin Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the project has been to use specialized measurements collected at the Antarctic Plateau to provide validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) spectral radiances and some AIRS Level 2 products. As proposed, efforts conducted at the University of Wisconsin are focused on providing technical information, data, and software in support of the validation studies.

  3. Atmospheric properties reconstruction from the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein-Rathlou, Christina; Withers, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed on August 5, 2012 in Gale Crater on Mars (4.5 S, 137.4 E) [1]. The MSL entry vehicle measured accelerations and angular velocity during its descent through the Martian atmosphere using accelerometers and gyroscopes in an inertial measurement unit. We have applied smoothing techniques previously developed for the NASA Phoenix Mars mission [2] to these acceleration data. Smoothed accelerations were used in conjunction with the vehicle’s aerodynamic database to reconstruct atmospheric density, pressure and temperature profiles to above 120 km altitude. The density profile was estimated using axial accelerations in the drag force equation. Corresponding pressure and temperature profiles were calculated using the hydrostatic equilibrium and ideal gas law, respectively. In contrast to previous missions, MSL used a guided entry that resulted in periods of near-horizontal flight at approximately 20 km altitude [3], during which pressure could not be determined from hydrostatic equilibrium. Instead, atmospheric pressures at low altitudes were determined independently by the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) [4]. These were used in conjunction with accelerometer-derived densities to extend the atmospheric temperature profile through the period of near-horizontal flight. Although the results present only a snapshot of the regional atmospheric conditions at the time of entry, descent and landing of MSL, they have excellent vertical resolution and vertical extent, thereby complementing orbital observations. We will present an overview of our atmospheric reconstruction process, the derived atmospheric profiles, and preliminary scientific interpretation of the atmospheric results. References: [1] Vasavada, A.R. et al (2014), JGR-Planets, 119, 6, 1134-1161 [2] Withers, P. (2013) Planet. & Space Sci., 79-80, 52-55, [3] Dutta, S. et al. (2013) 23rd AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, AAS 13-309, [4] Schoenenberger, M. et al

  4. A study of the glow discharge characteristics of contact electrodes at atmospheric pressure in air

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenzheng Sun, Guangliang Li, Chuanhui; Zhang, Rongrong

    2014-04-15

    Electric field distributions and discharge properties of rod-rod contact electrodes were studied under the condition of DBD for the steady generation of atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma (APGD) in air. We found that under the effect of the initial electrons generated in a nanometer-scale gap, the rod-rod cross-contact electrodes yielded APGD plasma in air. Regarding the rod-rod cross-contact electrodes, increasing the working voltage expanded the strong electric field area of the gas gap so that both discharge area and discharge power increased, and the increase in the number of contact points kept the initial discharge voltage unchanged and caused an increase in the plasma discharge area and discharge power. A mesh-like structure of cross-contact electrodes was designed and used to generate more APGD plasma, suggesting high applicability.

  5. Simulation of a runaway electron avalanche developing in an atmospheric pressure air discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Oreshkin, E. V.; Barengolts, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2015-12-15

    To gain a better understanding of the operation of atmospheric pressure air discharges, the formation of a runaway electron beam at an individual emission site on the cathode has been numerically simulated. The model provides a description of the dynamics of the fast electrons emitted into an air gap from the surface of the emission zone by solving numerically two-dimensional equations for the electrons. It is supposed that the electric field at the surface of the emission zone is enhanced, providing conditions for continuous acceleration of the emitted electrons. It is shown that the formation of a runaway electron beam in a highly overvolted discharge is largely associated with avalanche-type processes and that the number of electrons in the avalanche reaches 50% of the total number of runaway electrons.

  6. Simulation of a runaway electron avalanche developing in an atmospheric pressure air discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, E. V.; Barengolts, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2015-12-01

    To gain a better understanding of the operation of atmospheric pressure air discharges, the formation of a runaway electron beam at an individual emission site on the cathode has been numerically simulated. The model provides a description of the dynamics of the fast electrons emitted into an air gap from the surface of the emission zone by solving numerically two-dimensional equations for the electrons. It is supposed that the electric field at the surface of the emission zone is enhanced, providing conditions for continuous acceleration of the emitted electrons. It is shown that the formation of a runaway electron beam in a highly overvolted discharge is largely associated with avalanche-type processes and that the number of electrons in the avalanche reaches 50% of the total number of runaway electrons.

  7. Land use changes and its impacts on air quality and atmospheric patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, E. D.; Mazzoli, C. R.; Martins, L. D.; Martins, J. A.; Carvalho, V.; Andrade, M.

    2013-05-01

    Possible modifications on atmospheric patterns and air quality caused by land use changes are discussed in this work. With the increasing interest in alternative energy sources, mainly due to the replacement of fossil fuels, large part of the Brazilian territory is being used for sugar cane cultivation. The resultant modifications in land use and some activities associated to this crop are studied with some detail through numerical modeling of the atmosphere. The same tool was applied to study the effect of surface type and emission sources over urban areas in the neighborhoods of the cultivated areas, in particular those located in the Metropolitan Area of Campinas, inside the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The main focus of this work was to identify some relationship between these two types of land use modification and its influence on the regional atmospheric circulation patterns and air quality over agricultural and urban areas affected by biomass burning and the traditional sources of pollutants, such as industries and vehicles. First, the effect of urban areas was analyzed and it was possible to identify typical patterns associated with urban heat islands, especially over the city of Campinas. In this region, air temperature differences up to 3 K were detected during night time. During the day, due to the atmospheric conditions of the studied period, this effect was not significant. Afterwards, the effect of sugar cane cultivated regions was discussed. The results show that the regions of sugar cane grow can significantly modify the surface energy fluxes, with direct consequences to the standards of local temperature and humidity and over nearby regions. Sensitivity tests were carried out during part of September, 2007, through the substitution of the sugar cane by a generic crop in the model, and show that during the day the cultivated areas can present temperatures up to 0,65 k higher than those in the case of the generic one. Throughout the dispersion module

  8. Energy distribution of runaway electrons generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Petin, V. K.; Rybka, D. V.; Shlyakhtun, S. V.

    2008-12-01

    The spectra of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air were investigated. The temporal characteristics of the beam current pulses, gap voltage, and discharge current in a gas diode were measured with a time resolution of ˜0.1 ns. A simple technique was developed for recovering electron spectra from the curves of beam attenuation by aluminum foils. The effect of the cathode design, electrode gap length, and generator parameters on the electron spectra were studied using seven setups. It is shown that generation of electrons with anomalously high energies requires the use of cathodes with increased curvature radius.

  9. Effects of Atmospheric Air Plasma Irradiation on pH of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Koga, Kazunori; Kitazaki, Satoshi; Uchida, Giichirou; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu

    We have studied the effects of atmospheric air plasma irradiation to water using a scalable dielectric barrier discharge device. Measurements of the pH of water treated by the plasmas have shown the pH decreases due to peroxide molecules generated by plasma irradiation and depends on material of water container. We also found this plasma treated water has little effect on the growth enhancement on Radish sprouts compare with plasma irradiation on dry seeds and the plasma irradiation can affect them through the water buffer of 0.2 mm in thickness.

  10. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height Evolution with Lidar in Buenos Aires from 2008 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelko, Ezequiel Eduardo; Salvador, Jacobo Omar; Ristori, Pablo Roberto; Pallotta, Juan Vicente; Otero, Lidia Ana; Quel, Eduardo Jaime

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer top height evolution is obtained from 2008 to 2011 in Buenos Aires using the multiwavelength lidar located at CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET) (34°33' S; 58°30' W; 17 m asl). Algorithms recognition based on covariance wavelet transform are applied to obtain seasonal statistics. This method is being evaluated for use in the Lidar Network in Argentina and it is being deployed in Patagonia region currently. The technique operates in real time in both low and high aerosol loads and with almost no human supervision.

  11. Energy distribution of runaway electrons generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Petin, V. K.; Rybka, D. V.; Shlyakhtun, S. V.

    2008-12-15

    The spectra of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air were investigated. The temporal characteristics of the beam current pulses, gap voltage, and discharge current in a gas diode were measured with a time resolution of {approx}0.1 ns. A simple technique was developed for recovering electron spectra from the curves of beam attenuation by aluminum foils. The effect of the cathode design, electrode gap length, and generator parameters on the electron spectra were studied using seven setups. It is shown that generation of electrons with anomalously high energies requires the use of cathodes with increased curvature radius.

  12. Spectrum of the Runaway Electron Beam Generated During a Nanosecond Discharge in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.

    2016-04-01

    The spectrum of supershort avalanche runaway electron beam generated in air at atmospheric pressure is experimentally investigated using a time-of-flight spectrometer and attenuation curves. It is shown that the maximum of the electron energy distribution for the main (second) group of electrons is less than the energy eUm, where Um is the maximal voltage across the gap, and the difference between these energies depends on the design of the cathode and the interelectrode gap in a gas diode. It is confirmed that there are three groups of electrons with different energies in the runaway electron beam spectrum.

  13. Surface hardening of stainless steel by runaway electrons preionized diffuse discharge in air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Oskomov, K. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present microhardness measurements of stainless steel surface treated by diffuse discharge in air atmosphere. The cleaning from carbon in comparison to the initial sample was observed at a depth exceeding 20 nm. The oxygen concentration was also increased in comparison to that in the initial sample at a depth of up to about 50 nm. Comparative analysis shows that after treatment the microhardness of stainless steel surface increased in 2 times due to interaction of near-surface layers with product of plasma chemical reactions produced in diffuse discharge.

  14. Temporal and spatial structure of a runaway electron beam in air at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, D.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Rybka, D. V.; Burachenko, A. G.

    2013-05-21

    The time- and spatial structure of a runaway electron beam generated in air at atmospheric pressure by a high-voltage pulse with a rise time of {approx}300 ps is studied experimentally and numerically. It is obtained that the duration of the runaway electron current is a few tens of picoseconds, and it can consist of two or many peaks. It is shown that the many-peak temporal structure of the beam is caused by the non-simultaneous appearance of several emission centers on the cathode edge.

  15. The influence of the atmospheric refractive index on radio Xmax measurements of air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corstanje, Arthur; Buitink, Stijn; Bonardi, Antonio; Falcke, Heino; Hörandel, Jörg R.; Mitra, Pragati; Mulrey, Katie; Nelles, Anna; Rachen, Jörg Paul; Rossetto, Laura; Schellart, Pim; Scholten, Olaf; Thoudam, Satyendra; Trinh, Gia; ter Veen, Sander; Winchen, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    The refractive index of the atmosphere, which is n ≈ 1:0003 at sea level, varies with altitude and with local temperature, pressure and humidity. When performing radio measurements of air showers, natural variations in n will change the radio lateral intensity distribution, by changing the Cherenkov angle. Using CoREAS simulations, we have evaluated the systematic error on measurements of the shower maximum Xmax due to variations in n. It was found that a 10% increase in refractivity (n - 1) leads to an underestimation of Xmax between 8 and 22 g/cm2 for proton-induced showers at zenith angles from 15 to 45 degrees, respectively.

  16. Hurricane Alex as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for August 3, 2004 movie, slicing down the atmosphere with the AIRS infrared sensor

    These images of hurricane Alex were captured on August 3, 2004 at 1:30pm EDT. Located in the Atlantic Ocean located about 80 miles south-southeast of Charleston, South Carolina, Alex is now a category 2 hurricane with maximum sustained winds were near 100 mph (161 kph). Alex's center was about 65 miles (104 kilometers) northeast of Cape Hatteras and moving away from the U.S. coast.

    The major contribution to radiation (infrared light) that AIRS infrared channels sense comes from different levels in the atmosphere, depending upon the channel wavelength. To create the movies, a set of AIRS infrared channels were selected which probe the atmosphere at progressively deeper levels. If there were no clouds, the color in each frame would be nearly uniform until the Earth's surface is encountered. The tropospheric air temperature warms at a rate of 6 K (about 11 F) for each kilometer of descent toward the surface. Thus the colors would gradually change from cold to warm as the movie progresses.

    Clouds block the infrared radiation. Thus wherever there are clouds we can penetrate no deeper in infrared. The color remains fixed as the movie progresses, for that area of the image is 'stuck' to the cloud top temperature. The coldest temperatures around 220 K (about -65 F) come from altitudes of about 10 miles.

    We therefore see in a 'surface channel' at the end of the movie, signals from clouds as cold as 220 K and from Earth's surface at 310 K (about 100 F). The very coldest clouds are seen in deep convection thunderstorms over land. Images [figure removed for brevity, see original site] August 2, 2004, 1:30am ET Frame from August 2 movie, slicing down the atmosphere with the AIRS infrared sensor. Alex a tropical storm, sustained winds at 60 mph. The storm is 115 miles southeast of Charleston, South

  17. Historical Research in the Atmospheric Sciences: The Value of Literature Reviews, Libraries, and Librarians.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David M.

    2004-07-01

    Based on a talk given at the sixth annual meeting of the Atmospheric Science Librarians International, this paper explores the author's experiences performing reviews of the scientific literature as a tool to advancing meteorology and studying the history of science. Three phases of performing literature searches with varying degrees of interaction with a research librarian are considered: do it yourself, librarian assisted, and librarian as collaborator. Examples are given for each phase: occluded fronts, conditional symmetric instability, and static instability terminology, respectively. Electronic availability of information is changing the relationship between scientists and librarians. Yet, despite these changes, books on library shelves and knowledgeable human librarians remain essential to the scientific enterprise.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains research in the atmospheric sciences. Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at PNL are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, continental, and global scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. The redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. Eventually, large-scale experiments on cloud processing and redistribution of contaminants will be integrated into the national program on global change, investigating how energy pollutants affect aerosols and clouds and the transfer of radiant energy through them. As the significance of this effect becomes clear, its global impact on climate will be studied through experimental and modeling research. The description of ongoing atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: atmospheric studies in complex terrain, large-scale atmospheric transport and processing of emissions, and climate change. This report describes the progress in FY 1989 in each of these areas. A divider page summarizes the goals of each area and lists project titles that support research activities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Hurricane Katrina as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: click on image for larger AIRS microwave image

    At 1:30 a.m. local time this morning, the remnants of (now Tropical Depression) Katrina were centered on the Mississippi-Tennessee border. This microwave image from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument on NASA's Aqua spacecrat shows that the area of most intense precipitation was concentrated to the north of the center of activity.

    The infrared image shows how the storms look through an AIRS Infrared window channel. Window channels measure the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the hurricane. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds, so the purple color indicates the cool cloud tops of the storm. In cloud-free areas, the infrared signal is retrieved at the Earth's surface, revealing warmer temperatures. Cooler areas are pushing to purple and warmer areas are pushing to red.

    The microwave image (figure 1) reveals where the heaviest precipitation in the hurricane is taking place. The blue areas within the storm show the location of this heavy precipitation. Blue areas outside of the storm where there are moderate or no clouds are where the cold (in the microwave sense) sea surface shines through.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard

  20. Carbon Monoxide Distribution over Peninsular Malaysia from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jaso M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.

    2009-07-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. It daily coverage of ˜70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite traces gas remote sensing. AIRS, the part of a large international investment to upgrade the operational meteorological satellite systems, is first of the new generation of meteorological advanced sounders for operational and research use, Providing New Insights into Weather and Climate for the 21st Century. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous, an indoor and outdoor air pollutant, is not a significant greenhouse gas as it absorbs little infrared radiation from the Earth. However, it does have an influence on oxidization in the atmosphere through interaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH), which also react with methane, halocarbons and tropospheric ozone. It produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning, and that it has a role as a smog. The aim of this investigation is to study the (CO) carbon monoxide distribution over Peninsular Malaysia. The land use map of the Peninsular Malaysia was conducted by using CO total column amount, obtained from AIRS data, the map & data was processed and analyzed by using Photoshop & SigmaPlot 11.0 programs and compared for timing of various (day time) (28 August 2005 & 29 August 2007) for both direct comparison and the comparison using the same a priori profile, the CO concentrations in 28/8/2005 higher. The CO maps were generated using Kriging Interpolation technique. This interpolation technique produced high correlation coefficient, R2 and low root mean square error, RMS for CO. This study provided useful information for influence change of CO concentration on varies temperature.

  1. Report on the search for atmospheric holes using airs image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinleitner, Lee A.

    1991-01-01

    Frank et al (1986) presented a very controversial hypothesis which states that the Earth is being bombarded by water-vapor clouds resulting from the disruption and vaporization of small comets. This hypothesis was based on single-pixel intensity decreases in the images of the earth's dayglow emissions at vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths using the DE-1 imager. These dark spots, or atmospheric holes, are hypothesized to be the result of VUV absorption by a water-vapor cloud between the imager and the dayglow-emitting region. Examined here is the VUV data set from the Auroral Ionospheric Remote Sensor (AIRS) instrument that was flown on the Polar BEAR satellite. AIRS was uniquely situated to test this hypothesis. Due to the altitude of the sensor, the holes should show multi-pixel intensity decreases in a scan line. A statistical estimate indicated that sufficient 130.4-nm data from AIRS existed to detect eight to nine such holes, but none was detected. The probability of this occurring is less than 1.0 x 10(exp -4). A statistical estimate indicated that sufficient 135.6-nm data from AIRS existed to detect approx. 2 holes, and two ambiguous cases are shown. In spite of the two ambiguous cases, the 135.6-nm data did not show clear support for the small-comet hypothesis. The 130.4-nm data clearly do not support the small-comet hypothesis.

  2. Quality Heterostructures from Two-Dimensional Crystals Unstable in Air by Their Assembly in Inert Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y; Mishchenko, A; Yu, G L; Khestanova, E; Rooney, A P; Prestat, E; Kretinin, A V; Blake, P; Shalom, M B; Woods, C; Chapman, J; Balakrishnan, G; Grigorieva, I V; Novoselov, K S; Piot, B A; Potemski, M; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Haigh, S J; Geim, A K; Gorbachev, R V

    2015-08-12

    Many layered materials can be cleaved down to individual atomic planes, similar to graphene, but only a small minority of them are stable under ambient conditions. The rest react and decompose in air, which has severely hindered their investigation and potential applications. Here we introduce a remedial approach based on cleavage, transfer, alignment, and encapsulation of air-sensitive crystals, all inside a controlled inert atmosphere. To illustrate the technology, we choose two archetypal two-dimensional crystals that are of intense scientific interest but are unstable in air: black phosphorus and niobium diselenide. Our field-effect devices made from their monolayers are conductive and fully stable under ambient conditions, which is in contrast to the counterparts processed in air. NbSe2 remains superconducting down to the monolayer thickness. Starting with a trilayer, phosphorene devices reach sufficiently high mobilities to exhibit Landau quantization. The approach offers a venue to significantly expand the range of experimentally accessible two-dimensional crystals and their heterostructures.

  3. High-speed sterilization technique using dielectric barrier discharge plasmas in atmospheric humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamae, M.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2010-11-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma produced by an ac voltage application of 1 kHz in atmospheric humid air was investigated in order to develop low-temperature, low-cost and high-speed plasma sterilization technique. The biological indicators covered with a Tyvek sheet were set just outside the DBD plasma region, where the air temperature and humidity as a discharge gas were precisely controlled by an environmental test chamber. The results show that the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores was found to be dependent strongly on the humidity, and was completed within 15 min at a relative humidity of 90 % and a temperature of 30 C. The treatment time for sterilization is shorter than those of conventional sterilization methods using ethylene oxide gas and dry heat treatment. It is considered that reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals that are effective for the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores could be produced by the DBD plasma in the humid air. Repetitive micro-pulsed discharge plasmas in the humid air will be applied for the sterilization experiment to enhance the sterilization efficiency.

