Science.gov

Sample records for airs derived products

  1. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  2. Use of AIRS-derived Products in Tropical Cyclone Intensity Analysis During the HS3 Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garms, E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Plokhenko, Y.; Smith, W.; Weisz, E.; Revercomb, H. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The high-resolution data collected during a field experiment is extremely valuable, but it is equally valuable to have observations that provide context for such in situ measurements. For this reason, satellite data coincident with observations taken from the Global Hawk UAVs during the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) field experiment are vital to a gaining a more complete understanding of tropical cyclone (TC) processes. The primary data used in this study are calibrated hyperspectral infrared radiances obtained from the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), onboard the Aqua satellite. AIRS measures upwelling Earth-emitted infrared spectra using more than 2300 IR channels between 3.7 and 15.4 microns. Several products derived from this high-spectral resolution data are used in this study. These products include a 3-D cloud amount vertical profile (CAVP) product as well as temperature and water vapor profiles retrieved using a Dual-Regression algorithm (DR), both of which were developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS). The CAVP product will be used to measure the slope of the cloud tops of rainbands in a tropical cyclone. Observations from the UW Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS), NASA Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL), and NCAR dropsondes taken during the 2012 Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) field experiment will be used to validate the rainband slope analysis and the DR retrievals. The methodology behind the TC rainband slope analysis, which is hypothesized to correlate with TC intensity, will be discussed. This product will then be used to obtain a TC intensity estimate, which will be compared to other accepted intensity estimates like the Advanced Dvorak Technique (ADT), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), and Satellite Consensus (SATCON) estimates. Additionally, the DR product will be used to

  3. Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air…

  4. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  5. A Simple Drought Product and Indicator Derived from Temperature and Relative Humidity Observed by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, S. L.; Behrangi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, drought results in agricultural losses, impacts to industry, power and energy production, natural resources, municipal water supplies and human health making it one of the costliest natural hazards in the nation. Monitoring drought is therefore critical to help local governments, resource managers, and other groups make effective decisions, yet there is no single definition of drought, and because of the complex nature of drought there is no universal best drought indicator. Remote sensing applications in drought monitoring are advantageous due to the large spatial and temporal frequency of observations, leading to a better understanding of the spatial extent of drought and its duration, and in detecting the onset of drought and its intensity. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS)-era data have potential for monitoring and assessing drought and many are already used either directly or indirectly for drought monitoring. Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor are widely used for agricultural and environmental plant-stress monitoring via the USDM, the VegDRI project and FEWSNet. However there remain underutilized sources of information from NASA satellite observations that may have promise for characterizing and understanding meteorological drought. Once such sensor is NASA's Advanced Infra-Red Sounder (AIRS) aboard the Aqua satellite. AIRS and it's sister sensor the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) that together provide meteorological information of high relevance to meteorological drought, e.g., profiles of water vapor, surface air temperature, and precipitation. Recent work undertaken to develop simple indicators of drought based on temperature and relative humidity from the AIRS suite of instruments is promising. Although there are more sophisticated indicators developed through the application of a variety of

  6. Eggplant-derived microporous carbon sheets: towards mass production of efficient bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts at low cost for rechargeable Zn-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Geng, Dongsheng; Lee, Xinjing Shannon; Ge, Xiaoming; Chai, Jianwei; Wang, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhaolin; Hor, T S Andy; Zong, Yun

    2015-05-25

    We report 2D microporous carbon sheets with high surface area, derived from eggplant via simple carbonization and KOH activation, as low cost yet efficient bifunctional catalysts for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

  7. Eggplant-derived microporous carbon sheets: towards mass production of efficient bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts at low cost for rechargeable Zn-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Geng, Dongsheng; Lee, Xinjing Shannon; Ge, Xiaoming; Chai, Jianwei; Wang, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhaolin; Hor, T S Andy; Zong, Yun

    2015-05-25

    We report 2D microporous carbon sheets with high surface area, derived from eggplant via simple carbonization and KOH activation, as low cost yet efficient bifunctional catalysts for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries. PMID:25920952

  8. Instability of the hydrochloride salts of cathinone derivatives in air.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Kuwayama, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    We observed the decomposition of the hydrochloride salt of α-pyrrolidinoheptanophenone (α-PHPP-HCl), a newly distributed pyrrolidine-type cathinone derivative when 2.5ng of this substance was placed in glass test tubes and stored in a refrigerator for 3 days. To further investigate this phenomenon, we studied the (i) time course of the residual ratios of α-PHPP-HCl when a small amount (10μg) of α-PHPP-HCl was stored in glass vials in air at room temperature; (ii) identification of the decomposition products of α-PHPP-HCl; (iii) effect of air on the decomposition process; (iv) effect of the added amounts of α-PHPP-HCl on its decomposition; and (v) comparison of the stability between various cathinone derivatives and their decomposition products. The decomposition of α-PHPP-HCl occurred in air and increased with time. Two possible decomposition products, α-(2″-oxopyrrolidino)heptanophenone and α-PHPP-N-oxide, were identified. These products were formed by oxygen in air because the yield significantly decreased by storing them in a vacuum desiccator. With the decrease in the amount of α-PHPP-HCl, the residual ratios decreased and amount of the decomposition products increased. This indicates that the decomposition of α-PHPP-HCl occurred on the upper surface of the samples. The hydrochloride salts of other cathinone derivatives were also unstable in air, and the residual ratios observed were different depending on the compounds. The pyrrolidine-type cathinone derivatives afforded two types of decomposition products, which were presumed to be 2″-oxo and N-oxide derivatives, similar to α-PHPP-HCl. In contrast, secondary amine-type cathinone derivatives showed different decomposition patterns, possibly including the dealkylated derivative. These findings may be very useful for the future toxicological analysis of cathinone derivatives.

  9. AIRS Level 2 Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Standard Retrieval Product consists of retrieved cloud and surface properties; profiles of retrieved temperature, water vapor, and ozone; and a flag indicating the presence of cloud ice or water. They contain quality assessment flags in addition to retrieved quantities and are generated for all locations where atmospheric soundings are taken. An AIRS granule consists of 6 minutes of data. This corresponds to approximately 1/15 of an orbit but exactly 45 scan lines of AMSU-A data or 135 scan lines of AIRS and HSB data.

  10. Properties of air and combustion products of fuel with air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties have been calculated for air, the combustion products of natural gas and air, and combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air. Properties calculated include: ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification (ETV) for indoor air products. RTI is developing the framework for a verification testing program for indoor air products, as part of EPA's ETV program. RTI is establishing test protocols for products that fit into three...

  12. Derivation of vertical air velocity from conventional Radiosonde ascents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manguttathil Gopalakrishnan, Manoj; Mohanakumar, Kesavapillai; Samson, Titu; Kottayil, Ajil; Varadarajan, Rakesh; Rebello, Rejoy

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we devise a method to estimate air vertical velocity from ascending radiosondes similar to that described in published results, but with certain differences in deriving the balloon parameters and the drag coefficient, while not considering explicitly the heat exchange between the balloon and the environment. We basically decompose the observed balloon ascent rate into vertical velocity in still air due to buoyancy force and that due to vertical air motion. The first part is computed from basic hydrodynamical principles and the vertical velocity is derived as the difference between observed ascent rate and the estimated still air vertical velocity. The derived values agree reasonably well (r=0.66) with vertical velocities observed with a collocated wind profiler radar, and the sources of uncertainties are discussed. Since vertical velocity is a difficult quantity to measure directly without expensive methods, derivation of the same from the conventional radiosonde ascents could be of great importance to the meteorological communities.

  13. Ophthalmic use of blood-derived products.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Ryan B; Lee, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide spectrum of blood-derived products that have been used in many different medical and surgical specialties with success. Blood-derived products for clinical use can be extracted from autologous or allogeneic specimens of blood, but recombinant products are also commonly used. A number of blood derivatives have been used for a wide range of ocular conditions, from the ocular surface to the retina. With stringent preparation guidelines, the potential risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases is minimized. We review blood-derived products and how they are improving the management of ocular disease.

  14. Successful production of piglets derived from expanded blastocysts vitrified using a micro volume air cooling method without direct exposure to liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Misumi, Koji; Hirayama, Yuri; Egawa, Sachiko; Yamashita, Shoko; Hoshi, Hiroyoshi; Imai, Kei

    2013-12-17

    This study was conducted to clarify the feasibility of newly developed vitrification techniques for porcine embryos using the micro volume air cooling (MVAC) method without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN₂). Expanded blastocysts were vitrified in a solution containing 6 M ethylene glycol, 0.6 M trehalose and 2% (wt/vol) polyethylene glycol in 10% HEPES-buffered PZM-5. The blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified using the new device (MVAC) or a Cryotop (CT). Blastocysts were stored in LN₂ for at least 1 month. After warming, cryoprotective agents were removed using a single step. Survival of the embryos was assessed by in vitro culture (Experiment 1) and by embryo transfer to recipients (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, the embryos vitrified by the MVAC or CT and fresh embryos without vitrification (Control) were used. The survival rates of embryos in the MVAC, CT and Control groups were 88.9% (32/36), 91.7% (33/36) and 100% (34/34), respectively, after 48 h culture, and the hatching rates of embryos after 48 h incubation were 69.4% (25/36), 63.9% (23/36) and 94.1% (32/34), respectively. In Experiment 2, 64 vitrified embryos were transferred to 5 recipient gilts, and 8 healthy piglets were produced from 3 recipients in the MVAC group. Similarly, 66 vitrified embryos were transferred to 5 recipient gilts, and 9 healthy piglets were produced from 2 recipients in the CT group. These results indicated that porcine expanded blastocysts can be cryopreserved using the MVAC method without potential pathogen contamination from LN₂. PMID:23955236

  15. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  16. Air cleaning and radon decay product mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K. ); Li, C.S. . John B. Pierce Foundation Lab.); Ramamurthi, M. )

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated air cleaning as a means to mitigate risks arising from exposure to indoor radon progeny in several single-family houses in the northeastern United States, using a new, automated, semi-continuous activity-weighted size distribution measurement system. Measurements included radon concentration, condensation nuclei count, and activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products. Measurements were made with and without the air cleaning system operating. The influence of particles generated by various sources common to normal indoor activities on radon progeny behavior was evaluated. Aerosols were generated by running water in a shower, burning candles, smoking cigarettes, vacuuming, opening doors, and cooking. Both a filtration unit and an electrostatic precipitator were evaluated. Using a room model, the changes in attachment rates, average attachment diameters, and deposition rates of the unattached'' fraction with and without the air cleaning systems were calculated. The air cleaner typically reduced the radon progeny concentrations by 50 to 60%.

  17. Air cleaning and radon decay product mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.; Li, C.S.; Ramamurthi, M.

    1990-12-31

    We evaluated air cleaning as a means to mitigate risks arising from exposure to indoor radon progeny in several single-family houses in the northeastern United States, using a new, automated, semi-continuous activity-weighted size distribution measurement system. Measurements included radon concentration, condensation nuclei count, and activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products. Measurements were made with and without the air cleaning system operating. The influence of particles generated by various sources common to normal indoor activities on radon progeny behavior was evaluated. Aerosols were generated by running water in a shower, burning candles, smoking cigarettes, vacuuming, opening doors, and cooking. Both a filtration unit and an electrostatic precipitator were evaluated. Using a room model, the changes in attachment rates, average attachment diameters, and deposition rates of the ``unattached`` fraction with and without the air cleaning systems were calculated. The air cleaner typically reduced the radon progeny concentrations by 50 to 60%.

  18. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF AIR CLEANING PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discuses the application of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program for products that clean ventilation air to the problem of protecting buildings from chemical and biological attack. This program is funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency und...

  19. Gravity Wave Variances and Propagation Derived from AIRS Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Jie; Wu, Dong L.; Eckermann, S. D.

    2012-01-01

    As the first gravity wave (GW) climatology study using nadir-viewing infrared sounders, 50 Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiance channels are selected to estimate GW variances at pressure levels between 2-100 hPa. The GW variance for each scan in the cross-track direction is derived from radiance perturbations in the scan, independently of adjacent scans along the orbit. Since the scanning swaths are perpendicular to the satellite orbits, which are inclined meridionally at most latitudes, the zonal component of GW propagation can be inferred by differencing the variances derived between the westmost and the eastmost viewing angles. Consistent with previous GW studies using various satellite instruments, monthly mean AIRS variance shows large enhancements over meridionally oriented mountain ranges as well as some islands at winter hemisphere high latitudes. Enhanced wave activities are also found above tropical deep convective regions. GWs prefer to propagate westward above mountain ranges, and eastward above deep convection. AIRS 90 field-of-views (FOVs), ranging from +48 deg. to -48 deg. off nadir, can detect large-amplitude GWs with a phase velocity propagating preferentially at steep angles (e.g., those from orographic and convective sources). The annual cycle dominates the GW variances and the preferred propagation directions for all latitudes. Indication of a weak two-year variation in the tropics is found, which is presumably related to the Quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). AIRS geometry makes its out-tracks capable of detecting GWs with vertical wavelengths substantially shorter than the thickness of instrument weighting functions. The novel discovery of AIRS capability of observing shallow inertia GWs will expand the potential of satellite GW remote sensing and provide further constraints on the GW drag parameterization schemes in the general circulation models (GCMs).

  20. Air-Driven Potassium Iodide-Mediated Oxidative Photocyclization of Stilbene Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Watanabe, Soichiro

    2016-09-01

    A new method has been developed for the potassium iodide-mediated oxidative photocyclization of stilbene derivatives. Compared with conventional iodine-mediated oxidative photocyclization reactions, this new method requires shorter reaction times and affords cyclized products in yields of 45-97%. This reaction proceeds with a catalytic amount of potassium iodide and works in an air-driven manner without the addition of an external scavenger. The radical-mediated oxidative photocyclization of stilbene derivatives using TEMPO was also investigated. PMID:27508401

  1. Optimization process of tribenzoine production as a glycerol derived product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayat, Abdurrakhman, Rifianto, Y.; Abdullah, Hadiyanto, Samsudin, Asep M.; Annisa, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Tribenzoin is a derived product from glycerol that can produce from glycerol conversion via esterification process. The product can be used in the food industry, cosmetics industry, polymer industry and also can be used to improve the properties of adhesive materials and water resistance in the ink printer.In the other hand, it advantages is environmentally friendly andrenewable because it is not derived from petroleum. This paper discusses the effect of temperature and catalyst concentration for tribenzoin production. For the responses, yield and product composition were observed. Results showed that the highest yield achieved at optimal variable data processed using Central Composite Design (CCD) which is 63.64 temperature (°C), mole ratio of benzoic acidto glycerol is 3.644:1, and catalyst concentration 6.25% (wt% glycerol). Yield products produced 58.71%. FTIR analysis results showed that the samples contained the results of IR spectra wavelength 1761 cm-1 in the fingerprint region and 3165 cm-1 frequency region group. The existence of these two adjustments that fixed in the area is strong evidence that the compound is tribenzoin.

  2. World petroleum-derived sulfur production

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, A.

    1982-08-02

    Research efforts in new uses for sulfur, among them those of the Sulfur Development Institute of Canada, have resulted in the development of several new product markets. Petroleum and natural gas derived sulfurs are finding use as asphalt extenders in road construction throughout North America and as concrete extenders and substitutes for Portland cement in the construction industries of Mexico and the Middle East. Their use in masonry blocks is now being commercialized. Canada is the world's largest producer of commercial sulfur; 80% of it is used as a processing chemical in the form of sulfuric acid. Saudi Arabia, recently having begun to commercialize its vast resources, is constructing plants for the extraction of sulfur from natural gas and plans to export between 6 and 7 x 10/sup 5/ tons annually, much of it for fertilizer manufacture to India, Tunisia, Italy, Pakistan, Greece, Morocco, and Thailand.

  3. Production of Chemical Derivatives from Renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian; Nghiem, John; Donnelly, Mark; Tsai, Shih-Perng; Frye, John; Landucci, Ron; Griffin, Michael

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp., (LMER), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Battelle Memorial Institute, operator of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), (collectively referred to as the 'Contractor'), and Applied Carbochemicals, Inc. (Participant) was to scale-up from bench results an economically promising and competitive process for the production of chemical derivatives from biologically produced succinic acid. The products that were under consideration for production from the succinic acid platform included 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}y-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Preliminary economic analyses indicated that this platform was competitive with the most recent petrochemical routes. The Contractors and participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties.' Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on preliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. At the time, the current need was to provide the necessary laboratory follow-up information to properly optimize, design and operate a pilot scale process. The purpose of the pilot work was to validate the integrated process, assure 'robustness' of the process, define operating conditions, and provide samples for potential customer evaluation. The data from the pilot scale process was used in design and development of a full scale production facility. A new strain, AFP111 (patented), discovered at ANL was tested and developed for process use at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL

  4. Version 5 product improvements from the atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Manning, Evan; Friedman, Steve; Broberg, Steven E.; Licata, Stephen J.; Elliott, Denis A.; Irion, Fredrick W.; Kahn, Brian H.; Fishbein, Evan; Olsen, Edward; Granger, Stephanie; Susskind, Joel; Keita, Fricky; Blaisdell, John; Strow, Larrabee; DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Barnet, Chris

    2006-12-01

    The AIRS instrument was launched in May 2002 into a polar sun-synchronous orbit onboard the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. Since then we have released three versions of the AIRS data product to the scientific community. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles and trace gas amounts. The first version of software, Version 2.0 was available to scientists shortly after launch with Version 3.0 released to the public in June 2003. Like all AIRS product releases, all products are accessible to the public in order to have the best user feedback on issues that appear in the data. Fortunately the products have had exceptional accuracy and stability. This paper presents the improvement between AIRS Version 4.0 and Version 5.0 products and shows examples of the new products available in Version 5.0.

  5. Air extraction in gas turbines burning coal-derived gas

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

    1993-11-01

    In the first phase of this contracted research, a comprehensive investigation was performed. Principally, the effort was directed to identify the technical barriers which might exist in integrating the air-blown coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art, US made, heavy-frame gas turbine. The guiding rule of the integration is to keep the compressor and the expander unchanged if possible. Because of the low-heat content of coal gas and of the need to accommodate air extraction, the combustor and perhaps, the flow region between the compressor exit and the expander inlet might need to be modified. In selecting a compressed air extraction scheme, one must consider how the scheme affects the air supply to the hot section of the turbine and the total pressure loss in the flow region. Air extraction must preserve effective cooling of the hot components, such as the transition pieces. It must also ensure proper air/fuel mixing in the combustor, hence the combustor exit pattern factor. The overall thermal efficiency of the power plant can be increased by minimizing the total pressure loss in the diffusers associated with the air extraction. Therefore, a study of airflow in the pre- and dump-diffusers with and without air extraction would provide information crucial to attaining high-thermal efficiency and to preventing hot spots. The research group at Clemson University suggested using a Griffith diffuser for the prediffuser and extracting air from the diffuser inlet. The present research establishes that the analytically identified problems in the impingement cooling flow are factual. This phase of the contracted research substantiates experimentally the advantage of using the Griffith diffuser with air extraction at the diffuser inlet.

  6. Effects of air velocity on laying hen production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conditions play a major role in production efficiency in commercial poultry production. Mitigation of thermal stress can improve productivity, but must be achieved economically. Weather and system design can limit effectiveness of evaporative cooling and increased air movement has been sho...

  7. Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived Air Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  8. Usefulness of AIRS-Derived OLR, Temperature, Water vapor and Cloudiness Anomaly Trends for GCM Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, G. I.; Susskind, J.; Iredell, L. F.; NASA/Gsfc Sounder Research Team

    2010-12-01

    Mainly due to their global nature, satellite observations can provide a very useful basis for GCM validations. In particular, satellite sounders such as AIRS provide 3-D spatial information (most useful for GCMs), so the question arises: can we use AIRS datasets for climate variability assessments? We show that the recent (September 2002 - February 2010) CERES-observed negative trend in OLR of ~-0.1 W/m2/yr averaged over the globe is found in the AIRS OLR data as well. Most importantly, even minute details (down to 1 x 1 degree GCM-scale resolution) of spatial and temporal anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed based on AIRS-retrieved surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters over this time period are essentially the same. The correspondance can be seen even in the very large spatial variations of these trends with local values ranging from -2.6 W/m2/yr to +3.0 W/m2/yr in the tropics, for example. This essentially perfect agreement of OLR anomalies and trends derived from observations by two different instruments, in totally independent and different manners, implies that both sets of results must be highly accurate, and indirectly validates the anomalies and trends of other AIRS derived products as well. These products show that global and regional anomalies and trends of OLR, water vapor and cloud cover over the last 7+ years are strongly influenced by El-Niño-La Niña cycles . We have created climate parameter anomaly datasets using AIRS retrievals which can be compared directly with coupled GCM climate variability assesments. Moreover, interrelationships of these anomalies and trends should also be similar between the observed and GCM-generated datasets, and, in cases of discrepancies, GCM parameterizations could be improved based on the relationships observed in the data. First, we assess spatial “trends” of variability of climatic parameter anomalies [since anomalies relative to the seasonal cycle are good proxies of climate

  9. Usefulness of AIRS-Derived OLR, Temperature, Water Vapor and Cloudiness Anomaly Trends for GCM Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Gyula I.; Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena F.

    2010-01-01

    Mainly due to their global nature, satellite observations can provide a very useful basis for GCM validations. In particular, satellite sounders such as AIRS provide 3-D spatial information (most useful for GCMs), so the question arises: can we use AIRS datasets for climate variability assessments? We show that the recent (September 2002 February 2010) CERES-observed negative trend in OLR of approx.-0.1 W/sq m/yr averaged over the globe is found in the AIRS OLR data as well. Most importantly, even minute details (down to 1 x 1 degree GCM-scale resolution) of spatial and temporal anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed based on AIRS-retrieved surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters over this time period are essentially the same. The correspondence can be seen even in the very large spatial variations of these trends with local values ranging from -2.6 W/sq m/yr to +3.0 W/sq m/yr in the tropics, for example. This essentially perfect agreement of OLR anomalies and trends derived from observations by two different instruments, in totally independent and different manners, implies that both sets of results must be highly accurate, and indirectly validates the anomalies and trends of other AIRS derived products as well. These products show that global and regional anomalies and trends of OLR, water vapor and cloud cover over the last 7+ years are strongly influenced by EI-Nino-La Nina cycles . We have created climate parameter anomaly datasets using AIRS retrievals which can be compared directly with coupled GCM climate variability assessments. Moreover, interrelationships of these anomalies and trends should also be similar between the observed and GCM-generated datasets, and, in cases of discrepancies, GCM parameterizations could be improved based on the relationships observed in the data. First, we assess spatial "trends" of variability of climatic parameter anomalies [since anomalies relative to the seasonal cycle are good proxies of

  10. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaroff, William W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which reacts rapidly with organics, leading to the formation of other potentially toxic air pollutants. Indoor reactive chemistry involving the nitrate radical and cleaning-product constituents is also of concern, since it produces organic nitrates as well as some of the same oxidation products generated by ozone and hydroxyl radicals. Few studies have directly addressed the indoor concentrations of TACs that might result from primary emissions or secondary pollutant formation following the use of cleaning agents and air fresheners. In this paper, we combine direct empirical evidence with the basic principles of indoor pollutant behavior and with information from relevant studies, to analyze and critically assess air pollutant exposures resulting from the use of cleaning products and air fresheners. Attention is focused on compounds that are listed as HAPs, TACs or Proposition 65 carcinogens/reproductive toxicants and compounds that can readily react to generate secondary pollutants. The toxicity of many of these secondary pollutants has yet to be evaluated. The inhalation

  11. MODIS-Derived Terrestrial Primary Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steven; Heinsch, Faith Ann; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    Temporal and spatial changes in terrestrial biological productivity have a large impact on humankind because terrestrial ecosystems not only create environments suitable for human habitation, but also provide materials essential for survival, such as food, fiber and fuel. A recent study estimated that consumption of terrestrial net primary production (NPP; a list of all the acronyms is available in the appendix at the end of the chapter) by the human population accounts for about 14-26% of global NPP (Imhoff et al. 2004). Rapid global climate change is induced by increased atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, especially CO2, which results from human activities such as fossil fuel combustion and deforestation. This directly impacts terrestrial NPP, which continues to change in both space and time (Melillo et al. 1993; Prentice et al. 2001; Nemani et al. 2003), and ultimately impacts the well-being of human society (Milesi et al. 2005). Additionally, substantial evidence show that the oceans and the biosphere, especially terrestrial ecosystems, currently play a major role in reducing the rate of the atmospheric CO2 increase (Prentice et al. 2001; Schimel et al. 2001). NPP is the first step needed to quantify the amount of atmospheric carbon fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. Continuous and accurate measurements of terrestrial NPP at the global scale are possible using satellite data. Since early 2000, for the first time, the MODIS sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, have operationally provided scientists with near real-time global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net photosynthesis (PsnNet) data. These data are provided at 1 km spatial resolution and an 8-day interval, and annual NPP covers 109,782,756 km2 of vegetated land. These GPP, PsnNet and NPP products are collectively known as MOD17 and are part of a larger suite of MODIS land products (Justice et al. 2002), one of the core Earth System or Climate Data Records (ESDR or

  12. Antiproton Production by CR on Air Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskalenko, I. V.; Mashnik, S. G.

    2003-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic ray (CR) antiproton flux have been shown to challenge existing CR propagation models. In particular, the conventional reacceleration model designed to match secondary/primary nuclei ratios produces too few antiprotons. Recently there appear some indications that the atmospheric contribution to antiproton production is considerably underestimated, which implies that antiproton CR flux might be lower. This may be the primary reason of the discrepancy discovered in CR propagation. We use the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model code LAQGSM together with available data on antiproton production on nuclei to analyse the accuracy of existing parameterizations of antiproton production cross section. The LAQGSM model has been shown to reproduce well nuclear reactions and hadronic data in the range 0.01-800 GeV/nucleon.

  13. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  14. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  15. Contributions to Climate Research Using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares recent spatial anomaly time series of OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) and OLRCLR (Clear Sky OLR) as determined using CERES and AIRS observations over the time period September 2002 through June 2010. We find excellent agreement in OLR anomaly time series of both data sets in almost every detail, down to the 1 x 1 spatial grid point level. This extremely close agreement of OLR anomaly time series derived from observations by two different instruments implies that both sets of results must be highly stable. This agreement also validates to some extent the anomaly time series of the AIRS derived products used in the computation of the AIRS OLR product. The paper then examines anomaly time series of AIRS derived products over the extended time period September 2002 through April 2011. We show that OLR anomalies during this period are closely in phase with those of an El Nino index, and that recent global and tropical mean decreases in OLR and OLR(sub CLR) are a result of a transition from an El Nino condition at the beginning of the data record to La Nina conditions toward the end of the data period. This relationship can be explained by temporal changes of the distribution of mid-tropospheric water vapor and cloud cover in two spatial regions that are in direct response to El Nino/La Nina activity which occurs outside these spatial regions

  16. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from biomass derivatives and water.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xihong; Xie, Shilei; Yang, Hao; Tong, Yexiang; Ji, Hongbing

    2014-11-21

    Hydrogen, a clean energy carrier with high energy capacity, is a very promising candidate as a primary energy source for the future. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production from renewable biomass derivatives and water is one of the most promising approaches to producing green chemical fuel. Compared to water splitting, hydrogen production from renewable biomass derivatives and water through a PEC process is more efficient from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. Additionally, the carbon dioxide formed can be re-transformed into carbohydrates via photosynthesis in plants. In this review, we focus on the development of photoanodes and systems for PEC hydrogen production from water and renewable biomass derivatives, such as methanol, ethanol, glycerol and sugars. We also discuss the future challenges and opportunities for the design of the state-of-the-art photoanodes and PEC systems for hydrogen production from biomass derivatives and water.

  17. Air emission from the co-combustion of alternative derived fuels within cement plants: Gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Richards, Glen; Agranovski, Igor E

    2015-02-01

    Cement manufacturing is a resource- and energy-intensive industry, utilizing 9% of global industrial energy use while releasing more than 5% of global carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. With an increasing demand of production set to double by 2050, so too will be its carbon footprint. However, Australian cement plants have great potential for energy savings and emission reductions through the substitution of combustion fuels with a proportion of alternative derived fuels (ADFs), namely, fuels derived from wastes. This paper presents the environmental emissions monitoring of 10 cement batching plants while under baseline and ADF operating conditions, and an assessment of parameters influencing combustion. The experiential runs included the varied substitution rates of seven waste streams and the monitoring of seven target pollutants. The co-combustion tests of waste oil, wood chips, wood chips and plastic, waste solvents, and shredded tires were shown to have the minimal influence when compared to baseline runs, or had significantly reduced the unit mass emission factor of pollutants. With an increasing ADF% substitution, monitoring identified there to be no subsequent emission effects and that key process parameters contributing to contaminant suppression include (1) precalciner and kiln fuel firing rate and residence time; (2) preheater and precalciner gas and material temperature; (3) rotary kiln flame temperature; (4) fuel-air ratio and percentage of excess oxygen; and (5) the rate of meal feed and rate of clinker produced. PMID:25947054

  18. Air emission from the co-combustion of alternative derived fuels within cement plants: Gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Richards, Glen; Agranovski, Igor E

    2015-02-01

    Cement manufacturing is a resource- and energy-intensive industry, utilizing 9% of global industrial energy use while releasing more than 5% of global carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. With an increasing demand of production set to double by 2050, so too will be its carbon footprint. However, Australian cement plants have great potential for energy savings and emission reductions through the substitution of combustion fuels with a proportion of alternative derived fuels (ADFs), namely, fuels derived from wastes. This paper presents the environmental emissions monitoring of 10 cement batching plants while under baseline and ADF operating conditions, and an assessment of parameters influencing combustion. The experiential runs included the varied substitution rates of seven waste streams and the monitoring of seven target pollutants. The co-combustion tests of waste oil, wood chips, wood chips and plastic, waste solvents, and shredded tires were shown to have the minimal influence when compared to baseline runs, or had significantly reduced the unit mass emission factor of pollutants. With an increasing ADF% substitution, monitoring identified there to be no subsequent emission effects and that key process parameters contributing to contaminant suppression include (1) precalciner and kiln fuel firing rate and residence time; (2) preheater and precalciner gas and material temperature; (3) rotary kiln flame temperature; (4) fuel-air ratio and percentage of excess oxygen; and (5) the rate of meal feed and rate of clinker produced.

  19. VIIRS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Products for Air Quality Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, A. K.; Zhang, H.; Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.

    2014-12-01

    The air quality community uses satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) for a variety of applications, including daily air quality forecasting, retrospective event analysis, and justification for Exceptional Events. AOD is suitable for ambient air quality applications because is related to particulate matter (e.g., PM2.5) concentrations in the atmosphere; higher values of AOD correspond to higher concentrations of particulate matter. AOD is useful for identifying and tracking areas of high PM2.5 concentrations that correspond to air quality events, such as wildfires, dust storms, or haze episodes. Currently, the air quality community utilizes AOD from the MODIS instrument on NASA's polar-orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites and from NOAA's GOES geostationary satellites (e.g, GASP). The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on the Suomi-NPP satellite is making AOD measurements that are similar to MODIS AOD, but with higher spatial resolution. Two AOD products are available from VIIRS: the 750 m nadir resolution Intermediate Product (IP) and the 6 km resolution Environmental Data Record (EDR) product, which is aggregated from IP measurements. These VIIRS AOD products offer a substantial increase in spatial resolution compared to the MODIS AOD 3 km and 10 km AOD products, respectively. True color (RGB) imagery is also available from VIIRS as a decision aid for air quality applications. It serves as a complement to AOD measurements by providing visible information about areas of smoke, haze, and blowing dust in the atmosphere. Case studies of VIIRS AOD and RGB data for recent air quality events will be presented, with a focus on wildfires, and the relative pros and cons of the VIIRS AOD IP and EDR for air quality applications will be discussed in comparison to MODIS AOD products. Improvements to VIIRS aerosol products based on user feedback as part of the NOAA Satellite Air Quality Proving Ground (AQPG) will be outlined, and an overview of future

  20. Animal derived products may conflict with religious patients’ beliefs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Implants and drugs with animal and human derived content are widely used in medicine and surgery, but information regarding ingredients is rarely obtainable by health practitioners. A religious perspective concerning the use of animal and human derived drug ingredients has not thoroughly been investigated. The purpose of this study was to clarify which parts of the medical and surgical treatments offered in western world-hospitals that conflicts with believers of major religions. Methods Religious and spiritual leaders of the six largest religions worldwide (18 branches) were contacted. A standardised questionnaire was sent out regarding their position on the use of human and animal derived products in medical and surgical treatments. Results Of the 18 contacted religious branches, 10 replied representing the 6 largest religions worldwide. Hindus and Sikhs did not approve of the use of bovine or porcine derived products, and Muslims did not accept the use of porcine derived drugs, dressings or implants. Christians (including Jehovah’s Witnesses), Jews and Buddhists accepted the use of all animal and human derived products. However, all religions accepted the use of all these products in case of an emergency and only if alternatives were not available. Conclusions The views here suggest that religious codes conflict with some treatment regimens. It is crucial to obtain informed consent from patients for the use of drugs and implants with animal or human derived content. However, information on the origin of ingredients in drugs is not always available to health practitioners. PMID:24289542

  1. Transition of AIRS Products to the National Weather Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) is a proven community leader for transitioning satellite products to operational end users and is working hard to bring data from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to forecasters. SPoRT products using AIRS data are currently or will soon be evaluated at WFOs and National Centers (1) T and q profiles: HWT, Alaska WFOs, HRD/OPC, HMT (2) Ozone profiles: HPC/OPC (3) Carbon Monoxide: Southern and Western Region WFOs SPoRT is actively evaluating differences between V5 and V6 profiles for selected cases and will continue to provide feedback to the AIRS team as V6 development efforts conclude.

  2. Production and characterization of carbon structures derived from wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xinfeng

    The objective of this research was to produce structural carbon materials from wood, a renewable biomaterial, for advanced material application. A broad range of materials were produced for study including carbonized wood, resin infused carbon composites made from carbonized wood, and carbon nanotubes from wood fibers. The effect of slow heating on the properties of carbonized wood was studied and important carbonized wood properties were found to be produced over a range of heating rates and peak temperatures. Slow heating rates promoted the formation and growth of graphene sheets in turbostratic crystallites, which had a significant influence on the electrical resistivity and Young's modulus of the carbonized wood. A reduction in the rate of heating may be beneficial with respect to carbon properties and the prevention of crack production during the manufacture of large monolithic carbon specimens from wood and wood-based materials. Investigation of selected physical and mechanical properties of resin-infused porous carbon composites made from medium density fiberboard demonstrated that the infused material can be used in specific applications, where high mechanical strength is not required but high dimensional stability at elevated-use temperatures, fire safety, or static dissipation and shielding is required. A unique cyclic heating process has been developed to produce carbon nanotubes directly from wood fibers. Study on the oxidative behavior of carbons derived from cellulose and lignin showed that cellulose carbon ablates faster at a lower temperature in air than lignin carbon when they were prepared at temperatures lower than 500°C due to cellulose carbon's lower content of aromatic structures. It is hypothesized that the formation of carbon nanotubes during the cyclic heating process occurred via template synthesis, with the nanochannels formed from the ablation of cellulose fibrils functioning as a template. Evidence of formation of nanochannels has been

  3. User's guide for SBUV/TOMS ozone derivative products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Oslik, N.; Lee, D.; Miller, J.; Magatani, R.

    1984-01-01

    A series of products are available derived from the total-ozone and ozone vertical profile results for the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet/Total-Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) Nimbus-7 operation. Products available are (1) orbital height-latitude cross sections of the SBUV profile data, (2) daily global total ozone contours in polar coordinates, (3) daily averages of total ozone in global 5x5 degree latitude-longitude grid, (4) daily, monthly and quarterly averages of total ozone and profile data in 10 degree latitude zones, (5) tabular presentation of zonal means, (6) daily global total ozone and profile contours in polar coordinates. The ""Derivative Products User's Guide'' describes each of these products in detail, including their derivation and presentation format. Information is provided on how to order the tapes and microfilm from the National Space Science Data Center.

  4. Plant-Derived Natural Products for Parkinson's Disease Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, T; Vinayagam, J; Singh, R; Jaisankar, P; Mohanakumar, K P

    2016-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products have made their own niche in the treatment of neurological diseases since time immemorial. Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, has no cure and the treatment available currently is symptomatic. This chapter thoughtfully and objectively assesses the scientific basis that supports the increasing use of these plant-derived natural products for the treatment of this chronic and progressive disorder. Proper considerations are made on the chemical nature, sources, preclinical tests and their validity, and mechanisms of behavioural or biochemical recovery observed following treatment with various plants derived natural products relevant to PD therapy. The scientific basis underlying the neuroprotective effect of 6 Ayurvedic herbs/formulations, 12 Chinese medicinal herbs/formulations, 33 other plants, and 5 plant-derived molecules have been judiciously examined emphasizing behavioral, cellular, or biochemical aspects of neuroprotection observed in the cellular or animal models of the disease. The molecular mechanisms triggered by these natural products to promote cell survivability and to reduce the risk of cellular degeneration have also been brought to light in this study. The study helped to reveal certain limitations in the scenario: lack of preclinical studies in all cases barring two; heavy dependence on in vitro test systems; singular animal or cellular model to establish any therapeutic potential of drugs. This strongly warrants further studies so as to reproduce and confirm these reported effects. However, the current literature offers scientific credence to traditionally used plant-derived natural products for the treatment of PD. PMID:27651267

  5. Modeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallice, A.; Wienhold, F. G.; Hoyle, C. R.; Immler, F.; Peter, T.

    2011-06-01

    A new model to describe the ascent of sounding balloons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (up to ~30-35 km altitude) is presented. Contrary to previous models, detailed account is taken of both the variation of the drag coefficient with altitude and the heat imbalance between the balloon and the atmosphere. To compensate for the lack of data on the drag coefficient of sounding balloons, a reference curve for the relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number is derived from a dataset of flights launched during the Lindenberg Upper Air Methods Intercomparisons (LUAMI) campaign. The transfer of heat from the surrounding air into the balloon is accounted for by solving the radial heat diffusion equation inside the balloon. The potential applications of the model include the forecast of the trajectory of sounding balloons, which can be used to increase the accuracy of the match technique, and the derivation of the air vertical velocity. The latter is obtained by subtracting the ascent rate of the balloon in still air calculated by the model from the actual ascent rate. This technique is shown to provide an approximation for the vertical air motion with an uncertainty error of 0.5 m s-1 in the troposphere and 0.2 m s-1 in the stratosphere. An example of extraction of the air vertical velocity is provided in this paper. We show that the air vertical velocities derived from the balloon soundings in this paper are in general agreement with small-scale atmospheric velocity fluctuations related to gravity waves, mechanical turbulence, or other small-scale air motions measured during the SUCCESS campaign (Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study) in the orographically unperturbed mid-latitude middle troposphere.

  6. Modernized Techniques for Dealing with Quality Data and Derived Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiswender, C.; Miller, S. P.; Clark, D.

    2008-12-01

    "I just want a picture of the ocean floor in this area" is expressed all too often by researchers, educators, and students in the marine geosciences. As more sophisticated systems are developed to handle data collection and processing, the demand for quality data, and standardized products continues to grow. Data management is an invisible bridge between science and researchers/educators. The SIOExplorer digital library presents more than 50 years of ocean-going research. Prior to publication, all data is checked for quality using standardized criterion developed for each data stream. Despite the evolution of data formats and processing systems, SIOExplorer continues to present derived products in well- established formats. Standardized products are published for each cruise, and include a cruise report, MGD77 merged data, multi-beam flipbook, and underway profiles. Creation of these products is made possible by processing scripts, which continue to change with ever-evolving data formats. We continue to explore the potential of database-enabled creation of standardized products, such as the metadata-rich MGD77 header file. Database-enabled, automated processing produces standards-compliant metadata for each data and derived product. Metadata facilitates discovery and interpretation of published products. This descriptive information is stored both in an ASCII file, and a searchable digital library database. SIOExplorer's underlying technology allows focused search and retrieval of data and products. For example, users can initiate a search of only multi-beam data, which includes data-specific parameters. This customization is made possible with a synthesis of database, XML, and PHP technology. The combination of standardized products and digital library technology puts quality data and derived products in the hands of scientists. Interoperable systems enable distribution these published resources using technology such as web services. By developing modernized

  7. Remediation of saturated soil contaminated with petroleum products using air sparging with thermal enhancement.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M I; El-menshawy, Nabil; Saif, Amany M

    2007-05-01

    Pollutants in the form of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), such as petroleum products, pose a serious threat to the soil and groundwater. A mathematical model was derived to study the unsteady pollutant concentrations through water saturated contaminated soil under air sparging conditions for different NAPLs and soil properties. The comparison between the numerical model results and the published experimental results showed acceptable agreement. Furthermore, an experimental study was conducted to remove NAPLs from the contaminated soil using the sparging air technique, considering the sparging air velocity, air temperature, soil grain size and different contaminant properties. This study showed that sparging air at ambient temperature through the contaminated soil can remove NAPLs, however, employing hot air sparging can provide higher contaminant removal efficiency, by about 9%. An empirical correlation for the volatilization mass transfer coefficient was developed from the experimental results. The dimensionless numbers used were Sherwood number (Sh), Peclet number (Pe), Schmidt number (Sc) and several physical-chemical properties of VOCs and porous media. Finally, the estimated volatilization mass transfer coefficient was used for calculation of the influence of heated sparging air on the spreading of the NAPL plume through the contaminated soil.

  8. Navier-Stokes predictions of dynamic stability derivatives for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic derivatives are important parameters for designing vehicle trajectory and attitude control system that directly decide the divergence behavior of vibration of the aircraft open-loop system under interference. After calibration model validation, the dynamic behavior of air-breathing hypersonic vehicle WR-A is characterized. The unsteady flow field of aircraft forced simple harmonic vibration (SHV) is simulated using N-S equation. The direct damping derivatives, cross derivatives, acceleration derivatives and rotary derivatives of WR-A under different frequencies, amplitudes and positions of centroid are obtained. Research demonstrates that the proportion of acceleration derivatives, which represents the flow time lag effect, in the direct damping derivatives can be as high as 40% but is opposite to the damping derivative value symbols in some cases, contributing to dynamic instability. Numerical simulation on large-amplitude forced vibration of WR-A indicates that the aerodynamic behavior predicted by the dynamic derivative model agrees well with unsteady calculations. The inlet performance parameter derivatives are solved using the Etkin theory. The inlet performance parameters under large-amplitude vibration are successfully predicted using the dynamic derivative model. This offers a guideline for characterizing the dynamic internal flow field and unsteady inlet performance.

  9. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  10. AIRS CO2 Retrievals Using the Method of Vanishing Partial Derivatives (VPD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, Moustafa; Yung, Yuk; Li, Qinbin; Olsen, Ed; Chen, Luke; Krakauer, Nir

    2006-01-01

    This document consists of presentation slides that review the work being done with observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) using the concept of Vanishing Partial Derivatives. The infrared region is where several minor gases such as CO2, O3, CO, CH4 and SO2 are radiatively active.

  11. Deriving Albedo from Coupled MERIS and MODIS Surface Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Feng; Schaaf, Crystal; Jin, Yu-Fang; Lucht, Wolfgang; Strahler, Alan

    2004-01-01

    MERIS Level 2 surface reflectance products are now available to the scientific community. This paper demonstrates the production of MERIS-derived surface albedo and Nadir Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) adjusted reflectances by coupling the MERIS data with MODIS BRDF products. Initial efforts rely on the specification of surface anisotropy as provided by the global MODIS BRDF product for a first guess of the shape of the BRDF and then make use all of the coincidently available, partially atmospherically corrected, cloud cleared, MERIS observations to generate MERIS-derived BRDF and surface albedo quantities for each location. Comparisons between MODIS (aerosol-corrected) and MERIS (not-yet aerosol-corrected) surface values from April and May 2003 are also presented for case studies in Spain and California as well as preliminary comparisons with field data from the Devil's Rock Surfrad/BSRN site.

  12. Marine natural products sourced from marine-derived Penicillium fungi.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Guang; Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Liu, Hai-Shan; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Marine micro-organisms have been proven to be a major source of marine natural products (MNPs) in recent years, in which filamentous fungi are a vital source of bioactive natural products for their large metagenomes and more complex genetic backgrounds. This review highlights the 390 new MNPs from marine-derived Penicillium fungi during 1991 to 2014. These new MNPs are categorized based on the environment sources of the fungal hosts and their bioactivities are summarized.

  13. Stability evaluation of Styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) incorporated products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahtiar, Adibah Ahamad; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) from Goniothalamus umbrosus has been shown to have antiviral properties against Herpes Simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). This study aimed to evaluate the purity of isolated SPD and stability of SPD-incorporated formulations. Pure SPD was isolated from dried roots of G. umbrosus as confirmed by GC-MS. Two types of SPD-incorporated products (ointment and gel) were produced. Both products showed stable physical properties after two months and retained the SPD content for one month.

  14. Swine production impact on residential ambient air quality.

    PubMed

    Godbout, Stéphane; Lemay, Stéphane P; Duchaine, Caroline; Pelletier, Frédéric; Larouche, Jean-Pierre; Belzile, Martin; Feddes, John J R

    2009-01-01

    Numerous residents in agricultural areas are concerned about the impact that the swine industry may have on the ambient air quality. They assume there is a risk because there is limited information on the airborne contaminant that may originate from these facilities. The objective of the project was to assess the impact of swine production on ambient air quality related to public health in farming communities. Of the six chosen communities, three were considered not to be in a swine production area, whereas the three others were considered to be within a swine production area. Data were collected during three periods in spring and summer 2006. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations were monitored on a continuous basis whereas odor concentrations and intensities were monitored twice a week. Odor concentrations were measured by dynamic olfactometry and odor intensities were determined by trained odor assessors. Public health was evaluated by survey questionnaires sent to a sample of residents in each of the six communities. Average NH(3) concentrations ranged from 6.9 to 12.6 ppb for nonexposed communities and from 8.9 to 18.3 ppb for exposed communities. Average H(2)S concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 ppb for nonexposed communities and from 1.1 to 1.6 ppb for exposed communities. For a community in a swine production area, ambient NH(3) and H(2)S concentrations were found to be higher than those communities not in a swine production area; however, that difference was not significant and they were within air quality standards for public health and safety. Odor concentrations showed no significant difference between the nonexposed and exposed communities and between evening and morning periods. Odor intensities were found to be significantly higher in the communities within swine production areas. More research will be required to fully understand the correlation between specific physical symptoms from residents and the presence of odors from swine production.

  15. Bioassays for evaluation of medical products derived from bacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Sesardic, Thea

    2012-06-01

    Bioassays play central role in evaluation of biological products and those derived from bacterial toxins often rely exclusively on in vivo models for assurance of safety and potency. This chapter reviews existing regulatory approved methods designed to provide information on potency and safety of complex biological medicines with an insight into strategies considered for alternative procedures.

  16. Impact of room fragrance products on indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhde, Erik; Schulz, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Everyday life can no longer be imagined without fragrances and scented products. For the consumer, countless products exists which are solely or partly intended to give off a certain scent in sufficient concentrations to odorize a complete room. Sprays, diffusers and evaporators, scented candles and automatic devices for the distribution of fragrance liquids are typical examples of such products. If the consumer uses such products, his consent to the release of certain chemicals in his home can be implied, however, he may not know what kind of fragrance substances and solvents will be present in which concentrations. In this study, we determined the volatile emissions of a number of fragrance products in detail. Measurements were carried out under controlled conditions in test chambers. The products were tested in a passive (unused) and an active state, wherever applicable. Following a defined test protocol, the release of volatile organic compounds, ultrafine particles and NOx was monitored for each product. The potential for forming secondary organic aerosols under the influence of ozone was studied, and for a selection of products the long-term emission behavior was assessed. A remarkable variety of fragrance substances was found and more than 100 relevant compounds were identified and quantified. While it is the intended function of such products to release fragrance substances, also considerable amounts of non-odorous solvents and by-products were found to be released from several air fresheners. Emissions rates exceeding 2 mg/(unit*h) were measured for the five most common solvents.

  17. Natural product derived insecticides: discovery and development of spinetoram.

    PubMed

    Galm, Ute; Sparks, Thomas C

    2016-03-01

    This review highlights the importance of natural product research and industrial microbiology for product development in the agricultural industry, based on examples from Dow AgroSciences. It provides an overview of the discovery and development of spinetoram, a semisynthetic insecticide derived by a combination of a genetic block in a specific O-methylation of the rhamnose moiety of spinosad coupled with neural network-based QSAR and synthetic chemistry. It also emphasizes the key role that new technologies and multidisciplinary approaches play in the development of current spinetoram production strains.

  18. Natural product derived insecticides: discovery and development of spinetoram.

    PubMed

    Galm, Ute; Sparks, Thomas C

    2016-03-01

    This review highlights the importance of natural product research and industrial microbiology for product development in the agricultural industry, based on examples from Dow AgroSciences. It provides an overview of the discovery and development of spinetoram, a semisynthetic insecticide derived by a combination of a genetic block in a specific O-methylation of the rhamnose moiety of spinosad coupled with neural network-based QSAR and synthetic chemistry. It also emphasizes the key role that new technologies and multidisciplinary approaches play in the development of current spinetoram production strains. PMID:26582335

  19. Near Real-time Derived Products from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Ron; Jedlovec, Gary; Haines, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Short-term Prediction Research Transition (SPoRT) program at NASA/MSFC, near real-time total precipitable water and land/sea surface temperature products from MODIS, on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, are being derived from a subset of MODIS channels with spectral characteristics similar to those planned for the GOES-R ABI. Under the SPoRT program these products are made available to several NWS Forecast Offices to assist in the preparation of short-term forecasts. This transition activity, from research to operations, serves to prepare forecasters for the next generation of satellite observing capabilities through real-time, hands-on applications to their forecast problems. The derived products are produced from a physical retrieval algorithm which can be applied to polar or geostationary measurements. The algorithm is a perturbation solution of the radiation transfer equation for a nonscattering atmosphere requiring first-guess temperature and moisture profiles. For this application first-guess information is obtained from the latest model forecasts. The utility of this retrieval approach is that it provides a near real-time high resolution update of a model's forecasted parameter allowing forecasters to validate and monitor the performance of the model's forecast. The poster will provide a description of the retrieval methodology and examples of the derived products. Case studies will also be presented comparing these products with those obtained from the Earth Observing System (EOS) MODIS science team algorithms.

  20. Potential of natural products and their derivatives to control Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Raina, Ashok; Bedoukian, Robert; Florane, Chris; Lax, Alan

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-nine natural products and their derivatives were tested for both contact and vapor toxicity against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Five natural products at 0.5% (wt:wt) in petri dish contact assay caused 100% mortality within 3 d. In vapor form, only three chemicals (styrallyl alcohol, 2-phenyl-2-propanol, and l-carvone) at 0.25 microl/liter air caused > 90% mortality in 3 d when tested on exposed termites: However, when termites were shielded by wood and soil, only one chemical, tetrahydrocarvone at 25 microl/liter air caused 100% mortality in 2 d. Preliminary test with termites in carton nests, exposed to tetrahydrocarvone vapor in desiccators, resulted in an average of 98.6% mortality in 7 d. With further development in the method of delivery, this chemical may be very useful in fumigating confined areas of termite infestation. PMID:23156172

  1. Potential of natural products and their derivatives to control Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Raina, Ashok; Bedoukian, Robert; Florane, Chris; Lax, Alan

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-nine natural products and their derivatives were tested for both contact and vapor toxicity against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Five natural products at 0.5% (wt:wt) in petri dish contact assay caused 100% mortality within 3 d. In vapor form, only three chemicals (styrallyl alcohol, 2-phenyl-2-propanol, and l-carvone) at 0.25 microl/liter air caused > 90% mortality in 3 d when tested on exposed termites: However, when termites were shielded by wood and soil, only one chemical, tetrahydrocarvone at 25 microl/liter air caused 100% mortality in 2 d. Preliminary test with termites in carton nests, exposed to tetrahydrocarvone vapor in desiccators, resulted in an average of 98.6% mortality in 7 d. With further development in the method of delivery, this chemical may be very useful in fumigating confined areas of termite infestation.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 835 - Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at DOE Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation... RADIATION PROTECTION Pt. 835, App. A Appendix A to Part 835—Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at DOE Facilities The data presented in appendix A are to be used...

  3. Modeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallice, A.; Wienhold, F. G.; Hoyle, C. R.; Immler, F.; Peter, T.

    2011-10-01

    A new model to describe the ascent of sounding balloons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (up to ∼30-35 km altitude) is presented. Contrary to previous models, detailed account is taken of both the variation of the drag coefficient with altitude and the heat imbalance between the balloon and the atmosphere. To compensate for the lack of data on the drag coefficient of sounding balloons, a reference curve for the relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number is derived from a dataset of flights launched during the Lindenberg Upper Air Methods Intercomparisons (LUAMI) campaign. The transfer of heat from the surrounding air into the balloon is accounted for by solving the radial heat diffusion equation inside the balloon. In its present state, the model does not account for solar radiation, i.e. it is only able to describe the ascent of balloons during the night. It could however be adapted to also represent daytime soundings, with solar radiation modeled as a diffusive process. The potential applications of the model include the forecast of the trajectory of sounding balloons, which can be used to increase the accuracy of the match technique, and the derivation of the air vertical velocity. The latter is obtained by subtracting the ascent rate of the balloon in still air calculated by the model from the actual ascent rate. This technique is shown to provide an approximation for the vertical air motion with an uncertainty error of 0.5 m s-1 in the troposphere and 0.2 m s-1 in the stratosphere. An example of extraction of the air vertical velocity is provided in this paper. We show that the air vertical velocities derived from the balloon soundings in this paper are in general agreement with small-scale atmospheric velocity fluctuations related to gravity waves, mechanical turbulence, or other small-scale air motions measured during the SUCCESS campaign (Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study) in the orographically

  4. Confined combustion of TNT explosion products in air

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, J; Ferguson, R E; Forbes, J; Kuhl, A L; Oppenheim, A K; Spektor, R

    1998-08-31

    Effects of turbulent combustion induced by explosion of a 0.8 kg cylindrical charge of TNT in a 17 m3 chamber filled with air, are investigated. The detonation wave in the charge transforms the solid explosive (C7H5N3O6) to gaseous products, rich (~20% each) in carbon dust and carbon monoxide. The detonation pressure (~210 kb) thereby engendered causes the products to expand rapidly, driving a blast wave into the surrounding air. The interface between the products and air, being essentially unstable as a consequence of strong acceleration to which it is subjected within the blast wave, evolves into a turbulent mixing layer-a process enhanced by shock reflections from the walls. Under such circumstances rapid combustion takes place where the expanded detonation products play the role of fuel. Its dynamic effect is manifested by the experimental measurement of ~3 bar pressure increase in the chamber, in contrast to ~1bar attained by a corresponding TNT explosion in nitrogen. The experiments were modeled as a turbulent combustion in an unmixed system at infinite Reynolds, Peclet and DamkGhler numbers. The CFD solution was obtained by a high-order Godunov scheme using an AMR (Adaptive Mesh Refinement) to trace the turbulent mixing on the computational grid in as much detail as possible. The evolution of the mass fraction of fuel consumed by combustion thus determined exhibited the properties of an exponential decay following a sharp initiation. The results reveal all the dynamic features of the exothermic process of combustion controlled by fluid mechanic transport in a highly turbulent field, in contrast to those elucidated by the conventional reaction-diffusion model.

  5. Biomass production chamber air analysis of wheat study (BWT931)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, J. H.; Peterson, B. V.; Berdis, E.; Wheeler, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) biomass production chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center provides a test bed for bioregenerative studies using plants to provide food, oxygen, carbon dioxide removal, and potable water to humans during long term space travel. Growing plants in enclosed environments has brought about concerns regarding the level of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) emitted from plants and the construction materials that make up the plant growth chambers. In such closed systems, the potential exists for some VOC's to reach toxic levels and lead to poor plant growth, plant death, or health problems for human inhabitants. This study characterized the air in an enclosed environment in which wheat cv. Yocora Rojo was grown. Ninty-four whole air samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry throughout the eighty-four day planting. VOC emissions from plants and materials were characterized and quantified.

  6. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products. PMID:26124070

  7. Heterologous production of ribostamycin derivatives in engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kurumbang, Nagendra Prasad; Park, Je Won; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Liou, Kwangkyoung; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2010-09-01

    Aminoglycosides are a class of important antibiotic compounds used for various therapeutic indications. In recent times, their efficacy has been curtailed due to the rapid development of bacterial resistance. There is a need to develop novel derivatives with an improved spectrum of activity and higher sensitivity against pathogenic bacteria. Although efforts have been focused on the development of newer therapeutic agents by chemical synthesis, to our knowledge, there has been no attempt to harness the potential of microorganisms for this purpose. Escherichia coli affords a widely studied cellular system that could be utilized not only for understanding but also for attempting to engineer the biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites. The primary metabolic pathway of E. coli can be engineered to divert the precursor pool required for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Utilizing this approach previously, we engineered E. coli host and generated E. coli M1. Here, we produced a ribostamycin derivative in the engineered host by heterologous expression of the recombinants constructed from the genes encoding the biosynthetic pathway in aminoglycoside-producing strains. The products obtained from the transformants were isolated, analyzed and verified to be ribostamycin derivatives. The study further demonstrated the importance of E. coli as surrogate antibiotic producer and also offered future possibility for the production of other aminoglycoside derivatives through genetic engineering and expression in a heterologous background.

  8. Calculation Package: Derivation of Facility-Specific Derived Air Concentration (DAC) Values in Support of Spallation Neutron Source Operations

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, David A

    2009-12-01

    Derived air concentration (DAC) values for 175 radionuclides* produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), but not listed in Appendix A of 10 CFR 835 (01/01/2009 version), are presented. The proposed DAC values, ranging between 1 E-07 {micro}Ci/mL and 2 E-03 {micro}Ci/mL, were calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and are intended to support an exemption request seeking regulatory relief from the 10 CFR 835, Appendix A, requirement to apply restrictive DACs of 2E-13 {micro}Ci/mL and 4E-11 {micro}Ci/mL and for non-listed alpha and non-alpha-emitting radionuclides, respectively.

