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Sample records for airs infrared images

  1. [Investigation on remote measurement of air pollution by a method of infrared passive scanning imaging].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Xu, Liang; Gao, Min-Guang; Feng, Ming-Chun; Jin, Ling; Tong, Jing-Jing; Li, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    Passive remote sensing by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry allows detection of air pollution. However, for the localization of a leak and a complete assessment of the situation in the case of the release of a hazardous cloud, information about the position and the distribution of a cloud is essential. Therefore, an imaging passive remote sensing system comprising an interferometer, a data acquisition and processing software, scan system, a video system, and a personal computer has been developed. The remote sensing of SF6 was done. The column densities of all directions in which a target compound has been identified may be retrieved by a nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm and algorithm of radiation transfer, and a false color image is displayed. The results were visualized by a video image, overlaid by false color concentration distribution image. The system has a high selectivity, and allows visualization and quantification of pollutant clouds.

  2. A new method for infrared imaging of air currents in and around critical hazard fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Mulac, W.A.; McCreary, J.R. ); Schmalz, H. Thermal Surveys, Inc., Rockford, IL )

    1992-01-01

    A real time method of measuring and recording the efficacy of vapor containment in and around critical hazard fume hoods is being developed. An infrared camera whose response is restricted to a spectral range that overlaps a strong absorption band in a non-toxic gas is used to render real-time video images of the presence and flow of the gas. The gas, nitrous oxide, is ejected in a continuous stream in and around fume hoods that are to be certified capable of containing hazardous fumes. The principle advantage is that various scenarios of air flow displacement in and outside the hood can be easily investigated; the principle limitation is the necessity of high tracer gas concentration to obtain strong visualizations. We hope that this technique can be found to be an effective and safe method to test hoods in locations that were built before present regulations were promulgated.

  3. A new method for infrared imaging of air currents in and around critical hazard fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Mulac, W.A.; McCreary, J.R.; Schmalz, H. |

    1992-11-01

    A real time method of measuring and recording the efficacy of vapor containment in and around critical hazard fume hoods is being developed. An infrared camera whose response is restricted to a spectral range that overlaps a strong absorption band in a non-toxic gas is used to render real-time video images of the presence and flow of the gas. The gas, nitrous oxide, is ejected in a continuous stream in and around fume hoods that are to be certified capable of containing hazardous fumes. The principle advantage is that various scenarios of air flow displacement in and outside the hood can be easily investigated; the principle limitation is the necessity of high tracer gas concentration to obtain strong visualizations. We hope that this technique can be found to be an effective and safe method to test hoods in locations that were built before present regulations were promulgated.

  4. Infrared Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Earth objects emit natural radiation invisible to the unaided human eye, but visible to infrared scanning devices such as the device developed by Inframetrics, Inc. Such devices serve a number of purposes ranging from detection of heat loss in buildings for energy conservation measures, to examining heat output of industrial machinery for trouble shooting and preventive maintenance. Representative of system is Model 525, a small, lightweight field instrument that scans infrared radiation and translates its findings to a TV picture of the temperature pattern in the scene being viewed. An accessory device permits viewing the thermal radiation in color.

  5. Feasibility study for Japanese Air Quality Mission from Geostationary Satellite: Infrared Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi, K.; Kasai, Y.; Philippe, B.; Suzuki, K.; Kita, K.; Hayashida, S.; Imasu, R.; Akimoto, H.

    2009-12-01

    A Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite is potentially able to monitor the regional distribution of pollution with good spatial and temporal resolution. The Japan Society of Atmospheric Chemistry (JSAC) and the Japanese Space Exploration Agency (JAXA) initiated a concept study for air quality measurements from a GEO satellite targeting the Asian region [1]. This work presents the results of sensitivity studies for a Thermal Infrared (TIR) (650-2300cm-1) candidate instrument. We performed a simulation study and error analysis to optimize the instrumental operating frequencies and spectral resolution. The scientific requirements, in terms of minimum precision (or error) values, are 10% for tropospheric O3 and CO and total column of HN3 and nighttime HNO2 and 25% for O3 and CO with separating 2 or 3 column in troposphere. Two atmospheric scenarios, one is Asian background, second is polluted case, were assumed for this study. The forward calculations and the retrieval error analysis were performed with the AMATERASU model [2] developed within the NICT-THz remote sensing project. Retrieval error analysis employed the Optimal Estimation Method [3]. The geometry is off-nadir observation on Tokyo from the geostationary satellite at equator. Fine spectral resolution will allow to observe boundary layer O3 and CO. We estimate the observation precision in the spectral resolution from 0.1cm-1 to 1cm-1 for 0-2km, 2-6km, and 6-12km. A spectral resolution of 0.3 cm-1 gives good sensitivity for all target molecules (e.g. tropospheric O3 can be detected separated 2 column with error 30%). A resolution of 0.6 cm-1 is sufficient to detect tropospheric column amount of O3 and CO (in the Asian background scenario), which is within the required precision and with acceptable instrumental SNR values of 100 for O3 and 30 for CO. However, with this resolution, the boundary layer ozone will be difficult to detect in the background abundance. In addition, a spectral resolution of 0.6 cm

  6. Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimeteric Imager (AirMSPI): Calibration and Comparison with Collocated Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, F. C.; Diner, D. J.; Bruegge, C. J.; Rheingans, B. E.; Garay, M. J.; Daugherty, B. J.; Chipman, R. A.; Davis, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is a pushbroom multiangle spectropolarimetric camera with spectral bands near 355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, and 935 nm. Flying on NASAs's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft since 2010, AirMSPI uses dual photoelastic modulator (PEM)-based technology to provide accurate measurements of the Stokes linear polarization parameters Q and U in the 470, 660, and 865 nm bands, providing unique observing capabilities for aerosol, cloud, and surface studies. We describe the methodologies used for radiometric and polarimetric calibration and characterization of the AirMSPI instrument, which make use of a combination of laboratory and vicarious techniques. A 1.65 m integrating sphere and overflights of Ivanpah Playa, NV are used for radiometric calibration. Radiometric cross-comparisons with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), also flying on the ER-2, are used to validate the radiometric scale. For polarimetric calibration, a well-calibrated Polarization State Generator is used to provide known polarimetric inputs. A high-extinction rotating wiregrid polarizer is used to derive polarimetric calibration coefficients for each pixel, and the results are then validated using partially polarized light generated using tilted glass plates. Examples of collocated multiangular, polarimetric imagery from AirMSPI and hyperspectral imagery from AVIRIS will be shown, presenting new opportunities for atmosphere and surface remote sensing.

  7. Variable waveband infrared imager

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Scott R.

    2013-06-11

    A waveband imager includes an imaging pixel that utilizes photon tunneling with a thermally actuated bimorph structure to convert infrared radiation to visible radiation. Infrared radiation passes through a transparent substrate and is absorbed by a bimorph structure formed with a pixel plate. The absorption generates heat which deflects the bimorph structure and pixel plate towards the substrate and into an evanescent electric field generated by light propagating through the substrate. Penetration of the bimorph structure and pixel plate into the evanescent electric field allows a portion of the visible wavelengths propagating through the substrate to tunnel through the substrate, bimorph structure, and/or pixel plate as visible radiation that is proportional to the intensity of the incident infrared radiation. This converted visible radiation may be superimposed over visible wavelengths passed through the imaging pixel.

  8. Hybrid Infrared Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Gary C.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental device has low noise and high uniformity. Infrared imaging device combines array of InSb photodetectors with array of silicon field-effect-transistor switches. InSb chip forms roof over Si chip, each InSb detector cell engaging indium bump on corresponding Si switch cell below it. FET switches in 128-by-128 array turn on in sequence, read out charges on 128-by-128 array of photodetectors and multiplex them in serial output that represents pattern of light on array of photodetectors. Useful in sensitive infrared cameras for astronomy, medicine, inspection, and military surveillance. Reads out image data at rates up to 10 MHz and expands to 256-by-256 array.

  9. Infrared imaging of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesco, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal infrared imaging of comets provides fundamental information about the distribution of dust in their comae and tails. The imaging program at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a unique 20-pixel bolometer array that was developed to image comets at 8 to 30 micrometer. These images provide the basis for: (1) characterizing the composition and size distribution of particles, (2) determining the mass-loss rates from cometary nuclei, and (3) describing the dynamics of the interaction between the dust and the solar radiation. Since the array became operational in 1985, researchers have produced a unique series of IR images of comets Giacobini-Zinner (GZ), Halley, and Wilson. That of GZ was the first groundbased thermal image ever made of a comet and was used to construct, with visible observations, an albedo map. Those data and dynamical analyses showed that GZ contained a population of large (approximately 300 micrometer), fluffy dust grains that formed a distinict inner tail. The accumulating body of images of various comets has also provided a basis for fruitfully intercomparing comet properties. Researchers also took advantage of the unique capabilities of the camera to resolve the inner, possible protoplanetary, disk of the star Beta Pictoris, while not a comet research program, that study is a fruitful additional application of the array to solar system astronomy.

  10. Ultrabroadband infrared nanospectroscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Hans A.; Muller, Eric A.; Olmon, Robert L.; Martin, Michael C.; Raschke, Markus B.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing and ultimately controlling the heterogeneity underlying biomolecular functions, quantum behavior of complex matter, photonic materials, or catalysis requires large-scale spectroscopic imaging with simultaneous specificity to structure, phase, and chemical composition at nanometer spatial resolution. However, as with any ultrahigh spatial resolution microscopy technique, the associated demand for an increase in both spatial and spectral bandwidth often leads to a decrease in desired sensitivity. We overcome this limitation in infrared vibrational scattering-scanning probe near-field optical microscopy using synchrotron midinfrared radiation. Tip-enhanced localized light–matter interaction is induced by low-noise, broadband, and spatially coherent synchrotron light of high spectral irradiance, and the near-field signal is sensitively detected using heterodyne interferometric amplification. We achieve sub-40-nm spatially resolved, molecular, and phonon vibrational spectroscopic imaging, with rapid spectral acquisition, spanning the full midinfrared (700–5,000 cm−1) with few cm−1 spectral resolution. We demonstrate the performance of synchrotron infrared nanospectroscopy on semiconductor, biomineral, and protein nanostructures, providing vibrational chemical imaging with subzeptomole sensitivity. PMID:24803431

  11. Infrared Photography as an Air Pollution Surveillance Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalinuovo, Anthony F.; Sawan, Alan

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the practicality of infrared photographic analysis to air pollution agencies, by the detection of plant damage from pollutants before they are visually identifiable. Results showed that photomicrographic imaging using infrared radiation should be considered a viable surveillance tool in similiar…

  12. Infrared images of merging galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, G. S.; James, P. A.; Joseph, R. D.; Mclean, I. S.; Doyon, R.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared imaging of interacting galaxies is especially interesting because their optical appearance is often so chaotic due to extinction by dust and emission from star formation regions, that it is impossible to locate the nuclei or determine the true stellar distribution. However, at near-infrared wavelengths extinction is considerably reduced, and most of the flux from galaxies originates from red giant stars that comprise the dominant stellar component by mass. Thus near infrared images offer the opportunity to study directly components of galactic structure which are otherwise inaccessible. Such images may ultimately provide the framework in which to understand the activity taking place in many of the mergers with high Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) luminosities. Infrared images have been useful in identifying double structures in the nuclei of interacting galaxies which have not even been hinted at by optical observations. A striking example of this is given by the K images of Arp 220. Graham et al. (1990) have used high resolution imaging to show that it has a double nucleus coincident with the radio sources in the middle of the dust lane. The results suggest that caution should be applied in the identification of optical bright spots as multiple nuclei in the absence of other evidence. They also illustrate the advantages of using infrared imaging to study the underlying structure in merging galaxies. The authors have begun a program to take near infrared images of galaxies which are believed to be mergers of disk galaxies because they have tidal tails and filaments. In many of these the merger is thought to have induced exceptionally luminous infrared emission (cf. Joseph and Wright 1985, Sanders et al. 1988). Although the optical images of the galaxies show spectacular dust lanes and filaments, the K images all have a very smooth distribution of light with an apparently single nucleus.

  13. Infrared imaging of varicose veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Zeeuw, Raymond; Verdaasdonk, Ruud M.; Wittens, Cees H. A.

    2004-06-01

    It has been established that varicose veins are better visualized with infrared photography. As near-infrared films are nowadays hard to get and to develop in the digital world, we investigated the use of digital photography of varicose veins. Topics that are discussed are illumination setup, photography and digital image enhancement and analysis.

  14. Visualizing Chemistry with Infrared Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Almost all chemical processes release or absorb heat. The heat flow in a chemical system reflects the process it is undergoing. By showing the temperature distribution dynamically, infrared (IR) imaging provides a salient visualization of the process. This paper presents a set of simple experiments based on IR imaging to demonstrate its enormous…

  15. Calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, J. K.; Schildkraut, Elliot Robert; Bauldree, Russell S.; Goodrich, Shawn M.

    1996-06-01

    The calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (CIGARS) is a new high performance, multi-purpose, multi- platform Fourier transform spectrometer (FPS) sensor. It covers the waveband from 0.2 to 12 micrometer, has spectral resolution as fine as 0.3 cm-1, and records over 100 spectra per second. Two CIGARS units are being used for observations of target signatures in the air or on the ground from fixed or moving platforms, including high performance jet aircraft. In this paper we describe the characteristics and capabilities of the CIGARS sensor, which uses four interchangeable detector modules (Si, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe) and two optics modules, with internal calibration. The data recording electronics support observations of transient events, even without precise information on the timing of the event. We present test and calibration data on the sensitivity, spectral resolution, stability, and spectral rate of CIGARS, and examples of in- flight observations of real targets. We also discuss plans for adapting CIGARS for imaging spectroscopy observations, with simultaneous spectral and spatial data, by replacing the existing detectors with a focal plane array (FPA).

  16. Landsat and Thermal Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Terry; Barsi, Julia; Jhabvala, Murzy; Reuter, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the collection of thermal images by Landsat sensors already on orbit and to introduce the new thermal sensor to be launched in 2013. The chapter describes the thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensors, the calibration of their thermal bands, and the design and prelaunch calibration of the new thermal infrared sensor (TIRS).

  17. Integrated infrared and visible image sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Semiconductor imaging devices integrating an array of visible detectors and another array of infrared detectors into a single module to simultaneously detect both the visible and infrared radiation of an input image. The visible detectors and the infrared detectors may be formed either on two separate substrates or on the same substrate by interleaving visible and infrared detectors.

  18. Images in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  19. Status of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher R.

    1996-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program with a scheduled launch on the first post meridian platform in the year 2000. AIRS is designed to provide both new and more accurate data about the atmosphere, land, and oceans for application to climate studies and weather prediction. Among the important parameters to be derived from AIRS observations are atmospheric temperature profiles with an average accuracy of 1 K in 1 kilometer layers in the troposphere and surface temperatures with an average accuracy of 0.5 K. The AIRS measurement technique is based on very sensitive passive infrared remote sensing using a precisely calibrated, high resolution grating spectrometer operating in the 3.7 micrometers to 15.4 micrometers region. The instrument concept uses passively cooled multi-aperture eschelle array spectrometer approach in combination with advanced state-of-the-art focal plane and cryogenic refrigerator technology to achieve unparalleled performance capability in a practical long life configuration. AIRS is a key component of NASA's global change research program, and is expected to play an important role in the converged National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System, now under study. This paper provides a brief description of the AIRS instrument design and focuses on the current development status of hardware currently being fabricated for the engineering model. In particular, the paper will address the status and expected performance of the AIRS focal plane assembly, the cryocooler, and components of the optical spectrometer.

  20. Infrared Signature Masking by Air Plasma Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, Charles H.; Laux, C. O.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained during a research program on the infrared radiation of air plasmas conducted in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University under the direction of Professor Charles H. Kruger, with Dr. Christophe O. Laux as Associate Investigator. The goal of this research was to investigate the masking of infrared signatures by the air plasma formed behind the bow shock of high velocity missiles. To this end, spectral measurements and modeling were made of the radiation emitted between 2.4 and 5.5 micrometers by an atmospheric pressure air plasma in chemical and thermal equilibrium at a temperature of approximately 3000 K. The objective was to examine the spectral emission of air species including nitric oxide, atomic oxygen and nitrogen lines, molecular and atomic continua, as well as secondary species such as water vapor or carbon dioxide. The cold air stream injected in the plasma torch contained approximately 330 parts per million of CO2, which is the natural CO2 concentration in atmospheric air at room temperatures, and a small amount of water vapor with an estimated mole fraction of 3.8x10(exp -4).

  1. Foot evaluation by infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    DiBenedetto, Margarete; Yoshida, Michael; Sharp, Mark; Jones, Bruce

    2002-05-01

    For better assessment of foot injury severity during basic military training, we evaluated a simple noninvasive technique: thermography. With this infrared imaging method, we determined normal foot parameters (from 30 soldiers before training), thermographic findings in different foot stress fractures (from 30 soldiers so diagnosed), and normal responses to abnormal stresses in 30 trainees who underwent the same training as the previous group but did not have musculoskeletal complaints. We found that normal foot thermograms show onion peel-like progressive cooling on the plantar surface, with a medially located warm center at the instep. Thermograms of injured feet show areas of increased heat, but excessive weight-bearing pressures on feet, new shoes, or boots also cause increased infrared emission even without discomfort. Differentiation remains difficult; however, thermography can detect injury early. It does not reveal exact diagnoses, but its greatest benefit is easy follow-up to monitor severity and healing. PMID:12053846

  2. Infrared imaging of extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Tubbs, Eldred F.; Gaiser, Steven L.; Korechoff, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    An optical system for direct detection, in the infrared, of planets orbiting other stars is described. The proposed system consists of a large aperture (about 16 m) space-based telescope to which is attached a specialized imaging instrument containing a set of optical signal processing elements to suppress diffracted light from the central star. Starlight suppression is accomplished using coronagraphic apodization combined with rotational shearing interferometry. The possibility of designing the large telescope aperture to be of a deployable, multiarm configuration is examined, and it is shown that there is some sacrifice in performance relative to a filled, circular aperture.

  3. Method for improving visualization of infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimbalista, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Thermography has an extremely important difference from the other visual image converting electronic systems, like XRays or ultrasound: the infrared camera operator usually spend hour after hour with his/her eyes looking only at infrared images, sometimes several intermittent hours a day if not six or more continuous hours. This operational characteristic has a very important impact on yield, precision, errors and misinterpretation of the infrared images contents. Despite a great hardware development over the last fifty years, quality infrared thermography still lacks for a solution for these problems. The human eye physiology has not evolved to see infrared radiation neither the mind-brain has the capability to understand and decode infrared information. Chemical processes inside the human eye and functional cells distributions as well as cognitive-perceptual impact of images plays a crucial role in the perception, detection, and other steps of dealing with infrared images. The system presented here, called ThermoScala and patented in USA solves this problem using a coding process applicable to an original infrared image, generated from any value matrix, from any kind of infrared camera to make it much more suitable for human usage, causing a substantial difference in the way the retina and the brain processes the resultant images. The result obtained is a much less exhaustive way to see, identify and interpret infrared images generated by any infrared camera that uses this conversion process.

  4. Infrared Signature Masking by Air Plasma Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, C. H.; Laux, C. O.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes progress during the second year of our research program on Infrared Signature Masking by Air Plasmas at Stanford University. This program is intended to investigate the masking of infrared signatures by the air plasma formed behind the bow shock of high velocity missiles. Our previous annual report described spectral measurements and modeling of the radiation emitted between 3.2 and 5.5 microns by an atmospheric pressure air plasma in chemical and thermal equilibrium at a temperature of approximately 3100 K. One of our goals was to examine the spectral emission of secondary species such as water vapor or carbon dioxide. The cold air stream injected in the plasma torch contained approximately 330 parts per million Of CO2, which is the natural CO2 concentration in atmospheric air at room temperature, and a small amount of water vapor with an estimated mole fraction of 3.8 x 10(exp -4). As can be seen from Figure 1, it was found that the measured spectrum exhibited intense spectral features due to the fundamental rovibrational bands of NO at 4.9 - 5.5 microns and the V(3) band of CO2 (antisymmetric stretch) at 4.2-4.8 microns. These observations confirmed the well-known fact that infrared signatures between 4.15 - 5.5 microns can be masked by radiative emission in the interceptor's bow-shock. Figure I also suggested that the range 3.2 - 4.15 microns did not contain any significant emission features (lines or continuum) that could mask IR signatures. However, the signal-to-noise level, close to one in that range, precluded definite conclusions. Thus, in an effort to further investigate the spectral emission in the range of interest to signature masking problem, new measurements were made with a higher signal-to-noise ratio and an extended wavelength range.

  5. Longwave infrared compressive hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Julia R.; Kirby, Michael; Cosofret, Bogdan R.

    2015-06-01

    Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) is developing a longwave infrared (LWIR) compressive sensing hyperspectral imager (CS HSI) based on a single pixel architecture for standoff vapor phase plume detection. The sensor employs novel use of a high throughput stationary interferometer and a digital micromirror device (DMD) converted for LWIR operation in place of the traditional cooled LWIR focal plane array. The CS HSI represents a substantial cost reduction over the state of the art in LWIR HSI instruments. Radiometric improvements for using the DMD in the LWIR spectral range have been identified and implemented. In addition, CS measurement and sparsity bases specifically tailored to the CS HSI instrument and chemical plume imaging have been developed and validated using LWIR hyperspectral image streams of chemical plumes. These bases enable comparable statistics to detection based on uncompressed data. In this paper, we present a system model predicting the overall performance of the CS HSI system. Results from a breadboard build and test validating the system model are reported. In addition, the measurement and sparsity basis work demonstrating the plume detection on compressed hyperspectral images is presented.

  6. Development of practical thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianyu; Li, Chunlai; Lv, Gang; Yuan, Liyin; Liu, Enguang; Jin, Jian; Ji, Hongzhen

    2014-11-01

    As an optical remote sensing equipment, the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager operates in the thermal infrared spectral band and acquires about 180 wavebands in range of 8.0~12.5μm. The field of view of this imager is 13° and the spatial resolution is better than 1mrad. Its noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) is less than 0.2K@300K(average). 1 The influence of background radiation of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager,and a simulation model of simplified background radiation is builded. 2 The design and implementationof the Cryogenic Optics. 3 Thermal infrared focal plane array (FPA) and special dewar component for the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager. 4 Parts of test results of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager.The hyperspectral imaging system is China's first success in developing this type of instrument, whose flight validation experiments have already been embarked on. The thermal infrared hyperspectral data acquired will play an important role in fields such as geological exploration and air pollutant identification.

  7. Aerodynamic investigation by infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.; Mcree, Griffith J.; Gartenberg, Ehud

    1988-01-01

    Infrared imaging systems can be used to measure temperatures of actively heated bodies immersed in an airstream. This monitoring of the convective heat transfer process, provides also information about the interaction between the body and the flow. The concept appeals to Nusselt/Reynolds numbers relations in order to produce data of interest from surface temperatures. Two test cases are presented and reference is made to analytical results: the mapping of a laminar jet and the temperature distribution along a constant power heated flat plate in laminar boundary layer regime. Although this research is currently focused on low speed aerodynamics, the extension to high speed aerodynamics, where the body undergoes frictional heating is of interest in this context, too.

  8. Modeling countermeasures to imaging infrared seekers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Laurence J.; Batten, Michael A.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Saddleton, Philip A. B.

    2004-12-01

    The threat to aircraft from missiles with imaging infrared seekers has developed more rapidly and in more countries independently than the original infrared missile threat. This is, in part, a consequence of the civil sector's demand for high-resolution infrared imagers and the development of computer processors capable of implementing complex image-processing algorithms im real time. Dstl has developed the Fly-In model to analyse the potential effectiveness of existing countermeasures (CM) to imaging infrared seekers and to test new CM approaches before trialling them against surrogate imaging seekers. The validation of the Fly-In model is extremely important, particularly as the newness of the imaging infrared threat, means that actual examples of the threat are not available for study. Extensive measurements have been carried out on the appearance of flare CM in different infrared wavebands, and on the effects of lasers on the optics and detector of an surrogate imageing seeker. Other parts of the model are derived from other Dstl models, including the NATO Infrared Airborne Target Model (NIRATAM) and HADES (missile dynamics) that are validated against trials' data. Initial studies have shown that existing CM, and those under development, can be very effective against imaging infrared seekers, by defeating the seeker's image-processing algorithms. It is already clear that laser CM will play an increasing role in the defence of aircraft, thereby enhancing aircraft survivability. Moreover, this model will aid the military planner in determining the best mix of CM and the tactics for using them.

  9. Infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor for gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    2000-11-01

    A small light weight man portable imaging spectrometer has many applications; gas leak detection, flare analysis, threat warning, chemical agent detection, just to name a few. With support from the US Air Force and Navy, Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a small man portable hyperspectral imaging sensor with an embedded DSP processor for real time processing that is capable of remotely imaging various targets such as gas plums, flames and camouflaged targets. Based upon their spectral signature the species and concentration of gases can be determined. This system has been field tested at numerous places including White Mountain, CA, Edwards AFB, and Vandenberg AFB. Recently evaluation of the system for gas detection has been performed. This paper presents these results. The system uses a conventional infrared camera fitted with a diffractive optic that images as well as disperses the incident radiation to form spectral images that are collected in band sequential mode. Because the diffractive optic performs both imaging and spectral filtering, the lens system consists of only a single element that is small, light weight and robust, thus allowing man portability. The number of spectral bands are programmable such that only those bands of interest need to be collected. The system is entirely passive, therefore, easily used in a covert operation. Currently Pacific Advanced Technology is working on the next generation of this camera system that will have both an embedded processor as well as an embedded digital signal processor in a small hand held camera configuration. This will allow the implementation of signal and image processing algorithms for gas detection and identification in real time. This paper presents field test data on gas detection and identification as well as discuss the signal and image processing used to enhance the gas visibility. Flow rates as low as 0.01 cubic feet per minute have been imaged with this system.

  10. Hyperspectral imaging in the infrared using LIFTIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    In this article, recent characterization measurements made with LIFTIRS, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectrometer, are presented. A discussion is also presented of the relative merits of the various alternative designs for imaging spectrometers.

  11. Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Lee, F.D.

    1995-05-10

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently operating a hyperspectral imager, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS). This instrument is capable of operating throughout the infrared spectrum from 3 to 12.5 {mu}m with controllable spectral resolution. In this presentation we report on it`s operating characteristics, current capabilities, data throughput and calibration issues.

  12. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  13. Infrared imaging of power plant components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teskey, Mike E.; Adamson, R. D.

    1995-05-01

    The application of infrared thermography (IR) to electric utility applications is discussed. A joint program with electric power research institute (EPRI) demonstrated the inspection of specific power plant components including boiler casing, condenser air-inleakage, and condenser tube leakage. Infrared thermography was successfully demonstrated as a predictive maintenance tool for power plant applications and real dollar savings by the utility.

  14. The application of ghost imaging in infrared imaging detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hongtao; Yang, Zhaohua; Li, Dapeng; Wu, Ling-an

    2015-11-01

    Traditional imaging are mostly based on the principle of lens imaging which is simple but the imaging result is heavily dependent on the quality of detector. It is usual to increase the detector array density or reduce the size of pixels to improve the imaging resolution, especially for infrared imaging. It will decrease the light flux causing the noise enhance relatively and add the cost on the contrary. Besides, there is a novel imaging technology called ghost imaging. We present a new infrared imaging method named computational ghost imaging only using a bucket detector without spatial resolution, which avoiding the allocation of flux on the pixel dimension as well as reducing the cost.

  15. Infrared thermal imaging figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Commercially available types of infrared thermal imaging instruments, both viewers (qualitative) and imagers (quantitative) are discussed. The various scanning methods by which thermal images (thermograms) are generated will be reviewed. The performance parameters (figures of merit) that define the quality of performance of infrared radiation thermometers will be introduced. A discussion of how these parameters are extended and adapted to define the performance of thermal imaging instruments will be provided. Finally, the significance of each of the key performance parameters of thermal imaging instruments will be reviewed and procedures currently used for testing to verify performance will be outlined.

  16. Infrared imaging results of an excited planar jet

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B.

    1991-12-01

    Planar jets are used for many applications including heating, cooling, and ventilation. Generally such a jet is designed to provide good mixing within an enclosure. In building applications, the jet provides both thermal comfort and adequate indoor air quality. Increased mixing rates may lead to lower short-circuiting of conditioned air, elimination of dead zones within the occupied zone, reduced energy costs, increased occupant comfort, and higher indoor air quality. This paper discusses using an infrared imaging system to show the effect of excitation of a jet on the spread angle and on the jet mixing efficiency. Infrared imaging captures a large number of data points in real time (over 50,000 data points per image) providing significant advantages over single-point measurements. We used a screen mesh with a time constant of approximately 0.3 seconds as a target for the infrared camera to detect temperature variations in the jet. The infrared images show increased jet spread due to excitation of the jet. Digital data reduction and analysis show change in jet isotherms and quantify the increased mixing caused by excitation. 17 refs., 20 figs.

  17. Quantum Cascade Lasers in Biomedical Infrared Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bird, Benjamin; Baker, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Technological advances, namely the integration of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) within an infrared (IR) microscope, are enabling the development of valuable label-free biomedical-imaging tools capable of targeting and detecting salient chemical species within practical clinical timeframes.

  18. Infrared image enhancement using Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wei; Han, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa

    2016-05-01

    Image enhancement is a crucial technique for infrared images. The clear image details are important for improving the quality of infrared images in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new enhancement method based on two priors via Cellular Automata. First, we directly learn the gradient distribution prior from the images via Cellular Automata. Second, considering the importance of image details, we propose a new gradient distribution error to encode the structure information via Cellular Automata. Finally, an iterative method is applied to remap the original image based on two priors, further improving the quality of enhanced image. Our method is simple in implementation, easy to understand, extensible to accommodate other vision tasks, and produces more accurate results. Experiments show that the proposed method performs better than other methods using qualitative and quantitative measures.

  19. Fourier transform infrared imaging of bone.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Eleftherios P

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) is a technique that can be used to analyze the material properties of bone using tissue sections. In this chapter I describe the basic principles of FTIR and the methods for capturing and analyzing FTIR images in bone sections.

  20. Infrared Imaging for Inquiry-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Charles; Hazzard, Edmund

    2011-01-01

    Based on detecting long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation emitted by the subject, IR imaging shows temperature distribution instantaneously and heat flow dynamically. As a picture is worth a thousand words, an IR camera has great potential in teaching heat transfer, which is otherwise invisible. The idea of using IR imaging in teaching was first…

  1. Infrared Imaging Sharpens View in Critical Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Innovative Engineering and Consulting (IEC) Infrared Systems, a leading developer of thermal imaging systems and night vision equipment, received a Glenn Alliance for Technology Exchange (GATE) award, half of which was in the form of additional NASA assistance for new product development. IEC Infrared Systems worked with electrical and optical engineers from Glenn's Diagnostics and Data Systems Branch to develop a commercial infrared imaging system that could differentiate the intensity of heat sources better than other commercial systems. The research resulted in two major thermal imaging solutions: NightStalkIR and IntrudIR Alert. These systems are being used in the United States and abroad to help locate personnel stranded in emergency situations, defend soldiers on the battlefield abroad, and protect high-value facilities and operations. The company is also applying its advanced thermal imaging techniques to medical and pharmaceutical product development with a Cleveland-based pharmaceutical company.

  2. Thermal Infrared Imaging of Exoplanets

    SciTech Connect

    Apai, Daniel

    2009-08-05

    High-contrast imaging remains the only way to search for and study weakly-irradiated giant exoplanets. We review here in brief a new high-contrast imaging technique that operates in the 3-5 mum window and show the exquisite sensitivity that can be reached using this technique. The two key advantages of the L-band high-contrast imaging are the superior image quality and the 2-to 4-magnitude gain in sensitivity provided by the red color of giant planets. Most excitingly, this method can be applied to constrain the yet-unexplored giant planet population at radii between 3 and 30 AU.

  3. Detection of latent fingerprints by near-infrared spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Dai, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Spectral imaging technology research is becoming more extensive in the field of examination of material evidence. Near-Infrared spectral imaging technology is an important part of the full spectrum of imaging technology. This paper finished the experiment contents of the Near-Infrared spectrum imaging method and image acquisition system Near-Infrared spectral imaging technology. The experiment of Near-Infrared spectral imaging method obtains the image set of the Near-Infrared spectrum, and formats a pseudo-color images to show the potential traces successfully by processing the set of spectral images; Near-Infrared spectral imaging technology explores the technology method of obtaining the image set of Near-Infrared spectrometer and image acquisition system, and extensive access to the Near-Infrared spectrum information of latent blood, stamp and smear fingerprints on common objects, and study the characteristics of the Near-Infrared spectrum. Near-Infrared spectroscopic imaging experiments explores a wide variety of Near-Infrared reflectance spectra of the object material curve and its Near-Infrared spectrum of imaging modalities, can not only gives a reference for choosing Near-Infrared wavelength to show the object surface potential traces of substances, but also gives important data for the Near-Infrared spectrum of imaging technology development.

  4. The research on the effect of atmospheric transmittance for the measuring accuracy of infrared thermal imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-cun; Chen, Yi-ming; Fu, Xian-bin; Luo, Cheng

    2016-07-01

    The effect of atmospheric transmittance on infrared thermal imager temperature measuring accuracy cannot be ignored when the object is far from infrared thermal imager. In this paper, a method of reducing the influence of atmospheric transmittance is proposed for the infrared thermal imager. Firstly, the temperature measuring formula of infrared thermal imager and the effect of atmospheric transmittance on temperature measuring accuracy is analyzed. According to the composition of the atmosphere, the main factors influencing the atmosphere transmittance are determined. Secondly, the temperature measuring model of infrared thermal imager in sea level is established according to the absorption of water vapor and carbon dioxide, the scattering of air molecules and aerosol particulate, and the attenuation effects of weather conditions such as rain and snow. Finally, the correctness and feasibility of the proposed model is verified by the comparison experiments of four different environmental conditions. According to the experiments, the temperature measuring accuracy of the infrared thermal imager is improved.

  5. Research on infrared imaging illumination model based on materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-he; Feng, Chao-yin; Guo, Chang-geng; Zheng, Hai-jing; Han, Qiang; Hu, Hai-yan

    2013-09-01

    In order to effectively simulate infrared features of the scene and infrared high light phenomenon, Based on the visual light illumination model, according to the optical property of all material types in the scene, the infrared imaging illumination models are proposed to fulfill different materials: to the smooth material with specular characteristic, adopting the infrared imaging illumination model based on Blinn-Phone reflection model and introducing the self emission; to the ordinary material which is similar to black body without highlight feature, ignoring the computation of its high light reflection feature, calculating simply the material's self emission and its reflection to the surrounding as its infrared imaging illumination model, the radiation energy under zero range of visibility can be obtained according to the above two models. The OpenGl rendering technology is used to construct infrared scene simulation system which can also simulate infrared electro-optical imaging system, then gets the synthetic infrared images from any angle of view of the 3D scenes. To validate the infrared imaging illumination model, two typical 3D scenes are made, and their infrared images are calculated to compare and contrast with the real collected infrared images obtained by a long wave infrared band imaging camera. There are two major points in the paper according to the experiment results: firstly, the infrared imaging illumination models are capable of producing infrared images which are very similar to those received by thermal infrared camera; secondly, the infrared imaging illumination models can simulate the infrared specular feature of relative materials and common infrared features of general materials, which shows the validation of the infrared imaging illumination models. Quantitative analysis shows that the simulation images are similar to the collected images in the aspects of main features, but their histogram distribution does not match very well, the

  6. Functional near-infrared imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming; Nioka, Shoko; Chance, Britton

    1997-08-01

    We developed a continuous wave (cw) light imaging probe which includes 9 light sources and four pairs detectors (each pair has one 850 nm filtered detector and one 760 nm filtered detector). The light sources are controlled by a computer and the signals from the detectors are converted and processed in the computer. There are 16 measurement sections and total detection area is 9 cm multiplied by 4 cm which can be scanned every 8 seconds. The detector-source uses 2.5 cm spacing. In this study, we present the noise, drift, detectivity and spatial resolution test results of the imager. Changes of oxygenation and blood volume in about 2 cm depth from the surface of brain model can be detected. The temporal resolution is 8 seconds and spatial resolution is about 2 cm. The detectivity of OD changes can reach 0.008. With this cw imaging probe, we measured motor function in motor cortex area, visual function in occipital area, and cognitive activity in frontal forehead area of the human brian when the subjects are stimulated by moving fingers, viewing a flashing light and doing an analogy test, respectively. The experimental results show that the cw imaging probe can be used for functional images of brain activity, base upon changes of oxygenation and blood volume due to the stimulus.

  7. Tasking on Natural Statistics of Infrared Images.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Todd Richard; Bovik, Alan Conrad; Paulter, Nicholas G

    2016-01-01

    Natural scene statistics (NSSs) provide powerful, perceptually relevant tools that have been successfully used for image quality analysis of visible light images. Since NSS capture statistical regularities that arise from the physical world, they are relevant to long wave infrared (LWIR) images, which differ from visible light images mainly by the wavelengths captured at the imaging sensors. We show that NSS models of bandpass LWIR images are similar to those of visible light images, but with different parameterizations. Using this difference, we exploit the power of NSS to successfully distinguish between LWIR images and visible light images. In addition, we study distortions unique to LWIR and find directional models useful for detecting the halo effect, simple bandpass models useful for detecting hotspots, and combinations of these models useful for measuring the degree of non-uniformity present in many LWIR images. For local distortion identification and measurement, we also describe a method for generating distortion maps using NSS features. To facilitate our evaluation, we analyze the NSS of LWIR images under pristine and distorted conditions, using four databases, each captured with a different IR camera. Predicting human performance for assessing distortion and quality in LWIR images is critical for task efficacy. We find that NSS features improve human targeting task performance prediction. Furthermore, we conducted a human study on the perceptual quality of noise-and blur-distorted LWIR images and create a new blind image quality predictor for IR images.

  8. NTT images of ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melnick, J.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-01-01

    New Technology Telescope (NTT) images of 16 southern ultraluminous infrared (LIR greater than 10 to the 12th solar luminosities) galaxies in the Local Universe (z less than 0.13) are presented. All these galaxies are strongly interacting systems showing double nuclei, wisps, and tails that are characteristic of advanced mergers. The most spectacular instance of these cosmic accidents is the 'superantenna', a system with long slender tails that extend over 500 kpc. It is concluded that ultraluminous infrared galaxies are mergers of giant spiral galaxies, and that the distinguishing features of tidal interactions in this type of galaxies become blurred at higher redshifts. The CCD images suggest the existence of a critical separation between the colliding galaxies of about 10 kpc at which the merging systems become ultraluminous in the infrared.

  9. Infrared scanning images: An archeological application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Gumerman, G.J.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial infrared scanner images of an area near the Little Colorado River in north-central Arizona disclosed the existence of scattered clusters of parallel linear features in the ashfall area of Sunset Crater. The features are not obvious in conventional aerial photographs, and only one cluster could be recognized on the ground. Soil and pollen analyses reveal that they are prehistoric agricultural plots.

  10. Quantum Cascade Lasers in Biomedical Infrared Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bird, Benjamin; Baker, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Technological advances, namely the integration of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) within an infrared (IR) microscope, are enabling the development of valuable label-free biomedical-imaging tools capable of targeting and detecting salient chemical species within practical clinical timeframes. PMID:26409774

  11. Application of infrared imaging in ferrocyanide tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, K.L.; Mailhot, R.B. Jr.; McLaren, J.M.; Morris, K.L.

    1994-09-28

    This report analyzes the feasibility of using infrared imaging techniques and scanning equipment to detect potential hot spots within ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. A hot spot is defined as a volumetric region within a waste tank with an excessively warm temperature that is generated by radioactive isotopes. The thermal image of a hot spot was modeled by computer. this model determined the image an IR system must detect. Laboratory and field tests of the imaging system are described, and conclusions based on laboratory and field data are presented. The report shows that infrared imaging is capable of detecting hot spots in ferrocyanide waste tanks with depths of up to 3.94 m (155 in.). The infrared imaging system is a useful technology for initial evaluation and assessment of hot spots in the majority of ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The system will not allow an exact hot spot and temperature determination, but it will provide the necessary information to determine the worst-case hot spot detected in temperature patterns. Ferrocyanide tanks are one type of storage tank on the Watch List. These tanks are identified as priority 1 Hanford Site Tank farm Safety Issues.

  12. Mid-Infrared Reflectance Imaging of Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edlridge, Jeffrey I.; Martin, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for mid-infrared reflectance imaging has been developed as means of inspecting for subsurface damage in thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). The apparatus is designed, more specifically, for imaging the progression of buried delamination cracks in plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on turbine-engine components. Progression of TBC delamination occurs by the formation of buried cracks that grow and then link together to produce eventual TBC spallation. The mid-infrared reflectance imaging system described here makes it possible to see delamination progression that is invisible to the unaided eye, and therefore give sufficiently advanced warning before delamination progression adversely affects engine performance and safety. The apparatus (see figure) includes a commercial mid-infrared camera that contains a liquid-nitrogen-cooled focal plane indium antimonide photodetector array, and imaging is restricted by a narrow bandpass centered at wavelength of 4 microns. This narrow wavelength range centered at 4 microns was chosen because (1) it enables avoidance of interfering absorptions by atmospheric OH and CO2 at 3 and 4.25 microns, respectively; and (2) the coating material exhibits maximum transparency in this wavelength range. Delamination contrast is produced in the midinfrared reflectance images because the introduction of cracks into the TBC creates an internal TBC/air-gap interface with a high diffuse reflectivity of 0.81, resulting in substantially higher reflectance of mid-infrared radiation in regions that contain buried delamination cracks. The camera is positioned a short distance (.12 cm) from the specimen. The mid-infrared illumination is generated by a 50-watt silicon carbide source positioned to the side of the mid-infrared camera, and the illumination is collimated and reflected onto the specimen by a 6.35-cm-diameter off-axis paraboloidal mirror. Because the collected images are of a steady-state reflected intensity (in

  13. Adaptive enhancement method of infrared image based on scene feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Tingzhu; Shang, Fei

    2008-12-01

    All objects emit radiation in amounts related to their temperature and their ability to emit radiation. The infrared image shows the invisible infrared radiation emitted directly. Because of the advantages, the technology of infrared imaging is applied to many kinds of fields. But compared with visible image, the disadvantages of infrared image are obvious. The characteristics of low luminance, low contrast and the inconspicuous difference target and background are the main disadvantages of infrared image. The aim of infrared image enhancement is to improve the interpretability or perception of information in infrared image for human viewers, or to provide 'better' input for other automated image processing techniques. Most of the adaptive algorithm for image enhancement is mainly based on the gray-scale distribution of infrared image, and is not associated with the actual image scene of the features. So the pertinence of infrared image enhancement is not strong, and the infrared image is not conducive to the application of infrared surveillance. In this paper we have developed a scene feature-based algorithm to enhance the contrast of infrared image adaptively. At first, after analyzing the scene feature of different infrared image, we have chosen the feasible parameters to describe the infrared image. In the second place, we have constructed the new histogram distributing base on the chosen parameters by using Gaussian function. In the last place, the infrared image is enhanced by constructing a new form of histogram. Experimental results show that the algorithm has better performance than other methods mentioned in this paper for infrared scene images.

  14. Far-Infrared Imaging of NGC 55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbracht, C. W.; Gordon, K. D.; Bendo, G. J.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Misselt, K. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Young, E. T.; Hines, D. C.; Kelly, D. M.; Stansberry, J. A.; Papovich, C.; Morrison, J. E.; Egami, E.; Su, K. Y. L.; Muzerolle, J.; Dole, H.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hinz, J. L.; Smith, P. S.; Latter, W. B.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Padgett, D. L.; Rho, J.; Frayer, D. T.; Wachter, S.

    2004-09-01

    We present images of the galaxy NGC 55 at 24, 70, and 160 μm obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) instrument on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The new images display the far infrared emission in unprecedented detail and demonstrate that the infrared morphology differs dramatically from that at shorter wavelengths. The most luminous emission region in the galaxy is marginally resolved at 24 μm and has a projected separation of nearly 520 pc from the peak emission in the optical and near-infrared. This region is responsible for ~9% of the total emission at 24 μm and is likely a young star formation region. We show that this and other compact sources account for more than one-third of the total 24 μm emission. We compute a total infrared luminosity for NGC 55 of 1.2×109Lsolar. The star formation rate implied by our measurements is 0.22Msolaryr-1. We demonstrate that the cold dust is more extended than the warm dust in NGC 55-the minor-axis scale heights are 0.32, 0.43, and 0.49 kpc at 24, 70, and 160 μm, respectively. The dust temperature map shows a range of temperatures that are well correlated with the 24 μm surface brightness, from 20 K in low surface brightness regions to 26 K in high surface brightness regions.

  15. Infrared image denoising by nonlocal means filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dee-Noor, Barak; Stern, Adrian; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, Natan

    2012-05-01

    The recently introduced non-local means (NLM) image denoising technique broke the traditional paradigm according to which image pixels are processed by their surroundings. Non-local means technique was demonstrated to outperform state-of-the art denoising techniques when applied to images in the visible. This technique is even more powerful when applied to low contrast images, which makes it tractable for denoising infrared (IR) images. In this work we investigate the performance of NLM applied to infrared images. We also present a new technique designed to speed-up the NLM filtering process. The main drawback of the NLM is the large computational time required by the process of searching similar patches. Several techniques were developed during the last years to reduce the computational burden. Here we present a new techniques designed to reduce computational cost and sustain optimal filtering results of NLM technique. We show that the new technique, which we call Multi-Resolution Search NLM (MRS-NLM), reduces significantly the computational cost of the filtering process and we present a study of its performance on IR images.

  16. [Advances in infrared spectrum zoom imaging system research].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu; Xing, Ting-wen; Jiang, Ya-dong

    2014-12-01

    Compared with the infrared spectrum fixed focal length system and infrared spectrum dual-zoom system, infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system which has continuous variational field of view can track targets sequentially, so it is a research direction in infrared spectrum imaging technology. Some new technologies are presented overseas in order to improve the detection performance, reduce cost and have good athermalized performance in infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system. Infrared material, infrared detector and variable aperture, those new technologies are su mmarized and the idiographic application of those new technologies in infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system are presented in the paper, for example athermalization of an infrared spectrum zoom lens system with new infrared material for target detection, dual band infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared, infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with high ratio, nfrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with dual F/number. It is useful for the development of chinese infrared continuous zoom imaging system.

  17. Aural stealth of portable HOT infrared imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Further reduction of size, weight and power consumption of the High Operating Temperature (HOT) infrared (IR) Integrated Detector-Dewar-Cooler Assemblies (IDDCA) eventually calls for development of high-speed cryocoolers. In case of integral rotary design, the immediate penalty is the more intensive slapping of compression and expansion pistons along with intensification of micro collisions inherent for the operation of crank-slide linkages featuring ball bearings. Resulting from this is the generation of impulsive vibration export, the spectrum of which features the driving frequency along with numerous multiples covering the entire range of audible frequencies. In a typical design of an infrared imager, the metal light-weight enclosure accommodates a directly mounted IDDCA and an optical train, thus serving as an optical bench and heat sink. This usually results in excitation of structural resonances in the said enclosure and, therefore, in excessive noise generation compromising the aural stealth. The author presents the complex approach to a design of aural undetectable infrared imagers in which the IDDCA is mounted upon the imager enclosure through a silent pad. Special attention is paid to resolving the line of sight stability and heat sinking issues. The demonstration imager relying on Ricor K562S based IDDCA meets the most stringent requirement to 10 meters aural non-detectability distance (per MIL-STD 1474D, Level II) even during boost cooldown phase of operation.

  18. Near-Infrared Intraoperative Chemiluminescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Büchel, Gabriel E; Carney, Brandon; Shaffer, Travis M; Tang, Jun; Austin, Christine; Arora, Manish; Zeglis, Brian M; Grimm, Jan; Eppinger, Jörg; Reiner, Thomas

    2016-09-20

    Intraoperative imaging technologies recently entered the operating room, and their implementation is revolutionizing how physicians plan, monitor, and perform surgical interventions. In this work, we present a novel surgical imaging reporter system: intraoperative chemiluminescence imaging (ICI). To this end, we have leveraged the ability of a chemiluminescent metal complex to generate near-infrared light upon exposure to an aqueous solution of Ce(4+) in the presence of reducing tissue or blood components. An optical camera spatially resolves the resulting photon flux. We describe the construction and application of a prototype imaging setup, which achieves a detection limit as low as 6.9 pmol cm(-2) of the transition-metal-based ICI agent. As a proof of concept, we use ICI for the in vivo detection of our transition metal tracer following both systemic and subdermal injections. The very high signal-to-noise ratios make ICI an interesting candidate for the development of new intraoperative imaging technologies.

  19. Uncooled long-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A long-wave infrared hyperspectral sensor device employs a combination of an interferometer with an uncooled microbolometer array camera to produce hyperspectral images without the use of bulky, power-hungry motorized components, making it suitable for UAV vehicles, small mobile platforms, or in extraterrestrial environments. The sensor device can provide signal-to-noise ratios near 200 for ambient temperature scenes with 33 wavenumber resolution at a frame rate of 50 Hz, with higher results indicated by ongoing component improvements.

  20. [Microscopic infrared spectral imaging of oily core].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiao-Song; Yu, Zhao-Xian; Li, Jing; Chen, Chen

    2009-02-01

    In the present paper, the authors examined some oily core by microscopic infrared spectral imaging methods. Those methods can be classified in three modes, referred to as "transmission mode", "reflection mode" and "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode". The observed oily core samples belong to siltstone. The samples were made of quartz (-20%), feldspar(-50%) and other rock (igneous rock 25%, metamorphic rocks 1%, sedimentary rock 4%); a little recrystallized calcite (-1%) was in the pore, and the argillaceous matter was distributed along the edge of a pore. The experimental work has been accomplished using SHIMADZU Model IRPrestige-21 Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer plus AIM8800 infrared microscope. For IRPrestige-21, the spectral range is 7 800-350 cm(-1) spectral resolution is 1 cm(-1), and AIM8800 microscope with motorized stages has a resolution of 1 micrometer. The experiment was preformed at room temperature. In "transmission mode" infrared spectral imaging method, the spectral range was limited in wavenumbers greater than 2 000 cm(-1) because the base glass piece has strong light absorption. In contrast with "transmission mode", in "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode", the depth of penetration into sample is very small (1-2 micrometer), then the absorbance value has nothing to do with base glass piece light absorption. In microscopic infrared transmission spectra, the experimental result shows that there are some strong absorption peaks at 2 866, 2 928, 3 618 and 2 515 cm(-1) respectively. The former two peaks correspond to methyl(methylene) symmetrical and unsymmetrical stretch vibration mode, respectively. The latter two peaks correspond to hydroxyl-stretch vibration mode and S-H, P-H chemical bond stretch vibration mode, respectively. In microscopic longwave infrared ATR spectra, there are other stronger absorption peaks at 1 400, 1 038 and 783 cm(i1)respectively, corresponding to methyl(methylene) widing vibration mode and optical mode

  1. [Microscopic infrared spectral imaging of oily core].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiao-Song; Yu, Zhao-Xian; Li, Jing; Chen, Chen

    2009-02-01

    In the present paper, the authors examined some oily core by microscopic infrared spectral imaging methods. Those methods can be classified in three modes, referred to as "transmission mode", "reflection mode" and "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode". The observed oily core samples belong to siltstone. The samples were made of quartz (-20%), feldspar(-50%) and other rock (igneous rock 25%, metamorphic rocks 1%, sedimentary rock 4%); a little recrystallized calcite (-1%) was in the pore, and the argillaceous matter was distributed along the edge of a pore. The experimental work has been accomplished using SHIMADZU Model IRPrestige-21 Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer plus AIM8800 infrared microscope. For IRPrestige-21, the spectral range is 7 800-350 cm(-1) spectral resolution is 1 cm(-1), and AIM8800 microscope with motorized stages has a resolution of 1 micrometer. The experiment was preformed at room temperature. In "transmission mode" infrared spectral imaging method, the spectral range was limited in wavenumbers greater than 2 000 cm(-1) because the base glass piece has strong light absorption. In contrast with "transmission mode", in "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode", the depth of penetration into sample is very small (1-2 micrometer), then the absorbance value has nothing to do with base glass piece light absorption. In microscopic infrared transmission spectra, the experimental result shows that there are some strong absorption peaks at 2 866, 2 928, 3 618 and 2 515 cm(-1) respectively. The former two peaks correspond to methyl(methylene) symmetrical and unsymmetrical stretch vibration mode, respectively. The latter two peaks correspond to hydroxyl-stretch vibration mode and S-H, P-H chemical bond stretch vibration mode, respectively. In microscopic longwave infrared ATR spectra, there are other stronger absorption peaks at 1 400, 1 038 and 783 cm(i1)respectively, corresponding to methyl(methylene) widing vibration mode and optical mode

  2. Infrared Images of Shock-Heated Tin

    SciTech Connect

    Craig W. McCluskey; Mark D. Wilke; William D. Turley; Gerald D. Stevens; Lynn R. Veeser; Michael Grover

    2004-09-01

    High-resolution, gated infrared images were taken of tin samples shock heated to just below the 505 K melting point. Sample surfaces were either polished or diamond-turned, with grain sizes ranging from about 0.05 to 10 mm. A high explosive in contact with a 2-mm-thick tin sample induced a peak sample stress of 18 GPa. Interferometer data from similarly-driven tin shots indicate that immediately after shock breakout the samples spall near the free (imaged) surface with a scab thickness of about 0.1 mm.

  3. Uncooled Micro-Cantilever Infrared Imager Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Panagiotis, Datskos G.

    2008-02-05

    We report on the development, fabrication and characterization of microcantilever based uncooled focal plane array (FPA) for infrared imaging. By combining a streamlined design of microcantilever thermal transducers with a highly efficient optical readout, we minimized the fabrication complexity while achieving a competitive level of imaging performance. The microcantilever FPAs were fabricated using a straightforward fabrication process that involved only three photolithographic steps (i.e. three masks). A designed and constructed prototype of an IR imager employed a simple optical readout based on a noncoherent low-power light source. The main figures of merit of the IR imager were found to be comparable to those of uncooled MEMS infrared detectors with substantially higher degree of fabrication complexity. In particular, the NETD and the response time of the implemented MEMS IR detector were measured to be as low as 0.5K and 6 ms, respectively. The potential of the implemented designs can also be concluded from the fact that the constructed prototype enabled IR imaging of close to room temperature objects without the use of any advanced data processing. The most unique and practically valuable feature of the implemented FPAs, however, is their scalability to high resolution formats, such as 2000 x 2000, without progressively growing device complexity and cost. The overall technical objective of the proposed work was to develop uncooled infrared arrays based on micromechanical sensors. Currently used miniature sensors use a number of different readout techniques to accomplish the sensing. The use of optical readout techniques sensing require the deposition of thin coatings on the surface of micromechanical thermal detectors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is uniquely qualified to perform the required research and development (R&D) services that will assist our ongoing activities. Over the past decade ORNL has developed a number of unique methods and

  4. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging Without Harmful Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the detection of transmitted radiation, the spatial organization and composition of materials in the body can be ascertained. In this paper, we describe an original apparatus that teaches these concepts by utilizing near infrared radiation and an up-converting phosphorescent screen to safely probe the contents of an opaque enclosure.

  5. Infrared Signature Masking by Air Plasma Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, C. H.; Laux, C. O.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed measurements and modeling of the spectral emission of an atmospheric pressure air plasma at temperatures up to -3400 K have been made. The cold gas injected in the plasma torch contained an estimated mole fraction of water vapor of approximately 4.5 x 10(exp -3) and an estimated carbon dioxide mole fraction of approximately 3.3 x 10(exp -4). Under these conditions, the minimum level of air plasma emission is found to be between 3.9 and 4.15 microns. Outside this narrow region, significant spectral emission is detected that can be attributed to the fundamental and overtone bands of NO and OH, and to the v(sub 3) and the (v(sub 1)+v(sub 3)) bands Of CO2. Special attention was paid to the effects of ambient air absorption in the optical path between the plasma and the detector. Excellent quantitative agreement is obtained between the measured and simulated spectra, which are both on absolute intensity scales, thus lending confidence in the radiation models incorporated into NEQAIR2-IR over the course of this research program.

  6. Sulfur copolymers for infrared optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namnabat, S.; Gabriel, J. J.; Pyun, J.; Norwood, R. A.; Dereniak, E. L.; van der Laan, J.

    2014-06-01

    The development of organic polymers with low infrared absorption has been investigated as a possible alternative to inorganic metal oxide, semiconductor, or chalcogenide-based materials for a variety of optical devices and components, such as lenses, goggles, thermal imaging cameras and optical fibers. In principle, organic-based polymers are attractive for these applications because of their low weight, ease of processing, mechanical toughness, and facile chemical variation using commercially available precursors. Herein we report on the optical characterization of a new class of sulfur copolymers that are readily moldable, transparent above 500 nm, possess high refractive index (n > 1.8) and take advantage of the low infrared absorption of S-S bonds for potential use in the mid-infrared at 3-5 microns. These materials are largely made from elemental sulfur by an inverse vulcanization process; in the current study we focus on the properties of a chemically stable, branched copolymer of poly(sulfur-random-1,3-diisopropenylbenzene) (poly(S-r- DIB). Copolymers with elemental sulfur content ranging from 50% to 80% by weight were studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy, FTIR, and prism coupling for refractive index measurement. Clear correlation between material composition and the optical properties was established, confirming that the high polarizability of the sulfur atom leads to high refractive index while also maintaining low optical loss in the infrared.

  7. Investigation of Infra-red and Nonequilibrium Air Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, Charles H.; Laux, Christophe O.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained during a research program on the infrared radiation of air plasmas conducted in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University. This program was intended to investigate the masking of infrared signatures by the air plasma formed behind the bow shock of high velocity missiles. Prior to this work, the radiative emission of air plasmas in the infrared had been the object of few experimental investigations, and although several infrared systems were already modeled in radiation codes such as NEQAIR, measurements were required to validate numerical predictions and indicate whether all transitions of importance were accounted for in the model. The program was further motivated by the fact that 9 excited states (A, B, C, D, B', F, H, and H') of NO radiate in the infrared, especially between 1 and 1.5 microns where at least 9 transitions involving can be observed. Because these IR transitions are relatively well separated from each other, excited NO states concentrations can be easily measured, thus providing essential information on excited-state chemistry for use in optical diagnostics or in electronic excitation model validation. Detailed comparisons between measured and simulated spectra are presented.