  4. Science on Spacelab. [astronomy, high energy astrophysics, life sciences, and solar, atmospheric and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmerling, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Spacelab was developed by the European Space Agency for the conduction of scientific and technological experiments in space. Spacelab can be taken into earth orbit by the Space Shuttle and returned to earth after a period of 1-3 weeks. The Spacelab modular system of pallets, pressurized modules, and racks can contain large payloads with high power and telemetry requirements. A working group has defined the 'Atmospheres, Magnetospheres, and Plasmas-in-Space' project. The project objectives include the absolute measurement of solar flux in a number of carefully selected bands at the same time at which atmospheric measurements are made. NASA is committed to the concept that the scientist is to play a key role in its scientific programs.

  5. Feasibility of using an east coast facility for collaborative research in atmospheric science

    SciTech Connect

    Molitoris, J. D., LLNL

    1998-02-09

    This feasibility study examined the effectiveness and potential of a center for collaborative research in atmospheric science and remote sensing. Strongly related to this effort was the development of a telescope facility by Howard University into an atmospheric observatory and remote sensor test-bed. Several remote sensing techniques were evaluated here and the most promising were further developed. Atmospheric assessment concentrated on aerosols, winds, constituent analysis, and the detection of hazardous agents including biologicals. This mission defined the suite of instrumentation. Being a feasibility study, the scope of the project was limited to examining the state of the technology and pushing it when possible. Research performed in applying laser technology lead to the development and subsequent patent application of a new laser heterodyne amplifier, progress toward the development of a laser probe to determine the range resolved size distribution of aerosols, and studies which may lead to the development of a laser induced fluorescence sensing technique for biologicals in the atmosphere. Research in passive atmospheric sensing helped to motivate a field experiment to better understand atmospheric radiance and radiation transport in three-dimensions.

  6. Extending radiative transfer models by use of Bayes rule. [in atmospheric science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure that extends some existing radiative transfer modeling techniques to problems in atmospheric science where curvature and layering of the medium and dynamic range and angular resolution of the signal are important. Example problems include twilight and limb scan simulations. Techniques that are extended include successive orders of scattering, matrix operator, doubling, Gauss-Seidel iteration, discrete ordinates and spherical harmonics. The procedure for extending them is based on Bayes' rule from probability theory.

  7. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a nearperfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a higheccentricity geocentric orbit. The launch, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, was visible from much of the eastern seaboard. Over the next 30 days, LADEE performed three phasing orbits, with near-perfect maneuvers that placed apogee at ever higher altitudes in preparation for rendezvous with the Moon. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any.

  8. Multitechnique characterisation of 304L surface states oxidised at high temperature in steam and air atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamede, Anne-Sophie; Nuns, Nicolas; Cristol, Anne-Lise; Cantrel, Laurent; Souvi, Sidi; Cristol, Sylvain; Paul, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    In case of a severe accident occurring in a nuclear reactor, surfaces of the reactor coolant system (RCS), made of stainless steel (304L) rich in Cr (>10%) and Ni (8-12%), are oxidised. Fission products (FPs) are released from melt fuel and flow through the RCS. A part of them is deposited onto surfaces either by vapour condensation or by aerosol deposition mechanisms. To be able to understand the nature of interactions between these FPs and the RCS surfaces, a preliminary step is to characterize the RSC surface states in steam and air atmosphere at high temperatures. Pieces of 304L stainless steel have been treated in a flow reactor at two different temperatures (750 °C and 950 °C) for two different exposition times (24 h and 72 h). After surfaces analysing by a unique combination of surface analysis techniques (XPS, ToF-SIMS and LEIS), for 304L, the results show a deep oxide scale with multi layers and the outer layer is composed of chromium and manganese oxides. Oxide profiles differ in air or steam atmosphere. Fe2O3 oxide is observed but in minor proportion and in all cases no nickel is detected near the surface. Results obtained are discussed and compared with the literature data.

  9. Two-Dimensional Electron Density Measurement of Positive Streamer Discharge in Atmospheric-Pressure Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Yuki; Ono, Ryo; Kumada, Akiko; Hidaka, Kunihiko; Maeyama, Mitsuaki

    2016-09-01

    The electron density of streamer discharges propagating in atmospheric-pressure air is crucially important for systematic understanding of the production mechanisms of reactive species utilized in wide ranging applications such as medical treatment, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, ozone production and environmental pollutant processing. However, electron density measurement during the propagation of the atmospheric-pressure streamers is extremely difficult by using the conventional localized type measurement systems due to the streamer initiation jitters and the irreproducibility in the discharge paths. In order to overcome the difficulties, single-shot two-dimensional electron density measurement was conducted by using a Shack-Hartmann type laser wavefront sensor. The Shack-Hartmann sensor with a temporal resolution of 2 ns was applied to pulsed positive streamer discharges generated in an air gap between pin-to-plate electrodes. The electron density a few ns after the streamer initiation was 7*1021m-3 and uniformly distributed along the streamer channel. The electron density and its distribution profile were compared with a previous study simulating similar streamers, demonstrating good agreement. This work was supported in part by JKA and its promotion funds from KEIRIN RACE. The authors like to thank Mr. Kazuaki Ogura and Mr. Kaiho Aono of The University of Tokyo for their support during this work.

  10. Optical emission spectroscopy of nanosecond repetitively pulsed microplasmas generated in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orriere, Thomas; Moreau, Eric; Benard, Nicolas; Pai, David

    2015-09-01

    Nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) microplasmas are generated in room temperature air at atmospheric pressure, in order to investigate the enhanced control of discharge properties via the combined effects of spatial confinement and nanosecond repetitive pulsing. Discharges were generated using high-voltage pulses of 15-ns duration applied to a tungsten pin-to-pin reactor, with inter-electrode gap distances (d) from 2 mm down to 0.2 mm. Optical emission spectroscopy and electrical characterization performed on the discharge indicate that heat transfer and plasma chemistry are influenced by the microplasma geometry. Ultrafast gas heating is observed upon deducing the rotational temperature of N2 from the measured emission spectrum of the N2 (C -->B) (0, 2) and (1, 3) transition bands, but use of the microplasma geometry (d = 0.2 mm) results in lower gas temperatures than in larger discharge gaps (d = 2 mm), including at high pulse repetition frequency (30 kHz) where substantial steady-state gas heating can occur. The measured Stark broadening of the Hα transition is significantly greater than for previously studied NRP discharges in air at atmospheric pressure, indicating that the maximum electron number density may be correspondingly much greater, up to 1018 cm-3. Furthermore, for NRP microplasmas, the intensities of emission from excited atomic ions (O+ and N+) are much higher than those of excited neutral atoms (O and N), in contrast to NRP discharges generated in larger discharge gaps.

  11. FT-IR remote sensing of atmospheric species: Application to global change and air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    In this contribution, the author describes two applications of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to the monitoring of atmospheric compounds. Firstly, the author reports FTIR solar spectroscopy measurements carried out at ground level at NCAR and on airplanes employing a spectrometer of 0.06 cm{sup -1} resolution. Sample atmospheric spectra and fitting examples are presented for key species relevant to stratospheric chemistry and global change: ozone (O{sub 3}), a chlorofluorocarbon (CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}), a greenhouse gas (N{sub 2}O), HCl, NO and HNO{sub 3}. Secondly, the author briefly describes urban air pollution measurements at an intersection with heavy traffic in Tucson, AZ. Two FTIR spectrometers of 1 cm{sup -1} resolution were employed to carry out long-path open-path measurements of the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio and SF{sub 6}. Two FEAT and two LPUV instruments were employed for ancillary measurements of CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements of CO at two heights and a comparison of CO/CO{sub 2} ratios obtained by FEAT exhaust emission and FTIR ambient air measurements are reported.

  12. Advances in Atmospheric Radiation Measurements and Modeling Needed to Improve Air Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Atwell, William; Beck, Peter; Benton, Eric; Copeland, Kyle; Dyer, Clive; Gersey, Brad; Getley, Ian; Hands, Alex; Holland, Michael; Hong, Sunhak; Hwang, Junga; Jones, Bryn; Malone, Kathleen; Meier, Matthias M.; Mertens, Chris; Phillips, Tony; Ryden, Keith; Schwadron, Nathan; Wender, Stephen A.; Wilkins, Richard; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    Air safety is tied to the phenomenon of ionizing radiation from space weather, primarily from galactic cosmic rays but also from solar energetic particles. A global framework for addressing radiation issues in this environment has been constructed, but more must be done at international and national levels. Health consequences from atmospheric radiation exposure are likely to exist. In addition, severe solar radiation events may cause economic consequences in the international aviation community due to exposure limits being reached by some crew members. Impacts from a radiation environment upon avionics from high-energy particles and low-energy, thermalized neutrons are now recognized as an area of active interest. A broad community recognizes that there are a number of mitigation paths that can be taken relative to the human tissue and avionics exposure risks. These include developing active monitoring and measurement programs as well as improving scientific modeling capabilities that can eventually be turned into operations. A number of roadblocks to risk mitigation still exist, such as effective pilot training programs as well as monitoring, measuring, and regulatory measures. An active international effort toward observing the weather of atmospheric radiation must occur to make progress in mitigating radiation exposure risks. Stakeholders in this process include standard-making bodies, scientific organizations, regulatory organizations, air traffic management systems, aircraft owners and operators, pilots and crew, and even the public.

  13. A new dynamical atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) model for epidemiological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Goldhagen, P. E.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    A new Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) model is currently being developed for use in radiation dose evaluation in epidemiological studies targeted to atmospheric flight personnel such as civilian airlines crewmembers. The model will allow computing values for biologically relevant parameters, e.g. dose equivalent and effective dose, for individual flights from 1945. Each flight is described by its actual three dimensional flight profile, i.e. geographic coordinates and altitudes varying with time. Solar modulated primary particles are filtered with a new analytical fully angular dependent geomagnetic cut off rigidity model, as a function of latitude, longitude, arrival direction, altitude and time. The particle transport results have been obtained with a technique based on the three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA, with a special procedure to deal with HZE particles. Particle fluxes are transformed into dose-related quantities and then integrated all along the flight path to obtain the overall flight dose. Preliminary validations of the particle transport technique using data from the AIR Project ER-2 flight campaign of measurements are encouraging. Future efforts will deal with modeling of the effects of the aircraft structure as well as inclusion of solar particle events. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  14. What is in my air? Feds facilitating citizen science in the EPA Next Generation Air Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Preuss, P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in the development of small-scale and inexpensive air pollutant sensors, coupled with the ubiquitous use of wireless and mobile technology, will transform the field of air quality monitoring. For the first time, the general public may purchase air monitors, which can measure their personal exposure to NOx, Ozone, black carbon, and VOCs for a few hundred dollars. Concerned citizens may now gather the data for themselves to answer questions such as, ';what am I breathing?' and ';is my air clean?' The research and policy community will have access to real-time air quality data collected at the local and regional scale, making targeted protection of environmental health possible. With these benefits come many questions from citizen scientists, policymakers, and researchers. These include, what is the quality of the data? How will the public interpret data from the air sensors and are there guidelines to interpret that data? How do you know if the air sensor is trustworthy? Recognizing that this revolution in air quality monitoring will proceed regardless of the involvement of the government, the Innovation Team at the EPA Office of Research and Development, in partnership with the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance and the Office of Air and Radiation, seized the opportunity to ensure that users of next generation air sensors can realize the full potential benefits of these innovative technologies. These efforts include releasing an EPA Draft Roadmap for Next Generation Air Monitoring, testing air sensors under laboratory and field conditions, field demonstrations of new air sensor technology for the public, and building a community of air sensor developers, researchers, local, state and federal officials, and community members through workshops and a website. This presentation will review the status of those programs, highlighting the particular programs of interest to citizen scientists. The Next Generation Air Monitoring program may serve

  15. Recruiting student in Sciences in Rural Environment: The Air Pollution Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubatova, A.; Pedersen, D.

    2011-12-01

    The number of students in sciences is declining and thus it is critical to employ a variety of initiatives to familiarize students with various topics in sciences as well as the university environment. In particular, this is a challenge in rural communities where many students do not have easy access to university campuses. Therefore, we have implemented a workshop for junior and senior high school students. We decided to run this workshop on the campus, as this provided not only exposure of the students to scientific and lecturing facilities, but also to life at the university. Holding the workshop on the university campus also enabled faculty and graduate students from several departments to participate, thus allowing for presentation of a wide variety of topics within atmospheric sciences. Our experiences with the continuously growing workshops - from 50 to 180 participating students - will be shared. Participants were students from both rural and urban areas. These workshops, therefore, contributed to our outreach and service to the local community and to students coming from the rural communities of the upper Midwest and Western states. The workshops are organized annually over the spring break, thus ensuring availability of facilities on the campus. The one-day workshop includes a short cycle of presentations focused on the characterization of atmospheric PM and several critical issues connected with it. The expert faculty members from several departments involved in such research present on global warming, air pollution, aerosol formation, measurement using an aircraft, the relation of emissions and energy production, and on modeling of atmospheric processes. This lecture series (each no longer than 15 min) was broken down by fun demonstrations to break the ice and attract students' attention. Following the presentations, students participated in demonstrations performed in the Chemistry Department. The demonstrations included several hands-on activities

  16. Earth Science Data and Applications for K-16 Education from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, C. S.; Chambers, L. H.; Alston, E. J.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate aims to stimulate public interest in Earth system science and to encourage young scholars to consider careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at Langley Research Center houses over 700 data sets related to Earth's radiation budget, clouds, aerosols and tropospheric chemistry that are being produced to increase academic understanding of the natural and anthropogenic perturbations that influence global climate change. However, barriers still exist in the use of these actual satellite observations by educators in the classroom to supplement the educational process. Thus, NASA is sponsoring the "Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and earth science for Teachers and Amateurs" (MY NASA DATA) project to systematically support educational activities by reducing the ASDC data holdings to `microsets' that can be easily accessible and explored by the K-16 educators and students. The microsets are available via Web site (http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov) with associated lesson plans, computer tools, data information pages, and a science glossary. A MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) has been populated with ASDC data such that users can create custom microsets online for desired time series, parameters and geographical regions. The LAS interface is suitable for novice to advanced users, teachers or students. The microsets may be visual representations of data or text output for spreadsheet analysis. Currently, over 148 parameters from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), Surface Radiation Budget (SRB), Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are available and provide important information on clouds, fluxes and cycles in the Earth system. Additionally, a MY NASA DATA OPeNDAP server has been established to facilitate file transfer of

  17. Impact of wildfires on regional air pollution | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We examine the impact of wildfires and agricultural/prescribed burning on regional air pollution and Air Quality Index (AQI) between 2006 and 2013. We define daily regional air pollution using monitoring sites for ozone (n=1595), PM2.5 collected by Federal Reference Method (n=1058), and constituents of PM2.5 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) network (n=264) and use satellite image analysis from the NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) to determine days on which visible smoke plumes are detected in the vertical column of the monitoring site. To examine the impact of smoke from these fires on regional air pollution we use a two stage approach, accounting for within site (1st stage) and between site (2nd stage) variations. At the first stage we estimate a monitor-specific plume day effect describing the relative change in pollutant concentrations on the days impacted by smoke plume while accounting for confounding effects of season and temperature_. At the second stage we combine monitor-specific plume day effects with a Bayesian hierarchical model and estimate a pooled nationally-averaged effect. HMS visible smoke plumes were detected on 6% of ozone, 8% of PM2.5 and 6% of IMPROVE network monitoring days. Our preliminary results indicate that the long range transport of air pollutants from wildfires and prescribed burns increase ozone concentration by 11% and PM2.5 mass by 34%. On all of the days where monitoring sites were AQI

  18. Hurricane Frances as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) - Total Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Born in the Atlantic, Hurricane Frances became a category 4 hurricane on August 31, 2004. Expectations are the hurricane will hit the Space Coast of Florida in Brevard County early Sunday morning.

    This movie is a time-series of maps that show AIRS observations of the total amount of water vapor present in the atmospheric column above each point of the Earth's surface. If all the water vapor in the column were forced to fall as rain, the depth of the resulting puddle on the surface at that point is equal to the value shown on the map. Fifty millimeters (mm) is about 2 inches. The large band of maximum water vapor in the neighborhood of the equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of strong convection and powerful thunderstorms.

    This movie shows the total precipitable water vapor from August 23 through September 2, 2004. You can see Hurricane Frances as it moves through the Caribbean toward Florida, and the changes in intensity are visible. The eye has been marked with a red spot. The water vapor encompassed by the hurricane is also the result of the very strong convection which is an integral part of the formation and intensification of tropical storms. If you look at the last frame of the movie in the lower right corner, you can see the emergence of a new tropical storm. Ivan makes its debut in the Atlantic.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft

  19. Etching of polymers, proteins and bacterial spores by atmospheric pressure DBD plasma in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzminova, A.; Kretková, T.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Khalakhan, I.; Prukner, V.; Doležalová, E.; Šimek, M.; Biederman, H.

    2017-04-01

    Many studies proved that non-equilibrium discharges generated at atmospheric pressure are highly effective for the bio-decontamination of surfaces of various materials. One of the key processes that leads to a desired result is plasma etching and thus the evaluation of etching rates of organic materials is of high importance. However, the comparison of reported results is rather difficult if impossible as different authors use diverse sources of atmospheric plasma that are operated at significantly different operational parameters. Therefore, we report here on the systematic study of the etching of nine different common polymers that mimic the different structures of more complicated biological systems, bovine serum albumin (BSA) selected as the model protein and spores of Bacillus subtilis taken as a representative of highly resistant micro-organisms. The treatment of these materials was performed by means of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in open air at constant conditions. All tested polymers, BSA and spores, were readily etched by DBD plasma. However, the measured etching rates were found to be dependent on the chemical structure of treated materials, namely on the presence of oxygen in the structure of polymers.

  20. Heat treatment's effects on hydroxyapatite powders in water vapor and air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, A.; Baştan, F. E.; Erdoǧan, G.; Üstel, F.

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA; Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is the main chemical constituent of bone tissue (~70%) as well as HA which is a calcium phosphate based ceramic material forms inorganic tissue of bone and tooth as hard tissues is used in production of prosthesis for synthetic bone, fractured and broken bone restoration, coating of metallic biomaterials and dental applications because of its bio compatibility. It is known that Hydroxyapatite decomposes with high heat energy after heat treatment. Therefore hydroxyapatite powders that heated in water vapor will less decomposed phases and lower amorphous phase content than in air atmosphere. In this study high purity hydroxyapatite powders were heat treated with open atmosphere furnace and water vapor atmosphere with 900, 1000, 1200 °C. Morphology of same powder size used in this process by SEM analyzed. Chemical structures of synthesized coatings have been examined by XRD. The determination of particle size and morphological structure of has been characterized by Particle Sizer, and SEM analysis, respectively. Weight change of sample was recorded by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) during heating and cooling.

  1. Contact-Free Inactivation of Candida albicans Biofilms by Cold Atmospheric Air Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Tetsuji; Isbary, Georg; Heinlin, Julia; Karrer, Sigrid; Klämpfl, Tobias G.; Li, Yang-Fang; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia L.