  9. Microbial production of hyaluronic acid from agricultural resource derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pires, Aline M B; Macedo, André C; Eguchi, Silvia Y; Santana, Maria H A

    2010-08-01

    Agricultural resource derivatives (ARDs) such as hydrolysate soy protein concentrate (HSPC), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and cashew apple juice (CAJ) were studied with focus on the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Supplementation of the media with corn steep liquor (CSL) was also evaluated. Synthetic medium containing glucose and yeast extract was used as control. CAJ was a promising medium for the production of HA. It produced the highest amount of HA (0.89 g L(-1)), similar to that of the control (0.86 g L(-1)). WPC and HSPC media were the most effective for the production of biomass. CSL did not influence the production of HA when HSPC and WPC were used. However, in the synthetic medium it doubled the yield of HA from glucose. The average molecular weight of HA ranged from 10(3) to 10(4)Da for the ARDs and 10(7)Da for the synthetic medium.

  10. The production of copper phthalocyanine and/or its derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segawa, T.; Matsuzaki, K.; Sawada, H.; Ninomiya, R.; Suyama, M.

    1984-01-01

    This document discusses the production of copper phthalocyanine and/or its derivatives, which are useful for dye pigments. The method described uses urea, a copper compound and/or a catalyst which have been suspended in an inert reaction medium. The copper compound, catalyst and urea fused and the reaction is performed by using the obtained fusion. The advantages of the invention are listed.

  11. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  12. Numerical models for afterburning of TNT detonation products in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, L.; Zhang, F.; Ripley, R. C.

    2013-11-01

    Afterburning occurs when fuel-rich explosive detonation products react with oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. This energy release can further contribute to the air blast, resulting in a more severe explosion hazard particularly in confined scenarios. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the products equation of state (EOS) on the prediction of the efficiency of trinitrotoluene (TNT) afterburning and the times of arrival of reverberating shock waves in a closed chamber. A new EOS is proposed, denoted the Afterburning (AB) EOS. This EOS employs the JWL EOS in the high pressure regime, transitioning to a Variable-Gamma (VG) EOS at lower pressures. Simulations of three TNT charges suspended in a explosion chamber were performed. When compared to numerical results using existing methods, it was determined that the Afterburning EOS delays the shock arrival times giving better agreement with the experimental measurements in the early to mid time. In the late time, the Afterburning EOS roughly halved the error between the experimental measurements and results obtained using existing methods. Use of the Afterburning EOS for products with the Variable-Gamma EOS for the surrounding air further significantly improved results, both in the transient solution and the quasi-static pressure. This final combination of EOS and mixture model is recommended for future studies involving afterburning explosives, particularly those in partial and full confinement.

  13. Porosity control in nanoporous carbide-derived carbon by oxidation in air and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Osswald, S.; Portet, C.; Gogotsi, Y.; Laudisio, G.; Singer, J.P.; Fischer, J.E.; Sokolov, V.V.; Kukushkina, J.A.; Kravchik, A.E.

    2009-07-15

    Carbide-derived carbons (CDC) allow a precise control over the pore size through the selection of the carbide precursor and varying of the synthesis conditions. However, their pore volume is limited by the carbide stoichiometry. While activation of carbons derived from various organic precursors has been widely studied, this process may similarly be able to increase the pore volume and specific surface area of CDC. Oxidation of carbide-derived carbon in air and CO{sub 2} at different temperatures and times allows for significant increase in pore volume and specific surface area as well as control over average pore size with subnanometer accuracy. The effect of activation and associated changes in the pore volume and surface area on the hydrogen uptake are also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Carbide-derived carbons (CDC) provide great potential for sorption of toxicants and gas storage applications. Activation of CDC in air and CO{sub 2} at different temperatures and times is applied in order to maximize pore volume and specific surface area, and control the average pore size with subnanometer accuracy.

  14. Accuracy of Geophysical Parameters Derived from AIRS/AMSU as a Function of Fractional Cloud Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Barnet, Chris; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky; Kouvaris, Lou; Molnar, Gyula; Chahine, Moustafa

    2006-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4,2002, together with AMSU A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. The sounding goals of AIRS are to produce 1 km tropospheric layer mean temperatures with an rms error of lK, and layer precipitable water with an rms error of 20 percent, in cases with up to 80 percent effective cloud cover. The basic theory used to analyze Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit/Humidity Sounder Brazil (AIRS/AMSU/HSB) data in the presence of clouds, called the at-launch algorithm, was described previously. Pre-launch simulation studies using this algorithm indicated that these results should be achievable. Some modifications have been made to the at-launch retrieval algorithm as described in this paper. Sample fields of parameters retrieved from AIRS/AMSU/HSB data are presented and validated as a function of retrieved fractional cloud cover. As in simulation, the degradation of retrieval accuracy with increasing cloud cover is small and the RMS accuracy of lower tropospheric temperature retrieved with 80 percent cloud cover is about 0.5 K poorer than for clear cases. HSB failed in February 2003, and consequently HSB channel radiances are not used in the results shown in this paper. The AIRS/AMSU retrieval algorithm described in this paper, called Version 4, become operational at the Goddard DAAC (Distributed Active Archive Center) in April 2003 and is being used to analyze near-real time AIRS/AMSU data. Historical AIRS/AMSU data, going backwards from March 2005 through September 2002, is also being analyzed by the DAAC using the Version 4 algorithm.

  15. Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing Products to Enhance and Evaluate the AIRPACT Regional Air Quality Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron-Thorpe, F. L.; Mount, G. H.; Emmons, L. K.; Lamb, B. K.; Jaffe, D. A.; Wigder, N. L.; Chung, S. H.; Zhang, R.; Woelfle, M.; Vaughan, J. K.; Leung, F. T.

    2013-12-01

    The WSU AIRPACT air quality modeling system for the Pacific Northwest forecasts hourly levels of aerosols and atmospheric trace gases for use in determining potential health and ecosystem impacts by air quality managers. AIRPACT uses the WRF/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling framework, derives dynamic boundary conditions from MOZART-4 forecast simulations with assimilated MOPITT CO, and uses the BlueSky framework to derive fire emissions. A suite of surface measurements and satellite-based remote sensing data products across the AIRPACT domain are used to evaluate and improve model performance. Specific investigations include anthropogenic emissions, wildfire simulations, and the effects of long-range transport on surface ozone. In this work we synthesize results for multiple comparisons of AIRPACT with satellite products such as IASI ammonia, AIRS carbon monoxide, MODIS AOD, OMI tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and MISR plume height. Features and benefits of the newest version of AIRPACT's web-interface are also presented.

  16. Priority pollutant analysis of MHD-derived combustion products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Katherine D.

    An important factor in developing Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for commercial applications is environmental impact. Consequently, an effort was initiated to identify and quantify any possible undesirable minute chemical constituents in MHD waste streams, with special emphasis on the priority pollutant species. This paper discusses how priority pollutant analyses were used to accomplish the following goals at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI): comparison of the composition of solid combustion products collected from various locations along a prototypical MHD flow train during the firing of Illinois No. 6 and Montana Rosebud coals; comparison of solid waste products generated from MHD and conventional power plant technologies; and identification of a suitable disposal option for various MHD derived combustion products. Results from our ongoing research plans for gas phase sampling and analysis of priority pollutant volatiles, semi-volatiles, and metals are discussed.

  17. Vertical air motions derived from a descending radiosonde using a lightweight hard ball as the parachute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhang, J.; Xuan, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of vertical air motions in the atmosphere is important for meteorological and climate studies due to its impact on clouds, precipitation and the vertical transport of air masses, heat, momentum, and composition. It is among the most difficult quantities to measure because of its small magnitude. In this study, a descending radiosonde technique has been developed to detect the vertical wind speed (VW) in the atmosphere. The system is composed of a radiosonde and a 0.5-m diameter hard ball made of plastic foam that acts as a parachute. The radiosonde hangs under the hard ball by a string which is then cut when the instrument is elevated into the upper troposphere by a balloon. The VW is derived from the difference between the observed radiosonde descent rate and the calculated radiosonde descent rate in still air based on fluid dynamics. Deduction of the appropriate drag coefficient for the radiosonde is facilitated by the symmetrical shape of the parachute. An intensive radiosonde launch experiment was held in northern China during the summer seasons of 2010 to 2012. This study uses radiosonde data collected during the campaign to retrieve the vertical air velocity within the radiosonde altitude-detecting range. In general, the VW ranges from -1 to 1 m s-1. Strong vertical air motion (~2 m s-1) is seen in a few radiosonde measurements. Although considerable uncertainties exist in measuring weak vertical air motions, a case study shows that there is reasonable agreement between retrievals of VW in the lower atmosphere from the radiosonde and a wind profiler radar located at the launch site.

  18. Medicinal use of potato-derived products: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vlachojannis, J E; Cameron, M; Chrubasik, S

    2010-02-01

    In the traditional medicine of Europe, raw potatoes are used for gastrointestinal disorders, and topical potato preparations as a hot pack for pain or for softening furuncles. The aim of this study was to review the literature and summarize the data on the medicinal use of potato-derived products. Several databases and other sources were searched to identify clinical trials investigating potato-derived preparations. The trials were analysed for quality. Five trials were identified; two open uncontrolled studies, two open controlled studies and one double-blind study. These results stimulate further investigation of oral potato juice concentrate in patients with dyspeptic complaints, of potato proteinase inhibitor II for weight reduction, and of topical potato proteins for preventing protease-induced perianal dermatitis. We recommend that future studies have a confirmatory design.

  19. Microbial production of fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Lennen, Rebecca M; Pfleger, Brian F

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid metabolism is an attractive route to produce liquid transportation fuels and commodity oleochemicals from renewable feedstocks. Recently, genes and enzymes, which comprise metabolic pathways for producing fatty acid-derived compounds (e.g. esters, alkanes, olefins, ketones, alcohols, polyesters) have been elucidated and used in engineered microbial hosts. The resulting strains often generate products at low percentages of maximum theoretical yields, leaving significant room for metabolic engineering. Economically viable processes will require strains to approach theoretical yields, particularly for replacement of petroleum-derived fuels. This review will describe recent progress toward this goal, highlighting the scientific discoveries of each pathway, ongoing biochemical studies to understand each enzyme, and metabolic engineering strategies that are being used to improve strain performance. PMID:23541503

  20. Online Assessment of Satellite-Derived Global Precipitation Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S.

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation is difficult to measure and predict. Each year droughts and floods cause severe property damages and human casualties around the world. Accurate measurement and forecast are important for mitigation and preparedness efforts. Significant progress has been made over the past decade in satellite precipitation product development. In particular, products' spatial and temporal resolutions as well as timely availability have been improved by blended techniques. Their resulting products are widely used in various research and applications. However biases and uncertainties are common among precipitation products and an obstacle exists in quickly gaining knowledge of product quality, biases and behavior at a local or regional scale, namely user defined areas or points of interest. Current online inter-comparison and validation services have not addressed this issue adequately. To address this issue, we have developed a prototype to inter-compare satellite derived daily products in the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS). Despite its limited functionality and datasets, users can use this tool to generate customized plots within the United States for 2005. In addition, users can download customized data for further analysis, e.g. comparing their gauge data. To meet increasing demands, we plan to increase the temporal coverage and expanded the spatial coverage from the United States to the globe. More products have been added as well. In this poster, we present two new tools: Inter-comparison of 3B42RT and 3B42 Inter-comparison of V6 and V7 TRMM L-3 monthly products The future plans include integrating IPWG (International Precipitation Working Group) Validation Algorithms/statistics, allowing users to generate customized plots and data. In addition, we will expand the current daily products to monthly and their climatology products. Whenever the TRMM science team changes their product version number, users would like to know the differences by

  1. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, B.; Mitra, S.

    1996-12-31

    The average person spends more than 80% of his time indoors, thus analysis of the sources of airborne pollutants in indoor air is an important issue. In this paper, we use factor analysis and multiple regression to identify and apportion the different sources of select indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their derivatives, and nicotine in indoor air, using data gathered in eight homes in Columbus, OH during the winter of 1986/1987. These homes had different indoor PAH sources, namely, environmental tobacco smoke, gas cooking/heating, and electrical cooking stoves. We find that, of all the sources, environmental tobacco smoke appears to have the greatest impact on the total indoor PAH concentrations. In smokers` homes, more than 87% of the total PAH is due to this source. Background sources are the largest contributor to PAHs in nonsmokers` homes. Very little PAH can be attributed to gas or electric appliances in the home. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Occupational exposures associated with petroleum-derived products containing trace levels of benzene.

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Panko, Julie M; Unice, Ken; Brown, Jay L; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2008-09-01

    Benzene may be present as a trace impurity or residual component of mixed petroleum products due to refining processes. In this article, the authors review the historical benzene content of various petroleum-derived products and characterize the airborne concentrations of benzene associated with the typical handling or use of these products in the United States, based on indoor exposure modeling and industrial hygiene air monitoring data collected since the late 1970s. Analysis showed that products that normally contained less than 0.1% v/v benzene, such as paints and paint solvents, printing solvents and inks, cutting and honing oils, adhesives, mineral spirits and degreasers, and jet fuel typically have yielded time-weighted average (TWA) airborne concentrations of benzene in the breathing zone and surrounding air ranging on average from <0.01 to 0.3 ppm. Except for a limited number of studies where the benzene content of the product was not confirmed to be <0.1% v/v, airborne benzene concentrations were also less than current occupational exposure limits (e.g., threshold limit value of 0.5 ppm and permissible exposure limit of 1.0 ppm) based on exceedance fraction calculations. Exposure modeling using Monte Carlo techniques also predicted 8-hr TWA near field airborne benzene concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 0.4 ppm under three hypothetical solvent use scenarios involving mineral spirits. The overall weight-of-evidence indicates that the vast majority of products manufactured in the United States after about 1978 contained <0.1% v/v benzene, and 8-hr TWA airborne concentrations of benzene in the workplace during the use of these products would not have been expected to exceed 0.5 ppm under most product use scenarios. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a document containing exposure modeling scenarios and

  3. [Production of plant-derived natural products in yeast cells - A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Dai, Zhubo; Zhang, Xueli

    2016-03-01

    Plant-derived natural products (PNPs) have been widely used in pharmaceutical and nutritional fields. So far, the main method to produce PNPs is extracting them from their original plants, however, there remains lots of problems. With the concept of synthetic biology, construction of yeast cell factories for production of PNPs provides an alternative way. In this review, we will focus on PNPs' market and application, research progress for production of artemisinin, research progress for production of terpenes, alkaloids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) and recent technology development to give a brief introduction of construction of yeast cells for production of PNPs.

  4. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If the person desiring to make entry is unable to present a bill of lading, air waybill, or other evidence...

  5. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If the person desiring to make entry is unable to present a bill of lading, air waybill, or other evidence...

  6. Metabolic constituents of grapevine and grape-derived products

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Kashif; Maltese, Federica; Verpoorte, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The numerous uses of the grapevine fruit, especially for wine and beverages, have made it one of the most important plants worldwide. The phytochemistry of grapevine is rich in a wide range of compounds. Many of them are renowned for their numerous medicinal uses. The production of grapevine metabolites is highly conditioned by many factors like environment or pathogen attack. Some grapevine phytoalexins have gained a great deal of attention due to their antimicrobial activities, being also involved in the induction of resistance in grapevine against those pathogens. Meanwhile grapevine biotechnology is still evolving, thanks to the technological advance of modern science, and biotechnologists are making huge efforts to produce grapevine cultivars of desired characteristics. In this paper, important metabolites from grapevine and grape derived products like wine will be reviewed with their health promoting effects and their role against certain stress factors in grapevine physiology. PMID:20835385

  7. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  8. Air pathway effects of nuclear materials production at the Hanford Site, 1983 to 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the air pathway effects of Hanford Site operations from 1983 to 1992 on the local environment by summarizing the air concentrations of selected radionuclides at both onsite and offsite locations, comparing trends in environment concentrations to changing facility emissions, and briefly describing trends in the radiological dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed member of the public. The years 1983 to 1992 represent the last Hanford Site plutonium production campaign, and this report deals mainly with the air pathway effects from the 200 Areas, in which the major contributors to radiological emissions were located. An additional purpose for report was to review the environmental data for a long period of time to provide insight not available in an annual report format. The sampling and analytical systems used by the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) to collect air samples during the period of this report were sufficiently sensitive to observe locally elevated concentrations of selected radionuclides near onsite source of emission as well as observing elevated levels, compared to distant locations, of some radionuclides at the down wind perimeter. The US DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) for airborne radionuclides were not exceeded for any air sample collected during 1983 to 1992, with annual average concentrations of all radionuclides at the downwind perimeter being considerably below the DCG values. Air emissions at the Hanford Site during the period of this report were dominated by releases from the PUREX Plant, with {sup 85}Kr being the major release on a curie basis and {sup 129}I being the major release on a radiological dose basis. The estimated potential radiological dose from Hanford Site point source emissions to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual (MEI) ranged from 0. 02 to 0.22 mrem/yr (effective dose equivalent), which is well below the DOE radiation limit to the public of 100 mrem/yr.

  9. Level-1C Product from AIRS: Principal Component Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Evan M.; Jiang, Yibo; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Elliott, Denis A.; Hannon, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), launched on the EOS Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002, is a grating spectrometer with 2378 channels in the range 3.7 to 15.4 microns. In a grating spectrometer each individual radiance measurement is largely independent of all others. Most measurements are extremely accurate and have very low noise levels. However, some channels exhibit high noise levels or other anomalous behavior, complicating applications needing radiances throughout a band, such as cross-calibration with other instruments and regression retrieval algorithms. The AIRS Level-1C product is similar to Level-1B but with instrument artifacts removed. This paper focuses on the "cleaning" portion of Level-1C, which identifies bad radiance values within spectra and produces substitute radiances using redundant information from other channels. The substitution is done in two passes, first with a simple combination of values from neighboring channels, then with principal components. After results of the substitution are shown, differences between principal component reconstructed values and observed radiances are used to investigate detailed noise characteristics and spatial misalignment in other channels.

  10. Production and structural characterization of Lactobacillus helveticus derived biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepansh; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Chauhan, Nikhil; Bansal, Anshul; Procha, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic strain of lactobacilli was isolated from traditional soft Churpi cheese of Yak milk and found positive for biosurfactant production. Lactobacilli reduced the surface tension of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) from 72.0 to 39.5 mNm(-1) pH 7.2 and its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.5 mg mL(-1). Low cost production of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant was carried out at lab scale fermenter which yields 0.8 mg mL(-1) biosurfactant. The biosurfactant was found least phytotoxic and cytotoxic as compared to the rhamnolipid and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at different concentration. Structural attributes of biosurfactant were determined by FTIR, NMR ((1)H and (13)C), UPLC-MS, and fatty acid analysis by GCMS which confirmed the presence of glycolipid type of biosurfactant closely similar to xylolipids. Biosurfactant is mainly constituted by lipid and sugar fractions. The present study outcomes provide valuable information on structural characterization of the biosurfactant produced by L. helveticus MRTL91. These findings are encouraging for the application of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant as nontoxic surface active agents in the emerging field of biomedical applications. PMID:25506070

  11. Production and Structural Characterization of Lactobacillus helveticus Derived Biosurfactant

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepansh; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Chauhan, Nikhil; Bansal, Anshul; Procha, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic strain of lactobacilli was isolated from traditional soft Churpi cheese of Yak milk and found positive for biosurfactant production. Lactobacilli reduced the surface tension of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) from 72.0 to 39.5 mNm−1 pH 7.2 and its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.5 mg mL−1. Low cost production of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant was carried out at lab scale fermenter which yields 0.8 mg mL−1 biosurfactant. The biosurfactant was found least phytotoxic and cytotoxic as compared to the rhamnolipid and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at different concentration. Structural attributes of biosurfactant were determined by FTIR, NMR (1H and 13C), UPLC-MS, and fatty acid analysis by GCMS which confirmed the presence of glycolipid type of biosurfactant closely similar to xylolipids. Biosurfactant is mainly constituted by lipid and sugar fractions. The present study outcomes provide valuable information on structural characterization of the biosurfactant produced by L. helveticus MRTL91. These findings are encouraging for the application of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant as nontoxic surface active agents in the emerging field of biomedical applications. PMID:25506070

  12. Production of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in open air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Riveiro, A.; del Val, J.; Pou, J.

    2015-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles have attracted much attention as a subject of investigation due to their well-known properties, such as good conductivity, antibacterial and catalytic effects, etc. They are used in many different areas, such as medicine, industrial applications, scientific investigation, etc. There are different techniques for producing Ag nanoparticles, chemical, electrochemical, sonochemical, etc. These methods often lead to impurities together with nanoparticles or colloidal solutions. In this work, laser ablation of solids in open air conditions (LASOA) is used to produce silver nanoparticles and collect them on glass substrates. Production and deposition of silver nanoparticles are integrated in the same step to reduce the process. The obtained particles are analysed and the nanoparticles formation mechanism is discussed. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles consisted of Ag nanoparticles showing rounded shape with diameters ranging from few to 50 nm

  13. Comparison of Methane Data Products from the TES and AIRS Infrared Sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, T. J.; Pagano, T. S.; Worden, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is the second most powerful greenhouse gas with a highly positive radiative forcing of 0.48 W/m2 (IPCC 2013). Global concentrations of methane have been steadily increasing since 2007 (Bruhwiler 2014), raising concerns about methane's impact on the future global climate. For about the last decade, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura spacecraft has been detecting several trace gas species in the troposphere including methane. The goal of this study is to compare TES methane retrievals to that of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua spacecraft so that scientific investigations may be transferred from TES to AIRS. The two instruments fly in the afternoon constellation (A-Train), providing numerous coincident measurements for comparison. In addition, they also have a similar spectral range, (3.3 to 15.4 µm) for TES (Beer, 2006) and (3.7 to 15.4 µm) for AIRS (Chahine, 2006), making both instruments sensitive to the mid and upper troposphere. This makes them ideal candidates to compare methane data products. However, because AIRS spectral resolution is lower than that of the TES, there may be a difference in vertical sensitivity. In addition, the retrieval techniques and error characteristics are different for the two data sets. The current state of validation for these data products will be presented. To identify conditions in which the data sets agree and dis agree, we present global maps of methane concentrations from monthly level 3 (L3) data products. We also investigate the temporal stability between the two datasets by comparing global zonal averages derived from L3 over the last decade. Finally, we compare L2 retrieval profiles from representative granules in the tropical, mid-latitude and northern latitudes.

  14. Derivation of Daily Global Distribution of Mid-Tropospheric C02 from AIRS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahine, M. T.; Olsen, E. T.; Chen, L.; Li, Q.; Jiang, X.

    2006-12-01

    We have applied the Vanishing Partial Derivative (VPD) method to AIRS spectra to retrieve the global distribution of CO2 in the mid-troposphere, between 500 and 300 mb, for selected periods of time in 2003. These results [Chahine et al. in GRL, 2005] agree well with the aircraft flask data obtained by Matsueda et al. (Tellus, 2002) in the tropicalmid-latitude regions. As part of the VPD solution we have also retrieved auxiliary data on the distribution of ozone and water vapor in the same tropospheric layer. We will show the robustness of the retrieved CO2 results with respect to different initial input or background conditions, briefly discuss the geographical and seasonal variation of the retrieved results, and show our detection of the expected anti- correlation between the CO2 and ozone variations in mid to high latitudes. The AIRS instrument on the NASA Aqua mission is a cross-track scanning grating spectrometer that covers the 3.7 to 15.4 micron spectral range with 2378 channels at a nominal spectral resolving power of 1200 and a 13.5 km field of view at nadir. After 4 years in space, AIRS has demonstrated a stability of 10 milli-Kelvin per year with a spectral accuracy of the center frequency of 2 parts per million.

  15. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...,” and “Water,” are applicable to the assessment and control of dose to the public, particularly in the...). Consideration of non-stochastic limits has not been included in deriving the air and water effluent... water concentrations were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...,” and “Water,” are applicable to the assessment and control of dose to the public, particularly in the...). Consideration of non-stochastic limits has not been included in deriving the air and water effluent... water concentrations were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral...

  17. Bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin derived from milk: production and applications.

    PubMed

    Tomita, M; Wakabayashi, H; Yamauchi, K; Teraguchi, S; Hayasawa, H

    2002-01-01

    Bovine lactoferrin is produced on an industrial scale from cheese whey or skim milk. The safety of purified lactoferrin has been confirmed from the results of a reverse mutation test using bacteria, a 13-week oral repeated-dose toxicity study in rats, and clinical studies. In order to apply active lactoferrin to various products, a process for its pasteurization was developed. Subsequently, lactoferrin has been used in a wide variety of products since it was first added to infant formula in 1986. A pepsin hydrolysate of lactoferrin is also used in infant formula. This hydrolysate contains a potent antimicrobial peptide named lactoferricin that is derived from the lactoferrin molecule by pepsin digestion. Semilarge-scale purification of lactoferricin can be performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Lactoferricin also exhibits several biological actions and appears to be the functional domain of lactoferrin. Recent studies have demonstrated that oral administration of lactoferrin or lactoferricin exerts a host-protective effect in various animals and in humans. The results of these studies strongly suggest that the effects of oral lactoferrin are mediated by modulation of the immune system. Further elucidation of the clinical efficacy and mechanism of action of lactoferrin will increase the value of lactoferrin-containing products.

  18. Large Scale Production of Stem Cells and Their Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweigerdt, Robert

    Stem cells have been envisioned to become an unlimited cell source for regenerative medicine. Notably, the interest in stem cells lies beyond direct therapeutic applications. They might also provide a previously unavailable source of valuable human cell types for screening platforms, which might facilitate the development of more efficient and safer drugs. The heterogeneity of stem cell types as well as the numerous areas of application suggests that differential processes are mandatory for their in vitro culture. Many of the envisioned applications would require the production of a high number of stem cells and their derivatives in scalable, well-defined and potentially clinical compliant manner under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). In this review we provide an overview on recent strategies to develop bioprocesses for the expansion, differentiation and enrichment of stem cells and their progenies, presenting examples for adult and embryonic stem cells alike.

  19. New Courses: Unlock the Mysteries of Productivity, Air Quality, and the Indoor Environment in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiford, Regina

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between indoor air quality and productivity and a three-year research project to measure productivity within an educational setting. Also discusses research showing the impact of good indoor air quality on increasing productivity. Ten ways to manage asthma in a school environment are highlighted. (GR)

  20. Engineering nonphosphorylative metabolism to generate lignocellulose-derived products.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yi-Shu; Xiong, Mingyong; Jambunathan, Pooja; Wang, Jingyu; Wang, Jilong; Stapleton, Cole; Zhang, Kechun

    2016-04-01

    Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products provides important environmental and economic benefits. Here we report the engineering of an unconventional metabolism for the production of tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle derivatives from D-xylose, L-arabinose and D-galacturonate. We designed a growth-based selection platform to identify several gene clusters functional in Escherichia coli that can perform this nonphosphorylative assimilation of sugars into the TCA cycle in less than six steps. To demonstrate the application of this new metabolic platform, we built artificial biosynthetic pathways to 1,4-butanediol (BDO) with a theoretical molar yield of 100%. By screening and engineering downstream pathway enzymes, 2-ketoacid decarboxylases and alcohol dehydrogenases, we constructed E. coli strains capable of producing BDO from D-xylose, L-arabinose and D-galacturonate. The titers, rates and yields were higher than those previously reported using conventional pathways. This work demonstrates the potential of nonphosphorylative metabolism for biomanufacturing with improved biosynthetic efficiencies. PMID:26854668

  1. Production, quality and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs).

    PubMed

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

    2013-09-01

    This contribution describes characterization, classification, production, application and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs) that are increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. It is shown in this paper, that the fuel-parameter, i.e. net calorific value [MJ/kg(OS)], particle size d(90) or d(95) [mm], impurities [w%], chlorine content [w%], sulfur content [w%], fluorine content [w%], ash content [w%], moisture [w%] and heavy metals content [mg/kg(DM)], can be preferentially used for the classification of different types of RDF applied for co-incineration and substitution of fossil-fuel in different industial sectors. Describing the external production of RDF by processing and confectioning of wastes as well as internal processing of waste at the incineration plant, a case study is reported on the application of RDF made out of different household waste fractions in a 120,000t/yr Waste to Energy (WtE) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. For that purpose, delivered wastes, as well as incinerator feedstock material (i.e. after internal waste processing) are extensively investigated. Starting with elaboration of sampling plan in accordance with the relevant guidelines and standards, waste from different suppliers was sampled. Moreover, manual sorting analyses and chemical analyses were carried out. Finally, results of investigations are presented and discussed in the paper. PMID:23746983

  2. Engineering nonphosphorylative metabolism to generate lignocellulose-derived products.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yi-Shu; Xiong, Mingyong; Jambunathan, Pooja; Wang, Jingyu; Wang, Jilong; Stapleton, Cole; Zhang, Kechun

    2016-04-01

    Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products provides important environmental and economic benefits. Here we report the engineering of an unconventional metabolism for the production of tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle derivatives from D-xylose, L-arabinose and D-galacturonate. We designed a growth-based selection platform to identify several gene clusters functional in Escherichia coli that can perform this nonphosphorylative assimilation of sugars into the TCA cycle in less than six steps. To demonstrate the application of this new metabolic platform, we built artificial biosynthetic pathways to 1,4-butanediol (BDO) with a theoretical molar yield of 100%. By screening and engineering downstream pathway enzymes, 2-ketoacid decarboxylases and alcohol dehydrogenases, we constructed E. coli strains capable of producing BDO from D-xylose, L-arabinose and D-galacturonate. The titers, rates and yields were higher than those previously reported using conventional pathways. This work demonstrates the potential of nonphosphorylative metabolism for biomanufacturing with improved biosynthetic efficiencies.

  3. Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products. PMID:21833168

  4. Conformational changes of a calix[8]arene derivative at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Gustavo; Pedrosa, José M; Martín-Romero, María T; Muñoz, Eulogia; Richardson, Tim H; Camacho, Luis

    2005-03-10

    The particular behavior of a p-tert-butyl calix[8]arene derivative (C8A) has been studied at the air-water interface using surface pressure-area isotherms, surface potential-area isotherms, film relaxation measurements, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), and infrared spectroscopy for Langmuir-Blodgett films. Thus, it is observed that the properties of the film, for example, isotherms, domain formation, and FTIR spectra, recorded during the first compression cycle differ appreciably from those during the second compression and following cycles. The results obtained are interpreted on the basis of the conformational changes of the C8A molecules by surface pressure, allowing us to inquire into the inter- and intramolecular interactions (hydrogen bonds) of those molecules. Thus, the compression induces changes in the kind of hydrogen bonds from intra- and intermolecular with other C8A molecules to hydrogen bonds with water molecules. PMID:16851456

  5. Conformational changes of a calix[8]arene derivative at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Gustavo; Pedrosa, José M; Martín-Romero, María T; Muñoz, Eulogia; Richardson, Tim H; Camacho, Luis

    2005-03-10

    The particular behavior of a p-tert-butyl calix[8]arene derivative (C8A) has been studied at the air-water interface using surface pressure-area isotherms, surface potential-area isotherms, film relaxation measurements, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), and infrared spectroscopy for Langmuir-Blodgett films. Thus, it is observed that the properties of the film, for example, isotherms, domain formation, and FTIR spectra, recorded during the first compression cycle differ appreciably from those during the second compression and following cycles. The results obtained are interpreted on the basis of the conformational changes of the C8A molecules by surface pressure, allowing us to inquire into the inter- and intramolecular interactions (hydrogen bonds) of those molecules. Thus, the compression induces changes in the kind of hydrogen bonds from intra- and intermolecular with other C8A molecules to hydrogen bonds with water molecules.

  6. High-Performing Polycarbazole Derivatives for Efficient Solution-Processing of Organic Solar Cells in Air.

    PubMed

    Burgués-Ceballos, Ignasi; Hermerschmidt, Felix; Akkuratov, Alexander V; Susarova, Diana K; Troshin, Pavel A; Choulis, Stelios A

    2015-12-21

    The application of conjugated materials in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is usually demonstrated in lab-scale spin-coated devices that are processed under controlled inert conditions. Although this is a necessary step to prove high efficiency, testing of promising materials in air should be done in the early stages of research to validate their real potential for low-cost, solution-processed, and large-scale OPVs. Also relevant for approaching commercialization needs is the use of printing techniques that are compatible with upscaling. Here, solution processing of organic solar cells based on three new poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives is efficiently transferred, without significant losses, to air conditions and to several deposition methods using a simple device architecture. High efficiencies in the range between 5.0 % and 6.3 % are obtained in (rigid) spin-coated, doctor-bladed, and (flexible) slot-die-coated devices, which surpass the reference devices based on poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT). In contrast, inkjet printing does not provide reliable results with the presented polymers, which is attributed to their high molecular weight. When the device area in the best-performing system is increased from 9 mm(2) to 0.7 cm(2), the efficiency drops from 6.2 % to 5.0 %. Photocurrent mapping reveals inhomogeneous current generation derived from changes in the thickness of the active layer. PMID:26663820

  7. Test and evaluation of shale derived jet fuel by the United States Air Force

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    In June 1980, the United States Congress passed the Energy Security Act which provided for the formation of the United States Synthetic Fuels Corporation and amended the Defense Production Act of 1950 to provide for synthetic fuels for the Department of Defense (DOD). A subsequent law, P.L., 96-304, appropriated up to $20 billion for financial incentives to foster a national synthetic fuel industry. The initial synthetic fuel project funded under the Energy Security Act is the Unocal Parachute Creek Project in Colorado with an expected shale oil production of 10,000 bbls/day. The Defense Fuel Supply Center (DFSC) contracted with Gary Energy Refining Company, Fruita, Colorado to provide approximately 5,000 bbls/day of shale JP-4 for the United States Air Force (USAF) using crude from the Parachute Creek Project, with initial deliveries to begin in 1985.

  8. Biofilm Formation Derived from Ambient Air and the Characteristics of Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanematsu, H.; Kougo, H.; Kuroda, D.; Itho, H.; Ogino, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2013-04-01

    Biofilm is a kind of thin film on solidified matters, being derived from bacteria. Generally, planktonic bacteria float in aqueous environments, soil or air, most of which can be regarded as oligotrophic environments. Since they have to survive by instinct, they seek for nutrients that would exist on materials surfaces as organic matters. Therefore, bacteria attach materials surfaces reversibly. The attachment and detachment repeat for a while and finally, they attach on them irreversibly and the number of bacteria on them increases. At a threshold number, bacteria produce polymeric matters at the same time by quorum sensing mechanism and the biofilm produces on material surfaces. The biofilm produced in that way generally contains water (more than 80%), EPS (Exopolymeric Substance) and bacteria themselves. And they might bring about many industrial problems, fouling, corrosion etc. Therefore, it is very important for us to control and prevent the biofilm formation properly. However, it is generally very hard to produce biofilm experimentally and constantly in ambient atmosphere on labo scale. The authors invented an apparatus where biofilm could form on specimen's surfaces from house germs in the ambient air. In this experiment, we investigated the basic characteristics of the apparatus, reproducibility, the change of biofilm with experimental time, the quality change of water for biofilm formation and their significance for biofilm research.

  9. Analysis of air pollution from swine production by using air dispersion model and GIS in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Joachim H; Goïta, Kalifa; Desmarais, Camille

    2010-01-01

    Swine production, the second most important contributor to Quebec's agricultural revenue, faces many problems. Intensive piggeries, with up to 599 animal units, are used to raise finishing pigs for slaughter. Among the great number of gaseous species emitted to the atmospheric environment from livestock buildings and manure storage units is NH3, which is one of the most important and most offensive with respect to human health. Under appropriate meteorological and topographical conditions, gaseous contaminants can spread and cause a public nuisance--up to a 1-km radius around the farm. To mitigate these effects, the Quebec Government adopted regulations that set minimum buffer distances to be observed by any expansion of an existing or new pig farm. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the efficiency of the current buffer distance prescriptions in Quebec in mitigating effects of air pollution from swine units and (ii) to identify potential areas for establishing pig farm operations that will not be offensive to people. The air dispersion American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) with receptors distributed at 1.6 km around each source was used first, followed by a spatial geographic information system (GIS) model. Results from the dispersion model showed that the highest hourly concentration with a 99.5% compliance frequency for a single farm was 3078.1 microg/m3 and exceeded the NH3 odor criterion hourly standard set by the Quebec Government at 183.4 microg/m3. Thus, for public safety, densely populated areas like housing developments must be located >1300 m from a pig farm. This distance is in the range of setback distances (723 to 1447 m) obtained by using abacuses defined in the L'Erable Regional County Municipality. That is why we can say the current rules established by the Quebec Government, if rigorously applied, can prevent odor nuisance, due to NH3 emission, from swine farms. In the spatial model

  10. TESTING INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS: ONE APPROACH TO DEVELOPING WIDELY ACCEPTED PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes an approach to developing widely acce ted products for testing indoor air products. [NOTE: Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is a partner in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program with responsibil...

  11. Re-evaluation of the product of (W/e)air and the graphite to air stopping-power ratio for 60Co air kerma standards.

    PubMed

    Thomson, R M; Rogers, D W O

    2010-07-01

    Experiments which determine the product of (W/e)air, the average energy deposited per coulomb of charge of one sign released by an electron coming to rest in dry air, and (LDelta/rho)Ca, the Spencer-Attix mean restricted mass collision stopping-power ratio for graphite to air, in a 60Co or 137Cs beam are reanalysed. Correction factors, e.g., to account for gaps about a calorimeter core or perturbations due to a cavity's presence, are calculated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system and these generally decrease the value of (W/e)air(LDelta/rho)Ca for each experiment. Stopping-power ratios are calculated for different choices of density correction and average excitation energy (I-value) for graphite. To calculate an average value (W/e)air(LBIPM/rho)Ca for the BIPM air kerma standard, each experimental result is multiplied by the ratio (LBIPM/rho)Ca/(LDelta/Rho)Ca. While individual values of (LDelta/rho)Ca are sensitive to the I-values and density corrections assumed, this ratio varies by less than 0.1% for different choices. Hence, the product (W/e)air(LBIPM/rho)Ca is relatively insensitive to these choices. The weighted mean of the updated data is (W/e)air(LBIPM/rho)Ca=33.68 J C(-1)+/-0.2%, suggesting that the accepted value of 33.97 J C(-1)+/-0.1% is 0.8% too high. This has implications for primary 60Co air kerma standards worldwide and potentially for the choice of graphite I-value and density correction for the calculation of the graphite stopping power, as well as the value of (W/e)air.

  12. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If...

  13. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If...

  14. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If...

  15. Chemical Reactivity of alpha-Pinene-derived Products in the Aqueous Phase: Implications on the Fate of Organic Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindelaub, J. D.; Hostetler, M. A.; Lipton, M. A.; Shepson, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    The production of organic nitrates has significant atmospheric importance due to the impact on regional air quality by influencing NOx lifetimes and ozone formation. Additionally, these low volatility compounds readily partition into the particle phase and are important contributors to secondary organic aerosol. Once in the aerosol phase, organic nitrates undergo further chemical reactions that govern their fate in the atmosphere and, consequently, their impact on air quality. Recent research indicates that the presence of water on aerosol particles has a major impact on the reactivity of organic nitrates and that condensed phase hydrolysis leads to the destruction of organic nitrate species, depending on structure. Despite this knowledge, the chemical mechanisms, products, product reactivity and volatility are still uncertain, negatively impacting our understanding of aerosol phase processing and the contribution to air quality. To further understand the atmospheric impact of aerosol phase hydrolysis, we analyzed both condensed phase hydrolysis reactions involving alpha-pinene-derived standards and alpha-pinene photochemical chamber reaction filter samples, using a suite of spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques. We were able to measure the pH-dependent hydrolysis rate constants for several types of organic nitrates and identify specific reaction products. The chemistry involved exhibits a strong dependence on pH, providing important mechanistic clues. The results of this study will significantly contribute to our knowledge of aerosol phase chemistry and the impact on regional air quality with respect to the fate of organic nitrate species.

  16. The Role of Derivative Suffix Productivity in the Visual Word Recognition of Complex Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lázaro, Miguel; Sainz, Javier; Illera, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present two lexical decision experiments that examine the role of base frequency and of derivative suffix productivity in visual recognition of Spanish words. In the first experiment we find that complex words with productive derivative suffixes result in lower response times than those with unproductive derivative suffixes.…

  17. AIRS Water Vapor and Cloud Products Validate and Explain Recent Negative Global and Tropical OLR Trends Observed by CERES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares spatial and temporal anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed based on AIRS retrieved surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters over the time period September 2002 February 2010. This time period is marked by a substantial decreasing OLR trend on the order of -0.1 W/m2/yr averaged over the globe. There are very large spatial variations of these trends however, with local values ranging from -2.6 W/m2/yr to +3.0 W/m2/yr in the tropics. The spatial patterns of the AIRS and CERES trends are in essentially perfect agreement with each other, as are the anomaly time series averaged over different spatial regions. This essentially perfect agreement of OLR anomalies and trends derived from observations by two different instruments, in totally independent and different manners, implies that both sets of results must be highly accurate. The agreement of anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed from AIRS derived products also indirectly validates the anomalies and trends of the AIRS derived products as well. We used the anomalies and trends of AIRS derived water vapor and cloud products to explain why global OLR has had a large negative trend over the time period September 2002 through February 2010. Tropical OLR began to decrease significantly at the onset of a strong La Nina in mid-2007. AIRS products show that cloudiness and mid-tropospheric water vapor began to increase in the region 5degN - 20degS latitude extending eastward from 150degW - 30 E longitude at that time, with a corresponding very large drop in OLR in this region. Late 2009 is characterized by a strong El-Nino, with a corresponding change in sign of observed anomalies of mid-tropospheric water vapor, cloud cover, and OLR in this region, as we] l as that of OLR anomalies in the tropics and globally. Monthly mean anomalies of OLR, water vapor and cloud cover over this region are all shown to be highly correlated in time with those of an El Nino

  18. Development of Level 3 (gridded) products for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, Stephanie L.; Leroy, Stephen S.; Manning, Evan M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Oliphant, Robert B.; Braverman, Amy; Lee, Sung-Yung; Lambrigtsen, Bjom H.

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) sounding system is a suite of infrared and microwave instruments flown as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) onboard the Aqua platform. The AIRS dataset provides a daily, global view of Earth processes at a finer vertical resolution than ever before. However, analysis of the AIRS data is a daunting task given the sheer volume and complexity of the data. The volume of data produced by the EOS project is unprecedented; the AIRS project alone will produce many terabytes of data over the lifetime of the mission. This paper describes development of AIRS Level 3 data products that will help to alleviate problems of access and usability.

  19. Hesitation Patterns in Third Grade Children's Derived Word Productions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edrington, Jamie L.; Buder, Eugene H.; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Hesitations have been considered to serve both cognitive and linguistic functions. This study presents analyses of children's hesitations while producing English derived words with the suffix -"ity". Two questions were considered: Do children's linguistic skills influence their use and frequency of hesitations when producing derived words, and do…

  20. Demonstration of AIRS Total Ozone Products to Operations to Enhance User Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cyclogenesis is a key forecast challenge at operational forecasting centers such as WPC and OPC, so these centers have a particular interest in unique products that can identify key storm features. In some cases, explosively developing extratropical cyclones can produce hurricane force, non-convective winds along the East Coast and north Atlantic as well as the Pacific Ocean, with the potential to cause significant damage to life and property. Therefore, anticipating cyclogenesis for these types of storms is crucial for furthering the NOAA goal of a "Weather Ready Nation". Over the last few years, multispectral imagery (i.e. RGB) products have gained popularity among forecasters. The GOES-R satellite champion at WPC/OPC has regularly evaluated the Air Mass RGB products from GOES Sounder, MODIS, and SEVIRI to aid in forecasting cyclogenesis as part of ongoing collaborations with SPoRT within the framework of the GOES-R Proving Ground. WPC/OPC has used these products to identify regions of stratospheric air associated with tropopause folds that can lead to cyclogenesis and hurricane force winds. RGB products combine multiple channels or channel differences into multi-color imagery in which different colors represent a particular cloud or air mass type. Initial interaction and feedback from forecasters evaluating the legacy Air Mass RGBs revealed some uncertainty regarding what physical processes the qualitative RGB products represent and color interpretation. To enhance forecaster confidence and interpretation of the Air Mass RGB, NASA SPoRT has transitioned a total column ozone product from AIRS retrievals to the WPC/OPC. The use of legacy AIRS demonstrates future JPSS capabilities possible with CrIS or OMPS. Since stratospheric air can be identified by anomalous potential vorticity and warm, dry, ozone-rich air, hyperspectral infrared sounder ozone products can be used in conjunction with the Air Mass RGB for identifying the role of stratospheric air in explosive

  1. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air... Release to Sewerage B Appendix B to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION... Hydrogen H 1 Indium In 49 Iodine I 53 Iridium Ir 77 Iron Fe 26 Krypton Kr 36 Lanthanum La 57 Lead Pb...

  2. INTEGRATION OF SATELLITE-DERIVED AEROSOL DATA INTO THE AIR QUALITY APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, the only source of aerosol air quality data available on an ongoing and systematic basis at national levels was generated by ambient air monitoring networks put in place for the US EPA's Air Quality Programs. Over the past several years, the remote sensing of aeros...

  3. Deriving spatial trends of air pollution at a neighborhood-scale through mobile monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Measuring air pollution in real-time using an instrumented vehicle platform has been an emerging strategy to resolve air pollution trends at a very fine spatial scale (10s of meters). Achieving second-by-second data representative of urban air quality trends requires a...

  4. Insecticidal Constituents of Essential Oil Derived from Zanthoxylum armatum against Two Stored-Product Insects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Fan, Li; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our search for natural bioactive chemicals and investigations on their insecticidal activities from some medicinal plants growing in China, the essential oil derived from the twigs of Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against two stored-product insects, Lasioderma serricorne and Tribolium castaneum. A total of 32 constituents of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC-MS analysis, and it revealed (E)-anethole (20.5%), 1,8-cineole (14.0%), 2-tridecanone (12.5%), limonene (9.0%) and piperitone (8.0%) as major components, followed by β-phellandrene (6.3%), β-pinene (5.1%) and 4-terpineol (4.4%). From the essential oil, five compounds were isolated and identified as (E)-anethole, 1,8-cineole, 2-tridecanone, limonene and piperitone. The results of insecticidal bioassays showed that the essential oil of Z. armatum exhibited strong fumigant toxicity towards L. serricorne and T. castaneum with LC50 values of 13.83 and 4.28 mg/L air, respectively, and also possessed contact toxicity against two insect species with LD50 values of 18.74 and 32.16 μg/adult, respectively. Among the active compounds, piperitone performed the strongest fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne (LC50 = 1.21 mg/L air) and contact toxicity against T. castaneum (LD50 = 3.16 μg/adult). 1,8-Cineole, limonene and piperitone showed similar fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum with LC50 values of 5.47, 6.21 and 7.12 mg/L air, respectively. Meanwhile, L. serricorne was the most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LD50 = 5.74 μg/adult) in the progress of contact toxicity assay. PMID:26179006

  5. Indoor air pollutants from household-product sources: Project report

    SciTech Connect

    Sack, T.M.; Steele, D.H.

    1991-09-01

    A Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GS/MS) data base obtained during the analysis of 1,159 household products for six common chlorocarbon solvents has been reanalyzed for the presence and concentration of 25 additional chemicals. Using computerized GS/MS software, 1,043 of the original GC/MS data files were recovered and analyzed for the presence of the additional chemicals. Of the 25 additional chemicals, those found most frequently in the household products include acetone (315 products), 2-butanone (200 products), methylcyclohexane (150 products), toluene (488 products), ethylbenzene (157 products), m-xylene (101 products), and o.p-xylene (93 products). A total of 63.6% of the products analyzed in the study contained one or more of the 25 additional analytes at concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1% by weight. The quantitative information presented in the report is also available on diskette in a spreadsheet format.

  6. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles.

  7. DEVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR TESTING INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development of a framework for testing products used indoors for appropriate environmental attributes, as part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. Test protocols are being established for products that fit into three categories: ...

  8. Intercomparison of Recent Anomaly Time-Series of OLR as Observed by CERES and Computed Using AIRS Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Loeb, Norman G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares recent spatial and temporal anomaly time series of OLR as observed by CERES and computed based on AIRS retrieved surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters over the 7 year time period September 2002 through February 2010. This time period is marked by a substantial decrease of OLR, on the order of +/-0.1 W/sq m/yr, averaged over the globe, and very large spatial variations of changes in OLR in the tropics, with local values ranging from -2.8 W/sq m/yr to +3.1 W/sq m/yr. Global and Tropical OLR both began to decrease significantly at the onset of a strong La Ni a in mid-2007. Late 2009 is characterized by a strong El Ni o, with a corresponding change in sign of both Tropical and Global OLR anomalies. The spatial patterns of the 7 year short term changes in AIRS and CERES OLR have a spatial correlation of 0.97 and slopes of the linear least squares fits of anomaly time series averaged over different spatial regions agree on the order of +/-0.01 W/sq m/yr. This essentially perfect agreement of OLR anomaly time series derived from observations by two different instruments, determined in totally independent and different manners, implies that both sets of results must be highly stable. This agreement also validates the anomaly time series of the AIRS derived products used to compute OLR and furthermore indicates that anomaly time series of AIRS derived products can be used to explain the factors contributing to anomaly time series of OLR.

  9. Satellite-Derived Bias-Corrected Air Temperature for Understanding Crop-Climate Interactions in Tropical Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, A.

    2015-12-01

    The magnitude of local/regional temperature variability and crop responses to such changes must be well understood to accurately assess the impacts of climate variability and change on agriculture. Challenges arise when meteorological stations are sparsely distributed such as in much of the tropics including cerrado Brazil—one of the largest agriculturally-important areas in the tropics. Currently available gridded climate datasets are coarse (i.e. 2.5º to 0.5º), heavily-interpolated and hence not adequate for regional/local scale assessments of agricultural impacts from climate. In this context, we aim to develop a new method for gridded standard retrieval of a number of agriculturally-relevant near-surface air temperature indicators. We employ Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived land surface temperature, vertical temperature profile, meteorological station data, and other biophysical data. We will contrast the accuracy of different air temperature derivation approaches including multiple linear regression, machine learning, the use of vegetation indices to proxy for air temperature variation, and physical approaches based on surface energy balance parametrizations. Our method aims to control for potential biases in surface temperatures due to differences in land cover types, changes in vegetation cover, and variation in plant growth. Satellite-derived near-surface air temperature datasets can support enhanced analysis of climate impacts and climate change adaptation in tropical agriculture.

  10. 75 FR 31223 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... method for crediting heat pumps that provide a demand defrost capability. 53 FR 8304. The next revision... Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 105... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Central Air Conditioners and...

  11. Improved Digitization of Lunar Mare Ridges with LROC Derived Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, J. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Watters, T. R.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Enns, A. C.; Lawrence, S.

    2011-12-01

    Lunar wrinkle ridges (mare ridges) are positive-relief structures formed from compressional stress in basin-filling flood basalt deposits [1]. Previous workers have measured wrinkle ridge orientations and lengths to investigate their spatial distribution and infer basin-localized stress fields [2,3]. Although these plots include the most prominent mare ridges and their general trends, they may not have fully captured all of the ridges, particularly the smaller-scale ridges. Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC) global mosaics and derived topography (100m pixel scale) [4], we systematically remapped wrinkle ridges in Mare Serenitatis. By comparing two WAC mosaics with different lighting geometry, and shaded relief maps made from a WAC digital elevation model (DEM) [5], we observed that some ridge segments and some smaller ridges are not visible in previous structure maps [2,3]. In the past, mapping efforts were limited by a fixed Sun direction [6,7]. For systematic mapping we created three shaded relief maps from the WAC DEM with solar azimuth angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, and a fourth map was created by combining the three shaded reliefs into one, using a simple averaging scheme. Along with the original WAC mosaic and the WAC DEM, these four datasets were imported into ArcGIS, and the mare ridges of Imbrium, Serenitatis, and Tranquillitatis were digitized from each of the six maps. Since the mare ridges are often divided into many ridge segments [8], each major component was digitized separately, as opposed to the ridge as a whole. This strategy enhanced our ability to analyze the lengths, orientations, and abundances of these ridges. After the initial mapping was completed, the six products were viewed together to identify and resolve discrepancies in order to produce a final wrinkle ridge map. Comparing this new mare ridge map with past lunar tectonic maps, we found that many mare ridges were not recorded in the previous works. It was noted

  12. Recent decreases in fossil-fuel emissions of ethane and methane derived from firn air.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Murat; Verhulst, Kristal R; Saltzman, Eric S; Battle, Mark O; Montzka, Stephen A; Blake, Donald R; Tang, Qi; Prather, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    Methane and ethane are the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere and they affect both atmospheric chemistry and climate. Both gases are emitted from fossil fuels and biomass burning, whereas methane (CH(4)) alone has large sources from wetlands, agriculture, landfills and waste water. Here we use measurements in firn (perennial snowpack) air from Greenland and Antarctica to reconstruct the atmospheric variability of ethane (C(2)H(6)) during the twentieth century. Ethane levels rose from early in the century until the 1980s, when the trend reversed, with a period of decline over the next 20 years. We find that this variability was primarily driven by changes in ethane emissions from fossil fuels; these emissions peaked in the 1960s and 1970s at 14-16 teragrams per year (1 Tg = 10(12) g) and dropped to 8-10 Tg  yr(-1) by the turn of the century. The reduction in fossil-fuel sources is probably related to changes in light hydrocarbon emissions associated with petroleum production and use. The ethane-based fossil-fuel emission history is strikingly different from bottom-up estimates of methane emissions from fossil-fuel use, and implies that the fossil-fuel source of methane started to decline in the 1980s and probably caused the late twentieth century slow-down in the growth rate of atmospheric methane.

  13. Carbonyl atmospheric reaction products of aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermeyer, Genevieve; Aschmann, Sara M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet

    To convert gaseous carbonyls to oximes during sampling, an XAD-4 resin denuder system pre-coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine and followed by analysis with methane positive chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure carbonyls in ambient air samples in Riverside, CA. In conjunction with similar analyses of environmental chamber OH radical-initiated reactions of o- and p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, ethylbenzene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 1,4-butanediol, we identified benzaldehyde, o-, m- and p-tolualdehyde and acetophenone and the dicarbonyls glyoxal, methylglyoxal, biacetyl, ethylglyoxal, 1,4-butenedial, 3-hexene-2,5-dione, 3-oxo-butanal, 1,4-butanedial and malonaldehyde in the ambient air samples. As discussed, these carbonyls and dicarbonyls can be formed from the OH radical-initiated reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons and other volatile organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere, and we conclude that in situ atmospheric formation is a major source of these carbonyls in our Riverside, CA, ambient air samples.

  14. Lexical Frequency and Third-Graders' Stress Accuracy in Derived English Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.; Hay, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lexical frequency on children's production of accurate primary stress in words derived with nonneutral English suffixes. Forty-four third-grade children participated in an elicited derived word task in which they produced high-frequency, low-frequency, and nonsense-derived words with stress-changing suffixes…

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - AIR PURATOR CORPORATION HUYGLAS 1405M FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  16. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Dried Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the U.S. marketplace (n=72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric a...

  17. Differential Instructional Productivity Indices. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Allan M.

    A set of weighting factors on student credit hour production by discipline was developed so that instructional productivity could be equitably compared across disparate disciplines and within disciplines. The new statistical methodology was applied to 3 years of teaching load data from 21 major public universities (the Southern University Group…

  18. Production of viable trout offspring derived from frozen whole fish

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungki; Seki, Shinsuke; Katayama, Naoto; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2015-01-01

    Long-term preservation of fish fertility is essential for the conservation of endangered fishes. However, cryopreservation techniques for fish oocytes and embryos have not yet been developed. In the present study, functional eggs and sperm were derived from whole rainbow trout that had been frozen in a freezer and stored without the aid of exogenous cryoprotectants. Type A spermatogonia retrieved from frozen-thawed whole trout remained viable after freezing duration up to 1,113 days. Long-term-frozen trout spermatogonia that were intraperitoneally transplanted into triploid salmon hatchlings migrated toward the recipient gonads, where they were incorporated, and proliferated rapidly. Although all triploid recipients that did not undergo transplantation were functionally sterile, 2 of 12 female recipients and 4 of 13 male recipients reached sexual maturity. Eggs and sperm obtained from the salmon recipients were capable of producing donor-derived trout offspring. This methodology is thus a convenient emergency tool for the preservation of endangered fishes. PMID:26522018

  19. Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes: A Three Dimensional View

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Jagjit; Allu, Srikanth; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Dudney, Nancy J; Pannala, Sreekanth; Veith, Gabriel M; Voisin, Sophie; Walker, Lakeisha MH; Archibald, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    Using neutron tomographic imaging we report for the first time three dimensional spatial distribution of lithium product distribution in electrochemically discharged Lithium-Air cathodes. Neutron imaging finds a non-uniform lithium product distribution across the electrode thickness; the lithium species concentration being higher near the edges of the Li-air electrode and relatively uniform in the center of the electrode. The experimental neutron images were analyzed in context of results obtained from 3D modeling of the spatial lithium product distribution using a kinetically coupled diffusion based transport model that accounts for the dynamical reaction rate dependence on the discharge product formation, porosity changes and mass transfer.

  20. World sulfur production: Petroleum derived as of January 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Data are presented on world sulfur production by company within each country. The table lists the source of the sulfur (refinery gases, natural gas, acid gas, sour gas, oil sands, associated gas, or resid asphalt), the type of process used to recovery the sulfur, plant design capacity, and production. Processes include Claus, chlorination, Scot, Sulfinol, Sulfreen, modified Claus, bed absorption, MDEA-LoCat, Selectox, Parsons, SNEA, Comprimo, Uhde, Stretford, and Wellman-Lord.

  1. Fate of ivermectin residues in ewes' milk and derived products.

    PubMed

    Cerkvenik, Vesna; Perko, Bogdan; Rogelj, Irena; Doganoc, Darinka Z; Skubic, Valentin; Beek, Wim M J; Keukens, Henk J

    2004-02-01

    The fate of ivermectin (IVM) residues was studied throughout the processing of daily bulk milk from 30 ewes (taken up to 33 d following subcutaneous administration of 0.2 mg IVM/kg b.w.) in the following milk products: yoghurt made from raw and pasteurized milk; cheese after pressing; 30- and 60-day ripened cheese; and whey, secondary whey and whey proteins obtained after cheese-making (albumin cheese). The concentration of the H2B1a component of IVM was analysed in these dairy products using an HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The mean recovery of the method was, depending on the matrix, between 87 and 100%. Limits of detection in the order of only 0.1 microg H2B1a/kg of product were achieved. Maximum concentrations of IVM were detected mostly at 2 d after drug administration to the ewes. The highest concentration of IVM was found on day 2 in 60-day ripened cheese (96 microg H2B1a/kg cheese). Secondary whey was the matrix with the lowest concentration of IVM (<0.6 microg H2B1a/ kg). Residue levels fell below the limits of detection between day 5 (for secondary whey) and day 25 (for all cheese samples). In the matrices investigated, linear correlations between daily concentrations of IVM, milk fat and solid content were evident. During yoghurt production, fermentation and thermal stability of IVM was observed. During cheese production, approximately 35% of the IVM, present in the raw (bulk) milk samples, was lost. From the results it was concluded that the processing of ewes' milk did not eliminate the drug residues under investigation. The consequences of IVM in the human diet were discussed. Milk from treated animals should be excluded from production of fat products like cheese for longer after treatment with IVM than for lower fat products.