  8. Spatiotemporal Evaluation of Nocturnal Cold Air Drainage Over a Simple Slope Using Thermal Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikani, V.; Chokmani, K.; Fathollahi, L.; Granberg, H.; Fournier, R.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of climatic processes such as cold air drainage flows are problematic over mountainous areas. Observation of cold air drainage is not available in the existing observation network and it requires a special methodology. The main objective of this study was to characterize the cold air drainage over regions with a slope. A high resolution infrared camera, a meteorological station and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) were used. The specific objective was to derive nocturnal cold air drainage velocity over the slope. To address these objectives, a number of infrared measurement campaigns were conducted during calm and clear sky conditions over an agricultural zone (blackcurrant farm) in Canada. Using thermal infrared images, the nocturnal surface temperature gradient were computed in hourly basis. The largest gradient magnitudes were found between 17h -20h. The cooling rates at basin area were two times higher in comparison to the magnitudes observed within slope area. The image analysis illustrated this considerable temperature gradient of the basin may be partly due to transport of cold air drainage into the basin from the slope. The results show that thermal imagery can be used to characterize and understand the microclimate related to the occurrence of radiation frost in the agricultural field. This study provided the opportunity to track the cold air drainage flow and pooling of cold air in low lying areas. The infrared analysis demonstrated that nocturnal drainage flow displayed continuous variation in terms of space and time in response to microscale slope heterogeneities. In addition, the analysis highlighted the periodic aspect for cold air drainage flow.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros; Staggs, Michael C.

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos; Stavros , Staggs; Michael C.

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  11. Infrared and visible images fusion based on RPCA and NSCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhizhong; Wang, Xue; Xu, Jin; Zhou, Ning; Zhao, Yufei

    2016-07-01

    Current infrared and visible images fusion algorithms cannot efficiently extract the object information in the infrared image while retaining the background information in visible image. To address this issue, we propose a new infrared and visible image fusion algorithm by taking advantage of robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and non-subsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT). Firstly, RPCA decomposition is performed on the infrared and visible images respectively to obtain their corresponding sparse matrixes, which can well represent the sparse feature of images. Secondly, the infrared and visible images are decomposed into low frequency sub-band and high-frequency sub-band coefficients by using NSCT. Subsequently, the sparse matrixes are used to guide the fusion rule of low frequency sub-band coefficients and high frequency sub-band coefficients. Experimental results demonstrate that our fusion algorithm can highlight the infrared objects as well as retain the background information in visible image.

  12. Using quantum filters as edge detectors in infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaños Marín, Daniela

    2014-06-01

    Some new filters inspired in quantum models are used as edge detectors in infrared images. In this case, Bessel, Hermite and Morse filters will be applied to detect edges and fibrillar structures in infrared images. The edge detectors will be built by the Laplacian of the mentioned quantum filters. Furthermore, using curvature operators, curvature detectors and amplifiers of contrast will be constructed to analyze infrared images. The quantum filter prototyping will be done using computer algebra software, specifically Maple and its package, ImageTools. The quantum filters will be applied to infrared images using the technique of convolutions and blurred derivatives. It is expected that designed quantum filters will be useful for analysis and processing of infrared images. As future investigations, we propose to design plugins with the quantum filters that can be incorporated into the program ImageJ, which will facilitate the use of the quantum filters for the infrared image processing.

  13. Some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Huang, Jianxiong

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, precision guided weapons play more and more important role in modern war. The development and applications of infrared imaging guidance technology have been paid more and more attention. And with the increasing of the complexity of mission and environment, precision guided weapons make stricter demand for infrared imaging seeker. The demands for infrared imaging seeker include: high detection sensitivity, large dynamic range, having better target recognition capability, having better anti-jamming capability and better environment adaptability. To meet the strict demand of weapon system, several important issues should be considered in high-performance infrared imaging seeker design. The mission, targets, environment of infrared imaging guided missile must be regarded. The tradeoff among performance goal, design parameters, infrared technology constraints and missile constraints should be considered. The optimized application of IRFPA and ATR in complicated environment should be concerned. In this paper, some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker were discussed.

  14. Infrared imager requirements for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    González, Francisco Javier

    2007-01-01

    Infrared imaging was introduced into medicine in the late 1950s, early studies suggested there were applications of the technology in areas as diverse as detection of breast cancer and malfunctions of the nervous system, however the early instrumentation was not sensitive enough to detect the subtle changes in temperature needed to accurately detect and monitor disease. In recent years the sensitivity of infrared instruments has greatly improved. In this paper the bioheat transfer equation is solved for a simplified model of a female breast and a cancerous tumor in order to quantify the minimum size of a tumor or the maximum depth of a certain sized tumor that a modern state-of-the-art imager can detect. Finite Element simulations showed that current state-of-the-art imagers are capable of detecting 3 cm tumors located deeper than 7 cm from the skin surface and tumors smaller than 0.5 cm can be detected if they are close to the surface of the skin.

  15. Galileo infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements at venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, R.W.; Baines, K.H.; Encrenaz, Th.; Taylor, F.W.; Drossart, P.; Kamp, L.W.; Pollack, James B.; Lellouch, E.; Collard, A.D.; Calcutt, S.B.; Grinspoon, D.; Weissman, P.R.; Smythe, W.D.; Ocampo, A.C.; Danielson, G.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Kieffer, H.H.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1990 Galileo Venus flyby, the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer investigated the night-side atmosphere of Venus in the spectral range 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers. Multispectral images at high spatial resolution indicate substantial cloud opacity variations in the lower cloud levels, centered at 50 kilometers altitude. Zonal and meridional winds were derived for this level and are consistent with motion of the upper branch of a Hadley cell. Northern and southern hemisphere clouds appear to be markedly different. Spectral profiles were used to derive lower atmosphere abundances of water vapor and other species.

  16. Development of shutter subsystems for infrared imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, Frank; Durfee, David; Stephenson, Stanley; Wagner, Gary

    2010-04-01

    Requirements for shutters used in Infrared Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) systems, Driver Vision Enhancement (DVE) and other thermal imaging systems are becoming increasingly more demanding. These performance requirements have been achieved using a unique, modular, reconfigurable rotary drive actuator with bi-stability and direct connection to the blade. A "Smart Shutter" acts as a complete sub-system that can be tested as an integral module. A multi-blade variant has been developed that retains the reliability of the rotary drive system and decreases the physical size of largeraperture shutters. Predictions of next-generation application-specific shutter designs will be offered in the paper.

  17. An infrared upconverter for astronomical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, R. W.; Townes, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    An imaging upconverter has been constructed which is suitable for use in the study of the thermal 10-micron radiation from astronomical sources. The infrared radiation is converted to visible radiation by mixing in a 1-cm-long proustite crystal. The phase-matched 2-kayser bandpass is tunable from 9 to 11 microns. The conversion efficiency is 2 by 10 to the -7th power and the field of view of 40 arc seconds on the sky contains several hundred picture elements, approximately diffraction-limited resolution in a large telescope. The instrument has been used in studies of the sun, moon, Mercury, and VY Canis Majoris.

  18. Infrared imaging with fiber optic bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Albert R., Sr.; McCord, James; Thompson, W. S.; LeBlanc, Richard A.

    2003-09-01

    Efforts have resumed to improve the image quality of infrared imaging bundles formed at AMI using the ribbon stacking method. The C4 glass has been used to reduce core size, increase packing density and improve flexibility. Ribbons are formed from unclad fiber wound on a drum with pitch, ribbon count and spacing between ribbons computer controlled. A small portion of each ribbon is compressed and fused using thin, dilute Epoxy. Unfortunately, the Epoxy, serving as a clad, absorbs most all the LWIR energy making the bundles unsuited for 8-12 μm cameras. The ribbons are removed from the drum and stacked, one on top of the other observing proper orientation to form the bundle. A typical 1 meter bundle is formed from 50-70 count ribbons for a total of 2500-4900 fibers, made from 2.5-4.9 Km of C4 fiber. Typical core diameters are 60-80 μm. Active surface area ranges from 60-70%. Infrared resolution images formed using a NIR tube camera equipped with a special relay lens demonstrates the resolution limit for the bundle. Currently, the limit is about 10 lp/mm. The bundle end is imaged in the 3-5 μm Agema 210 camera using an Amtir 1 F/1 meniscus, coated 3-5 μm. Video images taken in natural light of an individual, easily recognizable at 50 feet, will be shown. Results of careful evaluation carried out at Lockheed Martin in Orlando using a high performance Raytheon Galileo camera will be presented.

  19. Improved target identification using synthetic infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Bruce A.; Penn, Joseph A.

    2002-07-01

    The performance of infrared (IR) target identification classifiers, trained on randomly selected subsets of target chips taken from larger databases of either synthetic or measured data, is shown to improve rapidly with increasing subset size. This increase continues until the new data no longer provides additional information, or the classifier can not handle the information, at which point classifier performance levels off. It will also be shown that subsets of data selected with advanced knowledge can significantly outperform randomly selected sets, suggesting that classifier training-sets must be carefully selected if optimal performance is desired. Performance will also be shown to be subject to the quality of data used to train the classifier. Thus while increasing training set size generally improves classifier performance, the level to which the classifier performance can be raised will be shown to depend on the similarity between the training data and testing data. In fact, if the training data to be added to a given set of training data is unlike the testing data, performance will often not improve and may possibly diminish. Having too much data can reduce performance as much as having too little. Our results again demonstrate that an infrared (IR) target-identification classifier, trained on synthetic images of targets and tested on measured images, can perform as well as a classifier trained on measured images alone. We also demonstrate that the combination of the measured and the synthetic image databases can be used to train a classifier whose performance exceeds that of classifiers trained on either database alone. Results suggest that it may be possible to select data subsets from image databases that can optimize target classifiers performance for specific locations and operational scenarios.

  20. Infrared Imaging System for Studying Brain Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick; Mintz, Frederick; Gunapala, Sarath

    2007-01-01

    A proposed special-purpose infrared imaging system would be a compact, portable, less-expensive alternative to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) systems heretofore used to study brain function. Whereas a typical fMRI system fills a large room, and must be magnetically isolated, this system would fit into a bicycle helmet. The system would include an assembly that would be mounted inside the padding in a modified bicycle helmet or other suitable headgear. The assembly would include newly designed infrared photodetectors and data-acquisition circuits on integrated-circuit chips on low-thermal-conductivity supports in evacuated housings (see figure) arranged in multiple rows and columns that would define image coordinates. Each housing would be spring-loaded against the wearer s head. The chips would be cooled by a small Stirling Engine mounted contiguous to, but thermally isolated from, the portions of the assembly in thermal contact with the wearer s head. Flexible wires or cables for transmitting data from the aforementioned chips would be routed to an integrated, multichannel transmitter and thence through the top of the assembly to a patch antenna on the outside of the helmet. The multiple streams of data from the infrared-detector chips would be sent to a remote site, where they would be processed, by software, into a three-dimensional display of evoked potentials that would represent firing neuronal bundles and thereby indicate locations of neuronal activity associated with mental or physical activity. The 3D images will be analogous to current fMRI images. The data would also be made available, in real-time, for comparison with data in local or internationally accessible relational databases that already exist in universities and research centers. Hence, this system could be used in research on, and for the diagnosis of response from the wearer s brain to physiological, psychological, and environmental changes in real time. The images would also be

  1. Shuttle Entry Imaging Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Berry, Scott; Alter, Stephen; Blanchard, Robert; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Tack, Steve

    2007-01-01

    During the Columbia Accident Investigation, imaging teams supporting debris shedding analysis were hampered by poor entry image quality and the general lack of information on optical signatures associated with a nominal Shuttle entry. After the accident, recommendations were made to NASA management to develop and maintain a state-of-the-art imagery database for Shuttle engineering performance assessments and to improve entry imaging capability to support anomaly and contingency analysis during a mission. As a result, the Space Shuttle Program sponsored an observation campaign to qualitatively characterize a nominal Shuttle entry over the widest possible Mach number range. The initial objectives focused on an assessment of capability to identify/resolve debris liberated from the Shuttle during entry, characterization of potential anomalous events associated with RCS jet firings and unusual phenomenon associated with the plasma trail. The aeroheating technical community viewed the Space Shuttle Program sponsored activity as an opportunity to influence the observation objectives and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved temperature measurement capability over a series of flights. One long-term desire of the Shuttle engineering community is to calibrate boundary layer transition prediction methodologies that are presently part of the Shuttle damage assessment process using flight data provided by a controlled Shuttle flight experiment. Quantitative global imaging may offer a complementary method of data collection to more traditional methods such as surface thermocouples. This paper reviews the process used by the engineering community to influence data collection methods and analysis of global infrared images of the Shuttle obtained during hypersonic entry. Emphasis is placed upon airborne imaging assets sponsored by the Shuttle program during Return to Flight. Visual and IR entry imagery were obtained with available airborne

  2. High-Definition Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Rohith K.; Walsh, Michael J.; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Carney, P. Scott; Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    The quality of images from an infrared (IR) microscope has traditionally been limited by considerations of throughput and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An understanding of the achievable quality as a function of instrument parameters, from first principals is needed for improved instrument design. Here, we first present a model for light propagation through an IR spectroscopic imaging system based on scalar wave theory. The model analytically describes the propagation of light along the entire beam path from the source to the detector. The effect of various optical elements and the sample in the microscope is understood in terms of the accessible spatial frequencies by using a Fourier optics approach and simulations are conducted to gain insights into spectroscopic image formation. The optimal pixel size at the sample plane is calculated and shown much smaller than that in current mid-IR microscopy systems. A commercial imaging system is modified, and experimental data are presented to demonstrate the validity of the developed model. Building on this validated theoretical foundation, an optimal sampling configuration is set up. Acquired data were of high spatial quality but, as expected, of poorer SNR. Signal processing approaches were implemented to improve the spectral SNR. The resulting data demonstrated the ability to perform high-definition IR imaging in the laboratory by using minimally-modified commercial instruments. PMID:23317676

  3. Pain related inflammation analysis using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bardhan, Shawli; Das, Kakali; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nath, Satyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Medical Infrared Thermography (MIT) offers a potential non-invasive, non-contact and radiation free imaging modality for assessment of abnormal inflammation having pain in the human body. The assessment of inflammation mainly depends on the emission of heat from the skin surface. Arthritis is a disease of joint damage that generates inflammation in one or more anatomical joints of the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent appearing form of arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most threatening form of them. In this study, the inflammatory analysis has been performed on the infrared images of patients suffering from RA and OA. For the analysis, a dataset of 30 bilateral knee thermograms has been captured from the patient of RA and OA by following a thermogram acquisition standard. The thermograms are pre-processed, and areas of interest are extracted for further processing. The investigation of the spread of inflammation is performed along with the statistical analysis of the pre-processed thermograms. The objectives of the study include: i) Generation of a novel thermogram acquisition standard for inflammatory pain disease ii) Analysis of the spread of the inflammation related to RA and OA using K-means clustering. iii) First and second order statistical analysis of pre-processed thermograms. The conclusion reflects that, in most of the cases, RA oriented inflammation affects bilateral knees whereas inflammation related to OA present in the unilateral knee. Also due to the spread of inflammation in OA, contralateral asymmetries are detected through the statistical analysis.

  4. Infrared imaging of the crime scene: possibilities and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Gerda J; Hoveling, Richelle J M; Roos, Martin; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-09-01

    All objects radiate infrared energy invisible to the human eye, which can be imaged by infrared cameras, visualizing differences in temperature and/or emissivity of objects. Infrared imaging is an emerging technique for forensic investigators. The rapid, nondestructive, and noncontact features of infrared imaging indicate its suitability for many forensic applications, ranging from the estimation of time of death to the detection of blood stains on dark backgrounds. This paper provides an overview of the principles and instrumentation involved in infrared imaging. Difficulties concerning the image interpretation due to different radiation sources and different emissivity values within a scene are addressed. Finally, reported forensic applications are reviewed and supported by practical illustrations. When introduced in forensic casework, infrared imaging can help investigators to detect, to visualize, and to identify useful evidence nondestructively. PMID:23919285

  5. Image Quality Indicator for Infrared Inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The quality of images generated during an infrared thermal inspection depends on many system variables, settings, and parameters to include the focal length setting of the IR camera lens. If any relevant parameter is incorrect or sub-optimal, the resulting IR images will usually exhibit inherent unsharpness and lack of resolution. Traditional reference standards and image quality indicators (IQIs) are made of representative hardware samples and contain representative flaws of concern. These standards are used to verify that representative flaws can be detected with the current IR system settings. However, these traditional standards do not enable the operator to quantify the quality limitations of the resulting images, i.e. determine the inherent maximum image sensitivity and image resolution. As a result, the operator does not have the ability to optimize the IR inspection system prior to data acquisition. The innovative IQI described here eliminates this limitation and enables the operator to objectively quantify and optimize the relevant variables of the IR inspection system, resulting in enhanced image quality with consistency and repeatability in the inspection application. The IR IQI consists of various copper foil features of known sizes that are printed on a dielectric non-conductive board. The significant difference in thermal conductivity between the two materials ensures that each appears with a distinct grayscale or brightness in the resulting IR image. Therefore, the IR image of the IQI exhibits high contrast between the copper features and the underlying dielectric board, which is required to detect the edges of the various copper features. The copper features consist of individual elements of various shapes and sizes, or of element-pairs of known shapes and sizes and with known spacing between the elements creating the pair. For example, filled copper circles with various diameters can be used as individual elements to quantify the image sensitivity

  6. Hurricane Katrina as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: click on image for larger AIRS microwave image

    At 1:30 a.m. local time this morning, the remnants of (now Tropical Depression) Katrina were centered on the Mississippi-Tennessee border. This microwave image from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument on NASA's Aqua spacecrat shows that the area of most intense precipitation was concentrated to the north of the center of activity.

    The infrared image shows how the storms look through an AIRS Infrared window channel. Window channels measure the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the hurricane. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds, so the purple color indicates the cool cloud tops of the storm. In cloud-free areas, the infrared signal is retrieved at the Earth's surface, revealing warmer temperatures. Cooler areas are pushing to purple and warmer areas are pushing to red.

    The microwave image (figure 1) reveals where the heaviest precipitation in the hurricane is taking place. The blue areas within the storm show the location of this heavy precipitation. Blue areas outside of the storm where there are moderate or no clouds are where the cold (in the microwave sense) sea surface shines through.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard

  7. Infrared Imaging for Inquiry-Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Charles; Hazzard, Edmund

    2011-09-01

    Based on detecting long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation emitted by the subject, IR imaging shows temperature distribution instantaneously and heat flow dynamically. As a picture is worth a thousand words, an IR camera has great potential in teaching heat transfer, which is otherwise invisible. The idea of using IR imaging in teaching was first discussed by Vollmer et al. in 2001.1-3 IR cameras were then too expensive for most schools. Thanks to the growing need of home energy inspection using IR thermography, the price of IR cameras has plummeted and they have become easy to use. As of 2011, the price of an entry-level handheld IR camera such as the FLIR I3 has fallen below 900 for educators. A slightly better version, FLIR I5, was used to take the IR images in this paper. As easy to use as a digital camera, the I5 camera automatically generates IR images of satisfactory quality with a temperature sensitivity of 0.1°C. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how these affordable IR cameras can be used as a visualization, inquiry, and discovery tool. As the prices of IR cameras continue to drop, it is time to give teachers an update about the educational power of this fascinating tool, especially in supporting inquiry-based learning.

  8. Hyperspectral imaging in the infrared using LIFTIRS. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.

    1995-10-01

    In this article the ideal performance for various possible designs for imaging spectrometers is discussed. Recent characterization measurements made with LIFTIRS, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectrometer are also presented. Hyperspectral imagers, characterized by having a large number of spectral channels, enable definitive identification and quantitative measurement of the composition of objects in the field of view. Infrared hyperspectral imagers are particularly useful for remote chemical analysis, since almost all molecules have characteristic rotation-vibration spectra in the infrared, and a broad portion of the so-called fingerprint region of the infrared spectrum lies where the atmosphere is relatively transparent, between 8 and 13 {micro}m.

  9. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frize, Monique; Adéa, Cynthia; Payeur, Pierre; Di Primio, Gina; Karsh, Jacob; Ogungbemile, Abiola

    2011-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function in joints; it is difficult to diagnose in early stages. An early diagnosis and treatment can delay the onset of severe disability. Infrared (IR) imaging offers a potential approach to detect changes in degree of inflammation. In 18 normal subjects and 13 patients diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), thermal images were collected from joints of hands, wrists, palms, and knees. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually selected from all subjects and all parts imaged. For each subject, values were calculated from the temperature measurements: Mode/Max, Median/Max, Min/Max, Variance, Max-Min, (Mode-Mean), and Mean/Min. The data sets did not have a normal distribution, therefore non parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Ranksum) were applied to assess if the data from the control group and the patient group were significantly different. Results indicate that: (i) thermal images can be detected on patients with the disease; (ii) the best joints to image are the metacarpophalangeal joints of the 2nd and 3rd fingers and the knees; the difference between the two groups was significant at the 0.05 level; (iii) the best calculations to differentiate between normal subjects and patients with RA are the Mode/Max, Variance, and Max-Min. We concluded that it is possible to reliably detect RA in patients using IR imaging. Future work will include a prospective study of normal subjects and patients that will compare IR results with Magnetic Resonance (MR) analysis.

  10. Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

  11. Infrared hyperspectral imaging polarimeter using birefringent prisms.

    PubMed

    Craven-Jones, Julia; Kudenov, Michael W; Stapelbroek, Maryn G; Dereniak, Eustace L

    2011-03-10

    A compact short-wavelength and middle-wavelength infrared hyperspectral imaging polarimeter (IHIP) is introduced. The sensor includes a pair of sapphire Wollaston prisms and several high-order retarders to form an imaging Fourier transform spectropolarimeter. The Wollaston prisms serve as a birefringent interferometer with reduced sensitivity to vibration versus an unequal path interferometer, such as a Michelson. Polarimetric data are acquired through the use of channeled spectropolarimetry to modulate the spectrum with the Stokes parameter information. The collected interferogram is Fourier filtered and reconstructed to recover the spatially and spectrally varying Stokes vector data across the image. The IHIP operates over a ±5° field of view and implements a dual-scan false signature reduction technique to suppress polarimetric aliasing artifacts. In this paper, the optical layout and operation of the IHIP sensor are presented in addition to the radiometric, spectral, and polarimetric calibration techniques used with the system. Spectral and spectropolarimetric results from the laboratory and outdoor tests with the instrument are also presented. PMID:21394189

  12. Infrared hyperspectral imaging polarimeter using birefringent prisms.

    PubMed

    Craven-Jones, Julia; Kudenov, Michael W; Stapelbroek, Maryn G; Dereniak, Eustace L

    2011-03-10

    A compact short-wavelength and middle-wavelength infrared hyperspectral imaging polarimeter (IHIP) is introduced. The sensor includes a pair of sapphire Wollaston prisms and several high-order retarders to form an imaging Fourier transform spectropolarimeter. The Wollaston prisms serve as a birefringent interferometer with reduced sensitivity to vibration versus an unequal path interferometer, such as a Michelson. Polarimetric data are acquired through the use of channeled spectropolarimetry to modulate the spectrum with the Stokes parameter information. The collected interferogram is Fourier filtered and reconstructed to recover the spatially and spectrally varying Stokes vector data across the image. The IHIP operates over a ±5° field of view and implements a dual-scan false signature reduction technique to suppress polarimetric aliasing artifacts. In this paper, the optical layout and operation of the IHIP sensor are presented in addition to the radiometric, spectral, and polarimetric calibration techniques used with the system. Spectral and spectropolarimetric results from the laboratory and outdoor tests with the instrument are also presented.

  13. Infrared and optical imaging of newborn stars

    SciTech Connect

    Heyer, M.H.; Ladd, E.F.; Myers, P.C.; Campbell, B. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque )

    1990-05-01

    Deep optical and near-infrared imaging observations of five low- to intermediate-luminosity pre-main-sequence stars embedded within dense cores reveal an extended emission component. Four of the five stars were previously identified as outflow sources. Nebulosity is detected with the optical and J and H bandpasses for each source. The large measured polarization values (p = 10 to 70 percent) at H and K identify the nebulosity as scattered light. At K the intensity distribution is generally less extended than at J and H, and is characterized by an additional, unresolved component. The position of this point source likely identifies the location of the newborn star within the field. For all sources, the illuminating star is redder than its associated nebula. The observed correlation of cometary reflection nebulae with newborn stars undergoing mass outflow suggests that the low-opacity paths are cavities associated with energetic stellar winds. 35 refs.

  14. High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, B.; Covelli, J.; Davinic, N.; Hailey, J.; Jones, E.; Ortiz, V.; Racine, J.; Satterwhite, D.; Spriesterbach, T.; Sorensen, D.

    1992-01-01

    A low earth orbiting platform for an infrared (IR) sensor payload is examined based on the requirements of a Naval Research Laboratory statement of work. The experiment payload is a 1.5-meter square by 0.5-meter high cubic structure equipped with the imaging system, radiators, and spacecraft mounting interface. The orbit is circular at 509 km (275 nmi) altitude and 70 deg. inclination. The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized with pointing accuracy of plus or minus 0.5 deg. in each axis. The experiment payload requires two 15-minute sensing periods over two contiguous orbit periods for 30 minutes of sensing time per day. The spacecraft design is presented for launch via a Delta 2 rocket. Subsystem designs include attitude control, propulsion, electric power, telemetry, tracking and command, thermal design, structure, and cost analysis.

  15. Dynamic infrared imaging for skin cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy, Sebastián E.; Ramirez, David A.; Myers, Stephen A.; von Winckel, Greg; Krishna, Sanchita; Berwick, Marianne; Padilla, R. Steven; Sen, Pradeep; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic thermal imaging (DTI) with infrared cameras is a non-invasive technique with the ability to detect the most common types of skin cancer. We discuss and propose a standardized analysis method for DTI of actual patient data, which achieves high levels of sensitivity and specificity by judiciously selecting pixels with the same initial temperature. This process compensates the intrinsic limitations of the cooling unit and is the key enabling tool in the DTI data analysis. We have extensively tested the methodology on human subjects using thermal infrared image sequences from a pilot study conducted jointly with the University of New Mexico Dermatology Clinic in Albuquerque, New Mexico (ClinicalTrials ID number NCT02154451). All individuals were adult subjects who were scheduled for biopsy or adult volunteers with clinically diagnosed benign condition. The sample size was 102 subjects for the present study. Statistically significant results were obtained that allowed us to distinguish between benign and malignant skin conditions. The sensitivity and specificity was 95% (with a 95% confidence interval of [87.8% 100.0%]) and 83% (with a 95% confidence interval of [73.4% 92.5%]), respectively, and with an area under the curve of 95%. Our results lead us to conclude that the DTI approach in conjunction with the judicious selection of pixels has the potential to provide a fast, accurate, non-contact, and non-invasive way to screen for common types of skin cancer. As such, it has the potential to significantly reduce the number of biopsies performed on suspicious lesions.

  16. Investigation of infra-red and nonequilibrium air radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, Charles H.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes progress on the first year of a research program on the infrared radiation of air plasmas conducted in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University. This program is intended to investigate the masking of infrared signatures by the air plasma formed behind the bow shock of high velocity missiles. To this date, the radiative emission of air plasmas in the infrared has been the object of few experimental investigations, and although several infrared systems are already modeled in radiation codes such as NEQAIR, measurements are required to validate numerical predictions and indicate whether all transitions of importance are accounted for. The present program is motivated by the fact that 9 excited states (A, B, C, D, B', F, H, and H') of NO radiate in the infrared, especially between 1 and 1.5 microns where at least 9 transitions involving can be observed. Because these IR transitions are relatively well separated from each other, excited NO states concentrations can be easily measured, thus providing essential information on excited-state chemistry for use in optical diagnostics or in electronic excitation model validation. Developing accurate collisional-radiative models for these excited NO states is of importance as the UV-VUV transitions of NO (beta, gamma, epsilon, beta prime, gamma prime) produce a major, if not dominant, fraction of the radiation emitted by air plasmas. During the first year of the program, research has focused on the spectral range 1.0 to 1.5 microns, as detailed in Section 2 of this report. The measurements, conducted in a 50 kW radio-frequency inductively coupled plasma torch operating on air at atmospheric pressure, extend previous shock tube investigations by Wray to a wider spectral range (1.0 to 1.5 microns vs 0.9 to 1.2 microns) and higher temperatures (7600 K in the plasma torch versus 6700 K in the shock-tube). These higher temperatures in the present experiment have made it possible to

  17. Sensitivity Analysis for Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO2 Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a thermal infrared sensor able to retrieve the daily atmospheric state globally for clear as well as partially cloudy field-of-views. The AIRS spectrometer has 2378 channels sensing from 15.4 micrometers to 3.7 micrometers, of which a small subset in the 15 micrometers region has been selected, to date, for CO2 retrieval. To improve upon the current retrieval method, we extended the retrieval calculations to include a prior estimate component and developed a channel ranking system to optimize the channels and number of channels used. The channel ranking system uses a mathematical formalism to rapidly process and assess the retrieval potential of large numbers of channels. Implementing this system, we identifed a larger optimized subset of AIRS channels that can decrease retrieval errors and minimize the overall sensitivity to other iridescent contributors, such as water vapor, ozone, and atmospheric temperature. This methodology selects channels globally by accounting for the latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal dependencies of the subset. The new methodology increases accuracy in AIRS CO2 as well as other retrievals and enables the extension of retrieved CO2 vertical profiles to altitudes ranging from the lower troposphere to upper stratosphere. The extended retrieval method for CO2 vertical profile estimation using a maximum-likelihood estimation method. We use model data to demonstrate the beneficial impact of the extended retrieval method using the new channel ranking system on CO2 retrieval.

  18. Research of infrared image optimization algorithm in optical read-out IR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianxiong; Cheng, Teng; Zhang, Qingchuan; Gao, Jie; Wu, Xiaoping

    2014-09-01

    Different from traditional electrical readout infrared imaging, optical readout infrared imaging system readout the thermo-mechanical response of focal plane array via visible light. Due to the different parameters of the optical system, usually,the infrared thermal image pixel corresponding to the thermal element of focal plane array is not consistent. And the substrate-free focal plane array brings thermal crosstalk, the image blur. This manuscript analyzes the optical readout infrared imaging principle, proposes an one to one correspondence method between the infrared thermal image pixel and the thermal element of focal plane array, optimizes the digital infrared image by the thermal crosstalk on substrate-free focal plane array. Simulation and experiments show that the algorithm can effectively enhance the contours of the infrared image detail, enhancing image quality.

  19. ESO imaging survey: infrared deep public survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, L. F.; Miralles, J.-M.; da Costa, L.; Madejsky, R.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Mignano, A.; Arnouts, S.; Benoist, C.; Dietrich, J. P.; Slijkhuis, R.; Zaggia, S.

    2006-09-01

    This paper is part of the series presenting the final results obtained by the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. It presents new J and Ks data obtained from observations conducted at the ESO 3.5 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) using the SOFI camera. These data were taken as part of the Deep Public Survey (DPS) carried out by the ESO Imaging Survey program, significantly extending the earlier optical/infrared EIS-DEEP survey presented in a previous paper of this series. The DPS-IR survey comprises two observing strategies: shallow Ks observations providing nearly full coverage of pointings with complementary multi-band (in general {UBVRI}) optical data obtained using ESO's wide-field imager (WFI) and deeper J and Ks observations of the central parts of these fields. Currently, the DPS-IR survey provides a coverage of roughly 2.1 square degrees ( 300 SOFI pointings) in Ks with 0.63 square degrees to fainter magnitudes and also covered in J, over three independent regions of the sky. The goal of the present paper is to briefly describe the observations, the data reduction procedures, and to present the final survey products which include fully calibrated pixel-maps and catalogs extracted from them. The astrometric solution with an estimated accuracy of ⪉0.15 arcsec is based on the USNO catalog and limited only by the accuracy of the reference catalog. The final stacked images presented here number 89 and 272, in J and K_s, respectively, the latter reflecting the larger surveyed area. The J and Ks images were taken with a median seeing of 0.77 arcsec and 0.8 arcsec. The images reach a median 5σ limiting magnitude of JAB˜23.06 as measured within an aperture of 2´´, while the corresponding limiting magnitude in KsAB is 21.41 and 22.16 mag for the shallow and deep strategies. Although some spatial variation due to varying observing conditions is observed, overall the observed limiting magnitudes are consistent with those originally proposed. The quality of the data

  20. A real-time infrared imaging simulation method with physical effects modeling of infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ni; Huai, Wenqing; Wang, Shaodan; Ren, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Infrared imaging simulation technology can provide infrared data sources for the development, improvement and evaluation of infrared imaging systems under different environment, status and weather conditions, which is reusable and more economic than physical experiments. A real-time infrared imaging simulation process is established to reproduce a complete physical imaging process. Our emphasis is put on the modeling of infrared sensors, involving physical effects of both spatial domain and frequency domain. An improved image convolution method is proposed based on GPU parallel processing to enhance the real-time simulation ability with ensuring its simulation accuracy at the same time. Finally the effectiveness of the above methods is validated by simulation analysis and result comparison.

  1. Development and test of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Paul G.; Bates, Jerry C.; Miller, Christopher R.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; O'Callaghan, Fred; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Karnik, Avinash R.

    1999-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) has been developed for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program for a scheduled launch on the EOS PM-1 spacecraft in December 2000. AIRS, working in concert with complementary microwave instrumentation on EOS PM-1 is designed to provide both new and more accurate data about the atmosphere, land and oceans for application to NASA climate studies and NOAA and DOD weather prediction. Among the important parameters to be derived from AIRS observations are atmospheric temperature profiles with an average accuracy of 1 K in 1 kilometer (km) layers in the troposphere, humidity profiles to 10% accuracy and surface temperatures with an average accuracy of 0.5 K. The AIRS measurement technique is based on passive IR remote sensing using a precisely calibrated, high spectral resolution grating spectrometer operating in the 3.7 - 15.4 micrometer region. The instrument concept uses a passively cooled multi- aperture echelle array spectrometer approach in combination with advanced state of the art focal plane and cryogenic refrigerator technology to achieve unparalleled performance capability in a practical long life configuration. The AIRS instrument, which has been under development since 1991, has been fully integrated and has completed successfully a comprehensive performance verification program. Performance verification included thermal vacuum testing, environmental qualification and a full range of spatial, spectral and radiometric calibrations, which have demonstrated outstanding spectrometric performance. This paper provides a brief overview of the AIRS mission and instrument design along with key results from the test program.

  2. Cryogenic infrared imaging beryllium telescope for Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    The IRAS mission is the result of an international project involving the cooperation of the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. The Infrared Astronmical Satellite was placed into orbit on January 25, 1983. Its main function is to provide a survey of the entire sky as viewed in four octaves of infrared radiation in the wavelenth region from 8 to 120 microns. The cylindrical structure of the satellite contains a large dewar vessel with 70 liters of superfluid helium. The helium has the function to maintain the contents of the vessel at 2.5 K for the duration of the mission. The IRAS optics is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 24 inches aperture. Because of the operational requirements of the mission, it had been specified that all optical components should be beryllium. Attention is given to the cold performance test conducted with IRAS, plans for future infrared telescopes, and reflectance limits.

  3. Lossless image compression technique for infrared thermal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Lloyd G.; Kelly, Gary E.

    1992-07-01

    The authors have achieved a 6.5-to-one image compression technique for thermal images (640 X 480, 1024 colors deep). Using a combination of new and more traditional techniques, the combined algorithm is computationally simple, enabling `on-the-fly' compression and storage of an image in less time than it takes to transcribe the original image to or from a magnetic medium. Similar compression has been achieved on visual images by virtue of the feature that all optical devices possess a modulation transfer function. As a consequence of this property, the difference in color between adjacent pixels is a usually small number, often between -1 and +1 graduations for a meaningful color scheme. By differentiating adjacent rows and columns, the original image can be expressed in terms of these small numbers. A simple compression algorithm for these small numbers achieves a four to one image compression. By piggy-backing this technique with a LZW compression or a fixed Huffman coding, an additional 35% image compression is obtained, resulting in a 6.5-to-one lossless image compression. Because traditional noise-removal operators tend to minimize the color graduations between adjacent pixels, an additional 20% reduction can be obtained by preprocessing the image with a noise-removal operator. Although noise removal operators are not lossless, their application may prove crucial in applications requiring high compression, such as the storage or transmission of a large number or images. The authors are working with the Air Force Photonics Technology Application Program Management office to apply this technique to transmission of optical images from satellites.

  4. Visible-Infrared Hyperspectral Image Projector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The VisIR HIP generates spatially-spectrally complex scenes. The generated scenes simulate real-world targets viewed by various remote sensing instruments. The VisIR HIP consists of two subsystems: a spectral engine and a spatial engine. The spectral engine generates spectrally complex uniform illumination that spans the wavelength range between 380 nm and 1,600 nm. The spatial engine generates two-dimensional gray-scale scenes. When combined, the two engines are capable of producing two-dimensional scenes with a unique spectrum at each pixel. The VisIR HIP can be used to calibrate any spectrally sensitive remote-sensing instrument. Tests were conducted on the Wide-field Imaging Interferometer Testbed at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center. The device is a variation of the calibrated hyperspectral image projector developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, MD. It uses Gooch & Housego Visible and Infrared OL490 Agile Light Sources to generate arbitrary spectra. The two light sources are coupled to a digital light processing (DLP(TradeMark)) digital mirror device (DMD) that serves as the spatial engine. Scenes are displayed on the DMD synchronously with desired spectrum. Scene/spectrum combinations are displayed in rapid succession, over time intervals that are short compared to the integration time of the system under test.

  5. Photothermal imaging through coherent infrared bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milstein, Yonat; Tepper, Michal; Harrington, James A.; Ben David, Moshe; Gannot, Israel

    2011-03-01

    This study aims to develop a photothermal imaging system through a coherent infrared bundle. This system will be used to determine the oxygenation level of various tissues, suspected malignant tissues in particular. The oxygenation estimation is preformed using a computerized algorithm. In order to evaluate the system, different bundle configurations were used for the determination of the optimal one. Bundle transmittance and the algorithm's estimation ability were measured, measurements were performed using agar phantoms consisting of varying ratios of Methylene Blue and ICG. A bundle consisting of 19 Teflon waveguides with a of 1.1mm was found to be the optimal configuration with an RMS of the error of 9.38%. At a second stage the system was validated on blood samples with varying oxygenation levels and there oxygenation levels were estimated. This stage had an RMS of the error of 10.16% for the oxygenation level estimation for samples with a 50% oxygenation level and higher. Once the basic system was validated successfully on agar phantoms and blood samples a portable system was designed and built in order to fit the system for portable use. The portable system consists of a white light illuminating source followed by filters transmitting certain wavelengths, a transmitting fiber, a thermal imaging bundle and a portable thermal camera. This portable system will be evaluated in order to have an adequate portable system for implementing the method out of the lab.

  6. CfAIR2: Near-infrared Light Curves of 94 Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Andrew S.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Marion, G. H.; Challis, Peter; Mandel, Kaisey S.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Modjaz, Maryam; Narayan, Gautham; Hicken, Malcolm; Foley, Ryan J.; Klein, Christopher R.; Starr, Dan L.; Morgan, Adam; Rest, Armin; Blake, Cullen H.; Miller, Adam A.; Falco, Emilio E.; Wyatt, William F.; Mink, Jessica; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2015-09-01

    CfAIR2 is a large, homogeneously reduced set of near-infrared (NIR) light curves (LCs) for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained with the 1.3 m Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope. This data set includes 4637 measurements of 94 SNe Ia and 4 additional SNe Iax observed from 2005 to 2011 at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. CfAIR2 includes {{JHK}}s photometric measurements for 88 normal and 6 spectroscopically peculiar SN Ia in the nearby universe, with a median redshift of z ˜ 0.021 for the normal SN Ia. CfAIR2 data span the range from -13 days to +127 days from B-band maximum. More than half of the LCs begin before the time of maximum, and the coverage typically contains ˜13-18 epochs of observation, depending on the filter. We present extensive tests that verify the fidelity of the CfAIR2 data pipeline, including comparison to the excellent data of the Carnegie Supernova Project. CfAIR2 contributes to a firm local anchor for SN cosmology studies in the NIR. Because SN Ia are more nearly standard candles in the NIR and are less vulnerable to the vexing problems of extinction by dust, CfAIR2 will help the SN cosmology community develop more precise and accurate extragalactic distance probes to improve our knowledge of cosmological parameters, including dark energy and its potential time variation.

  7. Reproducing kernel hilbert space based single infrared image super resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liangliang; Deng, Liangjian; Shen, Wei; Xi, Ning; Zhou, Zhanxin; Song, Bo; Yang, Yongliang; Cheng, Yu; Dong, Lixin

    2016-07-01

    The spatial resolution of Infrared (IR) images is limited by lens optical diffraction, sensor array pitch size and pixel dimension. In this work, a robust model is proposed to reconstruct high resolution infrared image via a single low resolution sampling, where the image features are discussed and classified as reflective, cooled emissive and uncooled emissive based on infrared irradiation source. A spline based reproducing kernel hilbert space and approximative heaviside function are deployed to model smooth part and edge component of image respectively. By adjusting the parameters of heaviside function, the proposed model can enhance distinct part of images. The experimental results show that the model is applicable on both reflective and emissive low resolution infrared images to improve thermal contrast. The overall outcome produces a high resolution IR image, which makes IR camera better measurement accuracy and observes more details at long distance.

  8. Infrared hyperspectral upconversion imaging using spatial object translation.

    PubMed

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Sanders, Nicolai; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian

    2015-12-28

    In this paper hyperspectral imaging in the mid-infrared wavelength region is realised using nonlinear frequency upconversion. The infrared light is converted to the near-infrared region for detection with a Si-based CCD camera. The object is translated in a predefined grid by motorized actuators and an image is recorded for each position. A sequence of such images is post-processed into a series of monochromatic images in a wavelength range defined by the phasematch condition and numerical aperture of the upconversion system. A standard USAF resolution target and a polystyrene film are used to impart spatial and spectral information unto the source. PMID:26832059

  9. Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Pust, Nathan; Thurairajah, Brentha; Mizutani, Kohei

    2005-07-25

    An uncooled microbolometer-array thermal infrared camera has been incorporated into a remote sensing system for radiometric sky imaging. The radiometric calibration is validated and improved through direct comparison with spectrally integrated data from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). With the improved calibration, the Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) system routinely obtains sky images with radiometric uncertainty less than 0.5 W/(m(2 )sr) for extended deployments in challenging field environments. We demonstrate the infrared cloud imaging technique with still and time-lapse imagery of clear and cloudy skies, including stratus, cirrus, and wave clouds. PMID:19498585

  10. Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Pust, Nathan; Thurairajah, Brentha; Mizutani, Kohei

    2005-07-25

    An uncooled microbolometer-array thermal infrared camera has been incorporated into a remote sensing system for radiometric sky imaging. The radiometric calibration is validated and improved through direct comparison with spectrally integrated data from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). With the improved calibration, the Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) system routinely obtains sky images with radiometric uncertainty less than 0.5 W/(m(2 )sr) for extended deployments in challenging field environments. We demonstrate the infrared cloud imaging technique with still and time-lapse imagery of clear and cloudy skies, including stratus, cirrus, and wave clouds.

  11. Regional Assimilation of NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Lapenta, William; Jediovec, Gary J.; McCarty, William; Mecikalski, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center seeks to accelerate the infusion of NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) observations, data assimilation and modeling research into NW S forecast operations and decision-making. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), is expected to advance climate research and weather prediction into the 21 st century. It is one of six instruments onboard Aqua, a satellite that is part of NASA s Earth Observing System. AIRS, along with two partner microwave sounding instruments, represents the most advanced atmospheric sounding system ever deployed in space. The system is capable of measuring the atmospheric temperature in the troposphere with radiosonde accuracies of 1 K over 1 km-thick layers under both clear and cloudy conditions, while the accuracy of the derived moisture profiles will exceed that obtained by radiosondes. It is imperative that the scientific community is prepared to take full advantage of next-generation satellite data that will become available within the next decade. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure designed to optimally assimilate AIRS data at high spatial resolution over both land and ocean. The assimilation system used in this study is the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) developed at the Forecast System Laboratory used extensively around the globe. Results will focus on quality control issues associated with AIRS, optimal assimilation strategies, and the impact of the AIRS data on subsequent numerical forecasts at 12 km produced by the next generation Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model.

  12. Colored three-dimensional reconstruction of vehicular thermal infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaoyuan; Leung, Henry; Shen, Zhenyi

    2015-06-01

    Enhancement of vehicular night vision thermal infrared images is an important problem in intelligent vehicles. We propose to create a colorful three-dimensional (3-D) display of infrared images for the vehicular night vision assistant driving system. We combine the plane parameter Markov random field (PP-MRF) model-based depth estimation with classification-based infrared image colorization to perform colored 3-D reconstruction of vehicular thermal infrared images. We first train the PP-MRF model to learn the relationship between superpixel features and plane parameters. The infrared images are then colorized and we perform superpixel segmentation and feature extraction on the colorized images. The PP-MRF model is used to estimate the superpixel plane parameter and to analyze the structure of the superpixels according to the characteristics of vehicular thermal infrared images. Finally, we estimate the depth of each pixel to perform 3-D reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can give a visually pleasing and daytime-like colorful 3-D display from a monochromatic vehicular thermal infrared image, which can help drivers to have a better understanding of the environment.

  13. The method of infrared image simulation based on the measured image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shuli; Liu, Liang; Ren, Jiancun

    2015-10-01

    The development of infrared imaging guidance technology has promoted the research of infrared imaging simulation technology and the key of infrared imaging simulation is the generation of IR image. The generation of IR image is worthful in military and economy. In order to solve the problem of credibility and economy of infrared scene generation, a method of infrared scene generation based on the measured image is proposed. Through researching on optical properties of ship-target and sea background, ship-target images with various gestures are extracted from recorded images based on digital image processing technology. The ship-target image is zoomed in and out to simulate the relative motion between the viewpoint and the target according to field of view and the distance between the target and the sensor. The gray scale of ship-target image is adjusted to simulate the radiation change of the ship-target according to the distance between the viewpoint and the target and the atmospheric transmission. Frames of recorded infrared images without target are interpolated to simulate high frame rate of missile. Processed ship-target images and sea-background infrared images are synthetized to obtain infrared scenes according to different viewpoints. Experiments proved that this method is flexible and applicable, and the fidelity and the reliability of synthesis infrared images can be guaranteed.

  14. Defects' geometric feature recognition based on infrared image edge detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junyan, Liu; Qingju, Tang; Yang, Wang; Yumei, Lu; Zhiping, Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Edge detection is an important technology in image segmentation, feature extraction and other digital image processing areas. Boundary contains a wealth of information in the image, so to extract defects' edges in infrared images effectively enables the identification of defects' geometric features. This paper analyzed the detection effect of classic edge detection operators, and proposed fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering-Canny operator algorithm to achieve defects' edges in the infrared images. Results show that the proposed algorithm has better effect than the classic edge detection operators, which can identify the defects' geometric feature much more completely and clearly. The defects' diameters have been calculated based on the image edge detection results.

  15. Infrared imaging diagnostics for INTF ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhir, D.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Pandey, R.; Joshi, J.; Yadav, A.; Rotti, C.; Bhuyan, M.; Bansal, G.; Soni, J.; Tyagi, H.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.

    2015-04-01

    In India, testing facility named INTF [1] (Indian test facility) is being built in Institute for Plasma Research to characterize ITER-Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB). INTF is expected to deliver 60A negative hydrogen ion beam current of energy 100keV. The beam will be operated with 5Hz modulation having 3s ON/20s OFF duty cycle. To characterize the beam parameters several diagnostics are at different stages of design and development. One of them will be a beam dump, made of carbon fiber composite (CFC) plates placed perpendicular to the beam direction at a distance lm approximately. The beam dump needs to handle ˜ 6MW of beam power with peak power density ˜ 38.5MW/m2. The diagnostic is based on thermal (infra-red - IR) imaging of the footprint of the 1280 beamlets falling on the beam dump using four IR cameras from the rear side of the dump. The beam dump will be able to measure beam uniformity, beamlet divergence. It may give information on relative variation of negative ion stripping losses for different beam pulses. The design of this CFC based beam dump needs to address several physics and engineering issues, including some specific inputs from manufacturers. The manuscript will describe an overview of the diagnostic system and its design methodology highlighting those issues and the present status of its development.

  16. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging: The Next Generation

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging seemingly matured as a technology in the mid-2000s, with commercially successful instrumentation and reports in numerous applications. Recent developments, however, have transformed our understanding of the recorded data, provided capability for new instrumentation, and greatly enhanced the ability to extract more useful information in less time. These developments are summarized here in three broad areas— data recording, interpretation of recorded data, and information extraction—and their critical review is employed to project emerging trends. Overall, the convergence of selected components from hardware, theory, algorithms, and applications is one trend. Instead of similar, general-purpose instrumentation, another trend is likely to be diverse and application-targeted designs of instrumentation driven by emerging component technologies. The recent renaissance in both fundamental science and instrumentation will likely spur investigations at the confluence of conventional spectroscopic analyses and optical physics for improved data interpretation. While chemometrics has dominated data processing, a trend will likely lie in the development of signal processing algorithms to optimally extract spectral and spatial information prior to conventional chemometric analyses. Finally, the sum of these recent advances is likely to provide unprecedented capability in measurement and scientific insight, which will present new opportunities for the applied spectroscopist. PMID:23031693

  17. Near-Infrared Imaging of Protostellar Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megeath, S. T.; Pipher, Judy; Myers, Phil; Peterson, Dawn

    2000-08-01

    We propose SQIID multiband IR imaging of the LBS 23 and OMC2/3 regions in the Orion Giant Molecular Clouds. Submillimeter observations of these regions show a remarkable number of protostars, indicating that these regions are forming stars at a rapid rate, but neither LBS-23 or OMC-2/3 have been surveyed extensively at infrared wavelengths. Using deep observations with SQIID on the 2.1-m telescope, we will survey the embedded stellar population of pre--main sequence stars down to the hydrogen burning limit in these highly extincted regions. These observations will give us a unique opportunity to study the earlier stages of cluster formation before the parental molecular gas has been significantly disrupted by HII regions. We will examine the spatial distribution to study the fragmentation history of the molecular gas and to use the spacing of the observed YSOs to constrain theories of cluster formation. We will also study the early evolution of the IMF and fraction of stars with disks by comparing these ``protoclusters'' to more more evolved regions such as the Trapezium cluster and NGC 2024.

  18. A background suppression algorithm for infrared image based on shearlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ruibin; Shi, Caicheng; Qin, Xiao

    2015-04-01

    Because of the relative far distance between infrared imaging system and target or the wide field infrared optical, the imaging area of infrared target is only a few pixels, which is isolated or spots to be showed in the field of view. The only available is the intensity information (gray value) for the target detection. Simultaneously, there are many shortcomings of the infrared image, such as large noise, interference and so on, therefore the small target is always buried in the background and noises. The small target is relatively difficult to detect, so generally, it is impossible to make reliable detection to this target in a single frame image. Summarily, the core of the infrared small target detection algorithm is the background and noise suppression based on a single frame image. Aiming at the infrared small target detection and the above problems, a shearlets-based background suppression algorithm for infrared image is proposed. The algorithm demonstrates the performance of advantage based on shearlets, which is especially designed to address anisotropic and directional information at various scales. This transform provides an optimally efficient representation of images, which is greatly reduced the amount of the information and the available information representation. In the paper, introducing the principle of shearlets first, and then proposing the theory of the algorithm and explaining the implementation step. Finally, giving the simulation results. In Matlab simulations with this method for several sets of infrared images, simulation results conformed to the theory on background suppression based on shearlets. The result showed that this method can effectively suppress background, and improve the SCR and achieve a satisfactory effect in the sky background. The method is very effectively for target detection, identification, track in infrared image system for the future.

  19. Infrared Images of an Infant Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    understanding of the formation of solar-type stars and planetary systems from the interstellar medium. However, in most cases the large difference of brightness between the young star and its surrounding material makes it impossible to image directly the circumstellar disk. But when the disk is seen nearly edge-on, the light from the central star will be blocked out by the dust grains in the disk. Other grains below and above the disk midplane scatter the stellar light, producing a typical pattern of a dark lane between two reflection nebulae. The first young stellar object (YSO) found to display this typical pattern, HH 30 IRS in the Taurus dark cloud at a distance of about 500 light-years (140 pc), was imaged by the Hubble Space telescope (HST) in 1996. Edge-on disks have since also been observed with ground-based telescopes in the near-infrared region of the spectrum, sometimes by means of adaptive optics techniques or speckle imaging, or under very good sky image quality, cf. ESO PR Photo 03d/01 with a VLT image of such an object in the Orion Nebula. A surprise discovery ESO PR Photo 12a/02 ESO PR Photo 12a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 459 pix - 55k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 918 pix - 352k] Caption : PR Photo 12a/02 shows a three-colour reproduction of the discovery image of strange-looking object (nicknamed the "Flying Saucer" by the astronomers), obtained with the SOFI multi-mode instrument at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory. Compared to the unresolved stars in the field, the image of this object appears extended. Two characteristic reflection nebulae are barely visible, together with a marginally resolved dark dust lane in front of the star and oriented East-West. Technical information about the photo is available below. Last year, a group of astronomers [1] carried out follow-up observations of new X-ray sources found by the ESA XMM-Newton and NASA Chandra X-ray satellites. They were looking at the periphery of the so-called Rho

  20. New technique for enhancement of high dynamic range infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Xin-sai; Xu, Hualiang; He, Ming; Li, Mingming

    2012-10-01

    A Bilateral Filter (BF) and Multi-scale Retinex (MSR) based infrared image enhancement algorithm is proposed in this paper. It's known that the MSR algorithm derived from vision theory can achieve dynamic range compression and tonal rendition effectively but suffers from `halo' phenomena caused by the existence of "sharp" edges in infrared images. Research shows that bilateral filter has the property of separating image details from strong edges. Therefore, we process detail components containing strong edges in MSR algorithm with bilateral filter to achieve dynamic range compression, detail enhancement and avoid `halo' artifacts at the same time. The performance of proposed algorithm is then validated by experiments with three real infrared images and compared with other two infrared images enhancement algorithms.

  1. Doped carbon nanostructure field emitter arrays for infrared imaging

    DOEpatents

    Korsah, Kofi [Knoxville, TN; Baylor, Larry R [Farragut, TN; Caughman, John B [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A [Knoxville, TN; Rack, Philip D [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilia N [Knoxville, TN

    2009-10-27

    An infrared imaging device and method for making infrared detector(s) having at least one anode, at least one cathode with a substrate electrically connected to a plurality of doped carbon nanostructures; and bias circuitry for applying an electric field between the anode and the cathode such that when infrared photons are adsorbed by the nanostructures the emitted field current is modulated. The detectors can be doped with cesium to lower the work function.

  2. Alternative cloud clearing methodologies for the atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnet, C. D.; Goldberg, M.; King, Thomas; Nalli, Nicholas; Wolf, Walter; Zhou, Lihang; Wei, Jennifer

    2005-08-01

    Traditional cloud clearing methods utilize a clear estimate of the atmosphere inferred from a microwave sounder to extrapolate cloud cleared radiances (CCR's) from a spatial interpolation of multiple cloudy infrared footprints. Unfortunately, sounders have low information content in the lower atmosphere due to broad weighting functions, interference from surface radiance and the microwave radiances can also suffer from uncorrected side-lobe contamination. Therefore, scenes with low altitude clouds can produce errant CCR's that, in-turn, produce errant sounding products. Radiances computed from the corrupted products can agree with the measurements within the error budget making detection and removal of the errant scenes impractical; typically, a large volume of high quality retrievals are rejected in order to remove a few errant scenes. In this paper we compare and contrast the yield and accuracy of the traditional approach with alternative methods of obtaining CCR's. The goal of this research is three-fold: (1) to have a viable approach if the microwave instruments fail on the EOS-AQUA platform; (2) to improve the accuracy and reliability of infrared products derived from CCR's; and (3) to investigate infrared approaches for geosynchronous platforms where microwave sounding is difficult. The methods discussed are (a) use of assimilation products, (b) use of a statistical regression trained on cloudy radiances, (c) an infrared multi-spectral approach exploiting the non-linearity of the Planck function, and (d) use of clear MODIS measurements in the AIRS sub-pixel space. These approaches can be used independently of the microwave measurements; however, they also enhance the traditional approach in the context of quality control, increased spatial resolution, and increased information content.

  3. Development and test of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Paul G.; Bates, Jerry C.; Miller, Christopher R.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; O'Callaghan, Fred; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Karnik, Avinash R.

    1999-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) has been developed for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program for a scheduled launch on the EOS PM-1 spacecraft in December 2000. AIRS, working in concert with complementary microwave instrumentation on EOS PM-1, is designed to provide both new and more accurate data about the atmosphere, land and oceans for application to climate studies and weather prediction. Among the important parameters to be derived from AIRS observations are atmospheric temperature profiles with an average accuracy of 1 K in 1 kilometer (km) layers in the troposphere, humidity profiles to 10% accuracy and surface temperatures with an average accuracy of 0.5 K. The AIRS measurement technique is based on passive IR remote sensing using a precisely calibrated grating spectrometer operating in the 3.7 - 15.4 micrometer region. The instrument concept uses a passively cooled array spectrometer approach in combination with advanced state of the art focal plan and cryogenic refrigerator technology to achieve high performance in a practical long life configuration. The AIRS instrument has successfully completed a comprehensive performance verification program conducted at the Lockheed Martin IR Imaging Systems (LMIRIS) AIRS Test and Calibration Facility (ATCF), which was specially designed for precise spectroradiometric testing of space instrumentation. This paper provides a brief overview of the AIRS mission and instrument design, ATCF test capabilities, along with key results.

  4. Translation of infrared chemical imaging for cardiovascular evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Saumya; Raman, Jai; Reddy, Vijaya; Dawson, Miranda; Bhargava, Rohit

    2016-03-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging has been applied to study histology of cardiovascular tissue, primarily using Fourier transform IR (FTIR) Imaging. Here we describe results for histologic imaging of cardiac biopsies using a fast, discrete frequency IR (DFIR) imaging system. Histologic classification of tissue is understood in terms of the constituent frequencies and speeded up by careful optimization of the data acquired. Results are compared to FTIR imaging in terms of the signal to noise ratio and information content.

  5. Hurricane Frances as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and SeaWinds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows Hurricane Frances as captured by instruments onboard two different satellites: the AIRS infrared instrument onboard Aqua, and the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT. Both are JPL-managed instruments. AIRS data are used to create global three-dimensional maps of temperature, humidity and clouds, while scatterometers measure surface wind speed and direction over the ocean.

    The red vectors in the image show Frances' surface winds as measured by SeaWinds on QuikSCAT. The background colors show the temperature of clouds and surface as viewed in the infrared by AIRS, with cooler areas pushing to purple and warmer areas are pushing to red. The color scale on the right gives the temperatures in degrees Kelvin. (The top of the scale, 320 degrees Kelvin, corresponds to 117 degrees Fahrenheit, and the bottom, 180 degrees K is -135 degrees F.) The powerful circulation of this storm is evident from the combined data as well as the development of a clearly-defined central 'eye'. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds, so the light blue areas reveal the cold clouds tops associated with strong thunderstorms embedded within the storm. In cloud-free areas the infrared signal comes from Earth's surface, revealing warmer temperatures.