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is one of the main species able to form a biofilm on almost any surface, causing both skin and superficial mucosal infections. The worldwide increase in antifungal resistance has led to a decrease in the efficacy of standard therapies, prolonging treatment time and increasing health care costs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of atmospheric plasma at room temperature for inactivating C. albicans growing in biofilms without thermally damaging heat-sensitive materials. This so-called cold atmospheric plasma is produced by applying high voltage to accelerate electrons, which ionize the surrounding air, leading to the production of charged particles, reactive species, and photons. A newly developed plasma device was used, which exhibits a large plasma-generating surface area of 9 by 13 cm (117 cm2). Different time points were selected to achieve an optimum inactivation efficacy range of ≥3 log10 to 5 log10 reduction in CFU per milliliter, and the results were compared with those of 70% ethanol. The results obtained show that contact-free antifungal inactivation of Candida biofilms by cold atmospheric plasma is a promising tool for disinfection of surfaces (and items) in both health care settings and the food industry, where ethanol disinfection should be avoided. PMID:22467505

  2. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory and Atmosphere Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kutty, Prasad; Schoenenberer, Mark; Shidner, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5th 2012, The Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle successfully entered Mars atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover on its surface. A Kalman filter approach has been implemented to reconstruct the entry, descent, and landing trajectory based on all available data. The data sources considered in the Kalman filtering approach include the inertial measurement unit accelerations and angular rates, the terrain descent sensor, the measured landing site, orbit determination solutions for the initial conditions, and a new set of instrumentation for planetary entry reconstruction consisting of forebody pressure sensors, known as the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System. These pressure measurements are unique for planetary entry, descent, and landing reconstruction as they enable a reconstruction of the freestream atmospheric conditions without any prior assumptions being made on the vehicle aerodynamics. Moreover, the processing of these pressure measurements in the Kalman filter approach enables the identification of atmospheric winds, which has not been accomplished in past planetary entry reconstructions. This separation of atmosphere and aerodynamics allows for aerodynamic model reconciliation and uncertainty quantification, which directly impacts future missions. This paper describes the mathematical formulation of the Kalman filtering approach, a summary of data sources and preprocessing activities, and results of the reconstruction.

  3. Effect of non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on gingival wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been applied in the biomedical field for the improvement of various cellular activities. In dentistry, the healing of gingival soft tissue plays an important role in health and aesthetic outcomes. While the biomedical application of plasma has been thoroughly studied in dentistry, a detailed investigation of plasma-mediated human gingival fibroblast (HGF) migration for wound healing and its underlying biological mechanism is still pending. Therefore, the aim of this study is to apply a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAAPPJ) to HGF to measure the migration and to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the migration. After the characterization of NTAAPPJ by optical emission spectroscopy, the adherent HGF was treated with NTAAPPJ or air with a different flow rate. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, migration, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK3) were investigated. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. NTAAPPJ and air treatment with a flow rate of 250-1000 standard cubic centimetres per minute (sccm) for up to 30 s did not induce significant decreases in cell viability or membrane damage. A significant increase in the migration of mitomycin C-treated HGF was observed after 30 s of NTAAPPJ treatment compared to 30 s air-only treatment, which was induced by high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). An increase in migration-related gene expression and EGFR activation was observed following NTAAPPJ treatment in an air flow rate-dependent manner. This is the first report that NTAAPPJ treatment induces an increase in HGF migration without changing cell viability or causing membrane damage. HGF migration was related to an increase in intracellular ROS, changes in the expression of three of the migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK1), and EGFR activation. Therefore

  4. CMAQ (Community Multi-Scale Air Quality) atmospheric distribution model adaptation to region of Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázár, Dóra; Weidinger, Tamás

    2016-04-01

    For our days, it has become important to measure and predict the concentration of harmful atmospheric pollutants such as dust, aerosol particles of different size ranges, nitrogen compounds, and ozone. The Department of Meteorology at Eötvös Loránd University has been applying the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model several years ago, which is suitable for weather forecasting tasks and provides input data for various environmental models (e.g. DNDC). By adapting the CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) model we have designed a combined ambient air-meteorological model (WRF-CMAQ). In this research it is important to apply different emission databases and a background model describing the initial distribution of the pollutant. We used SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions) model for construction emission dataset from EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) inventories and GEOS-Chem model for initial and boundary conditions. Our model settings were CMAQ CB05 (Carbon Bond 2005) chemical mechanism with 108 x 108 km, 36 x 36 km and 12 x 12 km grids for regions of Europe, the Carpathian Basin and Hungary respectively. i) The structure of the model system, ii) a case study for Carpathian Basin (an anticyclonic weather situation at 21th September 2012) are presented. iii) Verification of ozone forecast has been provided based on the measurements of background air pollution stations. iv) Effects of model attributes (f.e. transition time, emission dataset, parameterizations) for the ozone forecast in Hungary are also investigated.

  5. Piezoelectric transformers for low-voltage generation of gas discharges and ionic winds in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michael J.; Go, David B.

    2015-12-28

    To generate a gas discharge (plasma) in atmospheric air requires an electric field that exceeds the breakdown threshold of ∼30 kV/cm. Because of safety, size, or cost constraints, the large applied voltages required to generate such fields are often prohibitive for portable applications. In this work, piezoelectric transformers are used to amplify a low input applied voltage (<30 V) to generate breakdown in air without the need for conventional high-voltage electrical equipment. Piezoelectric transformers (PTs) use their inherent electromechanical resonance to produce a voltage amplification, such that the surface of the piezoelectric exhibits a large surface voltage that can generate corona-like discharges on its corners or on adjacent electrodes. In the proper configuration, these discharges can be used to generate a bulk air flow called an ionic wind. In this work, PT-driven discharges are characterized by measuring the discharge current and the velocity of the induced ionic wind with ionic winds generated using input voltages as low as 7 V. The characteristics of the discharge change as the input voltage increases; this modifies the resonance of the system and subsequent required operating parameters.

  6. Simulation of radio emission from air showers in atmospheric electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Buitink, S.; Huege, T.; Falcke, H; Kuijpers, J.

    2010-02-25

    We study the effect of atmospheric electric fields on the radio pulse emitted by cos- mic ray air showers. Under fair weather conditions the dominant part of the radio emission is driven by the geomagnetic field. When the shower charges are accelerated and deflected in an electric field additional radiation is emitted. We simulate this effect with the Monte Carlo code REAS2, using CORSIKA-simulated showers as input. In both codes a routine has been implemented that treats the effect of the electric field on the shower particles. We find that the radio pulse is significantly altered in background fields of the order of ~100 V/cm and higher. Practically, this means that air showers passing through thunderstorms emit radio pulses that are not a reliable measure for the shower energy. Under other weather circumstances significant electric field effects are expected to occur rarely, but nimbostratus clouds can harbor fields that are large enough. In general, the contribution of the electric field to the radio pulse has polarization properties that are different from the geomagnetic pulse. In order to filter out radio pulses that have been affected by electric field effects, radio air shower experiments should keep weatherinformation and perform full polarization measurements of the radio signal.

  7. The effect of the atmospheric refractive index on the radio signal of extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corstanje, A.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, G.; Winchen, T.

    2017-03-01

    For the interpretation of measurements of radio emission from extensive air showers, an important systematic uncertainty arises from natural variations of the atmospheric refractive index n. At a given altitude, the refractivity N =106(n - 1) can have relative variations on the order of 10% depending on temperature, humidity, and air pressure. Typical corrections to be applied to N are about 4%. Using CoREAS simulations of radio emission from air showers, we have evaluated the effect of varying N on measurements of the depth of shower maximum Xmax. For an observation band of 30-80 MHz, a difference of 4% in refractivity gives rise to a systematic error in the inferred Xmax between 3.5 and 11 g/cm2, for proton showers with zenith angles ranging from 15 to 50°. At higher frequencies, from 120 to 250 MHz, the offset ranges from 10 to 22 g/cm2. These offsets were found to be proportional to the geometric distance to Xmax. We have compared the results to a simple model based on the Cherenkov angle. For the 120 - 250 MHz band, the model is in qualitative agreement with the simulations. In typical circumstances, we find a slight decrease in Xmax compared to the default refractivity treatment in CoREAS. While this is within commonly treated systematic uncertainties, accounting for it explicitly improves the accuracy of Xmax measurements.

  8. Piezoelectric transformers for low-voltage generation of gas discharges and ionic winds in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael J.; Go, David B.

    2015-12-01

    To generate a gas discharge (plasma) in atmospheric air requires an electric field that exceeds the breakdown threshold of ˜30 kV/cm. Because of safety, size, or cost constraints, the large applied voltages required to generate such fields are often prohibitive for portable applications. In this work, piezoelectric transformers are used to amplify a low input applied voltage (<30 V) to generate breakdown in air without the need for conventional high-voltage electrical equipment. Piezoelectric transformers (PTs) use their inherent electromechanical resonance to produce a voltage amplification, such that the surface of the piezoelectric exhibits a large surface voltage that can generate corona-like discharges on its corners or on adjacent electrodes. In the proper configuration, these discharges can be used to generate a bulk air flow called an ionic wind. In this work, PT-driven discharges are characterized by measuring the discharge current and the velocity of the induced ionic wind with ionic winds generated using input voltages as low as 7 V. The characteristics of the discharge change as the input voltage increases; this modifies the resonance of the system and subsequent required operating parameters.

  9. Using High and Low Resolution Profiles of CO2 and CH4 Measured with AirCores to Evaluate Transport Models and Atmospheric Columns Retrieved from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Membrive, O.; Crevoisier, C. D.; Sweeney, C.; Hertzog, A.; Danis, F.; Picon, L.; Engel, A.; Boenisch, H.; Durry, G.; Amarouche, N.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decades many methods have been developed to monitor the evolution of greenhouse gases (GHG): ground networks (NOAA, ICOS, TCCON), aircraft campaigns (HIPPO, CARIBIC, Contrail…), satellite observations (GOSAT, IASI, AIRS…). Nevertheless, precise and regular vertical profile measurements are currently still missing from the observing system. To address this need, an original and innovative atmospheric sampling system called AirCore has been developed at NOAA (Karion et al. 2010). This new system allows balloon measurements of GHG vertical profiles from the surface up to 30 km. New versions of this instrument have been developed at LMD: a high-resolution version "AirCore-HR" that differs from other AirCores by its high vertical resolution and two "light" versions (lower resolution) aiming to be flown under meteorological balloon. LMD AirCores were flown on multi-instrument gondolas along with other independent instruments measuring CO2 and CH4 in-situ during the Strato Science balloon campaigns operated by the French space agency CNES in collaboration with the Canadian Space Agency in Timmins (Ontario, Canada) in August 2014 and 2015. First, we will present comparisons of the vertical profiles retrieved with various AirCores (LMD and Frankfurt University) to illustrate repeatability and impact of the vertical resolution as well as comparisons with independent in-situ measurements from other instruments (laser diode based Pico-SDLA). Second, we will illustrate the usefulness of AirCore measurements in the upper troposphere and stratosphere for validating and interpreting vertical profiles from atmospheric transport models as well as observations of total and partial column of methane and carbon dioxide from several current and future spaceborne missions such as: ACE-FTS, IASI and GOSAT.

  10. Transporting Students into Thin Air: Using Science to Enhance Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Patricia; Rogowski, Nick; Hedt, Melissa; Rolfe, Nadeen

    2010-01-01

    The "Into Thin Air" unit, based on the book by Jon Krakauer, was designed as an interdisciplinary unit for a small group of academically gifted sixth-grade students. It included hands-on, minds-on activities that would immerse students in the scientific, social, and personal struggles people face while attempting to climb the world's tallest…

  11. Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) Quality Assurance Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities in the United States are potentially impacted by a wide variety of environmental pollution sources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) encourages communities to advocate for environmental and public health mitigations and to raise awareness of air pol...

  12. Squid rocket science: How squid launch into air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dor, Ron; Stewart, Julia; Gilly, William; Payne, John; Borges, Teresa Cerveira; Thys, Tierney

    2013-10-01

    Squid not only swim, they can also fly like rockets, accelerating through the air by forcefully expelling water out of their mantles. Using available lab and field data from four squid species, Sthenoteuthis pteropus, Dosidicus gigas, Illex illecebrosus and Loligo opalescens, including sixteen remarkable photographs of flying S. pteropus off the coast of Brazil, we compared the cost of transport in both water and air and discussed methods of maximizing power output through funnel and mantle constriction. Additionally we found that fin flaps develop at approximately the same size range as flight behaviors in these squids, consistent with previous hypotheses that flaps could function as ailerons whilst aloft. S. pteropus acceleration in air (265 body lengths [BL]/s2; 24.5m/s2) was found to exceed that in water (79BL/s2) three-fold based on estimated mantle length from still photos. Velocities in air (37BL/s; 3.4m/s) exceed those in water (11BL/s) almost four-fold. Given the obvious advantages of this extreme mode of transport, squid flight may in fact be more common than previously thought and potentially employed to reduce migration cost in addition to predation avoidance. Clearly squid flight, the role of fin flaps and funnel, and the energetic benefits are worthy of extended investigation.

  13. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of three Chilean cities using passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karla; Oyola, Germán; Estellano, Victor H; Harner, Tom; Rudolph, Anny; Prybilova, Petra; Kukucka, Petr; Audi, Ondrej; Klánová, Jana; Metzdorff, America; Focardi, Silvano

    2017-05-15

    In this study passive air samplers containing polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed in three cities across Chile; Santiago (STG) (n=5, sampling sites), Concepciόn (CON) (n=6) and Temuco (TEM) (n=6) from 2008 to 2009. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7 indicator congeners), chlorinated pesticides hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethanes (DDTs) and flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined by gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A sampling rate (R) typical of urban sites (4m(3)/day) was used to estimate the atmospheric concentrations of individual compounds. PCB concentrations in the air (pg/m(3)) ranged from ~1-10 (TEM), ~1-40 (STG) and 4-30 (CON). Higher molecular weight PCBs (PCB-153, -180) were detected at industrial sites (in Concepción). The HCHs showed a prevalence of γ-HCH across all sites, indicative of inputs from the use of lindane but a limited use of technical HCHs in Chile. DDTs were detected with a prevalence of p,p'-DDE accounting for ~50% of the total DDTs. PBDE concentrations in air (pg/m(3)) ranged from 1 to 55 (STG), 0.5 to 20 (CON) and from 0.4 to 10 (TEM), and were generally similar to those reported for many other urban areas globally. The pattern of PBDEs was different among the three cities; however, PBDE-209 was dominant at most of the sites. These results represent one of the few assessments of air concentrations of POPs across different urban areas within the same country. These data will support Chilean commitments as a signatory to the Stockholm Convention on POPs and for reporting as a member country of the Group of Latin America and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC) region.

  14. Atmospheric pressure resistive barrier air plasma jet induced bacterial inactivation in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Sarani, Abdollah; Gonzales, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    An atmospheric pressure resistive barrier air plasma jet is designed to inactivate bacteria in aqueous media in direct and indirect exposure modes of treatment. The resistive barrier plasma jet is designed to operate at both dc and standard 50-60 Hz low frequency ac power input and the ambient air at 50% humidity level was used as the operating gas. The voltage-current characteristics of the plasma jet were analyzed and the operating frequency of the discharge was measured to be 20 kHz and the plasma power was measured to be 26 W. The plasma jet rotational temperatures (Trot) are obtained from the optical emission spectra, from the N2C-B(2+) transitions by matching the experimental spectrum results with the Spectra Air (SPECAIR) simulation spectra. The reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were measured using optical emission spectroscopy and gas analyzers, for direct and indirect treatment modes. The nitric oxides (NO) were observed to be the predominant long lived reactive nitrogen species produced by the plasma. Three different bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), and Neisseria meningitidis (Gram-negative) were suspended in an aqueous media and treated by the resistive barrier air plasma jet in direct and indirect exposure modes. The results show that a near complete bacterial inactivation was achieved within 120 s for both direct and indirect plasma treatment of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria. Conversely, a partial inactivation of N. meningitidis was observed by 120 s direct plasma exposure and insignificant inactivation was observed for the indirect plasma exposure treatment. Plasma induced shifts in N. meningitidis gene expression was analyzed using pilC gene expression as a representative gene and the results showed a reduction in the expression of the pilC gene compared to untreated samples suggesting that the observed protection against NO may be regulated by other genes.

  15. Atmospheric Chemistry Measurements in Schools and Outreach Activities with Low-cost Air Quality Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Z.; Monks, P. S.; McKenzie, K.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing range of low cost air quality sensors entering the market-place or being developed in-house in the last couple of years has led to many possibilities for using these instruments for public outreach activities or citizen science projects. A range of instruments sent out into local schools for the children to interpret and analyse the data and put the air quality in their area into context. A teaching package with tutorials has been developed to bring the data to life and link in with curriculum.The instruments have also been positioned around the city of Leicester in the UK to help understand the spatial variations in air quality and to assess the impact of retro-fitting buses on a busy bus route. The data is easily accessible online on a near real time basis and the various instruments can be compared with others around the country or the world from classrooms around the world.We will give an overview of the instrumentation with a comparison with commercial and cutting edge research instrumentation, the type of activities that were carried out and the public outreach forums where the data can be used.

  16. Evaluating the Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Data On Convective Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, Danielle; Zavodsky, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) is a collaborative partnership between NASA and operational forecasting partners, including a number of National Weather Service (NWS) offices. SPoRT provides real-time NASA products and capabilities to its partners to address specific operational forecast challenges. The mission of SPoRT is to transition observations and research capabilities into operations to help improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional scale. Two areas of focus are data assimilation and modeling, which can to help accomplish SPoRT's programmatic goals of transitioning NASA data to operational users. Forecasting convective weather is one challenge that faces operational forecasters. Current numerical weather prediction (NWP) models that operational forecasters use struggle to properly forecast location, timing, intensity and/or mode of convection. Given the proper atmospheric conditions, convection can lead to severe weather. SPoRT's partners in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have a mission to protect the life and property of American citizens. This mission has been tested as recently as this 2011 severe weather season, which has seen more than 300 fatalities and injuries and total damages exceeding $10 billion. In fact, during the three day period from 25-27 April, 1,265 storms reports (362 tornado reports) were collected making this three day period one of most active in American history. To address the forecast challenge of convective weather, SPoRT produces a real-time NWP model called the SPoRT Weather Research and Forecasting (SPoRT-WRF), which incorporates unique NASA data sets. One of the NASA assets used in this unique model configuration is retrieved profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS).The goal of this project is to determine the impact that these AIRS profiles have on the SPoRT-WRF forecasts by comparing to a current operational model and a control SPoRT-WRF model

  17. Modeling Activities in the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) conducts research pertinent to radiative forcing of climate change by atmospheric aerosols. The program consists of approximately 40 highly interactive peer-reviewed research projects that examine aerosol properties and processes and the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere. Principal components of the program are instrument development, laboratory experiments, field studies, theoretical investigations, and modeling. The objectives of the Program are to 1) improve the understanding of aerosol processes associated with light scattering and absorption properties and interactions with clouds that affect Earth's radiative balance and to 2) develop model-based representations of these processes that enable the effects of aerosols on Earth's climate system to be properly represented in global-scale numerical climate models. Although only a few of the research projects within ASP are explicitly identified as primarily modeling activities, modeling actually comprises a substantial component of a large fraction of ASP research projects. This document describes the modeling activities within the Program as a whole, the objectives and intended outcomes of these activities, and the linkages among the several modeling components and with global-scale modeling activities conducted under the support of the Department of Energy's Climate Sciences Program and other aerosol and climate research programs.