  2. Proteomics of blood and derived products: what's next?

    PubMed

    Prudent, Michel; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2011-12-01

    Proteomics has changed the way proteins are analyzed in living systems. This approach has been applied to blood products and protein profiling has evolved in parallel with the development of techniques. The identification of proteins belonging to red blood cell, platelets or plasma was achieved at the end of the last century. Then, the questions on the applications emerged. Hence, several studies have focused on problems related to blood banking and products, such as the aging of blood products, identification of biomarkers, related diseases and the protein-protein interactions. More recently, a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to quality control has been applied in order to offer solutions and improve the quality of blood products. The current challenge we face is developing a closer relationship between transfusion medicine and proteomics. In this article, these issues will be approached by focusing first on the proteome identification of blood products and then on the applications and future developments within the field of proteomics and blood products. PMID:22087657

  3. A modeling procedure to evaluate the coherence of independently derived environmental quality objectives for air, water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Meent, D. van de . Lab. for Ecotoxicology); Bruijn, J.H.M. de . Directorate for Chemicals, Safety and Radiation Protection)

    1995-01-01

    Sets of independently derived environmental quality objectives (EQOs) for air, water, and soil may not be coherent in that maintaining the concentration at EQO level in one compartment may lead to exceeding EQO levels in other compartments. A methodology to evaluate this coherence is suggested. Starting from a steady concentration in the compartment of focus (the primary compartment), steady-state concentrations in the adjacent (secondary) compartments are estimated using a multimedia fate model. If air is the primary compartment, steady-state concentrations in water and soil close to the equilibrium concentrations can be expected, and coherence of EQOs can be evaluated easily by means of an extended equilibrium partitioning procedure. If water or soil is the primary compartment, the steady-state concentrate in air is usually well below the equilibrium concentration. Subequilibrium steady-state concentrations are sensitive to assumed model parameters. The procedure is illustrated with the results of a coherence analysis for seven chemicals for The Netherlands.

  4. Health and productivity benefits of improved indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, C.B.; Dorgan, C.E.; Kanarek, M.S.; Willman, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    This paper is a summary of two studies completed for a national contractor`s association on the health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The original study documented the general health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The second study expanded the scope to include medical cost reductions for specific illnesses from improved IAQ. General information on the objectives, assumptions, definitions, and results of the studies are presented, followed by detailed information on research methodology, building inventory and wellness categories, health and medical effects of poor IAQ, health cost benefits, productivity benefits, recommended improvements, and conclusions and future improvements.

  5. Thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of gaseous products resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Results of calculations to determine thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of combustion product gases are presented. The product gases are those resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures. The oxygen content of products resulting from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures was similiar to that of air; however, the oxygen contained in products of methane-oxygen combustion ranged from 20 percent by volume to zero for stoichiometric combustion. Calculations were made for products of reactant mixtures with fuel percentages, by mass, of 7.5 to 20. Results are presented for specific mixtures for a range of pressures varying from 0.0001 to 1,000 atm and for temperatures ranging from 200 to 3,800 K.

  6. Scalable production of embryonic stem cell-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Dang, Stephen M; Zandstra, Peter W

    2005-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the ability to self-renew as well as differentiate into any cell type in the body. These traits make ES cells an attractive "raw material" for a variety of cell-based technologies. However, uncontrolled cell aggregation in ES cell differentiation culture inhibits cell proliferation and differentiation and thwarts the use of stirred suspension bioreactors. Encapsulation of ES cells in agarose microdrops prevents physical interaction between developing embryoid bodies (EBs) that, in turn, prevents EB agglomeration. This enables use of stirred suspension bioreactors that can generate large numbers of ES-derived cells under controlled conditions.

  7. Animal-derived natural products review: focus on novel modifications and applications.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qianqian; Ma, Jianzhong; Xu, Qunna; Zhang, Jing; Simion, Demetra; Carmen, Gaidău; Guo, Congsheng

    2015-04-01

    Bio-based natural products have attracted exploding interests, while the environmental pollutions caused by the synthetic polymers are deteriorating dramatically. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the modification of animal-derived natural products with an emphasis on casein, chitosan and collagen. Furthermore, their novel applications in controlled drug delivery system, leather finishing, and pollutant adsorption are also demonstrated. Accordingly, some perspectives in the future development of animal-derived natural products are further proposed.

  8. Analysis of coal-derived products and environmental systems by synchronous fluorescence and room temperature phosphorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Gammage, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    Two simple room temperature techniques, synchronous fluorescence and phosphorescence, were utilized to determine the polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds in various complex systems including synthetic multicomponent mixtures and real-life samples such as workplace air particulate extracts and coal-derived samples. The results demonstrate that as many as a dozen PNA compounds can be identified and quantified by these two analytical methods.

  9. Global Carbon Monoxide Products from Combined AIRS, TES and MLS Measurements on A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Juying X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attie, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background modelbased field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  10. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Using New Combinatorial Chemistry Derived Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jaramillo, Thomas F.; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, Alan; Stucky, Galen D.; McFarland, Eric W.

    2004-10-25

    Solar photoelectrochemical water-splitting has long been viewed as one of the “holy grails” of chemistry because of its potential impact as a clean, renewable method of fuel production. Several known photocatalytic semiconductors can be used; however, the fundamental mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood and no known material has the required properties for cost effective hydrogen production. In order to investigate morphological and compositional variations in metal oxides as they relate to opto-electrochemical properties, we have employed a combinatorial methodology using automated, high-throughput, electrochemical synthesis and screening together with conventional solid-state methods. This report discusses a number of novel, high-throughput instruments developed during this project for the expeditious discovery of improved materials for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Also described within this report are results from a variety of materials (primarily tungsten oxide, zinc oxide, molybdenum oxide, copper oxide and titanium dioxide) whose properties were modified and improved by either layering, inter-mixing, or doping with one or more transition metals. Furthermore, the morphologies of certain materials were also modified through the use of structure directing agents (SDA) during synthesis to create mesostructures (features 2-50 nm) that increased surface area and improved rates of hydrogen production.

  11. Understanding Financial Innovation: An Introduction to Derivative Financial Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    Explains the use of forwards, futures, swaps, and options in international currency trading. Argues that pricing options are based on the same basic principles as pricing other financial instruments. Concludes that, although financial markets have developed several new products, hedging and speculation involve similar processes. (CFR)

  12. Reversal to air-driven sound production revealed by a molecular phylogeny of tongueless frogs, family Pipidae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evolutionary novelties often appear by conferring completely new functions to pre-existing structures or by innovating the mechanism through which a particular function is performed. Sound production plays a central role in the behavior of frogs, which use their calls to delimit territories and attract mates. Therefore, frogs have evolved complex vocal structures capable of producing a wide variety of advertising sounds. It is generally acknowledged that most frogs call by moving an air column from the lungs through the glottis with the remarkable exception of the family Pipidae, whose members share a highly specialized sound production mechanism independent of air movement. Results Here, we performed behavioral observations in the poorly known African pipid genus Pseudhymenochirus and document that the sound production in this aquatic frog is almost certainly air-driven. However, morphological comparisons revealed an indisputable pipid nature of Pseudhymenochirus larynx. To place this paradoxical pattern into an evolutionary framework, we reconstructed robust molecular phylogenies of pipids based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nine nuclear protein-coding genes that coincided in placing Pseudhymenochirus nested among other pipids. Conclusions We conclude that although Pseudhymenochirus probably has evolved a reversal to the ancestral non-pipid condition of air-driven sound production, the mechanism through which it occurs is an evolutionary innovation based on the derived larynx of pipids. This strengthens the idea that evolutionary solutions to functional problems often emerge based on previous structures, and for this reason, innovations largely depend on possibilities and constraints predefined by the particular history of each lineage. PMID:21524293

  13. Catalytic air oxidation of biomass-derived carbohydrates to formic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Ding, Dao-Jun; Deng, Li; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2012-07-01

    An efficient catalytic system for biomass oxidation to form formic acid was developed. The conversion of glucose to formic acid can reach up to 52% yield within 3 h when catalyzed by 5 mol% of H(5)PV(2)Mo(10)O(40) at only 373 K using air as the oxidant. Furthermore, the heteropolyacid can be used as a bifunctional catalyst in the conversion of cellulose to formic acid (yield=35%) with air as the oxidant. PMID:22499553

  14. Catalytic air oxidation of biomass-derived carbohydrates to formic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Ding, Dao-Jun; Deng, Li; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2012-07-01

    An efficient catalytic system for biomass oxidation to form formic acid was developed. The conversion of glucose to formic acid can reach up to 52% yield within 3 h when catalyzed by 5 mol% of H(5)PV(2)Mo(10)O(40) at only 373 K using air as the oxidant. Furthermore, the heteropolyacid can be used as a bifunctional catalyst in the conversion of cellulose to formic acid (yield=35%) with air as the oxidant.

  15. Associations of Residential Long-Term Air Pollution Exposures and Satellite-Derived Greenness with Insulin Resistance in German Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thiering, Elisabeth; Markevych, Iana; Brüske, Irene; Fuertes, Elaine; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Sugiri, Dorothea; Hoffmann, Barbara; von Berg, Andrea; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Berdel, Dietrich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have identified associations between air pollution and green space access with type 2 diabetes in adults. However, it remains unclear to what extent associations with greenness are attributable to air pollution exposure. Objectives: We aimed to investigate associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and satellite-derived greenness with insulin resistance in adolescents. Methods: A total of 837 participants of two German birth cohorts (LISAplus and GINIplus) were included in the analysis. Generalized additive models were used to determine the association of individual satellite-derived greenness defined by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), long-term air pollution exposure estimated by land-use regression (LUR) models with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 15-year-old adolescents. Models were adjusted for study area, cohort, socioeconomic, and individual characteristics such as body mass index, physical activity, and smoking. Results: Increases of 2 SDs in nitrogen dioxide (NO2; 8.9 μg/m3) and particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10; 6.7 μg/m3) were significantly associated with 11.4% (95% CI: 4.4, 18.9) and 11.4% (95% CI: 0.4, 23.7) higher HOMA-IR. A 2-SD increase in NDVI in a 1,000-m buffer (0.2 units) was significantly associated with a lower HOMA-IR (–7.4%; 95% CI: –13.3, –1.1). Associations tended to be stronger in adolescents who spent more time outside and in those with lower socioeconomic status. In combined models including both air pollution and greenness, only NO2 remained significantly associated with HOMA-IR, whereas effect estimates for all other exposures attenuated after adjustment for NO2. Conclusions: NO2, often considered as a marker of traffic, was independently associated with insulin resistance. The observed association between higher greenness exposure and lower HOMA-IR in adolescents might thus be attributable mainly to the lower co-exposure to traffic-related air

  16. Ozone production by a dc corona discharge in air contaminated by n-heptane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekárek, S.

    2008-01-01

    Beneficial purposes of ozone such as elimination of odours, harmful bacteria and mildew can be used for transportation of food, fruits and vegetables with the aim to extend their storage life. To date the main technique used for this purpose in the transportation of these commodities, e.g. by trucks, was cooling. Here a combination of cooling together with the supply of ozone into containers with these commodities is considered. For these purposes we studied the effect of air contamination by n-heptane (part of automotive fuels) and humidity on ozone production by a dc hollow needle to mesh corona discharge. We found that, for both polarities of the needle electrode, addition of n-heptane to air (a) decreases ozone production; (b) causes discharge poisoning to occur at lower current than for air; (c) does not substantially influence the current for which the ozone production reaches the maximum. Finally the maximum ozone production for the discharge in air occurs for the same current as the maximum ozone production for the discharge contaminated by n-heptane. We also found that humidity decreases ozone production from air contaminated by n-heptane irrespective of the polarity of the coronating needle electrode. This dependence is stronger for the discharge with the needle biased positively.

  17. Production of Diethyl Terephthalate from Biomass-Derived Muconic Acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rui; Lu, Fang; Chen, Jiazhi; Yu, Weiqiang; Huang, Qianqian; Zhang, Junjie; Xu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    We report a cascade synthetic route to directly obtain diethyl terephthalate, a replacement for terephthalic acid, from biomass-derived muconic acid, ethanol, and ethylene. The process involves two steps: First, a substituted cyclohexene system is built through esterification and Diels-Alder reaction; then, a dehydrogenation reaction provides diethyl terephthalate. The key esterification reaction leads to improved solubility and modulates the electronic properties of muconic acid, thus promoting the Diels-Alder reaction with ethylene. With silicotungstic acid as the catalyst, nearly 100% conversion of muconic acid was achieved, and the cycloadducts were formed with more than 99.0% selectivity. The palladium-catalyzed dehydrogenation reaction preferentially occurs under neutral or mildly basic conditions. The total yield of diethyl terephthalate reached 80.6% based on the amount of muconic acid used in the two-step synthetic process. PMID:26592149

  18. Production of aligned microfibers and nanofibers and derived functional monoliths

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Michael Z.; DePaoli, David W.; Kuritz, Tanya; Omatete, Ogbemi

    2007-08-14

    The present invention comprises a method for producing microfibers and nanofibers and further fabricating derived solid monolithic materials having aligned uniform micro- or nanofibrils. A method for producing fibers ranging in diameter from micrometer-sized to nanometer-sized comprises the steps of producing an electric field and preparing a solid precipitative reaction media wherein the media comprises at least one chemical reactive precursor and a solvent having low electrical conductivity and wherein a solid precipitation reaction process for nucleation and growth of a solid phase occurs within the media. Then, subjecting the media to the electric field to induce in-situ growth of microfibers or nanofibers during the reaction process within the media causing precipitative growth of solid phase particles wherein the reaction conditions and reaction kinetics control the size, morphology and composition of the fibers. The fibers can then be wet pressed while under electric field into a solid monolith slab, dried and consolidated.

  19. Enhanced heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris under increased air pressure.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marlene; Oliveira, Carla; Domingues, Lucília; Mota, Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is a widely used host for the production of heterologous proteins. In this case, high cell densities are needed and oxygen is a major limiting factor. The increased air pressure could be used to improve the oxygen solubility in the medium and to reach the high oxygen demand of methanol metabolism. In this study, two P. pastoris strains producing two different recombinant proteins, one intracellular (β-galactosidase) and other extracellular (frutalin), were used to investigate the effect of increased air pressure on yeast growth in glycerol and heterologous protein production, using the methanol AOX1-inducible system. Experiments were carried out in a stainless steel bioreactor under total air pressure of 1 bar and 5 bar. The use of an air pressure raise of up to 5 bar proved to be applicable for P. pastoris cultivation. Moreover, no effects on the kinetic growth parameters and methanol utilization (Mut) phenotype of strains were found, while an increase in recombinant β-galactosidase-specific activity (ninefold) and recombinant frutalin production was observed. Furthermore, the air pressure raise led to a reduction in the secreted protease specific activity. This work shows for the first time that the application of an air pressure of 5 bar may be used as a strategy to decrease protease secretion and improve recombinant protein production in P. pastoris.

  20. Proctor & Gamble: Compressed Air System Upgrade Saves Energy & Improves Production at a Paper Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2004-05-01

    In 2002, Procter & Gamble applied a system-level strategy to optimize a compressed air system at its paper products mill in Mehoopany, Pennsylvania. The project improved production, improved system performance, and saved 7.6 million kWh per year and $309,000 per year in maintenance costs.

  1. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... for hazardous air pollutants for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending the... Aluminum Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of extension of public..., as well as review the test data for Group I furnaces. DATES: Comments. The public comment period...

  2. A Review of Global Satellite-derived Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frei, Allan; Tedesco, Marco; Lee, Shihyan; Foster, James; Hall, Dorothy K.; Kelly, Richard; Robinson, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Snow cover over the Northern Hemisphere plays a crucial role in the Earth's hydrology and surface energy balance, and modulates feedbacks that control variations of global climate. While many of these variations are associated with exchanges of energy and mass between the land surface and the atmosphere, other expected changes are likely to propagate downstream and affect oceanic processes in coastal zones. For example, a large component of the freshwater flux into the Arctic Ocean comes from snow melt. The timing and magnitude of this flux affects biological and thermodynamic processes in the Arctic Ocean, and potentially across the globe through their impact on North Atlantic Deep Water formation. Several recent global remotely sensed products provide information at unprecedented temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. In this article we review the theoretical underpinnings and characteristics of three key products. We also demonstrate the seasonal and spatial patterns of agreement and disagreement amongst them, and discuss current and future directions in their application and development. Though there is general agreement amongst these products, there can be disagreement over certain geographic regions and under conditions of ephemeral, patchy and melting snow.

  3. A Review of Global Satellite-Derived Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frei, Allan; Tedesco, Marco; Lee, Shihyan; Foster, James; Hall, Dorothy K.; Kelly, Richard; Robinson, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Snow cover over the Northern Hemisphere plays a crucial role in the Earth's hydrology and surface energy balance, and modulates feedbacks that control variations of global climate. While many of these variations are associated with exchanges of energy and mass between the land surface and the atmosphere, other expected changes are likely to propagate downstream and affect oceanic processes in coastal zones. For example, a large component of the freshwater flux into the Arctic Ocean comes from snow melt. The timing and magnitude of this flux affects biological and thermodynamic processes in the Arctic Ocean, and potentially across the globe through their impact on North Atlantic Deep Water formation. Several recent global remotely sensed products provide information at unprecedented temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. In this article we review the theoretical underpinnings and characteristics of three key products. We also demonstrate the seasonal and spatial patterns of agreement and disagreement amongst them, and discuss current and future directions in their application and development. Though there is general agreement amongst these products, there can be disagreement over certain geographic regions and under conditions of ephemeral, patchy and melting snow.

  4. A Review of Global Satellite-Derived Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frei, Allan; Tedesco, Marco; Lee, Shihyan; Foster, James; Hall, Dorothy K.; Kelly, Richard; Robinson, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Snow cover over the Northern Hemisphere plays a crucial role in the Earth s hydrology and surface energy balance, and modulates feedbacks that control variations of global climate. While many of these variations are associated with exchanges of energy and mass between the land surface and the atmosphere, other expected changes are likely to propagate downstream and affect oceanic processes in coastal zones. For example, a large component of the freshwater flux into the Arctic Ocean comes from snow melt. The timing and magnitude of this flux affects biological and thermodynamic processes in the Arctic Ocean, and potentially across the globe through their impact on North Atlantic Deep Water formation. Several recent global remotely sensed products provide information at unprecedented temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. In this article we review the theoretical underpinnings and characteristics of three key products. We also demonstrate the seasonal and spatial patterns of agreement and disagreement amongst them, and discuss current and future directions in their application and development. Though there is general agreement amongst these products, there can be disagreement over certain geographic regions and under conditions of ephemeral, patchy and melting snow

  5. Polar Geophysics Products Derived from AVHRR: The "AVHRR Polar Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslanik, James; Fowler, Charles; Scambos, Theodore

    1999-01-01

    This NOAA/NASA Pathfinder effort was established to locate, acquire, and process Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery into geo-located and calibrated radiances, cloud masks, surface clear-sky broadband albedo, clear-sky skin temperatures, satellite viewing times, and viewing and solar geometry for the, high-latitude portions of the northern and southern hemispheres (all area north of 48N and south of 53S). AVHRR GAC data for August 1981 - July 1998 were acquired, with some gaps remaining, and processed into twice-daily 5-km grids, with some products also provided at 25-km resolution. AVHRR LAC data for 3.5 years of coverage in the northern hemisphere and 2.75 years of coverage in the southern hemisphere were processed into 1.25-km grids for the same suite of products. The resulting data sets are presently being transferred to the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) for archiving and distribution. Using these data, researchers now have at their disposal an extensive AVHRR data set for investigations of high-latitude processes. In addition, the data lend themselves to development and testing of algorithms. The products are particularly relevant for climate research and algorithm development as applied to relatively long time periods and large areas.

  6. Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2014-07-01

    Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic.

  7. MODIS aerosol product at 3 km spatial resolution for urban and air quality studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Holben, B. N.; Smirnov, A.

    2008-12-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites has been producing an aerosol product since early 2000. The original product reports aerosol optical depth and a variety of other aerosol parameters at a spatial resolution of 10 km over both land and ocean. The 10 km product is actually constructed from 500 m pixels, which permits a strict selection process to choose the "best" or "cleanest" pixels in each 10 km square for use in the aerosol retrieval. Thus, the original 10 km product provides a useful product, accurate in many applications. However, the 10 km product can miss narrow aerosol plumes and the spatial variability associated with urban air pollution. The MODIS aerosol team will be introducing a finer resolution aerosol product over land regions in the next release of the product (Collection 6). The new product will be produced at 3 km resolution. It is based on the same procedures as the original product and benefits from the same spatial variability criteria for finding and masking cloudy pixels. The 3 km product does capture the higher spatial variability associated with individual aerosol plumes. However, it is noisier than the 10 km product. Both products will be available operationally in Collection 6. The new 3km product offers new synergistic possibilities with PM2.5 monitoring networks, AERONET and various air quality models such as CMAQ.

  8. Level 1B products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, H. H.; Overoye, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. A discussion is given of the objectives of the AIRS experiment, including requirements on the data products. We summarize the instrument characteristics, including sensitivity, noise, and spectral response, and preflight calibration results leading to the estimate of the calibration accuracy. The Level 1B calibration algorithm is presented as well as the results of in-flight stability and sensitivity measurements.

  9. Recent Advances in Improvement of Forecast Skill and Understanding Climate Processes Using AIRS Version-5 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. These observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, have been analyzed using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. AIRS is a high spectral resolution infrared grating spectrometer with spect,ral coverage from 650 per centimeter extending to 2660 per centimeter, with low noise and a spectral resolving power of 2400. A brief overview of the AIRS Version-5 retrieval procedure will be presented, including the AIRS channels used in different steps in the retrieval process. Many researchers have used these products to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. Recent significant results of these experiments will be presented, including results showing that 1) assimilation of AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles into a General Circulation Model (GCM) significantly improves the ability to predict storm tracks of intense precipitation events; and 2) anomaly time-series of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) computed using AIRS sounding products closely match those determined from the CERES instrument, and furthermore explain that the phenomenon that global and especially tropical mean OLR have been decreasing since September 2002 is a result of El Nino/La Nina oscillations during this period.

  10. Risk communication related to animal products derived from biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McCrea, D

    2005-04-01

    Previous chapters of this review have dealt with the key considerations related to the application of biotechnology in veterinary science and animal production. This article explores the theory and practice of risk communication and sets out the basic principles for good risk communication when dealing with new technologies, uncertainty, and cautious and sceptical consumers. After failure to communicate with consumers and stakeholders about the risk to human health from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the 1990s, Government Agencies in the United Kingdom have made significant improvements in risk communication. The official inquiry that followed the BSE crisis concluded that a policy of openness was the correct approach, and this article emphasises the importance of consultation, consistency and transparency. There are, however, many different factors that affect public perception of risk (religious, political, social, cultural, etc.) and developing effective risk communication strategies must take all of these complex issues into consideration.

  11. Modulation of dendritic cell function by Trichomonas vaginalis-derived secretory products.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Ji; Lee, Jong-Joo; Nam, Young Hee; Kim, Tae-Gyun; Chung, Youn Wook; Kim, Mikyoung; Choi, Ye-Eun; Shin, Myeong Heon; Kim, Hyoung-Pyo

    2015-02-01

    Trichomoniasis caused by the parasitic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells that initiate immune responses by directing the activation and differentiation of naïve T cells. In this study, we analyzed the effect of Trichomonas vaginalis-derived Secretory Products on the differentiation and function of dendritic cells. Differentiation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in the presence of T. vaginalis-derived Secretory Products resulted in inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced maturation of dendritic cells, down-regulation of IL-12, and up-regulation of IL-10. The protein components of T. vaginalis-derived Secretory Products were shown to be responsible for altered function of bone marrow- derived dendritic cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that IL-12 expression was regulated at the chromatin level in T. vaginalis-derived Secretory Productstreated dendritic cells. Our results demonstrated that T. vaginalis- derived Secretory Products modulate the maturation and cytokine production of dendritic cells leading to immune tolerance.

  12. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability.

  13. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

  14. Experiments probing the influence of air exchange rates on secondary organic aerosols derived from indoor chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Shields, Helen C.

    Reactions between ozone and terpenes have been shown to increase the concentrations of submicron particles in indoor settings. The present study was designed to examine the influence of air exchange rates on the concentrations of these secondary organic aerosols as well as on the evolution of their particle size distributions. The experiments were performed in a manipulated office setting containing a constant source of d-limonene and an ozone generator that was remotely turned "on" or "off" at 6 h intervals. The particle number concentrations were monitored using an optical particle counter with eight-channels ranging from 0.1-0.2 to>2.0 μm diameter. The air exchange rates during the experiments were either high (working hours) or low (non-working hours) and ranged from 1.6 to>12 h -1, with intermediate exchange rates. Given the emission rates of ozone and d-limonene used in these studies, at an air exchange rate of 1.6 h -1 particle number concentration in the 0.1-0.2 μm size-range peaked 1.2 h after the ozone generator was switched on. In the ensuing 4.8 h particle counts increased in successive size-ranges up to the 0.5-0.7 μm diameter range. At higher air exchange rates, the resulting concentrations of total particles and particle mass (calculated from particle counts) were smaller, and at exchange rates exceeding 12 h -1, no excess particle formation was detectable with the instrument used in this study. Particle size evolved through accretion and, in some cases, coagulation. There was evidence for coagulation among particles in the smallest size-range at low air exchange rates (high particle concentrations) but no evidence of coagulation was apparent at higher air exchange rates (lower particle concentrations). At higher air exchange rates the particle count or size distributions were shifted towards smaller particle diameters and less time was required to achieve the maximum concentration in each of the size-ranges where discernable particle growth

  15. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year. PMID:27423771

  16. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year.

  17. Microfabrication-derived DDS: From batch to individual production.

    PubMed

    Takada, K

    2008-06-01

    As a result of recent advances in microfabrication technology (MFT), microparticles including microcapsules and microspheres can be prepared individually and the disadvantages of the conventional microparticles produced by batch production, i.e. (i) low loading efficiency, (ii) large size variation, and (iii) initial burst release, have been remedied. In addition, all conventional microparticles have the same structure, a spherical shape, so they have only one function, sustained release. Threelayer microcapsules (TLMCs) have been designed to address these issues. TLMCs consist of a surface layer, a drug carrying layer, and a basement layer. TLMCs have sustained release as well as adhesiveness and targeting functions. TLMCs are prepared using ink-jet printer nozzle technology. The obtained TLMCs are used for the oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs and long-term sustained-release injection preparation. In addition, self-dissolving micropiles (SDMPs) can be individually produced by MFT as a percutaneous preparation. MFT allows biopharmaceutical drugs like insulin, erythropoietin, and growth hormone to be absorbed through the skin. Thus, advances in MFT have accelerated the development of pharmaceutical technology.

  18. AIRS Water Vapor and Cloud Products Validate and Explain Recent Negative Global and Tropical OLR Trends Observed by CERES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, J.; Molnar, G. I.; Iredell, L. F.; Sounder Research Team

    2010-12-01

    Joel Susskind, Gyula Molnar, and Lena Iredell NASA GSFC Sounder Research Team Abstract This paper compares spatial and temporal anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed based on AIRS retrieved surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters over the time period September 2002 - February 2010. This time period is marked by a substantial decreasing OLR trend on the order of -0.1 W/m2/yr averaged over the globe. There are very large spatial variations of these trends however, with local values ranging from -2.6 W/m2/yr to +3.0 W/m2/yr in the tropics. The spatial patterns of the AIRS and CERES trends are in essentially perfect agreement with each other, as are the anomaly time series averaged over different spatial regions. This essentially perfect agreement of OLR anomalies and trends derived from observations by two different instruments, in totally independent and different manners, implies that both sets of results must be highly accurate. The agreement of anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed from AIRS derived products also indirectly validates the anomalies and trends of the AIRS derived products as well. We used the anomalies and trends of AIRS derived water vapor and cloud products to explain why global OLR has had a large negative trend over the time period September 2002 through February 2010. Tropical OLR began to decrease significantly at the onset of a strong La Niña in mid-2007. AIRS products show that cloudiness and mid-tropospheric water vapor began to increase in the region 5°N - 20°S latitude extending eastward from 150°W - 30°E longitude at that time, with a corresponding very large drop in OLR in this region. Late 2009 is characterized by a strong El-Niño, with a corresponding change in sign of observed anomalies of mid-tropospheric water vapor, cloud cover, and OLR in this region, as well as that of OLR anomalies in the tropics and globally. Monthly mean anomalies of OLR, water vapor and cloud cover

  19. Pulsed-flow air classification for waste to energy production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peirce, J.J.; Vesilind, P.A.

    1983-09-30

    The development and testing of pulsed-flow air classification for waste-to-energy production are discussed. Standard designs generally permit large amounts of combustible material to escape as reject while producing a fuel that is high in metal and glass contaminants. Pulsed-flow classification is presented as a concept which can avoid both pitfalls. Each aspect of theory and laboratory testing is summarized: particle characteristics, theory of pulsed-flow classification, laboratory testing, and pulsed-flow air classification for waste-to-energy production. Conclusions from the research are summarized.

  20. Performance of Introducing Outdoor Cold Air for Cooling a Plant Production System with Artificial Light.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang; Xin, Min

    2016-01-01

    The commercial use of a plant production system with artificial light (PPAL) is limited by its high initial construction and operation costs. The electric-energy consumed by heat pumps, applied mainly for cooling, accounts for 15-35% of the total electric-energy used in a PPAL. To reduce the electric-energy consumption, an air exchanger with low capacity (180 W) was used for cooling by introducing outdoor cold air. In this experiment, the indoor air temperature in two PPALs (floor area: 6.2 m(2) each) was maintained at 25 and 20°C during photoperiod and dark period, respectively, for lettuce production. A null CO2 balance enrichment method was used in both PPALs. In one PPAL (PPALe), an air exchanger (air flow rate: 250 m(3)·h(-1)) was used along with a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) to maintain the indoor air temperature at the set-point. The other PPAL (PPALc) with only a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) was used for reference. Effects of introducing outdoor cold air on energy use efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP), electric-energy consumption for cooling and growth of lettuce were investigated. The results show that: when the air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor ranged from 20.2 to 30.0°C: (1) the average energy use efficiency of the air exchanger was 2.8 and 3.4 times greater than the COP of the heat pumps in the PPALe and PPALc, respectively; (2) hourly electric-energy consumption for cooling in the PPALe reduced by 15.8-73.7% compared with that in the PPALc; (3) daily supply of CO2 in the PPALe reduced from 0.15 to 0.04 kg compared with that in the PPALc with the outdoor air temperature ranging from -5.6 to 2.7°C; (4) no significant difference in lettuce growth was observed in both PPALs. The results indicate that using air exchanger to introduce outdoor cold air should be considered as an effective way to reduce electric-energy consumption for cooling with little effects on plant growth in a PPAL. PMID:27066012

  1. Performance of Introducing Outdoor Cold Air for Cooling a Plant Production System with Artificial Light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang; Xin, Min

    2016-01-01

    The commercial use of a plant production system with artificial light (PPAL) is limited by its high initial construction and operation costs. The electric-energy consumed by heat pumps, applied mainly for cooling, accounts for 15–35% of the total electric-energy used in a PPAL. To reduce the electric-energy consumption, an air exchanger with low capacity (180 W) was used for cooling by introducing outdoor cold air. In this experiment, the indoor air temperature in two PPALs (floor area: 6.2 m2 each) was maintained at 25 and 20°C during photoperiod and dark period, respectively, for lettuce production. A null CO2 balance enrichment method was used in both PPALs. In one PPAL (PPALe), an air exchanger (air flow rate: 250 m3·h−1) was used along with a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) to maintain the indoor air temperature at the set-point. The other PPAL (PPALc) with only a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) was used for reference. Effects of introducing outdoor cold air on energy use efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP), electric-energy consumption for cooling and growth of lettuce were investigated. The results show that: when the air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor ranged from 20.2 to 30.0°C: (1) the average energy use efficiency of the air exchanger was 2.8 and 3.4 times greater than the COP of the heat pumps in the PPALe and PPALc, respectively; (2) hourly electric-energy consumption for cooling in the PPALe reduced by 15.8–73.7% compared with that in the PPALc; (3) daily supply of CO2 in the PPALe reduced from 0.15 to 0.04 kg compared with that in the PPALc with the outdoor air temperature ranging from −5.6 to 2.7°C; (4) no significant difference in lettuce growth was observed in both PPALs. The results indicate that using air exchanger to introduce outdoor cold air should be considered as an effective way to reduce electric-energy consumption for cooling with little effects on plant growth in a PPAL. PMID:27066012

  2. Air-adapted Methanosarcina acetivorans shows high methane production and develops resistance against oxygen stress.

    PubMed

    Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Santiago-Martínez, M Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Pineda, Erika; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; Belmont-Díaz, Javier; Encalada, Rusely; Saavedra, Emma; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Methanosarcina acetivorans, considered a strict anaerobic archaeon, was cultured in the presence of 0.4-1% O2 (atmospheric) for at least 6 months to generate air-adapted cells; further, the biochemical mechanisms developed to deal with O2 were characterized. Methane production and protein content, as indicators of cell growth, did not change in air-adapted cells respect to cells cultured under anoxia (control cells). In contrast, growth and methane production significantly decreased in control cells exposed for the first time to O2. Production of reactive oxygen species was 50 times lower in air-adapted cells versus control cells, suggesting enhanced anti-oxidant mechanisms that attenuated the O2 toxicity. In this regard, (i) the transcripts and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase significantly increased; and (ii) the thiol-molecules (cysteine + coenzyme M-SH + sulfide) and polyphosphate contents were respectively 2 and 5 times higher in air-adapted cells versus anaerobic-control cells. Long-term cultures (18 days) of air-adapted cells exposed to 2% O2 exhibited the ability to form biofilms. These data indicate that M. acetivorans develops multiple mechanisms to contend with O2 and the associated oxidative stress, as also suggested by genome analyses for some methanogens.

  3. Air-Adapted Methanosarcina acetivorans Shows High Methane Production and Develops Resistance against Oxygen Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Santiago-Martínez, M. Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Pineda, Erika; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; Belmont-Díaz, Javier; Encalada, Rusely; Saavedra, Emma; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Methanosarcina acetivorans, considered a strict anaerobic archaeon, was cultured in the presence of 0.4–1% O2 (atmospheric) for at least 6 months to generate air-adapted cells; further, the biochemical mechanisms developed to deal with O2 were characterized. Methane production and protein content, as indicators of cell growth, did not change in air-adapted cells respect to cells cultured under anoxia (control cells). In contrast, growth and methane production significantly decreased in control cells exposed for the first time to O2. Production of reactive oxygen species was 50 times lower in air-adapted cells versus control cells, suggesting enhanced anti-oxidant mechanisms that attenuated the O2 toxicity. In this regard, (i) the transcripts and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase significantly increased; and (ii) the thiol-molecules (cysteine + coenzyme M-SH + sulfide) and polyphosphate contents were respectively 2 and 5 times higher in air-adapted cells versus anaerobic-control cells. Long-term cultures (18 days) of air-adapted cells exposed to 2% O2 exhibited the ability to form biofilms. These data indicate that M. acetivorans develops multiple mechanisms to contend with O2 and the associated oxidative stress, as also suggested by genome analyses for some methanogens. PMID:25706146

  4. Borrowings, Derivational Morphology, and Perceived Productivity in English, 1300-1600

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Chris C.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation examines how borrowed derivational morphemes such as "-age," "-ity," "-cion," and "-ment" became productive in the English language, particularly in the fourteenth through sixteenth centuries. It endeavors to expand our current understanding of morphological productivity as a historical phenomenon--to account for not only…

  5. Stationary source sampling report: Ambient and source volatile organic compound testing, Production air stripper unit 1 (PASU-1) and pilot air stripper (PAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-05

    Tests were performed to measure the ambient concentrations of perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in the A/M area and to determine, for compliance purposes, the emissions and concentrations of those compounds issued from the Production Air Stripper Unit 1 (PASU-1) column and from the Pilot Air Stripper (PAS) column.

  6. Global fields of soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration derived from observed precipitation and surface air temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Y.; Walker, G. K.

    1993-01-01

    The global fields of normal monthly soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration are derived with a simple water budget model that has precipitation and potential evapotranspiration as inputs. The precipitation is observed and the potential evapotranspiration is derived from the observed surface air temperature with the empirical regression equation of Thornthwaite (1954). It is shown that at locations where the net surface radiation flux has been measured, the potential evapotranspiration given by the Thornthwaite equation is in good agreement with those obtained with the radiation-based formulations of Priestley and Taylor (1972), Penman (1948), and Budyko (1956-1974), and this provides the justification for the use of the Thornthwaite equation. After deriving the global fields of soil moisture and evapotranspiration, the assumption is made that the potential evapotranspiration given by the Thornthwaite equation and by the Priestley-Taylor equation will everywhere be about the same; the inverse of the Priestley-Taylor equation is used to obtain the normal monthly global fields of net surface radiation flux minus ground heat storage. This and the derived evapotranspiration are then used in the equation for energy conservation at the surface of the earth to obtain the global fields of normal monthly sensible heat flux from the land surface to the atmosphere.

  7. An experimental quantification of the NOX production efficiency of energetic alpha particles in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Cooray, Vernon; Possnert, Göran; Nyberg, Johan

    2006-07-01

    An experimental study on the production of NOX by alpha particles impact in air at atmospheric pressure is presented. A mixed radioactive source of 208Po and 209Po with an integrated activity of 9.6 MBq over a solid angle of 2π and an average alpha particle energy of 4.5 MeV was used for ionization of atmospheric air in an airtight chamber and the NOX production was measured by the chemiluminescence method. The NOX production rate is found to be about 1.2 NOX molecules per ion-pair. The NOX production efficiency per Joule of dissipated energy is calculated to be 20×1016 NOX molecules per Joule. This efficiency is comparable to that of hot laboratory sparks discharges.

  8. Considering the air quality impacts of bioenergy crop production: a case study involving Arundo donax.

    PubMed

    Porter, William C; Barsanti, Kelley C; Baughman, Eowyn C; Rosenstiel, Todd N

    2012-09-01

    The expanding production of bioenergy crops may impact regional air quality through the production of volatile organic compounds such as isoprene. To investigate the effects of isoprene-emitting crops on air quality, specifically ozone (O(3)) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, we performed a series of model runs using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) simulating a proposed cropland conversion to the giant cane Arundo donax for biomass production. Cultivation of A. donax in the relatively clean air of northeastern Oregon resulted in an average increase in 8 h O(3) levels of 0.52 ppb, while SOA was largely unaffected (<+0.01 μg m(-3)). Conversions in U.S. regions with reduced air quality (eastern Texas and northern Illinois) resulted in average 8 h O(3) increases of 2.46 and 3.97 ppb, respectively, with daily increases up to 15 ppb in the Illinois case, and daytime SOA increases up to 0.57 μg m(-3). While cultivation of isoprene-emitting bioenergy crops may be appropriate at some scales and in some regions, other areas may experience increased O(3) and SOA, highlighting the need to consider isoprene emissions when evaluating potential regional impacts of bioenergy crop production.

  9. Wind Tunnel Evaluation of Vegetative Buffer Effects on Air Flow near Swine Production Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing concerns about generation and transport of swine odor constituents have substantiated wind tunnel simulation studies on air flow dynamics near swine production facilities. A possible odor mitigation strategy is a forest vegetative buffer as a windbreak barrier near swine facilities becaus...

  10. Compressed Air System Retrofitting Project Improves Productivity at a Foundry (Cast Masters, Bowling Green, OH)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-06-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  11. Air Pollutant Emissions from Oil and Gas Production pads (Investigating Low Cost Passive Samplers)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help achieve the goal of sustainable, environmentally responsible development of oil and gas resources, it isnecessary to understand the potential for air pollutant emissions from various extraction and production (E&P)processes at the upstream, wellpad level. Upstream oil and...

  12. A method to derive the relationship between the annual and short-term air quality limits--analysis using the WHO Air Quality Guidelines for health protection.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hak-Kan; Hedley, Anthony J; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-09-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) were launched in 2006, but gaps remain in evidence on health impacts and relationships between short-term and annual AQG needed for health protection. We tested whether relationships between WHO short-term and annual AQG for particulates (PM10 and PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are concordant worldwide and derived the annual limits for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) based on the short-term AQG. We obtained air pollutant data over seven years (2004-2010) in seven cities from Asia-Pacific, North America and Europe. Based on probability distribution concept using maximum as the short-term limit and arithmetic mean as the annual limit, we developed a new method to derive limit value one from another in each paired limits for each pollutant with capability to account for allowable exceedances. We averaged the limit derived each year for each city, then used meta-analysis to pool the limit values in all cities. Pooled mean short-term limit for NO2 (140.5μg/m(3) [130.6-150.4]) was significantly lower than the WHO AQG of 200μg/m(3) while for PM10 (46.4μg/m(3) [95CI:42.1-50.7]) and PM2.5 (28.6μg/m(3) [24.5-32.6]) were not significantly different from the WHO AQG of 50 and 25μg/m(3) respectively. Pooled mean annual limits for SO2 and O3 were 4.6μg/m(3) [3.7-5.5] and 27.0μg/m(3) [21.7-32.2] respectively. Results were robust in various sensitivity analyses. The distribution relationships between the current WHO short-term and annual AQG are supported by empirical data from seven cities for PM10 and PM2.5, but not for NO2. The short-term AQG for NO2 should be lowered for concordance with the selected annual AQG for health protection. PMID:23792417

  13. Mean Ages of Stratospheric Air Derived From in Situ Observations of CO2, CH4, and N2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Boering, K. A.; Daube, B. C.; Wofsy, S. C.; Loewenstein, M.; Jost, H.; Podolske, J. R.; Webster, C. R.; Herman, R. L.; Scott, D. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Accurate mean ages for stratospheric air have been derived from a spatially and temporally comprehensive set of in situ observations of CO2, CH4, and N2O obtained from 1992 to 1998 from the NASA ER-2 aircraft and balloon flights. Errors associated with the tropospheric CO2 seasonal cycle and interannual variations in the CO2 growth rate are less than 0.5 year throughout the stratosphere and less than 0.3 year for air older than 2 years (N2O less than 275 ppbv), indicating that the age spectra are broad enough to attenuate these influences over the time period covered by these observations. The distribution of mean age with latitude and altitude provides detailed, quantitative information about the general circulation of the stratosphere. At 20 km, sharp meridional gradients in the mean age are observed across the subtropics. Between 20 and 30 km, the average difference in mean age between the tropics and midlatitudes is approximately 2 years, with slightly smaller differences at higher and lower altitudes. The mean age in the midlatitude middle stratosphere (approx. 25-32 km) is relatively constant with respect to altitude at 5 plus or minus 0.5 years. Comparison with earlier balloon observations of CO2 dating back to the 1970s indicates that the mean age of air in this region has remained within 11 year of its current value over the last 25 years. A climatology of mean age is derived from the observed compact relationship between mean age and N2O. These characteristics of the distribution of mean age in the stratosphere will serve as critically needed diagnostics for models of stratospheric transport.

  14. Temporal variatiions of Sea ice cover in the Baltic Sea derived from operational sea ice products used in NWP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Martin; Paul, Gerhard; Potthast, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Sea ice cover is a crucial parameter for surface fluxes of heat and moisture over water areas. The isolating effect and the much higher albedo strongly reduces the turbulent exchange of heat and moisture from the surface to the atmosphere and allows for cold and dry air mass flow with strong impact on the stability of the whole boundary layer and consequently cloud formation as well as precipitation in the downstream regions. Numerical weather centers as, ECMWF, MetoFrance or DWD use external products to initialize SST and sea ice cover in their NWP models. To the knowledge of the author there are mainly two global sea ice products well established with operational availability, one from NOAA NCEP that combines measurements with satellite data, and the other from OSI-SAF derived from SSMI/S sensors. The latter one is used in the Ostia product. DWD additionally uses a regional product for the Baltic Sea provided by the national center for shipping and hydrografie which combines observations from ships (and icebreakers) for the German part of the Baltic Sea and model analysis from the hydrodynamic HIROMB model of the Swedish meteorological service for the rest of the domain. The temporal evolution of the three different products are compared for a cold period in Februar 2012. Goods and bads will be presented and suggestions for a harmonization of strong day to day jumps over large areas are suggested.

  15. Natural Product-Derived Drugs for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have been used as drugs for millennia, and the therapeutic potential of natural products has been studied for more than a century. Since the mid-1880s, approximately 60% of drugs have originated from natural products. Recently, the importance of using natural products has increased, as has interest in discovering efficient new drugs. Natural drugs are desirable for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. This review discusses the discovery and development of drugs derived from natural products for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:25349576

  16. AIRS Version 6 Products and Data Services at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Hearty, T. J.; Theobald, M. L.; Vollmer, B.; Esfandiari, E.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission. The AIRS mission is entering its 11th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing longwave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the Version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. Among the most substantial advances are: improved soundings of Tropospheric and Sea Surface Temperatures; larger improvements with increasing cloud cover; improved retrievals of surface spectral emissivity; near-complete removal of spurious temperature bias trends seen in earlier versions; substantially improved retrieval yield (i.e., number of soundings accepted for output) for climate studies; AIRS-Only retrievals with comparable accuracy to AIRS+AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit) retrievals; and more realistic hemispheric seasonal variability and global distribution of carbon monoxide. The GES DISC is working to bring the distribution services up-to-date with these new developments. Our focus is on popular services, like variable subsetting and quality screening, which are impacted by the new elements in Version 6. Other developments in visualization services, such as Giovanni, Near-Real Time imagery, and a granule-map viewer, are progressing along with the introduction of the new data; each service presents its own challenge. This presentation will demonstrate the most significant improvements in Version 6 AIRS products, such as newly added variables (higher resolution outgoing longwave radiation, new cloud property products, etc.), the new quality control schema, and improved retrieval yields. We will also

  17. A dynamic urban air pollution population exposure assessment study using model and population density data derived by mobile phone traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, Claudio; Pelliccioni, Armando; Bolignano, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A dynamic city-wide air pollution exposure assessment study has been carried out for the urban population of Rome, Italy, by using time resolved population distribution maps, derived by mobile phone traffic data, and modelled air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) concentrations obtained by an integrated air dispersion modelling system. More than a million of persons were tracked during two months (March and April 2015) for their position within the city and its surroundings areas, with a time resolution of 15 min and mapped over an irregular grid system with a minimum resolution of 0.26 × 0.34 Km2. In addition, demographics information (as gender and age ranges) were available in a separated dataset not connected with the total population one. Such BigData were matched in time and space with air pollution model results and then used to produce hourly and daily resolved cumulative population exposures during the studied period. A significant mobility of population was identified with higher population densities in downtown areas during daytime increasing of up to 1000 people/Km2 with respect to nigh-time one, likely produced by commuters, tourists and working age population. Strong variability (up to ±50% for NO2) of population exposures were detected as an effect of both mobility and time/spatial changing in pollutants concentrations. A comparison with the correspondent stationary approach based on National Census data, allows detecting the inability of latter in estimating the actual variability of population exposure. Significant underestimations of the amount of population exposed to daily PM2.5 WHO guideline was identified for the Census approach. Very small differences (up to a few μg/m3) on exposure were detected for gender and age ranges population classes.

  18. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for

  19. Blood platelet-derived microparticles release and bubble formation after an open-sea air dive.

    PubMed

    Pontier, Jean-Michel; Gempp, Emmanuel; Ignatescu, Mihaela

    2012-10-01

    Bubble-induced platelet aggregation offers an index for evaluating decompression severity in humans and in a rat model of decompression sickness. Endothelial cells, blood platelets, or leukocytes shed microparticles (MP) upon activation and during cell apoptosis. The aim was to study blood platelet MP (PMP) release and bubble formation after a scuba-air dive in field conditions. Healthy, experienced divers were assigned to 1 experimental group (n = 10) with an open-sea air dive to 30 msw for 30 min and 1 control group (n = 5) during head-out water immersion for the same period. Bubble grades were monitored with a pulsed doppler according to Kissman Integrated Severity Score (KISS). Blood samples for platelet count (PC) and PMP (annexin V and CD41) were taken 1 h before and after exposure in both groups. The result showed a decrease in post-dive PC compared with pre-dive values in experimental group with no significant change in the control group. We observed a significant increase in PMP values after the dive while no change was revealed in the control group. There was a significant positive correlation between the PMP values after the dive and the KISS bubble score. The present study highlighted a relationship between the post-dive decrease in PC, platelet MP release, and bubble formation. Release of platelet MPs could reflect bubble-induced platelet aggregation and could play a key role in alteration of the coagulation. Further studies must investigate endothelial and leukocyte MP release in the same field conditions.

  20. The use of MODIS data and aerosol products for air quality prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Keith D.; Smith, Solar; Faruqui, Shazia

    2004-09-01

    The Center for Space Research (CSR) is exploring new approaches to integrate data collected by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, flown on NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, into a real-time prediction methodology to support operational air quality forecasts issued by the Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). Air pollution is a widespread problem in the United States, with over 130 million individuals exposed to levels of air pollution that exceed one or more health-based standards. Texas air quality is under assault by a variety of anthropogenic sources associated with a rapidly growing population along with increases in emissions from the diesel engines that drive international trade between the US and Central America. The challenges of meeting air quality standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency are further impacted by the transport of pollution into Texas that originates from outside its borders and are cumulative with those generated by local sources. In an earlier study, CSR demonstrated the value of MODIS imagery and aerosol products for monitoring ozone-laden pollution that originated in the central US before migrating into Texas and causing TCEQ to issue a health alert for 150 counties. Now, data from this same event are re-analyzed in an attempt to predict air quality from MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations. The results demonstrate a method to forecast air quality from remotely sensed satellite observations when the transient pollution can be isolated from local sources. These pollution sources can be separated using TCEQ's network of ground-based Continuous Air quality Monitoring (CAM) stations.

  1. Examining air pollution in China using production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Guan, Dabo; Su, Xin; Zhao, Hongyan; He, Kebin

    2014-12-16

    Two important reasons for China's air pollution are the high emission factors (emission per unit of product) of pollution sources and the high emission intensity (emissions per unit of GDP) of the industrial structure. Therefore, a wide variety of policy measures, including both emission abatement technologies and economic adjustment, must be implemented. To support such measures, this study used the production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches to simulate the SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and VOC emissions flows among producers and consumers. This study analyzed the emissions and GDP performance of 36 production sectors. The results showed that the equipment, machinery, and devices manufacturing and construction sectors contributed more than 50% of air pollutant emissions, and most of their products were used for capital formation and export. The service sector had the lowest emission intensities, and its output was mainly consumed by households and the government. In China, the emission intensities of production activities triggered by capital formation and export were approximately twice that of the service sector triggered by final consumption expenditure. This study suggests that China should control air pollution using the following strategies: applying end-of-pipe abatement technologies and using cleaner fuels to further decrease the emission factors associated with rural cooking, electricity generation, and the transportation sector; continuing to limit highly emission-intensive but low value-added exports; developing a plan to reduce construction activities; and increasing the proportion of service GDP in the national economy.

  2. Production of biorenewable styrene: utilization of biomass-derived sugars and insights into toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jieni; McKenna, Rebekah; Rover, Marjorie R; Nielsen, David R; Wen, Zhiyou; Jarboe, Laura R

    2016-05-01

    Fermentative production of styrene from glucose has been previously demonstrated in Escherichia coli. Here, we demonstrate the production of styrene from the sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass depolymerized by fast pyrolysis. A previously engineered styrene-producing strain was further engineered for utilization of the anhydrosugar levoglucosan via expression of levoglucosan kinase. The resulting strain produced 240 ± 3 mg L(-1) styrene from pure levoglucosan, similar to the 251 ± 3 mg L(-1) produced from glucose. When provided at a concentration of 5 g L(-1), pyrolytic sugars supported styrene production at titers similar to those from pure sugars, demonstrating the feasibility of producing this important industrial chemical from biomass-derived sugars. However, the toxicity of contaminant compounds in the biomass-derived sugars and styrene itself limit further gains in production. Styrene toxicity is generally believed to be due to membrane damage. Contrary to this prevailing wisdom, our quantitative assessment during challenge with up to 200 mg L(-1) of exogenously provided styrene showed little change in membrane integrity; membrane disruption was observed only during styrene production. Membrane fluidity was also quantified during styrene production, but no changes were observed relative to the non-producing control strain. This observation that styrene production is much more damaging to the membrane integrity than challenge with exogenously supplied styrene provides insight into the mechanism of styrene toxicity and emphasizes the importance of verifying proposed toxicity mechanisms during production instead of relying upon results obtained during exogenous challenge. PMID:26803503

  3. Particle production after inflation with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ema, Yohei; Jinno, Ryusuke; Nakayama, Kazunori; Mukaida, Kyohei E-mail: jinno@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: kazunori@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-10-01

    We study cosmological evolution after inflation in models with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity. The background dynamics is solved and particle production associated with rapidly oscillating Hubble parameter is studied in detail. In addition, production of gravitons through the non-minimal derivative coupling with the inflaton is studied. We also find that the sound speed squared of the scalar perturbation oscillates between positive and negative values when the non-minimal derivative coupling dominates over the minimal kinetic term. This may lead to an instability of this model. We point out that the particle production rates are the same as those in the Einstein gravity with the minimal kinetic term, if we require the sound speed squared is positive definite.

  4. Highly Soluble Benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide Derivatives: Stable and Air-Insensitive Electron Acceptors for Artificial Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Cheng; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Reek, Joost N H; Williams, René M; Brouwer, Albert M

    2015-01-01

    A series of new benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide (BPTI) derivatives has been synthesized and characterized. These remarkably soluble BPTI derivatives show strong optical absorption in the range of λ=300–500 nm and have a high triplet-state energy of 1.67 eV. A cyanophenyl substituent renders BPTI such a strong electron acceptor (Ered=−0.11 V vs. the normal hydrogen electrode) that electron-trapping reactions with O2 and H2O do not occur. The BPTI radical anion on a fluorine-doped tin oxide|TiO2 electrode is persistent up to tens of seconds (t1/2=39 s) in air-saturated buffer solution. As a result of favorable packing, theoretical electron mobilities (10−2∼10−1 cm2 V−1 s−1) are high and similar to the experimental values observed for perylene diimide and C60 derivatives. Our studies show the potential of the cyanophenyl-modified BPTI compounds as electron acceptors in devices for artificial photosynthesis in water splitting that are also very promising nonfullerene electron-transport materials for organic solar cells. PMID:26395847

  5. Highly Soluble Benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide Derivatives: Stable and Air-Insensitive Electron Acceptors for Artificial Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Cheng; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Reek, Joost N H; Williams, René M; Brouwer, Albert M

    2015-11-01

    A series of new benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide (BPTI) derivatives has been synthesized and characterized. These remarkably soluble BPTI derivatives show strong optical absorption in the range of λ=300-500 nm and have a high triplet-state energy of 1.67 eV. A cyanophenyl substituent renders BPTI such a strong electron acceptor (Ered =-0.11 V vs. the normal hydrogen electrode) that electron-trapping reactions with O2 and H2 O do not occur. The BPTI radical anion on a fluorine-doped tin oxide|TiO2 electrode is persistent up to tens of seconds (t1/2 =39 s) in air-saturated buffer solution. As a result of favorable packing, theoretical electron mobilities (10(-2) ∼10(-1) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) are high and similar to the experimental values observed for perylene diimide and C60 derivatives. Our studies show the potential of the cyanophenyl-modified BPTI compounds as electron acceptors in devices for artificial photosynthesis in water splitting that are also very promising nonfullerene electron-transport materials for organic solar cells.

  6. Occupational exposure to acrylamide in closed system production plants: air levels and biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Moorman, William J; Reutman, Susan S; Shaw, Peter B; Blade, Leo Michael; Marlow, David; Vesper, Hubert; Clark, John C; Schrader, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biomarkers of acrylamide exposure, including hemoglobin adducts and urinary metabolites in acrylamide production workers. Biomarkers are integrated measures of the internal dose, and it is total acrylamide dose from all routes and sources that may present health risks. Workers from three companies were studied. Workers potentially exposed to acrylamide monomer wore personal breathing-zone air samplers. Air samples and surface-wipe samples were collected and analyzed for acrylamide. General-area air samples were collected in chemical processing units and control rooms. Hemoglobin adducts were isolated from ethylenediamine teraacetic acid (EDTA)-whole blood, and adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide, at the N-terminal valines of hemoglobin, were cleaved from the protein chain by use of a modified Edman reaction. Full work-shift, personal breathing zone, and general-area air samples were collected and analyzed for particulate and acrylamide monomer vapor. The highest general-area concentration of acrylamide vapor was 350 μg/cm(3) in monomer production. Personal breathing zone and general-area concentrations of acrylamide vapor were found to be highest in monomer production operations, and lower levels were in the polymer production operations. Adduct levels varied widely among workers, with the highest in workers in the monomer and polymer production areas. The acrylamide adduct range was 15-1884 pmol/g; glycidamide adducts ranged from 17.8 to 1376 p/mol/g. The highest acrylamide and glycidamide adduct levels were found among monomer production process operators. The primary urinary metabolite N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl) cysteine (NACEC) ranged from the limit of detection to 15.4 μg/ml. Correlation of workplace exposure and sentinel health effects is needed to determine and control safe levels of exposure for regulatory standards.