    The power of the SeaWinds scatterometer data set lies in its ability to generate global maps of wind speed and direction, giving us a snapshot of how the atmosphere is circulating. Weather prediction centers, including the Tropical Prediction Center - a branch of NOAA that monitors the creation of ocean-born storms, use scatterometer data to help it 'see' where these storms are brewing so that warnings can be issued and the storms, with often erratic motions, can be tracked.

    While the SeaWinds instrument isn't designed to gather hurricane data, having difficulty seeing the surface in heavy rain, it's data can be used in combination with other data sets to give us an insight into these storms. In

  6. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, Nancy K.; Durbin, Philip F.; Dolan, Kenneth W.; Perkins, Dwight E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features.

  7. Digital infrared thermal imaging following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Barker, Lauren E; Markowski, Alycia M; Henneman, Kimberly

    2012-03-01

    This case describes the selective use of digital infrared thermal imaging for a 48-year-old woman who was being treated by a physical therapist following left anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with a semitendinosus autograft. PMID:22383168

  8. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2008-08-01

    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  9. Infrared imaging simulation and detection of ship wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Chen, Xuan; Chang, Shizheng; Xu, Enchi; Wang, Xingyu; Wang, Ye; Zhao, Xiaolong; Du, Yongchen; Kou, Wei; Fan, Chunli

    2015-10-01

    The thermal wake would be formed owing to the cooling water or exhaust heat discharged by ship, and the cold wake could be formed by the cool water in the lower part of sea stirred up by the ship propeller or vortexes. Owing to the difference of surface temperature and emissivity between the ship wake and the surrounding ocean the ship wake will be easily detected by the infrared detecting system. The wave of wake also could be detected by the difference of reflected radiance between the background and the Kelvin wake of ship. In this paper the simulating models of infrared imaging of ship wake are developed based on the selfradiation of wake, the reflected radiance of the sky and sun and the transmitted radiance of atmosphere, and the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are investigated. The results show that the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake can be really simulated by the models proposed in this paper. The effects of the detecting height, the angle of view, the NETD of detector and the temperature of wake on the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are studied. The temperature difference between the ship wake and surrounding ocean is a main fact which effects on the detecting distance. The infrared imaging signatures of ship wake in 8-14μm wave band is stronger than that in 2-5μm wave band whenever the temperature of ship wake is warmer or cooler than the surrounding ocean. Further, the infrared imaging of thermal wake is investigated in the homogenous water and temperature stratified water at different speed of a ship and different flow rate and depth of the discharged water in a water tank. The spreading and decaying laws of infrared signature of ship wake are obtained experimentally. The results obtained in this paper have an important application in the infrared remote sensing of ship wake.

  10. Comparison of image deconvolution algorithms on simulated and laboratory infrared images

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, D.

    1994-11-15

    We compare Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Entropy, Accelerated Lucy-Richardson, Weighted Goodness of Fit, and Pixon reconstructions of simple scenes as a function of signal-to-noise ratio for simulated images with randomly generated noise. Reconstruction results of infrared images taken with the TAISIR (Temperature and Imaging System InfraRed) are also discussed.

  11. Hurricane Alex as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for August 3, 2004 movie, slicing down the atmosphere with the AIRS infrared sensor

    These images of hurricane Alex were captured on August 3, 2004 at 1:30pm EDT. Located in the Atlantic Ocean located about 80 miles south-southeast of Charleston, South Carolina, Alex is now a category 2 hurricane with maximum sustained winds were near 100 mph (161 kph). Alex's center was about 65 miles (104 kilometers) northeast of Cape Hatteras and moving away from the U.S. coast.

    The major contribution to radiation (infrared light) that AIRS infrared channels sense comes from different levels in the atmosphere, depending upon the channel wavelength. To create the movies, a set of AIRS infrared channels were selected which probe the atmosphere at progressively deeper levels. If there were no clouds, the color in each frame would be nearly uniform until the Earth's surface is encountered. The tropospheric air temperature warms at a rate of 6 K (about 11 F) for each kilometer of descent toward the surface. Thus the colors would gradually change from cold to warm as the movie progresses.

    Clouds block the infrared radiation. Thus wherever there are clouds we can penetrate no deeper in infrared. The color remains fixed as the movie progresses, for that area of the image is 'stuck' to the cloud top temperature. The coldest temperatures around 220 K (about -65 F) come from altitudes of about 10 miles.

    We therefore see in a 'surface channel' at the end of the movie, signals from clouds as cold as 220 K and from Earth's surface at 310 K (about 100 F). The very coldest clouds are seen in deep convection thunderstorms over land. Images [figure removed for brevity, see original site] August 2, 2004, 1:30am ET Frame from August 2 movie, slicing down the atmosphere with the AIRS infrared sensor. Alex a tropical storm, sustained winds at 60 mph. The storm is 115 miles southeast of Charleston, South

  12. Thermal Infrared Spectral Imager for Airborne Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2009-01-01

    An airborne thermal hyperspectral imager is under development which utilizes the compact Dyson optical configuration and quantum well infrared photo detector (QWIP) focal plane array. The Dyson configuration uses a single monolithic prism-like grating design which allows for a high throughput instrument (F/1.6) with minimal ghosting, stray-light and large swath width. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal imaging spectroscopy solution for lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The planned instrument specifications are discussed as well as design trade-offs. Calibration testing results (noise equivalent temperature difference, spectral linearity and spectral bandwidth) and laboratory emissivity plots from samples are shown using an operational testbed unit which has similar specifications as the final airborne system. Field testing of the testbed unit was performed to acquire plots of apparent emissivity for various known standard minerals (such as quartz). A comparison is made using data from the ASTER spectral library.

  13. Gas plume quantification in downlooking hyperspectral longwave infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Caroline S.; Davenport, Michael R.

    2010-10-01

    Algorithms have been developed to support quantitative analysis of a gas plume using down-looking airborne hyperspectral long-wave infrared (LWIR) imagery. The resulting gas quantification "GQ" tool estimates the quantity of one or more gases at each pixel, and estimates uncertainty based on factors such as atmospheric transmittance, background clutter, and plume temperature contrast. GQ uses gas-insensitive segmentation algorithms to classify the background very precisely so that it can infer gas quantities from the differences between plume-bearing pixels and similar non-plume pixels. It also includes MODTRAN-based algorithms to iteratively assess various profiles of air temperature, water vapour, and ozone, and select the one that implies smooth emissivity curves for the (unknown) materials on the ground. GQ then uses a generalized least-squares (GLS) algorithm to simultaneously estimate the most likely mixture of background (terrain) material and foreground plume gases. Cross-linking of plume temperature to the estimated gas quantity is very non-linear, so the GLS solution was iteratively assessed over a range of plume temperatures to find the best fit to the observed spectrum. Quantification errors due to local variations in the camera-topixel distance were suppressed using a subspace projection operator. Lacking detailed depth-maps for real plumes, the GQ algorithm was tested on synthetic scenes generated by the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) software. Initial results showed pixel-by-pixel gas quantification errors of less than 15% for a Freon 134a plume.

  14. Uncooled infrared detector and imager development at DALI Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Xiaorong; Ma, Zhigang

    2015-06-01

    Zhejiang Dali Technology Co. Ltd. is one of the major players in the China Infrared industry. The company has been working on infrared imagers using uncooled FPAs for about 15 years. It started the research and development of uncooled microbolometer detectors since 2006, and has brought several uncooled detectors into mass production, including 35um 384x288, 25um 160x120, 384x288, 640x480, and 17um 384x288, 640x480. In this presentation, we will describe the uncooled infrared detector and imager development at DALI Technology.

  15. Advanced infrared sounder subpixel cloud detection with imagers and its impact on radiance assimilation in NWP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Li, Jun; Li, Jinlong; Li, Zhenglong; Schmit, Timothy J.; Bai, Wenguang

    2014-03-01

    Accurate cloud detection is very important for infrared (IR) radiance assimilation; improved cloud detection could reduce cloud contamination and hence improve the assimilation. Although operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers are using IR sounder radiance data for cloud detection, collocated high spatial resolution imager data could help sounder subpixel cloud detection and characterization. IR sounder radiances with improved cloud detection using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were assimilated for Hurricane Sandy (2012). Forecast experiments were run with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) as the forecast model and the Three-Dimensional Variational Assimilation (3DVAR)-based Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) as the analysis system. Results indicate that forecasts of both hurricane track and intensity are substantially improved when the collocated high spatial resolution MODIS cloud mask is used for AIRS subpixel cloud detection for assimilating radiances. This methodology can be applied to process Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CRIS)/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP)/Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the Metop series for improved radiance assimilation in NWP.

  16. Segmented infrared image analysis for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lixiang; Yao, Mingchao; Wang, Jinjiang; Bai, Tangbo; Zhang, Laibin

    2016-07-01

    As a noncontact and non-intrusive technique, infrared image analysis becomes promising for machinery defect diagnosis. However, the insignificant information and strong noise in infrared image limit its performance. To address this issue, this paper presents an image segmentation approach to enhance the feature extraction in infrared image analysis. A region selection criterion named dispersion degree is also formulated to discriminate fault representative regions from unrelated background information. Feature extraction and fusion methods are then applied to obtain features from selected regions for further diagnosis. Experimental studies on a rotor fault simulator demonstrate that the presented segmented feature enhancement approach outperforms the one from the original image using both Naïve Bayes classifier and support vector machine.

  17. Infrared imagery acquisition process supporting simulation and real image training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, John

    2012-05-01

    The increasing use of infrared sensors requires development of advanced infrared training and simulation tools to meet current Warfighter needs. In order to prepare the force, a challenge exists for training and simulation images to be both realistic and consistent with each other to be effective and avoid negative training. The US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate has corrected this deficiency by developing and implementing infrared image collection methods that meet the needs of both real image trainers and real-time simulations. The author presents innovative methods for collection of high-fidelity digital infrared images and the associated equipment and environmental standards. The collected images are the foundation for US Army, and USMC Recognition of Combat Vehicles (ROC-V) real image combat ID training and also support simulations including the Night Vision Image Generator and Synthetic Environment Core. The characteristics, consistency, and quality of these images have contributed to the success of these and other programs. To date, this method has been employed to generate signature sets for over 350 vehicles. The needs of future physics-based simulations will also be met by this data. NVESD's ROC-V image database will support the development of training and simulation capabilities as Warfighter needs evolve.

  18. Detecting and tracking small moving target in infrared image sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hong-lei; Huang, Geng-hua; Wang, Hai-wei; Shu, Rong

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, infrared imaging systems play important roles in the field of civil and military. Especially small infrared target detecting and recognizing is one of the most widely use. The capability of target-detection algorithm is an important index of the system. This paper presents a novel algorithm for detecting a small moving target in infrared (IR) image sequences and finding its mass center, and recording the target moving track. In the target searching and recognizing algorithm of infrared image sequences, infrared image sequence is broken into frames, filtered by spatial filter algorithm, which helped to reduce granular noise. We use the Canny algorithm factor to find the edge of the target, and the result of detecting target edge is process by ecological open-loop filter method, including erosion and dilation algorithm with a same scale. Then, the candidate targets are recognized and saved temporarily. In order to get the mass centers of the candidate targets, the valid area of the candidate targets is defined by different weight valves, and then the mass centers are calculated by weighted average algorithm, and record per frame. After got several frames mass centers of the candidate targets, we get rid of the non-target mass centers by frame difference algorithm, and get the real mass center of the small moving infrared target. If the background is observed for enough time, the effect of frame difference algorithm is more efficiency. Finally, the moving track of the target is found out. The infrared (IR) image sequences used here are obtained through an IR camera in the laboratory, which uses a 288*384 silicon infrared image sensor produced by ULIS company. The methods referred above are realized and simulated on compute with Matlab. Theory analysis and experiments prove the method is reasonable and efficient.

  19. Astronomical imaging with infrared array detectors.

    PubMed

    Gatley, I; Depoy, D L; Fowler, A M

    1988-12-01

    History shows that progress in astronomy often stems directly from technological innovation and that each portion of the electromagnetic spectrum offers unique insights into the nature of the universe. Most recently, the widespread availability of infrared-sensitive two-dimensional array detectors has led to dramatic improvements in the capabilities of conventional ground-based observatories. The impact of this new technology on our understanding of a wide variety of phenomena is illustrated here by infrared pictures of star-forming regions, of nebulae produced by the late stages of stellar evolution, of the nucleus of our own galaxy(the Milky Way), and of activity in other galaxies. PMID:17817072

  20. IR CMOS: near infrared enhanced digital imaging (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, Martin U.; Carey, James E.; Joy, Thomas; Vineis, Chris J.; Palsule, Chintamani

    2015-08-01

    SiOnyx has demonstrated imaging at light levels below 1 mLux (moonless starlight) at video frame rates with a 720P CMOS image sensor in a compact, low latency camera. Low light imaging is enabled by the combination of enhanced quantum efficiency in the near infrared together with state of the art low noise image sensor design. The quantum efficiency enhancements are achieved by applying Black Silicon, SiOnyx's proprietary ultrafast laser semiconductor processing technology. In the near infrared, silicon's native indirect bandgap results in low absorption coefficients and long absorption lengths. The Black Silicon nanostructured layer fundamentally disrupts this paradigm by enhancing the absorption of light within a thin pixel layer making 5 microns of silicon equivalent to over 300 microns of standard silicon. This results in a demonstrate 10 fold improvements in near infrared sensitivity over incumbent imaging technology while maintaining complete compatibility with standard CMOS image sensor process flows. Applications include surveillance, nightvision, and 1064nm laser see spot. Imaging performance metrics will be discussed. Demonstrated performance characteristics: Pixel size : 5.6 and 10 um Array size: 720P/1.3Mpix Frame rate: 60 Hz Read noise: 2 ele/pixel Spectral sensitivity: 400 to 1200 nm (with 10x QE at 1064nm) Daytime imaging: color (Bayer pattern) Nighttime imaging: moonless starlight conditions 1064nm laser imaging: daytime imaging out to 2Km

  1. Air quality monitoring based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Rui

    2006-09-01

    The use of optical techniques to identify and quantify atmospheric pollutants has been focused within the past two decades. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful tool for multi-component analysis of air quality monitoring. The technique has been used for gaseous samples by extractive sampling as well as in the open-path configuration. The present contribution has described the application of FTIR to analyze gaseous pollutants in ambient air in detail. The study for the detection limits of the interested gas, the design of the multipass White mirror system, and the experimental results are described. The White cell is employed to increase the absorbance relative to noise in the absorbance spectrum by increasing the path length without proportional loss of signal. A classical least squares (CLS) fit is used to match the scaled standards or previously measured absorption profiles to those of the observed spectrum in the specified spectral analysis regions for simultaneous quantification of the compounds of interest, plus several other ambient air constituents. The regions were chosen carefully to provide optimum detection of the compounds of interest with minimum interference by other compounds. Specially, spectrum subtraction and differential absorption concepts are introduced into FTIR data analysis. The optimal window for CO, S0 II, NO II, NO and CO II would be the region at 2250-2020 cm -1, 1230-1070 cm -1, 2940-2840 cm -1, 1965-1775 cm -1, and around 668.24 cm -1 respectively. Deviations from traditional measured results for all approaches are in 10%.

  2. New Finger Biometric Method Using Near Infrared Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eui Chul; Jung, Hyunwoo; Kim, Daeyeoul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new finger biometric method. Infrared finger images are first captured, and then feature extraction is performed using a modified Gaussian high-pass filter through binarization, local binary pattern (LBP), and local derivative pattern (LDP) methods. Infrared finger images include the multimodal features of finger veins and finger geometries. Instead of extracting each feature using different methods, the modified Gaussian high-pass filter is fully convolved. Therefore, the extracted binary patterns of finger images include the multimodal features of veins and finger geometries. Experimental results show that the proposed method has an error rate of 0.13%. PMID:22163741

  3. Infrared medical image visualization and anomalies analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Zhong; Fan, Jing; Yan, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Infrared medical examination finds the diseases through scanning the overall human body temperature and obtaining the temperature anomalies of the corresponding parts with the infrared thermal equipment. In order to obtain the temperature anomalies and disease parts, Infrared Medical Image Visualization and Anomalies Analysis Method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, visualize the original data into a single channel gray image: secondly, turn the normalized gray image into a pseudo color image; thirdly, a method of background segmentation is taken to filter out background noise; fourthly, cluster those special pixels with the breadth-first search algorithm; lastly, mark the regions of the temperature anomalies or disease parts. The test is shown that it's an efficient and accurate way to intuitively analyze and diagnose body disease parts through the temperature anomalies.

  4. Scene classification of infrared images based on texture feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Tingzhu; Shang, Fei

    2008-12-01

    Scene Classification refers to as assigning a physical scene into one of a set of predefined categories. Utilizing the method texture feature is good for providing the approach to classify scenes. Texture can be considered to be repeating patterns of local variation of pixel intensities. And texture analysis is important in many applications of computer image analysis for classification or segmentation of images based on local spatial variations of intensity. Texture describes the structural information of images, so it provides another data to classify comparing to the spectrum. Now, infrared thermal imagers are used in different kinds of fields. Since infrared images of the objects reflect their own thermal radiation, there are some shortcomings of infrared images: the poor contrast between the objectives and background, the effects of blurs edges, much noise and so on. Because of these shortcomings, it is difficult to extract to the texture feature of infrared images. In this paper we have developed an infrared image texture feature-based algorithm to classify scenes of infrared images. This paper researches texture extraction using Gabor wavelet transform. The transformation of Gabor has excellent capability in analysis the frequency and direction of the partial district. Gabor wavelets is chosen for its biological relevance and technical properties In the first place, after introducing the Gabor wavelet transform and the texture analysis methods, the infrared images are extracted texture feature by Gabor wavelet transform. It is utilized the multi-scale property of Gabor filter. In the second place, we take multi-dimensional means and standard deviation with different scales and directions as texture parameters. The last stage is classification of scene texture parameters with least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm. SVM is based on the principle of structural risk minimization (SRM). Compared with SVM, LS-SVM has overcome the shortcoming of

  5. Near-surface Thermal Infrared Imaging of a Mixed Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, D. M.; Helliker, B. R.; Richardson, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Measurement of an organism's temperature is of basic physiological importance and therefore necessary for ecosystem modeling, yet most models derive leaf temperature from energy balance arguments or assume it is equal to air temperature. This is because continuous, direct measurement of leaf temperature outside of a controlled environment is difficult and rarely done. Of even greater challenge is measuring leaf temperature with the resolution required to understand the underlying energy balance and regulation of plant processes. To measure leaf temperature through the year, we have mounted a high-resolution, thermal infrared camera overlooking the canopy of a temperate deciduous forest. The camera is co-located with an eddy covariance system and a suite of radiometric sensors. Our camera measures longwave thermal infrared (λ = 7.5-14 microns) using a microbolometer array. Suspended in the canopy within the camera FOV is a matte black copper plate instrumented with fine wire thermocouples that acts as a thermal reference for each image. In this presentation, I will discuss the challenges of continuous, long-term field operation of the camera, as well as measurement sensitivity to physical and environmental parameters. Based on this analysis, I will show that the uncertainties in converting radiometric signal to leaf temperature are well constrained. The key parameter for minimizing uncertainty is the emissivity of the objects being imaged: measuring the emissivity to within 0.01 enables leaf temperature to be calculated to within 0.5°C. Finally, I will present differences in leaf temperature observed amongst species. From our two-year record, we characterize high frequency, daily, and seasonal thermal signatures of leaves and crowns, in relation to environmental conditions. Our images are taken with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to quantify the preferential heating of sunlit portions of the canopy and the cooling effect of wind gusts. Future work will

  6. Hurricane Ivan as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Microwave 89Ghz imageFigure 2: Visible/near infrared sensor

    Hurricane Ivan is the most powerful hurricane to hit the Caribbean in 10 years. On September 7 and 8 it damaged 90 percent of the homes in Grenada and killed at least 16 people as it swept over Grenada, Barbados and the other islands in the area. By Thursday morning on September 9, Ivan's sustained winds reached 160 mph making it a rare category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. By Monday September 13, Ivan is blamed for 67 deaths and skirts western Cuba with winds clocked at 156 mph. The National Hurricane Center predicted the eye of Ivan will make landfall across Mobile Bay in Alabama late Wednesday or early Thursday.

    These images of Hurricane Ivan were acquired by the AIRS infrared, microwave, and visible sensors on September 15 at 1:30 pm local time as the storm moves in to Alabama. Ivan at category 4 strength is about 150 miles south of Mobile, Alabama and is moving north at 14 mph. Maximum sustained winds are reported to be at 135 mph and extend 105 miles from the center, while tropical storm-force winds extend 290 miles from the center. Ivan pounded the Gulf coast all day Wednesday, and is expected to make landfall between midnight and 3am in Mobile Bay, Alabama.

    This image shows how the storm looks through an AIRS Infrared window channel, and reveals a very large eye - about 75 km (50 miles) across. Window channels measure the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the hurricane. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds, so the purple color indicates the cool cloud tops of the storm. In cloud-free areas, the infrared signal is retrieved at the Earth's surface, revealing warmer temperatures. Cooler areas are pushing to purple

  7. Optically addressed multiband photodetector for infrared imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellek, O. O.; Zhang, Y.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Multiband infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) with small pixel pitch have increased device processing complexity since they often need more than two terminals per pixel for readouts. Simpler FPAs are enabled by our newly demonstrated optically-addressed two-terminal multiband photodetector architecture. For long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and midwavelength infrared (MWIR) imaging applications, the use of quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) has been investigated. The results show that the utilization of unipolar QWIPs with bipolar near infrared (NIR) devices is feasible with this new optical-addressing scheme. Potential device performance is analyzed with an equivalent AC circuit model. Proposed design maximizes fill factor and enables small pixel-pitch FPA with single indium-bump per pixel for NIR/MWIR/LWIR multiband detection capability.

  8. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (<5s) Muller matrix imaging system with dual-rotating waveplates was developed. 16 (4 by 4) full Mueller matrices of the colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  9. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.

    1995-08-22

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation is disclosed. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features. 1 fig.

  10. Optimal structural design of the Airborne Infrared Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Keith B.; Cerrati, Vincent J.; Forman, Steven E.; Sultana, John A.

    1995-09-01

    The airborne infrared imager (AIRI) is a dual-band IR sensor designed to study air defense issues while wing mounted in a pod. The sensor consists of an optical bench attached to a two- axis inertially stabilized gimbal structure in elevation and azimuth. The gimbal assembly operates within an 18-inch diameter globe while meeting strict pointing and tracking requirements. Design conditions for the assembly include operational and nonoperational inertial, thermal, and dynamic loads. Primary design efforts centered on limiting the line-of- sight jitter of the optical system to 50 (mu) rad under the operating environment. An MSC/NASTRAN finite element model was developed for structural response predictions and correlated to experimental data. Design changes were aided by MSC/NASTRAN's optimization routine with the goal of maximizing the fundamental frequency of the gimbal assembly. The final structural design resultsed in a first natural frequency of 79 Hz using a titanium azimuthal gimbal, a stainless steel elevation gimbal, and an aluminum optical bench which met the design and performance requirements.

  11. Arrays of Nano Tunnel Junctions as Infrared Image Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-Ah; Moon, Jeong S.; Prokopuk, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Infrared image sensors based on high density rectangular planar arrays of nano tunnel junctions have been proposed. These sensors would differ fundamentally from prior infrared sensors based, variously, on bolometry or conventional semiconductor photodetection. Infrared image sensors based on conventional semiconductor photodetection must typically be cooled to cryogenic temperatures to reduce noise to acceptably low levels. Some bolometer-type infrared sensors can be operated at room temperature, but they exhibit low detectivities and long response times, which limit their utility. The proposed infrared image sensors could be operated at room temperature without incurring excessive noise, and would exhibit high detectivities and short response times. Other advantages would include low power demand, high resolution, and tailorability of spectral response. Neither bolometers nor conventional semiconductor photodetectors, the basic detector units as proposed would partly resemble rectennas. Nanometer-scale tunnel junctions would be created by crossing of nanowires with quantum-mechanical-barrier layers in the form of thin layers of electrically insulating material between them (see figure). A microscopic dipole antenna sized and shaped to respond maximally in the infrared wavelength range that one seeks to detect would be formed integrally with the nanowires at each junction. An incident signal in that wavelength range would become coupled into the antenna and, through the antenna, to the junction. At the junction, the flow of electrons between the crossing wires would be dominated by quantum-mechanical tunneling rather than thermionic emission. Relative to thermionic emission, quantum mechanical tunneling is a fast process.

  12. Infrared thermal facial image sequence registration analysis and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Jian, Bo-Lin

    2015-03-01

    To study the emotional responses of subjects to the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), infrared thermal facial image sequence is preprocessed for registration before further analysis such that the variance caused by minor and irregular subject movements is reduced. Without affecting the comfort level and inducing minimal harm, this study proposes an infrared thermal facial image sequence registration process that will reduce the deviations caused by the unconscious head shaking of the subjects. A fixed image for registration is produced through the localization of the centroid of the eye region as well as image translation and rotation processes. Thermal image sequencing will then be automatically registered using the two-stage genetic algorithm proposed. The deviation before and after image registration will be demonstrated by image quality indices. The results show that the infrared thermal image sequence registration process proposed in this study is effective in localizing facial images accurately, which will be beneficial to the correlation analysis of psychological information related to the facial area.

  13. Color contrast enhancement method of infrared polarization fused image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Xie, Chen

    2015-10-01

    As the traditional color fusion method based on color transfer algorithm has an issue that the color of target and background is similar. A kind of infrared polarization image color fusion method based on color contrast enhancement was proposed. Firstly the infrared radiation intensity image and the polarization image were color fused, and then color transfer technology was used between color reference image and initial fused image in the YCbCr color space. Secondly Otsu segmentation method was used to extract the target area image from infrared polarization image. Lastly the H,S,I component of the color fusion image which obtained by color transfer was adjusted to obtain the final fused image by using target area in the HSI space. Experimental results show that, the fused result which obtained by the proposed method is rich in detail and makes the contrast of target and background more outstanding. And then the ability of target detection and identification can be improved by the method.

  14. Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging of Flames Using a Spectrally Scanning Fabry-Perot Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlins, W. T.; Lawrence, W. G.; Marinelli, W. J.; Allen, M. G.; Piltch, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The temperatures and compositions of gases in and around flames can be diagnosed using infrared emission spectroscopy to observe molecular band shapes and intensities. We have combined this approach with a low-order scanning Fabry-Perot filter and an infrared camera to obtain spectrally scanned infrared emission images of a laboratory flame and exhaust plume from 3.7 to 5.0 micrometers, at a spectral resolution of 0.043 micrometers, and a spatial resolution of 1 mm. The scanning filter or AIRIS (Adaptive Infrared Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a Fabry-Perot etalon operating in low order (mirror spacing = wavelength) such that the central spot, containing a monochromatic image of the scene, is viewed by the detector array. The detection system is a 128 x 128 liquid-nitrogen-cooled InSb focal plane array. The field of view is controlled by a 50 mm focal length multielement lens and an V4.8 aperture, resulting in an image 6.4 x 6.4 cm in extent at the flame and a depth of field of approximately 4 cm. Hyperspectral images above a laboratory CH4/air flame show primarily the strong emission from CO2 at 4.3 micrometers, and weaker emissions from CO and H2O. We discuss techniques to analyze the spectra, and plans to use this instrument in microgravity flame spread experiments.

  15. Enhanced Infrared Surveillance Imaging Report for NA-22

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2005-10-04

    The purpose of this report is to describe our work on enhanced infrared (IR) surveillance using speckle imaging for NA-22. Speckle imaging in this context is an image post-processing algorithm that aims to solve the atmospheric blurring problem of imaging through horizontal or slant path turbulence. We will describe the IR imaging systems used in our data collections and show imagery before and after speckle processing. We will also compare IR imagery with visible wavelength imagery of the same target in the same conditions and demonstrate how going to longer wavelengths can be beneficial in the presence of strong turbulence.

  16. Enhancement of multispectral thermal infrared images - Decorrelation contrast stretching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    Decorrelation contrast stretching is an effective method for displaying information from multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) images. The technique involves transformation of the data to principle components ('decorrelation'), independent contrast 'stretching' of data from the new 'decorrelated' image bands, and retransformation of the stretched data back to the approximate original axes, based on the inverse of the principle component rotation. The enhancement is robust in that colors of the same scene components are similar in enhanced images of similar scenes, or the same scene imaged at different times. Decorrelation contrast stretching is reviewed in the context of other enhancements applied to TIR images.

  17. Multi-beam synchrotron infrared chemical imaging with high spatial resolution: Beamline realization and first reports on image restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasse, Michael J.; Mattson, Eric C.; Reininger, Ruben; Kubala, Tim; Janowski, Sebastian; El-Bayyari, Zuheir; Hirschmugl, Carol J.

    2011-09-01

    Table-top Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging using focal plane array (FPA) multi-element detectors is an increasingly popular chemical microscopy technique because it can provide microspectroscopic images of large sample areas in short times at moderate spatial resolution. The novel IR beamline IRENI at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (Wisconsin, USA), the first dedicated multi-beam synchrotron-based FT-IR imaging system, offers, within minutes, high quality chemical images at the highest available spatial resolution (diffraction-limited at all mid-IR wavelengths) with a pixel size of 0.54×0.54 μm 2 for transmission measurements. Due to this very high spatial sampling, mathematical image enhancement algorithms such as deconvolution and total variation (TV) reconstruction can be implemented to improve image contrast and thus spatial resolution. This is demonstrated for US Air force (USAF) targets, micron-sized aluminum beads, and a single living algal cell.

  18. Thermal Infrared Imaging-Based Computational Psychophysiology for Psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Cardone, Daniela; Pinti, Paola; Merla, Arcangelo

    2015-01-01

    Thermal infrared imaging has been proposed as a potential system for the computational assessment of human autonomic nervous activity and psychophysiological states in a contactless and noninvasive way. Through bioheat modeling of facial thermal imagery, several vital signs can be extracted, including localized blood perfusion, cardiac pulse, breath rate, and sudomotor response, since all these parameters impact the cutaneous temperature. The obtained physiological information could then be used to draw inferences about a variety of psychophysiological or affective states, as proved by the increasing number of psychophysiological studies using thermal infrared imaging. This paper presents therefore a review of the principal achievements of thermal infrared imaging in computational physiology with regard to its capability of monitoring psychophysiological activity.

  19. Fundamental developments in infrared spectroscopic imaging for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Michael; Gardner, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Infrared chemical imaging is a rapidly emerging field with new advances in instrumentation, data acquisition and data analysis. These developments have had significant impact in biomedical applications and numerous studies have now shown that this technology offers great promise for the improved diagnosis of the diseased state. Relying on purely biochemical signatures rather than contrast from exogenous dyes and stains, infrared chemical imaging has the potential to revolutionise histopathology for improved disease diagnosis. In this review we discuss the recent advances in infrared spectroscopic imaging specifically related to spectral histopathology (SHP) and consider the current state of the field. Finally we consider the practical application of SHP for disease diagnosis and consider potential barriers to clinical translation highlighting current directions and the future outlook. PMID:26996636

  20. Thermal Infrared Imaging-Based Computational Psychophysiology for Psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Cardone, Daniela; Pinti, Paola; Merla, Arcangelo

    2015-01-01

    Thermal infrared imaging has been proposed as a potential system for the computational assessment of human autonomic nervous activity and psychophysiological states in a contactless and noninvasive way. Through bioheat modeling of facial thermal imagery, several vital signs can be extracted, including localized blood perfusion, cardiac pulse, breath rate, and sudomotor response, since all these parameters impact the cutaneous temperature. The obtained physiological information could then be used to draw inferences about a variety of psychophysiological or affective states, as proved by the increasing number of psychophysiological studies using thermal infrared imaging. This paper presents therefore a review of the principal achievements of thermal infrared imaging in computational physiology with regard to its capability of monitoring psychophysiological activity. PMID:26339284

  1. Near infrared imaging of Uranus and Neptune

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.A.

    1984-10-01

    Imaging of Uranus and Neptune in the deep methane absorption band at 890nm is used to detect high altitude atmospheric hazes and to search for possible undiscovered close in satellites. The appearances of Uranus and Neptune are very different from one another and Uranus seems to be changing with time. The Neptune images show rotation in the direct sense.

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2011-09-01

    Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant

  3. The Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Astrophysics and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raines, S. N.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Guzmán, R.; Gruel, N.; Julian, J.; Boreman, G.; Hoffman, J.; Rodgers, M.; Glenn, P.; Hull-Allen, G.; Myrick, B.; Flint, S.; Comstock, L.

    2007-06-01

    We report on the design, manufacture, and scientific performance of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Astrophysics and Cosmology (FISICA), a fully cryogenic all-reflective image slicing integral field unit (IFU) for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph (Elston et al.003). We find that FISICA is capable of delivering excellent scientific results. It now operates as a turnkey instrument at the KPNO 4-m telescope via collaboration with the instrument team, who can assist with the proposal preparation and observations, as well as provide the data reduction tools for integral field spectroscopy.

  4. Facility for testing infrared imaging seekers in a countermeasures environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidery, Colin J.; Pyle, Andrew

    2001-08-01

    A new Imaging Infrared Countermeasure Hardware-in-the-Loop facility has been designed and built by Matra BAe Dynamics to test imaging sensors in a complex infrared environment. Drawing upon currently available leading edge technologies and UK expertise, the test bed has ben completed in a twelve-month program. The facility comprises a Thermal Picture Synthesizer with up to four further independent channels, each capable of representing a countermeasure (jammer, flare or laser) within the scene. A six stage broadband reflective collimator relays the complex scene to the sensor.

  5. Nondestructive evaluation technique using infrared thermography and terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Shiozawa, Daiki; Tamaki, Yoshitaka; Iwama, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques using pulse heating infrared thermography and terahertz (THz) imaging were developed for detecting deterioration of oil tank floor, such as blister and delamination of corrosion protection coating, or corrosion of the bottom steel plate under coating. Experimental studies were conducted to demonstrate the practicability of developed techniques. It was found that the pulse heating infrared thermography was utilized for effective screening inspection and THz-TDS imaging technique performed well for the detailed inspection of coating deterioration and steel corrosion.

  6. Development of Level 3 (gridded) products for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, Stephanie L.; Leroy, Stephen S.; Manning, Evan M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Oliphant, Robert B.; Braverman, Amy; Lee, Sung-Yung; Lambrigtsen, Bjom H.

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) sounding system is a suite of infrared and microwave instruments flown as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) onboard the Aqua platform. The AIRS dataset provides a daily, global view of Earth processes at a finer vertical resolution than ever before. However, analysis of the AIRS data is a daunting task given the sheer volume and complexity of the data. The volume of data produced by the EOS project is unprecedented; the AIRS project alone will produce many terabytes of data over the lifetime of the mission. This paper describes development of AIRS Level 3 data products that will help to alleviate problems of access and usability.

  7. Infrared light field imaging using single carbon nanotube detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Ning; Chen, Liangliang; Zhou, Zhanxin; Yang, Ruiguo; Song, Bo; Sun, Zhiyong

    2014-06-01

    The conventional photographs only record the sum total of light rays of each point on image plane so that they tell little about the amount of light traveling along individual rays. The focus and lens aberration problems have challenged photographers since the very beginning therefore light field photography was proposed to solve these problems. Lens array and multiple camera systems are used to capture 4D light rays, by reordering the different views of scene from multiple directions. The coded aperture is another method to encode the angular information in frequency domain. However, infrared light field sensing is still widely opening to research. In the paper, we will propose micro plane mirror optics together with compressive sensing algorithm to record light field in infrared spectrum. The micro mirror reflects objects irradiation and forms a virtual image behind the plane in which the mirror lies. The Digital Micromirror (DMD) consists of millions microscale mirrors which work as CCD array in the camera and it is controlled separately so as to project linear combination of object image onto lens. Coded aperture could be utilized to control angular resolution of infrared light rays. The carbon nanotube based infrared detector, which has ultra high signal to noise ratio and ultra fast responsibility, will sum up all image information on it without image distortion. Based on a number of measurements, compressive sensing algorithm was used to recover images from distinct angles, which could compute different views of scene to reconstruct infrared light field scence. Two innovative applications of full image recovery using nano scale photodetector and DMD based synthetic aperture photography will also be discussed in this paper.

  8. Near-infrared imaging spectrometer onboard NEXTSat-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Woong-Seob; Park, Sung-Joon; Moon, Bongkon; Lee, Dae-Hee; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Park, Won-Kee; Park, Youngsik; Kim, Il-Joong; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Lee, Dukhang; Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Minjin; Ko, Jongwan; Shin, Goo-Hwan; Chae, Jangsoo; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    The NISS (Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer for Star formation history) is the near-infrared instrument optimized to the first next generation of small satellite (NEXTSat-1) in Korea. The spectro-photometric capability in the near-infrared range is a unique function of the NISS. The major scientific mission is to study the cosmic star formation history in local and distant universe. For those purposes, the NISS will perform the large areal imaging spectroscopic survey for astronomical objects and low background regions. We have paid careful attention to reduce the volume and to increase the total throughput. The newly implemented off-axis optics has a wide field of view (2° x 2°) and a wide wavelength range from 0.9 to 3.8μm. The mechanical structure is designed to consider launching conditions and passive cooling of the telescope. The compact dewar after relay-lens module is to operate the infrared detector and spectral filters at 80K stage. The independent integration of relay-lens part and primary-secondary mirror assembly alleviates the complex alignment process. We confirmed that the telescope and the infrared sensor can be cooled down to around 200K and 80K, respectively. The engineering qualification model of the NISS was tested in the space environment including the launch-induced vibration and shock. The NISS will be expected to demonstrate core technologies related to the development of the future infrared space telescope in Korea.

  9. Near-infrared Molecular Probes for In Vivo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Bloch, Sharon; Akers, Walter; Achilefu, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Cellular and tissue imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths between 700 and 900 nm is advantageous for in vivo because of the low absorption of biological molecules in this region. This Unit presents protocols for small animal imaging using planar and fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques. Included is an overview of NIR fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using NIR organic fluorophores, nanoparticles, and multimodal imaging probes. The development, advantages, and application of NIR fluorescent probes that have been used for in vivo imaging are also summarized. The use of NIR agents in conjunction with visible dyes and considerations in selecting imaging agents are discussed. We conclude with practical considerations for the use of these dyes in cell and small animal imaging applications. PMID:22470154

  10. Assessing Drought Responses Using Thermal Infrared Imaging.

    PubMed

    Prashar, Ankush; Jones, Hamlyn G

    2016-01-01

    Canopy temperature, a surrogate for stomatal conductance, is shown to be a good indicator of plant water status and a potential tool for phenotyping and irrigation scheduling. Measurement of stomatal conductance and leaf temperature has traditionally been done by using porometers or gas exchange analyzers and fine-wire thermocouples attached to the leaves, which are labor intensive and point measurements. The advent of remote or proximal thermal sensing technologies has provided the potential for scaling up to leaves, plants, and canopies. Thermal cameras with a temperature resolution of <0.1 K now allow one to study the temperature variation within and between plants. This chapter discusses some applications of infrared thermography for assessing drought and other abiotic and biotic stress and outlines some of the main factors that need to be considered when applying this to the study of leaf or canopy temperature whether in controlled environments or in the field. PMID:26867626

  11. High dynamic range infrared radiometry and imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coon, Darryl D.; Karunasiri, R. P. G.; Bandara, K. M. S. V.

    1988-01-01

    The use is described of cryogenically cooled, extrinsic silicon infrared detectors in an unconventional mode of operation which offers an unusually large dynamic range. The system performs intensity-to-frequency conversion at the focal plane via simple circuits with very low power consumption. The incident IR intensity controls the repetition rate of short duration output pulses over a pulse rate dynamic range of about 10(6). Theory indicates the possibility of monotonic and approx. linear response over the full dynamic range. A comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results shows that the model provides a reasonably good description of experimental data. Some measurements of survivability with a very intense IR source were made on these devices and found to be very encouraging. Evidence continues to indicate that some variations in interpulse time intervals are deterministic rather than probabilistic.

  12. Assessing Drought Responses Using Thermal Infrared Imaging.

    PubMed

    Prashar, Ankush; Jones, Hamlyn G

    2016-01-01

    Canopy temperature, a surrogate for stomatal conductance, is shown to be a good indicator of plant water status and a potential tool for phenotyping and irrigation scheduling. Measurement of stomatal conductance and leaf temperature has traditionally been done by using porometers or gas exchange analyzers and fine-wire thermocouples attached to the leaves, which are labor intensive and point measurements. The advent of remote or proximal thermal sensing technologies has provided the potential for scaling up to leaves, plants, and canopies. Thermal cameras with a temperature resolution of <0.1 K now allow one to study the temperature variation within and between plants. This chapter discusses some applications of infrared thermography for assessing drought and other abiotic and biotic stress and outlines some of the main factors that need to be considered when applying this to the study of leaf or canopy temperature whether in controlled environments or in the field.

  13. Morphological analysis of infrared images for waterjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yuxin; Long, Aifang

    2013-03-01

    High-speed waterjet has been widely used in industries and been investigated as a model of free shearing turbulence. This paper presents an investigation involving the flow visualization of high speed water jet, the noise reduction of the raw thermogram using a high-pass morphological filter ? and a median filter; the image enhancement using white top-hat filter; and the image segmentation using the multiple thresholding method. The image processing results by the designed morphological filters, ? - top-hat, were proved being ideal for further quantitative and in-depth analysis and can be used as a new morphological filter bank that may be of general implications for the analogous work

  14. Standoff midwave infrared hyperspectral imaging of ship plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Gagnon, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Guyot, Éric; Lagueux, Philippe; Chamberland, Martin; Marcotte, Frédérick

    2016-05-01

    Characterization of ship plumes is very challenging due to the great variety of ships, fuel, and fuel grades, as well as the extent of a gas plume. In this work, imaging of ship plumes from an operating ferry boat was carried out using standoff midwave (3-5 μm) infrared hyperspectral imaging. Quantitative chemical imaging of combustion gases was achieved by fitting a radiative transfer model. Combustion efficiency maps and mass flow rates are presented for carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results illustrate how valuable information about the combustion process of a ship engine can be successfully obtained using passive hyperspectral remote sensing imaging.

  15. Processing infrared images of aircraft lapjoints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Hazari; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for processing IR images of aging aircraft lapjoint data are discussed. Attention is given to a technique for detecting disbonds in aircraft lapjoints which clearly delineates the disbonded region from the bonded regions. The technique is weak on unpainted aircraft skin surfaces, but can be overridden by using a self-adhering contact sheet. Neural network analysis on raw temperature data has been shown to be an effective tool for visualization of images. Numerical simulation results show the above processing technique to be an effective tool in delineating the disbonds.

  16. Near infrared spectroscopic imaging assessment of cartilage composition: Validation with mid infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Palukuru, Uday P; Hanifi, Arash; McGoverin, Cushla M; Devlin, Sean; Lelkes, Peter I; Pleshko, Nancy

    2016-07-01

    Disease or injury to articular cartilage results in loss of extracellular matrix components which can lead to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). To better understand the process of disease development, there is a need for evaluation of changes in cartilage composition without the requirement of extensive sample preparation. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a chemical investigative technique based on molecular vibrations that is increasingly used as an assessment tool for studying cartilage composition. However, the assignment of specific molecular vibrations to absorbance bands in the NIR spectrum of cartilage, which arise from overtones and combinations of primary absorbances in the mid infrared (MIR) spectral region, has been challenging. In contrast, MIR spectroscopic assessment of cartilage is well-established, with many studies validating the assignment of specific bands present in MIR spectra to specific molecular vibrations. In the current study, NIR imaging spectroscopic data were obtained for compositional analysis of tissues that served as an in vitro model of OA. MIR spectroscopic data obtained from the identical tissue regions were used as the gold-standard for collagen and proteoglycan (PG) content. MIR spectroscopy in transmittance mode typically requires a much shorter pathlength through the sample (≤10 microns thick) compared to NIR spectroscopy (millimeters). Thus, this study first addressed the linearity of small absorbance bands in the MIR region with increasing tissue thickness, suitable for obtaining a signal in both the MIR and NIR regions. It was found that the linearity of specific, small MIR absorbance bands attributable to the collagen and PG components of cartilage (at 1336 and 856 cm(-1), respectively) are maintained through a thickness of 60 μm, which was also suitable for NIR data collection. MIR and NIR spectral data were then collected from 60 μm thick samples of cartilage degraded with chondroitinase ABC as a model

  17. Near infrared spectroscopic imaging assessment of cartilage composition: Validation with mid infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Palukuru, Uday P; Hanifi, Arash; McGoverin, Cushla M; Devlin, Sean; Lelkes, Peter I; Pleshko, Nancy

    2016-07-01

    Disease or injury to articular cartilage results in loss of extracellular matrix components which can lead to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). To better understand the process of disease development, there is a need for evaluation of changes in cartilage composition without the requirement of extensive sample preparation. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a chemical investigative technique based on molecular vibrations that is increasingly used as an assessment tool for studying cartilage composition. However, the assignment of specific molecular vibrations to absorbance bands in the NIR spectrum of cartilage, which arise from overtones and combinations of primary absorbances in the mid infrared (MIR) spectral region, has been challenging. In contrast, MIR spectroscopic assessment of cartilage is well-established, with many studies validating the assignment of specific bands present in MIR spectra to specific molecular vibrations. In the current study, NIR imaging spectroscopic data were obtained for compositional analysis of tissues that served as an in vitro model of OA. MIR spectroscopic data obtained from the identical tissue regions were used as the gold-standard for collagen and proteoglycan (PG) content. MIR spectroscopy in transmittance mode typically requires a much shorter pathlength through the sample (≤10 microns thick) compared to NIR spectroscopy (millimeters). Thus, this study first addressed the linearity of small absorbance bands in the MIR region with increasing tissue thickness, suitable for obtaining a signal in both the MIR and NIR regions. It was found that the linearity of specific, small MIR absorbance bands attributable to the collagen and PG components of cartilage (at 1336 and 856 cm(-1), respectively) are maintained through a thickness of 60 μm, which was also suitable for NIR data collection. MIR and NIR spectral data were then collected from 60 μm thick samples of cartilage degraded with chondroitinase ABC as a model

  18. Intercalibration of infrared channels of polar-orbiting IRAS/FY-3A with AIRS/Aqua data.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Geng-Ming

    2010-02-15

    This work intercalibrated the infrared window channels 8 (12.47 microm), 9 (11.11 microm) and 19 (3.98 microm) of the InfraRed Atmospheric Sounder (IRAS) aboard the Chinese second generation polar-orbiting meteorological satellite FengYun 3A (FY-3A) with high spectral resolution data acquired by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard Aqua. A North Pole study area was selected according to the IRAS and AIRS' viewing geometry. The IRAS/FY-3A L1 data and AIRS/Aqua 1B Infrared geolocated and calibrated radiances (AIRIBRAD) in July of 2008 were used in this work. A sub-pixel registration method was developed and applied to the IRAS and AIRS images to improve the intercalibration accuracy. The co-located measurement pairs were picked out with absolute Viewing Zenith Angle differences less than 5 degrees (|Delta VZA|<5 degrees), absolute Viewing Azimuth Angle differences less than 90 degrees (|Delta VAA|<90 degrees) and absolute time differences less than 15 min (|Delta T|<15'). The results reveal that the convolved AIRS/Aqua measurements are highly linearly related to the IRAS/FY-3A measurements with correlation coefficients greater than 0.93, and calibration discrepancies exist between IRAS and AIRS channels indeed. When the brightness temperatures in IRAS/FY-3A channels change from 230.0 K to 310.0 K, the AIRS-IRAS temperature adjustment linearly varies from -3.3 K to 1.7 K for IRAS/FY-3A channel 8, from -2.9 K to 2.6 K for IRAS/FY-3A channel 9, and from -5.3 K to 1.1 K for IRAS/FY-3A channel 19.

  19. An update of commercial infrared sensing and imaging instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    A classification of infrared sensing instruments by type and application, listing commercially available instruments, from single point thermal probes to on-line control sensors, to high speed, high resolution imaging systems is given. A review of performance specifications follows, along with a discussion of typical thermographic display approaches utilized by various imager manufacturers. An update report on new instruments, new display techniques and newly introduced features of existing instruments is given.

  20. Advanced Remote-Sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES): AIRS Spectral Resolution with MODIS Spatial Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; OCallaghan, Fred

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Remote-sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES) will measure a wide range of earth quantities fundamental to the study of global climate change. It will build upon the success of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instruments currently flying on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. Both instruments are facility instruments for NASA providing data to thousands of scientists investigating land, ocean and atmospheric Earth System processes. ARIES will meet all the requirements of AIRS and MODIS in a single compact instrument, while providing the next-generation capability of improved spatial resolution for AIRS and improved spectral resolution for MODIS.

  1. Affordable, Accessible, Immediate: Capture Stunning Images with Digital Infrared Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Technology educators who teach digital photography should consider incorporating an infrared (IR) photography component into their program. This is an area where digital photography offers significant benefits. Either type of IR imaging is very interesting to explore, but traditional film-based IR photography is difficult and expensive. In…

  2. Infrared Thermal Imaging as a Tool in University Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Vollmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a valuable tool in physics education at the university level. It can help to visualize and thereby enhance understanding of physical phenomena from mechanics, thermal physics, electromagnetism, optics and radiation physics, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. We report on its use as lecture demonstrations, student…

  3. Motion artifact reduction in breast dynamic infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Valentina; Knaflitz, Marco; Molinari, Filippo

    2009-03-01

    Dynamic infrared imaging is a promising technique in breast oncology. In this paper, a quantum well infrared photodetector infrared camera is used to acquire a sequence of consecutive thermal images of the patient's breast for 10 s. Information on the local blood perfusion is obtained from the spectral analysis of the time series at each image pixel. Due to respiratory and motion artifacts, the direct comparison of the temperature values that a pixel assumes along the sequence becomes difficult. In fact, the small temperature changes due to blood perfusion, of the order of 10-50 mK, which constitute the signal of interest in the time domain, are superimposed onto large temperature fluctuations due to the subject's motion, which represent noise. To improve the time series S/N, and as a consequence, enhance the specificity and sensitivity of the dynamic infrared examination, it is important to realign the thermal images of the acquisition sequence, thus reducing motion artifacts. In a previous study, we demonstrated that a registration algorithm based on fiducial points is suitable to both clinical applications and research, when associated with a proper set of skin markers. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate the performance of different marker sets by means of a model that allows for estimating the S/N increment due to registration, and we conclude that a 12-marker set is a good compromise between motion artifact reduction and the time required to prepare the patient.

  4. Infrared-visual image sequence fusion algorithm with noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Fu; Wei, Youli; Zhou, Huantian

    2013-09-01

    Video sequence fusion has a high request on real-time. A new fusion method of infrared and visible video fusion is proposed, which has the characteristics of low computational complexity and noise suppression. Firstly the improved mixed frame difference method is used to achieve the separation of the infrared target areas and the background areas. Secondly the new fusion algorithm is proposed to fuse the target areas of the infrared and visible light sequence. By image smoothness operator , the source images are divided into two parts: the edge region and the smooth region. Different fusion strategies are adopted for the different regions, can highlight the image edges and texture details more accurately and remove redundant, as well as suppressing noise. Finally, the fused target areas are combined with the background area of the visible light sequence to form the final fused image, which can avoid the high background noise of infrared sequence. The experimental results show that the proposed method not only can suppress noise effectively ,but also can acquire good fusion effects as well as achieve the real time need.

  5. Infrared imaging using carbon nanotube-based detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongzhi; Xi, Ning; Song, Bo; Chen, Liangliang; Lai, King W. C.; Lou, Jianyong

    2011-06-01

    Using carbon nanotubes (CNT), high performance infrared detectors have been developed. Since the CNTs have extraordinary optoelectronics properties due to its unique one dimensional geometry and structure, the CNT based infrared detectors have extremely low dark current, low noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), short response time, and high dynamic range. Most importantly, it can detect 3-5 um middle-wave infrared (MWIR) at room temperature. This unique feature can significantly reduce the size and weight of a MWIR imaging system by eliminating a cryogenic cooling system. However, there are two major difficulties that impede the application of CNT based IR detectors for imaging systems. First, the small diameter of the CNTs results in low fill factor. Secondly, it is difficult to fabricate large scale of detector array for high resolution focal plane due to the limitations on the efficiency and cost of the manufacturing. In this paper, a new CNT based IR imaging system will be presented. Integrating the CNT detectors with photonic crystal resonant cavity, the fill factor of the CNT based IR sensor can reach as high as 0.91. Furthermore, using the compressive sensing technology, a high resolution imaging can be achieved by CNT based IR detectors. The experimental testing results show that the new imaging system can achieve the superb performance enabled by CNT based IR detectors, and, at the same time, overcame its difficulties to achieve high resolution and efficient imaging.

  6. Performance evaluation of infrared imaging system in field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chensheng; Guo, Xiaodong; Ren, Tingting; Zhang, Zhi-jie

    2014-11-01

    Infrared imaging system has been applied widely in both military and civilian fields. Since the infrared imager has various types and different parameters, for system manufacturers and customers, there is great demand for evaluating the performance of IR imaging systems with a standard tool or platform. Since the first generation IR imager was developed, the standard method to assess the performance has been the MRTD or related improved methods which are not perfect adaptable for current linear scanning imager or 2D staring imager based on FPA detector. For this problem, this paper describes an evaluation method based on the triangular orientation discrimination metric which is considered as the effective and emerging method to evaluate the synthesis performance of EO system. To realize the evaluation in field test, an experiment instrument is developed. And considering the importance of operational environment, the field test is carried in practical atmospheric environment. The test imagers include panoramic imaging system and staring imaging systems with different optics and detectors parameters (both cooled and uncooled). After showing the instrument and experiment setup, the experiment results are shown. The target range performance is analyzed and discussed. In data analysis part, the article gives the range prediction values obtained from TOD method, MRTD method and practical experiment, and shows the analysis and results discussion. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of this evaluation tool, and it can be taken as a platform to give the uniform performance prediction reference.

  7. Non-contact optoacoustic imaging with focused air-coupled transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís; Pang, Genny A.; Razansky, Daniel; Montero de Espinosa, Francisco

    2015-08-03

    Non-contact optoacoustic imaging employing raster-scanning of a spherically focused air-coupled ultrasound transducer is showcased herein. Optoacoustic excitation with laser fluence within the maximal permissible human exposure limits in the visible and near-infrared spectra is applied to objects with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm and absorption properties representative of the whole blood at near-infrared wavelengths, and these signals are shown to be detectable without contact to the sample using an air-coupled transducer with reasonable signal averaging. Optoacoustic images of vessel-mimicking tubes embedded in an agar phantom captured with this non-contact sensing technique are also showcased. These initial results indicate that an air-coupled ultrasound detection approach can be suitable for non-contact biomedical imaging with optoacoustics.

  8. Non-contact optoacoustic imaging with focused air-coupled transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís; Pang, Genny A.; Montero de Espinosa, Francisco; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Non-contact optoacoustic imaging employing raster-scanning of a spherically focused air-coupled ultrasound transducer is showcased herein. Optoacoustic excitation with laser fluence within the maximal permissible human exposure limits in the visible and near-infrared spectra is applied to objects with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm and absorption properties representative of the whole blood at near-infrared wavelengths, and these signals are shown to be detectable without contact to the sample using an air-coupled transducer with reasonable signal averaging. Optoacoustic images of vessel-mimicking tubes embedded in an agar phantom captured with this non-contact sensing technique are also showcased. These initial results indicate that an air-coupled ultrasound detection approach can be suitable for non-contact biomedical imaging with optoacoustics.

  9. Multispectral mid-infrared imaging using frequency upconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicolai; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-03-01

    It has recently been shown that it is possible to upconvert infrared images to the near infrared region with high quantum efficiency and low noise by three-wave mixing with a laser field [1]. If the mixing laser is single-frequency, the upconverted image is simply a band-pass filtered version of the infrared object field, with a bandwidth corresponding given by the acceptance parameter of the conversion process, and a center frequency given by the phase-match condition. Tuning of the phase-matched wavelengths has previously been demonstrated by changing the temperature [2] or angle [3 Keywords: Infrared imaging, nonlinear frequency conversion, diode lasers, upconversion ] of the nonlinear material. Unfortunately, temperature tuning is slow, and angle tuning typically results in alignment issues. Here we present a novel approach where the wavelength of the mixing field is used as a tuning parameter, allowing for fast tuning and hence potentially fast image acquisition, paving the way for upconversion based real time multispectral imaging. In the present realization the upconversion module consists of an external cavity tapered diode laser in a Littrow configuration with a computer controlled feedback grating. The output from a tunable laser is used as seed for a fiber amplifier system, boosting the power to approx. 3 W over the tuning range from 1025 to 1085 nm. Using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, the infrared wavelength that can be phase-matched is tunable over more than 200 nm. Using a crystal with multiple poling periods allows for upconversion within the entire transparency range of the nonlinear material.

  10. Target information enhancement using polarized component of infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tiaowen; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jicheng; Yang, Weiping

    2014-11-01

    After a deep study of the principle of infrared polarization imaging detection, the infrared polarization information of target and background is modeled. Considering the partial polarized light can be obtained by the superposition of natural light (unpolarized light) and linearly polarized component while ignoring the component of circularly polarized light, and combing with the degree of polarization (DOLP) and the angle of polarization (AOP), the infrared polarization information is expressed by the multiplying of an intensity factor by a polarization factor. What we have modeled not only can be used to analyze the infrared polarization information visually and profoundly, but also make the extraction of polarized features convenient. Then, faced with different application fields and based on the model, a target information enhancement program is proposed, which is achieved by extracting a linear polarization component in a certain polarized direction. This program greatly improves the contrast between target and background, and can be applied in target detection or identification, especially for camouflage or stealth target. At last, we preliminarily tested the proposed enhancement method exploiting infrared polarization images obtained indoor and outdoor, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the enhancement program.