  18. The Passy-2015 field experiment: wintertime atmospheric dynamics and air quality in a narrow alpine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paci, Alexandre; Staquet, Chantal

    2016-04-01

    Wintertime anticyclonic conditions lead to the formation of persistent stable boundary layers which may induce severe air pollution episodes in urban or industrialized area, particularly in mountain regions. The Arve river valley in the Northern Alps is very sensitive to this phenomenon, in particular close to the city of Passy (Haute-Savoie), 20 km down valley past Chamonix. This place is indeed one of the worst place in France regarding air quality, the concentration of fine particles and Benzo(a)pyrene (a carcinogenic organic compound) regularly exceeding the EU legal admissible level during winter. Besides air quality measurements, such as the ones presently carried in the area by the local air quality agency Air Rhône-Alpes or in the DECOMBIO project led by LGGE, it is crucial to improve our knowledge of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and processes at the valley scale under these persistent stable conditions in order to improve our understanding on how it drives pollutant dispersion. These issues motivated the Passy-2015 field experiment which took place during the winter 2014-2015. A relatively large set-up of instruments was deployed on a main measurement site in the valley center and on four other satellite sites. It includes several remote sensing instruments, a surface flux station, a 10 m instrumented tower, a large aperture scintillometer, a fog monitoring station among others. Most of the instruments were present from early January to the end of February. During two intensive observation periods, 6-14 February and 17-20 February, the instrumental set-up was completed on the main site with high frequency radio-soundings (up to one per 1h30), a tethered balloon, a remote controlled drone quadcopter and a sodar. The field campaign, the instruments, the meteorological situations observed and preliminary results will be presented. This field experiment is part of the Passy project funded by ADEME through the French national programme LEFE/INSU and

  19. Quality attributes of farmed eel (Anguilla anguilla) stored under air, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging at 0 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Arkoudelos, John; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Samaras, Fotis

    2007-01-01

    The shelf life of fresh eel in various packaging conditions of atmospheric air, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (40% CO(2), 30% N(2) and 30% O(2)) at 0 degrees C was investigated. All raw eel samples received acceptable sensory scores during the first 11+/-1 days of storage in atmospheric air, 11+/-1 days of storage in vacuum and finally 18+/-1 days of storage in MAP conditions. Using the microbial quality indicators the shelf life of eel packed in air, vacuum and MAP was estimated to be more than 18, 28 and 34 days, respectively. The main spoilage microorganisms under MAP conditions were lactic acid producing bacteria followed by Shewanella spp., pseudomonads, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts. Chemical data revealed that pH, ammonia, glucose and lactate examinations might not be useful for monitoring eel quality differences.

  20. Review of the Physical Science Facility Stack Air Sampling Probe Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2007-09-30

    This letter report reviews compliance of the current design of the Physical Science Facility (PSF) stack air sampling locations with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard. The review was based on performance criteria used for locating air sampling probes, the design documents provided and available information on systems previously tested for compliance with the criteria. Recommendations are presented for ways to bring the design into compliance with the requirements for the sampling probe placement.

  1. Atmospheric control of Aedes aegypti populations in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and its variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garín, A.; Bejarán, R. A.; Carbajo, A. E.; de Casas, S. C.; Schweigmann, N. J.

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main urban vector responsible for the transmission of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is located at the southern end of the world distribution of the species. The population abundance of Ae. aegypti is mainly regulated by environmental factors. We calculated the potential number of times that a female could lay eggs during its mean life expectancy, based on potential egg production and daily meteorological records. The model considers those variables implying physical hazard to the survival of Ae. aegypti, mosquito flying activity and oviposition. The results, obtained after calibration and validation of the model with field observations, show significant correlation (P<0.001) for different lags depending on the life stage. From these results, more favorable atmospheric conditions for Ae. aegypti reproduction (linked to the urban climatic change) can be observed. The climatic variability in the last decade resembles conditions at the end of 19th century.

  2. Laser-induced cooling of a Yb:YAG crystal in air at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Soares de Lima Filho, Elton; Nemova, Galina; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2013-10-21

    We report for the first time the experimental demonstration of optical cooling of a bulk crystal at atmospheric pressure. The use of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor to measure laser-induced cooling in real time is also demonstrated for the first time. A temperature drop of 8.8 K from the chamber temperature was observed in a Yb:YAG crystal in air when pumped with 4.2 W at 1029 nm. A background absorption of 2.9 × 10⁻⁴ cm⁻¹ was estimated with a pump wavelength at 1550 nm. Simulations predict further cooling if the pump power is optimized for the sample's dimensions.

  3. Atmospheric pressure discharge plasma decomposition for gaseous air contaminants -- Trichlorotrifluoroethane and trichloroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Tetsuji; Yamashita, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Tadashi; Masuda, Senichi

    1996-03-01

    The decomposition performance of gaseous environmental destructive contaminants in air by using atmospheric pressure discharged plasma including the surface discharge induced plasma chemical processing (SPCP) was examined. The main contaminants tested were chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene, typically. The discharge exciting frequency range studied was wide--50 Hz to 50 kHz. Results showed the low frequency discharge requires high voltage to inject high electric power in the gas and to decompose the contaminants. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer was used to analyze discharge products of dense CFC-113 or trichloroethylene. Among the detected products were HCl, CClFO, and CHCl{sub 3}. Two different electrode configurations; the silent discharge (coaxial) electrode and the coil-electrode were also tested and compared to each other as a gas reactor.

  4. A simple atmospheric pressure room-temperature air plasma needle device for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Xiong, Z.; Zhao, F.; Xian, Y.; Xiong, Q.; Gong, W.; Zou, C.; Jiang, Z.; Pan, Y.

    2009-11-01

    Rather than using noble gas, room air is used as the working gas for an atmospheric pressure room-temperature plasma. The plasma is driven by submicrosecond pulsed directed current voltages. Several current spikes appear periodically for each voltage pulse. The first current spike has a peak value of more than 1.5 A with a pulse width of about 10 ns. Emission spectra show that besides excited OH, O, N2(C-B), and N2+(B-X) emission, excited NO, N2(B-A), H, and even N emission are also observed in the plasma, which indicates that the plasma may be more reactive than that generated by other plasma jet devices. Utilizing the room-temperature plasma, preliminary inactivation experiments show that Enterococcus faecalis can be killed with a treatment time of only several seconds.

  5. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Plasma agents in bio-decontamination by dc discharges in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machala, Zdenko; Chládeková, Lenka; Pelach, Michal

    2010-06-01

    Bio-decontamination of water and surfaces contaminated by bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) was investigated in two types of positive dc discharges in atmospheric pressure air, in needle-to-plane geometry: the streamer corona and its transition to a novel regime called transient spark with short high current pulses of limited energy. Both generate a cold non-equilibrium plasma. Electro-spraying of treated water through a needle electrode was applied for the first time and resulted in fast bio-decontamination. Experiments providing separation of various biocidal plasma agents, along with the emission spectra and coupled with oxidation stress measurements in the cell membranes helped to better understand the mechanisms of microbial inactivation. The indirect exposure of contaminated surfaces to neutral active species was almost as efficient as the direct exposure to the plasma, whereas applying only UV radiation from the plasma had no biocidal effects. Radicals and reactive oxygen species were identified as dominant biocidal agents.

  6. DC discharges in atmospheric air for bio-decontamination - spectroscopic methods for mechanism identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machala, Z.; Jedlovský, I.; Chládeková, L.; Pongrác, B.; Giertl, D.; Janda, M.; Ikurová, L. Å.; Polčic, P.

    2009-08-01

    Three types of DC electrical discharges in atmospheric air (streamer corona, transient spark and glow discharge) were tested for bio-decontamination of bacteria and yeasts in water solution, and spores on surfaces. Static vs. flowing treatment of contaminated water were compared, in the latter the flowing water either covered the grounded electrode or passed through the high voltage needle electrode. The bacteria were killed most efficiently in the flowing regime by transient spark. Streamer corona was efficient when the treated medium flew through the active corona region. The spores on plastic foil and paper surfaces were successfully inactivated by negative corona. The microbes were handled and their population evaluated by standard microbiology cultivation procedures. The emission spectroscopy of the discharges and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) absorption spectrometric detection of the products of lipid peroxidation of bacterial cell membranes indicated a major role of radicals and reactive oxygen species among the bio-decontamination mechanisms.

  7. Atmospheric pollution: a case study of degrading urban air quality over Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Sehra, Parmjit Singh

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study of urban air quality over a densely populated city Ludhiana situated in Punjab, India, in the form of monthly and annual average concentrations of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), NO2 and SO2 for the periods 1988-1989, 1994-1999 and 2001-2005 which is generally found to be increasing with time and thus requires immediate corrective measures lest the situation becomes totally uncontrollable. The present situation is as bad as in other metropolitan Indian cities, although it seems to have somewhat improved as indicated by the latest 2001-2005 data in comparison with the past 1988-1989 and 1994-1999 data, but much more still needs to be done. In addition to the industrial and vehicular pollution, the agricultural pollution due to the burning of wheat and rice straws by the farmers should also be checked because it also creates tremendous pollution in the atmosphere.

  8. Soft X-ray radiation due to a nanosecond diffuse discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2010-02-01

    A source of soft X-rays with an effective photon energy of 9 keV and a subnanosecond pulse width is built around a gas diode filled with atmospheric-pressure air and a UAEB-150 generator. A collector placed behind a grounded mesh electrode detects an electron beam and a pulse with positive polarity, the latter being due to an electric field surrounding the mesh. It is shown that the intensity of soft X-rays from the gas-diode-based source depends on the material of a massive potential anode; namely, it grows with an increase in the atomic number of the cathode material. In the case of a tantalum anode, X-ray photons with an effective energy of 9 and 17 keV contribute to the exposure dose.

  9. Subnanosecond pulsed X-ray source based on nanosecond discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2009-06-01

    We have studied the characteristics of an X-ray source based on a gas diode filled with air at atmospheric pressure. Driven by a SLEP-150 pulser with a maximum voltage amplitude of ˜140 kV, a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜1 ns, and a leading front width of ˜0.3 ns, a soft X-ray source produces subnanosecond pulses with an FWHM not exceeding 600 ps and an exposure dose of ˜3 mR per pulse. It is shown that the main contribution to the measured exposure dose is due to X-ray quanta with an effective energy of ˜7.5 keV.

  10. Bio-Decontamination of Water and Surfaces by DC Discharges in Atmospheric Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machala, Zdenko; Tarabová, Barbora; Pelach, Michal; Šipoldová, Zuzana; Hensel, Karol; Janda, Mário; Šikurová, Libuša

    Two types of DC-driven atmospheric air discharges, including a streamer corona and a transient spark with short high current pulses of limited energy, were employed for bio-decontamination of water and various surfaces (agar plates, plastic foils, human teeth) contaminated by bacteria or spores (Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus). Both discharges generate cold non-equilibrium plasma. The discharges combined with the electro-spraying of the treated water through the needle electrode lead to fast and efficient bio-decontamination. Experiments comparing direct and indirect plasma effects, oxidation stress measurements in the cell membranes, and chemical changes induced in the treated water enable assessment of the plasma agents being responsible for microbial inactivation. Radicals and reactive oxygen species seem to be dominant biocidal agents, although deeper understanding of the plasma-induced water chemistry and of the temporal evolution of the bio-inactivation processes is needed.

  11. Numerical study of atmospheric air flow in the vicinity of urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valger, S. A.; Fedorova, N. N.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The article is devoted to the numerical simulation of turbulent air flows in the vicinity of building complexes. The simulation was performed under isothermal assumption on the basis of 3D URANS equations supplemented with the k-ω SST turbulence model. The ANSYS Fluent Software was used as the main modeling tool. The atmospheric flow in the neighborhood of a building of a complex shape was carried out taking into account the surrounding objects. The numerical simulation was performed under the conditions of the experiments. The 3D structure of the flow in the vicinity of the building was obtained and the comparison of the calculation results with the experimental data on the pressure coefficient distribution on the walls of the building was performed.

  12. Cell immobilization on polymer by air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Om, Ji-yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-08-01

    The study of cell immobilization on delicate polymer by an air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (AAPPJ) is required for its medical application. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether AAPPJ treatment induce cell immobilization effect on delicate polymers without significant change of surface roughness by AAPPJ treatment. After surface roughness, dynamic contact angle, and chemical characteristics were investigated, the immobilization effect was evaluated with the mouse fibroblast L929 cell line. Surface roughness change was not observed (P > 0.05) in either delicate dental wax or polystyrene plate (PSP) as advancing and receding contact angles significantly decreased (P < 0.05), thanks to decreased hydrocarbon and formation of oxygen-related functional groups in treated PSP. Adherent L929 cells with elongated morphology were found in treated PSP along with the formation of immobilization markers vinculin and actin cytoskeleton. Increased PTK2 gene expression upregulated these markers on treated PSP.

  13. The Venus Neutral Atmosphere from the Radio Science Experiment VeRa on Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellmann, S.; Haeusler, B.; Paetzold, M.; Bird, M. K.; Tyler, G. L.

    2008-12-01

    The Venus Express Radio Science Experiment VeRa is sounding the Venus neutral atmosphere and ionosphere using the spacecraft radio subsystem in the oneway radio link mode at X-band (8.4 GHz) and S- band (2.3 GHz). An Ultrastable Oscillator (USO) provides a high quality onboard frequency reference source for the derivation of electron density profiles in the ionosphere and profiles of pressure, temperature and neutral number density of the neutral atmosphere. Radial profiles of neutral number density derived from the occultations cover the altitude range 40 to 90 km, which are converted to vertical profiles of temperature and pressure. The polar orbit of Venus Express provides the opportunity to study the atmosphere at all planetocentric latitudes under varying illumination conditions. Five occultation seasons could be covered so far during the Venus Express mission resulting in a data set of more than 150 profiles of the neutral atmosphere. The thermal structure is investigated with regard to the latitudinal and temporal variability. A distinct cold collar region could be observed on both hemispheres. The tropopause altitude increases in this latitude region while the tropopause temperature shows a strong decrease. Profiles of static stability are found to be latitude-dependent and nearly adiabatic in the middle cloud region.

  14. Investigations of the spatial and temporal resolution of retrievals of atmospheric carbon dioxide from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddy, Eric Sean

    As the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO 2), represents an important component of climate change (IPCC 2007). Owing to burning of fossil fuels and deforestation, atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased over 110 parts-per-million by volume (ppmv) from 270 ppmv to 380 ppmv since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. Understanding of the spatial distribution of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO 2 is necessary not only to predict the future atmospheric abundances but also their effect on future climate. Although designed for deriving high precision temperature and moisture profiles, NASA's Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) IR measurements include broad vertical sensitivity (between 3 and 10 km) to atmospheric CO2 variations. Coupled with AIRS' broad swath pattern and a technique referred to as "cloud-clearing" these measurements enable daily global spatial coverage. Nevertheless, AIRS' ability to determine the spatial distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) is strongly dependent on its ability to separate the radiative effects of CO2 from temperature not to mention measurement uncertainties due to clouds and other geophysical variables such as moisture and ozone. This research presents a thorough investigation into the temporal and spatial scales that the AIRS can separate temperature (and other geophysical variables) from CO2. Through our detailed understanding of the way satellites view the Earth's atmosphere, we have developed an algorithm capable of retrieving global middle-to-upper tropospheric CO2 concentrations in all-weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging between 1 to 2 ppmv. From a radiative perspective, roughly equivalent to 30 mK to 60 mK, 1 to 2 ppmv, is an awesome feat for a space-borne sensor. Necessary for the remarkable performance of this algorithm, we developed methodologies capable of separating the radiative effect of CO2 variability from temperature, improved the fast rapid transmittance algorithm

  15. Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature difference between air and inland waters with global warming

    PubMed Central

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Mackay, Murray; Stockwell, Jason D.; Thiery, Wim; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Augusto-Silva, Pétala B.; Baulch, Helen M.; de Eyto, Elvira; Hejzlar, Josef; Kangur, Külli; Kirillin, Georgiy; Pierson, Don C.; Rusak, James A.; Sadro, Steven; Woolway, R. Iestyn

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (Tw-Ta) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (QH). If QH is directed upward, corresponding to positive Tw-Ta, it can enhance CO2 and CH4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students found mostly negative Tw-Ta across small ponds, lakes, streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward QH), with Tw-Ta becoming increasingly negative with increasing Ta. Further examination of Tw-Ta using high-frequency temperature data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that Tw-Ta is linearly related to Ta. Using the longest available high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative Tw-Ta with increasing annual mean Ta since 1989. From these results, we can expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in increasingly negative Tw-Ta, thereby reducing CO2 and CH4 transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere. PMID:28262715

  16. Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature difference between air and inland waters with global warming.

    PubMed

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Mackay, Murray; Stockwell, Jason D; Thiery, Wim; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Augusto-Silva, Pétala B; Baulch, Helen M; de Eyto, Elvira; Hejzlar, Josef; Kangur, Külli; Kirillin, Georgiy; Pierson, Don C; Rusak, James A; Sadro, Steven; Woolway, R Iestyn

    2017-03-06

    Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (Tw-Ta) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (QH). If QH is directed upward, corresponding to positive Tw-Ta, it can enhance CO2 and CH4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students found mostly negative Tw-Ta across small ponds, lakes, streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward QH), with Tw-Ta becoming increasingly negative with increasing Ta. Further examination of Tw-Ta using high-frequency temperature data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that Tw-Ta is linearly related to Ta. Using the longest available high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative Tw-Ta with increasing annual mean Ta since 1989. From these results, we can expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in increasingly negative Tw-Ta, thereby reducing CO2 and CH4 transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere.

  17. Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature difference between air and inland waters with global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Mackay, Murray; Stockwell, Jason D.; Thiery, Wim; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Augusto-Silva, Pétala B.; Baulch, Helen M.; de Eyto, Elvira; Hejzlar, Josef; Kangur, Külli; Kirillin, Georgiy; Pierson, Don C.; Rusak, James A.; Sadro, Steven; Woolway, R. Iestyn

    2017-03-01

    Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (Tw-Ta) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (QH). If QH is directed upward, corresponding to positive Tw-Ta, it can enhance CO2 and CH4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students found mostly negative Tw-Ta across small ponds, lakes, streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward QH), with Tw-Ta becoming increasingly negative with increasing Ta. Further examination of Tw-Ta using high-frequency temperature data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that Tw-Ta is linearly related to Ta. Using the longest available high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative Tw-Ta with increasing annual mean Ta since 1989. From these results, we can expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in increasingly negative Tw-Ta, thereby reducing CO2 and CH4 transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere.

  18. Fundamental remote sensing science research program: The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deering, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization (SRAEC) Project was established within the NASA Fundamental Remote Sensing Science Research Program to improve our understanding of the fundamental relationships of energy interactions between the sensor and the surface target, including the effect of the atmosphere. The current studies are generalized into the following five subject areas: optical scene modeling, Earth-space radiative transfer, electromagnetic properties of surface materials, microwave scene modeling, and scatterometry studies. This report has been prepared to provide a brief overview of the SRAEC Project history and objectives and to report on the scientific findings and project accomplishments made by the nineteen principal investigators since the project's initiation just over three years ago. This annual summary report derives from the most recent annual principal investigators meeting held January 29 to 31, 1985.