  7. Reference air kerma and kerma-area product as estimators of peak skin dose for fluoroscopically guided interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Deukwoo; Little, Mark P.; Miller, Donald L.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To determine more accurate regression formulas for estimating peak skin dose (PSD) from reference air kerma (RAK) or kerma-area product (KAP). Methods: After grouping of the data from 21 procedures into 13 clinically similar groups, assessments were made of optimal clustering using the Bayesian information criterion to obtain the optimal linear regressions of (log-transformed) PSD vs RAK, PSD vs KAP, and PSD vs RAK and KAP. Results: Three clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK, seven clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs KAP, and six clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK and KAP. Prediction of PSD using both RAK and KAP is significantly better than prediction of PSD with either RAK or KAP alone. The regression of PSD vs RAK provided better predictions of PSD than the regression of PSD vs KAP. The partial-pooling (clustered) method yields smaller mean squared errors compared with the complete-pooling method.Conclusion: PSD distributions for interventional radiology procedures are log-normal. Estimates of PSD derived from RAK and KAP jointly are most accurate, followed closely by estimates derived from RAK alone. Estimates of PSD derived from KAP alone are the least accurate. Using a stochastic search approach, it is possible to cluster together certain dissimilar types of procedures to minimize the total error sum of squares.

  8. Efficiencies for production of nitrogen oxides by proton impact in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Cooray, Vernon; Possnert, Göran

    2013-03-01

    We present the first laboratory measurements of nitrogen oxides generated by proton impact in air. Experiments were conducted at the Tandem Laboratory of Uppsala University. A proton beam with known current and energy was injected into an air tight ionising chamber for a fixed time duration and the resulting nitrogen oxides were measured by the method of chemiluminescence. The data are presented in terms of number of produced NOX (NO+NO2) molecules for different proton energy, proton beam current and duration. The efficiency for NOX production by proton impact in air can on average be estimated to about 0.2 NOX molecules per ion-pair based on 1 cm diameter proton beam with energies from 2 to 4 MeV and varied currents from 0.1 to 10 nA.

  9. An Expert Fault Diagnosis System for Vehicle Air Conditioning Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Khalil, S. N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to the problems. In the vehicle air-conditioning manufacturing industry, process can be very costly where an expert and experience personnel needed in certain circumstances. The expert of in the industry will retire or resign from time to time. When the expert is absent, their experience and knowledge is difficult to retrieve or lost forever. Expert system is a convenient method to replace expert. By replacing the expert with expert system, the accuracy of the processes will be increased compared to the conventional way. Therefore, the quality of product services that are produced will be finer and better. The inputs for the fault diagnosis are based on design data and experience of the engineer.

  10. AirNow Information Management System - Global Earth Observation System of Systems Data Processor for Real-Time Air Quality Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haderman, M.; Dye, T. S.; White, J. E.; Dickerson, P.; Pasch, A. N.; Miller, D. S.; Chan, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Built upon the success of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program (www.AirNow.gov), the AirNow-International (AirNow-I) system contains an enhanced suite of software programs that process and quality control real-time air quality and environmental data and distribute customized maps, files, and data feeds. The goals of the AirNow-I program are similar to those of the successful U.S. program and include fostering the exchange of environmental data; making advances in air quality knowledge and applications; and building a community of people, organizations, and decision makers in environmental management. In 2010, Shanghai became the first city in China to run this state-of-the-art air quality data management and notification system. AirNow-I consists of a suite of modules (software programs and schedulers) centered on a database. One such module is the Information Management System (IMS), which can automatically produce maps and other data products through the use of GIS software to provide the most current air quality information to the public. Developed with Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) interoperability in mind, IMS is based on non-proprietary standards, with preference to formal international standards. The system depends on data and information providers accepting and implementing a set of interoperability arrangements, including technical specifications for collecting, processing, storing, and disseminating shared data, metadata, and products. In particular, the specifications include standards for service-oriented architecture and web-based interfaces, such as a web mapping service (WMS), web coverage service (WCS), web feature service (WFS), sensor web services, and Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds. IMS is flexible, open, redundant, and modular. It also allows the merging of data grids to create complex grids that show comprehensive air quality conditions. For example, the AirNow Satellite Data Processor

  11. Magnetic biomonitoring by moss bags for industry-derived air pollution in SW Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salo, Hanna; Mäkinen, Joni

    2014-11-01

    We provide the first detailed case study using Sphagnum papillosum moss bags for active magnetic monitoring of airborne industrial pollution in order to evaluate the actual role of various emission sources and the competence of current environmental protection actions relative to the air quality. The origin and spatial spreading of particulate matter (PM) based on magnetic, chemical, and SEM-EDX analyses was studied around the Industrial Park in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The data was collected during two 6-month sampling periods along 8 km transects in 2010-2011. The results support our hypothesis that the main emission source of PM is not the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe as presumed in previous chemical monitorings. We argue that the hot spot area within the severe impact pollution zone is related to slag processing and/or other unidentified industrial activity. At short distances various dust-providing sources outweigh the fly-ash load from the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe. Active magnetic monitoring by moss bags will help in planning environmental actions as well as in improvement of health conditions for industrial staff and town residents living next to the Industrial Park.

  12. Experimental derivation of the fluence non-uniformity correction for air kerma near brachytherapy linear sources

    SciTech Connect

    Vianello, E. A.; Almeida, C. E. de

    2008-07-15

    In brachytherapy, one of the elements to take into account for measurements free in air is the non-uniformity of the photon fluence due to the beam divergence that causes a steep dose gradient near the source. The correction factors for this phenomenon have been usually evaluated by two available theories by Kondo and Randolph [Radiat. Res. 13, 37-60 (1960)] and Bielajew [Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 517-538 (1990)], both conceived for point sources. This work presents the experimental validation of the Monte Carlo calculations made by Rodriguez and deAlmeida [Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1705-1709 (2004)] for the non-uniformity correction specifically for a Cs-137 linear source measured using a Farmer type ionization chamber. The experimental values agree very well with the Monte Carlo calculations and differ from the results predicted by both theoretical models widely used. This result confirms that for linear sources there are some important differences at short distances from the source and emphasizes that those theories should not be used for linear sources. The data provided in this study confirm the limitations of the mentioned theories when linear sources are used. Considering the difficulties and uncertainties associated with the experimental measurements, it is recommended to use the Monte Carlo data to assess the non-uniformity factors for linear sources in situations that require this knowledge.

  13. Air-persistent monomeric (amino)(carboxy) radicals derived from cyclic (alkyl)(amino) carbenes.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Janell K; Martin, David; Thomas, Fabrice; Moore, Curtis E; Rheingold, Arnold L; Bertrand, Guy

    2015-06-17

    A series of monomeric (amino)(carboxy) radicals featuring carbonyl substituents with increasing electron-withdrawing properties (3a, phenyl; 3b, 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl; 3c, perfluorophenyl; 3d, heptafluoropropyl; 3e, 2H-pyrroliumyl) were synthesized in two or three steps from stable cyclic (alky)(amino)carbenes (CAACs). Although (amino)(carboxy) radicals had been previously considered as highly air-sensitive, some of these compounds feature half-lives of hours (3d), and even days (3c and 3e) in well-aerated solutions. DFT calculations show that (amino)(carboxy) radicals evolve from C-centered radical to ambidentate C,O-radicals when increasing the electron-withdrawing properties of the carbonyl substituent. This is paralleled with a destabilization of the peroxide resulting from the addition of dioxygen to the radical. This latter reaction is even predicted to be endothermic for substituents with Hammett constant σp > 0.2. PMID:26011769

  14. Effect of commercially available plant-derived essential oil products on arthropod pests.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Galle, Cindy L; Keith, Stephen R; Kalscheur, Nanette A; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2009-08-01

    Plant-derived essential oil products, in general, are considered minimum-risk pesticides and are exempt from Environmental Protection Agency registration under section 25(b) of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. However, many of the plant-derived essential products available to consumers (homeowners) have not been judiciously evaluated for both efficacy and plant safety. In fact, numerous plant-derived essential oil products labeled for control of arthropod pests have not been subject to rigorous evaluation, and there is minimal scientific information or supporting data associated with efficacy against arthropod pests. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to determine the efficacy and phytotoxicity of an array of plant-derived essential oil products available to consumers on arthropod pests including the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius); and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Although the products Flower Pharm (cottonseed, cinnamon, and rosemary oil) and Indoor Pharm (soybean, rosemary, and lavender oil) provided > 90% mortality of citrus mealybug, they were also the most phytotoxic to the coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants. Both GC-Mite (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil) and Bugzyme (citric acid) were most effective against the twospotted spider mite (> or = 90% mortality). However, SMC (canola, coriander oil, and triethanolamine), neem (clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil), and Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) provided > 80% mortality. Monterey Garden Insect Spray, which contained 0.5% spinosad, was most effective against western flower thrips with 100% mortality. All the other products evaluated failed to provide sufficient control of western flower thrips with < 30

  15. Effect of commercially available plant-derived essential oil products on arthropod pests.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Galle, Cindy L; Keith, Stephen R; Kalscheur, Nanette A; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2009-08-01

    Plant-derived essential oil products, in general, are considered minimum-risk pesticides and are exempt from Environmental Protection Agency registration under section 25(b) of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. However, many of the plant-derived essential products available to consumers (homeowners) have not been judiciously evaluated for both efficacy and plant safety. In fact, numerous plant-derived essential oil products labeled for control of arthropod pests have not been subject to rigorous evaluation, and there is minimal scientific information or supporting data associated with efficacy against arthropod pests. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to determine the efficacy and phytotoxicity of an array of plant-derived essential oil products available to consumers on arthropod pests including the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius); and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Although the products Flower Pharm (cottonseed, cinnamon, and rosemary oil) and Indoor Pharm (soybean, rosemary, and lavender oil) provided > 90% mortality of citrus mealybug, they were also the most phytotoxic to the coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants. Both GC-Mite (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil) and Bugzyme (citric acid) were most effective against the twospotted spider mite (> or = 90% mortality). However, SMC (canola, coriander oil, and triethanolamine), neem (clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil), and Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) provided > 80% mortality. Monterey Garden Insect Spray, which contained 0.5% spinosad, was most effective against western flower thrips with 100% mortality. All the other products evaluated failed to provide sufficient control of western flower thrips with < 30

  16. Fallspeeds and Vertical Air Motions in Stratiform Rain Derived from ER-2 Doppler Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Tian, L.

    2000-01-01

    The Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) conducted several intensive field validation campaigns for improved understanding of Tropical precipitation systems. Two of the campaigns (TEFLUN in Florida and Texas, and LBA in Brazil) utilized: the NASA ER-2 high-altitude (20 km) remote sensing aircraft instrumented with the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), the University of North Dakota Citation microphysics aircraft, and the NCAR S-POL polarization radar. This paper focuses on EDOP-derived fallspeeds and vertical velocities in the rain regions of two stratiform cases (5 September 1998 along the east coast of Florida, and 17 February 1999 in Amazonia in Brazil). These cases were sampled in situ microphysically by the Citation and reported elsewhere in this meeting; the main emphasis of this paper will be on the airborne radar measurements and inferences from them.

  17. Putting bugs to the blush: metabolic engineering for phenylpropanoid-derived products in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    van Summeren-Wesenhagen, Philana V; Marienhagen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Phenylpropanoids and phenylpropanoid-derived phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, anthocyanins, or stilbenes are secondary plant metabolites which serve as pigments and scent compounds or provide protection against environmental stress. Due to their antioxidant properties they also have been widely recognized for their benefit on human health. Traditionally, such compounds are extracted from their natural plant sources, but this approach is limited by low abundance and environmental, seasonal as well as regional variations in yield. Chemical synthesis is not a true alternative for the large scale production of more complex phenylpropanoid-derived substances since chemical synthesis becomes commercially unfeasible as the structural complexity of these plant natural products increases. In the last years, many biosynthetic pathways for plant natural products have been elucidated through the advancements in DNA sequencing technologies. In combination with new recombinant DNA technologies this technical progress opens the door toward the functional integration of full biosynthetic pathways for the synthesis of phenylpropanoids and phenylpropanoid-derived compounds in microorganisms. We believe that this approach has great potential to provide sufficient quantities of the desired plant natural product from cheap and renewable resources. This commentary highlights recent advances in the microbial production of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds with an emphasis on flavonoids and stilbenes.

  18. Cutin-derived CuO reaction products from purified cuticles and tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Hedges, John I.

    1990-11-01

    Long chain (C 16-C 18) hydroxy fatty acids are obtained among the nonlignin-derived reaction products from the CuO oxidation of a variety of geochemical samples. In order to investigate the origin of these acids, the CuO reaction products of isolated cuticles and whole leaves were investigated. The reaction products from the CuO oxidation of purified apple ( Malus pumila) cuticle include 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid as major components. The distribution of these cutin-derived CuO reaction products is similar to the monomer compositions deduced from traditional methods of cutin analysis. Oxidation of whole English Holly ( Ilex aquifolium) leaves yields cutin-derived acidic reaction products (in addition to lignin-derived phenols) similar to those obtained from oxidation of the corresponding isolated cuticles, indicating that CuO oxidation of bulk plant tissue is a viable procedure of cutin analysis in geochemical applications.

  19. Efficient syntheses of permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A, a pyrrolic marine natural product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ruijuan; Jiang, Long; Wan, Shengbiao; Jiang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The pyrrole-derived alkaloids with marine origin, especially their permethyl derivatives, have unique structures and promising biological activities. Marine natural product neolamellarins are a collection of lamellarin-like phenolic pyrrole compounds, which can inhibit hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation. Many pyrrole-derived lamellarin-like alkaloids show potent MDR reversing activity. In this study, five permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A were synthesized with their MDR reversing activity studied in order to identify new MDR reversal agents. A convergent strategy was adopted to synthesize the permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A. Pyrrole was first converted into a corresponding N-trisisopropylsilyl (TIPS)-substituted derivative, then through iodination afforded 3,4-diiodinated pyrrole compound. The key intermediate, 3,4-disubstituent-1 H-pyrrole, was obtained through desilylation of 3,4-disubstituent-1-TIPS pyrrole, which was prepared from 3,4-diiodinated pyrrole derivative and aryl boronic acid ester through Suzuki cross-coupling reaction between them. Then, the intermediate, 3,4-disubstituent-1 H-pyrrole, reacted with fresh phenylacetyl chloride under n-BuLi/THF condition afforded the target compounds. Finally, we obtained five novel pyrrolic compounds, permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A 16a-e, in 30%-37% yield through five step reactions. The bioactivity testing of these compounds are in process.

  20. Plant resistance mechanisms to air pollutants: rhythms in ascorbic acid production during growth under ozone stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between ozone (O3) tolerance and leaf ascorbic acid concentrations in O3-susceptible (O3-S) 'Hark' and O3-resistant (O3-R) 'Hood' soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., cultivars were examined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Leaf samples were analyzed at 4 intervals during a 24 h period. Soybean cultivars grown in the greenhouse with charcoal filtered (CF) and nonfiltered (NF) air showed daily oscillations in ascorbic acid production. Highest ascorbic acid levels in leaves during light coincided with highest concentrations of photochemical oxidants in the atmosphere at 2:00 p.m. The resistant genotype produced more ascorbic acid in its trifoliate leaves than did the corresponding susceptible genotype. Under CF air (an O3-reduced environment) O3-S and O3-R cultivars showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. In NF air (an O3 stress environment) the O3-R cultivar alone showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. Results indicated that superior O3 tolerance in the Hood soybean cultivar (compared with Hark) was associated with a greater increase in endogenous levels of ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid may scavenge free radicals and thereby protect cells from injury by O3 or other oxyradical products. Plants defend themselves against photochemical oxidant stress, such as O3, by several mechanisms. Experimental evidence indicates that antioxidant defense systems existing in plant tissues may function to protect cellular components from deleterious effects of photochemical oxidants through endogenous and exogenous controls.

  1. Derivation of a New Smoke Emissions Inventory using Remote Sensing, and Its Implications for Near Real-Time Air Quality Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Luke; Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    A new emissions inventory of particulate matter (PM) is being derived mainly from remote sensing data using fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, as well as wind data from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis dataset, which spans the satellite era. This product is generated using a coefficient of emission, C(sub e), that has been produced on a 1x1 degree global grid such that, when it is multiplied with satellite measurements of FRP or its time-integrated equivalent fire radiative energy (FRE) retrieved over a given area and time period, the corresponding PM emissions are estimated. This methodology of using C(sub e) to derive PM emissions is relatively new and advantageous for near real-time air quality applications compared to current methods based on post-fire burned area that may not provide emissions in a timely manner. Furthermore, by using FRP to characterize a fire s output, it will represent better accuracy than the use of raw fire pixel counts, since fires in individual pixels can differ in size and strength by orders of magnitude, resulting in similar differences in emission rates. Here we will show examples of this effect and how this new emission inventory can properly account for the differing emission rates from fires of varying strengths. We also describe the characteristics of the new emissions inventory, and propose the process chain of incorporating it into models for air quality applications.

  2. Air-substrate mercury exchange associated with landfill disposal of coal combustion products.

    PubMed

    Xin, Mei; Gustin, Mae S; Ladwig, Kenneth; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra F

    2006-08-01

    Previous laboratory studies have shown that lignite-derived fly ash emitted mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, whereas bituminous- and subbituminous-derived fly ash samples adsorbed Hg from the air. In addition, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were found to have higher Hg emission rates than fly ash. This study investigated in situ Hg emissions at a blended bituminous-subbituminous ash landfill in the Great Lakes area and a lignite-derived ash and FGD solids landfill in the Midwestern United States using a dynamic field chamber. Fly ash and saturated FGD materials emitted Hg to atmosphere at low rates (-0.1 to 1.2 ng/ m2hr), whereas FGD material mixed with fly ash and pyrite exhibited higher emission rates (approximately 10 ng/m2hr) but were still comparable with natural background soils (-0.3 to 13 ng/ m2hr). Air temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity were important factors correlated with measured Hg fluxes. Field study results were not consistent with corresponding laboratory observations in that fluxes measured in the latter were higher and more variable. This is hypothesized to be partially an artifact of the flux measurement methods.

  3. Energy and materials flows in the production of olefins and their derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Shen, S.Y.

    1980-08-01

    Production of olefins and their derivatives uses almost 3.5% of the oil and gas consumed annually in the United States. It is estimated that their production requires an input energy of 2 Q, which is 50% of the energy used in the production of all petrochemicals. Substantial amounts of this energy could be recovered through recycling. For example, recycling of a single plastic product, polyester soft drink bottles, could have recovered about 0.014 Q in 1979. (About 1.4 Q is used to produce plastic derivatives of olefins). Petrochemical processes use fuels as feedstocks, as well as for process energy, and a portion of this energy is not foregone and can be recovered through combustion of the products. The energy foregone in the production of ethylene is estimated to be 7800 Btu/lb. The energy foregone in plastics production ranges from 12,100 Btu/lb for the new linear low-density polyethylene to 77,200 Btu/lb for nylon 66, which is about 60% of the total energy input for that product. Further investigation of the following areas could yield both material and energy savings in the olefins industry: (1) recycling of petrochemical products to recover energy in addition to that recoverable through combustion, (2) impact of feedstock substitution on utilization of available national resources, and (3) effective use of the heat embodied in process steam. This steam accounts for a major fraction of the industry's energy input.

  4. Sustainable intensive livestock production demands manure and exhaust air treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Melse, Roland W; Timmerman, Maikel

    2009-11-01

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including discharges to soils and surface waters and emissions to the atmosphere. In areas with a high livestock density the low availability of nearby arable land, together with the preferred use of chemical fertilizer by arable farmers, results in high off-farm disposal costs for manure. Furthermore, ammonia abatement technologies, such as treatment of exhaust air, are important as ammonia emissions may account up to a quarter of the total nitrogen flux. Firstly, the paper describes and discusses the development of manure treatment in the Netherlands since the 1970's. Manure treatment processes that result in products that compete with and replace the use of chemical fertilizers can (partly) close the nutrient cycle again. From this point of view aerobic treatment of manure (nitrification/denitrification) can not be considered sustainable as nitrogen is taken out of the cycle at high environmental costs. Secondly, the state-of-the-art of techniques for treatment of exhaust air is presented. Besides ammonia, application of air treatment may also reduce environmental emissions of odour and particulate matter (dust). Both manure treatment and treatment of exhaust air are considered essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with a high livestock density.

  5. Cytotoxicity and mycotoxin production of shellfish-derived Penicillium spp., a risk for shellfish consumers.

    PubMed

    Geiger, M; Guitton, Y; Vansteelandt, M; Kerzaon, I; Blanchet, E; Robiou du Pont, T; Frisvad, J C; Hess, P; Pouchus, Y F; Grovel, O

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the putative toxigenic risk associated with the presence of fungal strains in shellfish-farming areas, Penicillium strains were isolated from bivalve molluscs and from the surrounding environment, and the influence of the sample origin on the cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated. Extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillia exhibited higher cytotoxicity than the others. Ten of these strains were grown on various media including a medium based on mussel extract (Mytilus edulis), mussel flesh-based medium (MES), to study the influence of the mussel flesh on the production of cytotoxic compounds. The MES host-derived medium was created substituting the yeast extract of YES medium by an aqueous extract of mussel tissues, with other constituent identical to YES medium. When shellfish-derived strains of fungi were grown on MES medium, extracts were found to be more cytotoxic than on the YES medium for some of the strains. HPLC-UV/DAD-MS/MS dereplication of extracts from Penicillium marinum and P. restrictum strains grown on MES medium showed the enhancement of the production of some cytotoxic compounds. The mycotoxin patulin was detected in some P. antarcticum extracts, and its presence seemed to be related to their cytotoxicity. Thus, the enhancement of the toxicity of extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillium strains grown on a host-derived medium, and the production of metabolites such as patulin suggests that a survey of mycotoxins in edible shellfish should be considered.

  6. Induction of hepatocyte growth factor production in human dermal fibroblasts by caffeic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kurisu, Manami; Nakasone, Rie; Miyamae, Yusaku; Matsuura, Daisuke; Kanatani, Hirotoshi; Yano, Shingo; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic activities in epithelial cells. Induction of HGF production may be involved in organ regeneration, wound healing and embryogenesis. In this study, we examined the effects of caffeic acid derivatives including 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (1) and acteoside (2) on HGF production in Neonatal Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts (NHDF). Both 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (1) and acteoside (2) significantly induced HGF production dose-dependent manner. To know the important substructure for HGF production activity, we next investigated the effect of the partial structure of these caffeic acid derivatives. From the results, caffeic acid (3) showed strong activity on the promotion of HGF production, while hydroxytyrosol (4) and quinic acid (5) didn't show any activity. Our findings suggest that the caffeoyl moiety of caffeic acid derivatives is essential for accelerated production of HGF. The compound which has the caffeoyl moiety may be useful for the treatment of some intractable organ disease.

  7. Enzymatic production of caffeic acid by koji from plant resources containing caffeoylquinic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Makoto; Kurata-Azuma, Rie; Fujii, Makoto; Hou, De-Xing; Ikeda, Kohji; Yoshidome, Tomohisa; Osako, Miho

    2005-09-01

    The effect of a koji (Aspergillus awamori mut.) extract on the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives purified from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves was examined to develop the mass production of caffeic acid. A koji extract hydrolyzed the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, chlorogenic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid, to caffeic acid. Furthermore, the koji extract also converted the major polyphenolic components from sweetpotato, burdock (Arctium lappa L.), and mugwort (Artemisia indica var. maximowiczii) leaves to caffeic acid. These results suggest that the production of caffeic acid from plant resources containing caffeoylquinic acid derivatives is possible.

  8. A review on plant-derived natural products and their analogs with anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Dholwani, K.K.; Saluja, A.K.; Gupta, A.R.; Shah, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional medicines, including Chinese herbal formulations, can serve as the source of potential new drugs, and initial research focuses on the isolation of bioactive lead compound(s). The development of novel plant-derived natural products and their analogs for anticancer activity details efforts to synthesize new derivatives based on bioactivity- and mechanism of action-directed isolation and characterization coupled with rational drug design - based modification. Also, the anticancer activity of certain natural products and their analogs can be enhanced by synthesizing new derivatives based on active pharmacophore models; drug resistance and solubility and metabolic limitations can be overcome by appropriate molecular modifications; and new biological properties or mechanisms of action can be added by combining other functional groups or molecules. Preclinical screening for in vitro human cell line panels and selected in vivo xenograft testing then identifies the most promising drug development targets. PMID:21279166

  9. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  10. Global 4 km resolution monthly gridded Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) data set derived from FLUXNET2015

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Hargrove, William W.; Collier, Nathan

    2016-08-01

    This data set contain global gridded surfaces of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) at 2 arc minute (approximately 4 km) spatial resolution monthly for the period of 2000-2014 derived from FLUXNET2015 (released July 12, 2016) observations using a representativeness based upscaling approach.

  11. Influence of the air Layer Between the Conductor and the Layer Ofinsulating Material in Cable Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Evgenia V.; Yashutina, Olga S.; Shidlovskiy, Stanisla V.

    2016-02-01

    There are developed mathematical model of physical and chemical processes of polymerization adhesive coating stranded cable. There are shown difference in the temperature distribution along the radius of the finished product in the presence of an air gap between the conductor and the rubber sheath. Also, due to the need to change process parameters with possible loose contacts inside the cable. Such as the temperature of the heating surface, feeding speed and dwell time in the oven.

  12. Ozone production by nanoporous dielectric barrier glow discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J. H.; Koo, I. G.; Choi, M. Y.; Lee, W. M.

    2008-03-10

    This study is aimed at demonstrating plasma-chemical ozone production based on low temperature atmospheric pressure glow discharge through nanoporous dielectric barriers. The 20 kHz ac driven discharge is formed in air or oxygen gas flowing in the axial direction of the cylindrical plasma reactor containing four parallel aluminum rods covered with nanoporous alumina films. The discharge utilizing nanoporous dielectric barrier is more uniform and more energy efficient in ozone generation than the discharge through smooth-surface dielectric barriers.

  13. Study on particulate matter air pollution in Beijing with MODIS aerosol level 2 products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jietai; Li, Chengcai; Lau, Alexis K.

    2004-09-01

    In the run-up to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, Chinese government officials at both the central and municipal levels are keenly aware that they must transform Beijing into a world-class city. According to the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB) to improve its air quality some actions are adopting, including taking steps to increase the forested area surrounding the city preventing dust storms, reducing the automotive vehicles, moving polluting factories now inside the fourth ring road ringing the inner city to locations outside of the fourth ring road, and switching the fuel of public buses and taxis from diesel to natural gas, etc. Will they eliminate most serious environmental problems in Beijing? MODIS aerosol products are helping us to answer this kind of questions. A long-term validation has been finished by sun-photometer observations, and the results proved the relative error of MODIS level 2 products was slightly larger than the estimation of Chu et al. (2002) from the results in most AERONET sites. However, the comparison between the products and moisture-corrected air pollution index (API) data, which were daily released to public by EPB, showed a high correlation coefficient. An air pollution episode in 2003 was investigated by the usage of satellite products. Our conclusion for the air pollution control strategy in Beijing is that only reducing the pollution sources from inner city can't fully solve the pollution problems in Beijing and the regional transports from the nearby southern provinces are contributing a lot to the pollution situation in Beijing.

  14. Induced Production of Halogenated Epidithiodiketopiperazines by a Marine-Derived Trichoderma cf. brevicompactum with Sodium Halides.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Rotinsulu, Henki; Narita, Reika; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Namikoshi, Michio

    2015-10-23

    Marine-derived Trichoderma sp. TPU199 (cf. T. brevicompactum) produced gliovirin (1), pretrichodermamide A (2), and trichodermamide A (3) in a freshwater medium. Compounds 1 and 2 are rare epidithiodiketopiperazines possessing an unusual disulfide linkage. In the seawater medium, the strain biosynthesized the 5-chloro-5-deoxy derivatives (4 and 5) of 3 and 2. The production of 5 was proportional to the concentration of seawater (NaCl). Therefore, 5-bromo-5-deoxy (6) and 5-deoxy-5-iodo (7) derivatives were biosynthesized in the freshwater media supplemented with NaBr and NaI, respectively. The structure of a new iodo derivative (7) was elucidated on the basis of its spectroscopic data. PMID:26439145

  15. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo.

  16. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  17. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  18. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  19. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  20. Angiotensin II modification by decomposition products of linoleic acid-derived lipid hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryo; Goto, Takaaki; Oe, Tomoyuki; Lee, Seon Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species and enzymes, leading to the formation of lipid hydroperoxides. The linoleic acid (LA)-derived hydroperoxide, 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (HPODE) undergoes homolytic decomposition to reactive aldehydes, 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal (ONE), 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal (EDE), and 4-hydroperoxy-2(E)-nonenal (HPNE), which can covalently modify peptides and proteins. ONE and HNE have been shown to react with angiotensin (Ang) II (DRVYIHPF) and modify the N-terminus, Arg(2), and His(6). ONE-derived pyruvamide-Ang II (Ang P) alters the biological activities of Ang II considerably. The present study revealed that EDE and HPNE preferentially modified the N-terminus and His(6) of Ang II. In addition to the N-substituted pyrrole of [N-C4H2]-Ang II and Michael addition products of [His(6)(EDE)]-Ang II, hydrated forms were detected as major products, suggesting considerable involvement of the vicinal dihydrodiol (formed by epoxide hydration) in EDE-derived protein modification in vivo. Substantial amounts of [N-(EDE-H2O)]-Ang II isomers were also formed and their synthetic pathway might involve the tautomerization of a carbinolamine intermediate, followed by intramolecular cyclization and dehydration. The main HPNE-derived products were [His(6)(HPNE)]-Ang II and [N-(HPNE-H2O)]-Ang II. However, ONE, HNE, and malondialdehyde-derived modifications were dominant, because HPNE is a precursor of these aldehydes. A mixture of 13-HPODE and [(13)C18]-13-HPODE (1:1) was then used to determine the major modifications derived from LA peroxidation. The characteristic doublet (1:1) observed in the mass spectrum and the mass difference of the [M+H](+) doublet aided the identification of Ang P (N-terminal α-ketoamide), [N-ONE]-Ang II (4-ketoamide), [Arg(2)(ONE-H2O)]-Ang II, [His(6)(HNE)]-Ang II (Michael addition product), [N-C4H2]-Ang II (EDE-derived N-substituted pyrrole

  1. Angiotensin II modification by decomposition products of linoleic acid-derived lipid hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryo; Goto, Takaaki; Oe, Tomoyuki; Lee, Seon Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species and enzymes, leading to the formation of lipid hydroperoxides. The linoleic acid (LA)-derived hydroperoxide, 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (HPODE) undergoes homolytic decomposition to reactive aldehydes, 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal (ONE), 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal (EDE), and 4-hydroperoxy-2(E)-nonenal (HPNE), which can covalently modify peptides and proteins. ONE and HNE have been shown to react with angiotensin (Ang) II (DRVYIHPF) and modify the N-terminus, Arg(2), and His(6). ONE-derived pyruvamide-Ang II (Ang P) alters the biological activities of Ang II considerably. The present study revealed that EDE and HPNE preferentially modified the N-terminus and His(6) of Ang II. In addition to the N-substituted pyrrole of [N-C4H2]-Ang II and Michael addition products of [His(6)(EDE)]-Ang II, hydrated forms were detected as major products, suggesting considerable involvement of the vicinal dihydrodiol (formed by epoxide hydration) in EDE-derived protein modification in vivo. Substantial amounts of [N-(EDE-H2O)]-Ang II isomers were also formed and their synthetic pathway might involve the tautomerization of a carbinolamine intermediate, followed by intramolecular cyclization and dehydration. The main HPNE-derived products were [His(6)(HPNE)]-Ang II and [N-(HPNE-H2O)]-Ang II. However, ONE, HNE, and malondialdehyde-derived modifications were dominant, because HPNE is a precursor of these aldehydes. A mixture of 13-HPODE and [(13)C18]-13-HPODE (1:1) was then used to determine the major modifications derived from LA peroxidation. The characteristic doublet (1:1) observed in the mass spectrum and the mass difference of the [M+H](+) doublet aided the identification of Ang P (N-terminal α-ketoamide), [N-ONE]-Ang II (4-ketoamide), [Arg(2)(ONE-H2O)]-Ang II, [His(6)(HNE)]-Ang II (Michael addition product), [N-C4H2]-Ang II (EDE-derived N-substituted pyrrole

  2. Biorefineries for the production of top building block chemicals and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sol; Song, Chan Woo; Shin, Jae Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-03-01

    Due to the growing concerns on the climate change and sustainability on petrochemical resources, DOE selected and announced the bio-based top 12 building blocks and discussed the needs for developing biorefinery technologies to replace the current petroleum based industry in 2004. Over the last 10 years after its announcement, many studies have been performed for the development of efficient technologies for the bio-based production of these chemicals and derivatives. Now, ten chemicals among these top 12 chemicals, excluding the l-aspartic acid and 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, have already been commercialized or are close to commercialization. In this paper, we review the current status of biorefinery development for the production of these platform chemicals and their derivatives. In addition, current technological advances on industrial strain development for the production of platform chemicals using micro-organisms will be covered in detail with case studies on succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid as examples.

  3. Photodegradation products of a new antibacterial fluoroquinolone derivative, orbifloxacin, in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Morimura, T; Nobuhara, Y; Matsukura, H

    1997-02-01

    A new antibacterial fluoroquinolone derivative, orbifloxacin (ORFX), is decomposed photochemically in aqueous solution. When ORFX solution was irradiated with a chemical lamp or sunlight, three major photodegradation products were isolated by preparative HPLC. These degradation products were identified by electron-impact mass spectrometry, liquid-secondary-ion mass spectrometry and 1-H-NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, the photodegradation pathway was investigated by a similar study using several fluoroquinolone derivatives which were presumed to be the intermediates of the photoreaction of the ORFX. Consequently, it was found that two main photochemical reactions, the decomposition of the dimethylpiperazinyl moiety and the elimination of the cyclopropyl group, take place in ORFX. The detected structures of photodegradation products and the photodegradation studies of the postulated intermediates suggested that the photodecomposition of the dimethylpiperazinyl ring at the 7-position and the elimination of the cyclopropyl group at the 1-position occurred concurrently with the release of fluorine at the 8-position.

  4. Thin layer chromatography study of heavy liquefaction products derived from two Chinese bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Yan, R.; Yang, J.; Liu, Z.

    1997-12-31

    Two Chinese bituminous coals, Yanzhou and Fenxi, were liquefied in the temperature range of 375--450 C and under a cold H{sub 2} pressure of 7 MPa without the presence of a solvent. An iron sulfide catalyst, prepared by in-situ precipitation, was used in the study. Heavy liquefaction products, a portion of toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE) solubles, were studied by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Under most conditions, the conversions of catalytic liquefaction are about twice as much as that of thermal liquefaction. The yields to toluene solubles are similar to that of TCE solubles. The TLC results of the heavy liquefaction products are compared with petroleum derived highway asphalts and with a coal tar pitch. The results show that the liquefaction products of Yanzhou coal, under certain conditions, have similar composition as that of petroleum derived highway asphalts, but significantly different from that of coal tar pitch, paraffinic petroleum residue and building asphalt.

  5. Biorefineries for the production of top building block chemicals and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sol; Song, Chan Woo; Shin, Jae Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-03-01

    Due to the growing concerns on the climate change and sustainability on petrochemical resources, DOE selected and announced the bio-based top 12 building blocks and discussed the needs for developing biorefinery technologies to replace the current petroleum based industry in 2004. Over the last 10 years after its announcement, many studies have been performed for the development of efficient technologies for the bio-based production of these chemicals and derivatives. Now, ten chemicals among these top 12 chemicals, excluding the l-aspartic acid and 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, have already been commercialized or are close to commercialization. In this paper, we review the current status of biorefinery development for the production of these platform chemicals and their derivatives. In addition, current technological advances on industrial strain development for the production of platform chemicals using micro-organisms will be covered in detail with case studies on succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid as examples. PMID:25576747

  6. Spectroscopic characterization of discharge products in Li-Air cells with aprotic carbonate electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M; Nanda, Jagjit; Howe, Jane Y; Dudney, Nancy J

    2011-01-01

    Raman, infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to characterize the thick coating of reaction products on carbon and MnO2 coated carbon cathodes produced during discharge of Li-air cells. The results show that neither Li2O2 or Li2O are major components of the insoluble discharge products; instead the products are largely composed of fluorine, lithium, and carbon, with surprisingly little oxygen. The complex reaction chemistry also appears to involve the formation of ethers or alkoxide products at the expense of the carbonate solvent molecules (ethylene carbonate and dimethylcarbonate). The irreversible discharge reaction is likely electrochemically promoted with Li-anion species and dissolved oxygen. Exactly how the molecular O2 participates in the reaction is unclear and requires further study. The addition of a conformal coating of MnO2 on the carbon lowers the cell s operating voltage, but does not alter the overall discharge chemistry.

  7. Deriving a light use efficiency model from eddy covariance flux data for predicting daily gross primary production across biomes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuan, W.; Liu, S.; Zhou, G.; Tieszen, L.L.; Baldocchi, D.; Bernhofer, C.; Gholz, H.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Goulden, M.L.; Hollinger, D.Y.; Hu, Y.; Law, B.E.; Stoy, P.C.; Vesala, T.; Wofsy, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales has been a major challenge in quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency (LUE) daily GPP model from eddy covariance (EC) measurements. The model, called EC-LUE, is driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, and the Bowen ratio of sensible to latent heat flux (used to calculate moisture stress). The EC-LUE model relies on two assumptions: First, that the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a linear function of NDVI; Second, that the realized light use efficiency, calculated from a biome-independent invariant potential LUE, is controlled by air temperature or soil moisture, whichever is most limiting. The EC-LUE model was calibrated and validated using 24,349 daily GPP estimates derived from 28 eddy covariance flux towers from the AmeriFlux and EuroFlux networks, covering a variety of forests, grasslands and savannas. The model explained 85% and 77% of the observed variations of daily GPP for all the calibration and validation sites, respectively. A comparison with GPP calculated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) indicated that the EC-LUE model predicted GPP that better matched tower data across these sites. The realized LUE was predominantly controlled by moisture conditions throughout the growing season, and controlled by temperature only at the beginning and end of the growing season. The EC-LUE model is an alternative approach that makes it possible to map daily GPP over large areas because (1) the potential LUE is invariant across various land cover types and (2) all driving forces of the model can be derived from remote sensing data or existing climate observation networks. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brett C.; Coleman, Beverly K.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    This study investigated the formation of secondary pollutants resulting from household product use in the presence of ozone. Experiments were conducted in a 50-m 3 chamber simulating a residential room. The chamber was operated at conditions relevant to US residences in polluted areas during warm-weather seasons: an air exchange rate of 1.0 h -1 and an inlet ozone concentration of approximately 120 ppb, when included. Three products were used in separate experiments. An orange oil-based degreaser and a pine oil-based general-purpose cleaner were used for surface cleaning applications. A plug-in scented-oil air freshener (AFR) was operated for several days. Cleaning products were applied realistically with quantities scaled to simulate residential use rates. Concentrations of organic gases and secondary organic aerosol from the terpene-containing consumer products were measured with and without ozone introduction. In the absence of reactive chemicals, the chamber ozone level was approximately 60 ppb. Ozone was substantially consumed following cleaning product use, mainly by homogeneous reaction. For the AFR, ozone consumption was weaker and heterogeneous reaction with sorbed AFR-constituent VOCs was of similar magnitude to homogeneous reaction with continuously emitted constituents. Formaldehyde generation resulted from product use with ozone present, increasing indoor levels by the order of 10 ppb. Cleaning product use in the presence of ozone generated substantial fine particle concentrations (more than 100 μg m -3) in some experiments. Ozone consumption and elevated hydroxyl radical concentrations persisted for 10-12 h following brief cleaning events, indicating that secondary pollutant production can persist for extended periods.

  9. SRT Evaluation of AIRS Version-6.02 and Version-6.02 AIRS Only (6.02 AO) Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Molnar, Gyula; Blaisdell, John

    2012-01-01

    Version-6 contains a number of significant improvements over Version-5. This report compares Version-6 products resulting from the advances listed below to those from Version-5. 1. Improved methodology to determine skin temperature (T(sub s)) and spectral emissivity (Epsilon(sub v)). 2. Use of Neural-net start-up state. 3. Improvements which decrease the spurious negative Version-5 trend in tropospheric temperatures. 4. Improved QC methodology. Version-6 uses separate QC thresholds optimized for Data Assimilation (QC=0) and Climate applications (QC=0,1) respectively. 5. Channel-by-channel clear-column radiances R-hat(sub tau) QC flags. 6. Improved cloud parameter retrieval algorithm. 7. Improved OLR RTA. Our evaluation compared V6.02 and V6.02 AIRS Only (V6.02 AO) Quality Controlled products with those of Version-5.0. In particular we evaluated surface skin temperature T(sub s), surface spectral emissivity Epsilon(sub v), temperature profile T(p), water vapor profile q(p), OLR, OLR(sub CLR), effective cloud fraction alpha-Epsilon, and cloud cleared radiances R-hat(sub tau) . We conducted two types of evaluations. The first compared results on 7 focus days to collocated ECMWF truth. The seven focus days are: September 6, 2002; January 25, 2003; September 29, 2004; August 5, 2005; February 24, 2007; August 10, 2007; and May 30, 2010. In these evaluations, we show results for T(sub s), Epsilon(sub v), T(p), and q(p) in terms of yields, and RMS differences and biases with regard to ECMWF. We also show yield trends as well as bias trends of these quantities relative to ECMWF truth. We also show yields and accuracy of channel by channel QC d values of R-hat(sub tau) for V6.02 and V6.02 AO. Version-5 did not contain channel by channel QC d values of R-hat(sub tau). In the second type of evaluation, we compared V6.03 monthly mean Level-3 products to those of Version-5.0, for four different months: January, April, July, and October; in 3 different years 2003, 2007, and 2011

  10. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2005-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the sixth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) Autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (2) Catalyst deactivation, (3) Steam reformer transient response, and (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  11. Archaeal Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Co- and Terpolyesters from Biodiesel Industry-Derived By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Hermann-Krauss, Carmen; Koller, Martin; Stelzer, Franz; Braunegg, Gerhart

    2013-01-01

    The archaeon Haloferax mediterranei was selected for production of PHA co- and terpolyesters using inexpensive crude glycerol phase (CGP) from biodiesel production as carbon source. CGP was assessed by comparison with the application of pure glycerol. Applying pure glycerol, a copolyester with a molar fraction of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) of 0.90 mol/mol and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) of 0.10 mol/mol, was produced at a volumetric productivity of 0.12 g/Lh and an intracellular PHA content of 75.4 wt.-% in the sum of biomass protein plus PHA. Application of CGP resulted in the same polyester composition and volumetric productivity, indicating the feasibility of applying CGP as feedstock. Analysis of molar mass distribution revealed a weight average molar mass Mw of 150 kDa and polydispersity Pi of 2.1 for pure glycerol and 253 kDa and 2.7 for CGP, respectively; melting temperatures ranged between 130 and 140°C in both setups. Supplying γ-butyrolactone as 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) precursor resulted in a poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate] (PHBHV4HB) terpolyester containing 3HV (0.12 mol/mol) and 4HB (0.05 mol/mol) in the poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) matrix; in addition, this process runs without sterilization of the bioreactor. The terpolyester displayed reduced melting (melting endotherms at 122 and 137°C) and glass transition temperature (2.5°C), increased molar mass (391 kDa), and a polydispersity similar to the copolyesters. PMID:24453697

  12. Production of levulinic acid and use as a platform chemical for derived products

    SciTech Connect

    Bozell, J.J.; Moens, L.; Elliott, D.C.; Wang, Y.; Neuenscwander, G.G.; Fitzpatrick, S.W.; Bilski, R.J.; Jarnefeld, J.L.

    1999-07-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced cost effectively and in high yield from renewable feedstocks in a new industrial process. The technology is being demonstrated on a one ton/day scale at a facility in South Glens Falls, New York. Low cost LA can be used as a platform chemical for the production of a wide range of value-added products. This research has demonstrated that LA can be converted to methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF), a solvent and fuel extender. MTHF is produced in {gt}80% molar yield via a single stage catalytic hydrogenation process. A new preparation of {delta}-aminolevulinic acid (DALA), a broad spectrum herbicide from LA has also been developed. Each step in this new process proceeds in high ({gt}80%) yield and affords DALA (as the hydrochloride salt) in greater than 90% purity, giving a process that could be commercially viable. LA is also being investigated as a starting material for the production of diphenolic acid (DPA), a direct replacement for bisphenol A.

  13. Considerations for the process development of insect-derived antimicrobial peptide production.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hagen; Salzig, Denise; Czermak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could evolve into new therapeutic lead molecules against multi-resistant bacteria. As insects are a rich source of AMP, the identification and characterization of insect-derived AMPs is particularly emphasized. One challenge of bringing these molecules into market, e.g., as a drug, is to develop a cost-efficient large-scale production process. Due to the fact that a direct AMP isolation from insects is not economical and that chemical synthesis is recommended for peptide sizes below 40 amino acids, a viable option is heterologous AMP production. Therefore, previous knowledge concerning the expression of larger proteins can be adapted, but due to the AMP nature (e.g., small size, bactericide) additional challenges have to be faced during up and downstream processing. Nonetheless the bottleneck for large-scale AMP production is the same as for proteins; mainly the downstream process. This review introduces opportunities for insect-derived AMP production, like the choice of the expression system (based on previously derived data), depending on the AMP nature, as well as new purification strategies like elastin-like peptide/intein based purification strategies. All of these aspects are discussed with regard to large-scale processes and costs.

  14. Fungal colonization of air filters and insulation in a multi-story office building: production of volatile organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Crow, S. A.; Simmons, R. B.; Price, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary air filters in the air-handling units on four floors of a multi-story office building with a history of fungal colonization of insulation within the air distribution system were examined for the presence of growing fungi and production of volatile organic compounds. Fungal mycelium and conidia of Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were observed on insulation from all floors and both sides of the air filters from one floor. Lower concentrations of volatile organics were released from air filter medium colonized with fungi as compared with noncolonized filter medium. However, the volatiles from the colonized filter medium included fungal metabolites such as acetone and a carbonyl sulfide-like compound that were not released from noncolonized filter medium. The growth of fungi in air distribution systems may affect the content of volatile organics in indoor air.

  15. Production of fatty acid-derived oleochemicals and biofuels by synthetic yeast cell factories.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjin J; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhu, Zhiwei; Qin, Jiufu; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable production of oleochemicals requires establishment of cell factory platform strains. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive cell factory as new strains can be rapidly implemented into existing infrastructures such as bioethanol production plants. Here we show high-level production of free fatty acids (FFAs) in a yeast cell factory, and the production of alkanes and fatty alcohols from its descendants. The engineered strain produces up to 10.4 g l(-1) of FFAs, which is the highest reported titre to date. Furthermore, through screening of specific pathway enzymes, endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde reductases, we reconstruct efficient pathways for conversion of fatty acids to alkanes (0.8 mg l(-1)) and fatty alcohols (1.5 g l(-1)), to our knowledge the highest titres reported in S. cerevisiae. This should facilitate the construction of yeast cell factories for production of fatty acids derived products and even aldehyde-derived chemicals of high value.

  16. Growth, reproductive productivity and longevity of mice fed polyunsaturated ruminant-derived foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Fogerty, A C; Pennycuik, P R; Ferris, M C; Baxter, R I; Johnson, A R

    1979-02-01

    The effects on the well-being of mice of feeding linoleic acid-enriched foodstuffs derived from ruminants receiving protected polyunsaturated oil were determined. Growth, reproductive productivity and longevity were compared in mice fed freeze-dried human diets containing either these products or the corresponding conventional ruminant-derived foods. A laboratory mouse pellet diet was used as a standard for the comparison. Growth rates and life spans were found to be similar in all three groups. Although the reproductive productivity of the mice on the polyunsaturated diet was never significantly different from that of mice on the conventional human diet, productivities of both groups on human diets were usually significantly below those of mice eating pellets. By the third generation of the second reproduction study, productivities of both these groups of mice had returned to the same level as those of mice eating pellets. Possible reasons for the depression in reproductive productivity in mice on the human diets are discussed. It was concluded that the polyunsaturated human diet neither impaired nor improved the lives of the animals eating the diet relative to the lives of animals eating the conventional human diet.

  17. Production of fatty acid-derived oleochemicals and biofuels by synthetic yeast cell factories.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjin J; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhu, Zhiwei; Qin, Jiufu; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable production of oleochemicals requires establishment of cell factory platform strains. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive cell factory as new strains can be rapidly implemented into existing infrastructures such as bioethanol production plants. Here we show high-level production of free fatty acids (FFAs) in a yeast cell factory, and the production of alkanes and fatty alcohols from its descendants. The engineered strain produces up to 10.4 g l(-1) of FFAs, which is the highest reported titre to date. Furthermore, through screening of specific pathway enzymes, endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde reductases, we reconstruct efficient pathways for conversion of fatty acids to alkanes (0.8 mg l(-1)) and fatty alcohols (1.5 g l(-1)), to our knowledge the highest titres reported in S. cerevisiae. This should facilitate the construction of yeast cell factories for production of fatty acids derived products and even aldehyde-derived chemicals of high value. PMID:27222209

  18. Production of fatty acid-derived oleochemicals and biofuels by synthetic yeast cell factories

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yongjin J.; Buijs, Nicolaas A.; Zhu, Zhiwei; Qin, Jiufu; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable production of oleochemicals requires establishment of cell factory platform strains. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive cell factory as new strains can be rapidly implemented into existing infrastructures such as bioethanol production plants. Here we show high-level production of free fatty acids (FFAs) in a yeast cell factory, and the production of alkanes and fatty alcohols from its descendants. The engineered strain produces up to 10.4 g l−1 of FFAs, which is the highest reported titre to date. Furthermore, through screening of specific pathway enzymes, endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde reductases, we reconstruct efficient pathways for conversion of fatty acids to alkanes (0.8 mg l−1) and fatty alcohols (1.5 g l−1), to our knowledge the highest titres reported in S. cerevisiae. This should facilitate the construction of yeast cell factories for production of fatty acids derived products and even aldehyde-derived chemicals of high value. PMID:27222209

  19. Pacific Region Integrated Climatology Information Products (PRICIP) Derived-data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Integrated Data and Environmental Applications (IDEA) Center has initiated the Pacific Region Integrated Climatology Information Products (PRICIP) project to improve our understanding of patterns and trends of storm frequency and intensity - 'storminess'- within the Pacific region and develop a suite of integrated data and information products. Strong winds, heavy rains, and high seas theme-specific data integration and product development teams have been formed to carry out this work. These teams are comprised of recognized agency and university- based experts in the area of climate-related processes that govern storminess. They include representatives from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), Center for Operational Products and Services (CO-OPS), and National Weather Service (NWS), as well as the University of Hawai'i, University of Alaska, University of Guam, and Oregon State University. Each team is developing regional climatological overviews, identifying corresponding extremes indices, establishing data treatment and analysis protocols, and conducting analyses to establish baseline statistics, long term trends, patterns of variability, and event return recurrence intervals via Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) analyses. Preliminary results of these analyses can be viewed via a beta-version of a Google map- based query utility (http://www.pricip.org/ddp.php ). Data sources for these analyses include NOAA's Integrated Surface Hourly (ISH) mean sea level pressure and wind speed data; the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) precipitation dataset; the National Water Level Observing Network (NWLON) sea level station records; the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) wave buoy records; the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers" Coastal Data Information (CDIP) buoy data, and other data. The northern and central north Pacific, which includes Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and Hawai'i, have been targeted as

  20. Recombination of Hydrogen-Air Combustion Products in an Exhaust Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lezberg, Erwin A.; Lancashire, Richard B.

    1961-01-01

    Thrust losses due to the inability of dissociated combustion gases to recombine in exhaust nozzles are of primary interest for evaluating the performance of hypersonic ramjets. Some results for the expansion of hydrogen-air combustion products are described. Combustion air was preheated up to 33000 R to simulate high-Mach-number flight conditions. Static-temperature measurements using the line reversal method and wall static pressures were used to indicate the state of the gas during expansion. Results indicated substantial departure from the shifting equilibrium curve beginning slightly downstream of the nozzle throat at stagnation pressures of 1.7 and 3.6 atmospheres. The results are compared with an approximate method for determining a freezing point using an overall rate equation for the oxidation of hydrogen.

  1. CORSIKA implementation of heavy quark production and propagation in extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, A.; Gascón, A.

    2014-02-01

    Heavy quarks are commonly produced in current accelerator experiments. Hence it is natural to think that they should be likewise created in collisions with larger center of mass energies like the ones involving ultra-high energy cosmic rays and atmospheric nuclei. Despite this fact, a detailed treatment of heavy hadrons is missing in Monte Carlo generators of Extensive Air Showers (EAS). It is a must to improve the description of how heavy flavors appear and evolve in atmospheric showers. With this goal in mind, we study two different models for heavy quark production in proton-air collisions. We also analyze a dedicated treatment of heavy hadrons interactions with atmospheric nuclei. This paper shows how those models have been implemented as new options available in CORSIKA, one of the most used EAS simulators. This new computational tool allows us to analyze the effects that the propagation of heavy hadrons has in the EAS development.

  2. Spatially Complete Surface Albedo Data Sets: Value-Added Products Derived from Terra MODIS Land Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, E. G.; King, M. D.; Platnick, S.; Schaaf, C. B.; Gao, F.

    2004-01-01

    Spectral land surface albedo is an important parameter for describing the radiative properties of the Earth. Accordingly it reflects the consequences of natural and human interactions, such as anthropogenic, meteorological, and phenological effects, on global and local climatological trends. Consequently, albedos are integral parts in a variety of research areas, such as general circulation models (GCMs), energy balance studies, modeling of land use and land use change, and biophysical, oceanographic, and meteorological studies. The availability of global albedo data over a large range of spectral channels and at high spatial resolution has dramatically improved with the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft in December 1999. However, lack of spatial and temporal coverage due to cloud and snow effects can preclude utilization of official products in production and research studies. We report on a technique used to fill incomplete MOD43 albedo data sets with the intention of providing complete value-added maps. The technique is influenced by the phenological concept that within a certain area, a pixel s ecosystem class should exhibit similar growth cycle events over the same time period. The shape of an area s phenological temporal curve can be imposed upon existing pixel-level data to fill missing temporal points. The methodology will be reviewed by showcasing 2001 global and regional results of complete albedo and NDVl data sets.

  3. Applications of MODIS satellite data and products for monitoring air quality in the state of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    The Center for Space Research (CSR), in conjunction with the Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), is evaluating the use of remotely sensed satellite data to assist in monitoring and predicting air quality in Texas. The challenges of meeting air quality standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) are impacted by the transport of pollution into Texas that originates from outside our borders and are cumulative with those generated by local sources. In an attempt to quantify the concentrations of all pollution sources, MOD has installed ground-based monitoring stations in rural regions along the Texas geographic boundaries including the Gulf coast, as well as urban regions that are the predominant sources of domestic pollution. However, analysis of time-lapse GOES satellite imagery at MOD, clearly demonstrates the shortcomings of using only ground-based observations for monitoring air quality across Texas. These shortcomings include the vastness of State borders, that can only be monitored with a large number of ground-based sensors, and gradients in pollution concentration that depend upon the location of the point source, the meteorology governing its transport to Texas, and its diffusion across the region. With the launch of NASA's MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the transport of aerosol-borne pollutants can now be monitored over land and ocean surfaces. Thus, CSR and MOD personnel have applied MODIS data to several classes of pollution that routinely impact Texas air quality. Results demonstrate MODIS data and products can detect and track the migration of pollutants. This paper presents one case study in which continental haze from the northeast moved into the region and subsequently required health advisories to be issued for 150 counties in Texas. It is concluded that MODIS provides the basis for developing advanced data products that will, when used in

  4. Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianxiong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Daosheng; Wang, Xiaocong; Song, Jing; Liu, Dongqi

    This study investigated the feasibility of coupling a catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), with CuO/Al 2O 3 as catalyst, and an anaerobic/aerobic biological process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production. Results showed that the CWAO enhanced the biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) from 0.10 to 0.80. The oxidized effluents with COD of 10,000 mg l -1 was subjected to subsequent continuous anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and 99.3% of total COD removal was achieved. The quality of the effluent obtained met the discharge standards of water pollutants for pharmaceutical industry Chemical Synthesis Products Category (GB21904-2008), and thereby it implies that the integrated CWAO and anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment may offer a promising process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production.

  5. Elevated peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived superoxide production in healthy young black men.

    PubMed

    Deo, Shekhar H; Holwerda, Seth W; Keller, David M; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that blacks exhibit elevations in systemic oxidative stress. However, the source(s) and mechanism(s) contributing to the elevation in oxidative stress remain unclear. Given that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be a major source of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production, we tested the hypothesis that young black men demonstrate greater superoxide production and NADPH oxidase expression in PBMCs compared with whites. PBMCs were freshly isolated from whole blood in young normotensive black (n = 18) and white (n = 16) men. Intracellular superoxide production in PBMCs was measured using dihydroethidium fluorescence, protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, gp91(phox) (membranous) and p47(phox) (cytosolic) in PBMCs were assessed using Western blot analysis, and plasma protein carbonyls were measured as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. Black men showed elevated intracellular superoxide production (4.3 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 0.6 relative fluorescence units; black men vs. white men, P < 0.05), increased protein expression for gp91(phox) and p47(phox) (e.g., p47(phox): 1.1 ± 0.2, black men vs. 0.4 ± 0.1, white men, P < 0.05) in PBMCs and higher circulating protein carbonyl levels (22 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 2 nmol/ml; black men vs. white men, P < 0.05). Interestingly, a positive family history of hypertension in black men did not further enhance PBMC-derived intracellular superoxide production or NADPH oxidase subunit protein expression. These findings indicate that black men exhibit greater resting PBMC-derived superoxide production and an upregulation of the NADPH oxidase pathway with a possible contribution to increases in systemic oxidative stress.

  6. Use of wastes derived from earthquakes for the production of concrete masonry partition wall blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Zhao; Ling, Tung-Chai; Kou, Shi-Cong; Wang Qingyuan; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Solved the scientific and technological challenges impeding use of waste rubble derived from earthquake, by providing an alternative solution of recycling the waste in moulded concrete block products. > Significant requirements for optimum integration on the utilization of the waste aggregates in the production of concrete blocks are investigated. > A thorough understanding of the mechanical properties of concrete blocks made with waste derived from earthquake is reported. - Abstract: Utilization of construction and demolition (C and D) wastes as recycled aggregates in the production of concrete and concrete products have attracted much attention in recent years. However, the presence of large quantities of crushed clay brick in some the C and D waste streams (e.g. waste derived collapsed masonry buildings after an earthquake) renders the recycled aggregates unsuitable for high grade use. One possibility is to make use of the low grade recycled aggregates for concrete block production. In this paper, we report the results of a comprehensive study to assess the feasibility of using crushed clay brick as coarse and fine aggregates in concrete masonry block production. The effects of the content of crushed coarse and fine clay brick aggregates (CBA) on the mechanical properties of non-structural concrete block were quantified. From the experimental test results, it was observed that incorporating the crushed clay brick aggregates had a significant influence on the properties of blocks. The hardened density and drying shrinkage of the block specimens decreased with an increase in CBA content. The use of CBA increased the water absorption of block specimens. The results suggested that the amount of crushed clay brick to be used in concrete masonry blocks should be controlled at less than 25% (coarse aggregate) and within 50-75% for fine aggregates.