  11. Thermographic Imaging of the Space Shuttle During Re-Entry Using a Near Infrared Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robbie V.; Burke, Eric R.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Spisz, Tom; Gibson, David M.; Shea, Edward J.; Mercer, C. David; Schwartz, Richard J.; Tack, Steve; Bush, Brett C.; Dantowitz, Ronald F.; Kozubal, Marek J.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution calibrated near infrared (NIR) imagery of the Space Shuttle Orbiter was obtained during hypervelocity atmospheric re-entry of the STS-119, STS-125, STS-128, STS-131, STS-132, STS-133, and STS-134 missions. This data has provided information on the distribution of surface temperature and the state of the airflow over the windward surface of the Orbiter during descent. The thermal imagery complemented data collected with onboard surface thermocouple instrumentation. The spatially resolved global thermal measurements made during the Orbiter s hypersonic re-entry will provide critical flight data for reducing the uncertainty associated with present day ground-to-flight extrapolation techniques and current state-of-the-art empirical boundary-layer transition or turbulent heating prediction methods. Laminar and turbulent flight data is critical for the validation of physics-based, semi-empirical boundary-layer transition prediction methods as well as stimulating the validation of laminar numerical chemistry models and the development of turbulence models supporting NASA s next-generation spacecraft. In this paper we provide details of the NIR imaging system used on both air and land-based imaging assets. The paper will discuss calibrations performed on the NIR imaging systems that permitted conversion of captured radiant intensity (counts) to temperature values. Image processing techniques are presented to analyze the NIR data for vignetting distortion, best resolution, and image sharpness. Keywords: HYTHIRM, Space Shuttle thermography, hypersonic imaging, near infrared imaging, histogram analysis, singular value decomposition, eigenvalue image sharpness

  12. Need for image processing in infrared camera design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Lloyd G.; Jones, Martin H.

    2000-03-01

    While the value of image processing has been longly recognized, this is usually done during post-processing. For scientific application, the presence of large noise errors, data drop out, and dead sensors would invalidate any conclusion made from the data until noise-removal and sensor calibration has been accomplished. With the growing need for ruggedized, real-time image acquisition systems, including applications to automotive and aerospace, post processing may not be an option. With post processing, the operator does not have the opportunity to view the cleaned-up image. Focal plane arrays are plagued by bad sensors, high manufacturing costs, and low yields, often forcing a six digit cost tag. Perhaps infrared camera design is too serious an issue to leave to the camera manufacturers. Alternative camera designs using a single spinning mirror can yield perfect infrared images at rates up to 12000 frames per second using a fraction of the hardware in the current focal-plane arrays. Using a 768 X 5 sensor array, redundant 2048 X 768 images are produced by each row of the sensor array. Sensor arrays with flawed sensors would no longer need to be discarded because data from dead sensors can be discarded, thus increasing manufacturing yields and reducing manufacturing costs. Furthermore, very rapid image processing chips are available, allowing for real-time morphological image processing (including real-time sensor calibration), thus significantly increasing thermal precision, making thermal imaging amenable for an increased variety of applications.

  13. Galileo infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements at venus.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R W; Baines, K H; Encrenaz, T; Taylor, F W; Drossart, P; Kamp, L W; Pollack, J B; Lellouch, E; Collard, A D; Calcutt, S B; Grinspoon, D; Weissman, P R; Smythe, W D; Ocampo, A C; Danielson, G E; Fanale, F P; Johnson, T V; Kieffer, H H; Matson, D L; McCord, T B; Soderblom, L A

    1991-09-27

    During the 1990 Galileo Venus flyby, the Near Infaied Mapping Spectrometer investigated the night-side atmosphere of Venus in the spectral range 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers. Multispectral images at high spatial resolution indicate substanmial cloud opacity variations in the lower cloud levels, centered at 50 kilometers altitude. Zonal and meridional winds were derived for this level and are consistent with motion of the upper branch of a Hadley cell. Northern and southern hemisphere clouds appear to be markedly different. Spectral profiles were used to derive lower atmosphere abundances of water vapor and other species. PMID:17784099

  14. Galileo infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements at venus.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R W; Baines, K H; Encrenaz, T; Taylor, F W; Drossart, P; Kamp, L W; Pollack, J B; Lellouch, E; Collard, A D; Calcutt, S B; Grinspoon, D; Weissman, P R; Smythe, W D; Ocampo, A C; Danielson, G E; Fanale, F P; Johnson, T V; Kieffer, H H; Matson, D L; McCord, T B; Soderblom, L A

    1991-09-27

    During the 1990 Galileo Venus flyby, the Near Infaied Mapping Spectrometer investigated the night-side atmosphere of Venus in the spectral range 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers. Multispectral images at high spatial resolution indicate substanmial cloud opacity variations in the lower cloud levels, centered at 50 kilometers altitude. Zonal and meridional winds were derived for this level and are consistent with motion of the upper branch of a Hadley cell. Northern and southern hemisphere clouds appear to be markedly different. Spectral profiles were used to derive lower atmosphere abundances of water vapor and other species.

  15. Hurricane Ivan as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Microwave 89Ghz imageFigure 2: Visible/near infrared sensor

    Hurricane Ivan is the most powerful hurricane to hit the Caribbean in 10 years. On September 7 and 8 it damaged 90 percent of the homes in Grenada and killed at least 16 people as it swept over Grenada, Barbados and the other islands in the area. By Thursday morning on September 9, Ivan's sustained winds reached 160 mph making it a rare category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. By Monday September 13, Ivan is blamed for 67 deaths and skirts western Cuba with winds clocked at 156 mph. The National Hurricane Center predicted the eye of Ivan will make landfall across Mobile Bay in Alabama late Wednesday or early Thursday.

    These images of Hurricane Ivan were acquired by the AIRS infrared, microwave, and visible sensors on September 15 at 1:30 pm local time as the storm moves in to Alabama. Ivan at category 4 strength is about 150 miles south of Mobile, Alabama and is moving north at 14 mph. Maximum sustained winds are reported to be at 135 mph and extend 105 miles from the center, while tropical storm-force winds extend 290 miles from the center. Ivan pounded the Gulf coast all day Wednesday, and is expected to make landfall between midnight and 3am in Mobile Bay, Alabama.

    This image shows how the storm looks through an AIRS Infrared window channel, and reveals a very large eye - about 75 km (50 miles) across. Window channels measure the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the hurricane. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds, so the purple color indicates the cool cloud tops of the storm. In cloud-free areas, the infrared signal is retrieved at the Earth's surface, revealing warmer temperatures. Cooler areas are pushing to purple

  16. Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Hutteman, Merlijn; van der Vorst, Joost R.; van de Velde, C.J.H.; Frangioni, John V.

    2013-01-01

    Paradigm shifts in surgery arise when surgeons are empowered to perform surgery faster, better, and/or less expensively. Optical imaging that exploits invisible near-infrared fluorescent light has the potential to improve cancer surgery outcomes while minimizing anesthesia time and lowering healthcare costs. Because of this, the last few years have witnessed an explosion of proof-of-concept clinical trials in the field. In this review, we introduce the concept of near-infrared fluorescence imaging for cancer surgery, review the clinical trial literature to date, outline the key issues pertaining to imaging system and contrast agent optimization, discuss limitations and leverage, and provide a framework for making the technology available for the routine care of cancer patients in the near future. PMID:23881033

  17. Infrared Moon imaging for remote sensing of atmospheric smoke layers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph A; Nugent, Paul W; Vollmer, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Simultaneous visible and long-wave infrared (IR) images of the Moon were used with a simple energy-balance model to study the spatial pattern of lunar surface temperatures. The thermal images were obtained with a radiometrically calibrated, compact, low-cost, commercial IR camera mounted on a small telescope. Differences between the predicted and measured maximum Moon temperatures were used to determine the infrared optical depth (OD), which represents the path-integrated extinction of an elevated layer of wildfire smoke in the atmosphere. The OD values retrieved from the IR Moon images were combined with simultaneous OD measurements from a ground-based, zenith-pointing lidar operating at a wavelength of 532 nm to determine an IR-to-visible OD ratio of 0.50±0.18 for moderately aged wildfire smoke aerosol.

  18. Infrared Moon imaging for remote sensing of atmospheric smoke layers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph A; Nugent, Paul W; Vollmer, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Simultaneous visible and long-wave infrared (IR) images of the Moon were used with a simple energy-balance model to study the spatial pattern of lunar surface temperatures. The thermal images were obtained with a radiometrically calibrated, compact, low-cost, commercial IR camera mounted on a small telescope. Differences between the predicted and measured maximum Moon temperatures were used to determine the infrared optical depth (OD), which represents the path-integrated extinction of an elevated layer of wildfire smoke in the atmosphere. The OD values retrieved from the IR Moon images were combined with simultaneous OD measurements from a ground-based, zenith-pointing lidar operating at a wavelength of 532 nm to determine an IR-to-visible OD ratio of 0.50±0.18 for moderately aged wildfire smoke aerosol. PMID:25967840

  19. Acousto-optic infrared spectral imager for Pluto fast flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Hillman, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF's) enable the design of compact, two-dimensional imaging spectrometers with high spectral and spatial resolution and with no moving parts. Tellurium dioxide AOTF's operate from about 400 nm to nearly 5 microns, and a single device will tune continuously over one octave by changing the RF acoustic frequency applied to the device. An infrared (1.2-2.5 micron) Acousto-Optic Imaging Spectrometer (AImS) was designed that closely conforms to the surface composition mapping objectives of the Pluto Fast Flyby. It features a 75-cm focal length telescope, infrared AOTF, and 256 x 256 NICMOS-3 focal plane array for acquiring narrowband images with a spectral resolving power (lambda/delta(lambda)) exceeding 250. We summarize the instrument design features and its expected performance at the Pluto-Charon encounter.

  20. Near-infrared imaging of demineralization under sealants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Henry; Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum NIR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using NIR reflectance and NIR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300, 1460, and 1500 to 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) for comparison. The highest contrast for NIR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 to 1700 nm. These NIR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either copolarization or cross-polarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500 and 1700 nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for NIR reflectance measurements.

  1. Onychomycosis diagnosis using fluorescence and infrared imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Ana Paula; Fortunato, Thereza Cury; Stringasci, Mirian D.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Inada, Natalia M.

    2015-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a common disease of the nail plate, constituting approximately half of all cases of nail infection. Onychomycosis diagnosis is challenging because it is hard to distinguish from other diseases of the nail lamina such as psoriasis, lichen ruber or eczematous nails. The existing methods of diagnostics so far consist of clinical and laboratory analysis, such as: Direct Mycological examination and culture, PCR and histopathology with PAS staining. However, they all share certain disadvantages in terms of sensitivity and specificity, time delay, or cost. This study aimed to evaluate the use of infrared and fluorescence imaging as new non-invasive diagnostic tools in patients with suspected onychomycosis, and compare them with established techniques. For fluorescence analysis, a Clinical Evince (MM Optics®) was used, which consists of an optical assembly with UV LED light source wavelength 400 nm +/- 10 nm and the maximum light intensity: 40 mW/cm2 +/- 20%. For infrared analysis, a Fluke® Camera FKL model Ti400 was used. Patients with onychomycosis and control group were analyzed for comparison. The fluorescence images were processed using MATLAB® routines, and infrared images were analyzed using the SmartView® 3.6 software analysis provided by the company Fluke®. The results demonstrated that both infrared and fluorescence could be complementary to diagnose different types of onychomycosis lesions. The simplicity of operation, quick response and non-invasive assessment of the nail patients in real time, are important factors to be consider for an implementation.

  2. An adaptive algorithm for low contrast infrared image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng-dong; Peng, Cheng-yuan; Wang, Ming-jia; Wu, Zhi-guo; Liu, Jia-qi

    2013-08-01

    An adaptive infrared image enhancement algorithm for low contrast is proposed in this paper, to deal with the problem that conventional image enhancement algorithm is not able to effective identify the interesting region when dynamic range is large in image. This algorithm begin with the human visual perception characteristics, take account of the global adaptive image enhancement and local feature boost, not only the contrast of image is raised, but also the texture of picture is more distinct. Firstly, the global image dynamic range is adjusted from the overall, the dynamic range of original image and display grayscale form corresponding relationship, the gray scale of bright object is raised and the the gray scale of dark target is reduced at the same time, to improve the overall image contrast. Secondly, the corresponding filtering algorithm is used on the current point and its neighborhood pixels to extract image texture information, to adjust the brightness of the current point in order to enhance the local contrast of the image. The algorithm overcomes the default that the outline is easy to vague in traditional edge detection algorithm, and ensure the distinctness of texture detail in image enhancement. Lastly, we normalize the global luminance adjustment image and the local brightness adjustment image, to ensure a smooth transition of image details. A lot of experiments is made to compare the algorithm proposed in this paper with other convention image enhancement algorithm, and two groups of vague IR image are taken in experiment. Experiments show that: the contrast ratio of the picture is boosted after handled by histogram equalization algorithm, but the detail of the picture is not clear, the detail of the picture can be distinguished after handled by the Retinex algorithm. The image after deal with by self-adaptive enhancement algorithm proposed in this paper becomes clear in details, and the image contrast is markedly improved in compared with Retinex

  3. Infrared hyperspectral imaging results from vapor plume experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.

    1995-04-17

    In this article, recent measurements made with LIFTIRS, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectrometer, are presented. The experience gained with this instrument has produced a variety of insights into the tradeoffs between signal to noise ratio (SNR), spectral resolution and temporal resolution for time multiplexed Fourier transform imaging spectrometers. This experience has also clarified the practical advantages and disadvantages of Fourier transform hyperspectral imaging spectrometers regarding adaptation to varying measurement requirements on SNR vs. spectral resolution, spatial resolution and temporal resolution.

  4. Short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral imager based on Fabry-Perot interferometer for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannila, Rami; Holmlund, Christer; Ojanen, Harri J.; Näsilä, Antti; Saari, Heikki

    2014-10-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a spectral imager for short-wave infrared (SWIR) wavelength range. The spectral imager is based on a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) accompanied by a commercial InGaAs Camera. The FPI consists of two dielectric coated mirrors separated by a tunable air gap. Tuning of the air gap tunes also transmitted wavelength and therefore FPI acts as a tunable band bass filter. The FPI is piezo-actuated and it uses three piezo-actuators in a closed capacitive feedback loop for air gap tuning. The FPI has multiple order transmission bands, which limit free spectral range. Therefore spectral imager contains two FPI in a stack, to make possible to cover spectral range of 1000 - 1700 nm. However, in the first tests imager was used with one FPI and spectral range was limited to 1100-1600 nm. The spectral resolution of the imager is approximately 15 nm (FWHM). Field of view (FOV) across the flight direction is 30 deg. Imaging resolution of the spectral imager is 256 x 320 pixels. The focal length of the optics is 12 mm and F-number is 3.2. This imager was tested in summer 2014 in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and therefore a size and a mass of the imager were critical. Total mass of the imager is approximately 1200 grams. In test campaign the spectral imager will be used for forest and agricultural imaging. In future, because results of the UAV test flights are promising, this technology can be applied to satellite applications also.

  5. Infrared Imaging, Spectroscopic, and Photometric Studies of Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, Robert D.

    1997-01-01

    We have continued our program of infrared (IR) photometric, imaging, spectroscopic, and polarimetric temporal observations of comets to study the properties of comet dust and comet nuclei. During the first two years we digitized our IR data base on P/Halley and other recent comets to facilitate further analysis and comparison with other data bases, and found compelling evidence for the emission of a burst of small grains from P/Halley's nucleus at perihelion. We reported imaging and photometric observations of Comets Austin 1990 V and Swift-Tuttle 1992. The Swift-Tuttle 1992t observations included IR photometry, several 7-14 micron long-slit spectra of the coma and a time-sequence of more than 150 10 micron broadband images of the coma. An analysis of near-IR images of the inner coma of P/Halley obtained on three consecutive nights in 1986 March showed sunwardjets. We completed our analysis of IR imaging spectrosco-photometric data on comets. We also obtained observations of Comets Hyakutake 1996 B2 and Hale/Bopp 1995 01. We obtained infrared imaging, photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric temporal observations of bright comets using a network of five telescopes, with emphasis on simultaneous observations of comets at many wavelengths with different instruments. Our program offers several unique advantages: 1) rapid observational response to new comets with dedicated infrared telescopes; 2) observations within a few degrees of the sun when comets are near perihelion and 3) access to advanced infrared array imagers and spectrometers. In particular, reduction, analysis, publication and archiving of our Jupiter/sl-9 and Comet Hyakutake infrared data received special emphasis. Instrumentation development included installation of the latest version of the innovative FORTH telescope control and a data acquisition system that enables us to control three telescopes remotely by telephone from anywhere in the world for comet observations in broad daylight. We have

  6. Hurricane Isabel, AIRS Infrared and SeaWinds Scatterometer Data Combined

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    These two images show Hurricane Isabel as viewed by AIRS and each of the two SeaWinds scatterometers on the ADEOS-2 and QuikScat satellites, all JPL-managed experiments. AIRS data are used to create global three-dimensional maps of temperature, humidity and clouds, while scatterometers measure surface wind speed and direction.

    Figure 1 shows Isabel on September 13, 2003, when it was a Category 5 storm threatening the Caribbean and southern United States. At the time Isabel was the strongest Atlantic storm since hurricane Mitch killed thousands in central America in 1997. The red vectors in the image show Isabel's surface winds as measured by SeaWinds on ADEOS-2, and the background colors show the temperature of clouds and surface, as viewed in the infrared by AIRS. The hurricane's powerful swirling winds are apparent. These winds circle the hurricane's eye, seen as the red dot near the middle top of the image. Light blue areas shows adjacent cold clouds tops associated with strong thunderstorms embedded within the storm.

    Figure 2 shows Isabel as it approached landfall on the outer banks of North Carolina on September 18. The hurricane weakened in the five days since the earlier image was observed, as indicated by a less clearly defined eye. Nevertheless, it was still a powerful storm. The winds blowing onshore north of the eye knocked over trees, blew roofs off buildings, and drove large waves that breached the coastal barrier islands in many places. Water, transportation and power are still not fully restored to many of the areas in the image. The winds apparently blowing away from the eye of the storm are an artifact of one of the hurricane's other destructive phenomena: rain. The darkest blue clouds observed by AIRS show the most intense thunderstorms, and hence the heaviest rains. Hard rain fools the the SeaWinds on Quik

  7. Real-time mid-infrared imaging of living microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Haase, Katharina; Kröger-Lui, Niels; Pucci, Annemarie; Schönhals, Arthur; Petrich, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The speed and efficiency of quantum cascade laser-based mid-infrared microspectroscopy are demonstrated using two different model organisms as examples. For the slowly moving Amoeba proteus, a quantum cascade laser is tuned over the wavelength range of 7.6 µm to 8.6 µm (wavenumbers 1320 cm(-1) and 1160 cm(-1) , respectively). The recording of a hyperspectral image takes 11.3 s whereby an average signal-to-noise ratio of 29 is achieved. The limits of time resolution are tested by imaging the fast moving Caenorhabditis elegans at a discrete wavenumber of 1265 cm(-1) . Mid-infrared imaging is performed with the 640 × 480 pixel video graphics array (VGA) standard and at a full-frame time resolution of 0.02 s (i.e. well above the most common frame rate standards). An average signal-to-noise ratio of 16 is obtained. To the best of our knowledge, these findings constitute the first mid-infrared imaging of living organisms at VGA standard and video frame rate. PMID:26572683

  8. Infrared thermal imaging system on a mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fu-Feng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing

    2015-04-30

    A novel concept towards pervasively available low-cost infrared thermal imaging system lunched on a mobile phone (MTIS) was proposed and demonstrated in this article. Through digestion on the evolutional development of milestone technologies in the area, it can be found that the portable and low-cost design would become the main stream of thermal imager for civilian purposes. As a representative trial towards this important goal, a MTIS consisting of a thermal infrared module (TIM) and mobile phone with embedded exclusive software (IRAPP) was presented. The basic strategy for the TIM construction is illustrated, including sensor adoption and optical specification. The user-oriented software was developed in the Android environment by considering its popularity and expandability. Computational algorithms with non-uniformity correction and scene-change detection are established to optimize the imaging quality and efficiency of TIM. The performance experiments and analysis indicated that the currently available detective distance for the MTIS is about 29 m. Furthermore, some family-targeted utilization enabled by MTIS was also outlined, such as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention, etc. This work suggests a ubiquitous way of significantly extending thermal infrared image into rather wide areas especially health care in the coming time.

  9. Infrared Thermal Imaging System on a Mobile Phone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Fu-Feng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A novel concept towards pervasively available low-cost infrared thermal imaging system lunched on a mobile phone (MTIS) was proposed and demonstrated in this article. Through digestion on the evolutional development of milestone technologies in the area, it can be found that the portable and low-cost design would become the main stream of thermal imager for civilian purposes. As a representative trial towards this important goal, a MTIS consisting of a thermal infrared module (TIM) and mobile phone with embedded exclusive software (IRAPP) was presented. The basic strategy for the TIM construction is illustrated, including sensor adoption and optical specification. The user-oriented software was developed in the Android environment by considering its popularity and expandability. Computational algorithms with non-uniformity correction and scene-change detection are established to optimize the imaging quality and efficiency of TIM. The performance experiments and analysis indicated that the currently available detective distance for the MTIS is about 29 m. Furthermore, some family-targeted utilization enabled by MTIS was also outlined, such as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention, etc. This work suggests a ubiquitous way of significantly extending thermal infrared image into rather wide areas especially health care in the coming time. PMID:25942639

  10. Infrared thermal imaging system on a mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fu-Feng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A novel concept towards pervasively available low-cost infrared thermal imaging system lunched on a mobile phone (MTIS) was proposed and demonstrated in this article. Through digestion on the evolutional development of milestone technologies in the area, it can be found that the portable and low-cost design would become the main stream of thermal imager for civilian purposes. As a representative trial towards this important goal, a MTIS consisting of a thermal infrared module (TIM) and mobile phone with embedded exclusive software (IRAPP) was presented. The basic strategy for the TIM construction is illustrated, including sensor adoption and optical specification. The user-oriented software was developed in the Android environment by considering its popularity and expandability. Computational algorithms with non-uniformity correction and scene-change detection are established to optimize the imaging quality and efficiency of TIM. The performance experiments and analysis indicated that the currently available detective distance for the MTIS is about 29 m. Furthermore, some family-targeted utilization enabled by MTIS was also outlined, such as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention, etc. This work suggests a ubiquitous way of significantly extending thermal infrared image into rather wide areas especially health care in the coming time. PMID:25942639

  11. Broadband infrared imaging spectroscopy for standoff detection of trace explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendziora, Christopher A.; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; McGill, R. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This manuscript describes advancements toward a mobile platform for standoff detection of trace explosives on relevant substrates using broadband infrared spectroscopic imaging. In conjunction with this, we are developing a technology for detection based on photo-thermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). PT-IRIS leverages one or more IR quantum cascade lasers (QCL), tuned to strong absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate an area on a surface of interest. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface thermal emission upon laser illumination. The PT-IRIS signal is processed as a hyperspectral image cube comprised of spatial, spectral and temporal dimensions as vectors within a detection algorithm. Here we describe methods to increase both sensitivity to trace explosives and selectivity between different analyte types by exploiting a broader spectral range than in previous configurations. Previously we demonstrated PT-IRIS at several meters of standoff distance indoors and in field tests, while operating the lasers below the infrared eye-safe intensity limit (100 mW/cm2). Sensitivity to explosive traces as small as a single 10 μm diameter particle (~1 ng) has been demonstrated.

  12. Rapid hyperspectral imaging in the mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, N.; Egl, A.; Engel, M.; Gretz, N.; Haase, K.; Herpich, I.; Neudecker, S.; Pucci, A.; Schönhals, A.; Petrich, W.

    2014-03-01

    Despite the successes of mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging in a research environment, progress in the migration of technology into the day-to-day clinical application is slow. Clinical acceptance may be improved if the spectroscopy would be faster and the infrared microscopes available at lower cost. Here we present first results of a fast, multi-scale mid-infrared microscopy setup which allows for the investigation of 10.6×11.7 mm2 and 2.8×3.1mm2 fields of view with a resolution of 23.0+/-3.5 μm and 9.4+/-1.8 μm, respectively. Tunable quantum cascade lasers in the wavenumber ranges of 1030-1090 cm-1 and 1160-1320 cm-1 serve as light sources. A vapor cell is used as a frequency reference during the rapid scanning. As far as the imaging is concerned, it is the high spectral power density of the quantum cascade laser which enables the use of a microbolometer array while still obtaining reasonable signal-to-noise ratios on each pixel. Hyperspectral images are taken in times which can be as low as 52s for the overall image acquisition including referencing.

  13. Real-time mid-infrared imaging of living microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Haase, Katharina; Kröger-Lui, Niels; Pucci, Annemarie; Schönhals, Arthur; Petrich, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The speed and efficiency of quantum cascade laser-based mid-infrared microspectroscopy are demonstrated using two different model organisms as examples. For the slowly moving Amoeba proteus, a quantum cascade laser is tuned over the wavelength range of 7.6 µm to 8.6 µm (wavenumbers 1320 cm(-1) and 1160 cm(-1) , respectively). The recording of a hyperspectral image takes 11.3 s whereby an average signal-to-noise ratio of 29 is achieved. The limits of time resolution are tested by imaging the fast moving Caenorhabditis elegans at a discrete wavenumber of 1265 cm(-1) . Mid-infrared imaging is performed with the 640 × 480 pixel video graphics array (VGA) standard and at a full-frame time resolution of 0.02 s (i.e. well above the most common frame rate standards). An average signal-to-noise ratio of 16 is obtained. To the best of our knowledge, these findings constitute the first mid-infrared imaging of living organisms at VGA standard and video frame rate.

  14. Gas cloud infrared image enhancement based on anisotropic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiakun; Wang, Lingxue; Zhang, Changxing; Long, Yunting; Zhang, Bei

    2011-05-01

    Leakage of dangerous gases will not only pollute the environment, but also seriously threat public safety. Thermal infrared imaging has been proved to be an efficient method to qualitatively detect the gas leakage. But some problems are remained, especially when monitoring the leakage in a passive way. For example, the signal is weak and the edge of gas cloud in the infrared image is not obvious enough. However, we notice some important characteristics of the gas plume and therefore propose a gas cloud infrared image enhancement method based on anisotropic diffusion. As the gas plume presents a large gas cloud in the image and the gray value is even inside the cloud, strong forward diffusion will be used to reduce the noise and to expand the range of the gas cloud. Frames subtraction and K-means cluttering pop out the gas cloud area. Forward-and-Backward diffusion is to protect background details. Additionally, the best iteration times and the time step parameters are researched. Results show that the gas cloud can be marked correctly and enhanced by black or false color, and so potentially increase the possibility of gas leakage detection.

  15. Infrared Imaging of Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Anderson, Brian; Campbell, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM) project is presently focused on near term support to the Shuttle program through the development of an infrared imaging capability of sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to augment existing on-board Orbiter instrumentation. Significant progress has been made with the identification and inventory of relevant existing optical imaging assets and the development, maturation, and validation of simulation and modeling tools for assessment and mission planning purposes, which were intended to lead to the best strategies and assets for successful acquisition of quantitative global surface temperature data on the Shuttle during entry. However, there are longer-term goals of providing global infrared imaging support to other flight projects as well. A status of HYTHIRM from the perspective of how two NASA-sponsored boundary layer transition flight experiments could benefit by infrared measurements is provided. Those two flight projects are the Hypersonic Boundary layer Transition (HyBoLT) flight experiment and the Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE), which are both intended for reducing uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of wind tunnel derived transition correlations for flight application. Thus, the criticality of obtaining high quality flight data along with the impact it would provide to the Shuttle program damage assessment process are discussed. Two recent wind tunnel efforts that were intended as risk mitigation in terms of quantifying the transition process and resulting turbulent wedge locations are briefly reviewed. Progress is being made towards finalizing an imaging strategy in support of the Shuttle BLT FE, however there are no plans currently to image HyBoLT.

  16. Infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on fast wavelet image focusing and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2009-08-01

    We studied the infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on the fast wavelet image focusing and tracking. Here we uses the image of the uncooled infrared imager mounted on the two axis gimbal system and the developed new auto focusing algorithm on the Daubechies wavelet transform. The developed new focusing algorithm on the Daubechies wavelet transform processes the result of the high pass filter effect to meet the direct detection of the objects. This new focusing gives us the distance information of the outside world smoothly, and the information of the gimbal system gives us the direction of objects in the outside world to match the sense of the spherical coordinate system. We installed this system on the hand made electric ground vehicle platform powered by 24VDC battery. The electric vehicle equips the rotary encoder units and the inertia rate sensor units to make the correct navigation process. The image tracking also uses the developed newt wavelet focusing within several image processing. The size of the hand made electric ground vehicle platform is about 1m long, 0.75m wide, 1m high, and 50kg weight. We tested the infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on the new wavelet image focusing and tracking using the electric vehicle indoor and outdoor. The test shows the good results by the developed infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on the new wavelet image focusing and tracking.

  17. Size-varying small target detection for infrared image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Ran; Long, Yunli; An, Wei; Zhou, Yiyu

    2015-10-01

    IRST (Infrared Search and Track) has been applied to many military or civil fields such as precise guidance, aerospace, early warning. As a key technique, small target detection based on infrared image plays an important role. However, infrared targets have their own characteristics, such as target size variation, which make the detection work quite difficult. In practical application, the target size may vary due to many reasons, such as optic angle of sensors, imaging distance, environment and so on. For conventional detection methods, it is difficult to detect such size-varying targets, especially when the backgrounds have strong clutters. This paper presents a novel method to detect size-varying infrared targets in a cluttered background. It is easy to find that the target region is salient in infrared images. It means that target region have a signature of discontinuity with its neighboring regions and concentrates in a relatively small region, which can be considered as a homogeneous compact region, and the background is consistent with its neighboring regions. Motivated by the saliency feature and gradient feature, we introduce minimum target intensity (MTI) to measure the dissimilarity between different scales, and use mean gradient to restrict the target scale in a reasonable range. They are integrated to be multiscale MTI filter. The proposed detection method is designed based on multiscale MTI filter. Firstly, salient region is got by morphological low-pass filtering, where the potential target exists in. Secondly, the candidate target regions are extracted by multiscale minimum target intensity filter, which can effectively give the optimal target size. At last, signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) is used to segment targets, which is computed based on optimal scale of candidate targets. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve both higher detection precision and robustness in complex background.

  18. ANIR: Atacama near infrared camera for Paschen α imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohara, Kentaro; Mitani, Natsuko; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Toshikawa, Koji; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu; Handa, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Masuo; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kawara, Kimiaki; Kohno, Kotaro; Minezaki, Takeo; Miyata, Takashi; Soyano, Takao; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2008-07-01

    We have been developing a near infrared camera called ANIR (Atacama Near InfraRed camera), for the University of Tokyo Atacama 1.0m telescope installed at the summit of Co. Chajnantor (5640m altitude) in Northern Chile. The major aim of this camera is to carry out an imaging survey in Paschen α emission line (1.8751μm) from the ground for the first time. The camera is based on a PACE-HAWAII2 array with an Offner relay optics for re-imaging, and field of view is 5.'3 × 5.'3 with pixel scale of 0."308/pix. It is scheduled to see first light in the end of 2008, and start the Paschen α/β survey of the Galactic plane in 2009.

  19. Detecting cracks in teeth using ultrasonic excitation and infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaoyan; Favro, Lawrence D.; Thomas, Robert L.

    2001-06-01

    We describe a new technique, Thermosonics, that can be used to detect cracks in teeth. This technique was initially invented and developed for finding cracks in industrial and aerospace applications. The thermosonics technique employs a single short pulse (typically tens of milliseconds) of ultrasound excitation combined with infrared imaging. Ultrasonic waves vibrate the target material. This vibration causes rubbing and clapping between faying surfaces of any cracks which are present, resulting in a temperature rise around the cracks. An infrared camera is used to image the temperature distribution during and after the ultrasound excitation. Thus, cracks in teeth can be detected. Although this technique is still under development, it shows promise for clinical use by dentists.

  20. FISICA: The Florida image slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Raines, S. Nicholas; Julian, J.; Gruel, N.; Boreman, Glenn; Hoffmann, Jeff; Rodgers, Michael; Glenn, Paul; Hull-Allen, Greg; Myrick, Bruce; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell

    2006-06-01

    We report on the design and status of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R ˜ 1300 spectra over a 16 × 33″ field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-m telescope, or a 6 × 12″ field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-m telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design, fabrication, laboratory test results, and on-telescope performance for FISICA.

  1. A visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCord, Thomas (Principal Investigator); Voelker, Mark; Owensby, Pam; Warren, Cris; Mooradian, Greg

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes the design effort for the construction of a visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for planetary missions, funded by NASA under the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program. The goal was to design and develop a prototype brassboard pushbroom imaging spectrometer covering the 0.35 gm to 2.5 gm spectral region using a simplified optical layout that would minimize the size, mass and parts count of the instrument by using a single holographic grating to disperse and focus light from a single slit onto both the infrared and visible focal plane arrays. Design approaches are presented and analyzed, along with problems encountered and recommended solutions to those problems. In particular, a new type of grating, incorporating two sets of rulings and a filter in a layered structure, is presented for further development.

  2. Spacecraft design project: High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The High Temperature Superconductor Infrared Imaging Satellite (HTSCIRIS) is designed to perform the space based infrared imaging and surveillance mission. The design of the satellite follows the black box approach. The payload is a stand alone unit, with the spacecraft bus designed to meet the requirements of the payload as listed in the statement of work. Specifications influencing the design of the spacecraft bus were originated by the Naval Research Lab. A description of the following systems is included: spacecraft configuration, orbital dynamics, radio frequency communication subsystem, electrical power system, propulsion, attitude control system, thermal control, and structural design. The issues of testing and cost analysis are also addressed. This design project was part of the course Advanced Spacecraft Design taught at the Naval Postgraduate School.

  3. Measuring cloud thermodynamic phase with shortwave infrared imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, David R.; McCubbin, Ian; Gao, Bo Cai; Green, Robert O.; Matthews, Alyssa A.; Mei, Fan; Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason; Wilcox, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy enables accurate remote mapping of cloud thermodynamic phase at high spatial resolution. We describe a measurement strategy to exploit signatures of liquid and ice absorption in cloud top apparent reflectance spectra from 1.4 to 1.8 μm. This signal is generally insensitive to confounding factors such as solar angles, view angles, and surface albedo. We first evaluate the approach in simulation and then apply it to airborne data acquired in the Calwater-2/ACAPEX campaign of Winter 2015. Here NASA's "Classic" Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) remotely observed diverse cloud formations while the U.S. Department of Energy ARM Aerial Facility G-1 aircraft measured cloud integral and microphysical properties in situ. The coincident measurements demonstrate good separation of the thermodynamic phases for relatively homogeneous clouds.

  4. [A coarse-to-fine registration method for satellite infrared image and visual image].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong-Li; Wang, Liang; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Li; Duan, Fu-Qing

    2013-11-01

    In the present paper, in order to resolve the registration of the multi-mode satellite images with different signal properties and features, a two-phase coarse-to-fine registration method is presented and is applied to the registration of satellite infrared images and visual images. In the coarse registration phase of this method, the edge of infrared and visual images is firstly detected. Then the Fourier-Mellin transform is adopted to process the edge images. Finally, the affine transformation parameters of the registration are computed rapidly by the transformation relation between the registering images in frequency domain. In the fine registration phase of the proposed method, the feature points of infrared and visual images are firstly detected by Harris operator. Then the matched feature points of infrared and visual images are determined by the cross-correlation similarity of their local neighborhoods. The fine registration is finally realized according to the spatial correspondent relation of the matched feature points in infrared and visual images. The proposed coarse-to-fine registration method derives both the advantages of two methods, the high efficiency of Fourier-Mellin transform based registration method and the accuracy of Harris operator based registration method, which is considered the novelty and merit of the proposed method. To evaluate the performance of the proposed registration method, the coarse-to-fine registration method is implemented on the infrared and visual images captured by the FY-2D meteorological satellite. The experimental results show that the presented registration method is robust and has acceptable registration accuracy.

  5. Advanced indium antimonide monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, T. L.; Merilainen, C. A.; Thom, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The continued process development of SiO2 insulators for use in advanced InSb monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays is described. Specific investigations into the use of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) SiO2 as a gate insulator for InSb charge coupled devices is discussed, as are investigations of other chemical vapor deposited SiO2 materials.

  6. An Imaging Infrared (IIR) seeker using a microprogrammed processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, K. V.

    1980-01-01

    A recently developed Imaging Infrared Seeker uses a microprogrammed processor to perform gimbal servo control and system interface while performing the seeker functions of automatic target detection, acquisition, and tracking. The automatic detection mode requires up to 80% of the available capability of a high performance microprogrammed processor. Although system complexity was increased significantly, this approach can be cost effective when the basic computation capacity is already available.

  7. Ge/Si Integrated Circuit For Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed integrated circuit consists of focal-plane array of metal/germanium Schottky-barrier photodetectors on same chip with silicon-based circuits that processes signals from photodetectors. Made compatible with underlying silicon-based circuitry by growing germanium epitaxially on silicon circuit wafers. Metal deposited in ultrahigh vacuum immediately after growth of germanium. Combination of described techniques results in high-resolution infrared-imaging circuits of superior performance.

  8. Dual-band infrared remote sensing system with combined long-wave infrared imaging and mid-wave infrared spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheng; Yi, Xinjian; Liu, Xiangyan; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tianxu

    2013-08-01

    We present a new optical system for infrared (IR) image-spectrum integration remote sensing. The purpose to develop this instrument is to find the key spectral characteristics of typical hot target and to explore a new intelligence fusion method for the recognition. When mounted on a two-dimensional rotation stage, it can track the suspected target by image processing, and then get its spectrum to do recognition. It is a dual-band system with long-wave infrared (LWIR) imaging and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectrum. An IR dichroic beamsplitter is used to divide wideband incident infrared into LWIR and MWIR. Compared to traditional infrared combined imaging and spectral-analysis instruments, it yields higher sensitivity for measuring the IR spectrum. The sensors for imaging and spectrum detection are separate, so high spatial resolution, frame rate, and spectrum resolution can all be obtained simultaneously.

  9. Fast infrared chemical imaging with a quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Kevin; Kenkel, Seth; Liu, Jui-Nung; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging systems are a powerful tool for visualizing molecular microstructure of a sample without the need for dyes or stains. Table-top Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging spectrometers, the current established technology, can record broadband spectral data efficiently but requires scanning the entire spectrum with a low throughput source. The advent of high-intensity, broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has now accelerated IR imaging but results in a fundamentally different type of instrument and approach, namely, discrete frequency IR (DF-IR) spectral imaging. While the higher intensity of the source provides a higher signal per channel, the absence of spectral multiplexing also provides new opportunities and challenges. Here, we couple a rapidly tunable QCL with a high performance microscope equipped with a cooled focal plane array (FPA) detector. Our optical system is conceptualized to provide optimal performance based on recent theory and design rules for high-definition (HD) IR imaging. Multiple QCL units are multiplexed together to provide spectral coverage across the fingerprint region (776.9 to 1904.4 cm(-1)) in our DF-IR microscope capable of broad spectral coverage, wide-field detection, and diffraction-limited spectral imaging. We demonstrate that the spectral and spatial fidelity of this system is at least as good as the best FT-IR imaging systems. Our configuration provides a speedup for equivalent spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to the best spectral quality from a high-performance linear array system that has 10-fold larger pixels. Compared to the fastest available HD FT-IR imaging system, we demonstrate scanning of large tissue microarrays (TMA) in 3-orders of magnitude smaller time per essential spectral frequency. These advances offer new opportunities for high throughput IR chemical imaging, especially for the measurement of cells and tissues.

  10. Fast Infrared Chemical Imaging with a Quantum Cascade Laser

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging systems are a powerful tool for visualizing molecular microstructure of a sample without the need for dyes or stains. Table-top Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging spectrometers, the current established technology, can record broadband spectral data efficiently but requires scanning the entire spectrum with a low throughput source. The advent of high-intensity, broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has now accelerated IR imaging but results in a fundamentally different type of instrument and approach, namely, discrete frequency IR (DF-IR) spectral imaging. While the higher intensity of the source provides a higher signal per channel, the absence of spectral multiplexing also provides new opportunities and challenges. Here, we couple a rapidly tunable QCL with a high performance microscope equipped with a cooled focal plane array (FPA) detector. Our optical system is conceptualized to provide optimal performance based on recent theory and design rules for high-definition (HD) IR imaging. Multiple QCL units are multiplexed together to provide spectral coverage across the fingerprint region (776.9 to 1904.4 cm–1) in our DF-IR microscope capable of broad spectral coverage, wide-field detection, and diffraction-limited spectral imaging. We demonstrate that the spectral and spatial fidelity of this system is at least as good as the best FT-IR imaging systems. Our configuration provides a speedup for equivalent spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to the best spectral quality from a high-performance linear array system that has 10-fold larger pixels. Compared to the fastest available HD FT-IR imaging system, we demonstrate scanning of large tissue microarrays (TMA) in 3-orders of magnitude smaller time per essential spectral frequency. These advances offer new opportunities for high throughput IR chemical imaging, especially for the measurement of cells and tissues. PMID:25474546

  11. Fast infrared chemical imaging with a quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Kevin; Kenkel, Seth; Liu, Jui-Nung; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging systems are a powerful tool for visualizing molecular microstructure of a sample without the need for dyes or stains. Table-top Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging spectrometers, the current established technology, can record broadband spectral data efficiently but requires scanning the entire spectrum with a low throughput source. The advent of high-intensity, broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has now accelerated IR imaging but results in a fundamentally different type of instrument and approach, namely, discrete frequency IR (DF-IR) spectral imaging. While the higher intensity of the source provides a higher signal per channel, the absence of spectral multiplexing also provides new opportunities and challenges. Here, we couple a rapidly tunable QCL with a high performance microscope equipped with a cooled focal plane array (FPA) detector. Our optical system is conceptualized to provide optimal performance based on recent theory and design rules for high-definition (HD) IR imaging. Multiple QCL units are multiplexed together to provide spectral coverage across the fingerprint region (776.9 to 1904.4 cm(-1)) in our DF-IR microscope capable of broad spectral coverage, wide-field detection, and diffraction-limited spectral imaging. We demonstrate that the spectral and spatial fidelity of this system is at least as good as the best FT-IR imaging systems. Our configuration provides a speedup for equivalent spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to the best spectral quality from a high-performance linear array system that has 10-fold larger pixels. Compared to the fastest available HD FT-IR imaging system, we demonstrate scanning of large tissue microarrays (TMA) in 3-orders of magnitude smaller time per essential spectral frequency. These advances offer new opportunities for high throughput IR chemical imaging, especially for the measurement of cells and tissues. PMID:25474546

  12. Requirements for a Moderate-Resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Kuai, Le; Gontijo, I.; DeLeon, Berta; Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Bajpai, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of imaging and sounding from space warrants exploration of new methods for obtaining the required information, including changing the spectral band sets, employing new technologies and merging instruments. In some cases we must consider relaxation of the current capability. In others, we expect higher performance. In general our goal is to meet the VIIRS and CrIS requirements while providing the enhanced next generation capabilities: 1) Hyperspectral Imaging in the Vis/NIR bands, 2) High Spatial Resolution Sounding in the Infrared bands. The former will improve the accuracy of ocean color products, aerosols and water vapor, surface vegetation and geology. The latter will enable the high-impact achieved by the current suite of hyperspectral infrared sounders to be achieved by the next generation high resolution forecast models. We examine the spectral, spatial and radiometric requirements for a next generation system and technologies that can be applied from the available inventory within government and industry. A two-band grating spectrometer instrument called the Moderate-resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS) is conceived that, when used with the planned NASA PACE Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) will meet the vast majority of CrIS and VIIRS requirements in the all bands and provide the next generation capabilities desired. MIRIS resource requirements are modest and the Technology Readiness Level is high leading to the expectation that the cost and risk of MIRIS will be reasonable.

  13. Charge-Injection Device (CID) Infrared Staring Imaging Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, W. D.; Wilson, S. H.; Missman, R. A.; Nuttall, D. E.; Ting, R. N.

    1981-07-01

    A laboratory version of an infrared staring imaging sensor, based on a 32 x 32 indium antimonide CID detector array, has been developed. That sensor serves both as a test bed for array evaluation and as a tool for investigating concepts such as non-uniformity compensation. The system is microprocessor based to provide for flexible array operation as well as for the collection and logging of array operating conditions and data. Design features of the sensor, including the focal plane and the supporting electronics, are described. Operation of the sensor is discussed and some of the imaging data collected with this system is presented.

  14. Suppression of fixed pattern noise for infrared image system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changhan; Han, Jungsoo; Bae, Kyung-Hoon

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we propose suppression of fixed pattern noise (FPN) and compensation of soft defect for improvement of object tracking in cooled staring infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) imaging system. FPN appears an observable image which applies to non-uniformity compensation (NUC) by temperature. Soft defect appears glittering black and white point by characteristics of non-uniformity for IR detector by time. This problem is very important because it happen serious problem for object tracking as well as degradation for image quality. Signal processing architecture in cooled staring IRFPA imaging system consists of three tables: low, normal, high temperature for reference gain and offset values. Proposed method operates two offset tables for each table. This is method which operates six term of temperature on the whole. Proposed method of soft defect compensation consists of three stages: (1) separates sub-image for an image, (2) decides a motion distribution of object between each sub-image, (3) analyzes for statistical characteristic from each stationary fixed pixel. Based on experimental results, the proposed method shows an improved image which suppresses FPN by change of temperature distribution from an observational image in real-time.

  15. A model of PSF estimation for coded mask infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ao; Jin, Jie; Wang, Qing; Yang, Jingyu; Sun, Yi

    2014-11-01

    The point spread function (PSF) of imaging system with coded mask is generally acquired by practical measure- ment with calibration light source. As the thermal radiation of coded masks are relatively severe than it is in visible imaging systems, which buries the modulation effects of the mask pattern, it is difficult to estimate and evaluate the performance of mask pattern from measured results. To tackle this problem, a model for infrared imaging systems with masks is presented in this paper. The model is composed with two functional components, the coded mask imaging with ideal focused lenses and the imperfection imaging with practical lenses. Ignoring the thermal radiation, the systems PSF can then be represented by a convolution of the diffraction pattern of mask with the PSF of practical lenses. To evaluate performances of different mask patterns, a set of criterion are designed according to different imaging and recovery methods. Furthermore, imaging results with inclined plane waves are analyzed to achieve the variation of PSF within the view field. The influence of mask cell size is also analyzed to control the diffraction pattern. Numerical results show that mask pattern for direct imaging systems should have more random structures, while more periodic structures are needed in system with image reconstruction. By adjusting the combination of random and periodic arrangement, desired diffraction pattern can be achieved.

  16. Learning-based compressed sensing for infrared image super resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yao; Sui, Xiubao; Chen, Qian; Wu, Shaochi

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an infrared image super-resolution method based on compressed sensing (CS). First, the reconstruction model under the CS framework is established and a Toeplitz matrix is selected as the sensing matrix. Compared with traditional learning-based methods, the proposed method uses a set of sub-dictionaries instead of two coupled dictionaries to recover high resolution (HR) images. And Toeplitz sensing matrix allows the proposed method time-efficient. Second, all training samples are divided into several feature spaces by using the proposed adaptive k-means classification method, which is more accurate than the standard k-means method. On the basis of this approach, a complex nonlinear mapping from the HR space to low resolution (LR) space can be converted into several compact linear mappings. Finally, the relationships between HR and LR image patches can be obtained by multi-sub-dictionaries and HR infrared images are reconstructed by the input LR images and multi-sub-dictionaries. The experimental results show that the proposed method is quantitatively and qualitatively more effective than other state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.

    1997-08-01

    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  18. Effects of hypersonic vehicle's optical dome on infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenjun; Cao, Zhiguo; Wang, Wenwu

    2011-09-01

    When an optically guided hypersonic vehicle flies in the atmosphere, the scene is viewed through an optical dome. Because of hypersonic friction with the atmosphere, the optical dome is inevitably covered by a serious shock wave, which threatens to alter the dome's physical parameters and further induce wavefront distortion and degradation of images. By studying the physical phenomena occurring within the optical dome in such an adverse environment, this paper identifies the relationship between the variation of the dome's optical characteristics and the infrared image degradation. The research indicates that the image quality degrades sharply as the vehicle's Mach number increases. Simulations also show that while the thermo-optic effect, elastic-optic effect, thermal deformation, and variation of transmittance have little effect on the optical system, the thermal radiation severely degrades images when vehicles fly at hypersonic speeds. Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  19. Dual-band infrared imaging for concrete bridge deck inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.

    1994-02-01

    Dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging methods and unique image-correction algorithms used successfully for underground and obscured object imaging and detection (of buried mines, archaeological structures, geothermal aquifers and airframe defects) are adapted for inspection of concrete highways and bridge decks to provide early warnings of subsurface defects. To this end, we prepared small concrete test slabs with defects (embedded plastic layers). We used selective DBIR (3--5 {mu}m and 8--12 {mu}m) image ratios to depict the defect sites and remove the effects of surface clutter. We distinguish true temperature-difference signals (at surrogate delamination sites) from emissivity noise (at sites with oil stains, sand, gravel, metal parts and roughness differences) towards improved concrete bridge deck inspections.

  20. Correction of aeroheating-induced intensity nonuniformity in infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Yan, Luxin; Zhao, Hui; Dai, Xiaobing; Zhang, Tianxu

    2016-05-01

    Aeroheating-induced intensity nonuniformity effects severely influence the effective performance of an infrared (IR) imaging system in high-speed flight. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the correction of intensity nonuniformity in IR images. The basic assumption is that the low-frequency intensity bias is additive and smoothly varying so that it can be modeled as a bivariate polynomial and estimated by using an isotropic total variation (TV) model. A half quadratic penalty method is applied to the isotropic form of TV discretization. And an alternating minimization algorithm is adopted for solving the optimization model. The experimental results of simulated and real aerothermal images show that the proposed correction method can effectively improve IR image quality.

  1. Version 5 product improvements from the atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Manning, Evan; Friedman, Steve; Broberg, Steven E.; Licata, Stephen J.; Elliott, Denis A.; Irion, Fredrick W.; Kahn, Brian H.; Fishbein, Evan; Olsen, Edward; Granger, Stephanie; Susskind, Joel; Keita, Fricky; Blaisdell, John; Strow, Larrabee; DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Barnet, Chris

    2006-12-01

    The AIRS instrument was launched in May 2002 into a polar sun-synchronous orbit onboard the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. Since then we have released three versions of the AIRS data product to the scientific community. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles and trace gas amounts. The first version of software, Version 2.0 was available to scientists shortly after launch with Version 3.0 released to the public in June 2003. Like all AIRS product releases, all products are accessible to the public in order to have the best user feedback on issues that appear in the data. Fortunately the products have had exceptional accuracy and stability. This paper presents the improvement between AIRS Version 4.0 and Version 5.0 products and shows examples of the new products available in Version 5.0.

  2. Uncooled emissive infrared imagers for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Masini, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Raytheon's fourth generation uncooled microbolometer array technology with digital output, High Definition (HD) 1920 × 1200 format and 12 μm cell size enables uncooled thermal infrared (TIR) multispectral imagers with the sensitivity and spatial sampling needed for a variety of Earth observation missions in LEO, GEO and HEO. A powerful combination of small detector cell size, fast optics and high sensitivity achieved without cryogenic cooling leads to instruments that are much smaller than current TIR systems, while still offering the capability to meet challenging measurement requirements for Earth observation missions. To consider how this technology could be implemented for Earth observation missions, we extend our previous studies with visible wavelength CubeSat imagers for environmental observations from LEO and examine whether small thermal infrared imagers based on fourth generation uncooled technology could be made small enough to fit onboard a 3U CubeSat and still meet challenging requirements for legacy missions. We found that moderate spatial resolution (~200 m) high sensitivity cloud and surface temperature observations meeting legacy MODIS/VIIRS requirements could be collected successfully with CubeSat-sized imagers but that multiple imagers are needed to cover the full swath for these missions. Higher spatial resolution land imagers are more challenging to fit into the CubeSat form factor, but it may be possible to do so for systems that require roughly 100 m spatial resolution. Regardless of whether it can fit into a CubeSat or not, uncooled land imagers meeting candidate TIR requirements can be implemented with a much smaller instrument than previous imagers. Even though this technology appears to be very promising, more work is needed to qualify this newly available uncooled infrared technology for use in space. If these new devices prove to be as space worthy as the first generation arrays that Raytheon qualified and built into the THEMIS imager

  3. Cooled Dyson long-wave infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer by re-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiayin; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yang; Li, Chun; Sun, Qiang; Hu, Xinrong

    2016-05-01

    A cooled long-wave infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer with an F-number of 2 was designed based on the Dyson configuration. A three-mirror off-axis aspherical optical system that provided excellent slit-shaped images was selected as the fore telescope objective. The re-imaging method was applied to obtain a cold stop efficiency of 100%, and the corrector lens in traditional Dyson imaging spectrometers was replaced with re-imaging lenses to correct spherical aberrations. The designed imaging spectrometer provided a spectral resolution of 25 nm at a range of 8-12 μm and possessed a relatively small volume.

  4. The (new) Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael; Smith, Howard A.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Marscher, Alan P.; Tokunaga, Alan; Bergknut, Lars; Bonnet, Morgan; Bus, Schelte J.; Connelly, Michael; Rayner, John; Watanabe, Darryl

    2015-11-01

    The Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) was developed at Boston University and has been in use since 2002 on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), making observations of asteroids, planets, and comets in the 2 - 25 μm wavelength range. Recently the instrument has been unavailable due to electronics issues and the high cost of supplying liquid helium on Maunakea. We have begun a project to upgrade MIRSI to a cryocooler-based system with new array readout electronics and a dichroic and optical camera to simultaneously image the science field for image acquisition and optical photometry. The mechanical cryocooler will enable MIRSI to be continuously mounted on the IRTF multiple instrument mount (MIM) along with the other facility instruments, making it available to the entire community for multi-wavelength imaging and spectral observations. We will propose to use the refurbished MIRSI to measure the 10 μm flux from Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and determine their diameters and albedos through the use of a thermal model. We plan to observe up to 750 NEOs over the course of a three year survey, most of whose diameters will be under 300 meters. Here we present an overview of the MIRSI upgrade and give the current status of the project.This work is funded by the NASA Solar System Observations/NEOO program.

  5. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging without Harmful Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the…

  6. Near-Infrared Optical Imaging Noninvasively Detects Acutely Damaged Muscle.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowski, Stephen M; Batra, Abhinandan; Lee-McMullen, Brittany; Vohra, Ravneet S; Forbes, Sean C; Jiang, Huabei; Vandenborne, Krista; Walter, Glenn A

    2016-10-01

    Muscle damage is currently assessed through methods such as muscle biopsy, serum biomarkers, functional testing, and imaging procedures, each with its own inherent limitations, and a pressing need for a safe, repeatable, inexpensive, and noninvasive modality to assess the state of muscle health remains. Our aim was to develop and assess near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging as a novel noninvasive method of detecting and quantifying muscle damage. An immobilization-reambulation model was used for inducing muscle damage and recovery in the lower hindlimbs in mice. Confirmation of muscle damage was obtained using in vivo indocyanine green-enhanced NIR optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and ex vivo tissue analysis. The soleus of the immobilized-reambulated hindlimb was found to have a greater amount of muscle damage compared to that in the contralateral nonimmobilized limb, confirmed by in vivo indocyanine green-enhanced NIR optical imaging (3.86-fold increase in radiant efficiency), magnetic resonance imaging (1.41-fold increase in T2), and an ex vivo spectrophotometric assay of indocyanine green uptake (1.87-fold increase in normalized absorbance). Contrast-enhanced NIR optical imaging provides a sensitive, rapid, and noninvasive screening method that can be used for imaging and quantifying muscle damage and recovery in vivo. PMID:27565039

  7. Using short-wave infrared imaging for fruit quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    Quality evaluation of agricultural and food products is important for processing, inventory control, and marketing. Fruit size and surface quality are two important quality factors for high-quality fruit such as Medjool dates. Fruit size is usually measured by length that can be done easily by simple image processing techniques. Surface quality evaluation on the other hand requires more complicated design, both in image acquisition and image processing. Skin delamination is considered a major factor that affects fruit quality and its value. This paper presents an efficient histogram analysis and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time surface quality evaluation of Medjool dates. This approach, based on short-wave infrared imaging, provides excellent image contrast between the fruit surface and delaminated skin, which allows significant simplification of image processing algorithm and reduction of computational power requirements. The proposed quality grading method requires very simple training procedure to obtain a gray scale image histogram for each quality level. Using histogram comparison, each date is assigned to one of the four quality levels and an optimal threshold is calculated for segmenting skin delamination areas from the fruit surface. The percentage of the fruit surface that has skin delamination can then be calculated for quality evaluation. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production and proven to be efficient and accurate.

  8. Potential role of infrared imaging for detecting facial seal leaks in filtering facepiece respirator users.

    PubMed

    Harber, Philip; Su, Jing; Badilla, Alejandro D; Rahimian, Rombod; Lansey, Kirsten R

    2015-01-01

    Infrared imaging (IRI) can detect airflow through and near respirator masks based upon temperature differences between ambient and exhaled air. This study investigated the potential usefulness of IRI for detecting leaks and providing insight into the sites and significance of leaks. Subjects (n = 165) used filtering facepiece N95 respirators (N95 FFR) in the course of a research study concerning training modalities. Short sequence video infrared images were obtained during use and with intentionally introduced facial seal leaks. Fit factor (FF) was measured with condensation nuclei count methods. IRI detected leaks were scored on a four-point scale and summarized as the Total Leak Score (TLS) over six coding regions and the presence or absence of a "Big Leak" (BL) in any location. A semi-automated interpretation algorithm was also developed. IRI detected leaks are particularly common in the nasal region, but these are of limited significance. IR imaging could effectively identify many large leaks. The TLS was related to FF. Although IRI scores were related to FF, the relationship is insufficiently close for IRI to substitute for quantitative fit-testing. Using FFRs infrared techniques have potential for identifying situations with very inadequate respiratory protection.

  9. Potential role of infrared imaging for detecting facial seal leaks in filtering facepiece respirator users.

    PubMed

    Harber, Philip; Su, Jing; Badilla, Alejandro D; Rahimian, Rombod; Lansey, Kirsten R

    2015-01-01

    Infrared imaging (IRI) can detect airflow through and near respirator masks based upon temperature differences between ambient and exhaled air. This study investigated the potential usefulness of IRI for detecting leaks and providing insight into the sites and significance of leaks. Subjects (n = 165) used filtering facepiece N95 respirators (N95 FFR) in the course of a research study concerning training modalities. Short sequence video infrared images were obtained during use and with intentionally introduced facial seal leaks. Fit factor (FF) was measured with condensation nuclei count methods. IRI detected leaks were scored on a four-point scale and summarized as the Total Leak Score (TLS) over six coding regions and the presence or absence of a "Big Leak" (BL) in any location. A semi-automated interpretation algorithm was also developed. IRI detected leaks are particularly common in the nasal region, but these are of limited significance. IR imaging could effectively identify many large leaks. The TLS was related to FF. Although IRI scores were related to FF, the relationship is insufficiently close for IRI to substitute for quantitative fit-testing. Using FFRs infrared techniques have potential for identifying situations with very inadequate respiratory protection. PMID:25625873

  10. A dual-band adaptor for infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    McLean, A G; Ahn, J-W; Maingi, R; Gray, T K; Roquemore, A L

    2012-05-01

    A novel imaging adaptor providing the capability to extend a standard single-band infrared (IR) camera into a two-color or dual-band device has been developed for application to high-speed IR thermography on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX). Temperature measurement with two-band infrared imaging has the advantage of being mostly independent of surface emissivity, which may vary significantly in the liquid lithium divertor installed on NSTX as compared to that of an all-carbon first wall. In order to take advantage of the high-speed capability of the existing IR camera at NSTX (1.6-6.2 kHz frame rate), a commercial visible-range optical splitter was extensively modified to operate in the medium wavelength and long wavelength IR. This two-band IR adapter utilizes a dichroic beamsplitter, which reflects 4-6 μm wavelengths and transmits 7-10 μm wavelength radiation, each with >95% efficiency and projects each IR channel image side-by-side on the camera's detector. Cutoff filters are used in each IR channel, and ZnSe imaging optics and mirrors optimized for broadband IR use are incorporated into the design. In-situ and ex-situ temperature calibration and preliminary data of the NSTX divertor during plasma discharges are presented, with contrasting results for dual-band vs. single-band IR operation.