  19. Dual atmosphere tolerance of Ag-CuO based air braze

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Hardy, John S.; Weil, K. Scott

    2007-11-01

    Recently, a new braze filler metal based on the silver-copper oxide system was developed for use in sealing high-temperature, solid-state electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells. One of the concerns regarding the viability of this joining technique is the long-term stability of silver-based alloys under a high-temperature, dual oxidizing/reducing gas environment. This paper reports on an initial series of exposure experiments that were conducted to characterize the effects of (1) filler metal composition, (2) brazing temperature, and (3) exposure time on the microstructural stability of Ag-CuO brazed Al2O3/Al2O3 joints under a prototypic operating environment for an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell stack. In general joints exposed simultaneously to air on one side and hydrogen on the other for short periods of time at 800°C (100 hrs) showed no signs of degradation with respect to hermeticity or joint microstructure. Samples exposed for longer periods of time (1000 hrs) displayed some internal porosity, which extends approximately halfway across the joint and is not interconnected. Little effect of the filler metal’s composition on its tolerance to dual atmosphere exposure was observed. However brazing temperature was found to have a measurable effect. Higher brazing temperature leads to a more extensive formation of an interfacial reaction phase, copper aluminate, which tends to tie up some of the free CuO in the filler metal and minimize the formation of porosity in the air brazed joints during long-term, dual-atmosphere exposure. The effect is due to the greater chemical stability of the copper aluminate relative to copper oxide.

  20. Soot Surface Oxidation in Laminar Hydrocarbon/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Kim, C. H.; Faeth, G. M.; Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor); Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Soot surface oxidation was studied experimentally in laminar hydrocarbon/air diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were carried out along the axes of round fuel jets burning in coflowing dry air considering acetylene-nitrogen, ethylene, propyiene-nitrogen, propane and acetylene-benzene-nitrogen in the fuel stream. Measurements were limited to the initial stages of soot oxidation (carbon consumption less than 70%) where soot oxidation occurs at the surface of primary soot particles. The following properties were measured as a function of distance above the burner exit: soot concentrations by deconvoluted laser extinction, soot temperatures by deconvoluted multiline emission, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), concentrations of major stable gas species (N2, H2O, H2, O2, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H2, C2H6, C3H6, C3H8, and C6H6) by sampling and gas chromatography, concentrations of some radical species (H, OH, O) by deconvoluted Li/LiOH atomic absorption and flow velocities by laser velocimetry. For present test conditions, it was found that soot surface oxidation rates were not affected by fuel type, that direct rates of soot surface oxidation by O2 estimated from Nagle and Strickland-Constable (1962) were small compared to observed soot surface oxidation rates because soot surface oxidation was completed near the flame sheet where O2 concentrations were less than 3% by volume, and that soot surface oxidation rates were described by the OH soot surface oxidation mechanism with a collision efficiency of 0.14 and an uncertainty (95% confidence) of +/- 0.04 when allowing for direct soot surface oxidation by O2, which is in reasonably good agreement with earlier observations of soot surface oxidation rates in both premixed and diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure.

  1. NSF Lower Atmospheric Observing Facilities (LAOF) in support of science and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeuerle, B.; Rockwell, A.

    2012-12-01

    Researchers, students and teachers who want to understand and describe the Earth System require high quality observations of the atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere. Making these observations requires state-of-the-art instruments and systems, often carried on highly capable research platforms. To support this need of the geosciences community, the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences (AGS) provides multi-user national facilities through its Lower Atmospheric Observing Facilities (LAOF) Program at no cost to the investigator. These facilities, which include research aircraft, radars, lidars, and surface and sounding systems, receive NSF financial support and are eligible for deployment funding. The facilities are managed and operated by five LAOF partner organizations: the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Colorado State University (CSU); the University of Wyoming (UWY); the Center for Severe Weather Research (CSWR); and the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS). These observational facilities are available on a competitive basis to all qualified researchers from US universities, requiring the platforms and associated services to carry out various research objectives. The deployment of all facilities is driven by scientific merit, capabilities of a specific facility to carry out the proposed observations, and scheduling for the requested time. The process for considering requests and setting priorities is determined on the basis of the complexity of a field campaign. The poster will describe available observing facilities and associated services, and explain the request process researchers have to follow to secure access to these platforms for scientific as well as educational deployments. NSF/NCAR GV Aircraft

  2. The Air Sensor Citizen Science Toolbox: A Collaboration in Community Air Quality Monitoring and Mapping

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research in Action: Collect air quality data to characterize near-road/near-source hotspots; Determine potential impact on nearby residences & roadways; Case study of successful use of such data; Relationship between distance to roadways and industrial sources, exposure to...

  3. The Junior Science & Humanities Symposium: Management and Operations, 2003-2004. Theme--Atmosphere--The Other Ocean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document reviews the Pacific Region Junior Science and Humanities Symposium (PJSHS) program for 2003-2004 which is a 10-month, precollege student research program held in Japan. The theme is AtmosphereThe Other Ocean. The program includes a one-week symposium of student delegates who have completed research projects in the sciences or have…

  4. Assessment of a Constructivist-Motivated Mentoring Program to Enhance the Teaching Skills of Atmospheric Science Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossman, Howard; Benedict, Jim; McGrath-Spangler, Erica; Van Roekel, Luke; Wells, Kelley

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative mentoring program in which graduate students (fellows) from a university atmospheric science research department team-taught environmental science classes with professors in a liberal arts college. The mentorship allowed fellows to develop and test the effectiveness of curriculum based on the Process Oriented…

  5. Science-policy interplay: Air quality management in the Pearl River Delta region and Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Liuju; Louie, Peter K. K.; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Yue, Dingli; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Lau, Alexis K. H.

    2013-09-01

    The information provided by the scientific studies and control measures implemented in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China reveals that tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of regional air pollution issues and the deployment of mitigation measures for alleviating these problems. Given the unparalleled rapid economic growth in the PRD over the past two decades, such progress was only made possible by strong, science-based support and the partnerships between government and research institutions in the region and overseas. Researchers from these partnership programs and related studies have deployed cutting-edge expertise and experience in various crucial mainland China and mainland China/Hong Kong-level projects. China recognizes the importance of protecting the environment and cleaning up the air in the pursuit of sustainable growth and economic development. To avoid falling into a cycle of event-driven clean-up efforts, China has recently taken a major step and updated the national ambient air quality standards. Clearly, China is implementing an increasing number of evidence-based policies to address air pollution problems. Thus, to bring a fresh impetus at a national level, the PRD must maintain and augment the Hong Kong-mainland collaborative momentum, inducing a "whole-China" effort to clean up air pollution. To strengthen the science-based support system and ensure continuous and concerted effort in implementing the regional multi-pollutant control strategy, there must be an overarching and integral Hong Kong-Guangdong science consortium framework supporting the formulation of regional policy and control measures built on common goals under the "one country, two systems" principle. The "PRD Approach" of the air quality management regime reflected regional cooperative efforts in synchronous air pollutant control, catalyzed the crucial role of information disclosure and subtly transformed the air quality management approach to overcome

  6. Diffuse plasma treatment of polyamide 66 fabric in atmospheric pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lee; Peng, Ming-yang; Teng, Yun; Gao, Guozhen

    2016-01-01

    The polyamide 66 (PA66) fabrics are hard to be colored or glued in industrial production due to the poor hydrophily. Diffuse plasma is a kind of non-thermal plasma generated at atmospheric pressure in air. This paper proposes that large-scale diffuse plasma generated between wire electrodes can be employed for improving the hydrophily of PA66 fabrics. A repetitive nanosecond-pulse diffuse-discharge reactor using a cylindrical wire electrode configuration is presented, which can generate large-scale non-thermal plasmas steadily at atmospheric pressure without any barrier dielectric. Then the reactor is used to treat PA66 fabrics in different discharge conditions. The hydrophilicity property of modified PA66 is measured by wicking test method. The modified PA66 is also analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to prove the surface changes in physical microstructure and chemical functional groups, respectively. What's more, the effects of treatment time and treatment frequency on surface modification are investigated and discussed.

  7. Functionalization of graphene by atmospheric pressure plasma jet in air or H2O2 environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weixin; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2016-03-01

    The functionalization of graphene, which deforms its band structure, can result in a metal-semiconductor transition. In this work, we report a facile strategy to oxidize single-layer graphene using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) that generates a variety of reactive plasma species at close to ambient temperature. We systematically characterized the oxygen content and chemical structure of the graphene films after plasma treatment under different oxidative conditions (ambient air atmosphere or hydrogen peroxide solution) by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Plasma-treated graphene films containing more than 40% oxygen were obtained in both oxidative environments. Interestingly, prolonged irradiation led to the reduction of graphene oxides. N-doping of graphene also occurred during the APPJ treatment in H2O2 solution; the nitrogen content of the doped graphene was dependent on the duration of irradiation and reached up to 8.1% within 40 min. Moreover, the H2O2 solution served as a buffer layer that prevented damage to the graphene during plasma irradiation. Four-point probe measurement revealed an increase in sheet resistance of the plasma-treated graphene, indicating the transition of the material property from semi-metallic to semiconducting.

  8. Operation of Fusion Reactors in One Atmosphere of Air Instead of Vacuum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, J. Reece

    2009-07-01

    Engineering design studies of both magnetic and inertial fusion power plants have assumed that the plasma will undergo fusion reactions in a vacuum environment. Operation under vacuum requires an expensive additional major system for the reactor-a vacuum vessel with vacuum pumping, and raises the possibility of sudden unplanned outages if the vacuum containment is breached. It would be desirable in many respects if fusion reactors could be made to operate at one atmosphere with air surrounding the plasma, thus eliminating the requirement of a pressure vessel and vacuum pumping. This would have obvious economic, reliability, and engineering advantages for currently envisaged power plant reactors; it would make possible forms of reactor control not possible under vacuum conditions (i.e. adiabatic compression of the fusion plasma by increasing the pressure of surrounding gas); it would allow reactors used as aircraft engines to operate as turbojets or ramjets in the atmosphere, and it would allow reactors used as fusion rockets to take off from the surface of the earth instead of low earth orbit.

  9. Pyrolysis and combustion of tobacco in a cigarette smoking simulator under air and nitrogen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christian; Streibel, Thorsten; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin G; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    A coupling between a cigarette smoking simulator and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer was constructed to allow investigation of tobacco smoke formation under simulated burning conditions. The cigarette smoking simulator is designed to burn a sample in close approximation to the conditions experienced by a lit cigarette. The apparatus also permits conditions outside those of normal cigarette burning to be investigated for mechanistic understanding purposes. It allows control of parameters such as smouldering and puff temperatures, as well as combustion rate and puffing volume. In this study, the system enabled examination of the effects of "smoking" a cigarette under a nitrogen atmosphere. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with a soft ionisation technique is expedient to analyse complex mixtures such as tobacco smoke with a high time resolution. The objective of the study was to separate pyrolysis from combustion processes to reveal the formation mechanism of several selected toxicants. A purposely designed adapter, with no measurable dead volume or memory effects, enables the analysis of pyrolysis and combustion gases from tobacco and tobacco products (e.g. 3R4F reference cigarette) with minimum aging. The combined system demonstrates clear distinctions between smoke composition found under air and nitrogen smoking atmospheres based on the corresponding mass spectra and visualisations using principal component analysis.

  10. Interaction of Atmospheric-Pressure Air Microplasmas with Amino Acids as Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhuang, Jinxing; Zong, Zichao; Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that investigates potential applications of cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas in bioengineering, such as for bacterial inactivation and degradation of organic molecules in water. In order to enunciate mechanisms of bacterial inactivation at molecular or atomic levels, we investigated the interaction of atmospheric-pressure air microplasmas with amino acids in aqueous solution by using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Results show that the oxidation effect of plasma-induced species on the side chains of the amino acids can be categorized into four types, namely hydroxylation, nitration, dehydrogenation and dimerization. In addition, relative activities of amino acids resulting from plasma treatment come in descending order as follows: sulfur-containing carbon-chain amino acids > aromatic amino acids > five-membered ring amino acids > basic carbon-chain amino acids. Since amino acids are building blocks of proteins vital to the growth and reproduction of bacteria, these results provide an insight into the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by plasma.

  11. Additional research on instabilities in atmospheric flow systems associated with clear air turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical and experimental fluid mechanics studies were conducted to investigate instabilities in atmospheric flow systems associated with clear air turbulence. The experimental portion of the program was conducted using an open water channel which allows investigation of flows having wide ranges of shear and density stratification. The program was primarily directed toward studies of the stability of straight, stratified shear flows with particular emphasis on the effects of velocity profile on stability; on studies of three-dimensional effects on the breakdown region in shear layers; on the the interaction of shear flows with long-wave length internal waves; and on the stability of shear flows consisting of adjacent stable layers. The results of these studies were used to evaluate methods used in analyses of CAT encounters in the atmosphere involving wave-induced shear layer instabilities of the Kelvin-Helmholta type. A computer program was developed for predicting shear-layer instability and CAT induced by mountain waves. This technique predicts specific altitudes and locations where CAT would be expected.

  12. Interaction of Atmospheric-Pressure Air Microplasmas with Amino Acids as Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhuang, Jinxing; Zong, Zichao; Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that investigates potential applications of cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas in bioengineering, such as for bacterial inactivation and degradation of organic molecules in water. In order to enunciate mechanisms of bacterial inactivation at molecular or atomic levels, we investigated the interaction of atmospheric-pressure air microplasmas with amino acids in aqueous solution by using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Results show that the oxidation effect of plasma-induced species on the side chains of the amino acids can be categorized into four types, namely hydroxylation, nitration, dehydrogenation and dimerization. In addition, relative activities of amino acids resulting from plasma treatment come in descending order as follows: sulfur-containing carbon-chain amino acids > aromatic amino acids > five-membered ring amino acids > basic carbon-chain amino acids. Since amino acids are building blocks of proteins vital to the growth and reproduction of bacteria, these results provide an insight into the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by plasma. PMID:27183129

  13. Elimination of diazinon insecticide from cucumber surface by atmospheric pressure air-dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Dorraki, Naghme; Mahdavi, Vahideh; Ghomi, Hamid; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-12-06

    The food industry is in a constant search for new technologies to improve the commercial sterilization process of agricultural commodities. Plasma treatment may offer a novel and efficient method for pesticide removal from agricultural product surfaces. To study the proposed technique of plasma food treatment, the degradation behavior of diazinon insecticide by air-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was investigated. The authors studied the effect of different plasma powers and treatment times on pesticide concentration in liquid form and coated on the surface of cucumbers, where the diazinon residue was analyzed with mass spectroscopy gas chromatography. Our results suggest that atmospheric pressure air-DBD plasma is potentially effective for the degradation of diazinon insecticide, and mainly depends on related operating parameters, including plasma treatment time, discharge power, and pesticide concentrations. Based on the interaction between reactive oxygen species and electrons in the plasma with the diazinon molecule, two degradation pathway of diazinon during plasma treatment are proposed. It was also found that produced organophosphate pesticides are harmless and less hazardous compounds than diazinon.

  14. Downward transport of ozone rich air and implications for atmospheric chemistry in the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, Tobias; Wei, Dandan; Chase, Randy J.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Schumacher, Courtney; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo A.; Freire, Livia S.; Jardine, Angela B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Nascimento dos Santos, Rosa M.; von Randow, Celso; dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Stoy, Paul C.; Tóta, Julio; Trowbridge, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    From April 2014 to January 2015, ozone (O3) dynamics were investigated as part of GoAmazon 2014/5 project in the central Amazon rainforest of Brazil. Just above the forest canopy, maximum hourly O3 mixing ratios averaged 20 ppbv (parts per billion on a volume basis) during the June-September dry months and 15 ppbv during the wet months. Ozone levels occasionally exceeded 75 ppbv in response to influences from biomass burning and regional air pollution. Individual convective storms transported O3-rich air parcels from the mid-troposphere to the surface and abruptly enhanced the regional atmospheric boundary layer by as much as 25 ppbv. In contrast to the individual storms, days with multiple convective systems produced successive, cumulative ground-level O3 increases. The magnitude of O3 enhancements depended on the vertical distribution of O3 within storm downdrafts and origin of downdrafts in the troposphere. Ozone mixing ratios remained enhanced for > 2 h following the passage of storms, which enhanced chemical processing of rainforest-emitted isoprene and monoterpenes. Reactions of isoprene and monoterpenes with O3 are modeled to generate maximum hydroxyl radical formation rates of 6 × 106 radicals cm-3s-1. Therefore, one key conclusion of the present study is that downdrafts of convective storms are estimated to transport enough O3 to the surface to initiate a series of reactions that reduce the lifetimes of rainforest-emitted hydrocarbons.

  15. Emission spectroscopy of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet operated with air at low frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, L.; Gallego, J. L.; Minotti, F.; Kelly, H.; Grondona, D.

    2015-03-01

    Low-temperature, high-pressure plasma jets have an extensive use in plasma biology and plasma medicine, such as pathogen deactivation, wound disinfection, stopping of bleeding without damage of healthy tissue, acceleration of wound healing, control of bio-film proliferation, etc. In this work, a spectroscopic characterization of a typical plasma jet, operated in air at atmospheric pressure, is reported. Within the spectrum of wavelengths from 200 to 450 nm all remarkable emissions of N2 were monitored. Spectra of the N2 2nd positive system (C3Πu-B3Πg) emitted in air are the most convenient for plasma diagnostics, since they enable to determine electronic Te, rotational Tr and vibrational Tv temperatures by fitting the experimental spectra with the simulated ones. We used SPECAIR software for spectral simulation and obtained the best fit with all these temperatures about 3500K. The conclusion that all temperatures are equal, and its relatively high value, is consistent with the results of a previous work, where it was found that the experimentally determined electrical characteristic was consistent with the model of a thermal arc discharge, together with a highly collisional cathode sheet.

  16. Optimization of atmospheric air plasma for degradation of organic dyes in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sarangapani, Chaitanya; Dixit, Y; Milosavljevic, Vladimir; Bourke, Paula; Sullivan, Carl; Cullen, P J

    2017-01-01

    This study optimises the degradation of a cocktail of the dyes methyl orange and bromothymol blue by atmospheric air plasma. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the efficacy of the plasma process parameters on degradation efficiency. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimise the degradation of dyes by air plasma discharge. A second order polynomial equation was proposed to predict process efficiency. It was observed that the predicted values are significant (p < 0.001) with coefficients of determination 0.98, 0.96, 0.98 for dye degradation, pH value and ozone concentration, respectively. The analysis of variance results showed that the coefficients of the polynomials for the percentage degradation and ozone concentration responses indicated positive linear effects (p < 0.001), whereas a negative linear effect was found for pH. The positive linear effect of variable emphasises that voltage and treatment time were the most dominant factors (p < 0.001), meaning that higher degradation efficiencies are achieved with an increase in treatment duration. This study showed that a BBD model and RSM could be employed to optimize the colour degradation parameters of non-thermal plasma treated model dyes while minimising the number of experiments required.