  7. Phenazine derivatives as the mutagenic reaction product from o- or m-phenylenediamine derivatives with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Hirayama, T; Fukui, S

    1989-11-01

    8 Kinds of o- and m-phenylenediamine (PD) derivatives, which are used as oxidative-type hair dyes, were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Both before and after H2O2 treatment, their mutagenicity was tested by using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the presence or absence of a mammalian metabolic activation system (S9 mix). After H2O2 treatment, the mutagenic potencies of p-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 3,4-diaminotoluene, p-nitro-m-phenylenediamine and 2,4-diaminophenol did not vary or slightly increased in comparison with those of the starting materials. The mutagenicity of o-PD, p-chloro-o-phenylenediamine (p-Cl-o-PD), m-PD and 2,4-diaminoanisole (p-OMe-m-PD) was enhanced remarkably by treatment with H2O2 and all the oxidation products required metabolic activation by S9 mix for their mutagenesis. In a gas chromatography/mass spectrometric study, 2,3-diaminophenazine and 2,7-diaminophenazine were identified with authentic samples in o-PD and m-PD oxidation mixture, respectively. The oxidation mixture obtained from p-Cl-o-PD and p-OMe-m-PD was separated into several fractions by repeated column chromatography. Brownish yellow crystals were isolated from oxidized p-Cl-o-PD and the structure of the compound was determined to be 2,3-diamino-7-chlorophenazine from physicochemical and chemical evidence. Two reddish yellow crystals, obtained from oxidized p-OMe-m-PD, were 2,7-diamino-3,8-dimethoxyphenazine and 2,7-diamino-3-methoxyphenazine. The number of revertants induced by 1 nmole of phenazines detected from oxidized PD derivatives was as follows; 2,3-diaminophenazine: 349 rev.; 2,3-diamino-7-chlorophenazine; 406 rev.: 2,7-diaminophenazine: 12 110 rev.; 2,7-diamino-3,8-dimethoxyphenazine: 4229 rev.; 2,7-diamino-3-methoxyphenazine: 24 640 rev. in S. typhimurium TA98 strain with 25 microliters S9 per plate. PMID:2682235

  8. Bioactive rearranged and halogenated semisynthetic derivatives of the marine natural product sarcophine.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Swapnali S; Sylvester, Paul W; Avery, Mitchell A; Desai, Prashant; Youssef, Diaa T A; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2004-12-01

    Cembranoids are natural diterpenes with 14-membered macrocyclic rings. The simplest natural cembranoid, (+)-cembrene, was isolated from pine oleoresin. Sarcophytols A and B are known cembranoids that inhibit tumor promotion. Sarcophine is a related cembranoid isolated from the Red Sea soft coral Sarcophyton glaucum. Sarcophine and its bioconversion products and semisynthetic derivatives are reported to possess cancer chemopreventive activity. Oxymercuration-demercuration of sarcophine using Hg(OAc)2 and NaBH4 afforded four new rearranged and hydroxylated products. Bromination of sarcophine with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) furnished two new brominated and rearranged products. Reaction with iodine gave the known iso-sarcophinone and (+)-sarcophytoxin B. Structure elucidation was based on a combination of transition state modeling, molecular dynamics, mechanistic considerations, and 2D NMR data. The antiproliferative activity of the new products is also reported.

  9. Bone marrow derived stem cells in regenerative medicine as advanced therapy medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Astori, Giuseppe; Soncin, Sabrina; Lo Cicero, Viviana; Siclari, Francesco; Sürder, Daniel; Turchetto, Lucia; Soldati, Gianni; Moccetti, Tiziano

    2010-05-15

    Bone marrow derived stem cells administered after minimal manipulation represent an important cell source for cell-based therapies. Clinical trial results, have revealed both safety and efficacy of the cell reinfusion procedure in many cardiovascular diseases. Many of these early clinical trials were performed in a period before the entry into force of the US and European regulation on cell-based therapies. As a result, conflicting data have been generated on the effectiveness of those therapies in certain conditions as acute myocardial infarction. As more academic medical centers and private companies move toward exploiting the full potential of cell-based medicinal products, needs arise for the development of the infrastructure necessary to support these investigations. This review describes the regulatory environment surrounding the production of cell based medicinal products and give practical aspects for cell isolation, characterization, production following Good Manufacturing Practice, focusing on the activities associated with the investigational new drug development.

  10. Consumer satisfaction with pork meat and derived products in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Resano, Helena; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; de Barcellos, Marcia D; Veflen-Olsen, Nina; Grunert, Klaus G; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-02-01

    This paper investigates consumers' satisfaction level with pork meat and derived products in five European countries. Data were collected through a cross-sectional web-based survey in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Poland during January 2008 with a total sample of 2437 consumers. Data included socio-demographics and questions regarding satisfaction with 27 common pork-based products; classified into fresh pork, processed pork and pork meat products. Satisfaction was evaluated in terms of overall satisfaction, as well as satisfaction with health-giving qualities, price, convenience and taste. Logistic regression analyses showed taste as the main determinant of satisfaction, followed by convenience. Healthfulness is not a significant driver of overall satisfaction. Price influences satisfaction with fresh pork more than with processed products. Tasty pork, easy to prepare and consume, with adequate promotion of its healthfulness, and with a good price/quality relationship appears to be the key factor to satisfy pork consumers. PMID:21029759

  11. Microbial production of amino acids and derived chemicals: synthetic biology approaches to strain development.

    PubMed

    Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-12-01

    Amino acids are produced at the multi-million-ton-scale with fermentative production of l-glutamate and l-lysine alone being estimated to amount to more than five million tons in the year 2013. Metabolic engineering constantly improves productivities of amino acid producing strains, mainly Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli strains. Classical mutagenesis and screening have been accelerated by combination with intracellular metabolite sensing. Synthetic biology approaches have allowed access to new carbon sources to realize a flexible feedstock concept. Moreover, new pathways for amino acid production as well as fermentative production of non-native compounds derived from amino acids or their metabolic precursors were developed. These include dipeptides, α,ω-diamines, α,ω-diacids, keto acids, acetylated amino acids and ω-amino acids. PMID:24922334

  12. Effects of air velocity on laying hen production from 24 to 27 weeks under simulated evaporatively cooled conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conditions play a major role in production efficiency in commercial poultry production. Mitigation of thermal stress can improve productivity, but must be achieved economically. Weather and system design can limit effectiveness of evaporative cooling and increased air movement has been sho...

  13. Isolation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from chicken and chicken-derived products.

    PubMed

    Alonso, M Z; Sanz, M E; Irino, K; Krüger, A; Lucchesi, P M A; Padola, N L

    2016-04-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains from chicken and chicken-derived products were isolated and characterised. The strains presented a wide variety of serotypes, some have been reported in other animal species (O2:H40, O5:H40) and in children with diarrhoea (O8:H-). Most of the strains carried intimin β. The results indicate that chicken and chicken products are important sources of atypical EPEC strains that could be associated with human disease, and highlight the need to improve hygiene practices in chicken slaughtering and meat handling. PMID:26810335

  14. Marine Sponge Derived Natural Products between 2001 and 2010: Trends and Opportunities for Discovery of Bioactives

    PubMed Central

    Mehbub, Mohammad Ferdous; Lei, Jie; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges belonging to the phylum Porifera (Metazoa), evolutionarily the oldest animals are the single best source of marine natural products. The present review presents a comprehensive overview of the source, taxonomy, country of origin or geographical position, chemical class, and biological activity of sponge-derived new natural products discovered between 2001 and 2010. The data has been analyzed with a view to gaining an outlook on the future trends and opportunities in the search for new compounds and their sources from marine sponges. PMID:25196730

  15. Gravitational particle production in gravity theories with non-minimal derivative couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Koutsoumbas, George; Ntrekis, Konstantinos; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios E-mail: drekosk@central.ntua.gr

    2013-08-01

    We study the gravitational production of heavy X-particles of mass of the order of the inflaton mass, produced after the end of inflation. We find that, in the presence of a derivative coupling of the inflaton field or of the X-field to the Einstein tensor, the number of gravitationally produced particles is suppressed as the strength of the coupling is increased.

  16. Biomass derived solvents for the scalable production of single layered graphene from graphite.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Singh, Nripat; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2016-07-12

    Among four different biomass derived green and sustainable solvents namely levulinic acid (LA), ethyl lactate (EL), γ-valerolactone (GVL) and formic acid (FA) only LA was found to exfoliate graphite to single and few layered graphene sheets. During exfoliation, the formation of LA crystals embedded with single layered graphene sheets was observed. The process is scalable and the solvent can be recovered and reused in five subsequent cycles of exfoliation for the large scale production of graphene sheets.

  17. Effect of tiger nut-derived products in gluten-free batter and bread.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Guamis, Buenaventura; Capellas, Marta

    2015-07-01

    Tiger nut is a tuber used to produce tiger nut milk that yields a high quantity of solid waste, which can be dried and used as fiber source. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of gluten-free bread formulated with different tiger nut-derived products in order to substitute soya flour (which is an allergen ingredient) and, at the same time, increase the use of tiger nut-derived products. Four gluten-free formulations based on corn starch and containing tiger nut milk, tiger nut milk by-product, tiger nut flour, or soya flour (as reference formulation) were studied. Tiger nut milk increased G' of gluten-free batter and rendered breads with the softest crumb (502.46 g ± 102.05), the highest loaf-specific volume (3.35 cm(3)/g ± 0.25), and it was mostly preferred by consumers (61.02%). Breads elaborated with tiger nut flour had similar characteristics than soya flour breads (except in color and crumb structure). The addition of tiger nut milk by-product resulted in a hard (1047.64 g ± 145.74) and dark (L(*)  = 70.02 ± 3.38) crumb bread, which was the least preferred by consumers. Results showed that tiger nut is a promising ingredient to formulate gluten-free baked products.

  18. Biotechnological production of caffeic acid derivatives from cell and organ cultures of Echinacea species.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Kim, Yun-Soo; Park, So-Young; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Caffeic acid derivatives (CADs) are a group of bioactive compounds which are produced in Echinacea species especially Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea pallida. Echinacea is a popular herbal medicine used in the treatment of common cold and it is also a prominent dietary supplement used throughout the world. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid), caftaric acid (2-O-caffeoyltartaric acid), cichoric acid (2, 3-O-dicaffeoyltartaric acid), cynarin, and echinacoside are some of the important CADs which have varied pharmacological activities. The concentrations of these bioactive compounds are species specific and also they vary considerably with the cultivated Echinacea species due to geographical location, stage of development, time of harvest, and growth conditions. Due to these reasons, plant cell and organ cultures have become attractive alternative for the production of biomass and caffeic acid derivatives. Adventitious and hairy roots have been induced in E. pupurea and E. angustifolia, and suspension cultures have been established from flask to bioreactor scale for the production of biomass and CADs. Tremendous progress has been made in this area; various bioprocess methods and strategies have been developed for constant high-quality productivity of biomass and secondary products. This review is aimed to discuss biotechnological methods and approaches employed for the sustainable production of CADs.

  19. Effect of tiger nut-derived products in gluten-free batter and bread.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Guamis, Buenaventura; Capellas, Marta

    2015-07-01

    Tiger nut is a tuber used to produce tiger nut milk that yields a high quantity of solid waste, which can be dried and used as fiber source. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of gluten-free bread formulated with different tiger nut-derived products in order to substitute soya flour (which is an allergen ingredient) and, at the same time, increase the use of tiger nut-derived products. Four gluten-free formulations based on corn starch and containing tiger nut milk, tiger nut milk by-product, tiger nut flour, or soya flour (as reference formulation) were studied. Tiger nut milk increased G' of gluten-free batter and rendered breads with the softest crumb (502.46 g ± 102.05), the highest loaf-specific volume (3.35 cm(3)/g ± 0.25), and it was mostly preferred by consumers (61.02%). Breads elaborated with tiger nut flour had similar characteristics than soya flour breads (except in color and crumb structure). The addition of tiger nut milk by-product resulted in a hard (1047.64 g ± 145.74) and dark (L(*)  = 70.02 ± 3.38) crumb bread, which was the least preferred by consumers. Results showed that tiger nut is a promising ingredient to formulate gluten-free baked products. PMID:24854294

  20. Marine-derived fungus Aspergillus cf. tubingensis LAMAI 31: a new genetic resource for xylanase production.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Juliana A; Vieira, Juliana M F; Videira, Alexandre; Meirelles, Lucas A; Rodrigues, André; Taniwaki, Marta H; Sette, Lara D

    2016-03-01

    Marine-derived fungi have been reported as relevant producers of enzymes, which can have different properties in comparison with their terrestrial counterparts. The aim of the present study was to select from a collection of 493 marine-derived fungi the best producer of xylanase in order to evaluate the enzymatic production under different conditions. A total of 112 isolates produced xylanase in solid medium containing xylan as the carbon source, with 31 of them able to produce at least 10 U/mL of the enzyme. The best production (49.41 U/mL) was achieved by the strain LAMAI 31, identified as Aspergillus cf. tubingensis. After confirming the lack of pathogenicity (absence of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 production) this fungus was submitted to the experimental design in order to evaluate the effect of different variables on the enzymatic production, with the aim of optimizing culture conditions. Three experimental designs (two Plackett-Burman and one factorial fractional) were applied. The best condition for the enzymatic production was defined, resulting in an increase of 12.7 times in comparison with the initial production during the screening experiments. In the validation assay, the peak of xylanase production (561.59 U/mL) was obtained after 96 h of incubation, being the best specific activity achieved after 72 h of incubation. Xylanase from A. cf. tubingensis LAMAI 31 had optimum pH and temperature at 5.0 and 55 °C, respectively, and was shown to be stable at a range of 40-50 °C, and in pH from 3.6 to 7.0. Results from the present work indicate that A. cf. tubingensis LAMAI 31 can be considered as a new genetic resource for xylanase production. PMID:27009074

  1. Marine-derived fungus Aspergillus cf. tubingensis LAMAI 31: a new genetic resource for xylanase production.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Juliana A; Vieira, Juliana M F; Videira, Alexandre; Meirelles, Lucas A; Rodrigues, André; Taniwaki, Marta H; Sette, Lara D

    2016-03-01

    Marine-derived fungi have been reported as relevant producers of enzymes, which can have different properties in comparison with their terrestrial counterparts. The aim of the present study was to select from a collection of 493 marine-derived fungi the best producer of xylanase in order to evaluate the enzymatic production under different conditions. A total of 112 isolates produced xylanase in solid medium containing xylan as the carbon source, with 31 of them able to produce at least 10 U/mL of the enzyme. The best production (49.41 U/mL) was achieved by the strain LAMAI 31, identified as Aspergillus cf. tubingensis. After confirming the lack of pathogenicity (absence of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 production) this fungus was submitted to the experimental design in order to evaluate the effect of different variables on the enzymatic production, with the aim of optimizing culture conditions. Three experimental designs (two Plackett-Burman and one factorial fractional) were applied. The best condition for the enzymatic production was defined, resulting in an increase of 12.7 times in comparison with the initial production during the screening experiments. In the validation assay, the peak of xylanase production (561.59 U/mL) was obtained after 96 h of incubation, being the best specific activity achieved after 72 h of incubation. Xylanase from A. cf. tubingensis LAMAI 31 had optimum pH and temperature at 5.0 and 55 °C, respectively, and was shown to be stable at a range of 40-50 °C, and in pH from 3.6 to 7.0. Results from the present work indicate that A. cf. tubingensis LAMAI 31 can be considered as a new genetic resource for xylanase production.

  2. Improved Ethanol Production from Xylose by Candida shehatae Induced by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Air Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huixia; Xiu, Zhilong; Bai, Fengwu

    2014-06-01

    Xylose fermentation is essential for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Exposure of the xylose-fermenting yeast Candida shehatae (C. shehatae) CICC1766 to atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma yields a clone (designated as C81015) with stability, which exhibits a higher ethanol fermentation rate from xylose, giving a maximal enhancement in ethanol production of 36.2% compared to the control (untreated). However, the biomass production of C81015 is lower than that of the control. Analysis of the NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)- and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-linked xylose reductases and NAD+-linked xylitol dehydrogenase indicates that their activities are enhanced by 34.1%, 61.5% and 66.3%, respectively, suggesting that the activities of these three enzymes are responsible for improving ethanol fermentation in C81015 with xylose as a substrate. The results of this study show that DBD air plasma could serve as a novel and effective means of generating microbial strains that can better use xylose for ethanol fermentation.

  3. Evidences of Herbal Medicine-Derived Natural Products Effects in Inflammatory Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mernak, Márcia Isabel B.; Martins, Mílton A.; Lago, João H. G.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammation is a hallmark of many respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and acute respiratory syndrome distress (ARDS). Most of these diseases are treated with anti-inflammatory therapy in order to prevent or to reduce the pulmonary inflammation. Herbal medicine-derived natural products have been used in folk medicine and scientific studies to evaluate the value of these compounds have grown in recent years. Many substances derived from plants have the biological effects in vitro and in vivo, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids. Among the biological activities of natural products derived from plants can be pointed out the anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antiplatelet, antitumor anti-allergic activities, and antioxidant. Although many reports have evaluated the effects of these compounds in experimental models, studies evaluating clinical trials are scarce in the literature. This review aims to emphasize the effects of these different natural products in pulmonary diseases in experimental models and in humans and pointing out some possible mechanisms of action. PMID:27445433

  4. Production and applications of carbohydrate-derived sugar acids as generic biobased chemicals.

    PubMed

    Mehtiö, Tuomas; Toivari, Mervi; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Harlin, Ali; Penttilä, Merja; Koivula, Anu

    2016-10-01

    This review considers the chemical and biotechnological synthesis of acids that are obtained by direct oxidation of mono- or oligosaccharide, referred to as sugar acids. It focuses on sugar acids which can be readily derived from plant biomass sources and their current and future applications. The three main classes of sugar acids are aldonic, aldaric and uronic acids. Interest in organic acids derived from sugars has recently increased, as part of the interest to develop biorefineries which produce not only biofuels, but also chemicals to replace those currently derived from petroleum. More than half of the most desirable biologically produced platform chemicals are organic acids. Currently, the only sugar acid with high commercial production is d-gluconic acid. However, other sugar acids such as d-glucaric and meso-galactaric acids are being produced at a lower scale. The sugar acids have application as sequestering agents and binders, corrosion inhibitors, biodegradable chelators for pharmaceuticals and pH regulators. There is also considerable interest in the use of these molecules in the production of synthetic polymers, including polyamides, polyesters and hydrogels. Further development of these sugar acids will lead to higher volume production of the appropriate sugar acids and will help support the next generation of biorefineries.

  5. Production of Fatty Acid-derived valuable chemicals in synthetic microbes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Pratomo Juwono, Nina Kurniasih; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxy fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters, and fatty alka(e)nes, have a wide range of industrial applications including plastics, lubricants, and fuels. Currently, these chemicals are obtained mainly through chemical synthesis, which is complex and costly, and their availability from natural biological sources is extremely limited. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has provided a platform for effective production of these valuable biochemicals. Notably, synthetic biology-based metabolic engineering strategies have been extensively applied to refactor microorganisms for improved biochemical production. Here, we reviewed: (i) the current status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals, and (ii) the recent progress of synthetic biology approaches that assist metabolic engineering, such as mRNA secondary structure engineering, sensor-regulator system, regulatable expression system, ultrasensitive input/output control system, and computer science-based design of complex gene circuits. Furthermore, key challenges and strategies were discussed. Finally, we concluded that synthetic biology provides useful metabolic engineering strategies for economically viable production of fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals in engineered microbes.

  6. Evidences of Herbal Medicine-Derived Natural Products Effects in Inflammatory Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Santana, Fernanda Paula R; Pinheiro, Nathalia M; Mernak, Márcia Isabel B; Righetti, Renato F; Martins, Mílton A; Lago, João H G; Lopes, Fernanda D T Q Dos Santos; Tibério, Iolanda F L C; Prado, Carla M

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammation is a hallmark of many respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and acute respiratory syndrome distress (ARDS). Most of these diseases are treated with anti-inflammatory therapy in order to prevent or to reduce the pulmonary inflammation. Herbal medicine-derived natural products have been used in folk medicine and scientific studies to evaluate the value of these compounds have grown in recent years. Many substances derived from plants have the biological effects in vitro and in vivo, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids. Among the biological activities of natural products derived from plants can be pointed out the anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antiplatelet, antitumor anti-allergic activities, and antioxidant. Although many reports have evaluated the effects of these compounds in experimental models, studies evaluating clinical trials are scarce in the literature. This review aims to emphasize the effects of these different natural products in pulmonary diseases in experimental models and in humans and pointing out some possible mechanisms of action. PMID:27445433

  7. Production of Fatty Acid-Derived Valuable Chemicals in Synthetic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Pratomo Juwono, Nina Kurniasih; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxy fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters, and fatty alka(e)nes, have a wide range of industrial applications including plastics, lubricants, and fuels. Currently, these chemicals are obtained mainly through chemical synthesis, which is complex and costly, and their availability from natural biological sources is extremely limited. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has provided a platform for effective production of these valuable biochemicals. Notably, synthetic biology-based metabolic engineering strategies have been extensively applied to refactor microorganisms for improved biochemical production. Here, we reviewed: (i) the current status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals, and (ii) the recent progress of synthetic biology approaches that assist metabolic engineering, such as mRNA secondary structure engineering, sensor-regulator system, regulatable expression system, ultrasensitive input/output control system, and computer science-based design of complex gene circuits. Furthermore, key challenges and strategies were discussed. Finally, we concluded that synthetic biology provides useful metabolic engineering strategies for economically viable production of fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals in engineered microbes. PMID:25566540

  8. Self-Assembly and Lipid Interactions of Diacylglycerol Lactone Derivatives Studied at the Air/Water Interface

    PubMed Central

    Philosof-Mazor, Liron; Volinsky, Roman; Comin, Maria J.; Lewin, Nancy E.; Kedei, Noemi; Blumberg, Peter M.; Marquez, Victor E.; Jelinek, Raz

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic diacylglycerol lactones (DAG-lactones) have been shown to be effective modulators of critical cellular signaling pathways. The biological activity of these amphiphilic molecules depends in part upon their lipid interactions within the cellular plasma membrane. This study explores the thermodynamic and structural features of DAG-lactone derivatives and their lipid interactions at the air/water interface. Surface-pressure/area isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy revealed the significance of specific side-groups attached to the terminus of a very rigid 4-(2-phenylethynyl) benzoyl chain of the DAG-lactones, which affected both the self-assembly of the molecules and their interactions with phospholipids. The experimental data highlight the formation of different phases within mixed DAG-lactone/phospholipid monolayers and underscore the relationship between the two components in binary mixtures of different mole ratios. Importantly, the results suggest that DAG-lactones are predominantly incorporated within fluid phospholipid phases rather than in the condensed phases that form, for example, by cholesterol. Moreover, the size and charge of the phospholipid headgroups do not seem to affect DAG-lactone interactions with lipids. PMID:18788772

  9. QSPR models for predicting generator-column-derived octanol/water and octanol/air partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jintao; Yu, Shuling; Zhang, Ting; Yuan, Xuejie; Cao, Yunyuan; Yu, Xingchen; Yang, Xuan; Yao, Wu

    2016-06-01

    Octanol/water (K(OW)) and octanol/air (K(OA)) partition coefficients are two important physicochemical properties of organic substances. In current practice, K(OW) and K(OA) values of some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are measured using generator column method. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models can serve as a valuable alternative method of replacing or reducing experimental steps in the determination of K(OW) and K(OA). In this paper, two different methods, i.e., multiple linear regression based on dragon descriptors and hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship, were used to predict generator-column-derived log K(OW) and log K(OA) values of PCBs. The predictive ability of the developed models was validated using a test set, and the performances of all generated models were compared with those of three previously reported models. All results indicated that the proposed models were robust and satisfactory and can thus be used as alternative models for the rapid assessment of the K(OW) and K(OA) of PCBs.

  10. Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface air across North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, Diana Y.; Krakauer, Nir Y.; Randerson, James T.; Xu, Xiaomei; Trumbore, Susan E.; Southon, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Radiocarbon levels in annual plants provide a means to map out regional and continental-scale fossil fuel plumes in surface air. We collected corn (Zea mays) across North America during the summer of 2004. Plants from mountain regions of western North America showed the smallest influence of fossil fuel-derived CO2 with a mean Δ14C of 66.3‰ +/-1.7‰. Plants from eastern North America and from the Ohio-Maryland region showed a larger fossil fuel influence with a mean Δ14C of 58.8‰ +/- 3.9‰ and 55.2‰ +/- 2.3‰, respectively, corresponding to 2.7 ppm +/- 1.5 ppm and 4.3 ppm +/- 1.0 ppm of added fossil fuel CO2 relative to the mountain west. A model-data comparison suggests that surveys of annual plant Δ14C can provide a useful test of atmospheric mixing in transport models that are used to estimate the spatial distribution of carbon sources and sinks.

  11. Hydrocarbon Observations and Ozone Production Rates in Western Houston During the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Spicer, Chet W.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2005-06-01

    Measurements of total non-methane hydrocarbon in whole air canisters collected from the top of a skyscraper on the western edge of Houston, Texas are summarized with an emphasis on samples collected during the passage of plumes of O{sub 3} and the associated rapid increase in the mixing ratio of this species. The back-trajectories associated with these events showed a pronounced deceleration of air parcels over central and western Houston and were not necessarily associated with direct passage over the petrochemical plants located in the heavily industrialized eastern part of Houston. As a result of the time these air parcels spent over the central and western parts of Houston, their VOC mix and associated chemical production rates were expected to differ from similar observations made over eastern Houston from aircraft sampling at low altitudes. Although periods of high O{sub 3} in the western part of the city were closely associated with light alkenes, these same observations show isoprene to make a significant contribution to the total VOC reactivity in the early afternoon (the start of peak photochemical activity) in contrast to observations made east of our sampling site that found the reactivity to be dominated by anthropogenic species. By initializing a 0-dimensional chemical kinetic model with observations made at the Williams Tower, we find that the ozone production efficiency scaled linearly to the ratio of total hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}, with an average OPE of 7.2, ranging from 2.3 to 16.9; these values are smaller than those reported in eastern Houston, suggesting a strong gradient in photochemical productivity across the city.

  12. Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and ResultingConcentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff,William W.

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at {approx}0.5 h{sup -1}. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 {micro}g m{sup -3} for individual terpenoids, including {alpha}-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and {alpha}-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or dlimonene were 300-6000 {micro}g m{sup -3} after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, {approx}25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were {approx}35-70% with towels retained, 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and {beta}-citronellol were emitted at 35-180 mg d{sup -1} over three days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 {micro}g m{sup -3}.

  13. Formation of calcium in the products of iron oxide-aluminum thermite combustion in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, A. A.; Gromov, A. M.; Popenko, E. M.; Sergienko, A. V.; Sabinskaya, O. G.; Raab, B.; Teipel, U.

    2016-10-01

    The composition of condensed products resulting from the combustion of thermite mixtures (Al + Fe2O3) in air is studied by precise methods. It is shown that during combustion, calcium is formed and stabilized in amounts of maximal 0.55 wt %, while is missing from reactants of 99.7 wt % purity. To explain this, it is hypothesized that a low-energy nuclear reaction takes place alongside the reactions of aluminum oxidation and nitridation, resulting in the formation of calcium (Kervran-Bolotov reaction).

  14. Comparisons of Satellite Derived Precipitation Products with Multisensor Precipitation Estimation over Southeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, O.; Curtis, D. C.; Parames, P. M.; Harris, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite-based precipitation estimates with high spatial and temporal resolution, large areal coverage and freely available global data provides a potential alternative source of precipitation data for areas where ground-based precipitation networks are sparse or nonexistent, particularly in the developing countries. This study compares three satellite-derived precipitation products (e.g., TMPA-V6, PERSIANN and CMORPH) and one radar-derived product (MPE data) for the time period from March 2009 to April 2009. We applied the Hovmöller diagrams approach to see the spatial and temporal patterns of the various satellite data products and to identify the storm events falling under the computation domain/basin. The zonal Hovmöller diagrams, a comparative analysis of the radar-derived rainfall rate with the satellite derived rainfall rate shows that the spatial and temporal patterns in the TMPA-V6 rainfall rate generally agree with the MPE rainfall rate. Moreover, the TMPA-V6 precipitation events match closely with MPE events, whereas the PERSIANN data are showing more storm events and magnitude than the MPE. However, in this case, CMORPH data products are estimating very poor storm patterns and magnitude. This study also compares mean areal precipitation (MAP) estimates derived from the above said four data sources and duration. ArcGIS tool was used to compute the MAP for every 3-hour duration over Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACF), United States. The analysis indicates that basin-wide mean area precipitation estimates from satellite-derived TMPA-V6 and PERSIANN data tend to under-estimate the rainfall throughout the two-month analysis. The peaking time trend of satellite data follows the trend of MPE data closely over ACF basin. The cumulative rainfall plots show that the PERSIANN data were less negatively biased than TRMM. However, on an event-by-event basis, satellite methods overestimated in some cases and in some cases underestimated

  15. Sediment Mediated Marine-derived Nutrient Transfers in Watersheds: the Dirt on Salmon Decay Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petticrew, Ellen; Albers, Sam

    2014-05-01

    The conveyance of nutrients and contaminants through aquatic systems is typically mediated by inorganic fine sediment. Its influence on the transfer of marine-derived nutrients through watersheds, however, is less well acknowledged. The ecological impact of the annual pulse of marine-derived nutrients (MDN) moved upstream into interior river systems via migrating salmon is thought to be significant as both local spawning reaches and the downstream nursery lakes have evidenced increased productivity following this nutrient pulse. The relationship between the number of upstream spawners and productivity in downstream nursery lakes is poorly defined as the conveyance of MDN between the two points of interest is influenced spatially and temporally by both channel and lake processes. A research project that specifically investigates the association between salmon decay products and sediment mediated transfers of these marine-derived nutrients downstream to the nursery lake is underway in the Horsefly River in British Columbia, an important sockeye river tributary to Quesnel Lake in the Canada's Fraser River watershed. Results from sampling freshet delivery to the lake in 2011 and 2012 will be presented as they represent two end members of the four year spawning cycle - snowmelt flushing following a high and low spawner return year. A continuous flow centrifuge was used to collect bulk suspended sediment 1) at points along the river, downstream of the spawning grounds, 2) along a transect from the river mouth where it enters Horsefly Bay and 3) at several other locations in the river plume during spring freshet. Stable isotopes (13C and 15N) were used to detect the MDN and chlorophyll a was analyzed to represent water column primary production. The relationships between sediment loads, nutrient delivery to the lake and primary productivity during this period will be presented in the context of upstream spawner biomass for both years.

  16. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4

  17. Histochemical and functional improvement of adipose-derived stem cell-based tissue-engineered cartilage by hyperbaric oxygen/air treatment in a rabbit articular defect model.

    PubMed

    Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Fan, Gang-Yi; Liou, Nien-Hsien; Wang, Yi-Wen; Fu, Keng-Yen; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Liu, Jiang-Chuan; Chang, Shun-Cheng; Huang, Kun-Lun; Dai, Lien-Guo; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Chen, Tim-Mo

    2015-05-01

    Cartilage is exposed to compression forces during joint loading. Therefore, exogenous stimuli are frequently used in cartilage tissue engineering strategies to enhance chondrocyte differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion. In this study, human adipose-derived stem cells were seeded on a gelatin/polycaprolactone scaffold to evaluate the histochemical and functional improvement of tissue-engineered cartilage after hyperbaric oxygen/air treatment in a rabbit articular defect model. Behavior tests showed beneficial effects on weight-bearing and rear leg-supporting capacities after treatment of tissue-engineered cartilage with 2.5 ATA oxygen or air. Moreover, positron emission tomography images and immunohistochemistry staining demonstrated hydroxyapatite formation and increased ECM synthesis, respectively, at the tissue-engineered cartilage graft site after high pressure oxygen/air treatment. Based on these results, we concluded that hyperbaric oxygen and air treatment can improve the quality of tissue-engineered cartilage in vivo by increasing the synthesis of ECM.

  18. Estimation efficiency of usage satellite derived and modelled biophysical products for yield forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotii, Andrii; Kussul, Nataliia; Skakun, Sergii; Shelestov, Andrii; Ostapenko, Vadim; Oliinyk, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Efficient and timely crop monitoring and yield forecasting are important tasks for ensuring of stability and sustainable economic development [1]. As winter crops pay prominent role in agriculture of Ukraine - the main focus of this study is concentrated on winter wheat. In our previous research [2, 3] it was shown that usage of biophysical parameters of crops such as FAPAR (derived from Geoland-2 portal as for SPOT Vegetation data) is far more efficient for crop yield forecasting to NDVI derived from MODIS data - for available data. In our current work efficiency of usage such biophysical parameters as LAI, FAPAR, FCOVER (derived from SPOT Vegetation and PROBA-V data at resolution of 1 km and simulated within WOFOST model) and NDVI product (derived from MODIS) for winter wheat monitoring and yield forecasting is estimated. As the part of crop monitoring workflow (vegetation anomaly detection, vegetation indexes and products analysis) and yield forecasting SPIRITS tool developed by JRC is used. Statistics extraction is done for landcover maps created in SRI within FP-7 SIGMA project. Efficiency of usage satellite based and modelled with WOFOST model biophysical products is estimated. [1] N. Kussul, S. Skakun, A. Shelestov, O. Kussul, "Sensor Web approach to Flood Monitoring and Risk Assessment", in: IGARSS 2013, 21-26 July 2013, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 815-818. [2] F. Kogan, N. Kussul, T. Adamenko, S. Skakun, O. Kravchenko, O. Kryvobok, A. Shelestov, A. Kolotii, O. Kussul, and A. Lavrenyuk, "Winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine based on Earth observation, meteorological data and biophysical models," International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 23, pp. 192-203, 2013. [3] Kussul O., Kussul N., Skakun S., Kravchenko O., Shelestov A., Kolotii A, "Assessment of relative efficiency of using MODIS data to winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine", in: IGARSS 2013, 21-26 July 2013, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 3235 - 3238.

  19. Production of donor-derived offspring by allogeneic transplantation of spermatogonia in the yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata).

    PubMed

    Morita, Tetsuro; Kumakura, Naoki; Morishima, Kagayaki; Mitsuboshi, Toru; Ishida, Masashi; Hara, Takashi; Kudo, Satomi; Miwa, Misako; Ihara, Shoko; Higuchi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2012-06-01

    Although the yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) is the fish most commonly farmed in Japan, breeding of this species has not yet started. This is primarily due to the lack of sufficiently sophisticated methods for manipulating gametogenesis, which makes it difficult to collect gametes from specific dams and sires. If it were possible to produce large numbers of surrogate fish by transplanting germ cells isolated from donor individuals harboring desirable genetic traits, then the probability of acquiring gametes carrying the donor-derived haplotype would increase, and breeding programs involving this species might increase as a result. As a first step, we established a method for the allogeneic transplantation of yellowtail spermatogonia and the production of donor-derived offspring. Donor cells were collected from immature (10-month-old) yellowtail males with testes containing abundant type A spermatogonia, labeled with PKH26 fluorescent dye, and transferred into the peritoneal cavities of 8-day-old larvae. Fluorescence observation at 28 days post-transplantation revealed that PKH26-labeled cells were incorporated into recipients' gonads. To assess whether donor-derived spermatogonia could differentiate into functional gametes in the allogeneic recipient gonads, gametes collected from nine male and four female adult recipients were fertilized with wild-type eggs and milt. Analysis of microsatellite DNA markers confirmed that some of the first filial (F(1)) offspring were derived from donor fish, with the average contribution of donor-derived F(1) offspring being 66% and the maximum reaching 99%. These findings confirmed that our method was effective for transplanting yellowtail spermatogonia into allogeneic larvae to produce donor-derived offspring. PMID:22460666

  20. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is possible to reconstruct a muon production depth distribution. We characterize the goodness of this reconstruction for zenith angles around 60° and different energies of the primary particle. From these distributions, we define Xmaxμ as the depth along the shower axis where the production of muons reaches maximum. We explore the potentiality of Xmaxμ as a useful observable to infer the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Likewise, we assess its ability to constrain hadronic interaction models.

  1. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  2. Corrections to the MODIS Aqua Calibration Derived From MODIS Aqua Ocean Color Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan Alden

    2013-01-01

    Ocean color products such as, e.g., chlorophyll-a concentration, can be derived from the top-of-atmosphere radiances measured by imaging sensors on earth-orbiting satellites. There are currently three National Aeronautics and Space Administration sensors in orbit capable of providing ocean color products. One of these sensors is the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, whose ocean color products are currently the most widely used of the three. A recent improvement to the MODIS calibration methodology has used land targets to improve the calibration accuracy. This study evaluates the new calibration methodology and describes further calibration improvements that are built upon the new methodology by including ocean measurements in the form of global temporally averaged water-leaving reflectance measurements. The calibration improvements presented here mainly modify the calibration at the scan edges, taking advantage of the good performance of the land target trending in the center of the scan.

  3. Exploration of OMI Products for Air Quality Applications Through Comparisons with Models and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, K. E.; Ziemke, J.; Bucsela, E.; Gleason, J.; Marufu, L.; Dickerson, R.; Mathur, R.; Davidson, P.; Duncan, B.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA s Aura satellite was launched in July 2004, and is now providing daily global observations of total column ozone, NO2, and SO2, as well as aerosol information. Algorithms have also been developed to produce daily tropospheric ozone and NO2 products. The tropospheric ozone product reported here is a tropospheric residual computed through use of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone profile data to quantify stratospheric ozone. We are investigating the applicability of OMI products for use in air quality modeling, forecasting, and analysis. These investigations include comparison of the OMI tropospheric O3 and NO2 products with global and regional models and with lower tropospheric aircraft observations. Large-scale transport of pollution seen in the OM1 tropospheric O3 data is compared with output from NASA's Global Modeling Initiative global chemistry and transport model. On the regional scale we compare the OMI tropospheric O3 and NO2 with fields from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environmental Protection Agency (NOAA/EPA) operational Eta/CMAQ air quality forecasting model over the eastern United States. This 12-km horizontal resolution model output is roughly of equivalent resolution to the OMI pixel data. Correlation analysis between lower tropospheric aircraft O3 profile data taken by the University of Maryland over the Mid-Atlantic States and OMI tropospheric column mean volume mixing ratio for O3 will be presented. These aircraft data are representative of the lowest 3 kilometers of the atmosphere, the region in which much of the locally-generated and regionally-transported ozone exists.

  4. Biomass production of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond for biofuel potential.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, P; Umadevi, K

    2016-04-01

    Biodiesel gains attention as it is made from renewable resources and has considerable environmental benefits. The present investigation has focused on large scale cultivation of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond using natural sea water without any additional nutritive supplements for low cost biomass production as a possible source of biofuel in large scale. Open air algal pond attained average chlorophyll concentration of 11.01 µg/L with the maximum of 43.65 µg/L as well as a higher lipid concentration of 18% (w/w) with lipid content 9.3 mg/L on the 10th day of the culture; and maximum biomass of 0.36 g/L on the 7th day of the culture. Composition analysis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS). Multipopulation of algal biomass had 18% of total lipid content with 55% of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), 35.3% of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 9.7% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), revealing a potential source of biofuel production at low cost.

  5. Biomass production of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond for biofuel potential.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, P; Umadevi, K

    2016-04-01

    Biodiesel gains attention as it is made from renewable resources and has considerable environmental benefits. The present investigation has focused on large scale cultivation of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond using natural sea water without any additional nutritive supplements for low cost biomass production as a possible source of biofuel in large scale. Open air algal pond attained average chlorophyll concentration of 11.01 µg/L with the maximum of 43.65 µg/L as well as a higher lipid concentration of 18% (w/w) with lipid content 9.3 mg/L on the 10th day of the culture; and maximum biomass of 0.36 g/L on the 7th day of the culture. Composition analysis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS). Multipopulation of algal biomass had 18% of total lipid content with 55% of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), 35.3% of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 9.7% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), revealing a potential source of biofuel production at low cost. PMID:27295924

  6. Application of plant derived compounds to control fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in foods.

    PubMed

    da Cruz Cabral, Lucía; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Patriarca, Andrea

    2013-08-16

    Food decay by spoilage fungi causes considerable economic losses and constitutes a health risk for consumers due to the potential for fungi to produce mycotoxins. The indiscriminate use of synthetic antifungals has led to the development of resistant strains which has necessitated utilization of higher concentrations, with the consequent increase in toxic residues in food products. Numerous studies have demonstrated that plant extracts contain diverse bioactive components that can control mould growth. The metabolites produced by plants are a promising alternative because plants generate a wide variety of compounds, either as part of their development or in response to stress or pathogen attack. The aim of this article is to summarize the results from the literature on in vitro and in vivo experiments regarding the effects of plant-derived products for controlling fungal growth. Data from research work on the mode of action of these metabolites inside the fungal cell and the influence of abiotic external factors such as pH and temperature are also covered in the present review. Furthermore, an analysis on how the stress factor derived from the presence of plant extracts and essential oils affects secondary metabolism of the fungus, specifically mycotoxin synthesis, is developed. Finally, the effectiveness of using plant-derived compounds in combination with other natural antimicrobials and its application in food using novel technologies is discussed.

  7. [New natural products from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi-A review].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengying; Liu, Haishan; Zhu, Weiming

    2016-03-01

    Marine-derived fungi were the main source of marine microbial natural products (NPs) due to their complex genetic background, chemodiversity and high yield of NPs. According to our previous survey for marine microbial NPs from 2010 to 2013, Aspergillus fungi have received the most of attention among all the marine-derived fungi, which accounted for 31% NPs of the marine fungal origins. This paper reviewed the sources, chemical structures and bioactivites of all the 512 new marine NPs of Aspergillus fungal origins from 1992 to 2014. These marine NPs have diverse chemical structures including polyketides, fatty acids, sterols and terpenoids, alkaloids, peptides, and so on, 36% of which displayed bioactivities such as cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and insecticidal activity. Nitrogen compounds are the major secondary metabolites accounting for 52% NPs from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi. Nitrogen compounds are also the class with the highest ratio of bioactive compounds, 40% of which are bioactive. Plinabulin, a dehydrodiketopiperazine derivative of halimide had been ended its phase II trial and has received its phase III study from the third quarter of 2015 for the treatment of advanced, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

  8. [New natural products from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi-A review].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengying; Liu, Haishan; Zhu, Weiming

    2016-03-01

    Marine-derived fungi were the main source of marine microbial natural products (NPs) due to their complex genetic background, chemodiversity and high yield of NPs. According to our previous survey for marine microbial NPs from 2010 to 2013, Aspergillus fungi have received the most of attention among all the marine-derived fungi, which accounted for 31% NPs of the marine fungal origins. This paper reviewed the sources, chemical structures and bioactivites of all the 512 new marine NPs of Aspergillus fungal origins from 1992 to 2014. These marine NPs have diverse chemical structures including polyketides, fatty acids, sterols and terpenoids, alkaloids, peptides, and so on, 36% of which displayed bioactivities such as cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and insecticidal activity. Nitrogen compounds are the major secondary metabolites accounting for 52% NPs from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi. Nitrogen compounds are also the class with the highest ratio of bioactive compounds, 40% of which are bioactive. Plinabulin, a dehydrodiketopiperazine derivative of halimide had been ended its phase II trial and has received its phase III study from the third quarter of 2015 for the treatment of advanced, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:27382779

  9. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  10. Highly efficient production of D-lactic acid from chicory-derived inulin by Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianqian; Zang, Ying; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Peng; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-11-01

    Inulin is a readily available feedstock for cost-effective production of biochemicals. To date, several studies have explored the production of bioethanol, high-fructose syrup and fructooligosaccharide, but there are no studies regarding the production of D-lactic acid using inulin as a carbon source. In the present study, chicory-derived inulin was used for D-lactic acid biosynthesis by Lactobacillus bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970. Compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) has demonstrated the best performance of D-lactic acid production. Because it prevents fructose inhibition and promotes the complete hydrolysis of inulin, the highest D-lactic acid concentration (123.6 ± 0.9 g/L) with a yield of 97.9 % was obtained from 120 g/L inulin by SSF. Moreover, SSF by L. bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970 offered another distinct advantage with respect to the higher optical purity of D-lactic acid (>99.9 %) and reduced number of residual sugars. The excellent performance of D-lactic acid production from inulin by SSF represents a high-yield method for D-lactic acid production from non-food grains.

  11. Highly efficient production of D-lactic acid from chicory-derived inulin by Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianqian; Zang, Ying; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Peng; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-11-01

    Inulin is a readily available feedstock for cost-effective production of biochemicals. To date, several studies have explored the production of bioethanol, high-fructose syrup and fructooligosaccharide, but there are no studies regarding the production of D-lactic acid using inulin as a carbon source. In the present study, chicory-derived inulin was used for D-lactic acid biosynthesis by Lactobacillus bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970. Compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) has demonstrated the best performance of D-lactic acid production. Because it prevents fructose inhibition and promotes the complete hydrolysis of inulin, the highest D-lactic acid concentration (123.6 ± 0.9 g/L) with a yield of 97.9 % was obtained from 120 g/L inulin by SSF. Moreover, SSF by L. bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970 offered another distinct advantage with respect to the higher optical purity of D-lactic acid (>99.9 %) and reduced number of residual sugars. The excellent performance of D-lactic acid production from inulin by SSF represents a high-yield method for D-lactic acid production from non-food grains. PMID:27440161

  12. Lactic acid production from lignocellulose-derived sugars using lactic acid bacteria: overview and limits.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2011-12-20

    Lactic acid is an industrially important product with a large and rapidly expanding market due to its attractive and valuable multi-function properties. The economics of lactic acid production by fermentation is dependent on many factors, of which the cost of the raw materials is very significant. It is very expensive when sugars, e.g., glucose, sucrose, starch, etc., are used as the feedstock for lactic acid production. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass is a promising feedstock for lactic acid production considering its great availability, sustainability, and low cost compared to refined sugars. Despite these advantages, the commercial use of lignocellulose for lactic acid production is still problematic. This review describes the "conventional" processes for producing lactic acid from lignocellulosic materials with lactic acid bacteria. These processes include: pretreatment of the biomass, enzyme hydrolysis to obtain fermentable sugars, fermentation technologies, and separation and purification of lactic acid. In addition, the difficulties associated with using this biomass for lactic acid production are especially introduced and several key properties that should be targeted for low-cost and advanced fermentation processes are pointed out. We also discuss the metabolism of lignocellulose-derived sugars by lactic acid bacteria.

  13. In-situ Measurements of Ozone Production Rates and Comparisons to Model-derived Production Rates During the Houston, TX and Denver, CO DISCOVER-AQ Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, B. C.; Brune, W. H.; Miller, D. O.; Lefer, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a secondary pollutant that has harmful effects on human and plant life. The climate and urban emissions in Houston, TX and Denver, CO can be conducive for significant ozone production and thus, high ozone events. Tighter government strategies for ozone mitigation have been proposed, which involve reducing the current EPA eight-hour ozone standard from 75 ppb to 65-70 ppb. These strategies rely on the reduction of ozone precursors in order to decrease the ozone production rate, P(O3). The changes in the ozone concentration at a certain location are dependent upon P(O3), so decreasing P(O3) can decrease ozone levels provided that it has not been transported from other areas. Air quality models test reduction strategies before they are implemented, locate ozone sources, and predict ozone episodes. Traditionally, P(O3) has been calculated by models. However, large uncertainties in model emissions inventories, chemical mechanisms, and meteorology can reduce confidence in this approach. A new instrument, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS) directly measures P(O3) and can provide an alternate approach to determining P(O3). An updated version of the Penn State MOPS (MOPSv2.0) was deployed to Houston, TX and Denver, CO as a part of NASA's DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in the summers of 2013 and 2014, respectively. We present MOPS directly-measured P(O3) rates from these areas, as well as comparisons to zero-dimensional and three-dimensional modeled P(O3) using the RACM2 and MCMv2.2 mechanisms. These comparisons demonstrate the potential of the MOPS to test and evaluate model-derived P(O3), to advance the understanding of model chemical mechanisms, and to improve predictions of high ozone events.

  14. Using DOE-ARM and Space-Based Assets to Assess the Quality of Air Force Weather 3D Cloud Analysis and Forecast Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobis, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Air Force Weather (AFW) has documented requirements for global cloud analysis and forecasting to support DoD missions around the world. To meet these needs, AFW utilizes a number of cloud products. Cloud analyses are constructed using 17 different near real time satellite sources. Products include analysis of the individual satellite transmissions at native satellite resolution and an hourly global merge of all 17 sources on a 24km grid. AFW has also recently started creation of a time delayed global cloud reanalysis to produce a 'best possible' analysis for climatology and verification purposes. Forecasted cloud products include global short-range cloud forecasts created using advection techniques as well as statistically post processed cloud forecast products derived from various global and regional numerical weather forecast models. All of these cloud products cover different spatial and temporal resolutions and are produced on a number of different grid projections. The longer term vision of AFW is to consolidate these various approaches into uniform global numerical weather modeling (NWM) system using advanced cloudy-data assimilation processes to construct the analysis and a licensed version of UKMO's Unified Model to produce the various cloud forecast products. In preparation for this evolution in cloud modeling support, AFW has started to aggressively benchmark the performance of their current capabilities. Cloud information collected from so called 'active' sensors on the ground at the DOE-ARM sites and from space by such instruments as CloudSat, CALIPSO and CATS are being utilized to characterize the performance of AFW products derived largely by passive means. The goal is to understand the performance of the 3D cloud analysis and forecast products of today to help shape the requirements and standards for the future NWM driven system.This presentation will present selected results from these benchmarking efforts and highlight insights and observations

  15. Large scale production of a mammalian cell derived quadrivalent hepatitis C virus like particle vaccine.

    PubMed

    Earnest-Silveira, L; Christiansen, D; Herrmann, S; Ralph, S A; Das, S; Gowans, E J; Torresi, J

    2016-10-01

    A method for the large-scale production of a quadrivalent mammalian cell derived hepatitis C virus-like particles (HCV VLPs) is described. The HCV core E1 and E2 coding sequences of genotype 1a, 1b, 2a or 3a were co-expressed in Huh7 cell factories using a recombinant adenoviral expression system. The structural proteins self-assembled into VLPs that were purified from Huh7 cell lysates by iodixanol ultracentrifugation and Stirred cell ultrafiltration. Electron microscopy, revealed VLPs of the different genotypes that are morphologically similar. Our results show that it is possible to produce large quantities of individual HCV genotype VLPs with relative ease thus making this approach an alternative for the manufacture of a quadrivalent mammalian cell derived HCV VLP vaccine.

  16. Glucose responsive insulin production from human embryonic germ (EG) cell derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Gregory O.; Yochem, Robert L.; Axelman, Joyce; Sheets, Timothy P.; Kaczorowski, David J.; Shamblott, Michael J. . E-mail: mshambl1@jhmi.edu

    2007-05-11

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects millions to a daily burden of disease management, life threatening hypoglycemia and long-term complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, heart disease, and stroke. Cell transplantation therapies providing a glucose-regulated supply of insulin have been implemented clinically, but are limited by safety, efficacy and supply considerations. Stem cells promise a plentiful and flexible source of cells for transplantation therapies. Here, we show that cells derived from human embryonic germ (EG) cells express markers of definitive endoderm, pancreatic and {beta}-cell development, glucose sensing, and production of mature insulin. These cells integrate functions necessary for glucose responsive regulation of preproinsulin mRNA and expression of insulin C-peptide in vitro. Following transplantation into mice, cells become insulin and C-peptide immunoreactive and produce plasma C-peptide in response to glucose. These findings suggest that EG cell derivatives may eventually serve as a source of insulin producing cells for the treatment of diabetes.

  17. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2005-06-30

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the seventh report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in these areas. These areas are: (1) Steam reformer transient response, (2) Heat transfer enhancement, (3) Catalyst degradation, (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies, and (5) Autothermal reforming of coal-derived methanol. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  18. Large scale production of a mammalian cell derived quadrivalent hepatitis C virus like particle vaccine.

    PubMed

    Earnest-Silveira, L; Christiansen, D; Herrmann, S; Ralph, S A; Das, S; Gowans, E J; Torresi, J

    2016-10-01

    A method for the large-scale production of a quadrivalent mammalian cell derived hepatitis C virus-like particles (HCV VLPs) is described. The HCV core E1 and E2 coding sequences of genotype 1a, 1b, 2a or 3a were co-expressed in Huh7 cell factories using a recombinant adenoviral expression system. The structural proteins self-assembled into VLPs that were purified from Huh7 cell lysates by iodixanol ultracentrifugation and Stirred cell ultrafiltration. Electron microscopy, revealed VLPs of the different genotypes that are morphologically similar. Our results show that it is possible to produce large quantities of individual HCV genotype VLPs with relative ease thus making this approach an alternative for the manufacture of a quadrivalent mammalian cell derived HCV VLP vaccine. PMID:27373602

  19. Current technologies, economics, and perspectives for 2,5-dimethylfuran production from biomass-derived intermediates.

    PubMed

    Saha, Basudeb; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-04-13

    Since the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a perspective article that described the potential of the top ten biomass-derived platform chemicals as petroleum replacements for high-value commodity and specialty chemicals, researchers around the world have been motivated to develop technologies for the conversion of biomass and biomass-derived intermediates into chemicals and fuels. Among several biorefinery processes, the conversion of biomass carbohydrates into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) has received significant attention because of its low oxygen content, high energy content, and high octane value. DMF can further serve as a petroleum-replacement, biorenewable feedstock for the production of p-xylene (pX). In this review, we aim specifically to present a concise and up-to-date analysis of DMF production technologies with a critical discussion on catalytic systems, mechanistic insight, and process economics, which includes sensitivity analysis, so that more effective catalysts can be designed. Special emphasis has been given to bifunctional catalysts that improve DMF yields and selectivity and the synergistic effect of the bifunctional sites. Process economics for the current processes and the scope for further improvement are discussed. It is anticipated that the chemistry detailed in this review will guide researchers to develop more practical catalytic processes to enable the economic production of bio-based DMF. Processes for the upgrade of DMF to pX are also described.

  20. Current technologies, economics, and perspectives for 2,5-dimethylfuran production from biomass-derived intermediates.

    PubMed

    Saha, Basudeb; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-04-13

    Since the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a perspective article that described the potential of the top ten biomass-derived platform chemicals as petroleum replacements for high-value commodity and specialty chemicals, researchers around the world have been motivated to develop technologies for the conversion of biomass and biomass-derived intermediates into chemicals and fuels. Among several biorefinery processes, the conversion of biomass carbohydrates into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) has received significant attention because of its low oxygen content, high energy content, and high octane value. DMF can further serve as a petroleum-replacement, biorenewable feedstock for the production of p-xylene (pX). In this review, we aim specifically to present a concise and up-to-date analysis of DMF production technologies with a critical discussion on catalytic systems, mechanistic insight, and process economics, which includes sensitivity analysis, so that more effective catalysts can be designed. Special emphasis has been given to bifunctional catalysts that improve DMF yields and selectivity and the synergistic effect of the bifunctional sites. Process economics for the current processes and the scope for further improvement are discussed. It is anticipated that the chemistry detailed in this review will guide researchers to develop more practical catalytic processes to enable the economic production of bio-based DMF. Processes for the upgrade of DMF to pX are also described. PMID:25703838

  1. Arginine-derived advanced glycation end products generated in peptide-glucose mixtures during boiling.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Andrej; Schmidt, Rico; Spiller, Sandro; Greifenhagen, Uta; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2014-04-23

    Glycation refers to the reaction of amino groups, for example in proteins, with reducing sugars. Intermediately formed Amadori products can be degraded by oxidation (Maillard reactions) leading to a heterogeneous class of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), especially during exposure to heat. AGEs are considered to be toxic in vivo due to their pronounced local and systemic inflammatory effects. At high temperatures, these reactions have been mostly investigated at the amino acid level. Here, we studied the formation of arginine-related AGEs in peptides under conditions simulating household cooking at physiological d-glucose concentrations. High quantities of AGE-modified peptides were produced within 15 min, especially glyoxal-derived products. The intermediately formed dihydroxy-imidazolidine yielded glyoxal- (Glarg) and methylglyoxal-derived hydro-imidazolinones (MG-H), with Glarg being further degraded to carboxymethyl-l-arginine (CMA). Carboxyethyl-l-arginine was not detected. The formation rates and yields were strongly increased in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of Fe(II)-ions and ascorbate. A nearby histidine residue increased the content of AGEs, whereas glutamic acid significantly reduced the CMA levels.

  2. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  3. Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Langholtz, Matthew H.; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin Lambert; Baker, Fred S.; Compere, Alicia L.; William L. Griffith; Boeman, Raymond G.; Keller, Martin

    2014-01-15

    Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg-1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%. Using lignin-derived carbon fiber in 15 million vehicles per year in the US could reduce fossil fuel consumption by 2-5 billion liters year-1, reduce CO2 emissions by about 6.7 million Mg year-1, and realize fuel savings through vehicle lightweighting of $700 to $1,600 per Mg biomass processed. The value of fuel savings from vehicle lightweighting becomes economical at carbon fiber price of $6.60 kg-1 under current fuel prices, or $13.20 kg-1 under fuel prices of about $1.16 l-1.

  4. Intercomparison and Validation of AIRS, MODIS, and ASTER Land Surface Emissivity Products over the Namib and Kalahari Deserts in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, G.; Hook, S.