  11. Application of DIRI dynamic infrared imaging in reconstructive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, Marek; Wang, Chengpu; Jin, Feng; Salvitti, Matthew; Tenorio, Xavier

    2006-04-01

    We have developed the BioScanIR System based on QWIP (Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector). Data collected by this sensor are processed using the DIRI (Dynamic Infrared Imaging) algorithms. The combination of DIRI data processing methods with the unique characteristics of the QWIP sensor permit the creation of a new imaging modality capable of detecting minute changes in temperature at the surface of the tissue and organs associated with blood perfusion due to certain diseases such as cancer, vascular disease and diabetes. The BioScanIR System has been successfully applied in reconstructive surgery to localize donor flap feeding vessels (perforators) during the pre-surgical planning stage. The device is also used in post-surgical monitoring of skin flap perfusion. Since the BioScanIR is mobile; it can be moved to the bedside for such monitoring. In comparison to other modalities, the BioScanIR can localize perforators in a single, 20 seconds scan with definitive results available in minutes. The algorithms used include (FFT) Fast Fourier Transformation, motion artifact correction, spectral analysis and thermal image scaling. The BioScanIR is completely non-invasive and non-toxic, requires no exogenous contrast agents and is free of ionizing radiation. In addition to reconstructive surgery applications, the BioScanIR has shown promise as a useful functional imaging modality in neurosurgery, drug discovery in pre-clinical animal models, wound healing and peripheral vascular disease management.

  12. Indeterminacy and Image Improvement in Snake Infrared ``Vision''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2006-03-01

    Many snake species have infrared sense organs located on their head that can detect warm-blooded prey even in total darkness. The physical mechanism underlying this sense is that of a pinhole camera. The infrared image is projected onto a sensory `pit membrane' of small size (of order mm^2). To get a neuronal response the energy flux per unit time has to exceed a minimum threshold; furthermore, the source of this energy, the prey, is moving at a finite speed so the pinhole substituting for a lens has to be rather large (˜1 mm). Accordingly the image is totally blurred. We have therefore done two things. First, we have determined the precise optical resolution that a snake can achieve for a given input. Second, in view of known, though still restricted, precision one may ask whether, and how, a snake can reconstruct the original image. The point is that the information needed to reconstruct the original temperature distribution in space is still available. We present an explicit mathematical model [1] allowing even high-quality reconstruction from the low-quality image on the pit membrane and indicate how a neuronal implementation might be realized. Ref: [1] A.B. Sichert, P. Friedel, and J.L. van Hemmen, TU Munich preprint (2005).

  13. Microscopic spectral imaging using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bujin-.; Wang, Yi; Peng, Chuan; Luo, Guipeng; Le, Han Q.

    2003-07-01

    Infrared micro-spectroscopy is a useful tool for basic research and biomedical applications. Conventional microspectroscopic imaging apparatuses use thermal sources for sample illumination, which have low brightness, low optical spectral intensity, and high noise. This work evaluates the system engineering advantages of using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers that offer orders-of magnitude higher brightness, spectral intensity, and lower noise. A laser-based microscopic spectral imaging system with focal plane array detectors demonstrated a high signal-to-noise ratio (>20 dB) at video frame rate for a large illuminated area. Microscopic spectral imaging with fixed-wavelength and tunable lasers of 4.6, 6, and 9.3-μm wavelength was applied to a number of representative samples that consist of biological tissues (plant and animal) and solid material (a stack of laminated polymers). Transmission spectral images with ~30-dB dynamic range were obtained with clear evidence of spectral features for different samples. The potential of more advanced systems with a wide coverage of spectral bands is discussed.

  14. Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique

    2011-03-01

    Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.

  15. Combined use of visible, reflected infrared, and thermal infrared images for mapping Hawaiian lava flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael; Abbott, Elsa; Kahle, Anne

    1991-01-01

    The weathering of Hawaiian basalts is accompanied by chemical and physical changes of the surfaces. These changes have been mapped using remote sensing data from the visible and reflected infrared and thermal infrared wavelength regions. They are related to the physical breakdown of surface chill coats, the development and erosion of silica coatings, the oxidation of mafic minerals, and the development of vegetation cover. These effects show systematic behavior with age and can be mapped using the image data and related to relative ages of pahoehoe and aa flows. The thermal data are sensitive to silica rind development and fine structure of the scene; the reflectance data show the degree of oxidation and differentiate vegetation from aa and cinders. Together, data from the two wavelength regions show more than either separately. The combined data potentially provide a powerful tool for mapping basalt flows in arid to semiarid volcanic environments.

  16. Infrared optical coatings for the EarthCARE Multispectral Imager.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Gary; Woods, David; Sherwood, Richard; Djotni, Karim

    2014-10-20

    The Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer mission (EarthCARE) Multispectral Imager (MSI) is a radiometric instrument designed to provide the imaging of the atmospheric cloud cover and the cloud top surface temperature from a sun-synchronous low Earth orbit. The MSI forms part of a suite of four instruments destined to support the European Space Agency Living Planet mission on-board the EarthCARE satellite payload to be launched in 2016, whose synergy will be used to construct three-dimensional scenes, textures, and temperatures of atmospheric clouds and aerosols. The MSI instrument contains seven channels: four solar channels to measure visible and short-wave infrared wavelengths, and three channels to measure infrared thermal emission. In this paper, we describe the optical layout of the infrared instrument channels, thin-film multilayer designs, the coating deposition method, and the spectral system throughput for the bandpass interference filters, dichroic beam splitters, lenses, and mirror coatings to discriminate wavelengths at 8.8, 10.8, and 12.0 μm. The rationale for the selection of thin-film materials, spectral measurement technique, and environmental testing performance are also presented.

  17. Towards an Imaging Mid-Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewagama, T.; Aslam, S.; Jones, H.; Kostiuk, T.; Villanueva, G.; Roman, P.; Shaw, G. B.; Livengood, T.; Allen, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing a concept for a compact, low-mass, low-power, mid-infrared (MIR; 5- 12 microns) imaging heterodyne spectrometer that incorporates fiber optic coupling, Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) local oscillator, photomixer array, and Radio Frequency Software Defined Readout (RFSDR) for spectral analysis. Planetary Decadal Surveys have highlighted the need for miniaturized, robust, low-mass, and minimal power remote sensing technologies for flight missions. The drive for miniaturization of remote sensing spectroscopy and radiometry techniques has been a continuing process. The advent of MIR fibers, and MEMS techniques for producing waveguides has proven to be an important recent advancement for miniaturization of infrared spectrometers. In conjunction with well-established photonics techniques, the miniaturization of spectrometers is transitioning from classic free space optical systems to waveguide/fiber-based structures for light transport and producing interference effects. By their very nature, these new devices are compact and lightweight. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) and Quantum Well Infrared Photodiodes (QWIP) arrays for heterodyne applications are also being developed. Bulky electronics is another barrier that precluded the extension of heterodyne systems into imaging applications, and our RFSDR will address this aspect.

  18. Infrared optical coatings for the EarthCARE Multispectral Imager.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Gary; Woods, David; Sherwood, Richard; Djotni, Karim

    2014-10-20

    The Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer mission (EarthCARE) Multispectral Imager (MSI) is a radiometric instrument designed to provide the imaging of the atmospheric cloud cover and the cloud top surface temperature from a sun-synchronous low Earth orbit. The MSI forms part of a suite of four instruments destined to support the European Space Agency Living Planet mission on-board the EarthCARE satellite payload to be launched in 2016, whose synergy will be used to construct three-dimensional scenes, textures, and temperatures of atmospheric clouds and aerosols. The MSI instrument contains seven channels: four solar channels to measure visible and short-wave infrared wavelengths, and three channels to measure infrared thermal emission. In this paper, we describe the optical layout of the infrared instrument channels, thin-film multilayer designs, the coating deposition method, and the spectral system throughput for the bandpass interference filters, dichroic beam splitters, lenses, and mirror coatings to discriminate wavelengths at 8.8, 10.8, and 12.0 μm. The rationale for the selection of thin-film materials, spectral measurement technique, and environmental testing performance are also presented. PMID:25402784

  19. Infrared Imaging Bolometer for the HL-2A Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinming; Li, Wei; Lu, Jie; Xia, Zhiwei; Yi, Ping; Liu, Yi; Yang, Qingwei; HL-2A Team

    2016-06-01

    An infrared imaging bolometer diagnostic has been upgraded recently to be adapted for the complications of the signal-to-noise ratio arising from the low level of plasma radiation and high reflectivity of low energy photon (<6.2 eV). It utilizes a platinum foil, blackened on both sides with graphite spray, as the bolometer detector. The advantage of the blackened foil is the light absorption extending into the infrared. After a careful calibration of the foil, the incident power density distribution on the foil is determined by solving the heat diffusion equation with a numerical technique. The local plasma radiated power density is reconstructed with a minimum fisher information regularization method by assuming plasma emission toroidal symmetry. Comparisons of the results and the profiles measured by an ordinary bolometric detector demonstrate that this method is good enough to provide the plasma radiated power pattern. The typical plasma radiated power density distribution before and after high mode (H-mode) transition is firstly reconstructed with the infrared imaging bolometer. Moreover, during supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), an enhanced radiation region is observed at the edge of the plasma. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10805016 and 11175061), and the Chinese National Fusion Project for ITER (No. 2014GB109001)

  20. Fourier transform infrared imaging and infrared fiber optic probe spectroscopy identify collagen type in connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Hanifi, Arash; McCarthy, Helen; Roberts, Sally; Pleshko, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types) to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in connective tissues

  1. Strategies for absolute calibration of near infrared tomographic tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    McBride, Troy O; Pogue, Brian W; Osterberg, Ulf L; Paulsen, Keith D

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative near infrared (NIR) imaging of tissue requires the use of a diffusion model-based reconstruction algorithm, which solves for the absorption and scattering coefficients of a tissue volume by matching transmission measurements of light to the predictive diffusion equation solution. Calibration problems as well as other practical considerations arise for an imaging system when using a model-based method for a real system. For example, systematic noise in the data acquisition hardware and source/detector fibers must be removed to prevent spurious results in the reconstructed image. Practical considerations for a NIR diffuse tomographic imaging system include: (1) calibration with a homogeneous phantom, (2) use of a homogenous fitting algorithm to arrive at an initial optical property estimate for image reconstruction of a heterogeneous medium, and (3) correction for fluctuations in source strength and initial phase offset during data acquisition. These practical considerations, which rely on an accurate homogeneous fitting algorithm are described. They have allowed demonstration of a prototype imaging system that has the ability to quantitatively reconstruct heterogeneous images of hemoglobin concentrations within a highly scattering medium with no a priori information.

  2. Research and experiment of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Ling; Min, Chaobo; Sun, Jianning; Gu, Yan; Yang, Feng; Zhu, Bo; Pan, Jingsheng; Guo, Yiliang

    2015-04-01

    The design and imaging characteristic experiment of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system are introduced. Through the adoption of InGaAs focal plane array, the real time image process structure of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is researched. The hardware circuit and image process software of the imaging system based on FPGA are researched. The InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is composed of shortwave infrared lens, InGaAs focal plane array, temperature controller module, power supply module, analog-to-digital converter module, digital-to-analog converter module, FPGA image processing module and optical-mechanical structure. The main lock frequency of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is 30MHz. The output mode of the InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is PAL analog signal. The power dissipation of the imaging system is 2.6W. The real time signal process in InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system includes non-uniformly correction algorithm, bad pixel replacement algorithm, and histogram equalization algorithm. Based on the InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system, the imaging characteristic test of shortwave infrared is carried out for different targets in different conditions. In the foggy weather, the haze and fog penetration are tested. The InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system could be used for observing humans, boats, architecture, and mountains in the haze and foggy weather. The configuration and performance of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system are respectively logical and steady. The research on the InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is worthwhile for improving the development of night vision technology.

  3. Chemical Imaging of Biological Tissue with Synchrotron Infrared Light

    SciTech Connect

    Miller,L.; Dumas, P.

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (FTIRM) and imaging (FTIRI) have become valuable techniques for examining the chemical makeup of biological materials by probing their vibrational motions on a microscopic scale. Synchrotron infrared (S-IR) light is an ideal source for FTIRM and FTIRI due to the combination of its high brightness (i.e., flux density), also called brilliance, and broadband nature. Through a 10-{mu}m pinhole, the brightness of a synchrotron source is 100-1000 times higher than a conventional thermal (globar) source. Accordingly, the improvement in spatial resolution and in spectral quality to the diffraction limit has led to a plethora of applications that is just being realized. In this review, we describe the development of synchrotron-based FTIRM, illustrate its advantages in many applications to biological systems, and propose some potential future directions for the technique.

  4. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuyu

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

  5. Research of infrared laser based pavement imaging and crack detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hanyu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Xiuhua; Jing, Genqiang

    2013-08-01

    Road crack detection is seriously affected by many factors in actual applications, such as some shadows, road signs, oil stains, high frequency noise and so on. Due to these factors, the current crack detection methods can not distinguish the cracks in complex scenes. In order to solve this problem, a novel method based on infrared laser pavement imaging is proposed. Firstly, single sensor laser pavement imaging system is adopted to obtain pavement images, high power laser line projector is well used to resist various shadows. Secondly, the crack extraction algorithm which has merged multiple features intelligently is proposed to extract crack information. In this step, the non-negative feature and contrast feature are used to extract the basic crack information, and circular projection based on linearity feature is applied to enhance the crack area and eliminate noise. A series of experiments have been performed to test the proposed method, which shows that the proposed automatic extraction method is effective and advanced.

  6. Infrared-thermography imaging system multiapplications for manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Sharon A.

    1990-03-01

    Imaging systems technology has been utilized traditionally for diagnosing structural envelope or insulation problems in the general thermographic comunity. Industrially, new applications for utilizing thermal imaging technology have been developed i n pred i cti ve/preventi ye mai ntenance and prod uct moni tori ng prociures at Eastman Kodak Company, the largest photographic manufacturering producer in the world. In the manufacturing processes used at Eastman Kodak Company, new applications for thermal imaging include: (1) Fluid transfer line insulation (2) Web coating drying uniformity (3) Web slitter knives (4) Heating/cooling coils (5) Overheated tail bearings, and (6) Electrical phase imbalance. The substantial cost benefits gained from these applications of infrared thermography substantiate the practicality of this approach and indicate the desirability of researching further appl i cati ons.

  7. Exoplanet Community Report on Direct Infrared Imaging of Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.; Lawson, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Direct infrared imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets will allow for detailed characterization of the atmospheric constituents of more than 200 nearby Earth-like planets, more than is possible with any other method under consideration. A flagship mission based on larger passively cooled infrared telescopes and formation flying technologies would have the highest angular resolution of any concept under consideration. The 2008 Exoplanet Forum committee on Direct Infrared Imaging of Exoplanets recommends: (1) a vigorous technology program including component development, integrated testbeds, and end-to-end modeling in the areas of formation flying and mid-infrared nulling; (2) a probe-scale mission based on a passively cooled structurally connected interferometer to be started within the next two to five years, for exoplanetary system characterization that is not accessible from the ground, and which would provide transformative science and lay the engineering groundwork for the flagship mission with formation flying elements. Such a mission would enable a complete exozodiacal dust survey (<1 solar system zodi) in the habitable zone of all nearby stars. This information will allow for a more efficient strategy of spectral characterization of Earth-sized planets for the flagship missions, and also will allow for optimization of the search strategy of an astrometric mission if such a mission were delayed due to cost or technology reasons. (3) Both the flagship and probe missions should be pursued with international partners if possible. Fruitful collaboration with international partners on mission concepts and relevant technology should be continued. (4) Research and Analysis (R&A) should be supported for the development of preliminary science and mission designs. Ongoing efforts to characterize the the typical level of exozodiacal light around Sun-like stars with ground-based nulling technology should be continued.

  8. Atmospheric infrared sounder on AIRS with emphasis on level 2 products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sung-Yung; Fetzer, Eric; Granger, Stephanie; Hearty, Thomas; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Manning, Evan M.; Olsen, Edward; Pagano, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched aboard EOS Aqua in May of 2002. AIRS is a grating spectrometer with almost 2400 channels covering the 3.74 to 15.40 micron spectral region with a nominal spectral resolution ((nu)/(delta)(nu)) of 1200, with some gaps. In addition, AIRS has 4 channels in the NIR/VIS region. The AIRS operates in conjunction with the microwave sounders Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) and Humidity Sounder of Brazil (HSB). The microwave sounders are mainly used for cloud clearing of IR radiances, or to remove the effect of cloud on the IR radiances.

  9. Radiation characterization analysis of pushbroom longwave infrared imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Rongbao; Chen, Yuheng; Zhou, Jiankang; Shen, Weiming

    2013-12-01

    Noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) is the key parameter characterizing the detectivity of infrared systems. Our developed pushbroom longwave infrared imaging spectrometer works in a waveband between 8μm to 10.5 μm. Its temperature sensitivity property is not only affected by atmosphere attenuation, transmittance of the optical system and the characteristics of electric circuit, but also restricted by the self-radiation. The NETD accurate calculation formula is derived according to its definition. Radiation analysis model of a pushbroom image spectrometer is set up, and its self-radiation is analyzed and calculated at different temperatures, such as 300K, 150K and 120K. Based on the obtained accurate formula, the relationships between the NETD of imaging spectrometer and atmospheric attenuation, F-number, effective pixel area of detector, equivalent noise bandwidth and CCD detectivity are analyzed in detail, and self-radiation is particularly discussed. The work we have done is to provide the basis for parameters determination in spectrometer system.

  10. New solutions and technologies for uncooled infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollin, Joël.; Diaz, Frédéric; Fontaine, Christophe; Loiseaux, Brigitte; Lee, Mane-Si Laure; Clienti, Christophe; Lemonnier, Fabrice; Zhang, Xianghua; Calvez, Laurent

    2013-06-01

    The military uncooled infrared market is driven by the continued cost reduction of the focal plane arrays whilst maintaining high standards of sensitivity and steering towards smaller pixel sizes. As a consequence, new optical solutions are called for. Two approaches can come into play: the bottom up option consists in allocating improvements to each contributor and the top down process rather relies on an overall optimization of the complete image channel. The University of Rennes I with Thales Angénieux alongside has been working over the past decade through French MOD funding's, on low cost alternatives of infrared materials based upon chalcogenide glasses. A special care has been laid on the enhancement of their mechanical properties and their ability to be moulded according to complex shapes. New manufacturing means developments capable of better yields for the raw materials will be addressed, too. Beyond the mere lenses budget cuts, a wave front coding process can ease a global optimization. This technic gives a way of relaxing optical constraints or upgrading thermal device performances through an increase of the focus depths and desensitization against temperature drifts: it combines image processing and the use of smart optical components. Thales achievements in such topics will be enlightened and the trade-off between image quality correction levels and low consumption/ real time processing, as might be required in hand-free night vision devices, will be emphasized. It is worth mentioning that both approaches are deeply leaning on each other.

  11. Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, B. J.; Mccafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

  12. Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Michael; Kassis, Timothy; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2012-06-01

    Near-infrared imaging of lymphatic drainage of injected indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as a new technology for clinical imaging of lymphatic architecture and quantification of vessel function, yet the imaging capabilities of this approach have yet to be quantitatively characterized. We seek to quantify its capabilities as a diagnostic tool for lymphatic disease. Imaging is performed in a tissue phantom for sensitivity analysis and in hairless rats for in vivo testing. To demonstrate the efficacy of this imaging approach to quantifying immediate functional changes in lymphatics, we investigate the effects of a topically applied nitric oxide (NO) donor glyceryl trinitrate ointment. Premixing ICG with albumin induces greater fluorescence intensity, with the ideal concentration being 150 μg/mL ICG and 60 g/L albumin. ICG fluorescence can be detected at a concentration of 150 μg/mL as deep as 6 mm with our system, but spatial resolution deteriorates below 3 mm, skewing measurements of vessel geometry. NO treatment slows lymphatic transport, which is reflected in increased transport time, reduced packet frequency, reduced packet velocity, and reduced effective contraction length. NIR imaging may be an alternative to invasive procedures measuring lymphatic function in vivo in real time.

  13. Near-infrared imaging spectroscopy for counterfeit drug detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Thomas; De Biasio, Martin; Leitner, Raimund

    2011-06-01

    Pharmaceutical counterfeiting is a significant issue in the healthcare community as well as for the pharmaceutical industry worldwide. The use of counterfeit medicines can result in treatment failure or even death. A rapid screening technique such as near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy could aid in the search for and identification of counterfeit drugs. This work presents a comparison of two laboratory NIR imaging systems and the chemometric analysis of the acquired spectroscopic image data. The first imaging system utilizes a NIR liquid crystal tuneable filter and is designed for the investigation of stationary objects. The second imaging system utilizes a NIR imaging spectrograph and is designed for the fast analysis of moving objects on a conveyor belt. Several drugs in form of tablets and capsules were analyzed. Spectral unmixing techniques were applied to the mixed reflectance spectra to identify constituent parts of the investigated drugs. The results show that NIR spectroscopic imaging can be used for contact-less detection and identification of a variety of counterfeit drugs.

  14. Development of Thermal Infrared Sensor to Supplement Operational Land Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Peter; Waczynski, Augustyn; Kan, Emily; Wen, Yiting; Rosenberry, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) is a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP)-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 m. The focal plane will contain three 640 512 QWIP arrays mounted onto a silicon substrate. The readout integrated circuit (ROIC) addresses each pixel on the QWIP arrays and reads out the pixel value (signal). The ROIC is controlled by the focal plane electronics (FPE) by means of clock signals and bias voltage value. The means of how the FPE is designed to control and interact with the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA) is the basis for this work. The technology developed under the FPE is for the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA). The FPE must interact with the FPA to command and control the FPA, extract analog signals from the FPA, and then convert the analog signals to digital format and send them via a serial link (USB) to a computer. The FPE accomplishes the described functions by converting electrical power from generic power supplies to the required bias power that is needed by the FPA. The FPE also generates digital clocking signals and shifts the typical transistor-to-transistor logic (TTL) to }5 V required by the FPA. The FPE also uses an application- specific integrated circuit (ASIC) named System Image, Digitizing, Enhancing, Controlling, And Retrieving (SIDECAR) from Teledyne Corp. to generate the clocking patterns commanded by the user. The uniqueness of the FPE for TIRS lies in that the TIRS FPA has three QWIP detector arrays, and all three detector arrays must be in synchronization while in operation. This is to avoid data skewing while observing Earth flying in space. The observing scenario may be customized by uploading new control software to the SIDECAR.

  15. A Comparison of the Red Green Blue Air Mass Imagery and Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, E. B.; Folmer, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery is derived from multiple channels or paired channel differences. Multiple channel products typically provide additional information than a single channel can provide alone. The RGB Air Mass imagery simplifies the interpretation of temperature and moisture characteristics of air masses surrounding synoptic and mesoscale features. Despite the ease of interpretation of multiple channel products, the combination of channels and channel differences means the resulting product does not represent a quantity or physical parameter such as brightness temperature in conventional single channel satellite imagery. Without a specific quantity to reference, forecasters are often confused as to what RGB products represent. Hyperspectral infrared retrieved profiles of temperature, moisture, and ozone can provide insight about the air mass represented on the RGB Air Mass product and provide confidence in the product and representation of air masses despite the lack of a quantity to reference for interpretation. This study focuses on RGB Air Mass analysis of Hurricane Sandy as it moved north along the U.S. East Coast, while transitioning to a hybrid extratropical storm. Soundings and total column ozone retrievals were analyzed using data from the Cross-track Infrared and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder Suite (CrIMSS) on the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership satellite and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aqua satellite along with dropsondes that were collected from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Air Force research aircraft. By comparing these datasets to the RGB Air Mass, it is possible to capture quantitative information that could help in analyzing the synoptic environment enough to diagnose the onset of extratropical transition. This was done by identifying any stratospheric air intrusions (SAIs) that existed in the vicinity of Sandy as the wind

  16. Prismatic imaging polarimeter calibration for the infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Kudenov, Michael W; Pezzaniti, Larry; Dereniak, Eustace L; Gerhart, Grant R

    2008-09-01

    The calibration of a complete Stokes birefringent prismatic imaging polarimeter (BPIP) in the MWIR is demonstrated. The BPIP technique, originally developed by K. Oka, is implemented with a set of four Yttrium Vanadate (YVO(4)) crystal prisms. A mathematical model for the polarimeter is presented in which diattenuation due to Fresnel effects and dichroism in the crystal are included. An improved polarimetric calibration technique is introduced to remove the diattenuation effects, along with the relative radiometric calibration required for the BPIP operating with a thermal background and large detector offsets. Data demonstrating emission polarization are presented from various blackbodies, which are compared to data from our Fourier transform infrared spectropolarimeter. PMID:18772984

  17. Note: wearable near-infrared spectroscopy imager for haired region.

    PubMed

    Kiguchi, M; Atsumori, H; Fukasaku, I; Kumagai, Y; Funane, T; Maki, A; Kasai, Y; Ninomiya, A

    2012-05-01

    A wearable optical topography system was developed that is based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for observing brain activity noninvasively including in regions covered by hair. An avalanche photo diode, high voltage dc-dc converter, and preamplifier were placed in an electrically shielded case to be safely mounted on the head. Rubber teeth and a glass rod were prepared to clear away hair and reach the scalp. These devices realized for the first time a wearable NIRS imager for any region of the cortex. The activity in the motor cortex during finger tapping was successfully observed.

  18. Prismatic imaging polarimeter calibration for the infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Kudenov, Michael W; Pezzaniti, Larry; Dereniak, Eustace L; Gerhart, Grant R

    2008-09-01

    The calibration of a complete Stokes birefringent prismatic imaging polarimeter (BPIP) in the MWIR is demonstrated. The BPIP technique, originally developed by K. Oka, is implemented with a set of four Yttrium Vanadate (YVO(4)) crystal prisms. A mathematical model for the polarimeter is presented in which diattenuation due to Fresnel effects and dichroism in the crystal are included. An improved polarimetric calibration technique is introduced to remove the diattenuation effects, along with the relative radiometric calibration required for the BPIP operating with a thermal background and large detector offsets. Data demonstrating emission polarization are presented from various blackbodies, which are compared to data from our Fourier transform infrared spectropolarimeter.

  19. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H.; Barhen, J.

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  20. Note: Wearable near-infrared spectroscopy imager for haired region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Atsumori, H.; Fukasaku, I.; Kumagai, Y.; Funane, T.; Maki, A.; Kasai, Y.; Ninomiya, A.

    2012-05-01

    A wearable optical topography system was developed that is based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for observing brain activity noninvasively including in regions covered by hair. An avalanche photo diode, high voltage dc-dc converter, and preamplifier were placed in an electrically shielded case to be safely mounted on the head. Rubber teeth and a glass rod were prepared to clear away hair and reach the scalp. These devices realized for the first time a wearable NIRS imager for any region of the cortex. The activity in the motor cortex during finger tapping was successfully observed.

  1. Multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared imaging of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova, E.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Khalil, A.; Argoul, F.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method was used in a multifractal analysis of skin breast temperature time-series recorded using dynamic infrared (IR) thermography. Multifractal scaling was found for healthy breasts as the signature of a continuous change in the shape of the probability density function (pdf) of temperature fluctuations across time scales from \\sim0.3 to 3 s. In contrast, temperature time-series from breasts with malignant tumors showed homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations statistics. These results highlight dynamic IR imaging as a very valuable non-invasive technique for preliminary screening in asymptomatic women to identify those with risk of breast cancer.

  2. Infrared imaging - A validation technique for computational fluid dynamics codes used in STOVL applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, R. R.; Mahan, J. R.; Smith, M. H.; Gelhausen, P. A.; Van Dalsem, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    The need for a validation technique for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes in STOVL applications has led to research efforts to apply infrared thermal imaging techniques to visualize gaseous flow fields. Specifically, a heated, free-jet test facility was constructed. The gaseous flow field of the jet exhaust was characterized using an infrared imaging technique in the 2 to 5.6 micron wavelength band as well as conventional pitot tube and thermocouple methods. These infrared images are compared to computer-generated images using the equations of radiative exchange based on the temperature distribution in the jet exhaust measured with the thermocouple traverses. Temperature and velocity measurement techniques, infrared imaging, and the computer model of the infrared imaging technique are presented and discussed. From the study, it is concluded that infrared imaging techniques coupled with the radiative exchange equations applied to CFD models are a valid method to qualitatively verify CFD codes used in STOVL applications.

  3. Visible-Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data of Explosion Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.

    2005-01-01

    In a continuing study to capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained new high resolution visible-near infrared images of several explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to obtain images in 224 spectral bands from 0.4-2.5 microns [1]. The main craters that were imaged were Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, Buggy, and Danny Boy [2]. The 390 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of the detonation of a 104 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a "simple" crater [2]. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology [3] and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also imaged by AVIRIS. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m, Fig. 1) craters were also important targets for AVIRIS as they were excavated in hard welded tuff and basaltic andesite, respectively [3, 4]. This variation in targets will allow the study of ejecta patterns, compositional modifications due to the explosions, and the role of craters as subsurface probes.

  4. Degradation of near infrared and shortwave infrared imager performance due to atmospheric scattering of diffuse night illumination.

    PubMed

    Vollmerhausen, Richard

    2013-07-20

    On moonless nights, airglow is the primary source of natural ground illumination in the near infrared and shortwave infrared spectral bands. Therefore, night vision imagers operating in these spectral bands view targets that are diffusely illuminated. Aerosol scattering of diffuse airglow illumination causes atmospheric path radiance and that radiance causes increased imager noise. These phenomena and their quantification are described in this paper. PMID:23872754

  5. Predicted NETD performance of a polarized infrared imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Bradley; Hodgkin, Van A.; Thompson, Roger; Leonard, Kevin; Krapels, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Polarization filters are commonly used as a means of increasing the contrast of a scene thereby increasing sensor range performance. The change in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is a function of the polarization of the target and background, the type and orientation of the polarization filter(s), and the overall transparency of the filter. However, in the mid-wave and longwave infrared bands (MWIR and LWIR), the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), which directly affects the SNR, is a function of the filter's re-emission and its reflected temperature radiance. This paper presents a model, by means of a Stokes vector input, that can be incorporated into the Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) in order to predict the change in SNR, NETD, and noise equivalent irradiance (NEI) for infrared polarimeter imaging systems. The model is then used to conduct a SNR trade study, using a modeled Stokes vector input, for a notional system looking at a reference target. Future laboratory and field measurements conducted at Night Vision Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) will be used to update, validate, and mature the model of conventional infrared systems equipped with polarization filters.

  6. Infrared super-resolution imaging method based on retina micro-motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xiubao; Gao, Hang; Sun, Yicheng; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua

    2013-09-01

    With the wide application of infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), military, aerospace, public security and other applications have higher and higher requirements on the spatial resolution of infrared images. However, traditional super-resolution imaging methods have increasingly unable to meet this requirement in technology. In this paper, we adopt the achievement that the human retina micro-motion is the important reason why the human has the hyperacuity ability. Based on the achievement, we bring forward an infrared super-resolution imaging method based on retina micro-motion. In the method, we use the piezoelectric ceramic equipment to control the infrared detector moving variably within a plane parallel to the focal plane. The motion direction is toward each other into a direction of 90°. In the four directions of the movement, we get four sub-images and generate a high spatial resolution infrared image by image interpolation method. In the process of the shifting movement of the detector, we set the threshold of the detector response and record the response time difference when adjacent pixel responses are up to the threshold. By the method, we get the object's edges, enhance them in the high resolution infrared image and get the super-resolution infrared image. The experimental results show that our proposed super-resolution imaging methods can improve the spatial resolution of the infrared image effectively. The method will offer a new idea for the super-resolution reconstruction of infrared images.

  7. An infrared image based methodology for breast lesions screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, K. C. C.; Vargas, J. V. C.; Reisemberger, G. G.; Freitas, F. N. P.; Oliari, S. H.; Brioschi, M. L.; Louveira, M. H.; Spautz, C.; Dias, F. G.; Gasperin, P.; Budel, V. M.; Cordeiro, R. A. G.; Schittini, A. P. P.; Neto, C. D.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential of utilizing a structured methodology for breast lesions screening, based on infrared imaging temperature measurements of a healthy control group to establish expected normality ranges, and of breast cancer patients, previously diagnosed through biopsies of the affected regions. An analysis of the systematic error of the infrared camera skin temperature measurements was conducted in several different regions of the body, by direct comparison to high precision thermistor temperature measurements, showing that infrared camera temperatures are consistently around 2 °C above the thermistor temperatures. Therefore, a method of conjugated gradients is proposed to eliminate the infrared camera direct temperature measurement imprecision, by calculating the temperature difference between two points to cancel out the error. The method takes into account the human body approximate bilateral symmetry, and compares measured dimensionless temperature difference values (Δ θ bar) between two symmetric regions of the patient's breast, that takes into account the breast region, the surrounding ambient and the individual core temperatures, and doing so, the results interpretation for different individuals become simple and non subjective. The range of normal whole breast average dimensionless temperature differences for 101 healthy individuals was determined, and admitting that the breasts temperatures exhibit a unimodal normal distribution, the healthy normal range for each region was considered to be the dimensionless temperature difference plus/minus twice the standard deviation of the measurements, Δ θ bar ‾ + 2σ Δ θ bar ‾ , in order to represent 95% of the population. Forty-seven patients with previously diagnosed breast cancer through biopsies were examined with the method, which was capable of detecting breast abnormalities in 45 cases (96%). Therefore, the conjugated gradients method was considered effective

  8. Level 1B products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, H. H.; Overoye, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. A discussion is given of the objectives of the AIRS experiment, including requirements on the data products. We summarize the instrument characteristics, including sensitivity, noise, and spectral response, and preflight calibration results leading to the estimate of the calibration accuracy. The Level 1B calibration algorithm is presented as well as the results of in-flight stability and sensitivity measurements.

  9. Broadband near-infrared tomography for breast cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia

    Near-infrared (NIR) light provides potential for a new approach to non-invasive detection, diagnosis and clinical management of breast cancer. Using NIR spectroscopic imaging techniques, the physiological information about breast tissue composition can be quantitatively estimated, including hemoglobin, water and lipid concentrations, together with scattering properties. In this thesis work, strategies to improve the accuracy of NIR imaging have been explored experimentally and numerically. A novel Ti:Sapphire laser-based frequency domain tomography system was developed to achieve maximum spectral information, using intrinsic phase-locked detection of the signal propagation. The improvement in quantification through addition of more wavelengths was demonstrated in simulations and in tissue-phantom experiments. A hybrid NIR tomography system combining frequency domain and continuous wave spectroscopy approaches was implemented for imaging healthy subjects and women with malignant breast tumors. Adding measurements at wavelengths above 850nm with the continuous wave method significantly improved the accuracy of water and lipid estimation. When used in cancer imaging in vivo, the NIR contrast information is consistent with physiological and pathological values expected in tumor as seen by investigational studies with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and pathology analysis.

  10. Detail enhancement of blurred infrared images based on frequency extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fuyuan; Zeng, Deguo; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Ziyang; Wei, Fei; Wang, Tiedan

    2016-05-01

    A novel algorithm for enhancing the details of the blurred infrared images based on frequency extrapolation has been raised in this paper. Unlike other researchers' work, this algorithm mainly focuses on how to predict the higher frequency information based on the Laplacian pyramid separation of the blurred image. This algorithm uses the first level of the high frequency component of the pyramid of the blurred image to reverse-generate a higher, non-existing frequency component, and adds back to the histogram equalized input blurred image. A simple nonlinear operator is used to analyze the extracted first level high frequency component of the pyramid. Two critical parameters are participated in the calculation known as the clipping parameter C and the scaling parameter S. The detailed analysis of how these two parameters work during the procedure is figure demonstrated in this paper. The blurred image will become clear, and the detail will be enhanced due to the added higher frequency information. This algorithm has the advantages of computational simplicity and great performance, and it can definitely be deployed in the real-time industrial applications. We have done lots of experiments and gave illustrations of the algorithm's performance in this paper to convince its effectiveness.

  11. In vivo imaging with near-infrared fluorescence lifetime contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Lee, Hyeran; Achilefu, Samuel

    2009-02-01

    Fluorescence imaging is a mainstay of biomedical research, allowing detection of molecular events in both fixed and living cells, tissues and whole animals. Such high resolution fluorescence imaging is hampered by unwanted signal from intrinsic background fluorescence and scattered light. The signal to background ratio can be improved by using extrinsic contrast agents and greatly enhanced by multispectral imaging methods. Unfortunately, these methods are insufficient for deep tissue imaging where high contrast and speedy acquisition are necessary. Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is an inherent characteristic of each fluorescent species that can be independent of intensity and spectral properties. Accordingly, FLT-based detection provides an additional contrast mechanism to optical measurements. This contrast is particularly important in the near-infrared (NIR) due to relative transparency of tissue as well as the broad absorption and emission spectra of dyes that are active in this region. Here we report comparative analysis of signal distribution of several NIR fluorescent polymethine dyes in living mice and their correlations with lifetimes obtained in vitro using solution models. The FLT data obtained from dyes dissolved in serum albumin solution correlated well with FLTs measured in vivo. Thus the albumin solution model could be used as a good predictive model for in vivo FLT behavior of newly developed fluorescent reporters. Subsequent experiments in vivo, including monitoring slow release kinetics and detecting proteinuria, demonstrate the complementary nature of FLT for fluorescence intensity imaging.

  12. Dynamic full-field infrared imaging with multiple synchrotron beams

    PubMed Central

    Stavitski, Eli; Smith, Randy J.; Bourassa, Megan W.; Acerbo, Alvin S.; Carr, G. L.; Miller, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Microspectroscopic imaging in the infrared (IR) spectral region allows for the examination of spatially resolved chemical composition on the microscale. More than a decade ago, it was demonstrated that diffraction limited spatial resolution can be achieved when an apertured, single pixel IR microscope is coupled to the high brightness of a synchrotron light source. Nowadays, many IR microscopes are equipped with multi-pixel Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors, which dramatically improve data acquisition times for imaging large areas. Recently, progress been made toward efficiently coupling synchrotron IR beamlines to multi-pixel detectors, but they utilize expensive and highly customized optical schemes. Here we demonstrate the development and application of a simple optical configuration that can be implemented on most existing synchrotron IR beamlines in order to achieve full-field IR imaging with diffraction-limited spatial resolution. Specifically, the synchrotron radiation fan is extracted from the bending magnet and split into four beams that are combined on the sample, allowing it to fill a large section of the FPA. With this optical configuration, we are able to oversample an image by more than a factor of two, even at the shortest wavelengths, making image restoration through deconvolution algorithms possible. High chemical sensitivity, rapid acquisition times, and superior signal-to-noise characteristics of the instrument are demonstrated. The unique characteristics of this setup enabled the real time study of heterogeneous chemical dynamics with diffraction-limited spatial resolution for the first time. PMID:23458231

  13. Infrared thermal imaging for detection of peripheral vascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Bagavathiappan, S; Saravanan, T; Philip, John; Jayakumar, T; Raj, Baldev; Karunanithi, R; Panicker, T M R; Korath, M Paul; Jagadeesan, K

    2009-01-01

    Body temperature is a very useful parameter for diagnosing diseases. There is a definite correlation between body temperature and diseases. We have used Infrared Thermography to study noninvasive diagnosis of peripheral vascular diseases. Temperature gradients are observed in the affected regions of patients with vascular disorders, which indicate abnormal blood flow in the affected region. Thermal imaging results are well correlated with the clinical findings. Certain areas on the affected limbs show increased temperature profiles, probably due to inflammation and underlying venous flow changes. In general the temperature contrast in the affected regions is about 0.7 to 1 degrees C above the normal regions, due to sluggish blood circulation. The results suggest that the thermal imaging technique is an effective technique for detecting small temperature changes in the human body due to vascular disorders.

  14. Assessment of piano-related injuries using infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Safaa; Frize, Monique; Comeau, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Playing the piano is a repetitive task that involves the use of the hands and the arms. Pain related to piano-playing can result in extending the tissues and ligaments of the hands and arms beyond their mechanical tolerance. Infrared imaging records the skin temperature and produces a thermal map of the imaged body part; small variations in the skin temperature could be a sign of inflammation or stress of the tissues. In this paper, we used statistical analysis to examine the difference in hand and arm temperatures of pianists with pain and pianists without pain related to piano-playing. We found that there is a statistically significant difference in hand temperatures between the two populations, but not in the lower arm and upper arm temperatures. PMID:22255437

  15. Componential distribution analysis of food using near infrared ray image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Hiroki; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Noriko; Ohba, Kimie

    2008-11-01

    The components of the food related to the "deliciousness" are usually evaluated by componential analysis. The component content and type of components in the food are determined by this analysis. However, componential analysis is not able to analyze measurements in detail, and the measurement is time consuming. We propose a method to measure the two-dimensional distribution of the component in food using a near infrared ray (IR) image. The advantage of our method is to be able to visualize the invisible components. Many components in food have characteristics such as absorption and reflection of light in the IR range. The component content is measured using subtraction between two wavelengths of near IR light. In this paper, we describe a method to measure the component of food using near IR image processing, and we show an application to visualize the saccharose in the pumpkin.

  16. Far-Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy with SAFIRE on SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Richard A.; Benford, D. J.; Irwin, K. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Stacey, G. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 100 micrometers - 655 micrometers, with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200 kilometers per second). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up barometer array in a 16 x 32 format to provide background-limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge barometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors.

  17. Correlative infrared nanospectroscopic and nanomechanical imaging of block copolymer microdomains.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Benjamin; Raschke, Markus B

    2016-01-01

    Intermolecular interactions and nanoscale phase separation govern the properties of many molecular soft-matter systems. Here, we combine infrared vibrational scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (IR s-SNOM) with force-distance spectroscopy for simultaneous characterization of both nanoscale optical and nanomechanical molecular properties through hybrid imaging. The resulting multichannel images and correlative analysis of chemical composition, spectral IR line shape, modulus, adhesion, deformation, and dissipation acquired for a thin film of a nanophase separated block copolymer (PS-b-PMMA) reveal complex structural variations, in particular at domain interfaces, not resolved in any individual signal channel alone. These variations suggest that regions of multicomponent chemical composition, such as the interfacial mixing regions between microdomains, are correlated with high spatial heterogeneity in nanoscale material properties. PMID:27335750

  18. SAFIRE: Far-Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy with SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Moseley, Harvey; Chervenak, Jay; Irwin, Kent; Pajot, Francois; Shafer, Rick; Staguhn, Johannes; Stacey, Gorden; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 145 microns-655microns, with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200 kilometers per second). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up bolometer array to provide background limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge bolometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors.

  19. Imaging infrared spectroscopy for fixation-free liver tumor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, James V.; Chen, Zhaomin; Li, Ran; Butke, Ryan; Miller, Barrie; Hitchcock, Charles L.; Allen, Heather C.; Povoski, Stephen P.; Martin, Edward W.

    2014-03-01

    Infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy of human liver tissue slices has been used to identify and characterize a liver metastasis of breast origin (mucinous carcinoma) which was surgically removed from a consenting patient and frozen without formalin fixation or dehydration procedures, so that lipids and water remain in the tissues. Previously, a set of IR metrics was determined for tumors in fixation-free liver tissues facilitating a k-means cluster analysis differentiating tumor from nontumor. Different and more in depth aspects of these results are examined in this work including three metric color imaging, differencing for lipid identification, and a new technique to simultaneously fit band lineshapes and their 2nd derivatives in order to better characterize protein changes.

  20. Early detection of plant disease using infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    By using imaging techniques, plant physiological parameters can be assessed without contact with the plant and in a non-destructive way. During plant-pathogen infection, the physiological state of the infected tissue is altered, such as changes in photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, accumulation of Salicylic acid (SA) and even cell death. In this study, the different temperature distribution between the leaves infected by tobacco mosaic virus strain-TMV-U1 and the noninfected leaves was visualized by digital infrared thermal imaging with the microscopic observations of the different structure within different species tomatoes. Results show a presymptomatic decrease in leaf temperature about 0.5-1.3 °C lower than the healthy leaves. The temperature difference allowed the discrimination between the infected and healthy leaves before the appearance of visible necrosis on leaves.

  1. Antimony-based superlattices for high-performance infrared imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Martin; Rehm, Robert; Schmitz, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Fleissner, Joachim; Ziegler, Johann

    2008-04-01

    InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices (SL) for the fabrication of mono- and bispectral thermal imaging systems in the mid-wavelength infrared region (MWIR) have been optimized in order to increase the spectral response of the imaging systems. The responsivity in monospectral InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices increases with the number of periods in the intrinsic region of the diode and does not show a diffusion limited behavior for detector structures with up to 1000 periods. This allows the fabrication of InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high responsivity. Dual-color MWIR/MWIR InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high quantum efficiency for missile approach warning systems with simultaneous and spatially coincident detection in both spectral channels have been realized.

  2. Correlative infrared nanospectroscopic and nanomechanical imaging of block copolymer microdomains.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Benjamin; Raschke, Markus B

    2016-01-01

    Intermolecular interactions and nanoscale phase separation govern the properties of many molecular soft-matter systems. Here, we combine infrared vibrational scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (IR s-SNOM) with force-distance spectroscopy for simultaneous characterization of both nanoscale optical and nanomechanical molecular properties through hybrid imaging. The resulting multichannel images and correlative analysis of chemical composition, spectral IR line shape, modulus, adhesion, deformation, and dissipation acquired for a thin film of a nanophase separated block copolymer (PS-b-PMMA) reveal complex structural variations, in particular at domain interfaces, not resolved in any individual signal channel alone. These variations suggest that regions of multicomponent chemical composition, such as the interfacial mixing regions between microdomains, are correlated with high spatial heterogeneity in nanoscale material properties.

  3. Correlative infrared nanospectroscopic and nanomechanical imaging of block copolymer microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Intermolecular interactions and nanoscale phase separation govern the properties of many molecular soft-matter systems. Here, we combine infrared vibrational scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (IR s-SNOM) with force–distance spectroscopy for simultaneous characterization of both nanoscale optical and nanomechanical molecular properties through hybrid imaging. The resulting multichannel images and correlative analysis of chemical composition, spectral IR line shape, modulus, adhesion, deformation, and dissipation acquired for a thin film of a nanophase separated block copolymer (PS-b-PMMA) reveal complex structural variations, in particular at domain interfaces, not resolved in any individual signal channel alone. These variations suggest that regions of multicomponent chemical composition, such as the interfacial mixing regions between microdomains, are correlated with high spatial heterogeneity in nanoscale material properties. PMID:27335750

  4. Assessment of piano-related injuries using infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Safaa; Frize, Monique; Comeau, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Playing the piano is a repetitive task that involves the use of the hands and the arms. Pain related to piano-playing can result in extending the tissues and ligaments of the hands and arms beyond their mechanical tolerance. Infrared imaging records the skin temperature and produces a thermal map of the imaged body part; small variations in the skin temperature could be a sign of inflammation or stress of the tissues. In this paper, we used statistical analysis to examine the difference in hand and arm temperatures of pianists with pain and pianists without pain related to piano-playing. We found that there is a statistically significant difference in hand temperatures between the two populations, but not in the lower arm and upper arm temperatures.

  5. Self-testable CMOS thermopile-based infrared imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlot, Benoit; Parrain, F.; Mir, Salvador; Courtois, Bernard

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes a CMOS-compatible self-testable uncooled InfraRed (IR) imager that can be used in multiple applications such as overheating detection, night vision, and earth tracking for satellite positioning. The imager consists of an array of thermal pixels that sense an infrared radiation. Each pixel is implemented as a front-side bulk micromachined membrane suspended by four arms, each arm containing a thermopile made of Poly/Al thermocouples. The imager has a pixel self-test function that can be activated off-line in the field for validation and maintenance purposes, with an on-chip test signal generation that requires only slight modifications in the pixel design. The self-test of a pixel takes about 15 ms. The area overhead required by the test electronics does not imply any reduction of the pixel fill factor, since the electronics fits in the pixel silicon boundary. However, the additional self-test circuitry contributes to a small increase in the thermal conductance of a pixel due to the wiring of a heating resistor over the suspended arms. The self-test capability of the imager allows for a production test with a standard test equipment, without the need of special infrared sources and the associated optical equipment. A prototype with 8 X 8 pixels is currently in fabrication for validation of the self-test approach. In this prototype, each pixel occupies an area of 200 X 200 micrometer2, with a membrane size of 90 X 90 micrometer2 (fill factor of 0.2). Simulation results indicate a pixel thermal conductance of 22.6 (mu) W/K, giving a responsivity of 138 V/W, with a thermocouple Seebeck coefficient that has been measured at 248 (mu) V/K for the 0.6 micrometer CMOS technology used. The noise equivalent power (considering only Johnson noise in the thermopile) is calculated as 0.18 nW.H-1/2 with a detectivity of 5.03 X 107 cm.Hz1/2.W-1, in line with current state-of-the-art. Since the imager may need to measure irradiation intensities below 1(mu) W

  6. Novel concepts in infrared imaging at nanoscale resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubner, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Within the recent years, various novel optical concepts have been invented to improve the diffraction-limited resolution of optical microscopy. The first approach of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) employed a small, subwavelength-sized aperture that is scanned close to the object of interest, capable of a resolution of about 50 nm. More advanced concepts rely on the light scattering of a sharp tip probing the sample, allowing for higher resolution (10-30 nm) and the use of longer wavelengths. Another exciting new imaging device, a planar slab of a material with negative permittivity called a superlens, allows for subwavelength resolved imaging over large areas. I will focus on the latter two systems that operate with infrared light and offer the capability of chemical sensing by directly probing molecular vibrations. Particularly, I will present the latest results on superlensing that became accessible by phase-sensitive infrared near-field microscopy and thus provide new insight into the imaging process of a such a device [1]. I will also explain the basics of scattering-type near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) and present various examples of unambiguous nanoscale material characterization from various areas such as semiconductor analysis, materials science, chemistry, and biology [2-4]. In these examples, the use of infrared spectroscopy allows to sense molecular vibrations as well as collective excitation of lattice vibrations (``phonons'') in polar crystals [5]. Currently, the main limitation of this technique comprises of the low signals that demand tunable laser sources and restrict the spectral range of operation. Consequently, I will introduce new concepts for increasing the sensitivity of infrared near-field spectroscopy to ultimately allow for a broadband operation. [4pt] [1] T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, R. Hillenbrand, Science 313, 1595 (2006). [0pt] [2] T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, Applied Physics Letters

  7. Application of infrared imaging systems to maritime security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Debing

    Enhancing maritime security through video based systems is a very challenging task, not only due to the different scales of vessels to be monitored, but also due to the constantly changing background and environmental conditions. Yet video systems operating in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum have established themselves as one of the most crucial tools in maritime security. However, certain inherent limitations such as requirements of proper scene illumination and failure under low visibility weather conditions like fog could be overcome utilizing different spectral regions. Thermal imaging systems present themselves as a good alternative in maritime security. They could overcome these problems and allow for additional detection of local variation of water temperature, yet have been rarely used efficiently in maritime environment evaluated. Here we present a first order study of the advantage of using long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging for diver detection. Within these tasks we study the reasons and effects of bubbles on water surface in laboratory IR imaging study and have determined the changes in infrared emissivity and reflectivity due to the corresponding surface manifestation. This was compared and used to analyze experiments in the Hudson Estuary to the real-world applicability of infrared technology in maritime security application. Utilizing a LWIR camera, we limit ourselves on the detection of the scuba diver as well as the determination of its depth---information normally not obtainable in very low visibility water like the Hudson River. For this purpose we observed the thermal surface signature of the diver and obtained and analyzed its temporal behavior with respect to area, perimeter and infrared brightness. Additional qualitative and quantitative analyses of the area and perimeter growth show different behaviors with more or less pronounced correlation to the diver's depth---yet clearly showing a trend allowing for estimation of

  8. Automatic solar panel recognition and defect detection using infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Munson, Eric; Abousleman, Glen P.; Si, Jennie

    2015-05-01

    Failure-free operation of solar panels is of fundamental importance for modern commercial solar power plants. To achieve higher power generation efficiency and longer panel life, a simple and reliable panel evaluation method is required. By using thermal infrared imaging, anomalies can be detected without having to incorporate expensive electrical detection circuitry. In this paper, we propose a solar panel defect detection system, which automates the inspection process and mitigates the need for manual panel inspection in a large solar farm. Infrared video sequences of each array of solar panels are first collected by an infrared camera mounted to a moving cart, which is driven from array to array in a solar farm. The image processing algorithm segments the solar panels from the background in real time, with only the height of the array (specified as the number of rows of panels in the array) being given as prior information to aid in the segmentation process. In order to "count" the number the panels within any given array, frame-to frame panel association is established using optical flow. Local anomalies in a single panel such as hotspots and cracks will be immediately detected and labeled as soon as the panel is recognized in the field of view. After the data from an entire array is collected, hot panels are detected using DBSCAN clustering. On real-world test data containing over 12,000 solar panels, over 98% of all panels are recognized and correctly counted, with 92% of all types of defects being identified by the system.

  9. FISICA: the Florida image slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Julian, Jeff; Raines, S. Nicholas; Gruel, Nicolas; Boreman, Glenn; Glenn, Paul E.; Hull-Allen, C. Gregory; Hoffman, Jeff; Rodgers, Michael; Thompson, Kevin; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell; Myrick, Bruce

    2004-09-01

    We report on the design and status of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R~1300 spectra over a 16x33-arcsec field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-meter telescope, or a 6x12-arcsec field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-meter telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design and fabrication of FISICA, as well as laboratory test results for FISICA integrated with the FLAMINGOS instrument. We also discuss plans for first-light observations on the KPNO 4-meter telescope in July 2004.

  10. FISICA: the Florida imager slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen; Raines, S. Nicholas; Gruel, Nicolas; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Julian, Jeff; Boreman, Glenn; Glenn, Paul; Hull-Allen, Gregory; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Rodgers, Michael; Thompson, Kevin; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell; Myrick, Bruce

    2006-06-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and on-sky performance of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R~1300 spectra over a 16x33-arcsec field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-meter telescope, or a 6x12-arcsec field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-meter telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design and fabrication of FISICA, as well as laboratory test results for FISICA integrated with the FLAMINGOS instrument. Finally, we present performance results from observations with FISICA at the KPNO 4-m telescope and comparisons of FISICA performance to other available IFUs on 4-m to 8-m-class telescopes.

  11. Thermal detection of embedded tumors using infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Mital, Manu; Scott, E P

    2007-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Thermography, also known as thermal or infrared imaging, is a procedure to determine if an abnormality is present in the breast tissue temperature distribution. This abnormality in temperature distribution might indicate the presence of an embedded tumor. Although thermography is currently used to indicate the presence of an abnormality, there are no standard procedures to interpret these and determine the location of an embedded tumor. This research is a first step towards this direction. It explores the relationship between the characteristics (location and power) of an embedded heat source and the resulting temperature distribution on the surface. Experiments were conducted using a resistance heater that was embedded in agar in order to simulate the heat produced by a tumor in the biological tissue. The resulting temperature distribution on the surface was imaged using an infrared camera. In order to estimate the location and heat generation rate of the source from these temperature distributions, a genetic algorithm was used as the estimation method. The genetic algorithm utilizes a finite difference scheme for the direct solution of the Pennes bioheat equation. It was determined that a genetic algorithm based approach is well suited for the estimation problem since both the depth and the heat generation rate of the heat source were accurately predicted.

  12. Buildings Research using Infrared Imaging Radiometers with Laboratory Thermal Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Brent; Arasteh, Dariush

    1999-01-12

    Infrared thermal imagers are used at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study heat transfer through components of building thermal envelopes. Two thermal chambers maintain steady-state heat flow through test specimens under environmental conditions for winter heating design. Infrared thermography is used to map surface temperatures on the specimens' warm side. Features of the quantitative thermography process include use of external reference emitters, complex background corrections, and spatial location markers. Typical uncertainties in the data are {+-} 0.5 C and 3 mm. Temperature controlled and directly measured external reference emitters are used to correct data from each thermal image. Complex background corrections use arrays of values for background thermal radiation in calculating temperatures of self-viewing surfaces. Temperature results are used to validate computer programs that predict heat flow including Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) conduction simulations and conjugate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Results are also used to study natural convection surface heat transfer. Example data show the distribution of temperatures down the center line of an insulated window.

  13. Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1993-04-02

    We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

  14. Infrared imaging based hyperventilation monitoring through respiration rate estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anushree; Routray, Aurobinda; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Shit, Suprosanna

    2016-07-01

    A change in the skin temperature is used as an indicator of physical illness which can be detected through infrared thermography. Thermograms or thermal images can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for monitoring and diagnosis of various diseases. This paper describes an infrared thermography based approach for detecting hyperventilation caused due to stress and anxiety in human beings by computing their respiration rates. The work employs computer vision techniques for tracking the region of interest from thermal video to compute the breath rate. Experiments have been performed on 30 subjects. Corner feature extraction using Minimum Eigenvalue (Shi-Tomasi) algorithm and registration using Kanade Lucas-Tomasi algorithm has been used here. Thermal signature around the extracted region is detected and subsequently filtered through a band pass filter to compute the respiration profile of an individual. If the respiration profile shows unusual pattern and exceeds the threshold we conclude that the person is stressed and tending to hyperventilate. Results obtained are compared with standard contact based methods which have shown significant correlations. It is envisaged that the thermal image based approach not only will help in detecting hyperventilation but can assist in regular stress monitoring as it is non-invasive method.