  17. Cold atmospheric air plasma sterilization against spores and other microorganisms of clinical interest.

    PubMed

    Klämpfl, Tobias G; Isbary, Georg; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Li, Yang-Fang; Zimmermann, Julia L; Stolz, Wilhelm; Schlegel, Jürgen; Morfill, Gregor E; Schmidt, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-08-01

    Physical cold atmospheric surface microdischarge (SMD) plasma operating in ambient air has promising properties for the sterilization of sensitive medical devices where conventional methods are not applicable. Furthermore, SMD plasma could revolutionize the field of disinfection at health care facilities. The antimicrobial effects on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of clinical relevance, as well as the fungus Candida albicans, were tested. Thirty seconds of plasma treatment led to a 4 to 6 log(10) CFU reduction on agar plates. C. albicans was the hardest to inactivate. The sterilizing effect on standard bioindicators (bacterial endospores) was evaluated on dry test specimens that were wrapped in Tyvek coupons. The experimental D(23)(°)(C) values for Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus atrophaeus, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus were determined as 0.3 min, 0.5 min, 0.6 min, and 0.9 min, respectively. These decimal reduction times (D values) are distinctly lower than D values obtained with other reference methods. Importantly, the high inactivation rate was independent of the material of the test specimen. Possible inactivation mechanisms for relevant microorganisms are briefly discussed, emphasizing the important role of neutral reactive plasma species and pointing to recent diagnostic methods that will contribute to a better understanding of the strong biocidal effect of SMD air plasma.

  18. Cold Atmospheric Air Plasma Sterilization against Spores and Other Microorganisms of Clinical Interest

    PubMed Central

    Isbary, Georg; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Li, Yang-Fang; Zimmermann, Julia L.; Stolz, Wilhelm; Schlegel, Jürgen; Morfill, Gregor E.; Schmidt, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Physical cold atmospheric surface microdischarge (SMD) plasma operating in ambient air has promising properties for the sterilization of sensitive medical devices where conventional methods are not applicable. Furthermore, SMD plasma could revolutionize the field of disinfection at health care facilities. The antimicrobial effects on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of clinical relevance, as well as the fungus Candida albicans, were tested. Thirty seconds of plasma treatment led to a 4 to 6 log10 CFU reduction on agar plates. C. albicans was the hardest to inactivate. The sterilizing effect on standard bioindicators (bacterial endospores) was evaluated on dry test specimens that were wrapped in Tyvek coupons. The experimental D23°C values for Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus atrophaeus, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus were determined as 0.3 min, 0.5 min, 0.6 min, and 0.9 min, respectively. These decimal reduction times (D values) are distinctly lower than D values obtained with other reference methods. Importantly, the high inactivation rate was independent of the material of the test specimen. Possible inactivation mechanisms for relevant microorganisms are briefly discussed, emphasizing the important role of neutral reactive plasma species and pointing to recent diagnostic methods that will contribute to a better understanding of the strong biocidal effect of SMD air plasma. PMID:22582068

  19. Discharge modes of a DC operated atmospheric pressure air plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Juergen; Pei, Xuekai; Kredl, Jana; Lu, Xinpei

    2016-09-01

    By flowing air or nitrogen through a microhollow cathode discharge geometry an afterglow plasma jet can be generated at atmospheric pressure in air. The plasma jet has been successfully used for the inactivation of bacteria and yeast. The responsible reaction chemistry is based on the production of high concentrations of nitric oxide. Production yields depend in particular on gas flow rate and energy dissipated in the plasma. The same parameters also determine different modes of operation for the jet. A true DC operation is achieved for low to moderate gas flow rate of about 1 slm and discharge currents on the order of 10 mA. When increasing the gas flow rate to 10 slm the operation is changing to a self-pulsing mode with characteristics similar to the ones observed for a transient spark. By increasing the current a DC operation can be achieved again also at higher gas flow rates. The parameter regimes for different modes of operation can be described by the reduced electric field E/N.

  20. An Analysis of Cloud Computing with Amazon Web Services for the Atmospheric Science Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. L.; Little, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    NASA science and engineering efforts rely heavily on compute and data handling systems. The nature of NASA science data is such that it is not restricted to NASA users, instead it is widely shared across a globally distributed user community including scientists, educators, policy decision makers, and the public. Therefore NASA science computing is a candidate use case for cloud computing where compute resources are outsourced to an external vendor. Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a commercial cloud computing service developed to use excess computing capacity at Amazon, and potentially provides an alternative to costly and potentially underutilized dedicated acquisitions whenever NASA scientists or engineers require additional data processing. AWS desires to provide a simplified avenue for NASA scientists and researchers to share large, complex data sets with external partners and the public. AWS has been extensively used by JPL for a wide range of computing needs and was previously tested on a NASA Agency basis during the Nebula testing program. Its ability to support the Langley Science Directorate needs to be evaluated by integrating it with real world operational needs across NASA and the associated maturity that would come with that. The strengths and weaknesses of this architecture and its ability to support general science and engineering applications has been demonstrated during the previous testing. The Langley Office of the Chief Information Officer in partnership with the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) has established a pilot business interface to utilize AWS cloud computing resources on a organization and project level pay per use model. This poster discusses an effort to evaluate the feasibility of the pilot business interface from a project level perspective by specifically using a processing scenario involving the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project.

  1. Afterglow chemistry of atmospheric-pressure helium-oxygen plasmas with humid air impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Niemi, Kari; Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah; Graham, William G.

    2014-04-01

    The formation of reactive species in the afterglow of a radio-frequency-driven atmospheric-pressure plasma in a fixed helium-oxygen feed gas mixture (He+0.5%O2) with humid air impurity (a few hundred ppm) is investigated by means of an extensive global plasma chemical kinetics model. As an original objective, we explore the effects of humid air impurity on the biologically relevant reactive species in an oxygen-dependent system. After a few milliseconds in the afterglow environment, the densities of atomic oxygen (O) decreases from 1015 to 1013 cm-3 and singlet delta molecular oxygen (O2(1D)) of the order of 1015 cm-3 decreases by a factor of two, while the ozone (O3) density increases from 1014 to 1015 cm-3. Electrons and oxygen ionic species, initially of the order of 1011 cm-3, recombine much faster on the time scale of some microseconds. The formation of atomic hydrogen (H), hydroxyl radical (OH), hydroperoxyl (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and nitric acid (HNO3) resulting from the humid air impurity as well as the influence on the afterglow chemistry is clarified with particular emphasis on the formation of dominant reactive oxygen species (ROS). The model suggests that the reactive species predominantly formed in the afterglow are major ROS O2(1D) and O3 (of the order of 1015 cm-3) and rather minor hydrogen- and nitrogen-based reactive species OH, H2O2, HNO3 and NO2/NO3, of which densities are comparable to the O-atom density (of the order of 1013 cm-3). Furthermore, the model quantitatively reproduces the experimental results of independent O and O3 density measurements.

  2. A-Train Data Depot: Integrating, Visualizing, and Extracting Cloudsat, CALIPSO, MODIS, and AIRS Atmospheric Measurements Along the A-Train Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steven; Stephens, Graeme; Winkler, Dave; Leptoukh, Greg; Reinke, Don; Smith, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The succession of US and international Earth observing satellites that follow each other, seconds to minutes apart, across the local afternoon equator crossing is called the ATrain. The A-Train consists of the following satellites, in order of equator crossing: OCO, EOS Aqua, CloudSat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, and EOS Aura. Flying in such formation increases the number of observations, validates observations, and enables coordination between science observations, resulting in a more complete virtual science platform (Kelly, 2000). The goal of this project is to create the first ever A-Train virtual data portal/center, the A-Train Data Depot (ATDD), to process, archive, access, visualize, analyze and correlate distributed atmosphere measurements from various A-Train instruments along A-Train tracks. The ATDD will enable the free movement of remotely located A-Train data so that they are combined to create a consolidated vertical view of the Earth's Atmosphere along the A-Train tracks. Once the infrastructure of the ATDD is in place, it will be easily evolved to serve data from all A-Train data measurements: one stop shopping. The innovative approach of analyzing and visualizing atmospheric profiles along the platforms track (i.e., time) will be accommodated by reusing the GSFC Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (ACDISC) visualization and analysis tool, GIOVANNI, existing data reduction tools, on-line archiving for fast data access, access to remote data without unnecessary data transfers, and data retrieval by users finding data desirable for further study. Initial measurements utilized include CALIPSO lidar backscatter, CloudSat radar reflectivity, clear air relative humidity, water vapor and temperature from AIRS, and cloud properties and aerosols from both MODIS. This will be foilowed by associated measurements from TVILS, =MI, HIRDLS, sad TES. Given the independent nature of instrumentlplatform development, the ATDD project has been met with

  3. Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snik, Frans; Rietjens, Jeroen H. H.; Apituley, Arnoud; Volten, Hester; Mijling, Bas; Di Noia, Antonio; Heikamp, Stephanie; Heinsbroek, Ritse C.; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Smit, J. Martijn; Vonk, Jan; Stam, Daphne M.; Harten, Gerard; Boer, Jozua; Keller, Christoph U.

    2014-10-01

    To assess the impact of atmospheric aerosols on health, climate, and air traffic, aerosol properties must be measured with fine spatial and temporal sampling. This can be achieved by actively involving citizens and the technology they own to form an atmospheric measurement network. We establish this new measurement strategy by developing and deploying iSPEX, a low-cost, mass-producible optical add-on for smartphones with a corresponding app. The aerosol optical thickness (AOT) maps derived from iSPEX spectropolarimetric measurements of the daytime cloud-free sky by thousands of citizen scientists throughout the Netherlands are in good agreement with the spatial AOT structure derived from satellite imagery and temporal AOT variations derived from ground-based precision photometry. These maps show structures at scales of kilometers that are typical for urban air pollution, indicating the potential of iSPEX to provide information about aerosol properties at locations and at times that are not covered by current monitoring efforts.

  4. Frigid air and frozen oceans: Educational outreach opportunities in Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perovich, D. K.; Codispoti, L. A.; Hawkey, J.

    2003-12-01

    Arctic research provides a marvelous venue for educational outreach activities. The polar regions, with snow and ice, months-long winter nights and summer days, and marine mammals such as seals, whales, and polar bears, has an intrinsic sense of adventure and interest. This interest provides an entry point for educational outreach activities, but does not guarantee success. Arctic researchers studying ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions have used a myriad of techniques for education outreach activities: web sites, classroom visits, lectures, news articles, and e-mail correspondence from the field. One such web site, http://arcss-oaii.hpl.umces.edu/outreach.htm, has been developed as a clearinghouse for researchers to share ideas, strategies, and techniques. For K-12 outreach, developing an ongoing effort with several classroom visits over the school year, is particularly effective. Classroom visits with brief lectures, replete with pictures, followed by an experiment or activity make it relatively straightforward to convey the enthusiasm and excitement of polar research. A more difficult task, however, is to integrate outreach activities into the curriculum. Collaborating with teachers is essential to achieve this integration. In public lectures, it is productive to first capture the audience's attention by describing what it is like to work in the polar regions, then discuss the science. It is important to distill the science to one or two key concepts and present them clearly and concisely. A recurring theme was that not only were outreach activities fun and satisfying, but they also enhanced the researchers understanding of the material.

  5. Can citizen science produce good science? Testing the OPAL Air Survey methodology, using lichens as indicators of nitrogenous pollution.

    PubMed

    Tregidgo, Daniel J; West, Sarah E; Ashmore, Mike R

    2013-11-01

    Citizen science is having increasing influence on environmental monitoring as its advantages are becoming recognised. However methodologies are often simplified to make them accessible to citizen scientists. We tested whether a recent citizen science survey (the OPAL Air Survey) could detect trends in lichen community composition over transects away from roads. We hypothesised that the abundance of nitrophilic lichens would decrease with distance from the road, while that of nitrophobic lichens would increase. The hypothesised changes were detected along strong pollution gradients, but not where the road source was relatively weak, or background pollution relatively high. We conclude that the simplified OPAL methodology can detect large contrasts in nitrogenous pollution, but it may not be able to detect more subtle changes in pollution exposure. Similar studies are needed in conjunction with the ever-growing body of citizen science work to ensure that the limitations of these methods are fully understood.

  6. 75 FR 64726 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts To Serve on the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... objectives in the context of the most recently revised ozone NAAQS and changes to atmospheric chemistry that... monitoring studies. Methods for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)--Advice on potential improvements to TO-15...: Atmospheric sciences, dispersion modeling, atmospheric chemistry, ecosystem modeling, aquatic...

  7. Earth System Data Microsets for Education From the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, C. S.; Chambers, L. H.; Oots, P. C.; Moore, S. W.; Lorentz, K. E.; Dalton, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) at NASA's Langley Research Center houses over 700 data sets related to Earth's radiation budget, clouds, aerosols and tropospheric chemistry. These data sets were produced to increase academic understanding of the natural and anthropogenic perturbations that influence global climate change. Scientists have been analyzing the extensive data to discover and quantify the complex interactions and feedbacks in the Earth system, communicating conclusions frequently with colleagues, policy makers and the general public. NASA's Science Mission Directorate aims to stimulate public interest in the understanding of these Earth system science findings and to encourage young scholars to consider careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. However, barriers still exist to the use of actual satellite observations in the classroom to energize the educational process. NASA is sponsoring the "Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and earth science for Teachers and Amateurs" (MY NASA DATA) project to systematically support educational activities at all levels of formal and informal education by reducing the ASDC data holdings to `microsets' that will be easily accessible and explored by the K-12 and the citizen scientist communities. The microsets are available via Web site (http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov) with associated lesson plans, computer tools, data information pages, and a science glossary. Teacher workshops will be held each summer for five years to help teachers learn about incorporating the microsets in their curriculum. Additionally, a Live Access Server (LAS) has been populated with ASDC data holdings such that users can create custom microsets for desired time series, parameters and geographical regions. Currently, parameters from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), the Surface Radiation Budget (SRB), Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) and the International Satellite Cloud

  8. Science and policy in regulatory decision making: getting the facts right about hazardous air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, K

    1995-01-01

    Hazardous air pollutants are regulated under Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The Amendments replace the risk-based approach mandated in the 1977 Amendments with a prescriptive, technology-based approach requiring that maximum achievable control technology (MACT) be applied to all major industrial sources of 189 hazardous air pollutants. The change reflects political, rather than scientific consensus that the public health benefits justify the costs. The choice is put into perspective by looking at the interface between science and policy that occurs as part of regular decisionmaking. Particular emphasis is given to examining the interrelationships among facts (science), judgments (science policy), and policy (values) in the context of the risk assessment paradigm. Science and policy are discussed in relation to Title III, contrasting the political consensus for action with the scientific uncertainty about risks and benefits. It is argued that a balanced research program is needed to get the facts right about hazardous air pollutants, including research to meet statutory requirements, to reduce uncertainties in risk assessment, and to address strategic issues. PMID:8549476

  9. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Applications: An Inquiry into Atmospheric Science Teaching.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebber, Paul J.

    2005-04-01

    Difficulties associated with the teaching of complex subjects such as the atmospheric sciences create obstacles to learning and lead to relatively high rates of student attrition. An exploration of the role of mismatches between student learning styles and that implicit in curricular design was conducted at the University of Wisconsin—Mil-waukee (UWM), with the objective of identifying methods for improving student learning and retention.Open-ended interviews were used to elicit the opinions of past and present students and faculty. These data are analyzed to meet the study objectives. Key findings include the following: attrition rates in the program are high, but consistent with published rates across the United States in engineering; the predominant learning styles of students and faculty diverge substantially; curricular design is consistent with faculty rather than student learning styles; among students, undergraduates show the largest negative responses to existing modes of operation and the most interest in change; faculty also show considerable discomfort with existing modes and substantial support for change, although their rationale for this support may differ from that of students; support for a radical reorganization of the curriculum toward a case-study-driven learning process is weak, particularly among undergraduates; increased emphasis of physical examples and case studies within the existing curricular framework is supported, both for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. Methods for addressing these limitations within atmospheric science curricula are presented.


  10. Air Quality Impacts of Atmospheric Particles & Trace Gases: Field Studies in Diverse Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwaniki, George R.

    Air pollution impacts occur at all scales, meaning that policies and air quality management practices must be implemented and coordinated at the local, regional, national, and global scales. This dissertation is part of a continuing effort to improve our understanding of various air quality related issues in different environments. The dissertation consists of four studies. In the first study, wintertime chemical composition of water-soluble particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) was monitored in the Treasure Valley region near Boise, Idaho. This study was aimed at understanding the major drivers of wintertime PM2.5 within the locality of Boise and its suburbs. From this study, organics and particulate nitrate were the dominant contributors to the PM2.5 mass during wintertime. In the second study, particle size distribution, light scattering coefficient, speciated water soluble PM2.5, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration were monitored in a mixed deciduous forest in Northern Michigan during the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX-2009). The overall goal of this study was to understand on how emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) affect the gas-phase and particle-phase chemistry in the near-canopy environment, and the implications on local and regional air quality. From this study aerosol derived from the oxidation of BVOCs exhibited reduced hygroscopicity and CCN activation potential compared to aerosols derived from anthropogenic activities. The third study employed the eddy covariance (EC) technique to understand source-sink interactions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH 4), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in Xi'an, China. In this study urban vegetation were found to play a major role in regulating CO2 emissions within the city while vehicular activities were a major driver for CO and CH4 fluxes. In the fourth study, visibility degradation effects of

  11. Survey Says...! Women rising above challenges in atmospheric science through ASCENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, L. M.; Thiry, H.; Hallar, A. G.; Avallone, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences Collaborations and Enriching NeTworks (ASCENT) project is in its third year of connecting early career atmospheric scientists with female senior scientists in related fields. The annual workshops have demonstrated the range of career and personal decisions that current successful senior scientists have made, presented tools and resources, created new networks of collaboration, and provided a forum for informal and formal discussions of issues that face early career female atmospheric scientists. A formal assessment has been ongoing, with participants responding to questions relating to the workshops themselves, in addition to a longitudinal study that asks participants about the impact of ASCENT months or years after their workshop experience. Through this evaluation, the workshop organizers have been able to tailor the workshop schedule, reunion events, and communication, to fit the needs of the participants and manage the project better to achieve their desired outcomes. The results so far have shown that participants felt they enhanced their professional networks, and over 90% had maintained contact with other ASCENT participants six months after the workshop. Participants also reported to have gained knowledge and resources for women scientists and had fewer career obstacles six months after ASCENT. ASCENT organizers will share lessons learned throughout the process and some examples of best practices they have discovered. The assessment design, and most recent results from all three workshop cohorts will also be presented.

  12. Cris-atms Retrievals Using an AIRS Science Team Version 6-like Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    CrIS is the infrared high spectral resolution atmospheric sounder launched on Suomi-NPP in 2011. CrISATMS comprise the IRMW Sounding Suite on Suomi-NPP. CrIS is functionally equivalent to AIRS, the high spectral resolution IR sounder launched on EOS Aqua in 2002 and ATMS is functionally equivalent to AMSU on EOS Aqua. CrIS is an interferometer and AIRS is a grating spectrometer. Spectral coverage, spectral resolution, and channel noise of CrIS is similar to AIRS. CrIS spectral sampling is roughly twice as coarse as AIRSAIRS has 2378 channels between 650 cm-1 and 2665 cm-1. CrIS has 1305 channels between 650 cm-1 and 2550 cm-1. Spatial resolution of CrIS is comparable to AIRS.