    2008-12-01

    Land surface emissivity is a critical parameter for retrieving land surface temperatures from spaceborne Thermal Infrared (TIR) measurements. Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) data are key parameters in global climate change studies that involve climate modeling, ice dynamic analyses, surface- atmosphere interactions and land use, land cover change. The errors in retrievals of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from hyperspectral infrared radiances, such as those from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite, are strongly dependent on using constant or inaccurate surface emissivities, particularly over arid and semi-arid regions where the variation in emissivity is large, both spatially and spectrally. LST&E products are available from spaceborne sensors such as AIRS, MODIS and ASTER at varying spatial, spectral, temporal resolutions, and using different retrieval algorithms. ASTER provides LST&E data with the highest spatial resolution (90 m), compared with AIRS (50 km) and MODIS (1 and 5 km). AIRS has the highest spectral sampling and both AIRS and MODIS acquire data at much higher temporal frequencies (every 2-3 days) compared with ASTER (every 16 days). In this paper we present validation and intercomparisons of AIRS, MODIS and ASTER emissivity products over the Namib and Kalahari deserts in Southern Africa. The Namib, Africa's second largest desert, and the Kalahari cover areas of 80,900 and 900, 000 km² respectively and consist of pure quartz, giving the sand a deep red color. The dunes provide excellent areas for validation as they have little or no vegetation, are spatially homogeneous with known composition, and have large spectral variations in TIR emissivity. MODIS and ASTER data will be upsampled to the AIRS spatial resolution, and then compared to the emissivities of in-situ sand samples collected at designated areas at Sossusvlei in the Namib dunes and Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in the Kalahari. The

  5. Photosensitized Production of Atmospherically Reactive Organic Compounds at the Air/Aqueous Interface

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on experiments that probe photosensitized chemistry at the air/water interface, a region that does not just connect the two phases but displays its own specific chemistry. Here, we follow reactions of octanol, a proxy for environmentally relevant soluble surfactants, initiated by an attack by triplet-state carbonyl compounds, which are themselves concentrated at the interface by the presence of this surfactant. Gas-phase products are determined using PTR-ToF-MS, and those remaining in the organic layer are determined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and HPLC-HRMS. We observe the photosensitized production of carboxylic acids as well as unsaturated and branched-chain oxygenated products, compounds that act as organic aerosol precursors and had been thought to be produced solely by biological activity. A mechanism that is consistent with the observations is detailed here, and the energetics of several key reactions are calculated using quantum chemical methods. The results suggest that the concentrating nature of the interface leads to its being a favorable venue for radical reactions yielding complex and functionalized products that themselves could initiate further secondary chemistry and new particle formation in the atmospheric environment. PMID:26068588

  6. Production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus restricted to endogenous air in tampons.

    PubMed

    Reiser, R F; Hinzman, S J; Bergdoll, M S

    1987-08-01

    All types of four brands of tampons were tested in triplicate by a tampon sac method for their effect on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). In this method the available air is limited to that which is in the tampon sac. Tampons were weighed and inserted into dialysis sacs inoculated with a TSST-1-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain; the sacs were submerged into brain heart infusion agar, which was allowed to harden around the sacs, and were incubated for 18 h at 37 degrees C. The tampons were removed, weighed, and extracted; the CFU of staphylococci and the amount of toxin present in the extracts were determined. Glass wool was used in place of the tampons as one control, and inoculated empty sacs were used as a second control. The total CFU were consistently greater than 2 X 10(11) for the tampons and glass wool and less than or equal to 10(11) for the empty sac control. Total toxin production for all tampons tested and the glass wool was 2 to 10 times higher than the toxin produced with the empty sac control. These results indicate that tampons provide increased surface area for the staphylococci to grow and adequate oxygen for toxin production. No significant inhibition of growth of the staphylococci or TSST-1 production by any of the tampons tested was noted.

  7. What You Need to Know About the OMI NO2 Data Product for Air Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celarier, E. A.; Gleason, J. F.; Bucsela, E. J.; Brinksma, E.; Veefkind, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    The standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data product, produced from measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), are publicly available online from the NASA GESDISC facility. Important data fields include total and tropospheric column densities, as well as collocated data for cloud fraction and cloud top height, surface albedo and snow/ice coverage, at the resolution of the OMI instrument (12 km x 26 km, at nadir). The retrieved NO2 data have been validated, principally under clear-sky conditions. The first public-release version has been available since September 2006. An improved version of the data product, which includes a number of new data fields, and improved estimates of the retrieval uncertainties will be released by the end of 2007. This talk will describe the standard NO2 data product, including details that are essential for the use of the data for air quality studies. We will also describe the principal improvements with the new version of the data product.

  8. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Atanas G; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Linder, Thomas; Wawrosch, Christoph; Uhrin, Pavel; Temml, Veronika; Wang, Limei; Schwaiger, Stefan; Heiss, Elke H; Rollinger, Judith M; Schuster, Daniela; Breuss, Johannes M; Bochkov, Valery; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M; Stuppner, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    Medicinal plants have historically proven their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential, and nowadays still represent an important pool for the identification of novel drug leads. In the past decades, pharmaceutical industry focused mainly on libraries of synthetic compounds as drug discovery source. They are comparably easy to produce and resupply, and demonstrate good compatibility with established high throughput screening (HTS) platforms. However, at the same time there has been a declining trend in the number of new drugs reaching the market, raising renewed scientific interest in drug discovery from natural sources, despite of its known challenges. In this survey, a brief outline of historical development is provided together with a comprehensive overview of used approaches and recent developments relevant to plant-derived natural product drug discovery. Associated challenges and major strengths of natural product-based drug discovery are critically discussed. A snapshot of the advanced plant-derived natural products that are currently in actively recruiting clinical trials is also presented. Importantly, the transition of a natural compound from a "screening hit" through a "drug lead" to a "marketed drug" is associated with increasingly challenging demands for compound amount, which often cannot be met by re-isolation from the respective plant sources. In this regard, existing alternatives for resupply are also discussed, including different biotechnology approaches and total organic synthesis. While the intrinsic complexity of natural product-based drug discovery necessitates highly integrated interdisciplinary approaches, the reviewed scientific developments, recent technological advances, and research trends clearly indicate that natural products will be among the most important sources of new drugs also in the future.

  9. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Thomas; Wawrosch, Christoph; Uhrin, Pavel; Temml, Veronika; Wang, Limei; Schwaiger, Stefan; Heiss, Elke H.; Rollinger, Judith M.; Schuster, Daniela; Breuss, Johannes M.; Bochkov, Valery; Mihovilovic, Marko D.; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M.; Stuppner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants have historically proven their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential, and nowadays still represent an important pool for the identification of novel drug leads. In the past decades, pharmaceutical industry focused mainly on libraries of synthetic compounds as drug discovery source. They are comparably easy to produce and resupply, and demonstrate good compatibility with established high throughput screening (HTS) platforms. However, at the same time there has been a declining trend in the number of new drugs reaching the market, raising renewed scientific interest in drug discovery from natural sources, despite of its known challenges. In this survey, a brief outline of historical development is provided together with a comprehensive overview of used approaches and recent developments relevant to plant-derived natural product drug discovery. Associated challenges and major strengths of natural product-based drug discovery are critically discussed. A snapshot of the advanced plant-derived natural products that are currently in actively recruiting clinical trials is also presented. Importantly, the transition of a natural compound from a “screening hit” through a “drug lead” to a “marketed drug” is associated with increasingly challenging demands for compound amount, which often cannot be met by re-isolation from the respective plant sources. In this regard, existing alternatives for resupply are also discussed, including different biotechnology approaches and total organic synthesis. While the intrinsic complexity of natural product-based drug discovery necessitates highly integrated interdisciplinary approaches, the reviewed scientific developments, recent technological advances, and research trends clearly indicate that natural products will be among the most important sources of new drugs also in the future. PMID:26281720

  10. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Atanas G; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Linder, Thomas; Wawrosch, Christoph; Uhrin, Pavel; Temml, Veronika; Wang, Limei; Schwaiger, Stefan; Heiss, Elke H; Rollinger, Judith M; Schuster, Daniela; Breuss, Johannes M; Bochkov, Valery; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M; Stuppner, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    Medicinal plants have historically proven their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential, and nowadays still represent an important pool for the identification of novel drug leads. In the past decades, pharmaceutical industry focused mainly on libraries of synthetic compounds as drug discovery source. They are comparably easy to produce and resupply, and demonstrate good compatibility with established high throughput screening (HTS) platforms. However, at the same time there has been a declining trend in the number of new drugs reaching the market, raising renewed scientific interest in drug discovery from natural sources, despite of its known challenges. In this survey, a brief outline of historical development is provided together with a comprehensive overview of used approaches and recent developments relevant to plant-derived natural product drug discovery. Associated challenges and major strengths of natural product-based drug discovery are critically discussed. A snapshot of the advanced plant-derived natural products that are currently in actively recruiting clinical trials is also presented. Importantly, the transition of a natural compound from a "screening hit" through a "drug lead" to a "marketed drug" is associated with increasingly challenging demands for compound amount, which often cannot be met by re-isolation from the respective plant sources. In this regard, existing alternatives for resupply are also discussed, including different biotechnology approaches and total organic synthesis. While the intrinsic complexity of natural product-based drug discovery necessitates highly integrated interdisciplinary approaches, the reviewed scientific developments, recent technological advances, and research trends clearly indicate that natural products will be among the most important sources of new drugs also in the future. PMID:26281720

  11. Comparison of global precipitation climatology products derived from ground- and satellite-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Satellite-based products increasingly take an important role in filling data gaps in data sparse regions around the world. In recent years, precipitation products that utilize multi-satellite and multi-sensor datasets have been gaining more popularity than products from a single sensor or satellite. Adjusted with gauge and ground radar data, satellitebased products have been significantly improved. However the history of satellite-based precipitation products is relatively short compared to the length of 30 years in the definition for climatology from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). For example, the NASA/JAXA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has been in operation for over 16 years since 1997. The length of TRMM is far shorter than those from ground observations, raising a question whether TRMM climatology products are good enough for research and applications. In this study, three climatologies derived from ground observations (Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and Willmott and Matsuura (WM)) and a blended product (the TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) monthly product or 3B43) are compared on a global scale to assess the performance and weaknesses of the TMPAderived climatology. Results show that the 3B43 climatology matches well with the two gauge-based climatologies in all seasons in terms of spatial distribution, zonal means as well as seasonal variations. However, high variations in rain rates are found in light rain regions such as the Sahara Desert. Large negative biases (3B43

  12. Surface Solar Radiation in North America: Observations, Reanalyses, Satellite and Derived Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of daily surface solar/shortwave radiation data from over 4000 stations have been gathered, covering much of the lower 48 continental states of the US as well as portions of Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. The quantity of data increases almost linearly from 1998 when only several hundred stations had data. A quality control procedure utilizing threshold values along with computing the clear sky radiation envelope for individual stations was implemented to both screen bad data and rescue informative data. Over two thirds of the observations are seen as acceptable. Fifteen different surface solar radiation products are assessed relative to observations, including reanalyses (20thC, CFSRR, ERAI, JRA-55, MERRA, NARR, NCEP), derived products (CRU_NCEP, DAYMET, GLDAS, GSWP3, MsTMIP, NLDAS) and two satellite products (CERES and GOES). All except the CERES product are daily or finer in temporal resolution. The root mean square error of spatial biases is greater than 18Wm-2 for 13 of the 15 products over the summer season (June, July, August). None of the daily resolution products fulfill all three desirable criteria of low (<5%) annual or seasonal bias, high correlation with observed cloudiness and correct distribution of clear sky radiation. Some products display vestiges of underlying algorithm issues (e.g. from MTCLIM ver4.3) or bias correction methods. A new bias correction method is introduced that preserves clear sky radiation values and better replicates cloudiness statistics. The current quantity of data over the continental US suggests a solar radiation product based on, or enhanced with, observations is feasible.

  13. Effect of garlic and allium-derived products on the growth and metabolism of Spironucleus vortens.

    PubMed

    Millet, Coralie O M; Lloyd, David; Williams, Catrin; Williams, David; Evans, Gareth; Saunders, Robert A; Cable, Joanne

    2011-02-01

    Spironucleus is a genus of small, flagellated parasites, many of which can infect a wide range of vertebrates and are a significant problem in aquaculture. Following the ban on the use of metronidazole in food fish due to toxicity problems, no satisfactory chemotherapies for the treatment of spironucleosis are currently available. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry and automated optical density monitoring of growth, we investigated in vitro the effect of Allium sativum (garlic), a herbal remedy known for its antimicrobial properties, on the growth and metabolism of Spironucleus vortens, a parasite of tropical fish and putative agent of hole-in-the-head disease. The allium-derived thiosulfinate compounds allicin and ajoene, as well as an ajoene-free mixture of thiosulfinates and vinyl-dithiins were also tested. Whole, freeze-dried garlic and allium-derived compounds had an inhibitory effect on gas metabolism, exponential growth rate and final growth yield of S. vortens in Keister's modified, TY-I-S33 culture medium. Of all the allium-derived compounds tested, the ajoene-free mixture of dithiins and thiosulfinates was the most effective with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 107 μg ml(-1) and an inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC(50%)) of 58 μg ml(-1). It was followed by ajoene (MIC = 83 μg ml(-1), IC(50%) = 56 μg ml(-1)) and raw garlic (MIC >20 mg ml(-1), IC(50%) = 7.9 mg ml(-1)); allicin being significantly less potent with an MIC and IC(50%) above 160 μg ml(-1). All these concentrations are much higher than those reported to be required for the inhibition of most bacteria, protozoa and fungi previously investigated, indicating an unusual level of tolerance for allium-derived products in S. vortens. However, chemically synthesized derivatives of garlic constituents might prove a useful avenue for future research.

  14. Life cycle water footprint of hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel production from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alain; Zhang, Hao; Kumar, Amit

    2016-10-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel requires water. This study is focused on the production of hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) from lignocellulosic biomass. Although there has been considerable focus on the assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there is limited work on the assessment of the life cycle water footprint of HDRD production. This paper presents a life cycle water consumption study on lignocellulosic biomass to HDRD via pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) processes. The results of this study show that whole tree (i.e., tree chips) biomass has water requirements of 497.79 L/MJ HDRD and 376.16 L/MJ HDRD for production through fast pyrolysis and the HTL process, respectively. Forest residues (i.e., chips from branches and tops generated during logging operations) have water requirements of 338.58 L/MJ HDRD and 255.85 L/MJ HDRD for production through fast pyrolysis and the HTL process, respectively. Agricultural residues (i.e., straw from wheat, oats, and barley), which are more water efficient, have water requirements of 83.7 L/MJ HDRD and 59.1 L/MJ HDRD through fast pyrolysis and the HTL process, respectively. Differences in water use between feedstocks and conversion processes indicate that the choices of biomass feedstock and conversion pathway water efficiency are crucial factors affecting water use efficiency of HDRD production. PMID:27379729

  15. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Lujuan; Fu, Qingquan; Zhou, Guang-hong; Zhang, Wan-gang

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides. PMID:27657142

  16. Life cycle water footprint of hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel production from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alain; Zhang, Hao; Kumar, Amit

    2016-10-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel requires water. This study is focused on the production of hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) from lignocellulosic biomass. Although there has been considerable focus on the assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there is limited work on the assessment of the life cycle water footprint of HDRD production. This paper presents a life cycle water consumption study on lignocellulosic biomass to HDRD via pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) processes. The results of this study show that whole tree (i.e., tree chips) biomass has water requirements of 497.79 L/MJ HDRD and 376.16 L/MJ HDRD for production through fast pyrolysis and the HTL process, respectively. Forest residues (i.e., chips from branches and tops generated during logging operations) have water requirements of 338.58 L/MJ HDRD and 255.85 L/MJ HDRD for production through fast pyrolysis and the HTL process, respectively. Agricultural residues (i.e., straw from wheat, oats, and barley), which are more water efficient, have water requirements of 83.7 L/MJ HDRD and 59.1 L/MJ HDRD through fast pyrolysis and the HTL process, respectively. Differences in water use between feedstocks and conversion processes indicate that the choices of biomass feedstock and conversion pathway water efficiency are crucial factors affecting water use efficiency of HDRD production.

  17. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Lujuan; Fu, Qingquan; Zhou, Guang-Hong; Zhang, Wan-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides. PMID:27657142

  18. Economical and green biodiesel production process using river snail shells-derived heterogeneous catalyst and co-solvent method.

    PubMed

    Roschat, Wuttichai; Siritanon, Theeranun; Kaewpuang, Teadkait; Yoosuk, Boonyawan; Promarak, Vinich

    2016-06-01

    River snail shells-derived CaO was used as a heterogeneous catalyst to synthesize biodiesel via transesterification of palm oil with methanol. The shell materials were calcined in air at 600-1000°C for 3h. Physicochemical properties of the resulting catalysts were characterized by TGA-DTG, XRD, SEM, BET, XRF, FT-IR and TPD. CaO catalyzed transesterification mechanism of palm oil into biodiesel was verified. The effects of adding a co-solvent on kinetic of the reaction and %FAME yield were investigated. %FAME yield of 98.5%±1.5 was achieved under the optimal conditions of catalyst/oil ratio of 5wt.%; methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1; reaction temperature of 65°C; 10%v/v of THF in methanol and reaction time of 90min. The results ascertained that river snail shells is a novel raw material for preparation of CaO catalyst and the co-solvent method successfully decreases the reaction time and biodiesel production cost. PMID:26995112

  19. Infrared Cross-Sections of Nitro-Derivative Vapors: New Spectroscopic Signatures of Explosive Taggants and Degradation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Mouret, Gaël; Pirali, Olivier; Gruet, Sébastien; Piau, Gérard Pascal; Fournier, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    Classical explosives such as RDX or TNT exhibit a very low vapor pressure at room temperature and their detection in air requires very sensitive techniques with levels usually better than 1 ppb. To overcome this difficulty, it is not the explosive itself which is detected, but another compound more volatile present in the explosive. This volatile compound can exist naturally in the explosive due to the manufacturing process. For example, in the case of DiNitroToluene (DNT), the molecule is a degradation product of TNT and is required for its manufacture. Ortho-Mononitrotoluene (2-NT) and para-mononitrotoluene (4-NT) can be also used as detection taggants for explosive detection. In this study, using the exceptional properties of the SOLEIL synchrotron source, and adapted multipass-cells, gas phase Far-IR rovibrational spectra of different isomers of mononitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene have been investigated. Room temperature Far-IR cross-sections of the 3 isomer forms of mononitrotoluene have been determined for the lowest frequency vibrational bands located below 700 wn. Cross sections and their temperature dependences have been also measured in the Mid-IR using conventional FTIR spectroscopy probing the nitro-derivatives vapors in a heated multipass-cell. J. C. Oxley, J. L. Smith, W. Luo, J. Brady, Prop. Explos. Pyrotec. 34 (2009) 539-543 A. Cuisset, S. Gruet, O. Pirali, G. Mouret, Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 132 (2014) 838-845.

  20. Economical and green biodiesel production process using river snail shells-derived heterogeneous catalyst and co-solvent method.

    PubMed

    Roschat, Wuttichai; Siritanon, Theeranun; Kaewpuang, Teadkait; Yoosuk, Boonyawan; Promarak, Vinich

    2016-06-01

    River snail shells-derived CaO was used as a heterogeneous catalyst to synthesize biodiesel via transesterification of palm oil with methanol. The shell materials were calcined in air at 600-1000°C for 3h. Physicochemical properties of the resulting catalysts were characterized by TGA-DTG, XRD, SEM, BET, XRF, FT-IR and TPD. CaO catalyzed transesterification mechanism of palm oil into biodiesel was verified. The effects of adding a co-solvent on kinetic of the reaction and %FAME yield were investigated. %FAME yield of 98.5%±1.5 was achieved under the optimal conditions of catalyst/oil ratio of 5wt.%; methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1; reaction temperature of 65°C; 10%v/v of THF in methanol and reaction time of 90min. The results ascertained that river snail shells is a novel raw material for preparation of CaO catalyst and the co-solvent method successfully decreases the reaction time and biodiesel production cost.

  1. Characteristics of mechanically sorted municipal wastes and their suitability for production of refuse derived fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arina, Dace; Orupe, Ausma

    2012-11-01

    The article presents the results of experimental work in the first waste mechanical Pre-treatment Centre in Latvia Daibe. The goal - to detect the main parameters for sorted waste parts and to compare them with parameters stated for refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a cement plant in Latvia (Cemex). Samples were taken in four fractions - coarse, medium, fine, metal. The parameters - upper, lower heating values, moisture, ash content, S, Cl, metals were determined. Results - coarse fraction has greater potential of the production of the RDF, but reduction of its content of Cl would be necessary.

  2. Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives from said compositions

    DOEpatents

    Minnick, L. John

    1981-01-01

    Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives of said compositions, and cementitious compositions and aggregates produced by said method, wherein fluidized bed combustion residue and pozzolanic material, such as pulverized coal combustion system fly ash, are incorporated in a cementitious mix. The mix is cast into desired shape and cured. If desired, the shape may then be crushed so as to result in a fluidized bed combustion residue-fly ash aggregate material or the shape may be used by itself.

  3. Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting Applications of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, Shobha

    , air quality warnings by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This talk will provide an overview of VIIRS algorithms, aerosol product validation, and examples of various applications with a discussion on the relevance of product accuracy.

  4. Sorbitol production in the lens: a means of counteracting glucose-derived osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Chylack, L T; Tung, W; Harding, R

    1986-01-01

    Heretofore, the intracellular accumulation of sorbitol has been associated exclusively with deleterious (cataractogenic) changes in the lens. This study demonstrates a beneficial role for the sorbitol pathway in the rabbit lens, namely that of counteracting extracellular, glucose-derived, osmotic stress with the intracellular production of osmotically active sorbitol. Large and sudden increases in the extracellular glucose concentration lead to dehydration of the lens, a response that can be diminished by intracellular sorbitol and fructose production. These results are discussed in light of the impact (beneficial/detrimental) of aldose reductase inhibitors on the lens. Sugar cataract formation appears to result from continuous, rather than cyclical, activity of a pathway which normally may have a protective function in the lens.

  5. Prevention of postprandial metabolic stress in humans: role of fruit-derived products.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Giuseppa; Kucan, Petra; Serafini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of unbalanced meals, consisting of foods rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates and calories, has been associated to a postprandial metabolic stress that involves the increase of the production of free radicals and proinflammatory markers. Growing evidence suggest that dietary polyphenols contained in fruit-derived products, such as fruit juices, are involved in the role played by plant foods in disease prevention. Their association to a calorie-dense meal may help to attenuate the onset of postprandial metabolic and inflammatory stress. The available evidence in the literature investigating the effects of polyphenols rich fruit juices on the modulation of postprandial-induced metabolic stress in humans will be presented and discussed.

  6. Enhanced reversibility and durability of a solid oxide Fe-air redox battery by carbothermic reaction derived energy storage materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuan; Li, Xue; Gong, Yunhui; Huang, Kevin

    2014-01-18

    The recently developed solid oxide metal-air redox battery is a new technology capable of high-rate chemistry. Here we report that the performance, reversibility and stability of a solid oxide iron-air redox battery can be significantly improved by nanostructuring energy storage materials from a carbothermic reaction.

  7. Effects of Confinement on Combustion of TNT Explosion Products in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.; Oppenheim, A.K.; Ferguson, R.E.; Reichenback, H.; Neuwald, P.

    2000-02-05

    Turbulent combustion fields established by detonative explosions of TNT in confinements of different sizes are studied by high-resolution numerical simulation, using AMR (Adaptive Mesh Refinement) method. The chambers are filled with nitrogen or air at NPT conditions. In the second case, the detonation products, rich in C and CO, act, upon turbulent mixing with air, as fuel in an exothermic process of combustion, manifested by a distinct pressure rise. It is the evolution in space and time of this dynamic process that formed the principal focus of this study. Our results demonstrate a dominating influence of the size of the enclosure on the burning rate--an effect that cannot be expressed in terms of the classical burning speed. Under such circumstances, combustion is of considerable significance, since it is associated with a calorific value (''heat release'') of an order of 3500 Cal/gm, as compared to 1100 Cal/gm of TNT detonation. The numerical simulations provide considerable insight into the evolution of combustion fields dominated by shock-turbulence interactions. Fuel consumption histories, extracted from the simulations, reveal the dynamic features of the system, represented by the rate of combustion (akin to velocity) and its change (akin to acceleration). Time profiles of the mass fraction consumed fuel are expressed, with a remarkable accuracy, by bi-parametric life functions, whereby the trajectories of these parameters, obtained by differentiation, can be evaluated with precision commensurate with their commanding role in the identification of the dynamic nature of the system.

  8. Dendritic cells derived from pluripotent stem cells: Potential of large scale production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Liu, Meimei; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, are promising sources for hematopoietic cells due to their unlimited growth capacity and the pluripotency. Dendritic cells (DCs), the unique immune cells in the hematopoietic system, can be loaded with tumor specific antigen and used as vaccine for cancer immunotherapy. While autologous DCs from peripheral blood are limited in cell number, hPSC-derived DCs provide a novel alternative cell source which has the potential for large scale production. This review summarizes recent advances in differentiating hPSCs to DCs through the intermediate stage of hematopoietic stem cells. Step-wise growth factor induction has been used to derive DCs from hPSCs either in suspension culture of embryoid bodies (EBs) or in co-culture with stromal cells. To fulfill the clinical potential of the DCs derived from hPSCs, the bioprocess needs to be scaled up to produce a large number of cells economically under tight quality control. This requires the development of novel bioreactor systems combining guided EB-based differentiation with engineered culture environment. Hence, recent progress in using bioreactors for hPSC lineage-specific differentiation is reviewed. In particular, the potential scale up strategies for the multistage DC differentiation and the effect of shear stress on hPSC differentiation in bioreactors are discussed in detail. PMID:24567783

  9. Analysis of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a radiopharmaceutical production facility based on a medical cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.; Greco, D.

    2015-11-01

    Positron emitting radionuclides are increasingly used in medical diagnostics and the number of radiopharmaceutical production facilities have been estimated to be growing worldwide. During the process of production and/or patient administration of radiopharmaceuticals, an amount of these radionuclides might become airborne and escape into the environment. Therefore, the analysis of radionuclide concentration in the air released to the stack is a very important issue to evaluate the dose to the population living around the plant. To this end, sampling and measurement of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a Nuclear Medicine Center (NMC), provided with a cyclotron for radiopharmaceuticals production, must be routinely carried out with an automatic measurement system. In this work is presented the air monitoring system realized at "San Gaetano" NMC at Bagheria (Italy) besides the analysis of the recorded stack relesead air concentration data. Sampling of air was carried out continuously and gamma-ray spectrometric measurement are made on-line and for a short time by using a shielded Marinelli beaker filled with sampled air and a gamma detector. The use of this system allows to have 1440 values of air concentration per day from 2002, year of the start of operation with the cyclotron. Therefore, the concentration values are very many and an analysis software is needed to determine the dose to the population. A comparison with the results of a simulation code based on a Gaussian Plume air dispersion modelling allow us to confirm the no-radiological significance of the stack effluent releases in terms of dose to population and to evaluate possible improvements in the plant devices to reduce the air concentration at stack.

  10. Simulation of climate change impacts on grain sorghum production grown under free air CO2 enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tongcheng; Ko, Jonghan; Wall, Gerard W.; Pinter, Paul J.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ottman, Michael J.; Kim, Han-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Potential impacts of climate change on grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) productivity were investigated using the CERES-sorghum model in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer v4.5. The model was first calibrated for a sorghum cultivar grown in a free air CO2 enrichment experiment at the University of Arizona, Maricopa, Arizona, USA in 1998. The model was then validated with an independent dataset collected in 1999. The simulated grain yield, growth, and soil water of sorghum for the both years were in statistical agreement with the corresponding measurements, respectively. Neither simulated nor measured yields responded to elevated CO2, but both were sensitive to water supply. The validated model was then applied to simulate possible effects of climate change on sorghum grain yield and water use efficiency in western North America for the years 2080-2100. The projected CO2 fertilizer effect on grain yield was dominated by the adverse effect of projected temperature increases. Therefore, temperature appears to be a dominant driver of the global climate change influencing future sorghum productivity. These results suggest that an increase in water demand for sorghum production should be anticipated in a future high-CO2 world.

  11. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study.

  12. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study. PMID:25466683

  13. Comparisons of Ship-based Observations of Air-Sea Energy Budgets with Gridded Flux Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Blomquist, B.

    2015-12-01

    Air-surface interactions are characterized directly by the fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture, trace gases, and particles near the interface. In the last 20 years advances in observation technologies have greatly expanded the database of high-quality direct (covariance) turbulent flux and irradiance observations from research vessels. In this paper, we will summarize observations from the NOAA sea-going flux system from participation in various field programs executed since 1999 and discuss comparisons with several gridded flux products. We will focus on comparisons of turbulent heat fluxes and solar and IR radiative fluxes. The comparisons are done for observing programs in the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans and SE subtropical Pacific.

  14. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  15. Photosensitized production of functionalized and unsaturated organic compounds at the air-sea interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuraru, Raluca; Fine, Ludovic; van Pinxteren, Manuela; D'Anna, Barbara; Herrmann, Hartmut; George, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) has different physical, chemical and biological properties compared to the subsurface water, with an enrichment of organic matter i.e., dissolved organic matter including UV absorbing humic substances, fatty acids and many others. Here we present experimental evidence that dissolved organic matter, such as humic acids, when exposed to sunlight, can photosensitize the chemical conversion of linear saturated fatty acids at the air-water interface into unsaturated functionalized gas phase products (i.e. saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and acids, alkenes and dienes,…) which are known precursors of secondary organic aerosols. These functionalized molecules have previously been thought to be of biological origin, but here we demonstrate that abiotic interfacial photochemistry has the potential to produce such molecules. As the ocean is widely covered by the SML, this new understanding will impact on our ability to describe atmospheric chemistry in the marine environment.

  16. A comparison of radon and its decay products' behaviour in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, R; Cardellini, F; Leonardi, F; Vargas Trassierra, C; Franci, D

    2014-11-01

    The inhalation of short-lived radon decay products (RDP) yields the greatest contribution to the natural radiation exposure. This paper deals with a study carried out to improve the knowledge of the behaviour of RDPs, their interaction with particulates and the plateout during the time. The tests confirmed that a high aerosol particle concentration increases the probability that an ion sticks to aerosol and remains long in the air, leading to both an increase of F and a decrease of fp, as reported in the literature. The same experimental protocol applied in a small radon chamber showed a strong reduction of the equilibrium factor (an average of ∼10 %), because in a small environment the plateout phenomenon prevails on the attachment to particulate.

  17. Photosensitized production of functionalized and unsaturated organic compounds at the air-sea interface.

    PubMed

    Ciuraru, Raluca; Fine, Ludovic; van Pinxteren, Manuela; D'Anna, Barbara; Herrmann, Hartmut; George, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) has different physical, chemical and biological properties compared to the subsurface water, with an enrichment of organic matter i.e., dissolved organic matter including UV absorbing humic substances, fatty acids and many others. Here we present experimental evidence that dissolved organic matter, such as humic acids, when exposed to sunlight, can photosensitize the chemical conversion of linear saturated fatty acids at the air-water interface into unsaturated functionalized gas phase products (i.e. saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and acids, alkenes and dienes,...) which are known precursors of secondary organic aerosols. These functionalized molecules have previously been thought to be of biological origin, but here we demonstrate that abiotic interfacial photochemistry has the potential to produce such molecules. As the ocean is widely covered by the SML, this new understanding will impact on our ability to describe atmospheric chemistry in the marine environment. PMID:26244712

  18. Photosensitized production of functionalized and unsaturated organic compounds at the air-sea interface

    PubMed Central

    Ciuraru, Raluca; Fine, Ludovic; van Pinxteren, Manuela; D’Anna, Barbara; Herrmann, Hartmut; George, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) has different physical, chemical and biological properties compared to the subsurface water, with an enrichment of organic matter i.e., dissolved organic matter including UV absorbing humic substances, fatty acids and many others. Here we present experimental evidence that dissolved organic matter, such as humic acids, when exposed to sunlight, can photosensitize the chemical conversion of linear saturated fatty acids at the air-water interface into unsaturated functionalized gas phase products (i.e. saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and acids, alkenes and dienes,…) which are known precursors of secondary organic aerosols. These functionalized molecules have previously been thought to be of biological origin, but here we demonstrate that abiotic interfacial photochemistry has the potential to produce such molecules. As the ocean is widely covered by the SML, this new understanding will impact on our ability to describe atmospheric chemistry in the marine environment. PMID:26244712

  19. Compositional analysis of dairy products derived from clones and cloned transgenic cattle.

    PubMed

    Laible, Götz; Brophy, Brigid; Knighton, Derek; Wells, David N

    2007-01-01

    Cloning technology is an emerging biotechnological tool that could provide commercial opportunities for livestock agriculture. However, the process is very inefficient and the molecular events underlying the technology are poorly understood. The resulting uncertainties are causing concerns regarding the safety of food products derived from cloned livestock. There are similar concerns for livestock produced by biotechnologies which enable the purposeful introduction of genetic modifications. To increase the knowledge about food products from animals generated by these modern biotechnologies, we assessed compositional differences associated with milk and cheese derived from cloned and transgenic cows. Based on gross composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles and mineral and vitamin contents, milk produced by clones and conventional cattle were essentially similar and consistent with reference values from dairy cows farmed in the same region under similar conditions. Whereas colostrum produced by transgenic cows with additional casein genes had similar IgG secretion levels and kinetics to control cows, milk from the transgenic cows had a distinct yellow appearance, in contrast to the white color of milk from control cows. Processing of milk into cheese resulted in differences in the gross composition and amino acid profiles; 'transgenic' cheese had lower fat and higher salt contents and small but characteristic differences in the amino acid profile compared to control cheese.

  20. Antiadherent and Antibiofilm Activity of Humulus lupulus L. Derived Products: New Pharmacological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Micota, Bartlomiej; Sadowska, Beata; Jedrejek, Dariusz; Wieckowska-Szakiel, Marzena

    2013-01-01

    New antimicrobial properties of products derived from Humulus lupulus L. such as antiadherent and antibiofilm activities were evaluated. The growth of gram-positive but not gram-negative bacteria was inhibited to different extents by these compounds. An extract of hop cones containing 51% xanthohumol was slightly less active against S. aureus strains (MIC range 31.2–125.0 μg/mL) than pure xanthohumol (MIC range 15.6–62.5 μg/mL). The spent hop extract, free of xanthohumol, exhibited lower but still relevant activity (MIC range 1-2 mg/mL). There were positive coactions of hop cone, spent hop extracts, and xanthohumol with oxacillin against MSSA and with linezolid against MSSA and MRSA. Plant compounds in the culture medium at sub-MIC concentrations decreased the adhesion of Staphylococci to abiotic surfaces, which in turn caused inhibition of biofilm formation. The rate of mature biofilm eradication by these products was significant. The spent hop extract at MIC reduced biofilm viability by 42.8%, the hop cone extract by 74.8%, and pure xanthohumol by 86.5%. When the hop cone extract or xanthohumol concentration was increased, almost complete biofilm eradication was achieved (97–99%). This study reveals the potent antibiofilm activity of hop-derived compounds for the first time. PMID:24175280

  1. Prerequisites for the pharmaceutical industry to develop and commercialise helminths and helminth-derived product therapy.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Cornelia; Kapur, Vishal; Loging, Will; Erb, Klaus J

    2013-03-01

    During the past 10 years, immunologists, epidemiologists and parasitologists have made many new exciting discoveries in the field of helminth-mediated immune regulation. In addition, many animal experiments have shown that certain helminths or products derived from helminths can protect mice from developing allergic or autoimmune disease. Some clinical trials utilising Trichuris suis or Necator americanus for the treatment of allergic disorders and inflammatory bowel disease have been conducted. The outcomes of these trials suggest that they may be used to treat these disorders. However, to date no helminth therapy is routinely being applied to patients and no helminth-derived product therapy has been developed. In order to bring new drugs to the market and shoulder the enormous costs involved in developing such therapies, pharmaceutical companies need to be involved. However, currently the resources from the pharmaceutical industry devoted to this concept are relatively small and there are good reasons why the industry may have been reluctant to invest in developing these types of therapies. In this review article, the hurdles that must be overcome before the pharmaceutical industry might invest in these novel therapies are outlined.

  2. Antiadherent and antibiofilm activity of Humulus lupulus L. derived products: new pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Rozalski, Marcin; Micota, Bartlomiej; Sadowska, Beata; Stochmal, Anna; Jedrejek, Dariusz; Wieckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Rozalska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    New antimicrobial properties of products derived from Humulus lupulus L. such as antiadherent and antibiofilm activities were evaluated. The growth of gram-positive but not gram-negative bacteria was inhibited to different extents by these compounds. An extract of hop cones containing 51% xanthohumol was slightly less active against S. aureus strains (MIC range 31.2-125.0  μg/mL) than pure xanthohumol (MIC range 15.6-62.5  μg/mL). The spent hop extract, free of xanthohumol, exhibited lower but still relevant activity (MIC range 1-2 mg/mL). There were positive coactions of hop cone, spent hop extracts, and xanthohumol with oxacillin against MSSA and with linezolid against MSSA and MRSA. Plant compounds in the culture medium at sub-MIC concentrations decreased the adhesion of Staphylococci to abiotic surfaces, which in turn caused inhibition of biofilm formation. The rate of mature biofilm eradication by these products was significant. The spent hop extract at MIC reduced biofilm viability by 42.8%, the hop cone extract by 74.8%, and pure xanthohumol by 86.5%. When the hop cone extract or xanthohumol concentration was increased, almost complete biofilm eradication was achieved (97-99%). This study reveals the potent antibiofilm activity of hop-derived compounds for the first time. PMID:24175280

  3. Presence of CP4-EPSPS component in roundup ready soybean-derived food products.

    PubMed

    Wu, Honghong; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Changqing; Xiao, Xiao; Zhou, Xinghu; Xu, Sheng; Shen, Wenbiao; Huang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soya (event 40-3-2) (RRS), the traceability of transgenic components, especially protein residues, in different soya-related foodstuffs has become an important issue. In this report, transgenic components in commercial soya (including RRS) protein concentrates were firstly detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. The results illustrated the different degradation patterns of the cp4-epsps gene and corresponding protein in RRS-derived protein concentrates. Furthermore, western blot was applied to investigate the single factor of food processing and the matrix on the disintegration of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder and soya-derived foodstuffs, and trace the degradation patterns during the food production chain. Our results suggested that the exogenous full length of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder was distinctively sensitive to various heat treatments, including heat, microwave and autoclave (especially), and only one degradation fragment (23.4 kD) of CP4-EPSPS protein was apparently observed when autoclaving was applied. By tracing the protein degradation during RRS-related products, including tofu, tou-kan, and bean curd sheets, however, four degradation fragments (42.9, 38.2, 32.2 and 23.4 kD) were displayed, suggesting that both boiling and bittern adding procedures might have extensive effects on CP4-EPSPS protein degradation. Our results thus confirmed that the distinctive residues of the CP4-EPSPS component could be traced in RRS-related foodstuffs.

  4. The (137)Cs accumulation by forest-derived products in the Gomel region.

    PubMed

    Bulko, N I; Shabaleva, M A; Kozlov, A K; Tolkacheva, N V; Mashkov, I A

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports basic features of the (137)Cs uptake by forest-derived products in the Gomel region. Even with the soil contamination density of 37 kBq m(-2) the radionuclide contents in 20-30% of mushrooms and berries were found to be higher than the admissible levels. The (137)Cs contamination density of soil, site type and meteorological parameters were observed as the major factors which govern the radiocaesium uptake by mushrooms and berries. The (137)Cs contents in forest-derived products were found to increase directly with the soil contamination density. Bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) growing on different site types differed significantly in the (137)Cs content. It was also determined that statistically significant differences in the (137)Cs radioactivity of forest foods growing on different natural sites were governed by the factor designated in the current study by "territorial". The differences are to be accounted for both by forms of the Chernobyl fallout and by the natural and climatic conditions determining variations in the availability of radionuclides in the soil. In dry years the (137)Cs concentrations in some mushroom species were higher than in normal years.

  5. Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in Algerian wheat and derived products.

    PubMed

    Riba, Amar; Bouras, Noureddine; Mokrane, Salim; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Sabaou, Nasserdine

    2010-10-01

    Wheat and its derivatives are a very important staple food for North African populations. The aim of this study was to analyze populations of Aspergillus section Flavi from local wheat based on aflatoxins (AFs), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and sclerotia production, and also to evaluate AFs-contaminated wheat collected from two different climatic regions in Algeria. A total of 108 samples of wheat were collected during the following phases: pre-harvest, storage in silos and after processing. The results revealed that among the Aspergillus species isolated, those belonging to section Flavi were predominant. Of the 150 strains of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated, 144 were identified as Aspergillus flavus and 6 as Aspergillus tamarii. We showed that 72% and 10% of the A. flavus strains produced AFs and CPA, respectively. Among the 150 strains tested, 60 produced amounts of AFB1 ranging from 12.1 to 234.6 microg/g of CYA medium. Also, we showed that most strains produced large sclerotia. AFB1was detected by HPLC in 56.6% of the wheat samples and derived products (flour, semolina and bran) with contamination levels ranging from 0.13 to 37.42 microg/kg.

  6. Use of wastes derived from earthquakes for the production of concrete masonry partition wall blocks.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhao; Ling, Tung-Chai; Kou, Shi-Cong; Wang, Qingyuan; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2011-08-01

    Utilization of construction and demolition (C&D) wastes as recycled aggregates in the production of concrete and concrete products have attracted much attention in recent years. However, the presence of large quantities of crushed clay brick in some the C&D waste streams (e.g. waste derived collapsed masonry buildings after an earthquake) renders the recycled aggregates unsuitable for high grade use. One possibility is to make use of the low grade recycled aggregates for concrete block production. In this paper, we report the results of a comprehensive study to assess the feasibility of using crushed clay brick as coarse and fine aggregates in concrete masonry block production. The effects of the content of crushed coarse and fine clay brick aggregates (CBA) on the mechanical properties of non-structural concrete block were quantified. From the experimental test results, it was observed that incorporating the crushed clay brick aggregates had a significant influence on the properties of blocks. The hardened density and drying shrinkage of the block specimens decreased with an increase in CBA content. The use of CBA increased the water absorption of block specimens. The results suggested that the amount of crushed clay brick to be used in concrete masonry blocks should be controlled at less than 25% (coarse aggregate) and within 50-75% for fine aggregates. PMID:21570277

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  8. Low levels of toxic elements in Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmad; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2009-08-01

    Natural muds used as or in cosmetics may expose consumers to toxic metals and elements via absorption through the skin, inhalation of the dried product, or ingestion (by children). Despite the extensive therapeutic and cosmetic use of the Dead Sea muds, there apparently has been no assessment of the levels of such toxic elements as Pb, As, or Cd in the mud and mud-based products. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of eight toxic elements in samples collected from three black mud deposits (Lisan Marl, Pleistocene age) on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea in Jordan revealed no special enrichment of toxic elements in the mud. A similar analysis of 16 different commercial Dead Sea mud cosmetics, including packaged mud, likewise revealed no toxic elements at elevated levels of concern. From a toxic element standpoint, the Dead Sea black muds and derivative products appear to be safe for the consumer. Whatever the therapeutic benefits of the mud, our comparison of the elemental fingerprints of the consumer products with those of the field samples revealed one disturbing aspect: Dead Sea black mud should not be a significant component of such items as hand creams, body lotions, shampoo, and moisturizer.

  9. Use of wastes derived from earthquakes for the production of concrete masonry partition wall blocks.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhao; Ling, Tung-Chai; Kou, Shi-Cong; Wang, Qingyuan; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2011-08-01

    Utilization of construction and demolition (C&D) wastes as recycled aggregates in the production of concrete and concrete products have attracted much attention in recent years. However, the presence of large quantities of crushed clay brick in some the C&D waste streams (e.g. waste derived collapsed masonry buildings after an earthquake) renders the recycled aggregates unsuitable for high grade use. One possibility is to make use of the low grade recycled aggregates for concrete block production. In this paper, we report the results of a comprehensive study to assess the feasibility of using crushed clay brick as coarse and fine aggregates in concrete masonry block production. The effects of the content of crushed coarse and fine clay brick aggregates (CBA) on the mechanical properties of non-structural concrete block were quantified. From the experimental test results, it was observed that incorporating the crushed clay brick aggregates had a significant influence on the properties of blocks. The hardened density and drying shrinkage of the block specimens decreased with an increase in CBA content. The use of CBA increased the water absorption of block specimens. The results suggested that the amount of crushed clay brick to be used in concrete masonry blocks should be controlled at less than 25% (coarse aggregate) and within 50-75% for fine aggregates.

  10. Improving evapotranspiration processes in distrubing hydrological models using Remote Sensing derived ET products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abitew, T. A.; van Griensven, A.; Bauwens, W.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration is the main process in hydrology (on average around 60%), though has not received as much attention in the evaluation and calibration of hydrological models. In this study, Remote Sensing (RS) derived Evapotranspiration (ET) is used to improve the spatially distributed processes of ET of SWAT model application in the upper Mara basin (Kenya) and the Blue Nile basin (Ethiopia). The RS derived ET data is obtained from recently compiled global datasets (continuously monthly data at 1 km resolution from MOD16NBI,SSEBop,ALEXI,CMRSET models) and from regionally applied Energy Balance Models (for several cloud free days). The RS-RT data is used in different forms: Method 1) to evaluate spatially distributed evapotransiration model resultsMethod 2) to calibrate the evotranspiration processes in hydrological modelMethod 3) to bias-correct the evapotranpiration in hydrological model during simulation after changing the SWAT codesAn inter-comparison of the RS-ET products shows that at present there is a significant bias, but at the same time an agreement on the spatial variability of ET. The ensemble mean of different ET products seems the most realistic estimation and was further used in this study.The results show that:Method 1) the spatially mapped evapotranspiration of hydrological models shows clear differences when compared to RS derived evapotranspiration (low correlations). Especially evapotranspiration in forested areas is strongly underestimated compared to other land covers.Method 2) Calibration allows to improve the correlations between the RS and hydrological model results to some extent.Method 3) Bias-corrections are efficient in producing (sesonal or annual) evapotranspiration maps from hydrological models which are very similar to the patterns obtained from RS data.Though the bias-correction is very efficient, it is advised to improve the model results by better representing the ET processes by improved plant/crop computations, improved

  11. Graphite fiber brush anodes for increased power production in air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Logan, Bruce; Cheng, Shaoan; Watson, Valerie; Estadt, Garett

    2007-05-01

    To efficiently generate electricity using bacteria in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), highly conductive noncorrosive materials are needed that have a high specific surface area (surface area per volume) and an open structure to avoid biofouling. Graphite brush anodes, consisting of graphite fibers wound around a conductive, but noncorrosive metal core, were examined for power production in cube (C-MFC) and bottle (B-MFC) air-cathode MFCs. Power production in C-MFCs containing brush electrodes at 9600 m2/m3 reactor volume reached a maximum power density of 2400 mW/m2 (normalized to the cathode projected surface area), or 73 W/m3 based on liquid volume, with a maximum Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 60%. This power density, normalized by cathode projected area, is the highest value yet achieved by an air-cathode system. The increased power resulted from a reduction in internal resistance from 31 to 8 Q. Brush electrodes (4200 m2/m3) were also tested in B-MFCs, consisting of a laboratory media bottle modified to have a single side arm with a cathode clamped to its end. B-MFCs inoculated with wastewater produced up to 1430 mW/m2 (2.3 W/m3, CE = 23%) with brush electrodes, versus 600 mW/m2 with a plain carbon paper electrode. These findings show that brush anodes that have high surface areas and a porous structure can produce high power densities, and therefore have qualities that make them ideal for scaling up MFC systems.

  12. Assessment of air quality at neighbor residences in the vicinity of swine production facilities.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Lee, Joung Ae; Thu, Kendall; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    Air sampling was completed on the front lawn of 35 homes neighboring swine farms in three different regions in the Upper Midwest of the United States. One region was dominated by large scale, swine confined animal feeding operations (CAFO's) noted as swine confinement area (SCA). The second area was dominated by smaller scale operations utilizing hoop structure facilities (HA). The third area was basically devoid of livestock, dominated by row-crop production, and served as the control area (CA). The time weighted average concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (8.42 ppb) was higher (p = 0.047) in SCA area than the control (3.48 ppb). However, carbon dioxide (449.6 ppm), ammonia (12.78 ppb) and PM10 (42.25 microg/m3) were higher in the hoop structure area than the other areas. Swine population density, distance between the homes and swine facilities, and wind direction had an interactive effect on the average levels of ammonia (p = 0.04). The contaminant levels at the homes were relatively low compared to typical concentrations inside animal buildings. However, exceedences of federal recommended limits for hydrogen sulfide in outdoor air were observed in the swine CAFO area. Concentration of hydrogen sulfide exceeded the recommended limits of the ATSDR (30 ppb) for chronic exposure at two of the 12 homes in the CAFO area (17%). Average hydrogen sulfide concentration exceeded the EPA recommended community standards (0.7 ppb) in all three areas assessed (SCA, HA, and CA). As chronic exposure to hydrogen sulfide may be present in areas of production agriculture, a potential health risk may be present. Further studies to provide additional information regarding exposures to hydrogen sulfide in rural environments are warranted. PMID:19274894

  13. Liquid products from oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with different oxygen concentrations of air.

    PubMed

    Shie, J L; Chang, C Y; Lin, J P; Le, D J; Wu, C H

    2001-01-01

    Oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with different oxygen concentrations of air by using a dynamic thermogravimetric (TG) reaction system is investigated. The experimental conditions employed are: gas flow rate of 50 cm3/min (value at 298 K) for 300 mg dry waste, a constant heating rate of 5.2 K/min, the oxygen concentrations in air of 1.09, 8.62 and 20.95 vol. % O2, and the temperature (T) range of 378-873 K. From the experimental results, the residual mass fractions (M) are about 78.95, 28.49, 8.77 and 4.13 wt. % at the oxidative T of 563, 713, 763 and 873 K for the case with 20.95 vol. % O2, respectively. The values of M with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2 at T of 873 K are 4.87 and 9.44 wt. %, respectively. The distillation characteristics of the oil portion of liquid products (condensates of gas at 298 K) from the oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with 20.95 vol. % O2 at T of 378-873 K is close to those of commercial gasoline. Nevertheless, the liquid product contains a large amount of water. The distillation characteristics of the oil portions of liquid products with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2 at T of 378-873 K are close to those of diesel and fuel oils, respectively. The oil quality with 8.62 vol. % O2 is better than that with 1.09 vol. % O2. However, the liquid product with 8.62 vol. % O2 still contains a large amount of water; nonetheless, that with 1.09 vol. % O2 is with negligible water. Compared with the oil product of nitrogen pyrolysis, the oil quality with 1.09 vol. % O2 is better. Certainly, low oxygen conditions (i.e. 1.09 vol. % O2) not only accelerate the thermal reaction of oil sludge, but also at the same time avoid or reduce the production of water. Further, from the analysis of benzene (B), ethylbenzene (E), toluene (T) and iso-xylene (X) concentrations of the oil portion of liquid products, the BETX concentrations of oil with 20.95 vol. % O2 are higher than those with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2. The yields of liquid products with 20.95, 8

  14. The production of myco-diesel hydrocarbons and their derivatives by the endophytic fungus Gliocladium roseum (NRRL 50072).

    PubMed

    Strobel, Gary A; Knighton, Berk; Kluck, Katreena; Ren, Yuhao; Livinghouse, Tom; Griffin, Meghan; Spakowicz, Daniel; Sears, Joe

    2008-11-01

    An endophytic fungus, Gliocladium roseum (NRRL 50072), produced a series of volatile hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives on an oatmeal-based agar under microaerophilic conditions as analysed by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME)-GC/MS. As an example, this organism produced an extensive series of the acetic acid esters of straight-chained alkanes including those of pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, sec-octyl and decyl alcohols. Other hydrocarbons were also produced by this organism, including undecane, 2,6-dimethyl; decane, 3,3,5-trimethyl; cyclohexene, 4-methyl; decane, 3,3,6-trimethyl; and undecane, 4,4-dimethyl. Volatile hydrocarbons were also produced on a cellulose-based medium, including heptane, octane, benzene, and some branched hydrocarbons. An extract of the host plant, Eucryphia cordifolia (ulmo), supported the growth and hydrocarbon production of this fungus. Quantification of volatile organic compounds, as measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), indicated a level of organic substances in the order of 80 p.p.m.v. (parts per million by volume) in the air space above the oatmeal agar medium in an 18 day old culture. Scaling the PTR-MS profile the acetic acid heptyl ester was quantified (at 500 p.p.b.v.) and subsequently the amount of each compound in the GC/MS profile could be estimated; all yielded a total value of about 4.0 p.p.m.v. The hydrocarbon profile of G. roseum contains a number of compounds normally associated with diesel fuel and so the volatiles of this fungus have been dubbed 'myco-diesel'. Extraction of liquid cultures of the fungus revealed the presence of numerous fatty acids and other lipids. All of these findings have implications in energy production and utilization. PMID:18957585

  15. Determination of aflatoxins in air samples of refuse-derived fuel by thin-layer chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence spectrometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bicking, M.K.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Svec, H.J.

    1983-02-01

    An analytical method is described which allows determination of aflatoxins in a complex matrix. An apparatus has been developed that quantitates fluorescent compounds on thin-layer chromatography plates. A nitrogen laser excitation source produces a detection limit of 10 pg for four aflatoxins. Aflatoxin B1 has been found at levels up to 17 ppb in solid samples collected from the air at a plant which produces refuse-derived fuel. 7 figures, 1 table.

  16. Assessment of Air Emissions at the U S Liquids Exploration and Production Land Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pardue; K.T. Valsaraj

    2000-12-01

    This project was initiated to make the first set of measurements documenting the potential for emissions of pollutants from exploration and production (E&P) waste disposal facilities at Bourg, Louisiana and Bateman Island, Louisiana. The objective of the project was to quantify the emissions and to determine whether the measured emissions were potentially harmful to human health of workers and the adjacent community. The study, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) is designed to complement additional studies funded by Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (LADNR) and the American Petroleum Institute. The distinguishing feature of this study is that actual, independent field measurements of emissions were used to assess the potential problems of this disposal technology. Initial measurements were made at the Bourg, LA facility, adjacent to the community of Grand Bois in late 1998-early 1999. Emission measurements were performed using aluminum chambers placed over the surface of the landfarm cells. Air was pulled through the chambers and the concentration of the contaminants in the air exiting the chambers was measured. The contaminants of interest were the ''BTEX'' compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), commonly found in E&P wastes and hydrogen sulfide, a noxious gas present naturally in many E&P wastes and crude oils. Measurements indicated that emissions were measurable using the techniques developed for the study. However, when the air concentrations of these contaminants that developed above the landfarm cells were compared with standards for workers from the Occupational and Safety and Health Association (''OSHA'') and for communities (Louisiana's ambient air standards), levels were not of concern. Since amounts of wastes being processed by the Bourg facility were considerably lower than normal, a decision was made to continue the study at the Bateman Island facility near Morgan City, LA. This facility was receiving more normal loadings

  17. Tautomeric equilibria in phenolic A-ring derivatives of prodigiosin natural products.

    PubMed

    La, Jamie Q-H; Michaelides, Alex A; Manderville, Richard A

    2007-10-11

    The prodigiosin natural products contain a common 4-methoxy-pyrromethene chromophore that is attached to a pyrrole A-ring that has its lone-pair nitrogen electrons in conjugation with the pyrromethene entity. This feature is known to play a key role in the biological activities (anticancer, antimicrobial, and immunosuppressive) of the prodigiosins. In an attempt to alter or improve upon the therapeutic potential of the prodigiosins, we have synthesized two new isomeric analogues that contain phenolic A-ring systems (a para (p)-phenol; an ortho (o)-phenol with respect to the pyrromethene) with lone-pair oxygen electrons in conjugation with the pyrromethene chromophore of the natural product. Herein, we report on the optical properties of the phenolic prodigiosin analogues that have been measured using absorbance and steady-state emission spectroscopy. For both analogues absorption measurements in aprotic solvents show that the neutral (L) ligands exist as the enol tautomers with lambda(max) ~ 460 nm, as noted for the parent prodigiosin natural product. However, in polar protic solvents the phenolic derivatives undergo ground-state prototropic tautomerization to generate keto tautomers with lambda(max) ~ 530 nm. This unique feature for a prodigiosin analogue involves proton transfer from the phenolic OH to the pyrromethene N1 proton acceptor atom. Tautomeric equilibrium constants (KT) of 1.4 in 1:4 MeCN/H2O (v/v) have been determined from examination of the absorption spectra. Titration of the o-phenolic derivative with Zn(II) in methanol yielded a 40-fold increase in fluorescence intensity (lambda(max) 542 nm) and generated a new 1:1 complex with Zn(II) with a log K of 5.29, suggesting the potential utility of this analogue to act as a fluorescence probe in a biological matrix to monitor Zn(II) concentrations. Our results demonstrate that phenolic A-ring derivatives of prodigiosins possess some unique properties that may act to enhance the biological properties of

  18. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  19. Validating long-term satellite-derived disturbance products: the case of burned areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. A number of NASA, ESA and EU funded global and continental burned area products have been developed using coarse spatial resolution satellite data, and have the potential to become part of a long-term fire Climate Data Record. These products have usually been validated by comparison with reference burned area maps derived by visual interpretation of Landsat or similar spatial resolution data selected on an ad hoc basis. More optimally, a design-based validation method should be adopted that is characterized by the selection of reference data via a probability sampling that can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics, taking into account the sampling probability. Design based techniques have been used for annual land cover and land cover change product validation, but have not been widely used for burned area products, or for the validation of global products that are highly variable in time and space (e.g. snow, floods or other non-permanent phenomena). This has been due to the challenge of designing an appropriate sampling strategy, and to the cost of collecting independent reference data. We propose a tri-dimensional sampling grid that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in time and in space. To sample the globe in the spatial domain with non-overlapping sampling units, the Thiessen Scene Area (TSA) tessellation of the Landsat WRS path/rows is used. The TSA grid is then combined with the 16-day Landsat acquisition calendar to provide tri-dimensonal elements (voxels). This allows the implementation of a sampling design where not only the location but also the time interval of the reference data is explicitly drawn by probability sampling. The proposed sampling design is a stratified random sampling, with two-level stratification of the voxels based on biomes and fire activity (Figure 1). The novel

  20. Danger signal-dependent activation of human dendritic cells by plasma-derived factor VIII products.

    PubMed

    Miller, L; Weissmüller, S; Ringler, E; Crauwels, P; van Zandbergen, G; Seitz, R; Waibler, Z

    2015-08-01

    Treatment of haemophilia A by infusions of the clotting factor VIII (FVIII) results in the development of inhibitors/anti-drug antibodies in up to 25 % of patients. Mechanisms leading to immunogenicity of FVIII products are not yet fully understood. Amongst other factors, danger signals as elicited upon infection or surgery have been proposed to play a role. In the present study, we focused on effects of danger signals on maturation and activation of dendritic cells (DC) in the context of FVIII application. Human monocyte-derived DC were treated with FVIII alone, with a danger signal alone or a combination of both. By testing more than 60 different healthy donors, we show that FVIII and the bacterial danger signal lipopolysaccharide synergise in increasing DC activation, as characterised by increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The degree and frequency of this synergistic activation correlate with CD86 expression levels on immature DC prior to stimulation. In our assay system, plasma-derived but not recombinant FVIII products activate human DC in a danger signal-dependent manner. Further tested danger signals, such as R848 also induced DC activation in combination with FVIII, albeit not in every tested donor. In our hands, human DC but not human B cells or macrophages could be activated by FVIII in a danger signal-dependent manner. Our results suggest that immunogenicity of FVIII is a result of multiple factors including the presence of danger, predisposition of the patient, and the choice of a FVIII product for treatment.