  15. Intraoperative Near-Infrared Imaging Can Identify Pulmonary Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Okusanya, Olugbenga T.; Holt, David; Heitjan, Daniel; Deshpande, Charuhas; Venegas, Ollin; Jiang, Jack; Judy, Ryan; DeJesus, Elizabeth; Madajewski, Brian; Oh, Kenny; Albelda, Steven M.; Nie, Shuming; Singhal, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 80,000 people undergo pulmonary resection for a lung nodule in the United States each year. Small nodules are frequently missed or difficult to find despite preoperative imaging. We hypothesized that near-infrared (NIR) imaging technology could be used to identify and locate lung nodules during surgery. Methods We enrolled 18 patients who were diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule that required resection. All patients had a fine-cut 1mm computed tomography scan preoperatively. The patients were given systemic 5 mg/kg indocyanine green (ICG) and then underwent an open thoracotomy 24 hours later. NIR imaging was used to identify the primary nodule and search for additional nodules that were not found by visual inspection or manual palpation of the ipsilateral lung. Results Manual palpation and visual inspection identified all 18 primary pulmonary nodules and no additional lesions. Intraoperative NIR imaging detected 16 out of the 18 primary nodules. NIR imaging also identified 5 additional subcentimeter nodules: 3 metastatic adenocarcinomas and 2 metastatic sarcomas. This technology could identify nodules as small as 0.2 cm and as deep as 1.3 cm from the pleural surface. This approach discovered 3 nodules that were in different lobes than the primary tumor. Nodule fluorescence was independent of size, metabolic activity, histology, tumor grade and vascularity. Conclusions This is the first-in-human demonstration of identifying pulmonary nodules during Thoracic surgery with NIR imaging without a priori knowledge of their location or existence. NIR imaging can detect pulmonary nodules during lung resections that are poorly visualized on computed tomography and difficult to discriminate on finger palpation. PMID:25106680

  16. Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Michael; Kassis, Timothy; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2012-03-01

    Background - Near-infrared (NIR) imaging of lymphatic drainage of injected indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as a new technology for clinical imaging of lymphatic architecture and quantification of vessel function, offering better spatial and temporal resolution than competing imaging modalities. While NIR lymphatic imaging has begun to be reported in the literature, the technology is still in its infancy and its imaging capabilities have yet to be quantitatively characterized. The objective of this study, therefore, was to characterize the parameters of NIR lymphatic imaging to quantify its capabilities as a diagnostic tool for evaluating lymphatic disease. Methods - An NIR imaging system was developed using a laser diode for excitation, ICG as a fluorescent agent, and a CCD camera to detect emission. A tissue phantom with mock lymphatic vessels of known depths and diameters was used as an alternative to in vivo lymphatic vessels due to the greater degree of control with the phantom. Results and Conclusions - When dissolved in an albumin physiological salt solution (APSS) to mimic interstitial fluid, ICG experiences shifts in the excitation/emission wavelengths such that it is maximally excited at 805nm and produces peak fluorescence at 840nm. Premixing ICG with albumin induces greater fluorescence intensity, with the ideal concentration being: 900μM (60g/L) albumin and 193.5μM (150μg/mL) ICG. ICG fluorescence can be detected as deep as 6mm, but spatial resolution deteriorates severely below 3mm, thus skewing vessel geometry measurements. ICG packet travel, a common measure of lymphatic transport, can be detected as deep as 5mm.

  17. InSb charge coupled infrared imaging device: The 20 element linear imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, R. D.; Koch, T. L.; Parrish, W. J.; Langan, J. D.; Chase, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    The design and fabrication of the 8585 InSb charge coupled infrared imaging device (CCIRID) chip are reported. The InSb material characteristics are described along with mask and process modifications. Test results for the 2- and 20-element CCIRID's are discussed, including gate oxide characteristics, charge transfer efficiency, optical mode of operation, and development of the surface potential diagram.

  18. Computational imaging from non-uniform degradation of staggered TDI thermal infrared imager.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Jian Guo; Shi, Yan; Chen, Wangli; Qin, Qianqing; Zhang, Zijian

    2015-09-21

    For the Time Delay Integration (TDI) staggered line-scanning thermal infrared imager, a Computational Imaging (CI) approach is developed to achieve higher spatial resolution images. After a thorough analysis of the causes of non-uniform image displacement and degradation for multi-channel staggered TDI arrays, the study aims to approach one-dimensional (1D) sub-pixel displacement estimation and superposition of images from time-division multiplexing scanning lines. Under the assumption that a thermal image is 2D piecewise C(2) smooth, a sparse-and-smooth deconvolution algorithm with L1-norm regularization terms combining the first and second order derivative operators is proposed to restore high frequency components and to suppress aliasing simultaneously. It is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated, with simulation and airborne thermal infrared images, that this is a state-of-the-art practical CI method to reconstruct clear images with higher frequency components from raw thermal images that are subject to instantaneous distortion and blurring. PMID:26406660

  19. Fast approach to infrared image restoration based on shrinkage functions calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengshuo; Shi, Zelin; Xu, Baoshu; Feng, Bin

    2016-05-01

    High-quality image restoration in real time is a challenge for infrared imaging systems. We present a fast approach to infrared image restoration based on shrinkage functions calibration. Rather than directly modeling the prior of sharp images to obtain the shrinkage functions, we calibrate them for restoration directly by using the acquirable sharp and blurred image pairs from the same infrared imaging system. The calibration method is employed to minimize the sum of squared errors between sharp images and restored images from the blurred images. Our restoration algorithm is noniterative and its shrinkage functions are stored in the look-up tables, so an architecture solution of pipeline structure can work in real time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by testing its quantitative performance from simulation experiments and its qualitative performance from a developed wavefront coding infrared imaging system.

  20. Neonatal infrared thermography imaging: Analysis of heat flux during different clinical scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Abbas K.; Heimann, Konrad; Blazek, Vladimir; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2012-11-01

    IntroductionAn accurate skin temperature measurement of Neonatal Infrared Thermography (NIRT) imaging requires an appropriate calibration process for compensation of external effects (e.g. variation of environmental temperature, variable air velocity or humidity). Although modern infrared cameras can perform such calibration, an additional compensation is required for highly accurate thermography. This compensation which corrects any temperature drift should occur during the NIRT imaging process. We introduce a compensation technique which is based on modeling the physical interactions within the measurement scene and derived the detected temperature signal of the object. Materials and methodsIn this work such compensation was performed for different NIRT imaging application in neonatology (e.g. convective incubators, kangaroo mother care (KMC), and an open radiant warmer). The spatially distributed temperatures of 12 preterm infants (average gestation age 31 weeks) were measured under these different infant care arrangements (i.e. closed care system like a convective incubator, and open care system like kangaroo mother care, and open radiant warmer). ResultsAs errors in measurement of temperature were anticipated, a novel compensation method derived from infrared thermography of the neonate's skin was developed. Moreover, the differences in temperature recording for the 12 preterm infants varied from subject to subject. This variation could be arising from individual experimental setting applied to the same region of interest over the neonate's body. The experimental results for the model-based corrections is verified over the selected patient group. ConclusionThe proposed technique relies on applying model-based correction to the measured temperature and reducing extraneous errors during NIRT. This application specific method is based on different heat flux compartments present in neonatal thermography scene. Furthermore, these results are considered to be

  1. Performance Expectations for Future Moderate Resolution Visible and Infrared Space Instruments Based on AIRS and MODIS In-Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Broberg, Steven E.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Baron, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Lessons learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) projects highlight areas where further technology development is needed to address future land, ocean and atmospheric measurement needs. Although not established as requirements at this time, it is anticipated that scientists will expect improvements in the areas of spatial, spectral, radiometric, polarimetric, temporal and calibration performance for future sensors. This paper addresses each of these performance areas and provides lessons learned from MODIS and AIRS. We also present expectations in performance of the system based on information from NASA Instrument Incubator Program and industry reports. Tradeoffs are presented vs orbit altitude (LEO, ME0 and GEO) and provide a 'systems' perspective to future measurement concepts.

  2. High Definition Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Lymph Node Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, L. Suzanne; Wrobel, Tomasz P.; Mayerich, David; Bindra, Snehal; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Chemical imaging is a rapidly emerging field in which molecular information within samples can be used to predict biological function and recognize disease without the use of stains or manual identification. In Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging, molecular absorption contrast provides a large signal relative to noise. Due to the long mid-IR wavelengths and sub-optimal instrument design, however, pixel sizes have historically been much larger than cells. This limits both the accuracy of the technique in identifying small regions, as well as the ability to visualize single cells. Here we obtain data with micron-sized sampling using a tabletop FT-IR instrument, and demonstrate that the high-definition (HD) data lead to accurate identification of multiple cells in lymph nodes that was not previously possible. Highly accurate recognition of eight distinct classes - naïve and memory B cells, T cells, erythrocytes, connective tissue, fibrovascular network, smooth muscle, and light and dark zone activated B cells was achieved in healthy, reactive, and malignant lymph node biopsies using a random forest classifier. The results demonstrate that cells currently identifiable only through immunohistochemical stains and cumbersome manual recognition of optical microscopy images can now be distinguished to a similar level through a single IR spectroscopic image from a lymph node biopsy. PMID:26039216

  3. Micropolarizing device for long wavelength infrared polarization imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Carter, Tony Ray; Samora, Sally; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Alford, Charles Fred; Boye, Robert R.; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2006-11-01

    The goal of this project is to fabricate a four-state pixelated subwavelength optical device that enables mid-wave infrared (MWIR) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) snapshot polarimetric imaging. The polarization information can help to classify imaged materials and identify objects of interest for numerous remote sensing and military applications. While traditional, sequential polarimetric imaging produces scenes with polarization information through a series of assembled images, snapshot polarimetric imaging collects the spatial distribution of all four Stokes parameters simultaneously. In this way any noise due to scene movement from one frame to the next is eliminated. We fabricated several arrays of subwavelength components for MWIR polarization imaging applications. Each pixel unit of the array consists of four elements. These elements are micropolarizers with three or four different polarizing axis orientations. The fourth element sometimes has a micro birefringent waveplate on the top of one of the micropolarizers. The linear micropolarizers were fabricated by patterning nano-scale metallic grids on a transparent substrate. A large area birefringent waveplate was fabricated by deeply etching a subwavelength structure into a dielectric substrate. The principle of making linear micropolarizers for long wavelengths is based upon strong anisotropic absorption of light in the nano-metallic grid structures. The nano-metallic grid structures are patterned with different orientations; therefore, the micropolarizers have different polarization axes. The birefringent waveplate is a deeply etched dielectric one-dimensional subwavelength grating; therefore two orthogonally polarized waves have different phase delays. Finally, in this project, we investigated the near field and diffractive effects of the subwavelength element apertures upon detection. The fabricated pixelated polarizers had a measured extinction ratios larger than 100:1 for pixel sizes in the order of 15

  4. Tissue-Specific Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Owens, Eric A; Henary, Maged; El Fakhri, Georges; Choi, Hak Soo

    2016-09-20

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence light has been widely utilized in clinical imaging by providing surgeons highly specific images of target tissue. The "NIR window" from 650 to 900 nm is especially useful due to several special features such as minimal autofluorescence and absorption of biomolecules in tissue, as well as low light scattering. Compared with visible wavelengths, NIR fluorescence light is invisible, thus allowing highly sensitivity real-time image guidance in human surgery without changing the surgical field. The benefit of using NIR fluorescence light as a clinical imaging technology can be attributed to its molecular fluorescence as an exogenous contrast agent. Indeed, whole body preoperative imaging of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) remains important in diagnostic utility, but they lack the efficacy of innocuous and targeted NIR fluorophores to simultaneously facilitate the real-time delineation of diseased tissue while preserving vital tissues. Admittedly, NIR imaging technology has been slow to enter clinical use mostly due to the late-coming development of truly breakthrough contrast agents for use with current imaging systems. Therefore, clearly defining the physical margins of tumorous tissue remains of paramount importance in bioimaging and targeted therapy. An equally noteworthy yet less researched goal is the ability to outline healthy vital tissues that should be carefully navigated without transection during the intraoperative surgery. Both of these paths require optimizing a gauntlet of design considerations to obtain not only an effective imaging agent in the NIR window but also high molecular brightness, water solubility, biocompatibility, and tissue-specific targetability. The imaging community recognizes three strategic approaches which include (1) passive targeting via the EPR effect, (2) active targeting using the innate overall biodistribution of known molecules, and (3

  5. Tissue-Specific Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Owens, Eric A; Henary, Maged; El Fakhri, Georges; Choi, Hak Soo

    2016-09-20

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence light has been widely utilized in clinical imaging by providing surgeons highly specific images of target tissue. The "NIR window" from 650 to 900 nm is especially useful due to several special features such as minimal autofluorescence and absorption of biomolecules in tissue, as well as low light scattering. Compared with visible wavelengths, NIR fluorescence light is invisible, thus allowing highly sensitivity real-time image guidance in human surgery without changing the surgical field. The benefit of using NIR fluorescence light as a clinical imaging technology can be attributed to its molecular fluorescence as an exogenous contrast agent. Indeed, whole body preoperative imaging of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) remains important in diagnostic utility, but they lack the efficacy of innocuous and targeted NIR fluorophores to simultaneously facilitate the real-time delineation of diseased tissue while preserving vital tissues. Admittedly, NIR imaging technology has been slow to enter clinical use mostly due to the late-coming development of truly breakthrough contrast agents for use with current imaging systems. Therefore, clearly defining the physical margins of tumorous tissue remains of paramount importance in bioimaging and targeted therapy. An equally noteworthy yet less researched goal is the ability to outline healthy vital tissues that should be carefully navigated without transection during the intraoperative surgery. Both of these paths require optimizing a gauntlet of design considerations to obtain not only an effective imaging agent in the NIR window but also high molecular brightness, water solubility, biocompatibility, and tissue-specific targetability. The imaging community recognizes three strategic approaches which include (1) passive targeting via the EPR effect, (2) active targeting using the innate overall biodistribution of known molecules, and (3

  6. Two-scale image fusion of visible and infrared images using saliency detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavirisetti, Durga Prasad; Dhuli, Ravindra

    2016-05-01

    Military, navigation and concealed weapon detection need different imaging modalities such as visible and infrared to monitor a targeted scene. These modalities provide complementary information. For better situation awareness, complementary information of these images has to be integrated into a single image. Image fusion is the process of integrating complementary source information into a composite image. In this paper, we propose a new image fusion method based on saliency detection and two-scale image decomposition. This method is beneficial because the visual saliency extraction process introduced in this paper can highlight the saliency information of source images very well. A new weight map construction process based on visual saliency is proposed. This process is able to integrate the visually significant information of source images into the fused image. In contrast to most of the multi-scale image fusion techniques, proposed technique uses only two-scale image decomposition. So it is fast and efficient. Our method is tested on several image pairs and is evaluated qualitatively by visual inspection and quantitatively using objective fusion metrics. Outcomes of the proposed method are compared with the state-of-art multi-scale fusion techniques. Results reveal that the proposed method performance is comparable or superior to the existing methods.

  7. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    underlying physics. There are now at least six different disciplines that deal with infrared radiation in one form or another, and in one or several different spectral portions of the whole IR range. These are spectroscopy, astronomy, thermal imaging, detector and source development and metrology, as well the field of optical data transmission. Scientists working in these fields range from chemists and astronomers through to physicists and even photographers. This issue presents examples from some of these fields. All the papers—though some of them deal with fundamental or applied research—include interesting elements that make them directly applicable to university-level teaching at the graduate or postgraduate level. Source (e.g. quantum cascade lasers) and detector development (e.g. multispectral sensors), as well as metrology issues and optical data transmission, are omitted since they belong to fundamental research journals. Using a more-or-less arbitrary order according to wavelength range, the issue starts with a paper on the physics of near-infrared photography using consumer product cameras in the spectral range from 800 nm to 1.1 µm [1]. It is followed by a series of three papers dealing with IR imaging in spectral ranges from 3 to 14 µm [2-4]. One of them deals with laboratory courses that may help to characterize the IR camera response [2], the second discusses potential applications for nondestructive testing techniques [3] and the third gives an example of how IR thermal imaging may be used to understand cloud cover of the Earth [4], which is the prerequisite for successful climate modelling. The next two papers cover the vast field of IR spectroscopy [5, 6]. The first of these deals with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the spectral range from 2.5 to 25 µm, studying e.g. ro-vibrational excitations in gases or optical phonon interactions within solids [5]. The second deals mostly with the spectroscopy of liquids such as biofuels and special

  8. 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector Focal Plane Array for Long-Wave Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Jean; Rafol, Sir B.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoskhlagh, Arezou; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    A 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared (CBIRD) focal plane array for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging is reported. The arrays were grown by molecular beam expitaxy (MBE) with a 300 period 1.9 um thick absorber. The mean dark current density of 2.2 x 10-4 A/cm2 was measured at an operating bias of 128 mV with a long wavelength cutoff of 8.8 ?m observed at 50% of the peak. The maximum quantum efficiency was 54% measured at 5.6 ?m. Operating at T = 80K, the array yielded an 81% fill factor with 97% operability. Good imagery with a mean noise equivalent different temperature (NE?T) of 18.6 mK and a mean detectivity of D* = 1.3 x 1011 cm-Hz1/2/W was achieved. The substrate was thinned using mechanical lapping and neither an AR coating nor a passivation layer was applied. This article provides the details of the fabrication process for achieving low-dark current LWIR CBIRD arrays. Discussion for an effective hard mask for excellent pattern transfer is given and appropriate mounting techniques for good thermal contact during the dry etching process is described. The challenges and differences between etching large 200 ?m test diodes and small 28 ?m FPA pixels are given.

  9. [Passive remote measurement of flame infrared image by a FTIR scanning imaging system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Ming; Gao, Min-Guang; Liu, Wen-Qing; Lu, Yi-Huai; Zhang, Tian-Shu; Xu, Liang; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2008-11-01

    The present paper introduced a FTIR scanning imaging system. This system is based on the combination of a FTIR spectrometer and a scanning mirror. So it has the advantage of FTIR spectrometer: non-contact, real-time, celerity, nicety and high sensitivity. Through scanning mirror, the authors can obtain the space information of targets. The authors used this system to measure the flames infrared emission spectra of three alcohol burners at a flat roof in our laboratory. According to Planck's law, the authors calculated the relative temperature of from each spectrum. These temperature data formed an array. The authors used matlab software to plot the infrared images of target and contrasted them with video image. They were consistent with each other very well. This experiment allowed us to obtain the temperature distribution of three alcohol burners' flames, and provide identification, visualization, and quantification of pollutant clouds.

  10. Image processing techniques for detection of buried objects with infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerón-Correa, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This document describes the principles of infrared thermography and its application to humanitarian demining in the world as well as the factors influencing its application in a country like Colombia which suffers badly the problem posed by antipersonnel mines. The main factors that affect the images taken by different sensors are: day time, mine size and material, installation angle, object's burial depth, moisture, emissivity, wind, rain, as well as other objects in the proximity shadowing the images. Infrared image processing methods and results of tests done in different sites of the country such as Cartagena, Bogota, and Tolemaida are also shown. Finally, a method for the detection of the presence of a buried object is presented with its successful results.

  11. Visible and infrared linear detector arrays for the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Gary C.

    1987-01-01

    The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instrument uses four separate focal plane assemblies consisting of line array detectors that are multiplexed to a common J-FET preamp using a FET switch multiplexing (MUX) technique. A 32-element silicon line array covers the spectral range from 0.41 to 0.70 microns. Three additional 64-element indium antimonide (InSb) line arrays cover the spectral range from 0.68 to 2.45 microns. The spectral sampling interval per detector element is nominally 9.8 nm, giving a total of 224 spectral channels. All focal planes operate at liquid nitrogen temperature and are housed in separate dewars. Electrical performance characteristics include a read noise of less than 1000 e(-) in all channels, response and dark nonuniformity of 5 percent peak to peak, and quantum efficiency of greater than 60 percent.

  12. The radiative consistency of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cloud retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Brian H.; Fishbein, Evan; Nasiri, Shaima L.; Eldering, Annmarie; Fetzer, Eric J.; Garay, Michael J.; Lee, Sung-Yung

    2007-05-01

    The consistency of cloud top temperature (TC) and effective cloud fraction (f) retrieved by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) observation suite and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the EOS-Aqua platform are investigated. Collocated AIRS and MODIS TC and f are compared via an "effective scene brightness temperature" (Tb,e). Tb,e is calculated with partial field of view (FOV) contributions from TC and surface temperature (TS), weighted by f and 1-f, respectively. AIRS reports up to two cloud layers while MODIS reports up to one. However, MODIS reports TC, TS, and f at a higher spatial resolution than AIRS. As a result, pixel-scale comparisons of TC and f are difficult to interpret, demonstrating the need for alternatives such as Tb,e. AIRS-MODIS Tb,e differences (ΔTb,e) for identical observing scenes are useful as a diagnostic for cloud quantity comparisons. The smallest values of ΔTb,e are for high and opaque clouds, with increasing scatter in ΔTb,e for clouds of smaller opacity and lower altitude. A persistent positive bias in ΔTb,e is observed in warmer and low-latitude scenes, characterized by a mixture of MODIS CO2 slicing and 11-μm window retrievals. These scenes contain heterogeneous cloud cover, including mixtures of multilayered cloudiness and misplaced MODIS cloud top pressure. The spatial patterns of ΔTb,e are systematic and do not correlate well with collocated AIRS-MODIS radiance differences, which are more random in nature and smaller in magnitude than ΔTb,e. This suggests that the observed inconsistencies in AIRS and MODIS cloud fields are dominated by retrieval algorithm differences, instead of differences in the observed radiances. The results presented here have implications for the validation of cloudy satellite retrieval algorithms, and use of cloud products in quantitative analyses.

  13. The Radiative Consistency of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Cloud Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Brian H.; Fishbein, Evan; Nasiri, Shaima L.; Eldering, Annmarie; Fetzer, Eric J.; Garay, Michael J.; Lee, Sung-Yung

    2007-01-01

    The consistency of cloud top temperature (Tc) and effective cloud fraction (f) retrieved by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) observation suite and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the EOS-Aqua platform are investigated. Collocated AIRS and MODIS TC and f are compared via an 'effective scene brightness temperature' (Tb,e). Tb,e is calculated with partial field of view (FOV) contributions from TC and surface temperature (TS), weighted by f and 1-f, respectively. AIRS reports up to two cloud layers while MODIS reports up to one. However, MODIS reports TC, TS, and f at a higher spatial resolution than AIRS. As a result, pixel-scale comparisons of TC and f are difficult to interpret, demonstrating the need for alternatives such as Tb,e. AIRS-MODIS Tb,e differences ((Delta)Tb,e) for identical observing scenes are useful as a diagnostic for cloud quantity comparisons. The smallest values of DTb,e are for high and opaque clouds, with increasing scatter in (Delta)Tb,e for clouds of smaller opacity and lower altitude. A persistent positive bias in DTb,e is observed in warmer and low-latitude scenes, characterized by a mixture of MODIS CO2 slicing and 11-mm window retrievals. These scenes contain heterogeneous cloud cover, including mixtures of multilayered cloudiness and misplaced MODIS cloud top pressure. The spatial patterns of (Delta)Tb,e are systematic and do not correlate well with collocated AIRS-MODIS radiance differences, which are more random in nature and smaller in magnitude than (Delta)Tb,e. This suggests that the observed inconsistencies in AIRS and MODIS cloud fields are dominated by retrieval algorithm differences, instead of differences in the observed radiances. The results presented here have implications for the validation of cloudy satellite retrieval algorithms, and use of cloud products in quantitative analyses.

  14. High Resolution Near-Infrared Imaging with Tip - Adaptive Optics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird Miller

    1995-01-01

    The development and design of the first operational tip-tilt Cassegrain secondary mirror are presented. This system, FASTTRAC, samples image motion at up to 50 Hz by tracking either infrared (m_{k } <=q 11) or visible (mR <=q 16) guide stars up to 30" and 90" away from the science target respectively. The Steward Observatory 2.3m or 1.5m telescope secondaries act as rapid tip-tilt mirrors to stabilize image motion (<=q0.1" rms;~5 Hz -3 dB frequency) based on the motion of the guide star. FASTTRAC obtains nearly diffraction-limited resolutions in seeing conditions where D/r_circ < 4 in agreement with theoretical expectations. FASTTRAC's unique ability to guide on infrared stars has allowed the first adaptively corrected images of the heavily extincted Galactic Center to be obtained. Over a hundred excellent (0.28" < FWHM < 0.6") images have been obtained of this region. These images do not detect any long term variations in the massive black hole candidate Sgr A*'s luminosity from June 1993 to September 1995. The average infrared magnitudes observed are K = 12.1 +/- 0.3, H = 13.7 +/- 0.3 and J = 16.6 +/- 0.4 integrated over 0.5" at the position of Sgr A*. No significant rapid periodicities were observed from Sgr A* for amplitudes >=q50% of the mean flux in the period range of 3-30 minutes. It is confirmed in the latest 0.28" FWHM image that there is 0.5" "bar" of emission running East-West at the position of Sgr A* as was earlier seen by Eckart et al. 1993. The observed fluxes are consistent with an inclined accretion disk around a ~1 times 10^6 M _odot black hole. However, they are also explained by a line of hot luminous (integrated luminosity of ~10^{3.5 -4.6}L_odot) central cluster stars positionally coincident with Sgr A* naturally explaining the observed 0.5" "bar". High-resolution images with FASTTRAC guiding on a faint (R = 16) visible guide star, combined with spectra from the MMT, have shown that IRAS FSC 10214 + 4724 (z = 2.28) gains its uniquely large

  15. Infrared sounding of the trade-wind boundary layer: AIRS and the RICO experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, João P. A.; Teixeira, João; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Kahn, Brian H.; Dang, Van T.; Irion, Frederick W.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fishbein, Evan

    2010-12-01

    The new generation of remote sensors on board NASA's A-Train constellation offers the possibility of observing the atmospheric boundary layer in different regimes, with or without clouds. In this study we use data from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and of the Rain In Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) campaign, to verify the accuracy and precision of the AIRS Version 5 Level 2 support product. This AIRS product has an improved vertical sampling that is necessary for the estimation of boundary layer properties. Good agreement is found between AIRS and RICO data, in a regime of oceanic shallow cumulus that is known to be difficult to analyze with other remote sensing data, and also shows a low sensitivity to cloud or land fraction. This suggests that AIRS data may be used for global boundary layer studies to support parameterization development in regions of difficult in-situ observation.

  16. A novel lightweight Fizeau infrared interferometric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Douglas A.; Hart, Michael; Warner, Steve; Durney, Oli; Romeo, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Aperture synthesis imaging techniques using an interferometer provide a means to achieve imagery with spatial resolution equivalent to a conventional filled aperture telescope at a significantly reduced size, weight and cost, an important implication for air- and space-borne persistent observing platforms. These concepts have been realized in SIRII (Space-based IR-imaging interferometer), a new light-weight, compact SWIR and MWIR imaging interferometer designed for space-based surveillance. The sensor design is configured as a six-element Fizeau interferometer; it is scalable, light-weight, and uses structural components and main optics made of carbon fiber replicated polymer (CFRP) that are easy to fabricate and inexpensive. A three-element prototype of the SIRII imager has been constructed. The optics, detectors, and interferometric signal processing principles draw on experience developed in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution with cost-effective optical solutions. SIRII is being designed for technical intelligence from geo-stationary orbit. It has an instantaneous 6 x 6 mrad FOV and the ability to rapidly scan a 6x6 deg FOV, with a minimal SNR. The interferometric design can be scaled to larger equivalent filled aperture, while minimizing weight and costs when compared to a filled aperture telescope with equivalent resolution. This scalability in SIRII allows it address a range of IR-imaging scenarios.

  17. Synegies Between Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry and the Thermal Infrared in an Urban Environment: An Evaluation of the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HYSPIRI) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Hulley, Glynn C.; Hook, Simon J.; Green, Robert O.

    2012-01-01

    A majority of the human population lives in urban areas and as such, the quality of urban environments is becoming increasingly important to the human population. Furthermore, these areas are major sources of environmental contaminants and sinks of energy and materials. Remote sensing provides an improved understanding of urban areas and their impacts by mapping urban extent, urban composition (vegetation and impervious cover fractions), and urban radiation balance through measures of albedo, emissivity and land surface temperature (LST). Recently, the National Research Council (NRC) completed an assessment of remote sensing needs for the next decade (NRC, 2007), proposing several missions suitable for urban studies, including a visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometer and a multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) instrument called the Hyperspectral Infrared Imagery (HyspIRI). In this talk, we introduce the HyspIRI mission, focusing on potential synergies between VSWIR and TIR data in an urban area. We evaluate potential synergies using an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) image pair acquired over Santa Barbara, United States. AVIRIS data were analyzed at their native spatial resolutions (7.5m VSWIR and 15m TIR), and aggregated 60 m spatial resolution similar to HyspIRI. Surface reflectance was calculated using ACORN and a ground reflectance target to remove atmospheric and sensor artifacts. MASTER data were processed to generate estimates of spectral emissivity and LST using Modtran radiative transfer code and the ASTER Temperature Emissivity Separation algorithm. A spectral library of common urban materials, including urban vegetation, roofs and roads was assembled from combined AVIRIS and field-measured reflectance spectra. LST and emissivity were also retrieved from MASTER and reflectance/emissivity spectra for a subset of urban materials were retrieved from co-located MASTER and

  18. Using the shortwave infrared to image middle ear pathologies.

    PubMed

    Carr, Jessica A; Valdez, Tulio A; Bruns, Oliver T; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2016-09-01

    Visualizing structures deep inside opaque biological tissues is one of the central challenges in biomedical imaging. Optical imaging with visible light provides high resolution and sensitivity; however, scattering and absorption of light by tissue limits the imaging depth to superficial features. Imaging with shortwave infrared light (SWIR, 1-2 μm) shares many advantages of visible imaging, but light scattering in tissue is reduced, providing sufficient optical penetration depth to noninvasively interrogate subsurface tissue features. However, the clinical potential of this approach has been largely unexplored because suitable detectors, until recently, have been either unavailable or cost prohibitive. Here, taking advantage of newly available detector technology, we demonstrate the potential of SWIR light to improve diagnostics through the development of a medical otoscope for determining middle ear pathologies. We show that SWIR otoscopy has the potential to provide valuable diagnostic information complementary to that provided by visible pneumotoscopy. We show that in healthy adult human ears, deeper tissue penetration of SWIR light allows better visualization of middle ear structures through the tympanic membrane, including the ossicular chain, promontory, round window niche, and chorda tympani. In addition, we investigate the potential for detection of middle ear fluid, which has significant implications for diagnosing otitis media, the overdiagnosis of which is a primary factor in increased antibiotic resistance. Middle ear fluid shows strong light absorption between 1,400 and 1,550 nm, enabling straightforward fluid detection in a model using the SWIR otoscope. Moreover, our device is easily translatable to the clinic, as the ergonomics, visual output, and operation are similar to a conventional otoscope. PMID:27551085

  19. Infrared imaging diagnostics for intense pulsed electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiao; Shen, Jie; Liu, Wenbin; Zhong, Haowen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Gaolong; Le, Xiaoyun; Qu, Miao; Yan, Sha

    2015-08-15

    Infrared imaging diagnostic method for two-dimensional calorimetric diagnostics has been developed for intense pulsed electron beam (IPEB). By using a 100-μm-thick tungsten film as the infrared heat sink for IPEB, the emitting uniformity of the electron source can be analyzed to evaluate the efficiency and stability of the diode system. Two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element method heat transfer simulation, combined with Monte Carlo calculation, was performed for error estimation and optimization of the method. The test of the method was finished with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode with pulse duration (FWHM) of 80 ns, electron energy up to 450 keV, and a total beam current of over 1 kA. The results showed that it is possible to measure the cross-sectional energy density distribution of IPEB with energy sensitivity of 0.1 J/cm{sup 2} and spatial resolution of 1 mm. The technical details, such as irradiation protection of bremsstrahlung γ photons and the functional extensibility of the method were discussed in this work.

  20. Infrared Images and Millimeter Data from Cold Southern IRAS Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloh, M.; Henning, Th.; Launhardt, R.

    1997-05-01

    We present near-infrared (H, K'), CO (2-1), CS (2-1), and 1.3 mm continuum data for 31 southern objects [δ(1950) <= 10°] known to have extremely red IRAS colors [Fν(100 μm) > Fν(60 μm) > Fν(25 μm) > 20 × Fν(12 μm)]. The data are meant to help reveal new, very young stellar objects. K'-band near-infrared counterparts to the IRAS point sources are detected in 22 of 25 good K' images. Most K' counterparts are multiples. Eighteen of 21 objects were detected in CS, implying the presence of dense gas. Completing the set of CS (2-1) spectra by including the data of Bronfman, Nyman, & Ray, we still find only three nondetections among all 31 objects; these three were also not detected in K'. Wings indicative of outflows are found in a large fraction (20/30) of CO spectra. Twenty-six of 31 observations in the millimeter continuum were detections and point to the presence of large amounts of circumstellar matter. Most of the objects have 103-105 times solar luminosity; we speculate that most contain at least one massive star capable of producing a compact/ultracompact H II region. Based on observations performed at the European Southern Observatory.

  1. Infrared imaging diagnostics for intense pulsed electron beam.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Shen, Jie; Qu, Miao; Liu, Wenbin; Zhong, Haowen; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Gaolong; Le, Xiaoyun

    2015-08-01

    Infrared imaging diagnostic method for two-dimensional calorimetric diagnostics has been developed for intense pulsed electron beam (IPEB). By using a 100-μm-thick tungsten film as the infrared heat sink for IPEB, the emitting uniformity of the electron source can be analyzed to evaluate the efficiency and stability of the diode system. Two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element method heat transfer simulation, combined with Monte Carlo calculation, was performed for error estimation and optimization of the method. The test of the method was finished with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode with pulse duration (FWHM) of 80 ns, electron energy up to 450 keV, and a total beam current of over 1 kA. The results showed that it is possible to measure the cross-sectional energy density distribution of IPEB with energy sensitivity of 0.1 J/cm(2) and spatial resolution of 1 mm. The technical details, such as irradiation protection of bremsstrahlung γ photons and the functional extensibility of the method were discussed in this work.

  2. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IMAGES OF NGC 6334-V

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Lucas, Phil W.; Hough, James H.; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsuya

    2013-03-01

    We present results from deep imaging linear and circular polarimetry of the massive star-forming region NGC 6334-V. These observations show high degrees of circular polarization (CP), as much as 22% in the K{sub s} band, in the infrared nebula associated with the outflow. The CP has an asymmetric positive/negative pattern and is very extended ({approx}80'' or 0.65 pc). Both the high CP and its extended size are larger than those seen in the Orion CP region. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo light-scattering models are used to show that the high CP may be produced by scattering from the infrared nebula followed by dichroic extinction by an optically thick foreground cloud containing aligned dust grains. Our results show not only the magnetic field orientation of around young stellar objects, but also the structure of circumstellar matter such as outflow regions and their parent molecular cloud along the line of sight. The detection of the large and extended CP in this source and the Orion nebula may imply the CP origin of the biological homochirality on Earth.

  3. Infrared imaging of LED lighting tubes and fluorescent tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siikanen, Sami; Kivi, Sini; Kauppinen, Timo; Juuti, Mikko

    2011-05-01

    The low energy efficiency of conventional light sources is mainly caused by generation of waste heat. We used infrared (IR) imaging in order to monitor the heating of both LED tube luminaires and ordinary T8 fluorescent tubes. The IR images showed clearly how the surface temperatures of the fluorescent tube ends quickly rose up to about +50...+70°C, whereas the highest surface temperatures seen on the LED tubes were only about +30...+40°C. The IR images demonstrated how the heat produced by the individual LED chips can be efficiently guided to the supporting structure in order to keep the LED emitters cool and hence maintain efficient operation. The consumed electrical power and produced illuminance were also recorded during 24 hour measurements. In order to assess the total luminous efficacy of the luminaires, separate luminous flux measurements were made in a large integrating sphere. The currently available LED tubes showed efficacies of up to 88 lm/W, whereas a standard "cool white" T8 fluorescent tube produced ca. 75 lm/W. Both lamp types gave ca. 110 - 130 lx right below the ceiling-mounted luminaire, but the LED tubes consume only 40 - 55% of the electric power compared to fluorescent tubes.

  4. Novel silicon lenses for long-wave infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintz, Gregory; Stephanou, Philip; Petersen, Kurt

    2016-05-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a novel silicon lens for Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) imaging are presented. The silicon lenses are planar in nature, and are created using standard wafer scale silicon micro-fabrication processes. The silicon batch processes are used to generate subwavelength structures that introduce spatially varying phase shifts in the incident light. We will show that the silicon lens designs can be extended to produce lenses of varying focal lengths and diameters, thus enabling IR imaging at significantly lower cost and reduced weight and form factor. An optical design program and a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation software tool are used to model the lens performance. The effects of polarization anisotropy are computed for the resultant subwavelength structures. Test samples with lenses with focal lengths in the range of 10 to 50 mm were fabricated. The test sample also included a prism structure, which is characterized by measuring the deflection of a CO2 laser beam and compared to theoretical beam deflection. The silicon lenses are used to produce an image on a VGA micro-bolometer array.

  5. High-sensitivity uncooled microcantilever infrared imaging arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Scott R.; Maurer, Gregory; Jiang, Lijun; Simelgor, Gregory

    2006-05-01

    The design and operation of an advanced bimorph microcantilever based infrared imaging detector are presented. This technology has the potential to achieve very high sensitivities due to its inherent high responsivity and low noise sensor and detection electronics. The sensor array is composed of bimaterial, thermally sensitive microcantilever structures that are the moving elements of variable plate capacitors. The heat sensing microcantilever structures are integrated with CMOS control and amplification electronics to produce a low cost imager that is compatible with standard silicon IC foundry processing and materials. The bimorph sensor structure is fabricated using low thermal expansion, high thermal isolation silicon oxide and oxynitride materials, and a high thermal expansion aluminum alloy bimetal. The microcantilever paddle is designed to move away from the substrate at elevated imaging temperatures, leading to large modeled sensor dynamic ranges (~16 bits). A temperature coefficient of capacitance, ▵C/C, (equivalent to TCR for microbolometers) above 30% has been modeled and measured for these structures, leading to modeled NEDT < 20 mK and thermal time constants in the 5-10 msec range giving a figure-of-merit [1] NEDT.Tau = 100-200 mK.msec. The development efforts to date have focused on the fabrication of 160x120 pixel arrays with 50 micron pitch pixels. Results from detailed thermo-electro-opto-mechanical modeling of the operation of these sensors are compared with experimental measurements from various test and integrated sensor structures and arrays.

  6. Tailored Near-Infrared Contrast Agents for Image Guided Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Njiojob, Costyl N.; Owens, Eric A.; Narayana, Lakshminarayana; Hyun, Hoon; Choi, Hak Soo; Henary, Maged

    2015-01-01

    The success of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence to be employed for intraoperative imaging relies on the ability to develop a highly stable, NIR fluorescent, nontoxic, biocompatible, and highly excreted compound that retains a reactive functionality for conjugation to a cancer-recognizing peptide. Herein, systematic modifications to previously detailed fluorophore ZW800-1 are explored. Specific modifications, including the isosteric replacement of the O atom of ZW800-1, include nucleophilic amine and sulfur species attached to the heptamethine core. These novel compounds have shown similar satisfactory results in biodistribution and clearance while also expressing increased stability in serum. Most importantly, all of the synthesized and evaluated compounds display a reactive functionality (either a free amino group or carboxylic acid moiety) for further bioconjugation. The results obtained from the newly prepared derivatives demonstrate that the central substitution with the studied linking agents retains the ultralow background in vivo performance of the fluorophores regardless of the total net charge. PMID:25711712

  7. Analysis of Forensic Casework Utilizing Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lanzarotta, Adam

    2016-01-01

    A search of the current scientific literature yields a limited number of studies that describe the use of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging for the analysis of forensic casework, which is likely due to the fact that these instruments are fairly new commodities to the field of analytical chemistry and are therefore not yet commonplace in forensic laboratories. This report describes recent forensic case studies that have used the technique for determining the composition of a wide variety of multi-component sample types, including animal tissue sections for toxic inclusions, drugs/dietary supplements, an antibiotic with an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) present as several different salt forms, an adulterated bulk API, unknown trace powders for illicit drugs and an ophthalmic solution suspected of being adulterated with bleach.

  8. Combining near-infrared illuminants to optimize venous imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquit, Vincent; Price, Jeffery R.; Mériaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin, Kenneth W., Jr.; Ferrell, Thomas L.

    2007-03-01

    The first and perhaps most important phase of a surgical procedure is the insertion of an intravenous (IV) catheter. Currently, this is performed manually by trained personnel. In some visions of future operating rooms, however, this process is to be replaced by an automated system. We previously presented work for localizing near-surface veins via near-infrared (NIR) imaging in combination with structured light ranging for surface mapping and robotic guidance. In this paper, we describe experiments to determine the best NIR wavelengths to optimize vein contrast for physiological differences such as skin tone and/or the presence of hair on the arm or wrist surface. For illumination, we employ an array of NIR LEDs comprising six different wavelength centers from 740nm to 910nm. We capture imagery of each subject under every possible combination of illuminants and determine the optimal combination of wavelengths for a given subject to maximize vein contrast using linear discriminant analysis.

  9. Near-Infrared Fluorescent NanoGUMBOS for Biomedical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bwambok, David; El-Zahab, Bilal; Challa, Santhosh; Li, Min; Chandler, Lin; Baker, Gary A; Warner, Isiah M

    2009-01-01

    Herein, we report on near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles generated from an emergent class of materials we refer to as a Group of Uniform Materials Based on Organic Salts (GUMBOS). GUMBOS are largely frozen ionic liquids, although the concept is more general and is also easily applied to solid ionic materials with melting points in excess of 100 C. Nanoparticles based on GUMBOS (nanoGUMBOS) derived from a NIR fluorophore are prepared using a reprecipitation method and evaluated for in vivo fluorescence imaging. Due to their uniformity, single-step preparation, and composite nature, nanoGUMBOS help to resolve issues with dye leakage problems innate to alternate cellular stains and unlock a myriad of applications for these materials, highlighting exciting possibilities for multifunctional nanoGUMBOS.

  10. A thermal model for analysis of infrared images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K.

    1970-01-01

    A mathematical model derived from the equation of heat conduction was developed to assist in interpreting thermal infrared images acquired from aircraft and spacecraft. The model assumes steady state boundary conditions. It contains parameters of rock and soil properties, atmospheric effects, site location, and season. The results predicted provide an explanation for the thermal differences among granite, limestone, and dolomite recorded in the December 1968 daytime and predawn flights over the Mill Creek, Oklahoma test site, during which representative thermal inertia and albedo values were used. A second test of the model made use of data acquired during the June 1970 predawn overflight of Mill Creek. A simple model of transient heating of the ground was constructed as an extension of the overall model, in order to examine the effects of atmospheric perturbations. The results obtained are consistent with those of ground observations made at the time of the overflight.

  11. Optimized microbolometers with higher sensitivity for visible and infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razansky, D.; Einziger, P. D.; Adam, D. R.; Tamir, T.

    2006-10-01

    Optimal absorption method for improving the sensitivity of bolometric detection is explored. We show that, in addition to its role in conventional conducting-film detection, the application of plasmon resonance absorption offers highly promising characteristics for efficient far-field thermal detection and imaging. These characteristics include good frequency sensitivity, intrinsic spatial (angle) selectivity without focusing lenses, wide tunability over both infrared and visible light domains, high responsivity and miniaturization capabilities. In this context, we examine the well-known surface plasmon resonance (SPR) regime, but also report on a new type of plasmon resonance excitation, the cavity plasmon resonance (CPR), which offers more flexibility over wide ranges of wavelengths, bandwidths, and device dimensions. Both CPR and SPR occur in metallic films, which are characterized by high thermal diffusivity essential for fast bolometric response.

  12. Optimized microbolometers with higher sensitivity for visible and infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Razansky, D; Einziger, P D; Adam, D R; Tamir, T

    2006-10-30

    Optimal absorption method for improving the sensitivity of bolometric detection is explored. We show that, in addition to its role in conventional conducting-film detection, the application of plasmon resonance absorption offers highly promising characteristics for efficient far-field thermal detection and imaging. These characteristics include good frequency sensitivity, intrinsic spatial (angle) selectivity without focusing lenses, wide tunability over both infrared and visible light domains, high responsivity and miniaturization capabilities. In this context, we examine the well-known surface plasmon resonance (SPR) regime, but also report on a new type of plasmon resonance excitation, the cavity plasmon resonance (CPR), which offers more flexibility over wide ranges of wavelengths, bandwidths, and device dimensions. Both CPR and SPR occur in metallic films, which are characterized by high thermal diffusivity essential for fast bolometric response.

  13. Tailored near-infrared contrast agents for image guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Njiojob, Costyl N; Owens, Eric A; Narayana, Lakshminarayana; Hyun, Hoon; Choi, Hak Soo; Henary, Maged

    2015-03-26

    The success of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence to be employed for intraoperative imaging relies on the ability to develop a highly stable, NIR fluorescent, nontoxic, biocompatible, and highly excreted compound that retains a reactive functionality for conjugation to a cancer-recognizing peptide. Herein, systematic modifications to previously detailed fluorophore ZW800-1 are explored. Specific modifications, including the isosteric replacement of the O atom of ZW800-1, include nucleophilic amine and sulfur species attached to the heptamethine core. These novel compounds have shown similar satisfactory results in biodistribution and clearance while also expressing increased stability in serum. Most importantly, all of the synthesized and evaluated compounds display a reactive functionality (either a free amino group or carboxylic acid moiety) for further bioconjugation. The results obtained from the newly prepared derivatives demonstrate that the central substitution with the studied linking agents retains the ultralow background in vivo performance of the fluorophores regardless of the total net charge.

  14. Advanced Image Processing for Defect Visualization in Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotnikov, Yuri A.; Winfree, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a defect visualization process based on pulse infrared thermography are presented. Algorithms have been developed to reduce the amount of operator participation required in the process of interpreting thermographic images. The algorithms determine the defect's depth and size from the temporal and spatial thermal distributions that exist on the surface of the investigated object following thermal excitation. A comparison of the results from thermal contrast, time derivative, and phase analysis methods for defect visualization are presented. These comparisons are based on three dimensional simulations of a test case representing a plate with multiple delaminations. Comparisons are also based on experimental data obtained from a specimen with flat bottom holes and a composite panel with delaminations.

  15. Near Infrared Fluorescent NanoGUMBOS for Biomedical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bwambok, David K.; El-Zahab, Bilal; Challa, Santhosh K.; Li, Min; Chandler, Lin; Baker, Gary A.; Warner, Isiah M.

    2009-01-01

    Herein, we report on near infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles generated from an emergent class of materials we refer to as a Group of Uniform Materials Based on Organic Salts (GUMBOS). GUMBOS are largely frozen ionic liquids, although the concept is more general and is also easily applied to solid ionic materials with melting points in excess of 100 °C. Nanoparticles based on GUMBOS (nanoGUMBOS) derived from a NIR fluorophore are prepared using a reprecipitation method and evaluated for in vivo fluorescence imaging. Due to their uniformity, single-step preparation, and composite nature, nanoGUMBOS help to resolve issues with dye leakage problems innate to alternate cellular stains and unlock a myriad of applications for these materials, highlighting exciting possibilities for multifunctional nanoGUMBOS. PMID:19928781

  16. Thermal infrared imaging in psychophysiology: Potentialities and limits

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Stephanos; Gallese, Vittorio; Merla, Arcangelo

    2014-01-01

    Functional infrared thermal imaging (fITI) is considered an upcoming, promising methodology in the emotional arena. Driven by sympathetic nerves, observations of affective nature derive from muscular activity subcutaneous blood flow as well as perspiration patterns in specific body parts. A review of 23 experimental procedures that employed fITI for investigations of affective nature is provided, along with the adopted experimental protocol and the thermal changes that took place on selected regions of interest in human and nonhuman subjects. Discussion is provided regarding the selection of an appropriate baseline, the autonomic nature of the thermal print, the experimental setup, methodological issues, limitations, and considerations, as well as future directions. PMID:24961292

  17. Observing temperature fluctuations in humans using infrared imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Min; Meyer, Joseph; Scully, Christopher G.; Elster, Eric; Gorbach, Alexander M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate that functional infrared imaging is capable of detecting low frequency temperature fluctuations in intact human skin and revealing spatial, temporal, spectral, and time-frequency based differences among three tissue classes: microvasculature, large sub-cutaneous veins, and the remaining surrounding tissue of the forearm. We found that large veins have stronger contractility in the range of 0.005-0.06 Hz compared to the other two tissue classes. Wavelet phase coherence and power spectrum correlation analysis show that microvasculature and skin areas without vessels visible by IR have high phase coherence in the lowest three frequency ranges (0.005-0.0095 Hz, 0.0095-0.02 Hz, and 0.02-0.06 Hz), whereas large veins oscillate independently. PMID:23538682

  18. Analysis of Forensic Casework Utilizing Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lanzarotta, Adam

    2016-01-01

    A search of the current scientific literature yields a limited number of studies that describe the use of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging for the analysis of forensic casework, which is likely due to the fact that these instruments are fairly new commodities to the field of analytical chemistry and are therefore not yet commonplace in forensic laboratories. This report describes recent forensic case studies that have used the technique for determining the composition of a wide variety of multi-component sample types, including animal tissue sections for toxic inclusions, drugs/dietary supplements, an antibiotic with an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) present as several different salt forms, an adulterated bulk API, unknown trace powders for illicit drugs and an ophthalmic solution suspected of being adulterated with bleach. PMID:26927101

  19. Stripe noise removal for infrared image by minimizing difference between columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-Peng

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to eliminate stripe noise in infrared images. The differences between bias voltages in column readout circuit of uncooled infrared sensors result in strong stripe noise which changes slowly in time. The problem can be solved by estimating the bias of each column of infrared images and correcting infrared images with the estimated biases. The bias estimation is translated into an energy optimization problem in the paper. The optimization aims to minimize difference between neighboring columns of images. Our approach can be processed on a single image, or in a recursive way in order to significantly reduce the computation in one frame time. Our approach is compared to the state-of-the-art the stripe noise removal method using realistic infrared images, and the experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiencies of our proposed approach.

  20. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional model for space-based earth observations involves long mission times, high cost, and long development time. Because of the significant time and monetary investment required, riskier instrument development missions or those with very specific scientific goals are unlikely to successfully obtain funding. However, a niche for earth observations exploiting new technologies in focused, short lifetime missions is opening with the growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites. These low-cost, short-lived missions provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCOR), to demonstrate the ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable the use of COTS electronics, and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230-meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400-km orbit.

  1. Preliminary status of POLICAN: A near-infrared imaging polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraj, R.; Luna, A.; Carrasco, L.; Mayya, Y. D.

    2015-10-01

    POLICAN is a near-infrared (J, H, K) imaging polarimeter developed for the Cananea near infrared camera (CANICA) at the 2.1m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory (OAGH) located at Cananea, Sonora, México. The camera has a 1024 x 1024 HgCdTe detector (HAWAII array) with a plate scale of 0.32 arcsec/pixel providing a field of view of 5.5 x 5.5 arcmin. POLICAN is mounted externally to CANICA for narrow-field (f/12) linear polarimetric observations. It consists of a rotating super achromatic (1-2.7μm) half waveplate and a fixed wire-grid polarizer as the analyzer. The light is modulated by setting the half waveplate at different angles (0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5°) and linear combinations of the Stokes parameters (I, Q and U) are obtained. Image reduction and removal of instrumental polarization consist of dark noise subtraction, polarimetric flat fielding and background sky subtraction. Polarimetric calibration is performed by observing polarization standards available in the literature. The astrometry correction is performed by matching common stars with the Two Micron All Sky Survey. POLICAN's bright and limiting magnitudes are approximately 6th and 16th magnitude, which correspond to saturation and photon noise, respectively. POLICAN currently achieves a polarimetric accuracy about 3.0% and polarization angle uncertainties within 3°. Preliminary observations of star forming regions are being carried out in order to study their magnetic field properties.

  2. FISICA: The Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Astrophysics and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raines, S. N.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Elston, R.; Guzman, R.; Gruel, N.; Julian, J.; Boreman, G.; Hoffman, J.; Rodgers, M.; Glenn, P.; Hull-Allen, G.; Myrick, B.; Flint, S.; Comstock, L.

    2005-12-01

    We report on the design, manufacture, and scientific performance of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Astrophysics and Cosmology (FISICA) - a fully cryogenic all-reflective image slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Originally conceived as a bench-top demonstration proof-of-concept instrument, after three productive engineering runs at the KPNO 4-m telescope (as of 15 Oct 2005) we find that FISICA is capable of delivering excellent scientific results. It now operates as a 'turnkey' instrument at the KPNO 4-m telescope. FISICA is now open for community access as a visitor instrument on the KPNO 4-m telescope via collaboration with the instrument team, who can assist with the proposal preparation and observations, as well as provide the data reduction tools for integral field spectroscopy. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design, fabrication, laboratory test results, and on-telescope performance for FISICA. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS slices a 16x33 arcsec field of view into 22 parallel elements using three sets of monolithic powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. However, slight vignetting for some field positions limits the effective field of view to 15x32 arcsec. The effective spatial sampling of 0.70 arcsec delivers 960 spatial resolution elements. Combined with the FLAMINGOS spectrograph, R 1300 spectroscopy over the 1-2.4 micron wavelength range is possible, in either the J+H combined bandpass or the H+K combined bandpass. FISICA was funded by the UCF-UF Space Research Initiative; FLAMINGOS was designed and was constructed by the IR Instrumentation Group (PI: R. Elston) at the University of Florida, Department of Astronomy, with support from NSF grant AST97-31180 and Kitt Peak National Observatory.

  3. Advances in photo-thermal infrared imaging microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furstenberg, Robert; Kendziora, Chris; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; McGill, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing need for chemical imaging techniques in many fields of science and technology: forensics, materials science, pharmaceutical and chemical industries, just to name a few. While FTIR micro-spectroscopy is commonly used, its practical resolution limit of about 20 microns or more is often insufficient. Raman micro-spectroscopy provides better spatial resolution (~1 micron), but is not always practical because of samples exhibiting fluorescence or low Raman scattering efficiency. We are developing a non-contact and non-destructive technique we call photo-thermal infrared imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). It involves photo-thermal heating of the sample with a tunable quantum cascade laser and measuring the resulting increase in thermal emission with an infrared detector. Photo-thermal emission spectra resemble FTIR absorbance spectra and can be acquired in both stand-off and microscopy configurations. Furthermore, PT-IRIS allows the acquisition of absorbance-like photo-thermal spectra in a reflected geometry, suitable for field applications and for in-situ study of samples on optically IR-opaque substrates (metals, fabrics, paint, glass etc.). Conventional FTIR microscopes in reflection mode measure the reflectance spectra which are different from absorbance spectra and are usually not catalogued in FTIR spectral libraries. In this paper, we continue developing this new technique. We perform a series of numerical simulations of the laser heating of samples during photo-thermal microscopy. We develop parameterized formulas to help the user pick the appropriate laser illumination power. We also examine the influence of sample geometry on spectral signatures. Finally, we measure and compare photo-thermal and reflectance spectra for two test samples.

  4. Experimental model for determining developmental stage of chicken embryo using infrared images and artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Seung Kwon "Paul"; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen "Tony"; Chen, Che-Hao

    2013-05-01

    Development of a chicken embryo is conventionally assumed to follow a set growth pattern over the course of 21 days. However, despite identical incubation settings, many factors may contribute to an egg developing at a different rate from those around it. Being able to determine an embryo's actual development instead of relying on chronological assumptions of normal growth should prove to be a useful tool in the poultry industry for responding early to abnormal development and improving hatch rates. Previous studies have used infrared imaging to enhance candling observation, but relatively little has been done to implement infrared imaging in problem-solving. The purpose of this research is to construct a quantitative model for predicting the development stage and early viability of a chicken embryo during incubation. It may be noted that a similar project was conducted previously using different input parameters. This study seeks to improve upon the results from the earlier project. In this project, infrared images of eggs were processed to calculate air cell volumes and cooling rates, and daily measurements of egg weight and ambient temperature were compiled. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were "trained" using multiple input parameters to recognize patterns in the data. Various training functions and topologies were evaluated in order to optimize prediction rates and consistency. The prediction rates obtained for the ANNs were around 81% for development stage and around 92% for viability. It is recommended for future research to expand the potential combinations of input parameters used in order to increase this model's versatility in the field.

  5. Robust near-infrared light bullet in 800-nm femtosecond light filaments in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Nikolay A.; Shipilo, Daniil E.; Andreeva, Vera A.; Uryupina, Daria S.; Savel'ev, Andrei B.; Kosareva, Olga G.; Chin, See Leang

    2015-09-01

    Systematic numerical study of near-infrared radiation formed during filamentation in air revealed the formation of robust light bullet first registered in the experiment (Chen et al. in Appl Phys B 91:219, 2008). The near-infrared light bullet propagates along the filament axis with the divergence <1 mrad and the quasi-constant duration of ~30 fs. The central wavelength of the bullet gradually increases from 860 to 900 nm during the propagation. The results of our numerical simulation are in agreement with the experiments (Chen et al. in Appl Phys B 91:219, 2008; Uryupina et al. in Appl Phys B 110:123, 2013).

  6. Method and apparatus for coherent imaging of infrared energy

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P.

    1998-01-01

    A coherent camera system performs ranging, spectroscopy, and thermal imaging. Local oscillator radiation is combined with target scene radiation to enable heterodyne detection by the coherent camera's two-dimensional photodetector array. Versatility enables deployment of the system in either a passive mode (where no laser energy is actively transmitted toward the target scene) or an active mode (where a transmitting laser is used to actively illuminate the target scene). The two-dimensional photodetector array eliminates the need to mechanically scan the detector. Each element of the photodetector array produces an intermediate frequency signal that is amplified, filtered, and rectified by the coherent camera's integrated circuitry. By spectroscopic examination of the frequency components of each pixel of the detector array, a high-resolution, three-dimensional or holographic image of the target scene is produced for applications such as air pollution studies, atmospheric disturbance monitoring, and military weapons targeting.

  7. Method and apparatus for coherent imaging of infrared energy

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1998-05-12

    A coherent camera system performs ranging, spectroscopy, and thermal imaging. Local oscillator radiation is combined with target scene radiation to enable heterodyne detection by the coherent camera`s two-dimensional photodetector array. Versatility enables deployment of the system in either a passive mode (where no laser energy is actively transmitted toward the target scene) or an active mode (where a transmitting laser is used to actively illuminate the target scene). The two-dimensional photodetector array eliminates the need to mechanically scan the detector. Each element of the photodetector array produces an intermediate frequency signal that is amplified, filtered, and rectified by the coherent camera`s integrated circuitry. By spectroscopic examination of the frequency components of each pixel of the detector array, a high-resolution, three-dimensional or holographic image of the target scene is produced for applications such as air pollution studies, atmospheric disturbance monitoring, and military weapons targeting. 8 figs.

  8. Far infrared structure of spiral galaxies from the IRAS CPC images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.; Chokshi, Arati; Doyle, Laurance R.