  13. GreenCube and RocketCube: Low-Resource Sensorcraft for Atmospheric and Ionospheric Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracikowski, P. J.; Lynch, K. A.; Slagle, A. K.; Fagin, M. H.; Currey, S. R.; Siddiqui, M. U.

    2009-12-01

    In situ atmospheric and ionospheric studies benefit greatly from the ability to separate variations in space from variations in time. Arrays of many probes are a method of doing this, but because of the technical character and expense of developing large arrays, so far probe arrays have been the domain of well-funded science missions. CubeSats and low-resource craft (``Picosats") are an avenue for bringing array-based studies of the atmosphere and ionosphere into the mainstream. The Lynch Rocket Lab at Dartmouth College is attempting to develop the instruments, experience, and heritage to implement arrays of many low-resource sensorcraft while doing worthwhile science in the development process. We are working on two CubeSat projects to reach this goal: GreenCube for atmospheric studies and RocketCube for ionospheric studies. GreenCube is an undergraduate student-directed high-altitude balloon-borne 3U CubeSat. GreenCube I was a bus, telemetry, and mechanical system development project. GreenCube I flew in the fall of 2008. The flight was successfully recovered and tracked over the 97km range and through the 29km altitude rise. GreenCube I carried six thermal housekeeping sensors, a GPS, a magnetometer, and a HAM radio telemetry system with a reporting rate of once every 30 seconds. The velocity profile obtained from the GPS data implies the presence of atmospheric gravity waves during the flight. GreenCube II flew in August 2009 with the science goal of detecting atmospheric gravity waves over the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Two balloons with identical payloads were released 90 seconds apart to make 2-point observations. Each payload carried a magnetometer, 5 thermistors for ambient temperature readings, a GPS, and an amateur radio telemetry system with a 7 second reporting cadence. A vertically oriented video camera on one payload and a horizontally oriented video camera on the other recorded the characteristics of gravity waves in the nearby clouds. We

  14. The InSight Mission's Martian Atmospheric Science Goals, Capabilities and Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Banfield, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The InSight Mission to Mars will launch in March 2016 and land in September 2016, beginning at least 1 Mars year of observations from the surface of Mars. The primary scientific goal of the InSight mission is to characterize the interior of Mars (both deep and near-surface), but it is also equipped with very capable meteorological instrumentation, and consequently has atmospheric science goals as well. The instrumentation InSight carries includes a very sensitive and fast response pressure sensor, as well as a pair of wind and temperature sensors that are similar to those flown on MSL and will be on Mars2020. These sensors will operate essentially continuously at Mars, a first; enabling the production of a complete sampling of the Martian environment, including short-lived transients. InSight also carries cameras that can be used to survey not only the ground in the near environment, but also sky conditions. The pressure sensor responds to signals below 10Hz (~10X its predecessors) and has a noise level of about 10 mPa (better than 1/10 its predecessors). The pair of wind and temperature sensors have been carefully placed opposite one another on the deck to minimize lander interference as much as possible, leaving one sensor on the windward side of the lander at any time. These capabilities, combined with their continuous sampling enable us to pursue new atmospheric science questions at Mars, including quantifying thresholds for aeolian change, detailed dust devil characterization, bolide infrasonic detection and characterization, and quantifying secular trends in pressure. This is in addition to characterizing the normal meteorology at the InSight landing site, which while not completely new, will provide incremental and important constraints for Martian Atmospheric models. We also expect there to be unexpected discoveries, as well as more synergistic approaches to coordination among all the instruments on InSight that may result even more novel capabilities.

  15. Influence of air diffusion on the OH radicals and atomic O distribution in an atmospheric Ar (bio)plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, A.; Li, L.; Britun, N.; Snyders, R.; Vanraes, P.; Leys, C.

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of samples with plasmas in biomedical applications often occurs in ambient air. Admixing air into the discharge region may severely affect the formation and destruction of the generated oxidative species. Little is known about the effects of air diffusion on the spatial distribution of OH radicals and O atoms in the afterglow of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets. In our work, these effects are investigated by performing and comparing measurements in ambient air with measurements in a controlled argon atmosphere without the admixture of air, for an argon plasma jet. The spatial distribution of OH is detected by means of laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics (LIF), whereas two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) is used for the detection of atomic O. The spatially resolved OH LIF and O TALIF show that, due to the air admixture effects, the reactive species are only concentrated in the vicinity of the central streamline of the afterglow of the jet, with a characteristic discharge diameter of ˜1.5 mm. It is shown that air diffusion has a key role in the recombination loss mechanisms of OH radicals and atomic O especially in the far afterglow region, starting up to ˜4 mm from the nozzle outlet at a low water/oxygen concentration. Furthermore, air diffusion enhances OH and O production in the core of the plasma. The higher density of active species in the discharge in ambient air is likely due to a higher electron density and a more effective electron impact dissociation of H2O and O2 caused by the increasing electrical field, when the discharge is operated in ambient air.

  16. The Effect of Air Density on Atmospheric Electric Fields Required for Lightning Initiation from a Long Airborne Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Aleksandrov, N. L.; Raizer, Yu. Pl.; Konchankov, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine minimum atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from an airborne vehicle at various altitudes up to 10 km. The problem was reduced to the determination of a condition for initiation of a viable positive leader from a conductive object in an ambient electric field. It was shown that, depending on air density and shape and dimensions of the object, critical atmospheric fields are governed by the condition for leader viability or that for corona onset. To establish quantitative criteria for reduced air densities, available observations of spark discharges in long laboratory gaps were analyzed, the effect of air density on leader velocity was discussed and evolution in time of the properties of plasma in the leader channel was numerically simulated. The results obtained were used to evaluate the effect of pressure on the quantitative relationships between the potential difference near the leader tip, leader current and its velocity; based on these relationships, criteria for steady development of a leader were determined for various air pressures. Atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from rods and ellipsoidal objects of various dimensions were calculated at different air densities. It was shown that there is no simple way to extend critical ambient fields obtained for some given objects and pressures to other objects and pressures.

  17. Repository Profiles for Atmospheric and Climate Sciences: Capabilities and Trends in Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, C. Y.; Thompson, C. A.; Palmer, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    As digital research data proliferate and expectations for open access escalate, the landscape of data repositories is becoming more complex. For example, DataBib currently identifies 980 data repositories across the disciplines, with 117 categorized under Geosciences. In atmospheric and climate sciences, there are great expectations for the integration and reuse of data for advancing science. To realize this potential, resources are needed that explicate the range of repository options available for locating and depositing open data, their conditions of access and use, and the services and tools they provide. This study profiled 38 open digital repositories in the atmospheric and climate sciences, analyzing each on 55 criteria through content analysis of their websites. The results provide a systematic way to assess and compare capabilities, services, and institutional characteristics and identify trends across repositories. Selected results from the more detailed outcomes to be presented: Most repositories offer guidance on data format(s) for submission and dissemination. 42% offer authorization-free access. More than half use some type of data identification system such as DOIs. Nearly half offer some data processing, with a similar number providing software or tools. 78.9% request that users cite or acknowledge datasets used and the data center. Only 21.1% recommend specific metadata standards, such as ISO 19115 or Dublin Core, with more than half utilizing a customized metadata scheme. Information was rarely provided on repository certification and accreditation and uneven for transfer of rights and data security. Few provided policy information on preservation, migration, reappraisal, disposal, or long-term sustainability. As repository use increases, it will be important for institutions to make their procedures and policies explicit, to build trust with user communities and improve efficiencies in data sharing. Resources such as repository profiles will be

  18. Challenge to the Data-intensive Science in Upper Atmospheric Research in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Yukinobu; Kurakawa, Kei; Sato, Yuka; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Abe, Shuji; Ikeda, Daisuke; Nose, Masahito; Shinbori, Atsuki; Umemura, Norio; Iyemori, Toshihiko; Ueno, Satoru; Yagi, Manabu; Yatagai, Akiyo

    2014-05-01

    Science is changing because of the impact of information technology. Experimental, theoretical, and computational science are all being affected by the data deluge, and a fourth, "data-intensive" science paradigm is emerging. To investigate the mechanism of long-term variations in the upper atmosphere, we need to create integrated links between a variety of ground-based observations made at various locations from the equator to the poles because what we observe is the result of complicated processes. However, the Japanese observational databases (e.g., by a global network of radars, magnetometers, optical sensors, helioscopes) have been maintained and made available to the community by each institution that conducted the observations. Then researchers encountered the problem that is difficult to look for various kinds of observational data to clarify the global scale physical phenomena. In order to solve the problem, the Japanese IUGONET project builts the metadata database for upper atmosphere by using extended Dspace software. The extended point is to handle the IUGONET XML Schema for describing the ground-based observational metadata, which is based on Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) for describing satellite' metadata. Metadata by the XML schema can describe the twelve resource types like dataset, person, and so forth. Thereby, the researchers can reach distributed observational data via metadata. From the viewpoint of data publication, the Japanese local community of the World Data System (WDS) started to prepare to put the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to dataset by Japan Link Center (JaLC) which is the DOI registration agency in Japan. On the other hand, Open Researcher & Contributor ID (ORCID) launched its registry service on Oct. 2012. Under these situation, we planned to put the both IDs into the above mentioned metadata to create linkage between dataset, data contributor, and metadata. As a first step, we redefined the new IUGONET XML

  19. Decay of femtosecond laser-induced plasma filaments in air, nitrogen, and argon for atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, N. L.; Bodrov, S. B.; Tsarev, M. V.; Murzanev, A. A.; Sergeev, Yu. A.; Malkov, Yu. A.; Stepanov, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The temporal evolution of a plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided femtosecond laser pulse was studied experimentally and theoretically in air, nitrogen (with an admixture of ˜3% O2), and argon in a wide range of gas pressures (from 2 to 760 Torr). Measurements by means of transverse optical interferometry and pulsed terahertz scattering techniques showed that plasma density in air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure reduces by an order of magnitude within 3-4 ns and that the decay rate decreases with decreasing pressure. The argon plasma did not decay within several nanoseconds for pressures of 50-760 Torr. We extended our theoretical model previously applied for atmospheric pressure air plasma to explain the plasma decay in the gases under study and to show that allowance for plasma channel expansion affects plasma decay at low pressures.

  20. Impact of AIRS Thermodynamic Profiles on Precipitation Forecasts for Atmospheric River Cases Affecting the Western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Wick, Gary A.; Neiman, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This project is a collaborative activity between the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center and the NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) to evaluate a SPoRT Advanced Infrared Sounding Radiometer (AIRS: Aumann et al. 2003) enhanced moisture analysis product. We test the impact of assimilating AIRS temperature and humidity profiles above clouds and in partly cloudy regions, using the three-dimensional variational Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation (DA) system (Developmental Testbed Center 2012) to produce a new analysis. Forecasts of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model initialized from the new analysis are compared to control forecasts without the additional AIRS data. We focus on some cases where atmospheric rivers caused heavy precipitation on the US West Coast. We verify the forecasts by comparison with dropsondes and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Blended Total Precipitable Water product.

  1. The Air Sensor Citizen Science Toolbox: A Collaboration in Community Air Quality Monitoring and Mapping?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project GoalDevelop tools Citizen Scientists can use to assist them in conducting environmental monitoringResearch PlanIdentify a citizen science project as a potential pilot study locationEstablish their pollutant monitoring interestsDevelop a sensor package to meet their needs ...

  2. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.; Bauer, L.R.

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model.

    PubMed

    Hamby, D M; Bauer, L R

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates.

  4. Future emissions and atmospheric fate of HFC-1234yf from mobile air conditioners in Europe.

    PubMed

    Henne, Stephan; Shallcross, Dudley E; Reimann, Stefan; Xiao, Ping; Brunner, Dominik; O'Doherty, Simon; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2012-02-07

    HFC-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) is under discussion for replacing HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) as a cooling agent in mobile air conditioners (MACs) in the European vehicle fleet. Some HFC-1234yf will be released into the atmosphere, where it is almost completely transformed to the persistent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Future emissions of HFC-1234yf after a complete conversion of the European vehicle fleet were assessed. Taking current day leakage rates and predicted vehicle numbers for the year 2020 into account, European total HFC-1234yf emissions from MACs were predicted to range between 11.0 and 19.2 Gg yr(-1). Resulting TFA deposition rates and rainwater concentrations over Europe were assessed with two Lagrangian chemistry transport models. Mean European summer-time TFA mixing ratios of about 0.15 ppt (high emission scenario) will surpass previously measured levels in background air in Germany and Switzerland by more than a factor of 10. Mean deposition rates (wet + dry) of TFA were estimated to be 0.65-0.76 kg km(-2) yr(-1), with a maxium of ∼2.0 kg km(-2) yr(-1) occurring in Northern Italy. About 30-40% of the European HFC-1234yf emissions were deposited as TFA within Europe, while the remaining fraction was exported toward the Atlantic Ocean, Central Asia, Northern, and Tropical Africa. Largest annual mean TFA concentrations in rainwater were simulated over the Mediterranean and Northern Africa, reaching up to 2500 ng L(-1), while maxima over the continent of about 2000 ng L(-1) occurred in the Czech Republic and Southern Germany. These highest annual mean concentrations are at least 60 times lower than previously determined to be a safe level for the most sensitive aquatic life-forms. Rainwater concentrations during individual rain events would still be 1 order of magnitude lower than the no effect level. To verify these results future occasional sampling of TFA in the atmospheric environment should be considered. If future HFC-1234yf

  5. Positive and negative gas-phase ion chemistry of chlorofluorocarbons in air at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Bosa, Elisabetta; Paradisi, Cristina; Scorrano, Gianfranco

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a report on the ionization/dissociation of some representative chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) induced by corona discharges in air at atmospheric pressure. Both positive and negative ions formed from Freons 1,1,1-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113a), 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113), and 1,1,1,2-tetrachlorodifluoroethane (CFC 112a) were analyzed using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) instrument. Energy-resolved mass spectra were obtained by modulating the kinetic energy of the ions via adjustment of the sampling cone potential (V(cone)). Positive ion spectra of the CFCs (M) at low V(cone) show no signals due to either M(+)* or MH(+) but only those due to species [M - Cl](+) and CX(3)(+) (X = Cl, F), likely formed via C-Cl and C-C bond cleavages following ionization via charge exchange. Charge localization in the products of C-C bond cleavage in M(+)* is driven by the stability of the neutral fragment. At low V(cone) the hydrates [M - Cl](+)(H(2)O) are also observed. In the case of 1,1,2,-trichlorotrifluoroethane, [M - F](+) species also form as a result of ion-molecule reactions. As V(cone) is increased collision-induced dissociation of [M - Cl](+) and [M - F](+), i.e., the perhalogenated cations C(2)X(5)(+) (X = Cl, F), takes place via carbene elimination. In some cases such elimination is preceded or accompanied by rearrangements involving transfer of halogen from one carbon to the other. Evidence is also presented for the occurrence of a condensation reaction of C(2)Cl(3)F(2)(+) with water to form a C(2)Cl(2)F(2)HO(+) species via elimination of HCl. Negative ion spectra are dominated by Cl(-) and its ion-neutral complexes with M and with water. Additional components of the plasma include ion-neutral complexes O(3)(-)(M), the molecular anion M(-) (observed only with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane), and an interesting species corresponding to [M - Cl + O](-). The origin and structure of these [M - Cl + O

  6. The science of ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinetti, G.; Drossart, P.; Eccleston, P.; Hartogh, P.; Heske, A.; Leconte, J.; Micela, G.; Ollivier, M.; Pilbratt, G.; Puig, L.; Turrini, D.; Vandenbussche, B.; Wolkenberg, P.; Pascale, E.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Güdel, M.; Min, M.; Rataj, M.; Ray, T.; Ribas, I.; Barstow, J.; Bowles, N.; Coustenis, A.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Decin, L.; Encrenaz, T.; Forget, F.; Friswell, M.; Griffin, M.; Lagage, P. O.; Malaguti, P.; Moneti, A.; Morales, J. C.; Pace, E.; Rocchetto, M.; Sarkar, S.; Selsis, F.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, J.; Venot, O.; Waldmann, I. P.; Wright, G.; Zingales, T.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    The Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey (ARIEL) is one of the three candidate missions selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) for its next medium-class science mission due for launch in 2026. The goal of the ARIEL mission is to investigate the atmospheres of several hundred planets orbiting distant stars in order to address the fundamental questions on how planetary systems form and evolve. During its four (with a potential extension to six) years mission ARIEL will observe 500+ exoplanets in the visible and the infrared with its meter-class telescope in L2. ARIEL targets will include gaseous and rocky planets down to the Earth-size around different types of stars. The main focus of the mission will be on hot and warm planets orbiting close to their star, as they represent a natural laboratory in which to study the chemistry and formation of exoplanets. The ARIEL mission concept has been developed by a consortium of more than 50 institutes from 12 countries, which include UK, France, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Belgium, Austria, Denmark, Ireland and Portugal. The analysis of the ARIEL spectra and photometric data in the 0.5-7.8 micron range will allow to extract the chemical fingerprints of gases and condensates in the planets' atmospheres, including the elemental composition for the most favorable targets. It will also enable the study of thermal and scattering properties of the atmosphere as the planet orbit around the star. ARIEL will have an open data policy, enabling rapid access by the general community to the high-quality exoplanet spectra that the core survey will deliver.

  7. Monitoring of the Atmosphere on the International Space Station with the Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Loh, Leslie J.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    During the early years of human spaceflight, short duration missions allowed for monitoring of the spacecraft environment to be performed via archival sampling, in which samples were returned to Earth for analysis. With the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the accompanying extended mission durations, the need for enhanced, real-time monitors became apparent. The Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA) operated on ISS for 7 years, where it assessed trace volatile organic compounds in the cabin air. The large and fixed-position VOA was eventually replaced with the smaller Air Quality Monitor (AQM). Since March 2013, the atmosphere of the U.S. Operating Segment (USOS) has been monitored in near real-time by a pair of AQMs. These devices consist of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) and currently target detection list of 22 compounds. These targets are of importance to both crew health and the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on ISS. Data is collected autonomously every 73 hours, though the units can be controlled remotely from mission control to collect data more frequently during contingency or troubleshooting operations. Due to a nominal three-year lifetime on-orbit, the initial units were replaced in February 2016. This paper will focus on the preparation and use of the AQMs over the past several years. A description of the technical aspects of the AQM will be followed by lessons learned from the deployment and operation of the first set of AQMs. These lessons were used to improve the already-excellent performance of the instruments prior to deployment of the replacement units. Data trending over the past several years of operation on ISS will also be discussed, including data obtained during a survey of the USOS modules. Finally, a description of AQM use for contingency and investigative studies will be presented.

  8. Atmospheric ammonia over China: emission estimates and impacts on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Yuanhong; Chen, Youfan; Henze, Daven

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere is an important precursor of inorganic aerosols, and its deposition through wet and dry processes can cause adverse effects on ecosystems. The ammonia emissions over China are particularly large due to intensive agricultural activities, yet our current estimates of Chinese ammonia emissions and associated consequences on air quality are subject to large errors. Here we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model to better quantify this issue. The TES satellite observations of ammonia concentrations and surface measurements of wet deposition fluxes are assimilated into the model to constrain the ammonia emissions over China. Optimized emissions show a strong seasonal variability with emissions in summer a factor of 3 higher than winter. We improve the bottom-up estimate of Chinese ammonia emissions from fertilizer use by using more practical feritilizer application rates for different crop types, which explains most of the discrepancies between our top-down estimates and prior emission estimates. We further use the GEOS-Chem adjoint at 0.25x0.3125 degree resolution to examine the sources contributing to the PM2.5 air pollution over North China. We show that wintertime PM2.5 over Beijing is largely contributed by residential and industrial sources, and ammonia emissions from agriculture activities. PM2.5 concentrations over North China are particularly sensitive to NH3 emissions in cold seasons due to strong nitrate formation. By converting shorted-lived nitric acid to aerosol nitrate, NH3 significantly promotes the regional transport influences of PM2.5 sources.