  1. A study on production of biodiesel using a novel solid oxide catalyst derived from waste.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Samrat; Ray, Srimanta

    2016-05-01

    The issues of energy security, dwindling supply and inflating price of fossil fuel have shifted the global focus towards fuel of renewable origin. Biodiesel, having renewable origin, has exhibited great potential as substitute for fossil fuels. The most common route of biodiesel production is through transesterification of vegetable oil in presence of homogeneous acid or base or solid oxide catalyst. But, the economics of biodiesel is not competitive with respect to fossil fuel due to high cost of production. The vegetable oil waste is a potential alternative for biodiesel production, particularly when disposal of used vegetable oil has been restricted in several countries. The present study evaluates the efficacy of a low-cost solid oxide catalyst derived from eggshell (a food waste) in transesterification of vegetable oil and simulated waste vegetable oil (SWVO). The impact of thermal treatment of vegetable oil (to simulate frying operation) on transesterification using eggshell-derived solid oxide catalyst (ESSO catalyst) was also evaluated along with the effect of varying reaction parameters. The study reported that around 90 % biodiesel yield was obtained with vegetable oil at methanol/oil molar ratio of 18:1 in 3 h reaction time using 10 % ESSO catalyst. The biodiesel produced with ESSO catalyst from SWVO, thermally treated at 150 °C for 24 h, was found to conform with the biodiesel standard, but the yield was 5 % lower compared to that of the untreated oil. The utilization of waste vegetable oil along with waste eggshell as catalyst is significant for improving the overall economics of the biodiesel in the current market. The utilization of waste for societal benefit with the essence of sustainable development is the novelty of this work.

  2. Safety assessment on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and their derivatives as used in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Fruijtier-Pölloth, Claudia

    2005-10-15

    This assessment focusses on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and on anionic or nonionic PEG derivatives, which are currently used in cosmetics in Europe. These compounds are used in a great variety of cosmetic applications because of their solubility and viscosity properties, and because of their low toxicity. The PEGs, their ethers, and their fatty acid esters produce little or no ocular or dermal irritation and have extremely low acute and chronic toxicities. They do not readily penetrate intact skin, and in view of the wide use of preparations containing PEG and PEG derivatives, only few case reports on sensitisation reactions have been published, mainly involving patients with exposure to PEGs in medicines or following exposure to injured or chronically inflamed skin. On healthy skin, the sensitising potential of these compounds appears to be negligible. For some representative substances of this class, information was available on reproductive and developmental toxicity, on genotoxicty and carcinogenic properties. Taking into consideration all available information from related compounds, as well as the mode and mechanism of action, no safety concern with regard to these endpoints could be identified. Based on the available data it is therefore concluded that PEGs of a wide molecular weight range (200 to over 10,000), their ethers (laureths. ceteths, ceteareths, steareths, and oleths), and fatty acid esters (laurates, dilaurates, stearates, distearates) are safe for use in cosmetics. Limited data were available for PEG sorbitan/sorbitol fatty acid esters, PEG sorbitan beeswax and PEG soy sterols. Taking into account all the information available for closely related compounds, it can be assumed that these compounds as presently used in cosmetic preparations will not present a risk for human health. PEG castor oils and PEG hydrogenated castor oils have caused anaphylactic reactions when used in intravenous medicinal products. Their topical use in cosmetics is

  3. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds During Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults produced syllable trains of /pΛ/ using a mouthpiece coupled to a computer-controlled perturbator. The device randomly created bleed apertures that ranged from 0 to 40 mm2 during production of the 2nd or 4th syllable of an utterance. Although peak oral air pressure dropped in a linear manner across bleed apertures, it averaged 2 to 3 cm H2O at the largest bleed. While slope of oral pressure also decreased in a linear trend, duration of the oral pressure pulse remained relatively constant. The patterns suggest that respiratory reflexes, if present, have little effect on oral air pressure levels. In Study 2, both oral and subglottal air pressure responses were monitored in 2 adults while bleed apertures of 20 and 40 mm2 were randomly created. For 1 participant, peak oral air pressure dropped across bleed apertures, as in Study 1. Subglottal air pressure and slope, however, remained relatively stable. These patterns provide some support for the occurrence of respiratory reflexes to regulate subglottal air pressure. Overall, the studies indicate that the inherent physiologic processes of the respiratory system, which may involve reflexes, and passive aeromechanical resistance of the upper airway are capable of developing oral air pressure in the face of substantial pressure bleeds. Implications for understanding speech production and the characteristics of individuals with velopharyngeal dysfunction are discussed. PMID:15324286

  4. Air pressure responses to sudden vocal tract pressure bleeds during production of stop consonants: new evidence of aeromechanical regulation.

    PubMed

    Zajac, David J; Weissler, Mark C

    2004-08-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults produced syllable trains of "puh" using a mouthpiece coupled to a computer-controlled perturbator. The device randomly created bleed apertures that ranged from 0 to 40 mm2 during production of the 2nd or 4th syllable of an utterance. Although peak oral air pressure dropped in a linear manner across bleed apertures, it averaged 2 to 3 cm H2O at the largest bleed. While slope of oral pressure also decreased in a linear trend, duration of the oral pressure pulse remained relatively constant. The patterns suggest that respiratory reflexes, if present, have little effect on oral air pressure levels. In Study 2, both oral and subglottal air pressure responses were monitored in 2 adults while bleed apertures of 20 and 40 mm2 were randomly created. For 1 participant, peak oral air pressure dropped across bleed apertures, as in Study 1. Subglottal air pressure and slope, however, remained relatively stable. These patterns provide some support for the occurrence of respiratory reflexes to regulate subglottal air pressure. Overall, the studies indicate that the inherent physiologic processes of the respiratory system, which may involve reflexes, and passive aeromechanical resistance of the upper airway are capable of developing oral air pressure in the face of substantial pressure bleeds. Implications for understanding speech production and the characteristics of individuals with velopharyngeal dysfunction are discussed.

  5. Estimating crop net primary production using inventory data and MODIS-derived parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; West, Tristram O.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2013-06-03

    National estimates of spatially-resolved cropland net primary production (NPP) are needed for diagnostic and prognostic modeling of carbon sources, sinks, and net carbon flux. Cropland NPP estimates that correspond with existing cropland cover maps are needed to drive biogeochemical models at the local scale and over national and continental extents. Existing satellite-based NPP products tend to underestimate NPP on croplands. A new Agricultural Inventory-based Light Use Efficiency (AgI-LUE) framework was developed to estimate individual crop biophysical parameters for use in estimating crop-specific NPP. The method is documented here and evaluated for corn and soybean crops in Iowa and Illinois in years 2006 and 2007. The method includes a crop-specific enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), shortwave radiation data estimated using Mountain Climate Simulator (MTCLIM) algorithm and crop-specific LUE per county. The combined aforementioned variables were used to generate spatially-resolved, crop-specific NPP that correspond to the Cropland Data Layer (CDL) land cover product. The modeling framework represented well the gradient of NPP across Iowa and Illinois, and also well represented the difference in NPP between years 2006 and 2007. Average corn and soybean NPP from AgI-LUE was 980 g C m-2 yr-1 and 420 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively. This was 2.4 and 1.1 times higher, respectively, for corn and soybean compared to the MOD17A3 NPP product. Estimated gross primary productivity (GPP) derived from AgI-LUE were in close agreement with eddy flux tower estimates. The combination of new inputs and improved datasets enabled the development of spatially explicit and reliable NPP estimates for individual crops over large regional extents.

  6. Using Social Media and Mobile Devices to Discover and Share Disaster Data Products Derived From Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Daniel; Cappelaere, Patrice; Frye, Stuart; Evans, John; Moe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Data products derived from Earth observing satellites are difficult to find and share without specialized software and often times a highly paid and specialized staff. For our research effort, we endeavored to prototype a distributed architecture that depends on a standardized communication protocol and applications program interface (API) that makes it easy for anyone to discover and access disaster related data. Providers can easily supply the public with their disaster related products by building an adapter for our API. Users can use the API to browse and find products that relate to the disaster at hand, without a centralized catalogue, for example floods, and then are able to share that data via social media. Furthermore, a longerterm goal for this architecture is to enable other users who see the shared disaster product to be able to generate the same product for other areas of interest via simple point and click actions on the API on their mobile device. Furthermore, the user will be able to edit the data with on the ground local observations and return the updated information to the original repository of this information if configured for this function. This architecture leverages SensorWeb functionality [1] presented at previous IGARSS conferences. The architecture is divided into two pieces, the frontend, which is the GeoSocial API, and the backend, which is a standardized disaster node that knows how to talk to other disaster nodes, and also can communicate with the GeoSocial API. The GeoSocial API, along with the disaster node basic functionality enables crowdsourcing and thus can leverage insitu observations by people external to a group to perform tasks such as improving water reference maps, which are maps of existing water before floods. This can lower the cost of generating precision water maps. Keywords-Data Discovery, Disaster Decision Support, Disaster Management, Interoperability, CEOS WGISS Disaster Architecture

  7. Production of geopolymers using glass produced from DC plasma treatment of air pollution control (APC) residues.

    PubMed

    Kourti, Ioanna; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D; Boccaccini, A R; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-04-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues are the hazardous waste produced from cleaning gaseous emissions at energy-from-waste (EfW) facilities processing municipal solid waste (MSW). APC residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium alumino-silicate glass. This research has investigated the optimisation and properties of geopolymers prepared from this glass. Work has shown that high strength geopolymers can be formed and that the NaOH concentration of the activating solution significantly affects the properties. The broad particle size distribution of the APC residue glass used in these experiments results in a microstructure that contains unreacted glass particles included within a geopolymer binder phase. The high calcium content of APC residues may cause the formation of some amorphous calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. A mix prepared with S/L=3.4, Si/Al=2.6 and [NaOH]=6M in the activating solution, produced high strength geopolymers with compressive strengths of approximately 130 MPa. This material had high density (2070 kg/m(3)) and low porosity. The research demonstrates for the first time that glass derived from DC plasma treatment of APC residues can be used to form high strength geopolymer-glass composites that have potential for use in a range of applications.

  8. Pseudomonas-derived ceramidase induces production of inflammatory mediators from human keratinocytes via sphingosine-1-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Ami; Nakayama, Hitoshi; Okino, Nozomu; Iwahara, Chihiro; Kina, Katsunari; Matsumoto, Ryo; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji; Ito, Makoto; Suga, Yasushi; Iwabuchi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Ceramide is important for water retention and permeability barrier functions in the stratum corneum, and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). A Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived neutral ceramidase (PaCDase) isolated from a patient with AD was shown to effectively degrade ceramide in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipids or neutral detergents. However, the effect of ceramide metabolites on the functions of differentiating keratinocytes is poorly understood. We found that the ceramide metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) stimulated the production of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and IL-8 from three-dimensionally cultured human primary keratinocytes (termed "3D keratinocytes"), which form a stratum corneum. PaCDase alone did not affect TNF-α gene expression in 3D keratinocytes. In the presence of the detergent Triton X-100, which damages stratum corneum structure, PaCDase, but not heat-inactivated PaCDase or PaCDase-inactive mutant, induced the production of TNF-α, endothelin-1, and IL-8, indicating that this production was dependent on ceramidase activity. Among various ceramide metabolites, sphingosine and S1P enhanced the gene expression of TNF-α, endothelin-1, and IL-8. The PaCDase-enhanced expression of these genes was inhibited by a sphingosine kinase inhibitor and by an S1P receptor antagonist VPC 23019. The TNF-α-binding antibody infliximab suppressed the PaCDase-induced upregulation of IL-8, but not TNF-α, mRNA. PaCDase induced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation. The NF-κB inhibitor curcumin significantly inhibited PaCDase-induced expression of IL-8 and endothelin-1. VPC 23019 and infliximab inhibited PaCDase-induced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and reduction in the protein level of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα. Collectively, these findings suggest that (i) 3D keratinocytes produce S1P from sphingosine, which is produced through the hydrolysis of ceramide by PaCDase, (ii) S1P induces the production of TNF-α via S

  9. Production of fumaric acid from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Rhizopus arrhizus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuqing; Nie, Kaili; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shihong; Wang, Meng; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-07-01

    This work investigated the capability of Rhizopus arrhizus to assimilate biodiesel-derived crude glycerol and convert it into fumaric acid. After optimizing the initial glycerol concentration, spore inoculum and yeast extract concentration, smaller pellets (0.7 mm) and higher biomass (3.11 g/L) were obtained when R. arrhizus grew on crude glycerol. It was found that crude glycerol was more suitable than glucose for smaller R. arrhizus pellet forming. When 80 g/L crude glycerol was used as carbon source, the fumaric acid production of 4.37 g/L was obtained at 192 h. With a highest concentration of 22.81 g/L achieved in the co-fermentation of crude glycerol (40 g/L) and glucose (40 g/L) at 144 h, the fumaric acid production was enhanced by 553.6%, compared to the fermentation using glycerol (80 g/L) as sole carbon source. Moreover, the production cost of fumaric acid in co-fermentation was reduced by approximately 14% compared to glucose fermentation. PMID:24787316

  10. Screening and production of ligninolytic enzyme by a marine-derived fungal Pestalotiopsis sp. J63.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Ying; Xue, Dong-Sheng; Feng, Xiao-Yu; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2011-12-01

    Marine-derived fungi are prone to produce structurally unique secondary metabolites, a considerable number of which display the promising biological properties and/or industrial applications. Among those, ligninolytic enzymes have attracted great interest in recent years. In this work, about 20 strains were isolated from sea mud samples collected in the East China Sea and then screened for their capacity to produce lignin-degrading enzymes. The results showed that a strain, named J63, had a great potential to secrete a considerable amount of laccase. Using molecular method, it was identified as an endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis sp. which was rarely reported as ligninolytic enzyme producer in the literature. The production of laccase by Pestalotiopsis sp. J63 was investigated under submerged fermentation (SF) and solid state fermentation (SSF) with various lignocellulosic by-products as substrates. The SSF of rice straw powder accumulated the highest level of laccase activity (10,700 IU/g substrate), whereas the SF of untreated sugarcane bagasse provided the maximum amount of laccase activity (2,000 IU/ml). The value was far higher than those reported by other reports. In addition, it produced 0.11 U/ml cellulase when alkaline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was used as growth substrate under SF. Meanwhile, the growth of fungi and laccase production under different salinity conditions were also studied. It appeared to be a moderately halo-tolerant organism. PMID:21947763

  11. Advances in Biochemistry and Microbial Production of Squalene and Its Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Gopal Prasad; Thuan, Nguyen Huy; Koirala, Niranjan; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Squalene is a linear triterpene formed via the MVA or MEP biosynthetic pathway and is widely distributed in bacteria, fungi, algae, plants, and animals. Metabolically, squalene is used not only as a precursor in the synthesis of complex secondary metabolites such as sterols, hormones, and vitamins, but also as a carbon source in aerobic and anaerobic fermentation in microorganisms. Owing to the increasing roles of squalene as an antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory agent, the demand for this chemical is highly urgent. As a result, with the exception of traditional methods of the isolation of squalene from animals (shark liver oil) and plants, biotechnological methods using microorganisms as producers have afforded increased yield and productivity, but a reduction in progress. In this paper, we first review the biosynthetic routes of squalene and its typical derivatives, particularly the squalene synthase route. Second, typical biotechnological methods for the enhanced production of squalene using microbial cell factories are summarized and classified. Finally, the outline and discussion of the novel trend in the production of squalene with several updated events to 2015 are presented. PMID:26643964

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  13. Compressed Air System Optimization Improves Production and saves energy at a Satellite Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    In 2001, a compressed air improvement project was implemented following an audit on the compressed air system at Boeing Satellite Systems (formerly Hughes Space & Communications Company) in Los Angeles, California.

  14. Phenol production in benzene/air plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Role of radical and ionic routes.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Daniela; Franceschi, Pietro; Guella, Graziano; Tosi, Paolo

    2006-06-29

    Benzene can be efficiently converted into phenol when it is treated by either corona or dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas operating at atmospheric pressure in air or mixtures of N(2) and O(2). Phenol produced by corona discharge in an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (APCI) has been detected as the corresponding radical cation C(6)H(5)OH(+*) at m/z 94 by an ion trap mass spectrometer. On the other hand, phenol has been observed also as neutral product by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS) after treatment in a DBD plasma. Experiments aimed at shading light on the elementary processes responsible for benzene oxidation were carried out (i) by changing the composition of the gas in the corona discharge source; (ii) by using isotopically labeled reagents; and (iii) by investigating some relevant ion-molecule reactions (i.e. C(6)H(6)(+*) + O(2), C(6)H(5)(+) + O(2)) via selected guided ion beam measurements and with the help of ab initio calculations. The results of our approach show that ionic mechanisms do not play a significant role in phenol production, which can be better explained by radical reactions resulting in oxygen addition to the benzene ring followed by 1,2 H transfer.

  15. Xanthan production on polyurethane foam and its enhancement by air pressure pulsation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-guo; Chen, Hong-zhang

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of solid-state fermentation (SSF) on polyurethane foam (PUF) for xanthan production. The effects of air pressure pulsation (APP) on biomass accumulation and final xanthan concentration were also studied. Under suitable conditions (15% inoculum, 0.5-cm (side length) PUF cubes, 15 mL medium per gram cubes and 4.5 cm bed depth), the broth was dispersed on the PUF as a film. When the initial glucose concentration in the media was low (20 and 40 g L⁻¹), there was no significant difference between the final xanthan concentration in static SSF and submerged fermentation (SMF). When high initial glucose concentrations (60 and 80 g L⁻¹) were used, the final gum concentrations in SSF were much higher than those in SMF. When the APP technique was applied in xanthan production with a medium containing a high glucose concentration (80 g L⁻¹), the oxygen consumption rate of Xanthomonas campestris was significantly enhanced at the later stages of fermentation, and both the biomass and xanthan concentration were improved. The results indicated that SSF on PUF is suitable for xanthan preparation, especially when the initial glucose concentration ranged from 60 to 80 g L⁻¹. Those results also demonstrated that APP technology can be used to enhance xanthan yields.

  16. Non-contact evaluation of milk-based products using air-coupled ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, S.; Hindle, S. A.; Sandoz, J.-P.; Gan, T. H.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2006-07-01

    An air-coupled ultrasonic technique has been developed and used to detect physicochemical changes of liquid beverages within a glass container. This made use of two wide-bandwidth capacitive transducers, combined with pulse-compression techniques. The use of a glass container to house samples enabled visual inspection, helping to verify the results of some of the ultrasonic measurements. The non-contact pulse-compression system was used to evaluate agglomeration processes in milk-based products. It is shown that the amplitude of the signal varied with time after the samples had been treated with lactic acid, thus promoting sample destabilization. Non-contact imaging was also performed to follow destabilization of samples by scanning in various directions across the container. The obtained ultrasonic images were also compared to those from a digital camera. Coagulation with glucono-delta-lactone of skim milk poured into this container could be monitored within a precision of a pH of 0.15. This rapid, non-contact and non-destructive technique has shown itself to be a feasible method for investigating the quality of milk-based beverages, and possibly other food products.

  17. In situ production of bacterial branched tetraether lipids in the lower Yangtze River: Implications for soil-derived pH and temperature proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Li, C.; Yang, S.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Large rivers play a major role in transporting terrestrial material to the ocean and deposits on continental margins can serve as archives for paleo continental climate studies. Branched glycerol diakly glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are predominantly found in soil, which can serve as proxies for paleo continental air temperature and paleo soil pH. Recently, however, in situ production of bGDGTs in aquatic systems has been observed. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether bGDGTs are produced in situ in the lower Yangtze River and how this in situ production might affect the temperature and pH proxies derived from the soil bGDGTs. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected at three depth locations (left, central, right) of the river (<0.5 m depth) on a biweekly basis between December 2010 and July 2011 at the Datong hydrological station, which is about 600 km upstream of the Yangtze River mouth. Branched GDGTs from the SPM were extracted as core lipids (C-bGDGTs representing fossil lipids from soil)- and polar lipids (P-bGDGTs representing in situ production of lipids in the river water) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our results showed that P-bGDGTs account for 4.2-10.6% of total bGDGTs. The flux of P-bGDGTs remained relatively constant in winter (December-January) and summer (June and July) (2.47-5.29 g/day) with higher values (12.39-14.67 g/day) occurred in April and May; whereas the flux of C-bGDGTs increased steady from January (19.21 g/day) to May (175 g/day) followed by an decrease to 122.15 g/day in July. The C- and P-bGDGT derived proxies showed large differences in mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and pH. Comparison with soil samples collected at the Datong station indicates that the C-bGDGTs in the river water reflected the MAAT and soil pH of the region whereas the P-bGDGT-derived values did not. These results suggest that there may be a constant portion of in situ production of bGDGTs in the lower Yangtze River. That

  18. Evaluation of composition and performance of composts derived from guacamole production residues.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, J Jorge; Galea, Zesay; Alvarez, José M; Hormaza, J Iñaki; López, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    fruit by-products derived from guacamole and avocado oil processing.

  19. Evaluation of composition and performance of composts derived from guacamole production residues.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, J Jorge; Galea, Zesay; Alvarez, José M; Hormaza, J Iñaki; López, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    fruit by-products derived from guacamole and avocado oil processing. PMID:25265553

  20. Controlling bacterial behavior with indole-containing natural products and derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Melander, Roberta J.; Minvielle, Marine J.; Melander, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Indole has recently been implicated as an important small molecule signal utilized by many bacteria to coordinate various forms of behavior. Indole plays a role in numerous bacterial processes, including: biofilm formation and maintenance, virulence factor production, antibiotic resistance and persister cell formation. Intercepting indole-signaling pathways with appropriately designed small molecules provides a n opportunity to control unwanted bacterial behaviors, and is an attractive anti-virulence therapeutic strategy. In this review, we give an overview of the process controlled by indole signaling, and summarize current efforts to design indole-containing small molecules to intercept these pathways, and detail the synthetic efforts towards accessing indole derived bioactive small molecules. PMID:25267859

  1. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of phenylpyruvate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang Ping; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Jian; Ding, Zhong Yang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2015-11-01

    Phenylpyruvate derivatives (PPD), such as phenylpropanoids, DL-phenylglycine, dl-phenylalanine, and styrene, are biosynthesized using phenylpyruvate as the precursor. They are widely used in human health and nutrition products. Recently, metabolic engineering provides effective strategies to develop PPD producers. Based on phenylpyruvate-producing chassis, genetically defined PPD producers have been successfully constructed. In this work, the most recent information on genetics and on the molecular mechanisms regulating phenylpyruvate synthesis pathways in Escherichia coli are summarized, and the engineering strategies to construct the PPD producers are also discussed. The enzymes and pathways are proposed for PPD-producer constructions, and potential difficulties in strain construction are also identified and discussed. With respect to recent advances in synthetic biology, future strategies to construct efficiently producers are discussed.

  2. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the second report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1--March 31, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) Internal and external evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel; (2) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation; (3) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor; (4) Steam reformation of Coal Based Methanol; and (5) Initial catalyst degradation studies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  3. Ectoine production from lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars by engineered Halomonas elongata.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Kosuke; Nakayama, Hideki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the water-retaining cyclic amino acid ectoine was produced from a variety of sugars, including glucose, xylose, cellobiose, and glucose/xylose mixture using engineered Halomonas elongata. When grown on xylose as the sole carbon source, H. elongata produced 333 mmol/kg fresh cell weight (FW) of ectoine, which was 1.4-fold higher than that produced from glucose. To improve ectoine production, an ectD deficient H. elongata mutant was constructed. The engineered H. elongata produced 377 mmol/kg FW of ectoine from a glucose/xylose mixture. Ectoine was also produced from rice straw hydrolysate. These results show that H. elongata can produce ectoine from a variety of sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass and thus has tremendous potential as a host for producing useful compounds from biomass resources.

  4. Electron-beam stimulation of the reactivity of cellulose pulps for production of derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iller, Edward; Kukiełka, Aleksandra; Stupińska, Halina; Mikołajczyk, Włodzimierz

    2002-03-01

    New alternative technologies for manufacture of cellulose fibers are currently under development. The effect of electron beam irradiation on various types of cellulose pulps have been studied in order to improve the reactivity of raw material for production of cellulose derivatives. Three different types of textile pulps, Alicell (Canada), Borregaard (Norwegian), Ketchikan (USA) and Kraft softwood as well as Kraft hardwood pulps, have been irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam from LAE 13/g linear accelerator with dose 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50 kGy. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were applied for determination of structural changes in irradiated pulps. Such parameters as viscosity, average degree of polymerization and α-cellulose contents were determinated by means of analytical methods. Results of there investigations are presented and discussed.

  5. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of phenylpyruvate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang Ping; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Jian; Ding, Zhong Yang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2015-11-01

    Phenylpyruvate derivatives (PPD), such as phenylpropanoids, DL-phenylglycine, dl-phenylalanine, and styrene, are biosynthesized using phenylpyruvate as the precursor. They are widely used in human health and nutrition products. Recently, metabolic engineering provides effective strategies to develop PPD producers. Based on phenylpyruvate-producing chassis, genetically defined PPD producers have been successfully constructed. In this work, the most recent information on genetics and on the molecular mechanisms regulating phenylpyruvate synthesis pathways in Escherichia coli are summarized, and the engineering strategies to construct the PPD producers are also discussed. The enzymes and pathways are proposed for PPD-producer constructions, and potential difficulties in strain construction are also identified and discussed. With respect to recent advances in synthetic biology, future strategies to construct efficiently producers are discussed. PMID:26386181

  6. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being

  7. Simulated distillation of petroleum and coal-derived products by packed capillary supercritical fluid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, M.; Johnson, B.R.; Mitchell, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The advantages of simulated distillation (SD) of petroleum compounds by super-critical fluid chromatography (SFC) over high temperature gas chromatography (HTGC) are well recognised. Most of the research performed using this technique has employed conventional open tubular columns but the use of packed capillary columns which offer high sample capacities, greater efficiency of separation and a shorter analysis time has recently received much attention. Previous work at Leeds using a variety of column packings (C{sub 1}-C{sub 18} alkyl groups bonded to silica) has demonstrated that high molecular weight hydrocarbons with boiling points up to 800{degrees}C can be successfully eluted with pure CO{sub 2} as a mobile phase. However, the high compositional variability of coal-derived samples increases the difficulty of SD-SFC of coal fractions as compared to petroleum derived fractions. In this study, a number of coal samples have been investigated to determine the suitability of packed capillary SD-SFC for heavy coal products.

  8. Net community production in the North Atlantic Ocean derived from Volunteer Observing Ship data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostle, Clare; Johnson, Martin; Landschützer, Peter; Schuster, Ute; Hartman, Susan; Hull, Tom; Robinson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of marine plankton net community production (NCP) is indicative of both the biologically driven exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the surface ocean and the export of organic carbon from the surface ocean to the ocean interior. In this study the seasonal variability in the NCP of five biogeochemical regions in the North Atlantic was determined from measurements of surface water dissolved oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) sampled from a Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS). The magnitude of NCP derived from dissolved oxygen measurements (NCPO2) was consistent with previous geochemical estimates of NCP in the North Atlantic, with an average annual NCPO2 of 9.5 ± 6.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. Annual NCPO2 did not vary significantly over 35° of latitude and was not significantly different from NCP derived from DIC measurements (NCPDIC). The relatively simple method described here is applicable to any VOS route on which surface water dissolved oxygen concentrations can be accurately measured, thus providing estimates of NCP at higher spatial and temporal resolution than currently achieved.

  9. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-09-30

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  10. Deriving in situ phytoplankton absorption for bio-optical productivity models in turbid waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Matthew J.; Schofield, Oscar; Bergmann, Trisha; Glenn, Scott; Orrico, Cristina; Moline, Mark

    2004-07-01

    As part of Hyperspectral Coupled Ocean Dynamics Experiment, a high-resolution hydrographic and bio-optical data set was collected from two cabled profilers at the Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO). Upwelling- and downwelling-favorable winds and a buoyant plume from the Hudson River induced large changes in hydrographic and optical structure of the water column. An absorption inversion model estimated the relative abundance of phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and detritus, as well as the spectral exponential slopes of CDOM and detritus from in situ WET Labs nine-wavelength absorption/attenuation meter (ac-9) absorption data. Derived optical weights were proportional to the parameter concentrations and allowed for their absorptions to be calculated. Spectrally weighted phytoplankton absorption was estimated using modeled spectral irradiances and the phytoplankton absorption spectra inverted from an ac-9. Derived mean spectral absorption of phytoplankton was used in a bio-optical model estimating photosynthetic rates. Measured radiocarbon uptake productivity rates extrapolated with water mass analysis and the bio-optical modeled results agreed within 20%. This approach is impacted by variability in the maximum quantum yield (ϕmax) and the irradiance light-saturation parameter (Ek(PAR)). An analysis of available data shows that ϕmax variability is relatively constrained in temperate waters. The variability of Ek(PAR) is greater in temperate waters, but based on a sensitivity analysis, has an overall smaller impact on water-column-integrated productivity rates because of the exponential decay of light. This inversion approach illustrates the utility of bio-optical models in turbid coastal waters given the measurements of the bulk inherent optical properties.

  11. Estimating crop net primary production using national inventory data and MODIS-derived parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; West, Tristram O.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; César Izaurralde, R.

    2013-06-01

    National estimates of spatially-resolved cropland net primary production (NPP) are needed for diagnostic and prognostic modeling of carbon sources, sinks, and net carbon flux between land and atmosphere. Cropland NPP estimates that correspond with existing cropland cover maps are needed to drive biogeochemical models at the local scale as well as national and continental scales. Existing satellite-based NPP products tend to underestimate NPP on croplands. An Agricultural Inventory-based Light Use Efficiency (AgI-LUE) framework was developed to estimate individual crop biophysical parameters for use in estimating crop-specific NPP over large multi-state regions. The method is documented here and evaluated for corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in Iowa and Illinois in 2006 and 2007. The method includes a crop-specific Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), shortwave radiation data estimated using the Mountain Climate Simulator (MTCLIM) algorithm, and crop-specific LUE per county. The combined aforementioned variables were used to generate spatially-resolved, crop-specific NPP that corresponds to the Cropland Data Layer (CDL) land cover product. Results from the modeling framework captured the spatial NPP gradient across croplands of Iowa and Illinois, and also represented the difference in NPP between years 2006 and 2007. Average corn and soybean NPP from AgI-LUE was 917 g C m-2 yr-1 and 409 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively. This was 2.4 and 1.1 times higher, respectively, for corn and soybean compared to the MOD17A3 NPP product. Site comparisons with flux tower data show AgI-LUE NPP in close agreement with tower-derived NPP, lower than inventory-based NPP, and higher than MOD17A3 NPP. The combination of new inputs and improved datasets enabled the development of spatially explicit and reliable NPP estimates for individual crops over large regional extents.

  12. Post-translational modification derived products (PTMDPs): toxins in chronic diseases?

    PubMed

    Gillery, Philippe; Jaisson, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    In living organisms, proteins are progressively modified by spontaneous non-enzymatic reactions generating many post-translational modification derived products (PTMDPs) which exert deleterious effects and may be considered endogenous toxins in diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Non-enzymatic glycation, which refers to the spontaneous binding of reducing sugars to free amino groups, is increased in diabetes mellitus because of hyperglycemia and is amplified by oxidative processes ('glycoxidation'). Glycoxidation leads to the formation of 'advanced glycation end products' (AGEs), together with products of other oxidative pathways. AGEs alter tissue organization and cell-protein interactions, mainly in the case of long-lived extracellular matrix proteins, and interact with membrane receptors, among which RAGE (receptor of AGEs), a multiligand receptor which triggers intracellular signaling pathways stimulating inflammatory functions. Another major protein modification, carbamylation, is increased in chronic renal failure, which may occur during the course of diabetes mellitus. Carbamylation is due to the binding of isocyanic acid on the α-NH2 extremity of proteins or amino acids, or on ε-NH2 lysine groups, generating homocitrulline, a potential biomarker in atherosclerosis. Isocyanic acid is formed in vivo either by spontaneous dissociation of urea or by myeloperoxidase action on thiocyanate. Carbamylated proteins exhibit altered properties. For example, carbamylated collagen is unable to stimulate oxidative functions of polymorphonuclear neutrophils but increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 production by monocytes. Lipoprotein functions are altered by carbamylation and may contribute to atherogenesis. Thus, the numerous PTMDPs may be considered both hallmarks of protein damage in chronic diseases and endogenous toxins acting at the molecular and cellular levels.

  13. Effect of production microclimate on female thermal state with increased temperature and air humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machablishvili, O. G.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal state of women during the effect of high air temperature and relative humidity with a varying degree of physical loads was studied. Parameters for air temperature, relative humidity, and air movement were established. It was established that in women the thermo-regulatory stress occurs at lower air temperatures and with lower physical loads than in men. The accumulation of heat in women was revealed with lower air temperature than in men. It is concluded that to preserve the normal physiological state of the female organism it is necessary to create more favorable microclimate conditions and decrease the physical loads.

  14. Satellite Derived Volcanic Ash Product Inter-Comparison in Support to SCOPE-Nowcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddans, Richard; Thomas, Gareth; Pavolonis, Mike; Bojinski, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    In support of aeronautical meteorological services, WMO organized a satellite-based volcanic ash retrieval algorithm inter-comparison activity, to improve the consistency of quantitative volcanic ash products from satellites, under the Sustained, Coordinated Processing of Environmental Satellite Data for Nowcasting (SCOPEe Nowcasting) initiative (http:/ jwww.wmo.int/pagesjprogjsatjscopee nowcasting_en.php). The aims of the intercomparison were as follows: 1. Select cases (Sarychev Peak 2009, Eyjafyallajökull 2010, Grimsvötn 2011, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle 2011, Kirishimayama 2011, Kelut 2014), and quantify the differences between satellite-derived volcanic ash cloud properties derived from different techniques and sensors; 2. Establish a basic validation protocol for satellite-derived volcanic ash cloud properties; 3. Document the strengths and weaknesses of different remote sensing approaches as a function of satellite sensor; 4. Standardize the units and quality flags associated with volcanic cloud geophysical parameters; 5. Provide recommendations to Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) and other users on how to best to utilize quantitative satellite products in operations; 6. Create a "road map" for future volcanic ash related scientific developments and inter-comparison/validation activities that can also be applied to SO2 clouds and emergent volcanic clouds. Volcanic ash satellite remote sensing experts from operational and research organizations were encouraged to participate in the inter-comparison activity, to establish the plans for the inter-comparison and to submit data sets. RAL was contracted by EUMETSAT to perform a systematic inter-comparison of all submitted datasets and results were reported at the WMO International Volcanic Ash Inter-comparison Meeting to held on 29 June - 2 July 2015 in Madison, WI, USA (http:/ /cimss.ssec.wisc.edujmeetings/vol_ash14). 26 different data sets were submitted, from a range of passive imagers and spectrometers and

  15. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Lignite-derived products (LDPs), including humic acids and organo-mineral soil conditioners, are being marketed in many parts of the world. They are promoted as plant growth stimulants, additives that improve plant nutrient uptake as well as providing humic materials to improve soil structure and combat soil degradation. There are mixed views regarding the efficacy of these products and there is a lack of scientific studies that verify the efficacy of these products in the field. Anecdotally, agricultural producers become repeat users of the products when they see economic benefits, such as increases in crop yields, while others abandon repeat use when no benefits were seen. In this paper, we present results from a literature meta-analysis1 and a number of field studies that examine the potential for LDPs to improve soil fertility and plant growth. Our findings suggest that complex interactions between LDPs, soil types, environmental conditions and plant species mean that a 'one-size fits all' product or solution is unlikely; and that changes to soil characteristics brought about by LDPs are more apparent over longer time periods than a single cropping season. Most of these studies have not been undertaken in full field trial conditions, where the crop has been grown to harvest. Limited studies in small plots or glass-house conditions often report early benefits. It is not known if these benefits persist. Moreover, the actual composition of these additives may vary significantly and is rarely specified in full. In a study of our own, a small plot experiment evaluated the effect of a single application of a commercial potassium humate product from Victorian lignite on ryegrass and lucerne grown in a sandy, nutrient deficient, low organic matter soil. Treatment resulted in increased shoot growth (up to 33%) of ryegrass during the pasture establishment phase. Root growth was also improved with a 47% increase at 0-10 cm depth and 122% increase at 10-30 cm depth

  16. Validation of Satellite-Derived Land Surface Temperature Products - Methods and Good Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillevic, P. C.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Biard, J.; Ghent, D.

    2014-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key variable for surface water and energy budget calculations that can be obtained globally and operationally from satellite observations. LST is used for many applications, including weather forecasting, short-term climate prediction, extreme weather monitoring, and irrigation and water resource management. In order to maximize the usefulness of LST for research and studies it is necessary to know the uncertainty in the LST measurement. Multiple validation methods and activities are necessary to assess LST compliance with the quality specifications of operational users. This work presents four different validation methods that have been widely used to determine the uncertainties in LST products derived from satellite measurements. 1) The temperature based validation method involves comparisons with ground-based measurements of LST. The method is strongly limited by the number and quality of available field stations. 2) Scene-based comparisons involve comparing a new satellite LST product with a heritage LST product. This method is not an absolute validation and satellite LST inter-comparisons alone do not provide an independent validation measurement. 3) The radiance-based validation method does not require ground-based measurements and is usually used for large scale validation effort or for LST products with coarser spatial resolution (> 1km). 4) Time series comparisons are used to detect problems that can occur during the instrument's life, e.g. calibration drift, or unrealistic outliers due to cloud coverage. This study enumerates the sources of errors associated with each method. The four different approaches are complementary and provide different levels of information about the quality of the retrieved LST. The challenges in retrieving the LST from satellite measurements are discussed using results obtained for MODIS and VIIRS. This work contributes to the objective of the Land Product Validation (LPV) sub-group of the

  17. Usefulness of AIRS-Derived OLR, Temperature, Water Vapor and Cloudiness Anomaly Time-series for GCM Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Gyula; Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    The ROBUST nature (biases are not as important as previous GCM-evaluations suggest) of the AIRS-observations-generated ARC-maps and ATs as well as their interrelations suggest that they could be a useful tool to select CGCMs which may be considered the reliable, i.e., to be trusted even for longer-term climate drift/change predictions (even on the regional scale). Get monthly gridded CGCM time-series of atmospheric variables coinciding with the timeframe of the AIRS analyses for at least 5-6 years and do the actual evaluations of ARC-maps and ATs for the coinciding time periods.

  18. Spectrally Resolved Flux Derived from Collocated AIRS and CERES Observations and its Application in Model Validation. Part I; Clear-Sky Over the Tropic Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xianglei; Yang, Wenze; Loeb, Norman G.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2008-01-01

    Spectrally resolved outgoing IR flux, the integrand of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), has its unique value in evaluating model simulations. Here we describe an algorithm of deriving such clear-sky outgoing spectral flux through the whole IR region from the collocated Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Clouds & the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements over the tropical oceans. Based on the scene types and corresponding angular distribution models (ADMs) used in the CERES Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) dataset, spectrally-dependent ADMs are developed and used to estimate the spectral flux at each AIRS channel. A multivariate linear prediction scheme is then used to estimate spectral fluxes at frequencies not covered by the AIRS instrument. The whole algorithm is validated using synthetic spectra as well as the CERES OLR measurements. Using the GFDL AM2 model simulation as a case study, the application of the derived clear-sky outgoing spectral flux in model evaluation is illustrated. By comparing the observed and simulated spectral flux in 2004, compensating errors in the simulated OLR from different absorption bands can be revealed, so does the errors from frequencies within a given absorption band. Discrepancies between the simulated and observed spatial distributions and seasonal evolutions of the spectral fluxes at different spectral ranges are further discussed. The methodology described in this study can be applied to other surface types as well as cloudy-sky observations and corresponding model evaluations.

  19. Using ground data of the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost (GTN-P) for the evaluation of ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost remote sensing derived products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elger, K.; Heim, B.; Bartsch, A.; Paulik, Ch.; Duguay, C.; Hachem, S.; Soliman, A.; Boike, J.; Langer, M.; Lantuit, H.

    2012-04-01

    Permafrost is one of the essential climate variables addressed by the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GCOS). Remote sensing data provide area-wide monitoring of e.g. surface temperatures or soil surface status (frozen or thawed state) in the Arctic and Subarctic, where ground data collection is difficult and restricted to local measurements at few monitoring sites. The task of the ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost project is to build-up an Earth observation service for northern high-latitudinal permafrost applications with extensive involvement of the international permafrost research community (www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost). The satellite-derived DUE Permafrost products are Land Surface Temperature, Surface Soil Moisture, Surface Frozen and Thawed State, Digital Elevation Model (locally as remote sensing product and circumpolar as non-remote sensing product) and Subsidence, and Land Cover. Land Surface Temperature, Surface Soil Moisture, and Surface Frozen and Thawed State will be provided for the circumpolar permafrost area north of 55° N with 25 km spatial resolution. In addition, regional products with higher spatial resolution were developed for five case study regions in different permafrost zones of the tundra and taiga (Laptev Sea [RU], Central Yakutia [RU], Western Siberia [RU], Alaska N-S transect, [US] Mackenzie River and Valley [CA]). This study shows the evaluation of two DUE Permafrost regional products, Land Surface Temperature and Surface Frozen and Thawed State, using freely available ground truth data from the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost (GTN-P) and monitoring data from the Russian-German Samoylov research station in the Lena River Delta (Central Siberia, RU). The GTN-P permafrost monitoring sites with their position in different permafrost zones are highly qualified for the validation of DUE Permafrost remote sensing products. Air and surface temperatures with high-temporal resolution from eleven GTN-P sites in Alaska

  20. Life cycle environmental impacts of three products derived from wild-caught Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba).

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert W R; Tyedmers, Peter H

    2012-05-01

    Concern has been voiced in recent years regarding the environmental implications of the Antarctic krill fishery. Attention has focused primarily on ecological concerns, whereas other environmental aspects, including potentially globally problematic emissions and material and energy demands, have not been examined in detail. Here we apply life cycle assessment to measure the contributions of krill meal, oil, and omega-3 capsules to global warming, ozone depletion, acidification, eutrophication, energy use, and biotic resource use. Supply chains of one krill fishing and processing company, Aker BioMarine of Norway, were assessed. Impacts of krill products were found to be driven primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels onboard the fishing vessel and a transport/resupply vessel. Approximately 190 L of fuel are burned per tonne of raw krill landed, markedly higher than fuel inputs to reduction fisheries targeting other species. In contrast, the biotic resource use associated with extracting krill is relatively low compared to that of other reduction fisheries. Results of this study provide insight into the broader environmental implications of the krill fishery, comparisons between products derived from krill and other species targeted for reduction, opportunities for improving the fishery's performance, and a baseline against which to measure future performance. PMID:22480265

  1. Life cycle environmental impacts of three products derived from wild-caught Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba).

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert W R; Tyedmers, Peter H

    2012-05-01

    Concern has been voiced in recent years regarding the environmental implications of the Antarctic krill fishery. Attention has focused primarily on ecological concerns, whereas other environmental aspects, including potentially globally problematic emissions and material and energy demands, have not been examined in detail. Here we apply life cycle assessment to measure the contributions of krill meal, oil, and omega-3 capsules to global warming, ozone depletion, acidification, eutrophication, energy use, and biotic resource use. Supply chains of one krill fishing and processing company, Aker BioMarine of Norway, were assessed. Impacts of krill products were found to be driven primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels onboard the fishing vessel and a transport/resupply vessel. Approximately 190 L of fuel are burned per tonne of raw krill landed, markedly higher than fuel inputs to reduction fisheries targeting other species. In contrast, the biotic resource use associated with extracting krill is relatively low compared to that of other reduction fisheries. Results of this study provide insight into the broader environmental implications of the krill fishery, comparisons between products derived from krill and other species targeted for reduction, opportunities for improving the fishery's performance, and a baseline against which to measure future performance.

  2. Production of chlorogenic acid and its derivatives in hairy root cultures of Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao; Yin, Zhong-Ping; Chen, Ji-Guang; Shangguan, Xin-Chen; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Qing-Feng; Peng, Da-Yong

    2015-01-14

    Chlorogenic acid and its derivatives (CADs) are valuable bioactive plant secondary metabolites with many health benefits. In the present study, Stevia rebaudiana hairy root cultures were established, and the culture conditions for the production of CADs were optimized. The hairy roots were induced by coculture of S. rebaudiana leaves and Agrobacterium rhizogenes (C58C1) after infection, which were further verified by PCR detection of rolB and rolC genes. HPLC-MS and HPLC analysis showed that chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-CQA), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-CQA), and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4,5-CQA) were the major CADs in the hairy roots. Eight single roots with rapid growth rate were selected. Among them, T3 had the highest yield of CADs. B5 medium supplemented with 40 g/L sucrose was more suitable for the production of CADs than others. Under optimal culture conditions, the total content of these three compounds reached 105.58 mg/g and total yield was 234.40 mg/100 mL.

  3. Global surface solar irradiance product derived from SCIAMACHY FRESCO cloud fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Stammes, Piet; Müller, Richard

    The FRESCO cloud retrieval algorithm has been developed as a simple but fast and efficient algorithm for GOME and SCIAMACHY (Koelemeijer et al., 2001; Fournier et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2008). FRESCO employs the O2 A band at 760 nm to retrieve the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure using a simple Lambertian cloud model. The effective cloud fraction is a combination of geometric cloud fraction and cloud optical thickness, which yield the same reflectance at the top of the atmosphere as the cloud in the scene. It is well-known that clouds reduce the surface solar irradiance. Therefore the all-sky irradiance can be derived from the clear-sky irradiance with a scaling factor related to the cloud index. The cloud index is very similar to the effective cloud fraction by definition. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric Global Irradiance Code) software converts the cloud index to the surface solar irradiance using the Heliosat method (Mueller et al. 2009). The MAGIC algorithm is also used by the CM-SAF surface solar irradiance product for clear sky cases. We applied the MAGIC software to FRESCO effective cloud fraction with slight modifications. In this presentation we will show the FRESCO-SSI monthly mean product and the comparison with the BSRN global irradiance data at Cabauw, the Netherlands and surface solar irradiance measurement at Tibetan plateau in China.

  4. Evaluating lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream products with Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Gjersing, Erica; Davis, Mark F.

    2015-04-20

    The creation of fuels, chemicals, and materials from plants can aid in replacing products fabricated from non-renewable energy sources. Before using biomass in downstream applications, it must be characterized to assess chemical traits, such as cellulose, lignin, or lignin monomer content, or the sugars released following an acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. The measurement of these traits allows researchers to gage the recalcitrance of the plants and develop efficient deconstruction strategies to maximize yields. Standard methods for assessing biomass phenotypes often have experimental protocols that limit their use for screening sizeable numbers of plant species. Raman spectroscopy, a non-destructive, non-invasive vibrational spectroscopy technique, is capable of providing qualitative, structural information and quantitative measurements. Applications of Raman spectroscopy have aided in alleviating the constraints of standard methods by coupling spectral data with multivariate analysis to construct models capable of predicting analytes. Hydrolysis and fermentation products, such as glucose and ethanol, can be quantified off-, at-, or on-line. Raman imaging has enabled researchers to develop a visual understanding of reactions, such as different pretreatment strategies, in real-time, while also providing integral chemical information. Finally, this review provides an overview of what Raman spectroscopy is, and how it has been applied to the analysis of whole lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream process monitoring.

  5. Evaluating lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream products with Raman spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Gjersing, Erica; Davis, Mark F.

    2015-04-20

    The creation of fuels, chemicals, and materials from plants can aid in replacing products fabricated from non-renewable energy sources. Before using biomass in downstream applications, it must be characterized to assess chemical traits, such as cellulose, lignin, or lignin monomer content, or the sugars released following an acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. The measurement of these traits allows researchers to gage the recalcitrance of the plants and develop efficient deconstruction strategies to maximize yields. Standard methods for assessing biomass phenotypes often have experimental protocols that limit their use for screening sizeable numbers of plant species. Raman spectroscopy, a non-destructive, non-invasive vibrationalmore » spectroscopy technique, is capable of providing qualitative, structural information and quantitative measurements. Applications of Raman spectroscopy have aided in alleviating the constraints of standard methods by coupling spectral data with multivariate analysis to construct models capable of predicting analytes. Hydrolysis and fermentation products, such as glucose and ethanol, can be quantified off-, at-, or on-line. Raman imaging has enabled researchers to develop a visual understanding of reactions, such as different pretreatment strategies, in real-time, while also providing integral chemical information. Finally, this review provides an overview of what Raman spectroscopy is, and how it has been applied to the analysis of whole lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream process monitoring.« less

  6. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-derived by-products against Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Klaus; Kuliberda, Maxime; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Pacher, Thomas; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin; Joachim, Anja; Hadacek, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Disposal of organic plant wastes and by-products from the food or pharmaceutical industries usually involves high costs. In the present study, 42 samples derived from such by-products were screened in vitro against Cryptosporidium parvum, a protozoan parasite that may contaminate drinking water and cause diarrhoea. The novel bioassay was previously established in the microtitre plate format. Human ileocaecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8) cell cultures were seeded with C. parvum oocysts and parasite development was monitored by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and microscopic assessment for clusters of secondary infection (CSI). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and potential detrimental effects on the host cells were determined. An ethanolic extract from olive (Olea europaea) pomace, after oil pressing and phenol recovery, reproducibly inhibited C. parvum development (MIC = 250-500 μg mL(-1), IC50 = 361 (279-438) μg mL(-1), IC90 = 467 (398-615) μg mL(-1)). Accordingly, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, trans-coniferyl alcohol and oleuropein were selected as reference test compounds, but their contributions to the observed activity of the olive pomace extract were insignificant. The established test system proved to be a fast and efficient assay for identifying anti-cryptosporidial activities in biological waste material and comparison with selected reference compounds.

  7. Evaluating lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream products with Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lupoi, Jason S; Gjersing, Erica; Davis, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    The creation of fuels, chemicals, and materials from plants can aid in replacing products fabricated from non-renewable energy sources. Before using biomass in downstream applications, it must be characterized to assess chemical traits, such as cellulose, lignin, or lignin monomer content, or the sugars released following an acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. The measurement of these traits allows researchers to gage the recalcitrance of the plants and develop efficient deconstruction strategies to maximize yields. Standard methods for assessing biomass phenotypes often have experimental protocols that limit their use for screening sizeable numbers of plant species. Raman spectroscopy, a non-destructive, non-invasive vibrational spectroscopy technique, is capable of providing qualitative, structural information and quantitative measurements. Applications of Raman spectroscopy have aided in alleviating the constraints of standard methods by coupling spectral data with multivariate analysis to construct models capable of predicting analytes. Hydrolysis and fermentation products, such as glucose and ethanol, can be quantified off-, at-, or on-line. Raman imaging has enabled researchers to develop a visual understanding of reactions, such as different pretreatment strategies, in real-time, while also providing integral chemical information. This review provides an overview of what Raman spectroscopy is, and how it has been applied to the analysis of whole lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream process monitoring. PMID:25941674

  8. Genome shuffling of marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000 for improved ayamycin production.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Mervat M A; El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A

    2011-05-01

    Genome shuffling is a recent development in microbiology. The advantage of this technique is that genetic changes can be made in a microorganism without knowing its genetic background. Genome shuffling was applied to the marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000 to achieve rapid improvement of ayamycin production. The initial mutant population was generated by treatment with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) combined with UV irradiation of the spores, resulting in an improved population (AL/11, AL/136, AL/213 and AL/277) producing tenfold (150 μg/ml) more ayamycin than the original strain. These mutants were used as the starting strains for three rounds of genome shuffling and after each round improved strains were screened and selected based on their ayamycin productivity. The population after three rounds of genome shuffling exhibited an improved ayamycin yield. Strain F3/22 yielded 285 μg/ml of ayamycin, which was 19-fold higher than that of the initial strain and 1.9-fold higher than the mutants used as the starting point for genome shuffling. We evaluated the genetic effect of UV + EMS-mutagenesis and three rounds of genome shuffling on the nucleotide sequence by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Many differences were noticed in mutant and recombinant strains compared to the wild type strain. These differences in RAPD profiles confirmed the presence of genetic variations in the Nocardia genome after mutagenesis and genome shuffling. PMID:21240675

  9. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-derived by-products against Cryptosporidium parvum

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Klaus; Kuliberda, Maxime; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Pacher, Thomas; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin; Joachim, Anja; Hadacek, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Disposal of organic plant wastes and by-products from the food or pharmaceutical industries usually involves high costs. In the present study, 42 samples derived from such by-products were screened in vitro against Cryptosporidium parvum, a protozoan parasite that may contaminate drinking water and cause diarrhoea. The novel bioassay was previously established in the microtitre plate format. Human ileocaecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8) cell cultures were seeded with C. parvum oocysts and parasite development was monitored by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and microscopic assessment for clusters of secondary infection (CSI). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and potential detrimental effects on the host cells were determined. An ethanolic extract from olive (Olea europaea) pomace, after oil pressing and phenol recovery, reproducibly inhibited C. parvum development (MIC = 250–500 μg mL−1, IC50 = 361 (279–438) μg mL−1, IC90 = 467 (398–615) μg mL−1). Accordingly, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, trans-coniferyl alcohol and oleuropein were selected as reference test compounds, but their contributions to the observed activity of the olive pomace extract were insignificant. The established test system proved to be a fast and efficient assay for identifying anti-cryptosporidial activities in biological waste material and comparison with selected reference compounds. PMID:27627637

  10. Preliminary analyses for perchlorate in selected natural materials and their derivative products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Harvey, G.J.; Tsui, D.T.; Eldrige, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing concern about sources of perchlorate contamination in ground and surface waters has led to interest in identifying potential sources of natural perchlorate and products derived from these natural sources. To date, most perchlorate found in ground and surface waters has been attributed to its major uses as an oxidizer in solid propellants for rockets, in fireworks and other explosives, and a variety of other uses of man-made perchlorate salts. However, perchlorate found in the soils, surface water, and ground water of some locations cannot be linked to an anthropogenic source. This paper contains preliminary data on the detection and non-detection of perchlorate in a variety of natural materials and their products, including some fertilizer materials. These data were previously presented at two conferences; once in poster session and once orally (Harvey and others, 1999; Orris and others, 2000). Although the results presented here are included in a journal article awaiting publication, the lack of public information on this topic has led to repeated requests for the data used as the basis for our presentations in 1999 and 2000.

  11. Evaluating Lignocellulosic Biomass, Its Derivatives, and Downstream Products with Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Gjersing, Erica; Davis, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    The creation of fuels, chemicals, and materials from plants can aid in replacing products fabricated from non-renewable energy sources. Before using biomass in downstream applications, it must be characterized to assess chemical traits, such as cellulose, lignin, or lignin monomer content, or the sugars released following an acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. The measurement of these traits allows researchers to gage the recalcitrance of the plants and develop efficient deconstruction strategies to maximize yields. Standard methods for assessing biomass phenotypes often have experimental protocols that limit their use for screening sizeable numbers of plant species. Raman spectroscopy, a non-destructive, non-invasive vibrational spectroscopy technique, is capable of providing qualitative, structural information and quantitative measurements. Applications of Raman spectroscopy have aided in alleviating the constraints of standard methods by coupling spectral data with multivariate analysis to construct models capable of predicting analytes. Hydrolysis and fermentation products, such as glucose and ethanol, can be quantified off-, at-, or on-line. Raman imaging has enabled researchers to develop a visual understanding of reactions, such as different pretreatment strategies, in real-time, while also providing integral chemical information. This review provides an overview of what Raman spectroscopy is, and how it has been applied to the analysis of whole lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream process monitoring. PMID:25941674

  12. Preparation and biological activity of four epiprogoitrin myrosinase-derived products.

    PubMed

    Galletti, S; Bernardi, R; Leoni, O; Rollin, P; Palmieri, S

    2001-01-01

    (5R)-5-Vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione, (2S)-1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene, and two diastereoisomeric erythro-(2S)- and threo-(2S)-1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3,4-epithiobutanes were prepared in pure form starting from (2S)-2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolate (epiprogoitrin). This glucosinolate was isolated in almost pure form using ripe seeds of Crambe abyssinica and then hydrolyzed under different conditions. The hydrolysis was carried out using either myrosinase immobilized on nylon, to produce (5R)-5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione, or the endogenous myrosinase contained in defatted crambe meals, to produce the other epiprogoitrin-derived products. After purification and physicochemical characterization, all four myrosinase degradation products were tested for their biological activity. A bioassay on Lactuca sativa was chosen as a simple test to determine their apparent action on living tissues. (5R)-5-Vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione negatively affected mainly root growth, whereas (2S)-1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene affected the early phase of germination, and both (2S)-1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3,4-epithiobutane diastereoisomers appeared to negatively affect both germination and root growth at doses 5-10 times lower than those of (2S)-1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene or (5R)-5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione.

  13. Natural products and altered derivatives as tracers for biomass combustion in aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Simoneit, B.R.T.; Radzi bin Abas, M.; Cass, G.R.

    1995-12-01

    Biomass combustion is an important primary source of carbonaceous particles in the global atmosphere. Various molecular markers have been proposed for this process but additional specific tracers are needed. The injection of natural product organic compounds into smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by pyrolysis. Although the composition of organic matter in smoke particles is highly variable, the molecular structures of the tracers are generally source specific. Homologous compounds and biomarkers present in smoke are derived directly from plant wax, gum and resin by volatilization and secondarily from pyrolysis of biopolymers (e.g., lignin, cutin, suberin), wax, gum and resin. The component complexity is illustrated with examples from controlled bums of temperate and tropical biomass fuels. Conifer smoke contains characteristic tracers from diterpenoids as well as phenolics and other oxygenated species. These are recognizable in urban airsheds. The major organic components of smoke from tropical biomass are straight-chain, aliphatic and oxygenated compounds and triterpenoids. Several compounds are potential key indicators for combustion of such biomass. The precursor to product approach of organic geochemistry can be applied successfully to provide molecular tracers for studying smoke plume chemistry and dispersion.