    1989-01-01

    Significant extended far infrared (50 micron and 100 micron) structure was found for five face-on spiral galaxies (NGC2403, M51, M83, NGC6946, and IC342) from fourteen galaxies searched in the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) chopped photometric channel (CPC) catalogue. Images were initially processed to remove instrumental and background artifacts, the isophotal centroids of each image determined, and multiple images of each galaxy (for each wavelength) superimposed and averaged to improve signal-to-noise. Calibration of these images was performed using IRAS survey array data. Infrared isophotes were then superimposed on optical (blue) images so that direct structural comparisons could be made.

  9. Automatic target recognition algorithm based on statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Cao, Le-lin; Wu, Chun-feng; Hou, Qing-yu

    2009-07-01

    A novel automatic target recognition algorithm based on statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral images(SDOIMI) is proposed. Firstly, infrared multispectral characteristic matrix of the scenario is constructed based on infrared multispectral characteristic information (such as radiation intensity and spectral distribution etc.) of targets, background and decoys. Then the infrared multispectral characteristic matrix of targets is reconstructed after segmenting image by maximum distance method and fusing spatial and spectral information. Finally, an statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral images(SDOIMI) recognition criteria is formulated in terms of spectral radiation difference of interesting targets. In simulation, nine sub-bands multispectral images of real ship target and shipborne aerosol infrared decoy modulated by laser simulating ship geometry appearance are obtained via using spectral radiation curves. Digital simulation experiment result verifies that the algorithm is effective and feasible.

  10. Measuring glacier surface temperatures with ground-based thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry-Wake, Caroline; Baraer, Michel; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Mark, Bryan G.; Wigmore, Oliver; Hellström, Robert È.; Lautz, Laura; Somers, Lauren

    2015-10-01

    Spatially distributed surface temperature is an important, yet difficult to observe, variable for physical glacier melt models. We utilize ground-based thermal infrared imagery to obtain spatially distributed surface temperature data for alpine glaciers. The infrared images are used to investigate thermal microscale processes at the glacier surface, such as the effect of surface cover type and the temperature gradient at the glacier margins on the glacier's temperature dynamics. Infrared images were collected at Cuchillacocha Glacier, Cordillera Blanca, Peru, on 23-25 June 2014. The infrared images were corrected based on ground truth points and local meteorological data. For the control points, the Pearson's correlation coefficient between infrared and station temperatures was 0.95. The ground-based infrared camera has the potential for greatly improving glacier energy budget studies, and our research shows that it is critical to properly correct the thermal images to produce robust, quantifiable data.

  11. In-field stray light due to surface scattering effects in infrared imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke; Jiang, Hou-man; Cheng, Xiang-ai

    2011-08-01

    In-field stray light caused by surface scattering is a serious problem in many infrared imaging systems. Light that scattered from lenses in infrared imaging system produces a halo of stray light within the field of view and often degrades the performance of an optical system especially irradiated by intensive light such as laser. The experiments are performed by using infrared thermal imaging system, irradiated by CW DF infrared laser. The relationship between the diameter of saturated area on the detector and the incident laser irradiance is obtained, which can be well explained by the point spread function (PSF) of the optics including both diffraction and scattering components.

  12. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    underlying physics. There are now at least six different disciplines that deal with infrared radiation in one form or another, and in one or several different spectral portions of the whole IR range. These are spectroscopy, astronomy, thermal imaging, detector and source development and metrology, as well the field of optical data transmission. Scientists working in these fields range from chemists and astronomers through to physicists and even photographers. This issue presents examples from some of these fields. All the papers—though some of them deal with fundamental or applied research—include interesting elements that make them directly applicable to university-level teaching at the graduate or postgraduate level. Source (e.g. quantum cascade lasers) and detector development (e.g. multispectral sensors), as well as metrology issues and optical data transmission, are omitted since they belong to fundamental research journals. Using a more-or-less arbitrary order according to wavelength range, the issue starts with a paper on the physics of near-infrared photography using consumer product cameras in the spectral range from 800 nm to 1.1 µm [1]. It is followed by a series of three papers dealing with IR imaging in spectral ranges from 3 to 14 µm [2-4]. One of them deals with laboratory courses that may help to characterize the IR camera response [2], the second discusses potential applications for nondestructive testing techniques [3] and the third gives an example of how IR thermal imaging may be used to understand cloud cover of the Earth [4], which is the prerequisite for successful climate modelling. The next two papers cover the vast field of IR spectroscopy [5, 6]. The first of these deals with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the spectral range from 2.5 to 25 µm, studying e.g. ro-vibrational excitations in gases or optical phonon interactions within solids [5]. The second deals mostly with the spectroscopy of liquids such as biofuels and special

  13. An image analysis system for near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence lymph imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingdan; Zhou, Shaohua Kevin; Xiang, Xiaoyan; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of lymphatic function is crucial for understanding the lymphatic system and diagnosing the associated diseases. Recently, a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging system is developed for real-time imaging lymphatic propulsion by intradermal injection of microdose of a NIR fluorophore distal to the lymphatics of interest. However, the previous analysis software3, 4 is underdeveloped, requiring extensive time and effort to analyze a NIR image sequence. In this paper, we develop a number of image processing techniques to automate the data analysis workflow, including an object tracking algorithm to stabilize the subject and remove the motion artifacts, an image representation named flow map to characterize lymphatic flow more reliably, and an automatic algorithm to compute lymph velocity and frequency of propulsion. By integrating all these techniques to a system, the analysis workflow significantly reduces the amount of required user interaction and improves the reliability of the measurement.

  14. Integral imaging acquisition and processing for visualization of photon counting images in the mid-wave infrared range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre-Carmona, P.; Pla, F.; Javidi, B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of our previously published work on the application of the maximum likelihood (ML) reconstruction method to integral images acquired with a mid-wave infrared detector on two different types of scenes: one of them consisting of a road, a group of trees and a vehicle just behind one of the trees (being the car at a distance of more than 200m from the camera), and another one consisting of a view of the Wright Air Force Base airfield, with several hangars and different other types of installations (including warehouses) at distances ranging from 600m to more than 2km. Dark current noise is considered taking into account the particular features this type of sensors have. Results show that this methodology allows to improve visualization in the photon counting domain.

  15. Deep infrared images of the Small Magellanic Cloud and comparison with the distribution of ultraviolet emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okumura, K.; Viallefond, F.; Viton, M.; Rice, W.

    1992-01-01

    Deep infrared images of the Small Magellanic Cloud have been produced and compared to an ultraviolet image at an angular resolution of 8 min. There is a strong correlation between the far infrared and the ultraviolet emission but the dispersion in this correlation is unrelated to infrared colors. Comparing with the results for the nearby spiral M33 at different radial distances, it is suggested that the population of dust grains in the Small Magellanic Cloud has very different properties.

  16. Tone mapping infrared images using conditional filtering-based multi-scale retinex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haibo; Xu, Lingyun; Hui, Bin; Chang, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Tone mapping can be used to compress the dynamic range of the image data such that it can be fitted within the range of the reproduction media and human vision. The original infrared images that captured with infrared focal plane arrays (IFPA) are high dynamic images, so tone mapping infrared images is an important component in the infrared imaging systems, and it has become an active topic in recent years. In this paper, we present a tone mapping framework using multi-scale retinex. Firstly, a Conditional Gaussian Filter (CGF) was designed to suppress "halo" effect. Secondly, original infrared image is decomposed into a set of images that represent the mean of the image at different spatial resolutions by applying CGF of different scale. And then, a set of images that represent the multi-scale details of original image is produced by dividing the original image pointwise by the decomposed image. Thirdly, the final detail image is reconstructed by weighted sum of the multi-scale detail images together. Finally, histogram scaling and clipping is adopted to remove outliers and scale the detail image, 0.1% of the pixels are clipped at both extremities of the histogram. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm efficiently increases the local contrast while preventing "halo" effect and provides a good rendition of visual effect.

  17. Monitoring of historical frescoes by timed infrared imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Bortolin, A.; Ferrarini, G.; Peron, F.; Girotto, M.; Volinia, M.

    2015-03-01

    The subflorescence and efflorescence phenomena are widely acknowledged as the major causes of permanent damage to fresco wall paintings. They are related to the occurrence of cycles of dry/wet conditions inside the walls. Therefore, it is essential to identify the presence of water on the decorated surfaces and inside the walls. Nondestructive testing in industrial applications have confirmed that active infrared thermography with continuous timed images acquisition can improve the outcomes of thermal analysis aimed to moisture identification. In spite of that, in cultural heritage investigations these techniques have not been yet used extensively on a regular basis. This paper illustrates an application of these principles in order to evaluate the decay of fresco mural paintings in a medieval chapel located in North-West of Italy. One important feature of this study is the use of a robotic system called aIRview that can be utilized to automatically acquire and process thermal images. Multiple accurate thermal views of the inside walls of the building have been produced in a survey that lasted several days. Signal processing algorithms based on Fast Fourier Transform analysis have been applied to the acquired data in order to formulate trustworthy hypotheses about the deterioration mechanisms.

  18. High-Resolution Mars Camera Test Image of Moon (Infrared)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This crescent view of Earth's Moon in infrared wavelengths comes from a camera test by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on its way to Mars. The mission's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera took the image on Sept. 8, 2005, while at a distance of about 10 million kilometers (6 million miles) from the Moon. The dark feature on the right is Mare Crisium. From that distance, the Moon would appear as a star-like point of light to the unaided eye. The test verified the camera's focusing capability and provided an opportunity for calibration. The spacecraft's Context Camera and Optical Navigation Camera also performed as expected during the test.

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched on Aug. 12, 2005, is on course to reach Mars on March 10, 2006. After gradually adjusting the shape of its orbit for half a year, it will begin its primary science phase in November 2006. From the mission's planned science orbit about 300 kilometers (186 miles) above the surface of Mars, the high resolution camera will be able to discern features as small as one meter or yard across.

  19. SAFIRE: A Far-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Richard A.; Benford, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Stacey, G. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 145 micrometers-655 micrometers with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200km/s). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up bolometer array to provide background-limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge bolometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors. An engineering prototype of SAFIRE with a small but cutting edge detector array will be available for use during the initial SOFIA operations; further expansion to larger format arrays will be incorporated during SAFIRE's lifetime.

  20. Multi-point sources and imaging compound infrared target simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Rui; Xu, Rui; Wang, Hongjie; Wang, Xin; Wu, Di; Li, Zhuo

    2014-11-01

    Infrared target simulator is an important unit in guidance hardware-in-the-loop simulation systems. It is used to simulate the radiation and motion characteristics of target, decoy and background. This paper proposed a multi-channel IR target simulator. It could generate one IR point target, two pairs of IR decoys and background respectively in the same field of view of the seeker's optical system simultaneously. An IR imaging fiber bundle as the focal plane of the projection optical system was used to compound the target, decoys and background. The compound scene was projected to the seeker by the projection optical system. In IR imaging channel, IR scene was generated by an optical film chip as a visible to thermal transducer which was placed in a vacuum cell. The simulated temperature range of IR scene could be from room temperature to 430K.The thin film transducer had 512×512 pixels. Its frame rate could reach to 100Hz. Light sources with high equivalent black body temperature were adopted in IR target and decoy channels. The size and the radiation intensity of the IR point target and decoys could be controlled by pin holes and attenuators. The point target and decoys driven by high precise motors could travel through the whole instantaneous field of view of the seeker's optical system. Two pairs of decoys could move away from the center to the edge of the instantaneous field of view. The highest simulated black body temperature of the point source was 1200K.

  1. Investigation of Latent Traces Using Infrared Reflectance Hyperspectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Till; Wenzel, Susanne; Roscher, Ribana; Stachniss, Cyrill

    2016-06-01

    The detection of traces is a main task of forensics. Hyperspectral imaging is a potential method from which we expect to capture more fluorescence effects than with common forensic light sources. This paper shows that the use of hyperspectral imaging is suited for the analysis of latent traces and extends the classical concept to the conservation of the crime scene for retrospective laboratory analysis. We examine specimen of blood, semen and saliva traces in several dilution steps, prepared on cardboard substrate. As our key result we successfully make latent traces visible up to dilution factor of 1:8000. We can attribute most of the detectability to interference of electromagnetic light with the water content of the traces in the shortwave infrared region of the spectrum. In a classification task we use several dimensionality reduction methods (PCA and LDA) in combination with a Maximum Likelihood classifier, assuming normally distributed data. Further, we use Random Forest as a competitive approach. The classifiers retrieve the exact positions of labelled trace preparation up to highest dilution and determine posterior probabilities. By modelling the classification task with a Markov Random Field we are able to integrate prior information about the spatial relation of neighboured pixel labels.

  2. Design and fabrication of the Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer (ISIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, James W.; Grush, Ronald C.

    1997-09-01

    The design and fabrication of the infrared spectral imaging radiometer (ISIR) is presented. The ISIR was designed in 1994 to provide calibrated images in four thermal wavelength bands without cryogenic cooling by utilizing the new, uncooled microbolometer detector technology. The complete system was fabricated at Space Instruments, Inc. (SI) in 1995 and 1996 and delivered to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for flight on the space shuttle in 1997. Photographs of the flight hardware are shown. The ISIR operates in a pushbroom fashion and utilizes real time, digital time delay and integration (TDI) to improve the signal to noise ratio. From a nominal shuttle altitude of 140 nmi, the nadir pixel subtends 240 by 240 meters on the ground. The size of the radiometer is minimized by the elimination of mechanical scan mechanisms and a space radiator. The ISIR instrument utilizes a through-the- optics calibration system to periodically obtain a two-point calibration for each pixel in the detector array. A blackbody with both heating and cooling capability is used to obtain accurate calibration data for both terrestrial and cloudtop measurements. The timeline logic, TDI integration, mechanism control, calibration, and data formatting are performed in the onboard digital processor which utilizes two microprocessors and seven programmable logic devices. The output data is recorded on two, 8 mm tape recorders.

  3. Adaptive Optics Imaging Survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Laag, E A; Canalizo, G; van Breugel, W; Gates, E L; de Vries, W; Stanford, S A

    2006-03-13

    We present high resolution imaging observations of a sample of previously unidentified far-infrared galaxies at z < 0.3. The objects were selected by cross-correlating the IRAS Faint Source Catalog with the VLA FIRST catalog and the HST Guide Star Catalog to allow for adaptive optics observations. We found two new ULIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 12} L{sub {circle_dot}}) and 19 new LIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 11} L{sub {circle_dot}}). Twenty of the galaxies in the sample were imaged with either the Lick or Keck adaptive optics systems in H or K{prime}. Galaxy morphologies were determined using the two dimensional fitting program GALFIT and the residuals examined to look for interesting structure. The morphologies reveal that at least 30% are involved in tidal interactions, with 20% being clear mergers. An additional 50% show signs of possible interaction. Line ratios were used to determine powering mechanism; of the 17 objects in the sample showing clear emission lines--four are active galactic nuclei and seven are starburst galaxies. The rest exhibit a combination of both phenomena.

  4. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a bellymounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  5. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a belly-mounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  6. Visible and infrared remote imaging of hazardous waste: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.; Aiello, Danielle P.; Haack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    One of the critical global environmental problems is human and ecological exposure to hazardous wastes from agricultural, industrial, military and mining activities. These wastes often include heavy metals, hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals. Traditional field and laboratory detection and monitoring of these wastes are generally expensive and time consuming. The synoptic perspective of overhead remote imaging can be very useful for the detection and remediation of hazardous wastes. Aerial photography has a long and effective record in waste site evaluations. Aerial photographic archives allow temporal evaluation and change detection by visual interpretation. Multispectral aircraft and satellite systems have been successfully employed in both spectral and morphological analysis of hazardous wastes on the landscape and emerging hyperspectral sensors have permitted determination of the specific contaminants by processing strategies using the tens or hundreds of acquired wavelengths in the solar reflected and/or thermal infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper reviews the literature of remote sensing and overhead imaging in the context of hazardous waste and discusses future monitoring needs and emerging scientific research areas.

  7. Infrared imaging of fossil fuel power plant boiler interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, James W.; Cranton, Brian W.; Armstrong, Karen L.; Hammaker, Robert G.

    1997-08-01

    Fossil fuel power plant boilers operate continuously for months at a time, typically shutting down only for routine maintenance or to address serious equipment failures. These shutdowns are very costly, and diagnostic tools and techniques which could be used to minimize shutdown duration and frequency are highly desirable. Due to the extremely hostile environment in these boilers, few tools exist to inspect and monitor operating boiler interiors. This paper presents the design of a passively cooled, infrared borescope used to inspect the interior of operating boilers. The borescope operates at 3.9 micrometer, where flame is partially transparent. The primary obstacles overcome in the instrument design were the harsh industrial environment surrounding the boilers and the high temperatures encountered inside the boilers. A portable yet durable lens system and enclosure was developed to work with a scanning radiometer to address these two problems by both shielding the radiometer from the environment and by extending the optical train into a snout designed to be inserted into access ports on the sides of the boiler. In this manner, interior images of the boiler can be made while keeping the radiometer safely outside the boiler. The lens views a 40 degree field of view through any 2.5' or larger opening in a foot thick boiler wall. Three of these borescopes have been built, and high resolution images of boiler interiors have been obtained.

  8. Thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging from vehicle-carried instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, Laurel E.; Herr, Kenneth C.; Adams, Paul M.; McAfee, John; Salisbury, John

    2002-09-01

    Stand-off identification in the field using thermal infrared spectrometers (hyperspectral) is a maturing technique for gases and aerosols. However, capabilities to identify solid-phase materials on the surface lag substantially, particularly for identification in the field without benefit of ground truth (e.g. for "denied areas"). Spectral signatures of solid phase materials vary in complex and non-intuitive ways, including non-linear variations with surface texture, particle size, and intimate mixing. Also, in contrast to airborne or satellite measurements, reflected downwelling radiance strongly affects the signature measured by field spectrometers. These complex issues can confound interpretations or cause a misidentification in the field. Problems that remain particularly obstinate are (1) low ambiguity identification when there is no accompanying ground truth (e.g. measurements of denied areas, or Mars surface by the 2003 Mars lander spectrometer); (2) real- or near real-time identification, especially when a low ambiguity answer is critical; (3) identification of intimate mixtures (e.g. two fine powders mixed together) and targets composed of very small particles (e.g. aerosol fallout dust, some tailings); and (4) identification of non-diffuse targets (e.g. smooth coatings such as paint and desert varnish), particularly when measured at a high emission angle. In most studies that focus on gas phase targets or specific manmade targets, the solid phase background signatures are called "clutter" and are thrown out. Here we discuss our field spectrometer images measured of test targets that were selected to include a range of particle sizes, diffuse, non-diffuse, high, and low reflectance materials. This study was designed to identify and improve understanding of the issues that complicate stand-off identification in the field, with a focus on developing identification capabilities to proceed without benefit of ground truth. This information allows both improved

  9. Infrared image non-rigid registration based on regional information entropy demons algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chaoliang; Ma, Lihua; Yu, Ming; Cui, Shumin; Wu, Qingrong

    2015-02-01

    Infrared imaging fault detection which is treated as an ideal, non-contact, non-destructive testing method is applied to the circuit board fault detection. Since Infrared images obtained by handheld infrared camera with wide-angle lens have both rigid and non-rigid deformations. To solve this problem, a new demons algorithm based on regional information entropy was proposed. The new method overcame the shortcomings of traditional demons algorithm that was sensitive to the intensity. First, the information entropy image was gotten by computing regional information entropy of the image. Then, the deformation between the two images was calculated that was the same as demons algorithm. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has better robustness in intensity inconsistent images registration compared with the traditional demons algorithm. Achieving accurate registration between intensity inconsistent infrared images provided strong support for the temperature contrast.

  10. AirMSPI PODEX Big Sur Ellipsoid Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-11

    ... AirMSPI Browse Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Big Sur target 02/03/2013 Ellipsoid-projected   Select ...   Version number   For more information, see the  Data Product Specifications (DPS) ...

  11. Infrared and multi-type images fusion algorithm based on contrast pyramid transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hua; Wang, Yan; Wu, Yujing; Qian, Yunsheng

    2016-09-01

    A fusion algorithm for infrared and multi-type images based on contrast pyramid transform (CPT) combined with Otsu method and morphology is proposed in this paper. Firstly, two sharpened images are combined to the first fused image based on information entropy weighted scheme. Afterwards, two enhanced images and the first fused one are decomposed into a series of images with different dimensions and spatial frequencies. To the low-frequency layer, the Otsu method is applied to calculate the optimal segmentation threshold of the first fused image, which is subsequently used to determine the pixel values in top layer fused image. With respect to the high-frequency layers, the top-bottom hats morphological transform is employed to each layer before maximum selection criterion. Finally, the series of decomposed images are reconstructed and then superposed with the enhanced image processed by morphological gradient operation as a second fusion to get the final fusion image. Infrared and visible images fusion, infrared and low-light-level (LLL) images fusion, infrared intensity and infrared polarization images fusion, and multi-focus images fusion are discussed in this paper. Both experimental results and objective metrics demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm over the conventional ones used to compare.

  12. Near Infrared Imaging of Molecular Beacons in Cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Britton

    2001-03-01

    The recent demonstrations of the efficacy of the tumor to background contrast in breast cancer using the tricarbo-cyanine near infrared (NIR) agent with time domain 2-D imaging presages the greater efficacy of site-directed optical contrast agents for early detection of cancers which show contrast (tissue to background) of over 20 fold. Further increases of contrast are obtained with structures that quench the fluorescence until the agent is delivered, recognized, and opened by specific enzymatic activity of the tumor. These are termed ``Molecular Beacons". In order to image the localization of the Beacons, we employ light pen (< 40μ) scanning of the freeze trapped tumor in order to immobilize the tissue, to increase the fluorescence quantum yield and to limit the penetration of the excitation to a thin superficial layer (< 20μ). Precision milling of layers (> 20μ) in LN2 gives the desired 3D high resolution image of the location of the Beacon within in the cancer cell. Since cancer prevention is linked to early detection, the high signal to background obtainable with Molecular Beacons enables the detection of very early subsurface cancers, especially breast and prostate (NIH, UIP). Thus the fluorescent Beacon excites and emits in the NIR window and signals from several cm deep in breast are detected by diffusive wave optical tomography (DWOT). Detection of objects (< 1 mm) is achieved by phased array optical system using 0^O, 180^O 50 MHz modulation of pairs of laser diodes (780 nm) and fluorescence detection (> 800 nm) affording 0.2 mm object detection of even low Beacon concentrations. One, two, and 3-D localization is made possible by one, two, and three orthogonal phase array null planes.

  13. Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy and Energy-Resolving Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, Frank; Raab, Walfried

    2015-08-01

    Imaging spectroscopy has seen rapid progress over the past 25 years, leading to breakthroughs in many fields of astronomy that would not have been otherwise possible. This review overviews the visible/infrared imaging spectroscopy techniques as well as energy-resolving detectors. We introduce the working principle of scanning Fabry-Perot and Fourier transform spectrometers and explain the most common integral field concepts based on mirror slicers, lenslet arrays, and fibers. The main advantage of integral field spectrographs is the simultaneous measurement of spatial and spectral information. Although Fabry-Perot and Fourier transform spectrometers can provide a larger field of view, it is ultimately the higher sensitivity of integral field units that make them the technique of choice. This is arguably the case for image slicers, which make the most efficient use of the available detector pixels and have equal or higher transmission than lenslet arrays and fiber integral field units, respectively. We also address the more specific issues of large étendue operation, focal ratio degradation, anamorphic magnification, and diffraction-limited operation. This review also covers the emerging technology of energy-resolving detectors, which promise very simple and efficient instrument designs. These energy-resolving detectors are based on superconducting thin film technology and exploit either the very small superconducting energy to count the number of quasi-particles excited in the absorption of the photon or the extremely steep phase transition between the normal- and superconducting phase to measure a temperature increase. We have put special emphasis on an overview of the underlying physical phenomena as well as on the recent technological progress and astronomical path finder experiments.

  14. Methods of foreign fiber detecting based on PCA analyzing of infrared spectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, LiXun; Fu, WeiSen; Liu, JieYu; Zhang, HongBo; Pan, Jin; Wang, YaPeng; Tong, Fei

    2014-02-01

    A set of near infrared high resolution spectral imaging system is set up, the infrared absorption properties of raw cotton and colorless foreign are analyzed through the system, and scheme of polypropylene fiber detection based on the near infrared spectral image is proposed; On this basis, reduce dimensions the spectral images through the principal component analysis, further improve the efficiency of colorless foreign detection. The experimental results show that the spectral images after reducing dimensions can be used to detect colorless or light color raw cotton fiber effectively.

  15. Single camera imaging system for color and near-infrared fluorescence image guided surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenyue; Zhu, Nan; Pacheco, Shaun; Wang, Xia; Liang, Rongguang

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging systems have been developed for image guided surgery in recent years. However, current systems are typically bulky and work only when surgical light in the operating room (OR) is off. We propose a single camera imaging system that is capable of capturing NIR fluorescence and color images under normal surgical lighting illumination. Using a new RGB-NIR sensor and synchronized NIR excitation illumination, we have demonstrated that the system can acquire both color information and fluorescence signal with high sensitivity under normal surgical lighting illumination. The experimental results show that ICG sample with concentration of 0.13 μM can be detected when the excitation irradiance is 3.92 mW/cm2 at an exposure time of 10 ms. PMID:25136502

  16. Dual-band infrared imaging to detect corrosion damage within airframes and concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    We are developing dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging and detection techniques to inspect air frames and concrete bridge decks for hidden corrosion damage. Using selective DBIR image ratios,, we enhanced surface temperature contrast and removed surface emissivity noise associated with clutter. Our surface temperature maps depicted defect sites, which heat and cool at different rates than their surroundings. Our emissivity-ratio maps tagged and removed the masking effects of surface clutter. For airframe inspections, we used time-resolved DBIR temperature, emissivity-ratio and composite thermal inertia maps to locate corrosion-thinning effects within a flash-heated Boeing 737 airframe. Emissivity-ratio maps tagged and removed clutter sites from uneven paint, dirt and surface markers. Temperature and thermal inertia maps characterized defect sites, types, sizes, thicknesses, thermal properties and material-loss effects from air frame corrosion. For concrete inspections, we mapped DBIR temperature and emissivity-ratio patterns to better interpret surrogate delamination sites within naturally-heated, concrete slabs and remove the clutter mask from sand pile-up, grease stains, rocks and other surface objects.

  17. Atomic resolution images of graphite in air

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, D.A.; Shedd, G.M.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    One sample used for proof of operation for atomic resolution in STM is highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). This sample has been imaged with many different STM`s obtaining similar results. Atomic resolution images of HOPG have now been obtained using an STM designed and built at the Precision Engineering Center. This paper discusses the theoretical predictions and experimental results obtained in imaging of HOPG.

  18. Compensation for air voids in photoacoustic computed tomography image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Thomas P.; Li, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Most image reconstruction methods in photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) assume that the acoustic properties of the object and the surrounding medium are homogeneous. This can lead to strong artifacts in the reconstructed images when there are significant variations in sound speed or density. Air voids represent a particular challenge due to the severity of the differences between the acoustic properties of air and water. In whole-body small animal imaging, the presence of air voids in the lungs, stomach, and gastrointestinal system can limit image quality over large regions of the object. Iterative reconstruction methods based on the photoacoustic wave equation can account for these acoustic variations, leading to improved resolution, improved contrast, and a reduction in the number of imaging artifacts. However, the strong acoustic heterogeneities can lead to instability or errors in the numerical wave solver. Here, the impact of air voids on PACT image reconstruction is investigated, and procedures for their compensation are proposed. The contributions of sound speed and density variations to the numerical stability of the wave solver are considered, and a novel approach for mitigating the impact of air voids while reducing the computational burden of image reconstruction is identified. These results are verified by application to an experimental phantom.

  19. Investigation into the merits of infrared imaging in the investigation of tattoos postmortem.

    PubMed

    Starkie, Alexandra; Birch, Wendy; Ferllini, Roxana; Thompson, Tim J U

    2011-11-01

    Infrared imaging has a history of use in the forensic examination of artwork and documents and is investigated here for its wider use in the detection of tattoos on the human body postmortem. Infrared photographic and reflectographic techniques were tested on 18 living individuals, displaying a total of 30 tattoos. It was observed that neither age, sex, age of the tattoo, nor, most significantly, skin color affected the ability to image the tattoos using infrared imaging techniques. Second, a piglet carcass was tattooed and the impact of the decomposition process on the visibility of the tattoos assessed. Changes were recorded for 17 days and decomposition included partial mummification and skin discoloration. Crucially, the discoloration was recorded as greatly affecting the image quality using conventional photography, but was insignificant to the infrared recording of these tattoos. It was concluded that infrared reflectography was beneficial in the investigation into tattoos postmortem. PMID:21827465

  20. Investigation into the merits of infrared imaging in the investigation of tattoos postmortem.

    PubMed

    Starkie, Alexandra; Birch, Wendy; Ferllini, Roxana; Thompson, Tim J U

    2011-11-01

    Infrared imaging has a history of use in the forensic examination of artwork and documents and is investigated here for its wider use in the detection of tattoos on the human body postmortem. Infrared photographic and reflectographic techniques were tested on 18 living individuals, displaying a total of 30 tattoos. It was observed that neither age, sex, age of the tattoo, nor, most significantly, skin color affected the ability to image the tattoos using infrared imaging techniques. Second, a piglet carcass was tattooed and the impact of the decomposition process on the visibility of the tattoos assessed. Changes were recorded for 17 days and decomposition included partial mummification and skin discoloration. Crucially, the discoloration was recorded as greatly affecting the image quality using conventional photography, but was insignificant to the infrared recording of these tattoos. It was concluded that infrared reflectography was beneficial in the investigation into tattoos postmortem.

  1. Thermal Infrared Imager on Hayabusa2: Science and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Tatsuaki

    2015-04-01

    Thermal Infrared Imager TIR was developed and calibrated for Haya-busa2 asteroid explorer, aiming at the investigation of thermo-physical properties of C-class near-Earth sub-km sized asteroid (162173) 1999JU3. TIR is based on the 2D micro-bolometer array with germani-um lens to image the surface of asteroid in 8 to 12 μm wavelength (1), measuring the thermal emission off the asteroid surface. Its field of view is 16° x 12° with 328 x 248 pixels. At least 40 (up to 100) images will be taken during asteroid rotation once a week, mainly from the Home Position which is about 20km sunward from asteroid surface. Therefore TIR will image the whole asteroid with spatial resolution of < 20m per pixel, and the temperature profile of each site on the asteroid will be traced from dawn to dusk regions by asteroid rotation. The scien-tific objectives of TIR include the mapping of asteroid surface condi-tions (regional distribution of thermal inertia), since the surface physical conditions are strongly correlated with thermal inertia. It is so informa-tive on understanding the re-accretion or surface sedimentation process-es of the asteroid to be the current form. TIR data will be used for searching for those sites having the typical particle size of 1mm for best sample collection, and within the proper thermal condition for space-craft safe operation. After launch of Hayabusa2, TIR has been tested successfully, covering from -100 to 150 °C using a single parameter settings (2). This implies that TIR is actually able to map the surface other than the sunlit areas. Performance of TIR was found basically the same as those in the pre-launch test, when the temperature of TIR is well controlled. References: (1) Fukuhara T. et al., (2011) Earth Planet. Space 63, 1009-1018; (2) Okada T. et al., (2015) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 46, #1331.

  2. Automated diagnosis of dry eye using infrared thermography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, U. Rajendra; Tan, Jen Hong; Koh, Joel E. W.; Sudarshan, Vidya K.; Yeo, Sharon; Too, Cheah Loon; Chua, Chua Kuang; Ng, E. Y. K.; Tong, Louis

    2015-07-01

    Dry Eye (DE) is a condition of either decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. Prolonged DE damages the cornea causing the corneal scarring, thinning and perforation. There is no single uniform diagnosis test available to date; combinations of diagnostic tests are to be performed to diagnose DE. The current diagnostic methods available are subjective, uncomfortable and invasive. Hence in this paper, we have developed an efficient, fast and non-invasive technique for the automated identification of normal and DE classes using infrared thermography images. The features are extracted from nonlinear method called Higher Order Spectra (HOS). Features are ranked using t-test ranking strategy. These ranked features are fed to various classifiers namely, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Nave Bayesian Classifier (NBC), Decision Tree (DT), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to select the best classifier using minimum number of features. Our proposed system is able to identify the DE and normal classes automatically with classification accuracy of 99.8%, sensitivity of 99.8%, and specificity if 99.8% for left eye using PNN and KNN classifiers. And we have reported classification accuracy of 99.8%, sensitivity of 99.9%, and specificity if 99.4% for right eye using SVM classifier with polynomial order 2 kernel.

  3. Fluorescence lifetime imaging with near-infrared dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Wolfgang; Shcheslavskiy, Vladislav

    2013-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) dyes are used as fluorescence markers in small-animal imaging and in diffuse optical tomography of the human brain. In these applications it is important to know whether the dyes bind to proteins or other tissue constituents, and whether their fluorescence lifetimes depend on the targets they are bound to. Unfortunately, neither the lasers nor the detectors of commonly used confocal and multiphoton laser scanning microscopes allow for excitation and detection of NIR fluorescence. We therefore upgraded existing confocal TCSPC FLIM systems with NIR lasers and NIR sensitive detectors. In multiphoton systems we used the Ti:Sa laser as a one-photon excitation source in combination with an NIR-sensitive detector in the confocal beam path. We tested a number of NIR dyes in biological tissue. Some of them showed clear lifetime changes depending on the tissue structures they are bound to. We therefore believe that NIR FLIM can deliver supplementary information on the tissue constitution and on local biochemical parameters.

  4. Performance characteristics of a submarine panoramic infrared imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. M.; Waterman, J. R.; Menon, Raghu; Devitt, John

    2010-04-01

    A high-resolution mid-wave infrared panoramic periscope sensor system has been developed. The sensor includes a catadioptric optical system that provides a 360° horizontal azimuth by -10° to +30° elevation field of view without requiring moving components (e.g. rotating mirrors). The focal plane is a 2048 x 2048, 15μm pitch InSb detector operating at 80K. An on-board thermo-electric reference source allows for real-time nonuniformity correction using the two-point correction method. The entire system (detector-dewar assembly, cooler, electronics and optics) is packaged to fit in an 8" high, 6.5" diameter volume. This work describes both the system optics and electronics and presents sample imagery. We also discuss the sensor's radiometric performance, quantified by the NEDT, as a function of key system parameters. The ability of the system to resolve targets as a function of imaged spatial frequency is also presented.

  5. Infrared image enhancement based on atmospheric scattering model and histogram equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Yunfeng; Geng, Aihui; Cao, Lihua; Chen, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Infrared images are fuzzy due to the special imaging technology of infrared sensor. In order to achieve contrast enhancement and gain clear edge details from a fuzzy infrared image, we propose an efficient enhancement method based on atmospheric scattering model and histogram equalization. The novel algorithm optimizes and improves the visual image haze remove method which combines the characteristics of the fuzzy infrared images. Firstly, an average filtering operation is presented to get the estimation of coarse transmission rate. Then we get the fuzzy free image through self-adaptive transmission rate calculated with the statistics information of original infrared image. Finally, to deal with low lighting problem of fuzzy free image, we propose a sectional plateau histogram equalization method which is capable of background suppression. Experimental results show that the performance and efficiency of the proposed algorithm are pleased, compared to four other algorithms in both subjective observation and objective quantitative evaluation. In addition, the proposed algorithm is competent to enhance infrared image for different applications under different circumstances.

  6. Temperature, Pressure, and Infrared Image Survey of an Axisymmetric Heated Exhaust Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Edward L.; Mahan, J. Robert; Birckelbaw, Larry D.; Turk, Jeffrey A.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Hange, Craig E.

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this research is to numerically predict an infrared image of a jet engine exhaust plume, given field variables such as temperature, pressure, and exhaust plume constituents as a function of spatial position within the plume, and to compare this predicted image directly with measured data. This work is motivated by the need to validate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes through infrared imaging. The technique of reducing the three-dimensional field variable domain to a two-dimensional infrared image invokes the use of an inverse Monte Carlo ray trace algorithm and an infrared band model for exhaust gases. This report describes an experiment in which the above-mentioned field variables were carefully measured. Results from this experiment, namely tables of measured temperature and pressure data, as well as measured infrared images, are given. The inverse Monte Carlo ray trace technique is described. Finally, experimentally obtained infrared images are directly compared to infrared images predicted from the measured field variables.

  7. Characteristics of Water Vapor Under Partially Cloudy Conditions: Observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishbein, E.

    2003-12-01

    The variability and quality of tropical water vapor derived from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are characterized. Profiles of water vapor, temperature and surface characteristics (states) are derived from coincident Advance Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and 3x3 sets of AIRS footprints. States are obtained under partially cloudy conditions by estimating the radiances emitted from the clear portions of the AIRS footprints. This procedure, referred to as cloud clearing, amplifies the measurement noise, and the amplification increases with cloud amount and uniformity. Cumulus and stratus cloud amount are related to the water vapor saturation, and noise amplification and water vapor amount may be partially correlated. The correlations between the uncertainty of retrieved water vapor, cloudiness and noise amplification are characterized. Retrieved water vapor is generally good when the amplification is less than three. Water vapor profiles are compared with correlative data, such as radiosondes and numerical weather center analyses and are in relatively good agreement in the lower troposphere

  8. The temperature fields measurement of air in the car cabin by infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pešek, M.

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with the temperature fields measurement of air using the Jenoptic Variocam infrared camera inside the car Škoda Octavia Combi II. The temperature fields with the use of auxiliary material with a high emissivity value were visualized. The measurements through the viewing window with a high transmissivity value were performed. The viewing windows on the side car door were placed. In the rear car area, the temperature fields of air on the spacious sheet of auxiliary material were visualized which is a suitable method for 2D airstreams. In the front car area, the temperature fields in the air were measured with the use of the measuring net which is suitable for 3D airstreams measuring.

  9. Multi-spectral imaging with infrared sensitive organic light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Young; Lai, Tzung-Han; Lee, Jae Woong; Manders, Jesse R; So, Franky

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available near-infrared (IR) imagers are fabricated by integrating expensive epitaxial grown III-V compound semiconductor sensors with Si-based readout integrated circuits (ROIC) by indium bump bonding which significantly increases the fabrication costs of these image sensors. Furthermore, these typical III-V compound semiconductors are not sensitive to the visible region and thus cannot be used for multi-spectral (visible to near-IR) sensing. Here, a low cost infrared (IR) imaging camera is demonstrated with a commercially available digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera and an IR sensitive organic light emitting diode (IR-OLED). With an IR-OLED, IR images at a wavelength of 1.2 µm are directly converted to visible images which are then recorded in a Si-CMOS DSLR camera. This multi-spectral imaging system is capable of capturing images at wavelengths in the near-infrared as well as visible regions. PMID:25091589

  10. Multi-spectral imaging with infrared sensitive organic light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Young; Lai, Tzung-Han; Lee, Jae Woong; Manders, Jesse R.; So, Franky

    2014-08-01

    Commercially available near-infrared (IR) imagers are fabricated by integrating expensive epitaxial grown III-V compound semiconductor sensors with Si-based readout integrated circuits (ROIC) by indium bump bonding which significantly increases the fabrication costs of these image sensors. Furthermore, these typical III-V compound semiconductors are not sensitive to the visible region and thus cannot be used for multi-spectral (visible to near-IR) sensing. Here, a low cost infrared (IR) imaging camera is demonstrated with a commercially available digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera and an IR sensitive organic light emitting diode (IR-OLED). With an IR-OLED, IR images at a wavelength of 1.2 µm are directly converted to visible images which are then recorded in a Si-CMOS DSLR camera. This multi-spectral imaging system is capable of capturing images at wavelengths in the near-infrared as well as visible regions.

  11. Imaging physics at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrasmith, William W.

    1996-10-01

    The Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) is launching a research program in imaging physics planned to start in fiscal year 1997 (FY97). Both active (man made illumination sources) and passive (solar illuminated) imaging methods will be included in the program. The purpose of the program is to develop a national thrust for imaging science which will lay the foundation for future Air Force imaging systems. The new imaging physics program will be jointly administered from the Directorate of Physics and Electronics (AFOSR/NE) and the Directorate of Mathematics and Geosciences (AFOSR/NM) with collaborations with the Directorate of Life Sciences. The combined NE, NM, and NL imaging program will apply innovative mathematical formalisms (wavelets, non-linear partial differential equations, inverse methods, statistical techniques, optimization methods . . .) to the imaging problem (object representation, atmospheric turbulence compensation and noise modeling, innovative imaging techniques, multi- spectral imaging, data and sensor fusion, smart sensors, imaging neural nets, phase retrieval, . . .). The electronic emulation of biological vision processes for intelligent information identification and extraction in a timely manner are also of interest. A description of AFOSR and the current and planned imaging physics program are presented.

  12. Submillimeter Imaging of the Luminous Infrared Galaxy Pair VV114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frayer, D.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Yun, M. S.; Armus, L.

    1999-01-01

    We report on 450 and 850 mue observations of the interacting galaxy pair, VV114E+W (IC 1623), taken with the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, and near-infrared observations taken with UFTI on the UK Infrared Telescope.

  13. The Impact of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles on Short-term Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William

    2007-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced spacebased atmospheric sounding systems. The combined AlRS/AMSU system provides radiance measurements used to retrieve temperature profiles with an accuracy of 1 K over 1 km layers under both clear and partly cloudy conditions, while the accuracy of the derived humidity profiles is 15% in 2 km layers. Critical to the successful use of AIRS profiles for weather and climate studies is the use of profile quality indicators and error estimates provided with each profile Aside form monitoring changes in Earth's climate, one of the objectives of AIRS is to provide sounding information of sufficient accuracy such that the assimilation of the new observations, especially in data sparse region, will lead to an improvement in weather forecasts. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate highresolution AIRS profile data in a regional analysis/forecast model. The paper will focus on the impact of AIRS profiles on a rapidly developing east coast storm and will also discuss preliminary results for a 30-day forecast period, simulating a quasi-operation environment. Temperature and moisture profiles were obtained from the prototype version 5.0 EOS science team retrieval algorithm which includes explicit error information for each profile. The error profile information was used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture data for every profile location and pressure level for assimilation into the ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS). The AIRS-enhanced analyses were used as initial fields for the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) system used by the SPORT project for regional weather forecast studies. The ADASWRF system will be run on CONUS domain with an emphasis on the east coast. The preliminary assessment of the impact of the AIRS profiles will focus on quality control issues associated with AIRS

  14. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovee, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles with accuracy comparable to that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimension variational (3DVAR) analysis component (WRF-Var). Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in both clear and partly cloudy regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts due to instability added in the forecast soundings by the AIRS profiles. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  15. AirMSPI PODEX Rosamond Ellipsoid Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-13

    ... Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Rosamond target (Rosamond, California) 01/31/2013 Ellipsoid-projected   ... central observation tttt:                 Target name aaa:               Mean viewing angle (reported to the ...

  16. AirMSPI PODEX Nicasio Terrain Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-12

    ... Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Nicasio target (Nicasio, California) 02/03/2013 Terrain-projected   ... central observation tttt:                 Target name aaa:               Mean viewing angle (reported to the ...

  17. AirMSPI PODEX Yorkville Terrain Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-12

    ... Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Yorkville target (Yorkville, California) 02/03/2013 Terrain-projected   ... central observation tttt:                 Target name aaa:               Mean viewing angle (reported to the ...

  18. AirMSPI PODEX Hanford Terrain Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-12

    ... Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Hanford target (Hanford, California) 01/18/2013 - 01/22/2013 ... central observation tttt:                 Target name aaa:               Mean viewing angle (reported to the ...

  19. AirMSPI PODEX Sonoma Terrain Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-12

    ... Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Sonoma target (Sonoma, California) 02/03/2013 Terrain-projected   ... central observation tttt:                 Target name aaa:               Mean viewing angle (reported to the ...

  20. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  1. Infrared imaging enhances retinal crystals in Bietti’s crystalline dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Brar, Vikram S; Benson, William H

    2015-01-01

    Infrared imaging dramatically increased the number of crystalline deposits visualized compared with clinical examination, standard color fundus photography, and red free imaging in patients with Bietti’s crystalline dystrophy. We believe that this imaging modality significantly improves the sensitivity with which these lesions are detected, facilitating earlier diagnosis and may potentially serve as a prognostic indicator when examined over time. PMID:25931805

  2. Improving Regional Forecast by Assimilating Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles into WRF Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background type, and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are derived from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators were used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture data for each profile location and pressure level. The analyses were then used to conduct a month-long series of regional forecasts over the continental U.S. The long-term impacts of AIRS profiles on forecast were assessed against verifying NAM analyses and stage IV precipitation data.

  3. Data Assimilation and Regional Forecasts Using Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses, which in turn should lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles with an accuracy comparable to that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profiles--obtained from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm-into a regional configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background field type, a methodology for ingesting AIRS profiles as separate over-land and over-water retrievals with different error characteristics, and utilization of level-by-level quality indicators to select only the highest quality data. The assessment of the impact of the AIRS profiles on WRF-Var analyses will focus on intelligent use of the quality indicators, optimized tuning of the WRF-Var, and comparison of analysis soundings to radiosondes. The analyses will be used to conduct a month-long series of regional forecasts over the continental U.S. The long-tern1 impact of AIRS profiles on forecast will be assessed against verifying radiosonde and stage IV precipitation data.

  4. Validation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) over the Antarctic Plateau: Low Radiance, Low Humidity, and Thin Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the project has been to use specialized measurements collected at the Antarctic Plateau to provide validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) spectral radiances and some AIRS Level 2 products. As proposed, efforts conducted at the University of Wisconsin are focused on providing technical information, data, and software in support of the validation studies.

  5. Infrared near-field imaging and spectroscopy based on thermal or synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Peragut, Florian; De Wilde, Yannick; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate the coupling of a scattering near-field scanning optical microscope combined with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The set-up operates using either the near-field thermal emission from the sample itself, which is proportional to the electromagnetic local density of states, or with an external infrared synchrotron source, which is broadband and highly brilliant. We perform imaging and spectroscopy measurements with sub-wavelength spatial resolution in the mid-infrared range on surfaces made of silicon carbide and gold and demonstrate the capabilities of the two configurations for super-resolved near-field mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging and that the simple use of a properly chosen bandpass filter on the detector allows one to image the spatial distribution of materials with sub-wavelength resolution by studying the contrast in the near-field images.

  6. The design of real time infrared image generation software based on Creator and Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-feng; Wu, Wei-dong; Huo, Jun-xiu

    2013-09-01

    Considering the requirement of high reality and real-time quality dynamic infrared image of an infrared image simulation, a method to design real-time infrared image simulation application on the platform of VC++ is proposed. This is based on visual simulation software Creator and Vega. The functions of Creator are introduced simply, and the main features of Vega developing environment are analyzed. The methods of infrared modeling and background are offered, the designing flow chart of the developing process of IR image real-time generation software and the functions of TMM Tool and MAT Tool and sensor module are explained, at the same time, the real-time of software is designed.

  7. 640 x 512 Pixels Long-Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) Imaging Focal Plane Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Ting, David Z.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, Sir B.; Blazejewski, Edward R.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Keo, Sam A.; Krishna, Sanjay; Chang, Y. -C.; Shott, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxially grown self-assembled. InAs-InGaAs-GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are exploited for the development of large-format long-wavelength infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs). The dot-in-a-well (DWELL) structures were experimentally shown to absorb both 45 degrees and normal incident light, therefore, a reflection grating structure was used to enhance the quantum efficiency. The devices exhibit peak responsivity out to 8.1 micrometers, with peak detectivity reaching approximately 1 X 10(exp 10) Jones at 77 K. The devices were fabricated into the first long-wavelength 640 x 512 pixel QD infrared photodetector imaging FPA, which has produced excellent infrared imagery with noise equivalent temperature difference of 40 mK at 60-K operating temperature.

  8. An infrared image super-resolution reconstruction method based on compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yuxing; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jintao; Jia, Haiwei

    2016-05-01

    Limited by the properties of infrared detector and camera lens, infrared images are often detail missing and indistinct in vision. The spatial resolution needs to be improved to satisfy the requirements of practical application. Based on compressive sensing (CS) theory, this thesis presents a single image super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) method. With synthetically adopting image degradation model, difference operation-based sparse transformation method and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm, the image SRR problem is transformed into a sparse signal reconstruction issue in CS theory. In our work, the sparse transformation matrix is obtained through difference operation to image, and, the measurement matrix is achieved analytically from the imaging principle of infrared camera. Therefore, the time consumption can be decreased compared with the redundant dictionary obtained by sample training such as K-SVD. The experimental results show that our method can achieve favorable performance and good stability with low algorithm complexity.

  9. Multi-window visual saliency extraction for fusion of visible and infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jufeng; Gao, Xiumin; Chen, Yueting; Feng, Huajun; Wang, Daodang

    2016-05-01

    Fusion for visible and infrared images aims to combine the source images of the same scene into a single image with more feature information and better visual performance. In this paper, the authors propose a fusion method based on multi-window visual saliency extraction for visible and infrared images. To extract feature information from infrared and visible images, we design local-window-based frequency-tuned method. With this idea, visual saliency maps are calculated for variable feature information under different local window. These maps show the weights of people's attention upon images for each pixel and region. Enhanced fusion is done using simple weight combination way. Compared with the classical and state-of-the-art approaches, the experimental results demonstrate the proposed approach runs efficiently and performs better than other methods, especially in visual performance and details enhancement.

  10. Chemical Imaging of Heterogeneous Muscle Foods Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging in Transmission Mode.

    PubMed

    Wold, Jens Petter; Kermit, Martin; Segtnan, Vegard Herman

    2016-06-01

    Foods and biomaterials are, in general, heterogeneous and it is often a challenge to obtain spectral data which are representative for the chemical composition and distribution. This paper presents a setup for near-infrared (NIR) transmission imaging where the samples are completely trans-illuminated, probing the entire sample. The system measures falling samples at high speed and consists of an NIR imaging scanner covering the spectral range 760-1040 nm and a powerful line light source. The investigated samples were rather big: whole pork bellies of thickness up to 5 cm, salmon fillets with skin, and 3 cm thick model samples of ground pork meat. Partial least square regression models for fat were developed for ground pork and salmon fillet with high correlations (R = 0.98 and R = 0.95, respectively). The regression models were applied at pixel level in the hyperspectral transmission images and resulted in images of fat distribution where also deeply embedded fat clearly contributed to the result. The results suggest that it is possible to use transmission imaging for rapid, nondestructive, and representative sampling of very heterogeneous foods. The proposed system is suitable for industrial use. PMID:27257302

  11. Semiautomatic nondispersive infrared analyzer apparatus for CO/sub 2/ air sample analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Komhyr, W.D.; Waterman, L.S.; Taylor, W.R.

    1983-02-20

    A semiautomatic nondispersive infrared analyzer apparatus has been developed for analysis of up to 50 CO/sub 2/ air samples per day. The samples are collected in 500-ml glass flasks and are transferred to the analyzer with a novel, free-floating piston pump. Sample and calibration gas transfer operations are controlled by a microprocessor, and data are recorded, analyzed, and output by a Hewlett-Packard 9845A/S desktop computer. The apparatus is described, including operating and test modes, and performance characteristics determined from 2 years of operation are given. 7 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Optical Alignment and Diffraction Analysis for AIRES: An Airborne Infrared Echelle Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The optical design is presented for a long-slit grating spectrometer known as AIRES (Airborne InfraRed Echelle Spectrometer). The instrument employs two gratings in series: a small order sorter and a large steeply blazed echelle. The optical path includes four pupil and four field stops, including two narrow slits. A detailed diffraction analysis is performed using GLAD by Applied Optics Research to evaluate critical trade-offs between optical throughput, spectral resolution, and system weight and volume. The effects of slit width, slit length, oversizing the second slit relative to the first, on- vs off-axis throughput, and clipping at the pupil stops and other optical elements are discussed.

  13. An improved fusion algorithm for infrared and visible images based on multi-scale transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, He; Liu, Lei; Huang, Wei; Yue, Chao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an improved fusion algorithm for infrared and visible images based on multi-scale transform is proposed. First of all, Morphology-Hat transform is used for an infrared image and a visible image separately. Then two images were decomposed into high-frequency and low-frequency images by contourlet transform (CT). The fusion strategy of high-frequency images is based on mean gradient and the fusion strategy of low-frequency images is based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally, the final fused image is obtained by using the inverse contourlet transform (ICT). The experiments and results demonstrate that the proposed method can significantly improve image fusion performance, accomplish notable target information and high contrast and preserve rich details information at the same time.

  14. Wide-field imaging spectrometer for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Holly A.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Korniski, Ronald J.; Green, Robert O.; Wilson, Daniel W.

    2014-09-01

    We report on the design, tolerancing, and laboratory breadboard of an imaging spectrometer for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Hyperspectral and Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission. The spectrometer is of the Offner type but with a much longer slit than typical designs, with 1600 resolvable spatial elements along the slit for a length of 48 mm. Two such spectrometers cover more than the required swath while maintaining high throughput and signal-to-noise thanks to the large pixel size (30 μm), relatively high speed (F/2.8) and small number of reflections. We also demonstrate a method for measuring smile using a linear array, and use the method to prove the achievement of negligible smile of less than 2% of a pixel over the entire 48 mm slit. Thus we show that this high-heritage, all-spherical mirror design can serve the requirements of the HyspIRI mission.

  15. Effect of multiple circular holes Fraunhofer diffraction for the infrared optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chunlian; Lv, He; Cao, Yang; Cai, Zhisong; Tan, Xiaojun

    2014-11-01

    With the development of infrared optics, infrared optical imaging systems play an increasingly important role in modern optical imaging systems. Infrared optical imaging is used in industry, agriculture, medical, military and transportation. But in terms of infrared optical imaging systems which are exposed for a long time, some contaminations will affect the infrared optical imaging. When the contamination contaminate on the lens surface of the optical system, it would affect diffraction. The lens can be seen as complementary multiple circular holes screen happen Fraunhofer diffraction. According to Babinet principle, you can get the diffraction of the imaging system. Therefore, by studying the multiple circular holes Fraunhofer diffraction, conclusions can be drawn about the effect of infrared imaging. This paper mainly studies the effect of multiple circular holes Fraunhofer diffraction for the optical imaging. Firstly, we introduce the theory of Fraunhofer diffraction and Point Spread Function. Point Spread Function is a basic tool to evaluate the image quality of the optical system. Fraunhofer diffraction will affect Point Spread Function. Then, the results of multiple circular holes Fraunhofer diffraction are given for different hole size and hole spacing. We choose the hole size from 0.1mm to 1mm and hole spacing from 0.3mm to 0.8mm. The infrared wavebands of optical imaging are chosen from 1μm to 5μm. We use the MATLAB to simulate light intensity distribution of multiple circular holes Fraunhofer diffraction. Finally, three-dimensional diffraction maps of light intensity are given to contrast.

  16. Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Polarization Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Waluschka, Eugene; Wang, Menghua

    2016-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on October 28, 2011. It is a whiskbroom radiometer that provides +/-56.28deg scans of the Earth view. It has 22 bands, among which 14 are reflective solar bands (RSBs). The RSBs cover a wavelength range from 410 to 2250 nm. The RSBs of a remote sensor are usually sensitive to the polarization of incident light. For VIIRS, it is specified that the polarization factor should be smaller than 3% for 410 and 862 nm bands and 2.5% for other RSBs for the scan angle within +/-45deg. Several polarization sensitivity tests were performed prelaunch for SNPP VIIRS. The first few tests either had large uncertainty or were less reliable, while the last one was believed to provide the more accurate information about the polarization property of the instrument. In this paper, the measured data in the last polarization sensitivity test are analyzed, and the polarization factors and phase angles are derived from the measurements for all the RSBs. The derived polarization factors and phase angles are band, detector, and scan angle dependent. For near-infrared bands, they also depend on the half-angle mirror side. Nevertheless, the derived polarization factors are all within the specification, although the strong detector dependence of the polarization parameters was not expected. Compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on both Aqua and Terra satellites, the polarization effect on VIIRS RSB is much smaller.

  17. Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite polarization sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Waluschka, Eugene; Wang, Menghua

    2016-09-20

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on October 28, 2011. It is a whiskbroom radiometer that provides ±56.28° scans of the Earth view. It has 22 bands, among which 14 are reflective solar bands (RSBs). The RSBs cover a wavelength range from 410 to 2250 nm. The RSBs of a remote sensor are usually sensitive to the polarization of incident light. For VIIRS, it is specified that the polarization factor should be smaller than 3% for 410 and 862 nm bands and 2.5% for other RSBs for the scan angle within ±45°. Several polarization sensitivity tests were performed prelaunch for SNPP VIIRS. The first few tests either had large uncertainty or were less reliable, while the last one was believed to provide the more accurate information about the polarization property of the instrument. In this paper, the measured data in the last polarization sensitivity test are analyzed, and the polarization factors and phase angles are derived from the measurements for all the RSBs. The derived polarization factors and phase angles are band, detector, and scan angle dependent. For near-infrared bands, they also depend on the half-angle mirror side. Nevertheless, the derived polarization factors are all within the specification, although the strong detector dependence of the polarization parameters was not expected. Compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on both Aqua and Terra satellites, the polarization effect on VIIRS RSB is much smaller. PMID:27661594

  18. Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite polarization sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Waluschka, Eugene; Wang, Menghua

    2016-09-20

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on October 28, 2011. It is a whiskbroom radiometer that provides ±56.28° scans of the Earth view. It has 22 bands, among which 14 are reflective solar bands (RSBs). The RSBs cover a wavelength range from 410 to 2250 nm. The RSBs of a remote sensor are usually sensitive to the polarization of incident light. For VIIRS, it is specified that the polarization factor should be smaller than 3% for 410 and 862 nm bands and 2.5% for other RSBs for the scan angle within ±45°. Several polarization sensitivity tests were performed prelaunch for SNPP VIIRS. The first few tests either had large uncertainty or were less reliable, while the last one was believed to provide the more accurate information about the polarization property of the instrument. In this paper, the measured data in the last polarization sensitivity test are analyzed, and the polarization factors and phase angles are derived from the measurements for all the RSBs. The derived polarization factors and phase angles are band, detector, and scan angle dependent. For near-infrared bands, they also depend on the half-angle mirror side. Nevertheless, the derived polarization factors are all within the specification, although the strong detector dependence of the polarization parameters was not expected. Compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on both Aqua and Terra satellites, the polarization effect on VIIRS RSB is much smaller.

  19. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Precipitation Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles in clear and cloudy regions with accuracy which approaches that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model using WRF-Var. Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in clear and partly cloudy regions, and uncontaminated portions of retrievals above clouds in overcast regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts resulting from improved thermodynamic fields. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  20. Infrared pulse characterization using four-wave mixing inside a few cycle pulse filament in air

    SciTech Connect

    Marceau, Claude Thomas, Steven; Kassimi, Yacine; Gingras, Guillaume; Witzel, Bernd

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate a four-wave mixing (FWM) technique to measure near- and mid-infrared (IR) laser pulse shapes in time domain. Few cycle 800 nm laser pulses were synchronized with the IR pulse and focused colinearly to generate a plasma filament in air. Second harmonic radiation around 400 nm was generated through FWM, with a yield proportional to the IR pulse intensity. Excellent signal to noise ratio was observed from 2.1 μm to 18 μm. With proper phase stabilization of the IR beam, this technique is a promising step toward direct electric field sensing of near-IR pulses in air.