  9. Agriculture Crop Burning in Northwestern India and Its Impact on Atmospheric Pollution and Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Chauhan, A.; Gonzalez Abad, G.

    2014-12-01

    Crop burning season, over northern India, occurs during October-November and April-May after harvesting season. The mechanized harvesting started in 1986, and every year crop residues are burnt in the northwestern parts of India. During post-monsoon season, October - November, the boundary layer is shallow; as a result the crop burning greatly impacts the regional air quality and climate of the northern parts of south Asia. Due to intense burning episodes, heavy smoke pollution-laden plumes are transported all along the Indo-Gangetic basin in the northern parts of India, depending upon diurnal changes in the wind patterns. We find that, in general, the dominant westerly winds transport the plumes and emissions far away from the source region up to the eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic basin, further dispersing over central India to the south. We use retrievals of formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide and Aerosol Index from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA Aura satellite together with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA Terra and Aqua fire counts to assess the seasonal variation and geographical extent of the emissions due to burning of crop residues. In addition, our results, based on satellite measurements, indicate that the smoke plumes and biomass burning emissions are also transported over the Himalayan region and beyond, resulting in enhanced concentrations of aerosol loading and trace gases. Overall, our findings suggest that, during post-monsoon season, crop burning smoke plumes and emissions are the main cause of poor air quality, high atmospheric pollution and dense haze/smog, especially in the Indo-Gangetic basin.

  10. Chemiluminescence-based multivariate sensing of local equivalence ratios in premixed atmospheric methane-air flames

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2011-09-07

    Chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, C2, and CO2 formed within the reaction zone of premixed flames depend upon the fuel-air equivalence ratio in the burning mixture. In the present paper, a new partial least square regression (PLS-R) based multivariate sensing methodology is investigated and compared with an OH*/CH* intensity ratio-based calibration model for sensing equivalence ratio in atmospheric methane-air premixed flames. Five replications of spectral data at nine different equivalence ratios ranging from 0.73 to 1.48 were used in the calibration of both models. During model development, the PLS-R model was initially validated with the calibration data set using the leave-one-out cross validation technique. Since the PLS-R model used the entire raw spectral intensities, it did not need the nonlinear background subtraction of CO2 emission that is required for typical OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibrations. An unbiased spectral data set (not used in the PLS-R model development), for 28 different equivalence ratio conditions ranging from 0.71 to 1.67, was used to predict equivalence ratios using the PLS-R and the intensity ratio calibration models. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R based multivariate calibration model matched the experimentally measured equivalence ratios within 7%; whereas, the OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibration grossly underpredicted equivalence ratios in comparison to measured equivalence ratios, especially under rich conditions ( > 1.2). The practical implications of the chemiluminescence-based multivariate equivalence ratio sensing methodology are also discussed.

  11. Soot Oxidation in Hydrocarbon/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Soot oxidation was studied experimentally in laminar hydrocarbon/air diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were carried out along the axes of round jets burning in coflowing air considering acetylene, ethylene, propylene and propane as fuels. Measurements were limited to the initial stages of soot oxidation (carbon consumption less than 70%) where soot oxidation mainly occurs at the surface of primary soot particles. The following properties were measured as a function of distance above the burner exit: soot concentrations by deconvoluted laser extinction, soot temperatures by deconvoluted multiline emission, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), concentrations of stable major gas species (N2, H2O, H2, O2, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H2,C2H4, C2H6, C3H6, and C3H8) by sampling and gas chromatography, concentrations of some radical species (H, OH, O) by the deconvoluted Li/LiOH atomic absorption technique and flow velocities by laser velocimetry. It was found that soot surface oxidation rates are not particularly affected by fuel type for laminar diffusion flames and are described reasonably well by the OH surface oxidation mechanism with a collision efficiency of 0.10, (standard deviation of 0.07) with no significant effect of fuel type in this behavior; these findings are in good agreement with the classical laminar premixed flame measurements of Neoh et al. Finally, direct rates of surface oxidation by O2 were small compared to OH oxidation for present conditions, based on estimated O2 oxidation rates due to Nagle and Strickland-Constable (1962), because soot oxidation was completed near the flame sheet where O2 concentrations were less than 1.2% by volume.

  12. Soot Oxidation in Laminar Hydrocarbon/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Faeth, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Soot oxidation was studied experimentally in laminar hydrocarbon/air diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were carried out along the axes of round jets burning in coflowing air considering acetylene, ethylene, proplyene and propane as fuels. Measurements were limited to the initial stages of soot oxidation (carbon consumption less than 70%) where soot oxidation mainly occurs at the surface of primary soot particles. The following properties were measured as a function of distance above the burner exit: soot concentrations by deconvoluted laser extinction, soot temperatures by deconvoluted multiline emission, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), concentrations of stable major gas species (N2, H2O, H2, 02, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6, and C3H8) by sampling and gas chromatography, concentrations of some radical species (H, OH, O) by the deconvoluted Li/LiOH atomic absorption technique and flow velocities by laser velocimetry. It was found that soot surface oxidation rates are not particularly affected by fuel type for laminar diffusion flames and are described reasonably well by the OH surface oxidation mechanism with a collision efficiency of 0.10, (standard deviation of 0.07) with no significant effect of fuel type in this behavior; these findings are in good agreement with the classical laminar premixed flame measurements of Neoh et al. Finally, direct rates of surface oxidation by O2 were small compared to OH oxidation for present conditions, based on estimated O2 oxidation rates due to Nagle and Strickland-Constable, because soot oxidation was completed near the flame sheet where O2 concentrations were less than 1.2% by volume.

  13. Long-term dynamics of atmospheric circulation over Siberia and its relationship with air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podnebesnykh, N. V.; Ippolitov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this study is the investigation of cyclone characteristics variability in the region bounded by the coordinates 50°-70° N, 60°-110° W which includes Western Siberia and the part of Eastern Siberia for the time interval 1976-2006, as well as the establishment of statistical relationships between the temperature conditions and the atmospheric circulation. For the dynamics of the climatic characteristics of cyclones and anticyclones over Siberia surface synoptic maps were used, and to study the trends of air temperature daily data from 169 ground-based meteorological stations and posts located in the study area were analyzed. During the period of the modern warming the territory of Siberia was characterized by rapidly temperature increase: average annual value was 0.36°C/10 years, and average monthly value was 0.83°C/10 years. The positive trend of temperature increasing is shown for all months except November. The total number of cyclones over the territory of under study for the period of 1976-2006 has decreased at a rate of 1.4 cyclone/10 years. For further analysis all cyclones were divided into three groups, according to their directions: north, west and south. It was found the number of south and west cyclones decreased, whole the number of cyclone from north directions increased. Such multidirectional dynamics of cyclones from different directions can be associated with the processes of strengthening and weakening of the Polar and Arctic fronts in the Atlantic sector of the Northern Hemisphere. Among characteristics of vortex activity the pressure in the centers of cyclones and anticyclones has the greatest influence on the air temperature and the total number of cyclones has the smallest. Multiple regression models have shown that in different months of a year the circulation can describe from 54% to 82% of temperature variability.

  14. 75 FR 4070 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Air Quality Modeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... modeling of air quality for seven emissions scenarios: a 1990 baseline simulation; and simulations for 2000... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Air Quality Modeling... public meeting of the Air Quality Modeling Subcommittee (AQMS) of the Advisory Council on Clean...

  15. Guided Discharge Path by Weak Ionized Region between Two Plasmas Produced by YAG Laser in Atmospheric Air Gap with Non-Uniform DC Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Daisuke

    1998-11-01

    Guided Discharge Path by Weak Ionized Region between Two Plasmas Produced by YAG Laser in Atmospheric Air Gap with Non-Uniform DC Electric Field*, Daisuke Okano, Kyushu Tokai University, 9-1-1 Toroku, Kumamoto, Japan. -----We have studied on guiding discharge path by weak ionized region between plasmas produced by a visible laser, that is, a YAG laser with wavelength 532nm, in an atmospheric air gap with DC non-uniform electric field using a rod-to-plate electrode. We succeeded in capturing the framing images in the temporal evolution on guiding discharge along the YAG laser light path. From the results of experiments, the region between two plasmas produced by a YAG laser can guide a discharge path, and the region between two plasmas on the laser light path is considered as well as a weak ionized one [1] produced by an excimer laser. [1]J.Sasaki, S.Kubodera, R.Ozaki and T.Uchiyama, J. Appl. Phys., 60 (1986) 3845. *This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)-no.10650295 of The Ministry of education, Science Sports and Culture in japan.

  16. Pyrobaculum calidifontis sp. nov., a novel hyperthermophilic archaeon that grows in atmospheric air

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Taku; Paje, Maria Luz F.; Inagaki, Akiko; Ezaki, Satoshi; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2002-01-01

    A novel, facultatively aerobic, heterotrophic hyperthermophilic archaeon was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring in the Philippines. Cells of the new isolate, strain VA1, were rod-shaped with a length of 1.5 to 10 μm and a width of 0.5 to 1.0 μm. Isolate VA1 grew optimally at 90 to 95 °C and pH 7.0 under atmospheric air. Oxygen served as a final electron acceptor under aerobic growth conditions, and vigorous shaking of the medium significantly enhanced growth. Elemental sulfur inhibited cell growth under aerobic growth conditions, whereas thiosulfate stimulated cell growth. Under anaerobic growth conditions, nitrate served as a final electron acceptor, but nitrite or sulfur-containing compounds such as elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfate and sulfite could not act as final electron acceptors. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 51 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences indicated that strain VA1 exhibited close relationships to species of the genus Pyrobaculum. A DNA–DNA hybridization study revealed a low level of similarity (≤ 18%) between strain VA1 and previously described members of the genus Pyrobaculum. Physiological characteristics also indicated that strain VA1 was distinct from these Pyrobaculum species. Our results indicate that isolate VA1 represents a novel species, named Pyrobaculum calidifontis. PMID:15803649

  17. Probe measurements of electron energy spectrum in Helium/air micro-plasma at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, V. I.; Adams, S. F.; Miles, J. A.; Koepke, M. E.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.; Hensley, A. L.; Tolson, B. A.

    2016-09-01

    It is experimentally demonstrated that a wall probe may be a useful instrument for interpretation of electron energy spectrum in a micro-plasma with a nonlocal electron distribution function at atmospheric pressure. Two micro-plasma devices were fabricated with three layers of molybdenum metal foils with thickness of 0.1 mm separated by two sheets of mica insulation with thickness of 0.11 mm. In one device a hole with the diameter of 0.2 mm formed a cylindrical discharge cavity that passed through the entire five layers. In the second device the hole has the diameter of 0.065 mm. In both devices the inner molybdenum layer formed a wall probe, while the outer layers of molybdenum served as the hollow cathode and anode. The discharge was open into air with flow of helium gas. It is found that the wall probe I-V trace is sensitive to the presence of helium metastable atoms. The first derivative of the probe current with respect to the probe potential shows peaks revealing fast electrons at specific energies arising due to plasma chemical reactions. The devices may be applicable for developing analytical sensors for extreme environments, including high radiation and vibration levels and high temperatures. This work was performed while VID held a NRC Research Associateship Award at AFRL.

  18. High altitude atmospheric discharges according to the runaway air breakdown mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Symbalisty, E.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Yukhimuk, V.; Taranenko, Y.

    1997-04-01

    High altitude optical transients - red sprites, blue jets, and elves - are modeled in the context of the relativistic electron runaway air breakdown mechanism. These emissions are usually associated with large mesoscale convective systems (hereafter MCS). In thunderstorms cloud electrification proceeds over a time scale long enough to permit the conducting atmosphere above the cloud to polarize and short out the thunderstorm electric field. When a lightning strike rapidly neutralizes a cloud charge layer runaway driving fields can develop in the stratosphere and mesosphere. According to present simulations of the full runaway process the variety of observed optical emissions are due to the nature of the normal lightning event in the MCS that kick starts the runaway avalanche. In this paper the authors describe some details of the model, present the results of the evolution of the primary electron population, and summarize the initial conditions necessary for different types of discharges. Two companion papers present (a) the predicted optical, gamma ray, and radio emissions caused by these electrical discharges, and (b) the time evolution of the secondary electron population and its implications in terms of observables.

  19. Experimental Study on Ash-Returned Reactor of CFB Atmospheric Air Gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shihong, Zhang; Luning, Tian; Xianrong, Zhou; Hanping, Chen; Haiping, Yang; Xianhua, Wang

    In an attempt to improve the gasification efficiency and decrease the carbon content in fly ash of atmospheric air CFB gasifiers, an innovatory equipment by name ash-returned reactor is put forward by SKLCC. Ash-returned reactor is an ash-returned apparatus on line of ash circulation, typically like "U" type valve in CFB boilers, with additional function of some extent combustion of residual carbon and increase the furnace inlet temperature of returning ash, and hence the coal conversion of gasifiers is enhanced. As to its configuration compared to conventional "U" type valve, ash-returned rector has two distinguished features of several times of height scale of fluidizing transportation region to meet the combustion reaction time need and appropriate heat transfer tube bundles arranged in the region to moderate the local temperature so as to avoid slagging. And hence, corresponding to the structure renovation, the material transportation and regulation performance of ash-returned reactor is primarily investigated through a series of experiments in a cold lab-scale facility in this paper. The heat transfer characteristic of the tube bundles is then researched and its influential factors are further discussed. These works lay a foundation on the following study of hot state experiments and industrial applications.

  20. Characterization Of Nano-Second Laser Induced Plasmas From Al Target In Air At Atmospheric Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Hegazy, H.; Abdel-Rahim, F. M.; Nossair, A. M. A.; Allam, S. H.; El-Sherbini, Th. M.

    2008-09-23

    In the present work we study the effect of the laser beam energy on the properties of the plasma generated by focusing an intense laser beam on Al solid target in air at atmospheric pressure. Plasma is generated using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser at 1064 nm wavelength, 6 ns pulse duration with a maximum pulse energy of 750mJ. The emission spectrum is collected using an Echelle spectrometer equipped with ICCD camera Andor type. The measurements were performed at several delay times between 0 to 9 {mu}s. Measurements of temperature and electron density of the produced plasmas at different laser energies and at different delay times are described using different emission spectral lines. Based on LTE assumption, excitation temperature is determined from the Boltzmann plot using O I spectral lines at 777.34, 794.93, and 848.65 nm and the electron density is determined from Stark width of Al II at 281.6 and 466.3 nm. The determined density is compared with the density determined from H{sub {alpha}} spectral line.

  1. Treatment of airborne asbestos and asbestos-like microfiber particles using atmospheric microwave air plasma.

    PubMed

    Averroes, A; Sekiguchi, H; Sakamoto, K

    2011-11-15

    Atmospheric microwave air plasma was used to treat asbestos-like microfiber particles that had two types of ceramic fiber and one type of stainless fiber. The treated particles were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experiment results showed that one type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=1:1) and the stainless fiber were spheroidized, but the other type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=7:3) was not. The conversion of the fibers was investigated by calculating the equivalent diameter, the aspect ratio, and the fiber content ratio. The fiber content ratio in various conditions showed values near zero. The relationship between the normalized fiber vanishing rate and the energy needed to melt the particles completely per unit surface area of projected particles, which is defined as η, was examined and seen to indicate that the normalized fiber vanishing rate decreased rapidly with the increase in η. Finally, some preliminary experiments for pure asbestos were conducted, and the analysis via XRD and phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) showed the availability of the plasma treatment.

  2. Heating effects of a non-equilibrium RF corona discharge in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzas, F.; Tardiveau, P.; Puech, V.; Makarov, M.; Agneray, A.

    2010-12-01

    Electrical and thermal properties of a single electrode configuration corona discharge generated under radiofrequency high voltage inside an open air gap at pressures above 1 bar is investigated. Time-resolved imaging of the discharge shows a four-step development of the discharge at atmospheric pressure starting by streamers' inception and propagation, evolving in heating waves and stabilizing in a stationary regime until the power supply is switched off. The mean gas temperature reaches about 1700 K in tens of microseconds with electrical energy release around tens of millijoules. Heating has been attributed to ion collisions and excited species relaxation, promoted by the successive time periods of the power supply. At higher pressures, beyond 3 bar, this behaviour changes and heating occurs at the same time as the discharge propagates. It leads to hot channels which constrict near the electrode as long as the voltage pulse is applied. Temperature gets higher and saturates at 2600 K whatever the voltage and the pressure. Considering the change in the electrical energy density released within the plasma channels with pressure and voltage, temperature saturation seems to be an effect of heat confining within the channels due to pressure. The large and non-thermal plasma generated by the RF corona discharge is a very good candidate for car engine lean mixtures ignition issues.

  3. Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed Discharges in Air at Atmospheric Pressure -- Experiment and Theory of Regime Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, David; Lacoste, Deanna; Laux, Christophe

    2009-10-01

    In atmospheric pressure air preheated from 300 to 1000 K, the Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed (NRP) method has been used to generate corona, glow, and spark discharges. Experiments have been performed to determine the parameter space (applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency, ambient gas temperature, and inter-electrode gap distance) of each discharge regime. Notably, there is a minimum gap distance for the existence of the glow regime that increases with decreasing gas temperature. A theory is developed to describe the Corona-to-Glow (C-G) and Glow-to-Spark (G-S) transitions for NRP discharges. The C-G transition is shown to depend on the Avalanche-to-Streamer Transition (AST) as well as the electric field strength in the positive column. The G-S transition is due to the thermal ionization instability. The minimum gap distance for the existence of the glow regime can be understood by considering that the applied voltage of the AST must be lower than that of the thermal ionization instability. This is a previously unknown criterion for generating glow discharges, as it does not correspond to the Paschen minimum or to the Meek-Raether criterion.

  4. Qualitative gas temperature distribution in positive DC glow corona using spectral image processing in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takao; Inada, Yoichi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Izawa, Yasuji; Nishijima, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    An experimental method of determining a qualitative two-dimensional image of the gas temperature in stationary atmospheric nonthermal plasma by spectral image processing was presented. In the experiment, a steady-state glow corona discharge was generated by applying a positive DC voltage to a rod-plane electrode in synthetic air. The changes in the gas temperature distribution due to the amplitude of applied voltage and the ambient gas pressure were investigated. Spectral images of a positive DC glow corona were taken using a gated ICCD camera with ultranarrow band-pass filters, corresponding to the head and tail of a N2 second positive system band (0-2). The qualitative gas temperature was obtained from the emission intensity ratio between the head and tail of the N2 second positive system band (0-2). From the results, we confirmed that the gas temperature and its distribution of a positive DC glow corona increased with increasing applied voltage. In particular, just before the sparkover voltage, a distinctly high temperature region was formed in the positive DC glow at the tip of the rod electrode. In addition, the gas temperature decreased and its distribution spread diffusely with decreasing ambient gas pressure.

  5. Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanguo; Li, Ying; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Hongjie

    2013-07-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet.

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this red