  14. Calibration/validation of Landsat-Derived Ocean Colour Products in Boston Harbour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Sheldon, Patrick; Peri, Francesco; Wei, Jianwei; Shang, Zhehai; Sun, Qingsong; Chen, Robert F.; Lee, Zhongping; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Schott, John R.; Loveland, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The Landsat data archive provides a unique opportunity to investigate the long-term evolution of coastal ecosystems at fine spatial scales that cannot be resolved by ocean colour (OC) satellite sensors. Recognizing Landsat's limitations in applications over coastal waters, we have launched a series of field campaigns in Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay (MA, USA) to validate OC products derived from Landsat-8. We will provide a preliminary demonstration on the calibration/validation of the existing OC algorithms (atmospheric correction and in-water optical properties) to enhance monitoring efforts in Boston Harbor. To do so, Landsat optical images were first compared against ocean colour products over high-latitude regions. The in situ cruise data, including optical data (remote sensing reflectance) and water samples were analyzed to obtain insights into the optical and biogeochemical properties of near-surface waters. Along with the cruise data, three buoys were deployed in three locations across the Harbor to complement our database of concentrations of chlorophyll a, total suspended solids (TSS), and absorption of colour dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The data collected during the first year of the project are used to develop and/or tune OC algorithms. The data will be combined with historic field data to map in-water constituents back to the early 1990's. This paper presents preliminary analysis of some of the data collected under Landsat-8 overpasses.

  15. [FTIR analysis of products derived from wood liquefaction with 1-octanol].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xian-Wu; Yang, Zhi; Qin, Te-Fu

    2009-06-01

    Solvolysis is one of the important processes of biomass liquefaction. To produce superior quality liquid biofuel from biomass under mild conditions, it is essential to exploit novel reactive liquid solvent. Furthermore, the evaluation of liquefaction efficiency is carried out mainly by the means of analysis of the products derived from biomass liquefaction. In the present study, liquefaction of poplar wood powder in acidified 1-octanol was investigated with a stainless steel autoclave. Residue, heavy oil and light oil were separated from the liquefaction products by extraction with acetone and n-hexane successively. FTIR analysis was carried out on these liquefaction compositions to illuminate the liquefaction regularities and mechanisms of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin of wood. The results showed that liquefaction oils were complex mixture containing hydroxide, carbonyl, methoxyl, aromatic and aether. Liquefactions of cellulose and hemicellulose were easier than that of lignin. Cellulose and hemicellulose were converted to light oil, however, lignin was mainly converted to heavy oil. At 150 degrees C, lignin was depolymerized and degraded into micromolecular aromatic compounds, among which condensation reactions took place when reaction temperature increased.

  16. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-derived by-products against Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Klaus; Kuliberda, Maxime; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Pacher, Thomas; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin; Joachim, Anja; Hadacek, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Disposal of organic plant wastes and by-products from the food or pharmaceutical industries usually involves high costs. In the present study, 42 samples derived from such by-products were screened in vitro against Cryptosporidium parvum, a protozoan parasite that may contaminate drinking water and cause diarrhoea. The novel bioassay was previously established in the microtitre plate format. Human ileocaecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8) cell cultures were seeded with C. parvum oocysts and parasite development was monitored by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and microscopic assessment for clusters of secondary infection (CSI). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and potential detrimental effects on the host cells were determined. An ethanolic extract from olive (Olea europaea) pomace, after oil pressing and phenol recovery, reproducibly inhibited C. parvum development (MIC = 250-500 μg mL(-1), IC50 = 361 (279-438) μg mL(-1), IC90 = 467 (398-615) μg mL(-1)). Accordingly, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, trans-coniferyl alcohol and oleuropein were selected as reference test compounds, but their contributions to the observed activity of the olive pomace extract were insignificant. The established test system proved to be a fast and efficient assay for identifying anti-cryptosporidial activities in biological waste material and comparison with selected reference compounds. PMID:27627637

  17. Inter- and intra-annual variations of clumping index derived from the MODIS BRDF product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liming; Liu, Jane; Chen, Jing M.; Croft, Holly; Wang, Rong; Sprintsin, Michael; Zheng, Ting; Ryu, Youngryel; Pisek, Jan; Gonsamo, Alemu; Deng, Feng; Zhang, Yongqin

    2016-02-01

    Clumping index quantifies the level of foliage aggregation, relative to a random distribution, and is a key structural parameter of plant canopies and is widely used in ecological and meteorological models. In this study, the inter- and intra-annual variations in clumping index values, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF product, are investigated at six forest sites, including conifer forests, a mixed deciduous forest and an oak-savanna system. We find that the clumping index displays large seasonal variation, particularly for the deciduous sites, with the magnitude in clumping index values at each site comparable on an intra-annual basis, and the seasonality of clumping index well captured after noise removal. For broadleaved and mixed forest sites, minimum clumping index values are usually found during the season when leaf area index is at its maximum. The magnitude of MODIS clumping index is validated by ground data collected from 17 sites. Validation shows that the MODIS clumping index can explain 75% of variance in measured values (bias = 0.03 and rmse = 0.08), although with a narrower amplitude in variation. This study suggests that the MODIS BRDF product has the potential to produce good seasonal trajectories of clumping index values, but with an improved estimation of background reflectance.

  18. Corrections to MODIS Terra Calibration and Polarization Trending Derived from Ocean Color Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Gerhard; Eplee, Robert E.; Franz, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed ocean color products require highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances, on the order of 0.5% or better. Due to incidents both prelaunch and on-orbit, meeting this requirement has been a consistent problem for the MODIS instrument on the Terra satellite, especially in the later part of the mission. The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) has developed an approach to correct the TOA radiances of MODIS Terra using spatially and temporally averaged ocean color products from other ocean color sensors (such as the SeaWiFS instrument on Orbview-2 or the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite). The latest results suggest that for MODIS Terra, both linear polarization parameters of the Mueller matrix are temporally evolving. A change to the functional form of the scan angle dependence improved the quality of the derived coefficients. Additionally, this paper demonstrates that simultaneously retrieving polarization and gain parameters improves the gain retrieval (versus retrieving the gain parameter only).

  19. Single particle refuse-derived fuel devolatilization: Experimental measurements of reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Weichuan; Krieger-Brockett, B. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    The authors present experimentally measured devolatilization product yields from single particles of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), a more uniform, transportable municipal solid waste. Disposal costs and environmental concerns have stimulated interest in thermochemical conversion of this material to chemicals and fuels. The composition, reaction conditions, and particle properties were systematically varied over the range found in practice to develop quantitative measures that rank the process controllables' influence on altering the product slate. Specialized regression methods and experimental designs enhanced the accuracy in view of the feed heterogeneity and offer a general method to extract real effects from experimental and sample noise''. The results have been verified successfully using actual commercial RDF and fabricated compositions that surpass those normally found in municipal waste to anticipate the influence of trends in recycling. The results show that the reaction conditions have a greater influence on altering fuel utilization and the relative yields of char, condensibles, and gases than does the composition over the range found in MSW and RDF.

  20. An accurate derivation of the air dose-rate and the deposition concentration distribution by aerial monitoring in a low level contaminated area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Sugita, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    Since 2011, MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan) have been conducting aerial monitoring to investigate the distribution of radioactive cesium dispersed into the atmosphere after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), Tokyo Electric Power Company. Distribution maps of the air dose-rate at 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition concentration on the ground are prepared using spectrum obtained by aerial monitoring. The radioactive cesium deposition is derived from its dose rate, which is calculated by excluding the dose rate of the background radiation due to natural radionuclides from the air dose-rate at 1 m above the ground. The first step of the current method of calculating the dose rate due to natural radionuclides is calculate the ratio of the total count rate of areas where no radioactive cesium is detected and the count rate of regions with energy levels of 1,400 keV or higher (BG-Index). Next, calculate the air dose rate of radioactive cesium by multiplying the BG-Index and the integrated count rate of 1,400 keV or higher for the area where the radioactive cesium is distributed. In high dose-rate areas, however, the count rate of the 1,365-keV peak of Cs-134, though small, is included in the integrated count rate of 1,400 keV or higher, which could cause an overestimation of the air dose rate of natural radionuclides. We developed a method for accurately evaluating the distribution maps of natural air dose-rate by excluding the effect of radioactive cesium, even in contaminated areas, and obtained the accurate air dose-rate map attributed the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground. Furthermore, the natural dose-rate distribution throughout Japan has been obtained by this method.

  1. Integrating hydrodynamic models and COSMO-SkyMed derived products for flood damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuffra, Flavio; Boni, Giorgio; Pulvirenti, Luca; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Rudari, Roberto; Fiorini, Mattia

    2015-04-01

    Floods are the most frequent weather disasters in the world and probably the most costly in terms of social and economic losses. They may have a strong impact on infrastructures and health because the range of possible damages includes casualties, loss of housing and destruction of crops. Presently, the most common approach for remotely sensing floods is the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Key features of SAR data for inundation mapping are the synoptic view, the capability to operate even in cloudy conditions and during both day and night time and the sensitivity of the microwave radiation to water. The launch of a new generation of instruments, such as TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) allows producing near real time flood maps having a spatial resolution in the order of 1-5 m. Moreover, the present (CSK) and upcoming (Sentinel-1) constellations permit the acquisition of radar data characterized by a short revisit time (in the order of some hours for CSK), so that the production of frequent inundation maps can be envisaged. Nonetheless, gaps might be present in the SAR-derived flood maps because of the limited area imaged by SAR; moreover, the detection of floodwater may be complicated by the presence of very dense vegetation or urban settlements. Hence the need to complement SAR-derived flood maps with the outputs of physical models. Physical models allow delivering to end users very useful information for a complete flood damage assessment, such as data on water depths and flow directions, which cannot be directly derived from satellite remote sensing images. In addition, the flood extent predictions of hydraulic models can be compared to SAR-derived inundation maps to calibrate the models, or to fill the aforementioned gaps that can be present in the SAR-derived maps. Finally, physical models enable the construction of risk scenarios useful for emergency managers to take their decisions and for programming additional SAR acquisitions in order to

  2. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds during Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults…

  3. Organic amendments derived from a pharmaceutical by-product: benefits and risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliotti, Giovanni; Cucina, Mirko; Zadra, Claudia; Pezzolla, Daniela; Sordi, Simone; Carla Marcotullio, Maria; Curini, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    The application of organic amendments to soils, such as sewage sludge, anaerobic digestate and compost is considered a tool for improving soil fertility and enhancing C stocks. The addition of these different organic materials allows a good supply of nutrients for plants but also contributes to C sequestration, affects the microbial activity and the transformation of soil organic matter (SOM). Moreover, the addition of organic amendment has gained importance as a source of CO2 emissions and then as a cause of the "Global Warming". Therefore, it is important to investigate the factors controlling the SOM mineralization in order to improve the soil C sequestration and decreasing at the same time CO2 emissions. Moreover, the quality of organic matter added to the soil will play an important role in these dynamics. Based on these considerations, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of the application to an arable soil of different organic materials derived from a pharmaceutical by-product which results from the fermentative biomass after the separation of the lipopolypeptidic antibiotic produced. A microcosm soil experiment was carried out using three different materials: a sewage sludge derived from the stabilization process of the by-product, a digestate obtained from the anaerobic treatment of the by-product and a compost produced by the aerobic treatment of the same digestate. To achieve this aim, the short-term variations of CO2 emissions, enzymatic soil activities (Dehydrogenase total activity and Fluoresceine diacetate hydrolysis), SOM quantity and quality were studied. In addition, process-related residues of antibiotic and decanoic acid (a precursor added during the fermentation) were analyzed on the organic materials to assess their possible presence. Through these analyses it was possible to state that the application to the soil of sewage sludge and anaerobic digestate may have a strong influence on the short-term variations of the

  4. Global Landsat Surface Reflectance Products Derived Using GLS 2000 and 2005 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, R.; Feng, M.; Sexton, J. O.; Huang, C.; Channan, S.; Vermote, E. F.; Masek, J. G.; Townshend, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Calculated by accounting for radiometric calibration errors and atmospheric effects, Surface Reflectance (SR) is considered a more accurate representation of the spectral property of the land surface than raw satellite radiometry. While atmospheric correction algorithms have been applied to MODIS data to produce SR as a standard MODIS product, such algorithms have not been applied to Landsat images on a routine basis. As part of the Global Forest Cover Change (GFCC) project, we applied a MODIS-based atmospheric algorithm to the GLS 2000 and 2005 images, and for the first time, produced global surface reflectance products at Landsat resolution. Since MODIS SR products have been validated comprehensively through previous studies, we used them to evaluate the Landsat SR products. All GLS 2000 images are Landsat7 ETM+ (L7) images, while the GLS2005 data set consist of 7381 gap-filled L7 images and 2175 Landsat5 TM (L5) images. L7 derived SR images are validated against the MODIS Daily SR product and the L5 derived SR images are validated against the MODIS NBAR composited products covering the same period as the L5 images. On a global scale, average R2 for the GLS2000 L7 and MODIS Daily SR range from 0.77 to 0.89 with greater correlation observed in the longer wavelengths. A similar R2 range (0.76-0.88) was observed in the GLS2005 L7 and MODIS Daily SR comparison. In both cases, standard deviations of R2 for each band are less than 0.26. The averaged slope values for the L7 bands range from 0.907 to 1.007 and intercept values range from -0.087 to 0.17 percent of reflectance. When divided by the mean to reduce statistical artifacts at high reflectance, Co-efficient of deviation (CD) shows that the GLS2000 and GLS2005 L7 vs. MODIS Daily SR estimates agree best for the near-infrared band (0.07 and 0.08) and are the worst for the blue band (0.34 & 0.35) in both cases. These global trends in CD are a reflection of regional differences where for most bands, the L7 - MODIS

  5. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014). This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs and PAN + PAN precursors) over 8 vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performances of the system are assessed daily, weekly and 3 monthly (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the median ensemble to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The time period of this case study is also used to illustrate that the median ensemble generally outperforms each of the individual models and that it is still robust even if two of the seven models are missing. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10 and show an overall improvement over time. The change of the skills of the ensemble over the past two summers for ozone and the past two winters for PM10 are discussed in the paper. While the evolution of the ozone scores is not significant, there are improvements of PM10 over the past two winters

  6. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Tarasson, L.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in the MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014) and analyses the performance of the multi-model ensemble. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) and PAN+PAN precursors) over eight vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performance of the system is assessed daily, weekly and every 3 months (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the ensemble median to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10. The statistical indicators for ozone in summer 2014 show that the ensemble median gives on average the best performances compared to the seven models. There is very little degradation of the scores with the forecast day but there is a marked diurnal cycle, similarly to the individual models, that can be related partly to the prescribed diurnal variations of anthropogenic emissions in the models

  7. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial

  8. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Modulate Bone Marrow-Derived Pro-Inflammatory Monocyte Production and Survival

    PubMed Central

    St-Pierre, Stéphanie; Jiang, Wei; Roy, Patrick; Champigny, Camille; LeBlanc, Éric; Morley, Barbara J.; Hao, Junwei; Simard, Alain R.

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in immune regulation, and that their activation can protect against inflammatory diseases. Previous data have shown that nicotine diminishes the numbers of peripheral monocytes and macrophages, especially those of the pro-inflammatory phenotype. The goal of the present study was to determine if nicotine modulates the production of bone marrow -derived monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we first found that murine bone marrow cells express multiple nAChR subunits, and that the α7 and α9 nAChRs most predominant subtypes found in immune cells and their precursors. Using primary cultures of murine bone marrow cells, we then determined the effect of nicotine on monocyte colony-stimulating factor and interferon gamma (IFNγ)-induced monocyte production. We found that nicotine lowered the overall number of monocytes, and more specifically, inhibited the IFNγ-induced increase in pro-inflammatory monocytes by reducing cell proliferation and viability. These data suggested that nicotine diminishes the ratio of pro-inflammatory versus anti-inflammatory monocyte produced in the bone marrow. We thus confirmed this hypothesis by measuring cytokine expression, where we found that nicotine inhibited the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-12, while stimulating the secretion of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Finally, nicotine also reduced the number of pro-inflammatory monocytes in the bone marrow of LPS-challenged mice. Overall, our data demonstrate that both α7 and α9 nAChRs are involved in the regulation of pro-inflammatory M1 monocyte numbers. PMID:26925951

  9. Consistency analysis of the water cycle from recently derived satellite products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbery, E. H.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Zhan, X.; Liu, J.; Ferraro, R. R.; Adler, R. F.; Wu, H.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) develops environmental data from satellites and other sources that is a critical resource for the management of energy, water, and food supplies. Variables related to the water cycle are routinely computed from satellite remote sensing from several space agencies, and the products are used at NOAA in operational or experimental modes. This study seeks to investigate to what extent there is consistency among the diverse products, and how they represent the water cycle at different scales. Remote sensing of land surface temperature and radiation is used to estimate surface energy fluxes by means of the Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. An Evaporative Stress Index representing anomalies in the ratio of actual-to-potential is a reliable indicator of drought also obtained from the ALEXI model. Observations from all currently available microwave satellite sensors are processed and merged to obtain the best possible estimates of soil moisture. The Global Soil Moisture Operational Product System (SMOPS) may also ingest brightness temperature observations applying a single channel algorithm to retrieve soil moisture. All satellite retrievals in SMOPS are merged into a soil moisture product that includes proxies of the errors. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation data set (a current NOAA CDR project) uses satellite precipitation data sets over ocean and satellite plus gauge-based analyses over land. For operational needs, NESDIS's Hydro-Estimator (H-E) uses infrared data from GOES to estimate higher temporal resolution (sub-daily) rainfall rates. Streamflow at all the river mouths is estimated by the Dominant river tracing-Routing Integrated with VIC Environment model using precipitation input and other forcing data. Evapotranspiration, soil moisture, precipitation, streamflow and groundwater are derived at different resolutions, time scales and

  10. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  11. The Utility of the OMI HCHO and NO2 Data Products in Air Quality Decision- Making Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.

    2010-01-01

    We will present three related air quality applications of the OMI HCHO (formaldehyde) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) data products, which we us to support mission planning of an OMI-like instrument for the proposed GEO-CAPE satellite that has as one of its objectives to study air quality from space. First, we will discuss a novel and practical application of the data products to the "weight of evidence" in the air quality decision-making process (e.g., State Implementation Plan (SIP)) for a city, region, or state to demonstrate that it is making progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Any trend, or lack thereof, in the observed OMI HCHO/NO2, which we use as an air quality indicator, may support that an emission control strategy implemented to reduce ozone is or is not occurring for a metropolitan area. Second, we will discuss how we use variations in the OMI HCHO product as a proxy for variability in the biogenic hydrocarbon, isoprene, which is an important player for the formation of high levels of ozone and the dominant source of HCHO in the eastern U.S. Third, we will discuss the variability of NO2 in the U.S. as indicated by the OMI NO2 product. In addition, we will show the impact of the 2005 hurricanes on pollutant emissions, including those associated with the intensive oil extraction and refining activities, in the Gulf of Mexico region using the OMI NO2 product. The variability of HCHO and NO2 as indicated by OMI helps us to understand changes in the OMI HCHO/NO2 and the implications for ozone formation.

  12. Natural Product-Derived Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Safety, Efficacy, and Therapeutic Potential of Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, James; Ahn, Hyung Seok; Cheong, Jae Hoon; dela Peña, Ike

    2016-01-01

    Typical treatment plans for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) utilize nonpharmacological (behavioral/psychosocial) and/or pharmacological interventions. Limited accessibility to behavioral therapies and concerns over adverse effects of pharmacological treatments prompted research for alternative ADHD therapies such as natural product-derived treatments and nutritional supplements. In this study, we reviewed the herbal preparations and nutritional supplements evaluated in clinical studies as potential ADHD treatments and discussed their performance with regard to safety and efficacy in clinical trials. We also discussed some evidence suggesting that adjunct treatment of these agents (with another botanical agent or pharmacological ADHD treatments) may be a promising approach to treat ADHD. The analysis indicated mixed findings with regard to efficacy of natural product-derived ADHD interventions. Nevertheless, these treatments were considered as a “safer” approach than conventional ADHD medications. More comprehensive and appropriately controlled clinical studies are required to fully ascertain efficacy and safety of natural product-derived ADHD treatments. Studies that replicate encouraging findings on the efficacy of combining botanical agents and nutritional supplements with other natural product-derived therapies and widely used ADHD medications are also warranted. In conclusion, the risk-benefit balance of natural product-derived ADHD treatments should be carefully monitored when used as standalone treatment or when combined with other conventional ADHD treatments. PMID:26966583

  13. Natural Product-Derived Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Safety, Efficacy, and Therapeutic Potential of Combination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, James; Ahn, Hyung Seok; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Dela Peña, Ike

    2016-01-01

    Typical treatment plans for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) utilize nonpharmacological (behavioral/psychosocial) and/or pharmacological interventions. Limited accessibility to behavioral therapies and concerns over adverse effects of pharmacological treatments prompted research for alternative ADHD therapies such as natural product-derived treatments and nutritional supplements. In this study, we reviewed the herbal preparations and nutritional supplements evaluated in clinical studies as potential ADHD treatments and discussed their performance with regard to safety and efficacy in clinical trials. We also discussed some evidence suggesting that adjunct treatment of these agents (with another botanical agent or pharmacological ADHD treatments) may be a promising approach to treat ADHD. The analysis indicated mixed findings with regard to efficacy of natural product-derived ADHD interventions. Nevertheless, these treatments were considered as a "safer" approach than conventional ADHD medications. More comprehensive and appropriately controlled clinical studies are required to fully ascertain efficacy and safety of natural product-derived ADHD treatments. Studies that replicate encouraging findings on the efficacy of combining botanical agents and nutritional supplements with other natural product-derived therapies and widely used ADHD medications are also warranted. In conclusion, the risk-benefit balance of natural product-derived ADHD treatments should be carefully monitored when used as standalone treatment or when combined with other conventional ADHD treatments.

  14. Atmospheric infrared sounder on AIRS with emphasis on level 2 products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sung-Yung; Fetzer, Eric; Granger, Stephanie; Hearty, Thomas; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Manning, Evan M.; Olsen, Edward; Pagano, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched aboard EOS Aqua in May of 2002. AIRS is a grating spectrometer with almost 2400 channels covering the 3.74 to 15.40 micron spectral region with a nominal spectral resolution ((nu)/(delta)(nu)) of 1200, with some gaps. In addition, AIRS has 4 channels in the NIR/VIS region. The AIRS operates in conjunction with the microwave sounders Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) and Humidity Sounder of Brazil (HSB). The microwave sounders are mainly used for cloud clearing of IR radiances, or to remove the effect of cloud on the IR radiances.

  15. A Well-Mixed Computational Model for Estimating Room Air Levels of Selected Constituents from E-Vapor Product Use

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Ali A.; Pithawalla, Yezdi B.; Liu, Jianmin; Oldham, Michael J.; Wagner, Karl A.; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Sarkar, Mohamadi A.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in the literature for the potential of secondhand exposure from e-vapor product (EVP) use. It would be difficult to experimentally determine the impact of various factors on secondhand exposure including, but not limited to, room characteristics (indoor space size, ventilation rate), device specifications (aerosol mass delivery, e-liquid composition), and use behavior (number of users and usage frequency). Therefore, a well-mixed computational model was developed to estimate the indoor levels of constituents from EVPs under a variety of conditions. The model is based on physical and thermodynamic interactions between aerosol, vapor, and air, similar to indoor air models referred to by the Environmental Protection Agency. The model results agree well with measured indoor air levels of nicotine from two sources: smoking machine-generated aerosol and aerosol exhaled from EVP use. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing air exchange rate reduces room air level of constituents, as more material is carried away. The effect of the amount of aerosol released into the space due to variability in exhalation was also evaluated. The model can estimate the room air level of constituents as a function of time, which may be used to assess the level of non-user exposure over time. PMID:27537903

  16. A Well-Mixed Computational Model for Estimating Room Air Levels of Selected Constituents from E-Vapor Product Use.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Ali A; Pithawalla, Yezdi B; Liu, Jianmin; Oldham, Michael J; Wagner, Karl A; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Sarkar, Mohamadi A

    2016-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in the literature for the potential of secondhand exposure from e-vapor product (EVP) use. It would be difficult to experimentally determine the impact of various factors on secondhand exposure including, but not limited to, room characteristics (indoor space size, ventilation rate), device specifications (aerosol mass delivery, e-liquid composition), and use behavior (number of users and usage frequency). Therefore, a well-mixed computational model was developed to estimate the indoor levels of constituents from EVPs under a variety of conditions. The model is based on physical and thermodynamic interactions between aerosol, vapor, and air, similar to indoor air models referred to by the Environmental Protection Agency. The model results agree well with measured indoor air levels of nicotine from two sources: smoking machine-generated aerosol and aerosol exhaled from EVP use. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing air exchange rate reduces room air level of constituents, as more material is carried away. The effect of the amount of aerosol released into the space due to variability in exhalation was also evaluated. The model can estimate the room air level of constituents as a function of time, which may be used to assess the level of non-user exposure over time. PMID:27537903

  17. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies the green, blue and grey water footprint of global crop production in a spatially-explicit way for the period 1996-2005. The assessment is global and improves upon earlier research by taking a high-resolution approach, estimating the water footprint of 126 crops at a 5 by 5 arc min grid. We have used a grid-based dynamic water balance model to calculate crop water use over time, with a time step of one day. The model takes into account the daily soil water balance and climatic conditions for each grid cell. In addition, the water pollution associated with the use of nitrogen fertilizer in crop production is estimated for each grid cell. The crop evapotranspiration of additional 20 minor crops is calculated with the CROPWAT model. In addition, we have calculated the water footprint of more than two hundred derived crop products, including various flours, beverages, fibres and biofuels. We have used the water footprint assessment framework as in the guideline of the water footprint network. Considering the water footprints of primary crops, we see that global average water footprint per ton of crop increases from sugar crops (roughly 200 m3 ton-1), vegetables (300 m3 ton-1), roots and tubers (400 m3 ton-1), fruits (1000 m3 ton-1), cereals} (1600 m3 ton-1), oil crops (2400 m3 ton-1) to pulses (4000 m3 ton-1). The water footprint varies, however, across different crops per crop category and per production region as well. Besides, if one considers the water footprint per kcal, the picture changes as well. When considered per ton of product, commodities with relatively large water footprints are: coffee, tea, cocoa, tobacco, spices, nuts, rubber and fibres. The analysis of water footprints of different biofuels shows that bio-ethanol has a lower water footprint (in m3 GJ-1) than biodiesel, which supports earlier analyses. The crop used matters significantly as well: the global average water footprint of bio-ethanol based on sugar beet amounts to 51

  18. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2011-05-01

    This study quantifies the green, blue and grey water footprint of global crop production in a spatially-explicit way for the period 1996-2005. The assessment improves upon earlier research by taking a high-resolution approach, estimating the water footprint of 126 crops at a 5 by 5 arc minute grid. We have used a grid-based dynamic water balance model to calculate crop water use over time, with a time step of one day. The model takes into account the daily soil water balance and climatic conditions for each grid cell. In addition, the water pollution associated with the use of nitrogen fertilizer in crop production is estimated for each grid cell. The crop evapotranspiration of additional 20 minor crops is calculated with the CROPWAT model. In addition, we have calculated the water footprint of more than two hundred derived crop products, including various flours, beverages, fibres and biofuels. We have used the water footprint assessment framework as in the guideline of the Water Footprint Network. Considering the water footprints of primary crops, we see that the global average water footprint per ton of crop increases from sugar crops (roughly 200 m3 ton-1), vegetables (300 m3 ton-1), roots and tubers (400 m3 ton-1), fruits (1000 m3 ton-1), cereals (1600 m3 ton-1), oil crops (2400 m3 ton-1) to pulses (4000 m3 ton-1). The water footprint varies, however, across different crops per crop category and per production region as well. Besides, if one considers the water footprint per kcal, the picture changes as well. When considered per ton of product, commodities with relatively large water footprints are: coffee, tea, cocoa, tobacco, spices, nuts, rubber and fibres. The analysis of water footprints of different biofuels shows that bio-ethanol has a lower water footprint (in m3 GJ-1) than biodiesel, which supports earlier analyses. The crop used matters significantly as well: the global average water footprint of bio-ethanol based on sugar beet amounts to 51 m3 GJ-1

  19. Enhanced production of a novel cytotoxic chromone oxalicumone A by marine-derived mutant Penicillium oxalicum SCSIO 24-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Bao, Jie; Zhong, Juan; Xu, Xin-Ya; Nong, Xu-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Many marine natural products hold great potential for the development of new and much needed drugs. However, the production of active metabolites by marine-derived microorganisms is usually very low, and large-scale culture has to be involved to meet the need of chemical structural modification and deep pharmacy study. In order to enhance the production of a novel cytotoxic sulfur-containing chromone oxalicumone A (OA), germinating spores of a marine-derived wild strain Penicillium oxalicum SCSGAF 0023 were mutated by microwave and ultraviolet light irradiation, which led to the obtainment of a mutant P. oxalicum SCSIO 24-2 that could produce fivefold increase in OA production (3.42 ± 0.21 mg/l) as compared to the wild strain. This is the first report that germinating spores are applied in marine-derived Penicillium sp. mutating to enhance the production of OA. Further, Plackett-Burman design and central composite design were adopted to optimize the basic medium components for increasing OA production by the mutant SCSIO 24-2 in shake flasks. The results indicated that three medium components including mannitol, maltose, and L-cysteine had significant effects on OA production, and their concentrations were optimized as 36, 27.9, and 0.99 g/l, respectively. In the optimized medium, the OA production (18.31 ± 0.27 mg/l) by mutant SCSIO 24-2 was 4.4-fold higher than that in the basic medium. These results of this work promise to improve the present production of OA and may be adopted to enhance other objective products' production by marine-derived fungi.

  20. Derivative Products Based on the Geologic Map of Lassen Volcanic National Park and Vicinity, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muffler, L. J.; Clynne, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The 1:50,000 Geologic Map of Lassen Volcanic National Park and Vicinity (USGS SIM 2899; in press) provides a basis for a number of derivative and topical studies. Geologic mapping of 1,900 km2 at 1:24,000 was combined with reconnaissance geologic mapping of an additional 4,440 km2 around the Park to produce a unified spatial data base that includes all of the Lake Almanor 1:100,000 sheet and part of the Burney sheet to the north. The mapping was supported by careful collection of fresh, representative, precisely located rock samples. The spatial database and the samples provided the essential geological foundation for 1,200 major-element chemical analyses and over 200 modern K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, and 14C ages. The resultant robust data sets have proven to have a multitude of uses. Examples of products directly derived from the spatial database include: ● Generalized text figures for SIM-2899, field trip guides, and topical papers illustrating the two regional volcanic suites and the sequential development of the volcanic centers. ● Figures illustrating areas of volcanic units <100 ka in the formal assessment of volcanic, hydrothermal and landslide hazards at Lassen Volcanic National Park. ● Detailed geologic map of the 39 units of the Poison Lake chain of basaltic vents (100-110 ka) as the basis for a comprehensive stratigraphic, chemical, geochronologic, and paleomagnetic studies. ● Derivative vent, fault and generalized geologic maps incorporated with aeromagnetic maps for an analysis of the interaction of the Cascade Range and the Walker Lane. ● Maps serving as the basis for several studies of characteristic paleomagnetic remanence of regional tholeiitic basalts. ● Geologic framework maps for studies of old hydrothermal systems in Brokeoff Volcano and the Maidu Volcanic Center and for comparison with remote-sensing surveys. The spatial, chemical and isotopic databases have also provided the essential context for discrimination of fundamental basalt types

  1. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems–Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y.; Shepherd, T. A.; Li, H.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens’ activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  2. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  3. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  4. Benzene Exposures and Risk Potential for Vehicle Mechanics from Gasoline and Petroleum-Derived Products.

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Mani, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Benzene exposures among vehicle mechanics in the United States and abroad were characterized using available data from published and unpublished studies. In the United States, the time-weighted-average (TWA) airborne concentration of benzene for vehicle mechanics averaged 0.01-0.05 ppm since at least the late 1970s, with maximal TWA concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 0.38 ppm. Benzene exposures were notably lower in the summer than winter and in the Southwest compared to other geographic regions, but significantly higher during known gasoline-related tasks such as draining a gas tank or changing a fuel pump or fuel filter. Measured airborne concentrations of benzene were also generally greater for vehicle mechanics in other countries, likely due to the higher benzene content of gasoline and other factors. Short-term airborne concentrations of benzene frequently exceeded 1 ppm during gasoline-related tasks, but remained below 0.2 ppm for tasks involving other petroleum-derived products such as carburetor and brake cleaner or parts washer solvent. Application of a two-zone mathematical model using reasonable input values from the literature yielded predicted task-based benzene concentrations during gasoline and aerosol spray cleaner scenarios similar to those measured for vehicle mechanics during these types of tasks. When evaluated using appropriate biomarkers, dermal exposures were found to contribute little to total benzene exposures for this occupational group. Available data suggest that vehicle mechanics have not experienced significant exposures to benzene in the workplace, except perhaps during short-duration gasoline-related tasks, and full-shift benzene exposures have remained well below current and contemporaneous occupational exposure limits. These findings are consistent with epidemiology studies of vehicle mechanics, which have not demonstrated an increased risk of benzene-induced health effects in this cohort of workers. Data and information presented

  5. Benzene Exposures and Risk Potential for Vehicle Mechanics from Gasoline and Petroleum-Derived Products.

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Mani, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Benzene exposures among vehicle mechanics in the United States and abroad were characterized using available data from published and unpublished studies. In the United States, the time-weighted-average (TWA) airborne concentration of benzene for vehicle mechanics averaged 0.01-0.05 ppm since at least the late 1970s, with maximal TWA concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 0.38 ppm. Benzene exposures were notably lower in the summer than winter and in the Southwest compared to other geographic regions, but significantly higher during known gasoline-related tasks such as draining a gas tank or changing a fuel pump or fuel filter. Measured airborne concentrations of benzene were also generally greater for vehicle mechanics in other countries, likely due to the higher benzene content of gasoline and other factors. Short-term airborne concentrations of benzene frequently exceeded 1 ppm during gasoline-related tasks, but remained below 0.2 ppm for tasks involving other petroleum-derived products such as carburetor and brake cleaner or parts washer solvent. Application of a two-zone mathematical model using reasonable input values from the literature yielded predicted task-based benzene concentrations during gasoline and aerosol spray cleaner scenarios similar to those measured for vehicle mechanics during these types of tasks. When evaluated using appropriate biomarkers, dermal exposures were found to contribute little to total benzene exposures for this occupational group. Available data suggest that vehicle mechanics have not experienced significant exposures to benzene in the workplace, except perhaps during short-duration gasoline-related tasks, and full-shift benzene exposures have remained well below current and contemporaneous occupational exposure limits. These findings are consistent with epidemiology studies of vehicle mechanics, which have not demonstrated an increased risk of benzene-induced health effects in this cohort of workers. Data and information presented

  6. Divergent effects of T cell costimulation and inflammatory cytokine production on autoimmune peripheral neuropathy provoked by Aire deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaopei L; Nagavalli, Anil; Smith, Colin-Jamal; Howard, James F; Su, Maureen A

    2013-04-15

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy results from autoimmune destruction of the peripheral nervous system and is a component of the multiorgan autoimmunity syndrome that results from Aire gene mutations in humans. In parallel, peripheral nervous system autoimmunity resembling chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy develops spontaneously in NOD mice with a partial loss of Aire function (NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice) and is a T cell-mediated disease. In this study, we analyze how key aspects of T cell activation and function modulate disease development in Aire-deficient mice. We show that genetic ablation of the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ completely prevents clinical and electrophysiological evidence of neuropathy in NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice. IFN-γ deficiency is associated with absence of immune infiltration and decreased expression of the T cell chemoattractant IP-10 in sciatic nerves. Thus, IFN-γ is absolutely required for the development of autoimmune peripheral neuropathy in NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice. Because IFN-γ secretion is enhanced by B7-CD28 costimulation of T cells, we sought to determine the effects of these costimulatory molecules on neuropathy development. Surprisingly, B7-2 deficiency accelerated neuropathy development in NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice, and Ab blockade of both B7-1 and B7-2 resulted in fulminant, early-onset neuropathy. Thus, in contrast to IFN-γ, B7-2 alone and B7-1/B7-2 in combination function to ameliorate neuropathy development in NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice. Together, these findings reveal distinct and opposing effects of the T cell costimulatory pathway and IFN-γ production on the pathogenesis of autoimmune peripheral neuropathy.

  7. Co-utilization of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol by Cryptococcus curvatus for lipid production.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K; Yang, Zhonghua; Yan, Jiabao; Zhao, Mi

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, synergistic effects were observed when glycerol was co-fermented with glucose and xylose for lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus. Glycerol was assimilated simultaneously with sugars at the beginning of the culture without adaption time. Furthermore, better lipid production results, i.e., lipid yield and lipid productivity of 18.0g/100g and 0.13g/L/h, respectively, were achieved when cells were cultured in blends of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol than those in the hydrolysates alone. The lipid samples had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of vegetable oils, suggesting their potential for biodiesel production. This co-utilization strategy provides an extremely simple solution to advance lipid production from both lignocelluloses and biodiesel-derived glycerol in one step.

  8. Co-utilization of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol by Cryptococcus curvatus for lipid production.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K; Yang, Zhonghua; Yan, Jiabao; Zhao, Mi

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, synergistic effects were observed when glycerol was co-fermented with glucose and xylose for lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus. Glycerol was assimilated simultaneously with sugars at the beginning of the culture without adaption time. Furthermore, better lipid production results, i.e., lipid yield and lipid productivity of 18.0g/100g and 0.13g/L/h, respectively, were achieved when cells were cultured in blends of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol than those in the hydrolysates alone. The lipid samples had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of vegetable oils, suggesting their potential for biodiesel production. This co-utilization strategy provides an extremely simple solution to advance lipid production from both lignocelluloses and biodiesel-derived glycerol in one step. PMID:27529520

  9. Asymmetric synthesis of protected α-amino boronic acid derivatives with an air- and moisture-stable Cu(II) catalyst.

    PubMed

    Buesking, Andrew W; Bacauanu, Vlad; Cai, Irene; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2014-04-18

    The asymmetric borylation of N-tert-butanesulfinyl imines with bis(pinacolato)diboron is achieved using a Cu(II) catalyst and provides access to synthetically useful and pharmaceutically relevant α-amino boronic acid derivatives. The Cu(II)-catalyzed reaction is performed on the benchtop in air at room temperature using commercially available, inexpensive reagents at low catalyst loadings. A variety of N-tert-butanesulfinyl imines, including ketimines, react readily to provide α-sulfinamido boronate esters in good yields and with high stereoselectivity. In addition, this transformation is applied to the straightforward, telescoped synthesis of α-sulfinamido trifluoroborates. PMID:24684495

  10. Phenolic compounds: Strong inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic hydrolysate for 2,3-butanediol production by Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Ju Hun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Kim, Sung Bong; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yoo, Hah Young; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2015-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass are attractive feedstocks for 2,3-butanediol production due to their abundant supply and low price. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, various byproducts are formed and their effects on 2,3-butanediol production were not sufficiently studied compared to ethanol production. Therefore, the effects of compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass (weak acids, furan derivatives and phenolics) on the cell growth, the 2,3-butanediol production and the enzymes activity involved in 2,3-butanediol production were evaluated using Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007. The phenolic compounds showed the most toxic effects on cell growth, 2,3-butanediol production and enzyme activity, followed by furan derivatives and weak acids. The significant effects were not observed in the presence of acetic acid and formic acid. Also, feasibility of 2,3-butanediol production from lignocellulosic biomass was evaluated using Miscanthus as a feedstock. In the fermentation of Miscanthus hydrolysate, 11.00 g/L of 2,3-butanediol was obtained from 34.62 g/L of reducing sugar. However, 2,3-butanediol was not produced when the concentration of total phenolic compounds in the hydrolysate increased to more than 1.5 g/L. The present study provides useful information to develop strategies for biological production of 2,3-butanediol and to establish biorefinery for biochemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:26479290

  11. Phenolic compounds: Strong inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic hydrolysate for 2,3-butanediol production by Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Ju Hun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Kim, Sung Bong; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yoo, Hah Young; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2015-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass are attractive feedstocks for 2,3-butanediol production due to their abundant supply and low price. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, various byproducts are formed and their effects on 2,3-butanediol production were not sufficiently studied compared to ethanol production. Therefore, the effects of compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass (weak acids, furan derivatives and phenolics) on the cell growth, the 2,3-butanediol production and the enzymes activity involved in 2,3-butanediol production were evaluated using Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007. The phenolic compounds showed the most toxic effects on cell growth, 2,3-butanediol production and enzyme activity, followed by furan derivatives and weak acids. The significant effects were not observed in the presence of acetic acid and formic acid. Also, feasibility of 2,3-butanediol production from lignocellulosic biomass was evaluated using Miscanthus as a feedstock. In the fermentation of Miscanthus hydrolysate, 11.00 g/L of 2,3-butanediol was obtained from 34.62 g/L of reducing sugar. However, 2,3-butanediol was not produced when the concentration of total phenolic compounds in the hydrolysate increased to more than 1.5 g/L. The present study provides useful information to develop strategies for biological production of 2,3-butanediol and to establish biorefinery for biochemicals from lignocellulosic biomass.

  12. Operational Use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals Along with the RGB Air Mass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, Michael; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) and Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) provide short-term and medium-range forecast guidance of heavy precipitation, strong winds, and other features often associated with mid-latitude cyclones over both land and ocean. As a result, detection of factors that lead to rapid cyclogenesis and high wind events is key to improving forecast skill. One phenomenon that has been identified with these events is the stratospheric intrusion that occurs near tropopause folds. This allows for deep mixing near the top of the atmosphere where dry air high in ozone concentrations and potential vorticity descends (sometimes rapidly) deep into the mid-troposphere. Observations from satellites can aid in detection of these stratospheric air intrusions (SAI) regions. Specifically, multispectral composite imagery assign a variety of satellite spectral bands to the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of imagery pixels and result in color combinations that can assist in the detection of dry stratospheric air associated with PV advection, which in turn may alert forecasters to the possibility of a rapidly strengthening storm system. Single channel or RGB satellite imagery lacks quantitative information about atmospheric moisture unless the sampled brightness temperatures or other data are converted to estimates of moisture via a retrieval process. Thus, complementary satellite observations are needed to capture a complete picture of a developing storm system. Here, total column ozone retrievals derived from a hyperspectral sounder are used to confirm the extent and magnitude of SAIs. Total ozone is a good proxy for defining locations and intensity of SAIs and has been used in studies evaluating that phenomenon (e.g. Tian et al. 2007, Knox and Schmidt 2005). Steep gradients in values of total ozone seen by satellites have been linked

  13. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO

  14. 77 FR 8575 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... February 14, 2012 Part V Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 63 National Emissions Standards for... 63 RIN 2060-AQ40 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum... proposing amendments to the national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for Secondary...

  15. The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

    2012-07-01

    Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

  16. Effects of anti-odor automobile air-conditioning system products on adherence of Serratia marcescens to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Drago, G K; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    2002-12-01

    Sixteen commercial products for use in automobile air-conditioning systems (ACS), most designated for abatement of malodors presumably of microbial origin, were examined for their potential to inhibit attachment and to detach cells of the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens on aluminum sections. Numbers of attached cells were appreciably reduced (>60%) following immersion in three alcohol-type and two acrylic-coating-type products. Several products had essentially no effect on the attached cells. Most of the products indicated for alleviation of associated microbial odors from ACS provided only short-term effects. When products were coated onto aluminum prior to exposure to the cells, water-insoluble coatings appeared to provide more consistent inhibition of primary adherence of S. marcescens. The differences in degrees of primary adherence of a selected strain of S. marcescens to variously treated aluminum provided a rapid and reproducible assessment of potential antimicrobial efficacy of ACS products. PMID:12483481

  17. Measurement of HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate due to radon decay in air

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huiling

    1993-08-01

    Radon in indoor air may cause the exposure of the public to excessive radioactivity. Radiolysis of water vapor in indoor air due to radon decay could produce ({center_dot}OH and HO{sub 2} {center_dot}) that may convert atmospheric constituents to compounds of lower vapor pressure. These lower vapor pressure compounds might then nucleate to form new particles in the indoor atmosphere. Chemical amplification was used to determine HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate in indoor air caused by radon decay. Average HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate was found to be (4.31{plus_minus}0.07) {times} 10{sup 5} HO{sub x}{center_dot} per Rn decay per second (Bq) 3.4 to 55.0% at 22C. This work provided G{sub (HO{sub x}{center_dot})}-value, 7.86{plus_minus}0.13 No./100 eV in air by directly measuring [HO{sub x}{center_dot}] formed from the radiolysis procedure. This G value implies that HO{sub x}{center_dot} produced by radon decay in air might be formed by multiple processes and may be result of positive ion-molecule reactions, primary radiolysis, and radical reactions. There is no obvious relation between HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate and relative humidity. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been used for {center_dot}OH production rate measurement; it consists of an excimer laser, a dye laser, a frequency doubler, a gaseous fluorescence chamber, and other optical and electronic parts. This system needs to be improved to eliminate the interferences of light scattering and artificial {center_dot}OH produced from the photolysis of O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O.

  18. Comparison of elevation and remote sensing derived products as auxiliary data for climate surface interpolation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, Otto; Guo, Qinghua; Klinger, Robert C.; Li, Wenkai; Doherty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Climate models may be limited in their inferential use if they cannot be locally validated or do not account for spatial uncertainty. Much of the focus has gone into determining which interpolation method is best suited for creating gridded climate surfaces, which often a covariate such as elevation (Digital Elevation Model, DEM) is used to improve the interpolation accuracy. One key area where little research has addressed is in determining which covariate best improves the accuracy in the interpolation. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation was carried out in determining which covariates were most suitable for interpolating climatic variables (e.g. precipitation, mean temperature, minimum temperature, and maximum temperature). We compiled data for each climate variable from 1950 to 1999 from approximately 500 weather stations across the Western United States (32° to 49° latitude and −124.7° to −112.9° longitude). In addition, we examined the uncertainty of the interpolated climate surface. Specifically, Thin Plate Spline (TPS) was used as the interpolation method since it is one of the most popular interpolation techniques to generate climate surfaces. We considered several covariates, including DEM, slope, distance to coast (Euclidean distance), aspect, solar potential, radar, and two Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) products derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). A tenfold cross-validation was applied to determine the uncertainty of the interpolation based on each covariate. In general, the leading covariate for precipitation was radar, while DEM was the leading covariate for maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures. A comparison to other products such as PRISM and WorldClim showed strong agreement across large geographic areas but climate surfaces generated in this study (ClimSurf) had greater variability at high elevation regions, such as in the Sierra

  19. An index for quantifying the aerobic reactivity of municipal solid wastes and derived waste products.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    The organic matter contained in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in the MSW fractions obtained by mechanical separation has strong environmental impact when the waste is used as landfill. This is partly due to the biological activity that occurs under anaerobic conditions. Negative effects on the environment include unpleasant odors, biogas, leachate and biomass self-heating. Measuring the biological reactivity of waste with the help of indicators is an important tool to prevent waste impact. The aim of this study was to develop an index capable of describing the aerobic reactivity of waste, using both biological and chemical indicators. To develop this index, 71 MSW and MSW-product samples, including biologically treated MSW and mechanically separated MSW fractions, were analyzed. Fifty of the 71 samples analyzed represented MSWs and their derived products collected from a number of Italian waste plants and sites. The remaining 21 were MSW samples collected at different times during 8 different full-scale aerobic biological processes in four treatment plants used to reduce the biological reactivity of wastes. Five of these processes used the entire (unsorted) MSW, while the remaining three used the organic fraction of the MSW obtained by mechanical pre-treatment (waste sieving). Respirometric activity (Dynamic Respiration Index, DRI) and eluates characterization (chemical oxygen demand--COD, and 5 days biological oxygen demand--BOD5) were used as indicators of waste strength, as they had previously been reported to be indirect measures of waste impact on landfill. Summarizing all studied indicators, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to develop the Putrescibility Index (Ip). The results revealed Ip index of 204+/-33 (mean+/-standard deviation) and 159+/-14 for the organic fraction of MSW and MSW untreated waste respectively, and of 106+/-16 and 101+/-22 for the corresponding biologically treated waste. PMID:18280541

  20. Separation and purification of tricin from an antioxidant product derived from bamboo leaves.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jingjing; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Chengmei; Liu, Jie'er; Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Ying

    2007-12-12

    Tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone) occurs in its glycosidic form in rice bran and other grass species such as wheat, barley, and maize. Tricin is considered sufficiently safe for clinical development as a cancer chemopreventive agent, therefore it can be used for cancer prevention. This study established a new method for the preparation of tricin from bamboo leaves as an alternative to traditional methods such as chemical synthesis via the Baker-Venkata-Raman reaction between acetylsyringic acid and phloroacetophenone. Tricin was prepared from an antioxidant product that was derived from bamboo leaves (AOB) by extraction with aqueous ethanol. A concentrated solution of this product was obtained and then processed by polystyrene (AB-8) resin column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with 30% (v/v) acetonitrile in 1% (v/v) acetic acid as the mobile phase. The collected tricin-rich fraction was further sequentially purified by dialysis membrane separation and drowning-out crystallization methods. The purity was assessed by analytical HPLC with 25% (v/v) acetonitrile in 1% (v/v) acetic acid as the mobile phase, and the chemical confirmation was evaluated by infrared, mass, nuclear magnetic resonance, and ultraviolet spectroscopies. Tricin (3.09 g) was prepared from 174 g of a crude column chromatography fraction obtained from 5 L of AOB concentrated solution. The present method is appropriate for preparing quantities of pure tricin, which can be used for the quantification of tricin in various plant herbs and further for pharmaceutical/biomedical applications and evaluation. PMID:18001030

  1. Quality, compatibility, and synergy analyses of global aerosol products derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Li, Zhanqing

    2005-05-01

    A number of global aerosol products of varying quality, strengths, and weaknesses have been generated. Presented here are synthetic analyses with regard to the quality, compatibility, and synergy of two long-term global (1983-2000) aerosol products derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Four essential aerosol parameters, namely, aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from AVHRR under the Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP), TOMS AOT, Ångström exponent (AE) from AVHRR, and TOMS aerosol index (AI) are analyzed together with various ancillary data sets on meteorological fields, ocean color, and ground-based AOT measurements. While the two satellite products reveal some common features, significant discrepancies exist. Reflectances measured at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths from the two sensors are incompatible in terms of the magnitude of AE computed from AOT derived from the two channels. The spatial distributions of the aerosol products from AVHRR and TOMS are complimentary in revealing different aspects of aerosol characteristics. In-depth analyses were carried out over several regions under the influence of different types of aerosols such as biomass burning, dust, sea salt, air pollution, and their mixtures. A classification algorithm was developed to identify dominant types of aerosols around the globe using aerosol products from the two instruments. Aerosol type information is used to develop and apply relationships between the AVHRR AOT and the TOMS AOT. The latter was used to extend the AOT at 0.55 μm over land around the globe. Comparisons of monthly mean AOTs with AERONET monthly mean AOTs showed a general agreement to within an estimated error range of ±0.08 ± 0.20τ. Finally, a comparison between the estimated AOT with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOT over land showed good agreement in terms of magnitude and seasonality, suggesting a means of

  2. Validation of Interannual Differences of AIRS Monthly Mean Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky; Molnar, Gyula

    2005-01-01

    Monthly mean fields of select geophysical parameters derived from analysis of AIRS/AMSU data, and their interannual differences, are shown and compared with analogous fields derived from other sources. All AIRS fields are derived using the AIRS Science Team Version 4 algorithm. Monthly mean results are shown for January 2004, as are interannual differences between January 2004 and January 2003. AIRS temperature and water vapor profile fields are compared with monthly mean collocated ECMWF 3 hour forecast and monthly mean TOVS Pathfinder Path A data. AIRS Tropospheric and Stratospheric coarse climate indicators are compared with analogous MSU products derived by Spencer and christy and found in the TOVS Pathfinder Path A data set. Total ozone is compared with results produced by TOMS. OLR is compared with OLR derived using CERES data and found in the TOVS Pathfinder Path A data set. AIRS results agree well in all cases, especially in the interannual difference sense.

  3. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (< C6). Although measured ambient VOC concentrations were well below health-based safe exposure levels, the existence of urban-level mean concentrations of benzene and other mobile source air toxics combined with soot to total carbon ratios that were high for an area with little residential or commercial development may be indicative of the impact of increased heavy-duty vehicle traffic related to gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near

  4. Liquid chromatographic determination of safrole in sassafras-derived herbal products.

    PubMed

    Carlson, M; Thompson, R D

    1997-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determining safrole in herbal products derived from sassafras (Sassafras albidum), as well as related compounds such as isosafrole and dihydrosafrole. The procedure involves solvent extraction and isolation of analyte by reversed-phase LC with UV detection at 235 nm. Safrole is resolved from related compounds and other sample constituents including thymol, a component of thyme. A linear concentration range of 0.003-0.200 mg/mL was obtained for safrole, isosafrole, and dihydrosafrole. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were e0.0015 and 0.0051 micrograms/mL for safrole, 0.0018 and 0.0061 micrograms/mL for isosafrole, and 0.0038 and 0.0125 micrograms/mL for dihydrosafrole, respectively. Intraday relative standard deviations (RSDs) for safrole (n = 5) from various samples ranged from 1.30 to 5.39% at analyte levels of 0.01-1.5%. Safrole contents of 26 samples including root bark powder, leaves, oils, tea concentrate, herbal extract tinctures, and herbal powder capsules ranged from < LOD for most leaf samples to 92.4% for an oil. Recoveries of safrole from fortified samples ranged from 83.6% for an oil to 117.2% for a tincture preparation. Safrole contents of 0.09-4.66 mg/cup were found for brewed teas prepared from sassafras root bark powders and tinctures.

  5. Aeromonas punctata derived depolymerase that disrupts the integrity of Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule: optimization of depolymerase production.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Shruti; Soni, Sanjeev Kumar; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2014-07-01

    Formation of dense, highly hydrated biofilm structures pose a risk for public and environmental health. Extracellular polymeric substances encompassing biofilms offer 1000-fold greater resistance as compared to the planktonic cells. Using enzymes as anti-biofouling agents, will improve penetration of antimicrobials and increase susceptibility of biofilms to components of immune system. The challenge of using enzymes derived from unrelated bacteria for the degradation of capsular matrix of Klebsiella pneumoniae has not been dealt in the past. Thus, statistical optimization was done to enhance depolymerase production by Aeromonas punctata, directed against the exopolysaccharide matrix of Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055, capable of substituting the available phage borne depolymerase enzyme. Optimization via central composite design (CCD) resulted in 16-fold enhancement in depolymerase yield (166.65 µmoles ml(-1)  min(-1) ) over unoptimized medium. Out of the 19 variables, media composition giving maximum expression levels of the enzyme consisted of 1 mg ml(-1) galactose and ammonium chloride, 1.5 mg ml(-1) each of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and magnesium sulfate. Tryptic peptide analysis of the purified 29 kDa band by Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) showed a high homology with a protein of unknown function from Aeromonas cavaie Ae398. Further improvements in the enzyme can lead to its successful development as prophylactic and/or a therapeutic agent.

  6. Prebiotic Synthesis of Autocatalytic Products From Formaldehyde-Derived Sugars as the Carbon and Energy Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    Our research objective is to understand and model the chemical processes on the primitive Earth that generated the first autocatalytic molecules and microstructures involved in the origin of life. Our approach involves: (a) investigation of a model origin-of-life process named the Sugar Model that is based on the reaction of formaldehyde- derived sugars (trioses and tetroses) with ammonia, and (b) elucidation of the constraints imposed on the chemistry of the origin of life by the fixed energies and rates of C,H,O-organic reactions under mild aqueous conditions. Recently, we demonstrated that under mild aqueous conditions the Sugar Model process yields autocatalytic products, and generates organic micropherules (2-20 micron dia.) that exhibit budding, size uniformity, and chain formation. We also discovered that the sugar substrates of the Sugar Model are capable of reducing nitrite to ammonia under mild aqueous conditions. In addition studies done in collaboration with Sandra Pizzarrello (Arizona State University) revealed that chiral amino acids (including meteoritic isovaline) catalyze both the synthesis and specific handedness of chiral sugars. Our systematic survey of the energies and rates of reactions of C,H,O-organic substrates under mild aqueous conditions revealed several general principles (rules) that govern the direction and rate of organic reactions. These reactivity principles constrain the structure of chemical pathways used in the origin of life, and in modern and primitive metabolism.

  7. Production of dimethylfuran for liquid fuels from biomass-derived carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Barrett, Christopher J; Liu, Zhen Y; Dumesic, James A

    2007-06-21

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming indicate that sustainable sources of energy are needed in the near future. For fuels to be useful in the transportation sector, they must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage and combustion; these properties are currently fulfilled by non-renewable petroleum-derived liquid fuels. Ethanol, the only renewable liquid fuel currently produced in large quantities, suffers from several limitations, including low energy density, high volatility, and contamination by the absorption of water from the atmosphere. Here we present a catalytic strategy for the production of 2,5-dimethylfuran from fructose (a carbohydrate obtained directly from biomass or by the isomerization of glucose) for use as a liquid transportation fuel. Compared to ethanol, 2,5-dimethylfuran has a higher energy density (by 40 per cent), a higher boiling point (by 20 K), and is not soluble in water. This catalytic strategy creates a route for transforming abundant renewable biomass resources into a liquid fuel suitable for the transportation sector, and may diminish our reliance on petroleum. PMID:17581580

  8. Patulin and secondary metabolite production by marine-derived Penicillium strains.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, Marieke; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Blanchet, Elodie; Fossi Tankoua, Olivia; Robiou Du Pont, Thibaut; Joubert, Yolaine; Monteau, Fabrice; Le Bizec, Bruno; Frisvad, Jens C; Pouchus, Yves François; Grovel, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    Genus Penicillium represents an important fungal group regarding to its mycotoxin production.