  1. Science Highlights and Lessons Learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Suda, Jarrod; Licata, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on the NASA Earth Observing System Aqua spacecraft are facility instruments designed to support measurements of atmospheric temperature, water vapor and a wide range of atmospheric constituents in support of weather forecasting and scientific research in climate and atmospheric chemistry. This paper is an update to the science highlights from a paper by the authors released last year and also looks back at the lessons learned and future needs of the scientific community. These lessons not only include requirements on the measurements, but scientific shortfalls as well. Results from the NASA Science Community Workshop in IR and MW Sounders relating to AIRS and AMSU requirements and concerns are covered and reflect much of what has been learned and what is needed for future atmospheric sounding from Low Earth Orbit.

  2. An infrared thermal image processing framework based on superpixel algorithm to detect cracks on metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Changhang; Xie, Jing; Chen, Guoming; Huang, Weiping

    2014-11-01

    Infrared thermography has been used increasingly as an effective non-destructive technique to detect cracks on metal surface. Due to many factors, infrared thermal image has low definition compared to visible image. The contrasts between cracks and sound areas in different thermal image frames of a specimen vary greatly with the recorded time. An accurate detection can only be obtained by glancing over the whole thermal video, which is a laborious work. Moreover, experience of the operator has a great important influence on the accuracy of detection result. In this paper, an infrared thermal image processing framework based on superpixel algorithm is proposed to accomplish crack detection automatically. Two popular superpixel algorithms are compared and one of them is selected to generate superpixels in this application. Combined features of superpixels were selected from both the raw gray level image and the high-pass filtered image. Fuzzy c-means clustering is used to cluster superpixels in order to segment infrared thermal image. Experimental results show that the proposed framework can recognize cracks on metal surface through infrared thermal image automatically.

  3. In-flight off-surface flow visualization using infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, Gregory S.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Alderfer, David W.; Obara, Clifford J.

    1991-01-01

    A light test investigation was conducted to evaluate an infrared (IR) imaging technique to visualize off-surface flow phenomena. A single-engine, general-aviation airplane was equipped with an IR imaging system that viewed the region around the left wingtip. Vortical flow at the wingtip was seeded with surfur hexafluoride, a gas with strong infrared absorbing and emitting characteristics. Different terrain and sky backgrounds were evaluated for their effect on IR images of vortical flow. The best IR images were obtained with a clear background. The results of the investigation indicate that IR flow visualization compliments existing smoke generator methods for off-surface flow visualization.

  4. Carbon Monoxide Distribution over Peninsular Malaysia from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jaso M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.

    2009-07-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. It daily coverage of ˜70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite traces gas remote sensing. AIRS, the part of a large international investment to upgrade the operational meteorological satellite systems, is first of the new generation of meteorological advanced sounders for operational and research use, Providing New Insights into Weather and Climate for the 21st Century. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous, an indoor and outdoor air pollutant, is not a significant greenhouse gas as it absorbs little infrared radiation from the Earth. However, it does have an influence on oxidization in the atmosphere through interaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH), which also react with methane, halocarbons and tropospheric ozone. It produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning, and that it has a role as a smog. The aim of this investigation is to study the (CO) carbon monoxide distribution over Peninsular Malaysia. The land use map of the Peninsular Malaysia was conducted by using CO total column amount, obtained from AIRS data, the map & data was processed and analyzed by using Photoshop & SigmaPlot 11.0 programs and compared for timing of various (day time) (28 August 2005 & 29 August 2007) for both direct comparison and the comparison using the same a priori profile, the CO concentrations in 28/8/2005 higher. The CO maps were generated using Kriging Interpolation technique. This interpolation technique produced high correlation coefficient, R2 and low root mean square error, RMS for CO. This study provided useful information for influence change of CO concentration on varies temperature.

  5. Non-uniformity correction for infrared focal plane array with image based on neural network algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tingting; Yu, Junsheng; Zhou, Yun; Xing, Yanmin; Jiang, Yadong

    2010-10-01

    Non-uniformity response of detectors based on infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) result in fixed pattern noise (FPN) due to detector materials' non-uniformity and fabrication technology. Once fixed pattern noise added to the infrared image, focal plane image quality will have a serious impact. So non-uniformity correction (NUC) is a key technology in IRFPA application. This paper briefly introduces the traditional neural network algorithm and puts forward an improved algorithm for the neural network algorithm for NUC of infrared focal plane arrays. The main improvement is focused on the estimation method of desired image. The algorithm is used to analyze the image array, correcting data on the array both in space and in time. The correction image in the text is from the infrared data sequence which is more successful of three frames of data obtained. It was found that the estimated image corrected by new algorithm is closer to real image than the estimated image corrected by other algorithm. Moreover, we simulated the new proposed algorithm using Matlab. The results showed that the method of spatial and temporal co-correction of the images is more realistic than the original image.

  6. Gaussian mixture model-based gradient field reconstruction for infrared image detail enhancement and denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Wenda; Qu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Infrared images are characterized by low signal-to-noise ratio and low contrast. Therefore, the edge details are easily immerged in the background and noise, making it much difficult to achieve infrared image edge detail enhancement and denoising. This article proposes a novel method of Gaussian mixture model-based gradient field reconstruction, which enhances image edge details while suppressing noise. First, by analyzing the gradient histogram of noisy infrared image, Gaussian mixture model is adopted to simulate the distribution of the gradient histogram, and divides the image information into three parts corresponding to faint details, noise and the edges of clear targets, respectively. Then, the piecewise function is constructed based on the characteristics of the image to increase gradients of faint details and suppress gradients of noise. Finally, anisotropic diffusion constraint is added while visualizing enhanced image from the transformed gradient field to further suppress noise. The experimental results show that the method possesses unique advantage of effectively enhancing infrared image edge details and suppressing noise as well, compared with the existing methods. In addition, it can be used to effectively enhance other types of images such as the visible and medical images.

  7. Regional Precipitation Forecast with Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profile Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced technology in hyperspectral sensors such as the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS; Aumann et al. 2003) on NASA's polar orbiting Aqua satellite retrieve higher vertical resolution thermodynamic profiles than their predecessors due to increased spectral resolution. Although these capabilities do not replace the robust vertical resolution provided by radiosondes, they can serve as a complement to radiosondes in both space and time. These retrieved soundings can have a significant impact on weather forecasts if properly assimilated into prediction models. Several recent studies have evaluated the performance of specific operational weather forecast models when AIRS data are included in the assimilation process. LeMarshall et al. (2006) concluded that AIRS radiances significantly improved 500 hPa anomaly correlations in medium-range forecasts of the Global Forecast System (GFS) model. McCarty et al. (2009) demonstrated similar forecast improvement in 0-48 hour forecasts in an offline version of the operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) model when AIRS radiances were assimilated at the regional scale. Reale et al. (2008) showed improvements to Northern Hemisphere 500 hPa height anomaly correlations in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) global system with the inclusion of partly cloudy AIRS temperature profiles. Singh et al. (2008) assimilated AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional modeling system for a study of a heavy rainfall event during the summer monsoon season in Mumbai, India. This paper describes an approach to assimilate AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var; Barker et al. 2004). Section 2 describes the AIRS instrument and how the quality indicators are used to intelligently select the highest-quality data for assimilation

  8. A reappraisal of the use of infrared thermal image analysis in medicine.

    PubMed

    Jones, B F

    1998-12-01

    Infrared thermal imaging of the skin has been used for several decades to monitor the temperature distribution of human skin. Abnormalities such as malignancies, inflammation, and infection cause localized increases in temperature which show as hot spots or as asymmetrical patterns in an infrared thermogram. Even though it is nonspecific, infrared thermology is a powerful detector of problems that affect a patient's physiology. While the use of infrared imaging is increasing in many industrial and security applications, it has declined in medicine probably because of the continued reliance on first generation cameras. The transfer of military technology for medical use has prompted this reappraisal of infrared thermology in medicine. Digital infrared cameras have much improved spatial and thermal resolutions, and libraries of image processing routines are available to analyze images captured both statically and dynamically. If thermographs are captured under controlled conditions, they may be interpreted readily to diagnose certain conditions and to monitor the reaction of a patient's physiology to thermal and other stresses. Some of the major areas where infrared thermography is being used successfully are neurology, vascular disorders, rheumatic diseases, tissue viability, oncology (especially breast cancer), dermatological disorders, neonatal, ophthalmology, and surgery.

  9. Fusion of infrared polarization and intensity images using support value transform and fuzzy combination rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fengbao; Wei, Hong

    2013-09-01

    Infrared polarization and intensity imagery provide complementary and discriminative information in image understanding and interpretation. In this paper, a novel fusion method is proposed by effectively merging the information with various combination rules. It makes use of both low-frequency and high-frequency images components from support value transform (SVT), and applies fuzzy logic in the combination process. Images (both infrared polarization and intensity images) to be fused are firstly decomposed into low-frequency component images and support value image sequences by the SVT. Then the low-frequency component images are combined using a fuzzy combination rule blending three sub-combination methods of (1) region feature maximum, (2) region feature weighting average, and (3) pixel value maximum; and the support value image sequences are merged using a fuzzy combination rule fusing two sub-combination methods of (1) pixel energy maximum and (2) region feature weighting. With the variables of two newly defined features, i.e. the low-frequency difference feature for low-frequency component images and the support-value difference feature for support value image sequences, trapezoidal membership functions are proposed and developed in tuning the fuzzy fusion process. Finally the fused image is obtained by inverse SVT operations. Experimental results of visual inspection and quantitative evaluation both indicate the superiority of the proposed method to its counterparts in image fusion of infrared polarization and intensity images.

  10. Non-contact optoacoustic imaging by raster scanning a piezoelectric air-coupled transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Pang, Genny A.; Montero de Espinosa, Francisco; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Optoacoustic techniques rely on ultrasound transmission between optical absorbers within tissues and the measurement location. Much like in echography, commonly used piezoelectric transducers require either direct contact with the tissue or through a liquid coupling medium. The contact nature of this detection approach then represents a disadvantage of standard optoacoustic systems with respect to other imaging modalities (including optical techniques) in applications where non-contact imaging is needed, e.g. in open surgeries or when burns or other lesions are present in the skin. Herein, non-contact optoacoustic imaging using raster-scanning of a spherically-focused piezoelectric air-coupled ultrasound transducer is demonstrated. When employing laser fluence levels not exceeding the maximal permissible human exposure, it is shown possible to attain detectable signals from objects as small as 1 mm having absorption properties representative of blood at near-infrared wavelengths with a relatively low number of averages. Optoacoustic images from vessel-mimicking tubes embedded in an agar phantom are further showcased. The initial results indicate that the air-coupled ultrasound detection approach can be potentially made suitable for non-contact biomedical imaging with optoacoustics.

  11. Midwave infrared imaging Fourier transform spectrometry of combustion plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Kenneth C.

    A midwave infrared (MWIR) imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) was used to successfully capture and analyze hyperspectral imagery of combustion plumes. Jet engine exhaust data from a small turbojet engine burning diesel fuel at a low rate of 300 cm3/min was collected at 1 cm -1 resolution from a side-plume vantage point on a 200x64 pixel window at a range of 11.2 meters. Spectral features of H2O, CO, and CO2 were present, and showed spatial variability within the plume structure. An array of thermocouple probes was positioned within the plume to aid in temperature analysis. A single-temperature plume model was implemented to obtain spatially-varying temperatures and plume concentrations. Model-fitted temperatures of 811 +/- 1.5 K and 543 +/- 1.6 K were obtained from plume regions in close proximity to thermocouple probes measuring temperatures of 719 K and 522 K, respectively. Industrial smokestack plume data from a coal-burning stack collected at 0.25 cm-1 resolution at a range of 600 meters featured strong emission from NO, CO, CO2, SO 2, and HCl in the spectral region 1800-3000 cm-1. A simplified radiative transfer model was employed to derive temperature and concentrations for clustered regions of the 128x64 pixel scene, with corresponding statistical error bounds. The hottest region (closest to stack centerline) was 401 +/- 0.36 K, compared to an in-stack measurement of 406 K, and model-derived concentration values of NO, CO2, and SO2 were 140 +/- 1 ppmV, 110,400 +/- 950 ppmV, and 382 +/- 4 ppmV compared to in-stack measurements of 120 ppmV (NOx), 94,000 ppmV, and 382 ppmV, respectively. In-stack measurements of CO and HCl were not provided by the stack operator, but model-derived values of 19 +/- 0.2 ppmV and 111 +/- 1 ppmV are reported near stack centerline. A deployment to Dugway Proving Grounds, UT to collect hyperspectral imagery of chemical and biological threat agent simulants resulted in weak spectral signatures from several species. Plume

  12. Simultaneous particle image velocimetry and infrared imagery of microscale breaking waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, M. H. Kamran; Loewen, Mark R.; Richardson, Christine; Asher, William E.; Jessup, Andrew T.

    2001-07-01

    We report the results from a laboratory investigation in which microscale breaking waves were detected using an infrared (IR) imager and two-dimensional (2-D) velocity fields were simultaneously measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). In addition, the local heat transfer velocity was measured using the controlled flux technique. To the best of our knowledge these are the first measurements of the instantaneous 2-D velocity fields generated beneath microscale breaking waves. Careful measurements of the water surface profile enabled us to make accurate estimates of the near-surface velocities using PIV. Previous experiments have shown that behind the leading edge of a microscale breaker the cool skin layer is disrupted creating a thermal signature in the IR image [Jessup et al., J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23145 (1997)]. The simultaneously sampled IR images and PIV data enabled us to show that these disruptions or wakes are typically produced by a series of vortices that form behind the leading edge of the breaker. When the vortices are first formed they are very strong and coherent but as time passes, and they move from the crest region to the back face of the wave, they become weaker and less coherent. The near-surface vorticity was correlated with both the fractional area coverage of microscale breaking waves and the local heat transfer velocity. The strong correlations provide convincing evidence that the wakes produced by microscale breaking waves are regions of high near-surface vorticity that are in turn responsible for enhancing air-water heat transfer rates.

  13. Reduction of artefacts and noise for a wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Shi, Zelin; Xu, Baoshu; Zhang, Chengshuo

    2016-07-01

    Because of obvious drawbacks including serious artefacts and noise in a decoded image, the existing wavefront coding infrared imaging systems are seriously restricted in application. The proposed ultra-precision diamond machining technique manufactures an optical phase mask with a form manufacturing errors of approximately 770 nm and a surface roughness value Ra of 5.44 nm. The proposed decoding method outperforms the classical Wiener filtering method in three indices of mean square errors, mean structural similarity index and noise equivalent temperature difference. Based on the results mentioned above and a basic principle of wavefront coding technique, this paper further develops a wavefront coding infrared imaging system. Experimental results prove that our wavefront coding infrared imaging system yields a decoded image with good quality over a temperature range from ‑40 °C to +70 °C.

  14. A parallel multiple path tracing method based on OptiX for infrared image generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Xia; Liu, Li; Long, Teng; Wu, Zimu

    2015-12-01

    Infrared image generation technology is being widely used in infrared imaging system performance evaluation, battlefield environment simulation and military personnel training, which require a more physically accurate and efficient method for infrared scene simulation. A parallel multiple path tracing method based on OptiX was proposed to solve the problem, which can not only increase computational efficiency compared to serial ray tracing using CPU, but also produce relatively accurate results. First, the flaws of current ray tracing methods in infrared simulation were analyzed and thus a multiple path tracing method based on OptiX was developed. Furthermore, the Monte Carlo integration was employed to solve the radiation transfer equation, in which the importance sampling method was applied to accelerate the integral convergent rate. After that, the framework of the simulation platform and its sensor effects simulation diagram were given. Finally, the results showed that the method could generate relatively accurate radiation images if a precise importance sampling method was available.

  15. Infrared model development for a high-speed imaging fuze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbo, Dennis L.; Olson, Eric M.; Crow, Dennis R.; Coker, Charles F.; Cunard, Donald A.

    1998-07-01

    Development and generation of high-fidelity IR scenes to support testing requirements at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) facility at Eglin AFB, Florida has been the mission for the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) scene generation team throughout the past ten years. During that time scene generation efforts have supported operational scenarios ranging from surveillance through terminal homing. Recent programs have required the development of IR target and background models to support the testing needs of a high-speed fuze. Development of IR models and techniques to support high-speed fuze applications required advancing the state-of-the-art in IR scene generation. This effort required the development of several target models not available from other sources. In addition, due to the unusual proximity fuze seeker configuration that utilizes a wide angle lens to encompass a full 360 degree field-of-view (FOV) and very fast frame rate requirements, normal scene generation techniques were not adequate. Hundreds of scenarios consisting of hundreds of image frames were needed to develop the fuzing algorithms. This scene generation requirement necessitated that realistic scene sequences be produced in minutes rather than hours. This paper discusses the IR model development path to generate IR scene sequences to support the algorithm development for this fuzing program. The discussion describes the process and unique modeling techniques that were implemented to build foreign target models that include fighter and bomber aircraft, low-flying cruise missiles, and helicopters. Implementation of appropriate rendering techniques to support the generation of backgrounds that include atmospherics, terrain, and sea for realistic target engagements are also discussed. Finally, a description of the process utilized in merging IR model and commercial hardware solutions to satisfy the IR scene generation requirements for this program is presented.

  16. Cast Glance Near Infrared Imaging Observations of the Space Shuttle During Hypersonic Re-Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tack, Steve; Tomek, Deborah M.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Shea, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    High resolution calibrated infrared imagery of the Space Shuttle was obtained during hypervelocity atmospheric entries of the STS-119, STS-125 and STS128 missions and has provided information on the distribution of surface temperature and the state of the airflow over the windward surface of the Orbiter during descent. This data collect was initiated by NASA s Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) team and incorporated the use of air- and land-based optical assets to image the Shuttle during atmospheric re-entry. The HYTHIRM objective is to develop and implement a set of mission planning tools designed to establish confidence in the ability of an existing optical asset to reliably acquire, track and return global quantitative surface temperatures of the Shuttle during entry. On Space Shuttle Discovery s STS-119 mission, NASA flew a specially modified thermal protection system tile and instrumentation package to monitor heating effects from boundary layer transition during re-entry. On STS-119, the windward airflow on the port wing was deliberately disrupted by a four-inch wide and quarter-inch tall protuberance built into the modified tile. In coordination with this flight experiment, a US Navy NP-3D Orion aircraft was flown 28 nautical miles below Discovery and remotely monitored surface temperature of the Orbiter at Mach 8.4 using a long-range infrared optical package referred to as Cast Glance. Approximately two months later, the same Navy Cast Glance aircraft successfully monitored the surface temperatures of the Orbiter Atlantis traveling at approximately Mach 14.3 during its return from the successful Hubble repair mission. In contrast to Discovery, Atlantis was not part of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) flight experiment, thus the vehicle was not configured with a protuberance on the port wing. In September 2009, Cast Glance was again successful in capturing infrared imagery and monitoring the surface temperatures on Discovery s next

  17. Single infrared image super-resolution combining non-local means with kernel regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Chen, Fu-sheng; Zhang, Zhi-jie; Wang, Chen-sheng

    2013-11-01

    In many infrared imaging systems, the focal plane array is not sufficient dense to adequately sample the scene with the desired field of view. Therefore, there are not enough high frequency details in the infrared image generally. Super-resolution (SR) technology can be used to increase the resolution of low-resolution (LR) infrared image. In this paper, a novel super-resolution algorithm is proposed based on non-local means (NLM) and steering kernel regression (SKR). Based on that there are a large number of similar patches within an infrared image, NLM method can abstract the non-local similarity information and then the value of high-resolution (HR) pixel can be estimated. SKR method is derived based on the local smoothness of the natural images. In this paper the SKR is used to give the regularization term which can restrict the image noise and protect image edges. The estimated SR image is obtained by minimizing a cost function. In the experiments the proposed algorithm is compared with state-of-the-art algorithms. The comparison results show that the proposed method is robust to the noise and it can restore higher quality image both in quantitative term and visual effect.

  18. Aerial image retargeting (AIR): achieving litho-friendly designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehia Hamouda, Ayman; Word, James; Anis, Mohab; Karim, Karim S.

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we present a new technique to detect non-Litho-Friendly design areas based on their Aerial Image signature. The aerial image is calculated for the litho target (pre-OPC). This is followed by the fixing (retargeting) the design to achieve a litho friendly OPC target. This technique is applied and tested on 28 nm metal layer and shows a big improvement in the process window performance. For an optimized Aerial-Image-Retargeting (AIR) recipe is very computationally efficient and its runtime doesn't consume more than 1% of the OPC flow runtime.

  19. High-definition Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging of breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, L. Suzanne; Kadjacsy-Balla, Andre; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer diagnosis relies on staining serial sections of a biopsy in a process that can be time intensive and costly. Fourier transform infrared imaging (FT-IR) is a non-destructive, label-free chemical imaging technique that uses the vibrational structure of the biological molecules of the sample to provide contrast for images at any absorption peak in the mid-infrared. The full potential of spectroscopic imaging has been limited by the spatial resolution provided by most commercial instruments. By increasing the magnification and numerical aperture of the microscope, image pixel sizes on the order of 1.1 micron can be achieved, allowing HD FT-IR spectroscopic imaging to provide high quality images that could aid in histopathology, diagnosis, and studies of breast cancer progression.

  20. The design of passively athermalized narrow- and wide-field-of-view infrared objectives for the OBSERVER unmanned air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Richard C.; Manning, Paul A.; Chamberlain, Trevor V.

    2004-12-01

    Some years ago QinetiQ introduced a short-range reconnaissance unmanned air vehicle (UAV), known as OBSERVER, which carried a visible three-camera sensor. To increase its versatility, a compatible infrared (IR) thermal imaging (TI) sensor was developed for the vehicle for operation in the 8-12mm waveband with a dual field of view function. The sensor incorporates a specially designed camera board, employing two IR lead scandium tantalate (PST) detectors based on UK un-cooled TI technology. Since no cooling engine is required for the detectors, the sensor module is very lightweight and hence well suited to its UAV application. So as to achieve the minimum possible payload for the vehicle, in addition to the lightweight detectors and electronics board, compact low mass optical solutions were devised for the camera objectives. These functioned at a relative aperture of f/1.0 and were designed to provide stable focus and imaging performance over a comparatively large temperature span (-10°C to + 50°C) to enable all weather operation. In order to achieve an athermalisation scheme devoid of elaborate electro-mechanical drives, thermally passive solutions were developed for the objectives in which the differing thermal characteristics of the components were designed to self-cancel optically. In this paper, the design and performance limitations of the optics are discussed and the procedure employed for establishing a thin lens pre-design for one of the objectives is described.

  1. On the importance of image formation optics in the design of infrared spectroscopic imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Mayerich, David; van Dijk, Thomas; Walsh, Michael J; Schulmerich, Matthew V; Carney, P Scott; Bhargava, Rohit

    2014-08-21

    Infrared spectroscopic imaging provides micron-scale spatial resolution with molecular contrast. While recent work demonstrates that sample morphology affects the recorded spectrum, considerably less attention has been focused on the effects of the optics, including the condenser and objective. This analysis is extremely important, since it will be possible to understand effects on recorded data and provides insight for reducing optical effects through rigorous microscope design. Here, we present a theoretical description and experimental results that demonstrate the effects of commonly-employed cassegranian optics on recorded spectra. We first combine an explicit model of image formation and a method for quantifying and visualizing the deviations in recorded spectra as a function of microscope optics. We then verify these simulations with measurements obtained from spatially heterogeneous samples. The deviation of the computed spectrum from the ideal case is quantified via a map which we call a deviation map. The deviation map is obtained as a function of optical elements by systematic simulations. Examination of deviation maps demonstrates that the optimal optical configuration for minimal deviation is contrary to prevailing practice in which throughput is maximized for an instrument without a sample. This report should be helpful for understanding recorded spectra as a function of the optics, the analytical limits of recorded data determined by the optical design, and potential routes for optimization of imaging systems.

  2. On the importance of image formation optics in the design of infrared spectroscopic imaging systems

    PubMed Central

    Mayerich, David; van Dijk, Thomas; Walsh, Michael; Schulmerich, Matthew; Carney, P. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic imaging provides micron-scale spatial resolution with molecular contrast. While recent work demonstrates that sample morphology affects the recorded spectrum, considerably less attention has been focused on the effects of the optics, including the condenser and objective. This analysis is extremely important, since it will be possible to understand effects on recorded data and provides insight for reducing optical effects through rigorous microscope design. Here, we present a theoretical description and experimental results that demonstrate the effects of commonly-employed cassegranian optics on recorded spectra. We first combine an explicit model of image formation and a method for quantifying and visualizing the deviations in recorded spectra as a function of microscope optics. We then verify these simulations with measurements obtained from spatially heterogeneous samples. The deviation of the computed spectrum from the ideal case is quantified via a map which we call a deviation map. The deviation map is obtained as a function of optical elements by systematic simulations. Examination of deviation maps demonstrates that the optimal optical configuration for minimal deviation is contrary to prevailing practice in which throughput is maximized for an instrument without a sample. This report should be helpful for understanding recorded spectra as a function of the optics, the analytical limits of recorded data determined by the optical design, and potential routes for optimization of imaging systems. PMID:24936526

  3. The Python pit organ: imaging and immunocytochemical analysis of an extremely sensitive natural infrared detector.

    PubMed

    Grace, M S; Church, D R; Kelly, C T; Lynn, W F; Cooper, T M

    1999-01-01

    The Python infrared-sensitive pit organ is a natural infrared imager that combines high sensitivity, ambient temperature function, microscopic dimensions, and self-repair. We are investigating the spectral sensitivity and signal transduction process in snake infrared-sensitive neurons, neither of which is understood. For example, it is unknown whether infrared receptor neurons function on a thermal or a photic mechanism. We imaged pit organs in living Python molurus and Python regius using infrared-sensitive digital video cameras. Pit organs were significantly more absorptive and/or emissive than surrounding tissues in both 3-5 microns and 8-12 microns wavelength ranges. Pit organs exhibited greater absorption/emissivity in the 8-12 microns range than in the 3-5 microns range. To directly test the relationship between photoreceptors and pit organ infrared-sensitive neurons, we performed immunocytochemistry using antisera directed against retinal photoreceptor opsins. Retinal photoreceptors were labeled with antisera specific for retinal opsins, but these antisera failed to label terminals of infrared-sensitive neurons in the pit organ. Infrared-receptive neurons were also distinguished from retinal photoreceptors on the basis of their calcium-binding protein content. These results indicate that the pit organ absorbs infrared radiation in two major atmospheric transmission windows, one of which (8-12 microns) matches emission of targeted prey, and that infrared receptors are biochemically distinct from retinal photoreceptors. These results also provide the first identification of prospective biochemical components of infrared signal transduction in pit organ receptor neurons.

  4. The Python pit organ: imaging and immunocytochemical analysis of an extremely sensitive natural infrared detector.

    PubMed

    Grace, M S; Church, D R; Kelly, C T; Lynn, W F; Cooper, T M

    1999-01-01

    The Python infrared-sensitive pit organ is a natural infrared imager that combines high sensitivity, ambient temperature function, microscopic dimensions, and self-repair. We are investigating the spectral sensitivity and signal transduction process in snake infrared-sensitive neurons, neither of which is understood. For example, it is unknown whether infrared receptor neurons function on a thermal or a photic mechanism. We imaged pit organs in living Python molurus and Python regius using infrared-sensitive digital video cameras. Pit organs were significantly more absorptive and/or emissive than surrounding tissues in both 3-5 microns and 8-12 microns wavelength ranges. Pit organs exhibited greater absorption/emissivity in the 8-12 microns range than in the 3-5 microns range. To directly test the relationship between photoreceptors and pit organ infrared-sensitive neurons, we performed immunocytochemistry using antisera directed against retinal photoreceptor opsins. Retinal photoreceptors were labeled with antisera specific for retinal opsins, but these antisera failed to label terminals of infrared-sensitive neurons in the pit organ. Infrared-receptive neurons were also distinguished from retinal photoreceptors on the basis of their calcium-binding protein content. These results indicate that the pit organ absorbs infrared radiation in two major atmospheric transmission windows, one of which (8-12 microns) matches emission of targeted prey, and that infrared receptors are biochemically distinct from retinal photoreceptors. These results also provide the first identification of prospective biochemical components of infrared signal transduction in pit organ receptor neurons. PMID:10028649

  5. Infrared imaging of cotton fibers using a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrational spectroscopy studies can be used to examine the quality and structure of cotton fibers. An emerging area of research relates to the imaging of cotton fibers. Herein, we report the use of a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to image developing cotton fibers. Studies were perfor...

  6. Do Infants Recognize the Arcimboldo Images as Faces? Behavioral and Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Megumi; Otsuka, Yumiko; Nakato, Emi; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2012-01-01

    Arcimboldo images induce the perception of faces when shown upright despite the fact that only nonfacial objects such as vegetables and fruits are painted. In the current study, we examined whether infants recognize a face in the Arcimboldo images by using the preferential looking technique and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In the first…

  7. Image processing system design for microcantilever-based optical readout infrared arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Qiang; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Gong, Cheng; Liu, Xiaohua; Yu, Xiaomei; Yang, Lei; Liu, Weiyu

    2012-12-01

    Compared with the traditional infrared imaging technology, the new type of optical-readout uncooled infrared imaging technology based on MEMS has many advantages, such as low cost, small size, producing simple. In addition, the theory proves that the technology's high thermal detection sensitivity. So it has a very broad application prospects in the field of high performance infrared detection. The paper mainly focuses on an image capturing and processing system in the new type of optical-readout uncooled infrared imaging technology based on MEMS. The image capturing and processing system consists of software and hardware. We build our image processing core hardware platform based on TI's high performance DSP chip which is the TMS320DM642, and then design our image capturing board based on the MT9P031. MT9P031 is Micron's company high frame rate, low power consumption CMOS chip. Last we use Intel's company network transceiver devices-LXT971A to design the network output board. The software system is built on the real-time operating system DSP/BIOS. We design our video capture driver program based on TI's class-mini driver and network output program based on the NDK kit for image capturing and processing and transmitting. The experiment shows that the system has the advantages of high capturing resolution and fast processing speed. The speed of the network transmission is up to 100Mbps.

  8. Penetration depth measurement of near-infrared hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasingly common application of near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging ligh...

  9. NEAR-INFRARED DYES: Probe Development and Applications in Optical Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nolting, Donald D.; Gore, John C.; Pham, Wellington

    2010-01-01

    The recent emergence of optical imaging has brought forth a unique challenge for chemists: development of new biocompatible dyes that fluoresce in the near-infrared (NIR) region for optimal use in biomedical applications. This review describes the synthesis of NIR dyes and the design of probes capable of noninvasively imaging molecular events in small animal models. PMID:21822405

  10. Parallel algorithm of real-time infrared image restoration based on total variation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ran; Li, Miao; Long, Yunli; Zeng, Yaoyuan; An, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Image restoration is a necessary preprocessing step for infrared remote sensing applications. Traditional methods allow us to remove the noise but penalize too much the gradients corresponding to edges. Image restoration techniques based on variational approaches can solve this over-smoothing problem for the merits of their well-defined mathematical modeling of the restore procedure. The total variation (TV) of infrared image is introduced as a L1 regularization term added to the objective energy functional. It converts the restoration process to an optimization problem of functional involving a fidelity term to the image data plus a regularization term. Infrared image restoration technology with TV-L1 model exploits the remote sensing data obtained sufficiently and preserves information at edges caused by clouds. Numerical implementation algorithm is presented in detail. Analysis indicates that the structure of this algorithm can be easily implemented in parallelization. Therefore a parallel implementation of the TV-L1 filter based on multicore architecture with shared memory is proposed for infrared real-time remote sensing systems. Massive computation of image data is performed in parallel by cooperating threads running simultaneously on multiple cores. Several groups of synthetic infrared image data are used to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed parallel algorithm. Quantitative analysis of measuring the restored image quality compared to input image is presented. Experiment results show that the TV-L1 filter can restore the varying background image reasonably, and that its performance can achieve the requirement of real-time image processing.

  11. Characterization of materials for optimal near-infrared and x-ray imaging of the breast.

    PubMed

    Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Pogue, Brian W; Brooks, Ken; Defreitas, Ken; Shaw, Ian; Poplack, Steven P; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-09-01

    Development of a detector case for complete co-registration of images in a non-fiber-based combined near-infrared spectral tomography and digital breast tomosynthesis, required analysis to find materials that could support a breast under full mammographic compression without affecting the x-ray images or the quality of the near infrared measurements. Several possible solutions were considered, and many types of plastics were tested in the development of the detector case. Light channeling within the detector case changed the data obtained in resin and agarose phantoms, lowering recovered absorption values. Additional developments focusing on blocking stray light were successful and permitted a normal subject imaging exam.

  12. Evaluation of multispectral middle infrared aircraft images for lithologic mapping the East Tintic Mountains, Utah( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahle, A.B.; Rowan, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Six channels of moultispectral middle infrared (8 to 14 micrometres) aircraft scanner data were acquired over the East Tintic mining district, Utah. The digital image data were computer processed to create a color-composite image based on principal component transformations. When combined with a visible and near infrared color-composite image from a previous flight, with limited field checking, it is possible to discriminate quartzite, carbonate rocks, quartz latitic and quartz monzonitic rocks, latitic and monzonitic rocks, silicified altered rocks, argillized altered rocks, and vegetation. -from Authors

  13. Minimum Fisher regularization of image reconstruction for infrared imaging bolometer on HL-2A

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Li, W.; Lu, J.; Dong, Y. B.; Xia, Z. W.; Yi, P.; Yang, Q. W.

    2013-09-15

    An infrared imaging bolometer diagnostic has been developed recently for the HL-2A tokamak to measure the temporal and spatial distribution of plasma radiation. The three-dimensional tomography, reduced to a two-dimensional problem by the assumption of plasma radiation toroidal symmetry, has been performed. A three-dimensional geometry matrix is calculated with the one-dimensional pencil beam approximation. The solid angles viewed by the detector elements are taken into account in defining the chord brightness. And the local plasma emission is obtained by inverting the measured brightness with the minimum Fisher regularization method. A typical HL-2A plasma radiation model was chosen to optimize a regularization parameter on the criterion of generalized cross validation. Finally, this method was applied to HL-2A experiments, demonstrating the plasma radiated power density distribution in limiter and divertor discharges.

  14. Comparison of spatial variability in visible and near-infrared spectral images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The visible and near-infrared bands of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and the Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) were analyzed to determine which band contained more spatial variability. It is important for applications that require spatial information, such as those dealing with mapping linear features and automatic image-to-image correlation, to know which spectral band image should be used. Statistical and visual analyses were used in the project. The amount of variance in an 11 by 11 pixel spatial filter and in the first difference at the six spacings of 1, 5, 11, 23, 47, and 95 pixels was computed for the visible and near-infrared bands. The results indicate that the near-infrared band has more spatial variability than the visible band, especially in images covering densely vegetated areas. -Author

  15. Fusion of visual and infrared thermography images for advanced assessment in non-destructive testing.

    PubMed

    Eisler, K; Homma, C; Goldammer, M; Rothenfusser, M; Arnold, W

    2013-06-01

    For better evaluation of infrared measurements in non-destructive testing, especially for objects with complex geometry or small dimensions, it is beneficial to combine with the same viewing angle an image of a camera in the visible range with the image of an infrared camera. In the hybrid camera developed by us, a beam splitter is used which combines the visible and the infrared wavelength regions under the same viewing angle to form a hybrid image. The applications of this new technique range from the localization and the verification of false indications in non-destructive testing applications to the retrieval of 3D surface information with a hybrid picture as texture with defect indications and the filtering of laser markings displayed in the IR image to area and process monitoring. PMID:23822367

  16. Thermal imaging and air-coupled ultrasound characterization of a continuous-fiber ceramic composite panels.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J. G.; Easler, T. E.; Szweda, A.; Pillai, T. A. K.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.

    1998-04-01

    SYLRAMIC{trademark} continuous fiber ceramic-matrix composites (Nicalon{trademark} fiber/SiNC matrix) were fabricated by Dow Corning Corporation with the polymer-impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) process. The composite microstructure and its uniformity, and the completeness of infiltration during processing were studied as a function of number of PIP cycles. Two nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods, i.e., infrared thermal imaging and air-coupled ultrasound (UT), were used to investigate flat composite panels of two thicknesses and various sizes. The thermal imaging method provided two-dimensional (2D) images of through-thickness thermal diffusivity distributions, and the air-coupled UT method provided 2D images of through-thickness ultrasonic transmission of the panel components. Results from both types of NDEs were compared at various PIP cycles during fabrication of the composites. A delaminated region was clearly detected and its progressive repair was monitored during processing. The NDE data were also correlated to results obtained from destructive characterization.

  17. Near-infrared Laser-induced Temperature Elevation in Optically-trapped Aqueous Droplets in Air.

    PubMed

    Ishizaka, Shoji; Ma, Jiang; Fujiwara, Terufumi; Yamauchi, Kunihiro; Kitamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared laser-induced temperature elevation in single aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets levitated in air were evaluated by means of laser trapping and Raman spectroscopy. Since the vapor pressure in an aqueous solution droplet should be thermodynamically in equilibrium with that of water in air, the equilibrium size of the droplet varies sensitively through evaporation/condensation of water in accordance with the temperature change of the droplet. In this study, we demonstrated that the changes in the size of an optically levitated aqueous ammonium sulfate droplet were induced by irradiation of a 1064-nm laser beam as a heat source under an optical microscope. Temperature elevation in the droplet was evaluated successfully by means of Raman spectroscopy, and the values determined were shown to be in good agreement with those by the theoretical calculations based on the absorption coefficient of water at 1064-nm and the thermal conductivity of air. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration showing that the absorption coefficient evaluated from changes in the size of optically-trapped aqueous droplets is consistent with that of pure water. PMID:27063715

  18. Novel infrared image enhancement technology based on the frequency compensation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yuhua; He, Rulong; Lin, Haitao

    2016-05-01

    A novel infrared image enhancement method has been proposed in this paper. Our aim is to develop a detail enhancement method which is focused on the frequency feature of the image. The proposed method is following the most popular strategy of enhancing the infrared images nowadays, but concentrating on the frequency domain. Firstly, the original image is separated by a guided image filter into detail layer and the base layer. Quite unlike the traditional methods, we use the guided image filter to eliminate most of the noise and weak signal of the scenario. Then, by a designed iteration process, the higher frequency of the scenario will be calculated back and add to the detail layer. The noise will not be enhanced because the iteration is only focused on the leftover scenario frequency. We run many tests on the raw data captured by the 320 × 256 HgCdTe cooled thermal imager, and make a comparison between our approach with the previous method of bilateral filtering digital detail enhancement and guided image filtering digital detail enhancement. Figures and analytical data show that our method is better than the previous proposed researches. Our method could effectively process the infrared image with less noise and artifacts, which has potential applications in testing, manufacturing, chemical imaging, night vision, and surveillance security.

  19. Diagnosis potential of near infrared Mueller Matrix imaging for colonic adenocarcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic adenocarcinoma detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (<5s) Muller matrix imaging system with dual-rotating waveplates was developed. 16 (4 by 4) full Mueller matrices of the colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and adenocarcinomaous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  20. Representation of thermal infrared imaging data in the DICOM using XML configuration files.

    PubMed

    Ruminski, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    The DICOM standard has become a widely accepted and implemented format for the exchange and storage of medical imaging data. Different imaging modalities are supported however there is not a dedicated solution for thermal infrared imaging in medicine. In this article we propose new ideas and improvements to final proposal of the new DICOM Thermal Infrared Imaging structures and services. Additionally, we designed, implemented and tested software packages for universal conversion of existing thermal imaging files to the DICOM format using XML configuration files. The proposed solution works fast and requires minimal number of user interactions. The XML configuration file enables to compose a set of attributes for any source file format of thermal imaging camera.

  1. Infrared Imaging of Sunflower and Maize Root Anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Dokken,K.; Davis, L.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) permits the direct analysis of plant cell-wall architecture at the cellular level in situ, combining spatially localized information and chemical information from IR absorbances to produce a chemical map that can be linked to a particular morphology or functional group. This study demonstrated the use of SR-IMS to probe biopolymers, such as cellulose, lignin, and proteins, in the root tissue of hydroponically grown sunflower and maize plants. Principal components analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the major spectral variance between maize and sunflower plant tissues. The use of PCA showed distinct separation of maize and sunflower samples using the IR spectra of the epidermis and xylem. The infrared band at 1635 cm-1, representing hydrocinnamic acid in (H type) lignin, provided a conclusive means of distinguishing between maize and sunflower plant tissues.

  2. Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL.

  3. Polarization microscope using a near infrared full-Stokes imaging polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Liang; Davis, Jeffrey; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Ibn-Elhaj, Mohammed; Kroto, Shona; Brock, Neal; Pau, Stanley

    2015-02-23

    This paper presents a polarization microscope using an infrared (IR) full-Stokes imaging polarimeter. The IR polarimeter utilizes an optimized interference-based micropolarizer design, and provides full-Stokes images with resolution of 1608 × 1208 at 35 frames/second. The device fabrication, instrument calibration, performance evaluation, and measurement results are presented. The measurement error of the imaging polarimeter is less than 3.5%, and the standard deviations are less than 2%. PMID:25836472

  4. Visible and infrared imaging radiometers for ocean observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of visible and infrared sensors designed for the remote monitoring of the oceans is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on multichannel scanning radiometers that are either operational or under development. Present design practices and parameter constraints are discussed. Airborne sensor systems examined include the ocean color scanner and the ocean temperature scanner. The costal zone color scanner and advanced very high resolution radiometer are reviewed with emphasis on design specifications. Recent technological advances and their impact on sensor design are examined.

  5. Improved fusing infrared and electro-optic signals for high-resolution night images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Netravali, Ravi; Man, Hong; Lawrence, Victor

    2012-06-01

    Electro-optic (EO) images exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level, while it is a challenge to distinguish objects with infrared (IR), especially for objects with similar temperatures. In earlier work, we proposed a novel framework for IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge) from EO images. Our framework superimposed the detected edges of the EO image with the corresponding transformed IR image. Obviously, this framework resulted in better resolution IR images that help distinguish objects at night. For our IR image system, we used the theoretical point spread function (PSF) proposed by Russell C. Hardie et al., which is composed of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF) of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we designed an inverse filter based on the proposed PSF to transform the IR image. In this paper, blending the detected edge of the EO image with the corresponding transformed IR image and the original IR image is the principal idea for improving the previous framework. This improved framework requires four main steps: (1) inverse filter-based IR image transformation, (2) image edge detection, (3) images registration, and (4) blending of the corresponding images. Simulation results show that blended IR images have better quality over the superimposed images that were generated under the previous framework. Based on the same steps, the simulation result shows a blended IR image of better quality when only the original IR image is available.

  6. [Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a neurocritical patient with an air embolisism and pneumocephalus].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Díaz-Regañón, I; Benatar-Haserfaty, J; Perez, J C

    2015-02-01

    The pneumocephalus is commonly encountered after neurosurgical procedures. The collections are usually small with benign behavior, and they respond to a conservative therapy. However, there is a high percentage of cases that may behave like a space-occupying lesion. A high index of suspicion is necessary to make the diagnosis and prompt treatment of these cases. Monitoring Near infra-red spectrometry (NIRS) monitoring could help to complete the diagnosis and treatment in these cases. A venous air embolism is a common complication in neurosurgical procedures that are performed in a sitting position, where this monitoring has also been shown to be useful. In the case presented, NIRS monitoring, along with clinical and analytical data, was used for the diagnosis of the two complications.

  7. Two-photon vibrational excitation of air by long-wave infrared laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palastro, J. P.; Peñano, J.; Johnson, L. A.; Hafizi, B.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    Ultrashort long-wave infrared (LWIR) laser pulses can resonantly excite vibrations in N2 and O2 through a two-photon transition. The absorptive vibrational component of the ultrafast optical nonlinearity grows in time, starting smaller than but quickly surpassing the electronic, rotational, and vibrational refractive components. The growth of the vibrational component results in a novel mechanism of third-harmonic generation, providing an additional two-photon excitation channel, fundamental + third harmonic. The original and emergent two-photon excitations drive the resonance exactly out of phase, causing spatial decay of the absorptive vibrational nonlinearity. This nearly eliminates two-photon vibrational absorption. Here we present simulations and analytical calculations demonstrating how these processes modify the ultrafast optical nonlinearity in air. The results reveal nonlinear optical phenomena unique to the LWIR regime of ultrashort pulse propagation in the atmosphere.

  8. A comparison of LOWTRAN-7 corrected Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data with ground spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Peng-Yang; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric correction of imaging spectroscopy data is required for quantitative analysis. Different models were proposed for atmospheric correction of these data. LOWTRAN-7 is a low-resolution model and computer code for predicting atmospheric transmittance and background radiance from 0 to 50,00 cm(sup -1) which was developed by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data used are radiometrically calibrated and include the 28 Sep. 1989 Providence Fan flight line segment 07, California. It includes a dark gravel surface defined as a calibration site by the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE). Several ground measurements of portable spectrometer DAEDALUS AA440 Spectrafax were taken during the GRSFE, July 1989 field campaign. Comparisons of the LOWTRAN-7 corrected AVIRIS data with the ground spectrometer measurement were made.

  9. Microanalysis and imaging capabilities of synchrotron infrared microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, P.

    2003-03-01

    By combining the chemical specificity afforded by infrared spectroscopy with the spatial resolution of an optical microscope, infrared microspectroscopy has become a mainstay analytical tool in both academia and industry. While applications abound in a wide variety of fields including chemistry, polymer science, material science, forensic science, physics, art conservation and biology, the spatial resolution has remained limited to few tens of microns. The high brightness (about three orders of magnitude) brings about by the use of a synchrotron source compared to a thermal source, has opened widely the investigation domain, and the spatial resolution has become diffraction limited. Two types of infrared sources, from a synchrotron radiation, have been identified, giving roughly the same brightness advantage in the frequency region of interest in microscopy (2.5-40 μm). The potentiality of this analytical tool is documented in this article, in the study of individual human cells. Combining X-ray microscopy and IR microscopy on the same sample location appears of great analytical potential, and is illustrated in the case of human hair study.

  10. New medium wave infrared stimulable phosphor for image intensifier applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Peter K.; Pierce, Gregory; Storti, George M.; Wrigley, Charles Y.

    1990-07-01

    A great deal of effort is presently being focused on developing high resolution, high sensitivity medium wavelength IR (MWIR) imaging systems for a variety of applications. These range from thermal imaging for industrial applications to military applications for detecting vehicles, missiles, etc. The present state-of-the-art method for MWIR imaging consists of fabricating linear and two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor detectors, such as HgCdTe, InSb, etc., and incorporating these into an appropriate optical imaging system. However, such devices are difficult to make and are very expensive. A new detector medium is described which can be fabricated at low cost for use in MWIR imaging. Specifically, the new medium is an electron trapping material capable of up-converting MWIR to visible wavelengths, which can be easily detected with a commercial camera system. This paper will describe the specific performance characteristics of the new phosphor material and its application in MWIR imaging.

  11. High spectral resolution airborne short wave infrared hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liqing; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong

    2016-05-01

    Short Wave InfraRed(SWIR) spectral imager is good at detecting difference between materials and penetrating fog and mist. High spectral resolution SWIR hyperspectral imager plays a key role in developing earth observing technology. Hyperspectral data cube can help band selections that is very important for multispectral imager design. Up to now, the spectral resolution of many SWIR hyperspectral imagers is about 10nm. A high sensitivity airborne SWIR hyperspectral imager with narrower spectral band will be presented. The system consists of TMA telescope, slit, spectrometer with planar blazed grating and high sensitivity MCT FPA. The spectral sampling interval is about 3nm. The IFOV is 0.5mrad. To eliminate the influence of the thermal background, a cold shield is designed in the dewar. The pixel number of spatial dimension is 640. Performance measurement in laboratory and image analysis for flight test will also be presented.

  12. Comparison of Methane Data Products from the TES and AIRS Infrared Sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, T. J.; Pagano, T. S.; Worden, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is the second most powerful greenhouse gas with a highly positive radiative forcing of 0.48 W/m2 (IPCC 2013). Global concentrations of methane have been steadily increasing since 2007 (Bruhwiler 2014), raising concerns about methane's impact on the future global climate. For about the last decade, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura spacecraft has been detecting several trace gas species in the troposphere including methane. The goal of this study is to compare TES methane retrievals to that of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua spacecraft so that scientific investigations may be transferred from TES to AIRS. The two instruments fly in the afternoon constellation (A-Train), providing numerous coincident measurements for comparison. In addition, they also have a similar spectral range, (3.3 to 15.4 µm) for TES (Beer, 2006) and (3.7 to 15.4 µm) for AIRS (Chahine, 2006), making both instruments sensitive to the mid and upper troposphere. This makes them ideal candidates to compare methane data products. However, because AIRS spectral resolution is lower than that of the TES, there may be a difference in vertical sensitivity. In addition, the retrieval techniques and error characteristics are different for the two data sets. The current state of validation for these data products will be presented. To identify conditions in which the data sets agree and dis agree, we present global maps of methane concentrations from monthly level 3 (L3) data products. We also investigate the temporal stability between the two datasets by comparing global zonal averages derived from L3 over the last decade. Finally, we compare L2 retrieval profiles from representative granules in the tropical, mid-latitude and northern latitudes.

  13. Tracking and detecting occupational diseases for teachers with infrared imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-wang; An, Sheng-biao; Wang, Shu-hai

    2009-05-01

    Most academic teachers are chairborne and often revise the exercises for students for a long time, so they often have some occupational diseases, such as sciatica, vertebral ache, and so on. Some early diseases are so difficult to be detected that the patients lose the better curable time. The infrared imaging is a non-touch and harmless method and it is efficient in prophylactic iatrology. The paper introduces a method to track and detect the occupational diseases for academic teachers. The infrared pictures of the same position for the same person are collected at the different period. The position is one of the usually parts of the teacher's occupational diseases, such as the neck, the shoulder, the back, the wrist, and so on. For each position of a certain person, the infrared pictures are collected and saved at different period. The period may be 6 month or one year. Infrared pictures are collected by the infrared imaging device, and a database of the infrared pictures is established. According to the difference of the infrared pictures of the same position at different period, the latent disease part may be found out and the ailing degree can be detected.

  14. Mid-infrared imaging Fourier transform spectrometry for high power fiber laser irradiated fiberglass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, R. I.; Gross, K. C.; Perram, G. P.

    2012-03-01

    New measurement techniques to study continuous wave (CW) laser-material interactions are emerging with the ability to monitor the evolving, spatial distribution of the state of the surface-gas boundary layer. A qualitative analysis of gas phase combustion plumes above the surface of laser irradiated fiberglass composites is developed from fast framing hyperspectral imagery observations. An imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) operating in the mid-infrared (MWIR) with high framing rate has recently been developed at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) in collaboration with Telops Inc. A 320 x 256 indium antimonide (InSb) focal plane array with spectral response from 1.5 - 5.5 μm is mated with a Michelson interferometer to achieve spectral resolutions as high as 0.25 cm-1. The very fast 16- tap InSb array frames at 1.9 kHz for the full 320 x 256 frame size. The single pixel field of view of 0.3 mrad provides a spatial resolution of 1 mm at the minimum focal distance of 3 m. Painted and unpainted fiberglass composites are irradiated with a 1064 nm CW Nd:YAG laser for 60 s at 100 W in air at atmospheric pressure. Selective emission in the region of 2100 - 3200 cm-1 is readily evident and is used to develop a time-dependent spatial map of both temperature and plume constituents. The time evolution of gas phase combustion products such as CO and CO2 molecules are monitored, with a spectral resolution of 2 cm-1. High-speed imagery is obtained using a low-pass filter for the interferograms, illustrating significant turbulent behavior during laser irradiation. Spatial brightness temperature maps exceed 600 K. Spatial variation in the ratio of [CO2]/[CO] indicates an interplay between heterogeneous and homogeneous kinetics.

  15. Optical trapping and binding in air: Imaging and spectroscopic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Guillon, Marc; Stout, Brian

    2008-02-15

    We report on an experimental study of direct and spectroscopic imaging of optically trapped Mie droplets in air. The scattering of the trapping beams gives glare points at the droplets' azimuths. Spectroscopic measurements involving polarized light are performed to precisely determine both the droplet sizes and refraction index using Mie scattering theory. Experimental pictures are compared to rigorous numerical simulations. We also include some results on imaging of whispering gallery resonances and conclude with a brief discussion on the possibility of efficiently exciting whispering gallery resonances via radiative coupling.

  16. Palm-size wide-field Fourier spectroscopic imager with uncooled infrared microbolometer arrays for smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Natsumi; Suzuki, Yo; Qi, Wei; Hosono, Satsuki; Saito, Tsubasa; Ogawa, Satoshi; Sato, Shun; Fujiwara, Masaru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Tanaka, Naotaka; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    We proposed the imaging-type 2-dimensional Fourier spectroscopy that is a near-common-path interferometer with strong robustness against mechanical vibrations. We introduced the miniature uncooled infrared microbolometer arrays for smartphone (e.g. product name: FILR ONE price: around 400USD). And we constructed the phase-shifter with the piezo impact drive mechanism (maker: Technohands.co.Ltd., stroke: 4.5mm, resolution: 0.01μm, size: 20mm, price: around 800USD). Thus, we realized the palm-size mid-infrared spectroscopic imager [size: L56mm×W69mm×H43mm weight: 500g]. And by using wide-angle lens as objective lens, the proposed method can obtain the wide-field 2- dimensional middle-infrared (wavelength: 7.5-13.5[μm]) spectroscopic imaging of radiation lights emitted from human bodies itself

  17. Integration of infrared and optical imaging techniques for the nondestructive inspection of aeronautic parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, F.; Sfarra, S.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Paoletti, D.; Maldague, X.

    2015-05-01

    This work focuses in the implementation of infrared and optical imaging techniques for the inspection of aeronautics parts. To this aim, a helicopter blade with known defects is inspected with four different techniques: long pulse thermography, pulsed thermography, digital speckle photography (DSP) and holographic interferometry (HI). The first two techniques belongs to the group of infrared imaging techniques, which are based on the analysis of the infrared thermal patterns in order to detect internal anomalies in the material; whilst the last two (DSP and HI) corresponds to the optical imaging techniques which make use of visible light to measure the material response to an applied stress. Both techniques were applied using the active approach, i.e. an external stimulation is applied in order to produce a gradient in either, the thermal and/or displacement field of the material. The results are then compared in order to evaluate the advantages and limitations of each technique.

  18. Passive shortwave infrared technology and hyperspectral imaging for maritime applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judd, K. Peter; Waterman, James R.; Nichols, J. M.

    2010-04-01

    We present image data and discuss naval sensing applications of SWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR imaging in littoral and marine environments under various light conditions. These environments prove to be challenging for persistent surveillance applications as light levels may vary over several orders of magnitude within and from scene to scene. Additional difficulties include imaging over long water paths where marine haze and turbulence tend to degrade radiation transmission, and discrimination of low contrast objects under low-light and night imaging. Image data obtained from two separate passive sensor systems, both of which are built around an RVS large format (1280 x 1024) InGaAs FPA with high dynamic range and low noise electronics, are presented. The SWIR camera imager is equipped with a custom 300 mm focal length f/2 narrow field-of-view (6° diagonal) refractive telescope. The Hyperspectral imager has a custom selectable 900/1800 mm focal length telescope with corresponding 1.55°/0.79° field-of-view and fnumbers of 3/6 respectively. The sensor uses 1280 pixels in the spatial direction and a window of 192 are used for the spectral and operates at a nominal frame rate of 120 Hz. To assess field performance of the SWIR/Hyperspectral imagers, comparison is made to output from a scientific grade VNIR camera and two state-of-the-art low-light sensors.

  19. Cloud detection performance of spaceborne visible-to-infrared multispectral imagers.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takashi Y; Tsuchiya, Takumi; Ishida, Haruma; Matsui, Takashi N; Shimoda, Haruhisa

    2011-06-10

    We investigate the cloud detection efficiency of existing and future spaceborne visible-to-infrared imagers, focusing on several threshold tests for cloud detection over different types of ground surfaces, namely, the ocean, desert, vegetation, semibare land, and cryosphere. In this investigation, we used the CLoud and Aerosol Unbiased Decision Intellectual Algorithm (CLAUDIA), which was developed for unbiased cloud detection. It was revealed that imagers with fewer bands than the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer tend to have cloudy shifts. An imager without any infrared bands could yield cloudy shifts up to 17% over the ocean. To avoid false recognition of Sun glint as clouds, the 0.905 and 0.935  μm bands are needed in addition to the infrared bands. In reflectance ratio tests, the 0.87 and 1.6  μm bands can effectively distinguish clouds from desert. In the case of desert, thermal-infrared bands are ineffective when the desert surface temperature is low during winter. The 3.9 and 11  μm bands are critical for distinguishing between clear and cloudy pixels over snow-/ice-covered areas. The results and discussions of this research can guide CLAUDIA users in the optimization of thresholds. Here, we propose a virtual imager called the cloud detection imager, which has seven or eight bands for efficient cloud detection.

  20. Cloud detection performance of spaceborne visible-to-infrared multispectral imagers.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takashi Y; Tsuchiya, Takumi; Ishida, Haruma; Matsui, Takashi N; Shimoda, Haruhisa

    2011-06-10

    We investigate the cloud detection efficiency of existing and future spaceborne visible-to-infrared imagers, focusing on several threshold tests for cloud detection over different types of ground surfaces, namely, the ocean, desert, vegetation, semibare land, and cryosphere. In this investigation, we used the CLoud and Aerosol Unbiased Decision Intellectual Algorithm (CLAUDIA), which was developed for unbiased cloud detection. It was revealed that imagers with fewer bands than the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer tend to have cloudy shifts. An imager without any infrared bands could yield cloudy shifts up to 17% over the ocean. To avoid false recognition of Sun glint as clouds, the 0.905 and 0.935  μm bands are needed in addition to the infrared bands. In reflectance ratio tests, the 0.87 and 1.6  μm bands can effectively distinguish clouds from desert. In the case of desert, thermal-infrared bands are ineffective when the desert surface temperature is low during winter. The 3.9 and 11  μm bands are critical for distinguishing between clear and cloudy pixels over snow-/ice-covered areas. The results and discussions of this research can guide CLAUDIA users in the optimization of thresholds. Here, we propose a virtual imager called the cloud detection imager, which has seven or eight bands for efficient cloud detection. PMID:21673762