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Sample records for airs microwave imagery

  1. Applications of active microwave imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, F. P.; Childs, L. F.; Gilbert, R.; Harlan, J. C.; Hoffer, R. M.; Miller, J. M.; Parsons, J.; Polcyn, F.; Schardt, B. B.; Smith, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics were discussed in reference to active microwave applications: (1) Use of imaging radar to improve the data collection/analysis process; (2) Data collection tasks for radar that other systems will not perform; (3) Data reduction concepts; and (4) System and vehicle parameters: aircraft and spacecraft.

  2. A Microwave Interferometer on an Air Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polley, J. Patrick

    1993-01-01

    Uses an air track and microwave transmitters and receivers to make a Michelson interferometer. Includes three experiments: (1) measuring the wavelength of microwaves, (2) measuring the wavelength of microwaves by using the Doppler Effect, and (3) measuring the Doppler shift. (MVL)

  3. Microwave Regenerable Air Purification Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Holtsnider, John T.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of using microwave power to thermally regenerate sorbents loaded with water vapor, CO2, and organic contaminants has been rigorously demonstrated. Sorbents challenged with air containing 0.5% CO2, 300 ppm acetone, 50 ppm trichloroethylene, and saturated with water vapor have been regenerated, singly and in combination. Microwave transmission, reflection, and phase shift has also been determined for a variety of sorbents over the frequency range between 1.3-2.7 GHz. This innovative technology offers the potential for significant energy savings in comparison to current resistive heating methods because energy is absorbed directly by the material to be heated. Conductive, convective and radiative losses are minimized. Extremely rapid heating is also possible, i.e., 1400 C in less than 60 seconds. Microwave powered thermal desorption is directly applicable to the needs of Advance Life Support in general, and of EVA in particular. Additionally, the applicability of two specific commercial applications arising from this technology have been demonstrated: the recovery for re-use of acetone (and similar solvents) from industrial waste streams using a carbon based molecular sieve; and the separation and destruction of trichloroethylene using ZSM-5 synthetic zeolite catalyst, a predominant halocarbon environmental contaminant. Based upon these results, Phase II development is strongly recommended.

  4. Microwave scattering from laser spark in air

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Jordan; Zhang Zhili; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2012-09-15

    In this paper, microwave Mie scattering from a laser-induced plasma in atmospheric air is computed. It shows that the scattered microwave transitions from coherent Rayleigh scattering to Mie scattering based on the relative transparency of the laser-induced plasma at the microwave frequency. The microwave penetration in the plasma alters from total transparency to partial shielding due to the sharp increase of the electron number density within the avalanche ionization phase. The transition from Rayleigh scattering to Mie scattering is verified by both the temporal evolution of the scattered microwave and the homogeneity of polar scattering plots.

  5. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facal San Luis, P.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Genat, J. F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I. C.; Rouille D'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2012-01-01

    MIDAS (MIcrowave Detector of Air Showers) is a prototype of a microwave telescope to detect extensive air showers: it images a 20°×10° region of the sky with a 4.5 m parabolic reflector and 53 feeds in the focal plane. It has been commissioned in March 2010 and is currently taking data. We present the design, performance and first results of MIDAS.

  6. Microwave Triggered Laser Ionization of Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadiee, Ehsan; Prasad, Sarita; Jerald Buchenauer, C.; Schamiloglu, Edl

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this work is to study the evolution and dynamics of plasma expansion when a high power microwave (HPM) pulse is overlapped in time and space on a very small, localized region of plasma formed by a high energy laser pulse. The pulsed Nd:YAG laser (8 ns, 600mJ, repetition rate 10 Hz) is focused to generate plasma filaments in air with electron density of 10^17/cm^3. When irradiated with a high power microwave pulse these electrons would gain enough kinetic energy and further escalate avalanche ionization of air due to elastic electron-neutral collisions thereby causing an increased volumetric discharge region. An X-band relativistic backward wave oscillator(RBWO) at the Pulsed Power,Beams and Microwaves laboratory at UNM is constructed as the microwave source. The RBWO produces a microwave pulse of maximum power 400 MW, frequency of 10.1 GHz, and energy of 6.8 Joules. Special care is being given to synchronize the RBWO and the pulsed laser system in order to achieve a high degree of spatial and temporal overlap. A photodiode and a microwave waveguide detector will be used to ensure the overlap. Also, a new shadowgraph technique with a nanosecond time resolution will be used to detect changes in the shock wave fronts when the HPM signal overlaps the laser pulse in time and space.

  7. A Comparison of the Red Green Blue Air Mass Imagery and Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, E. B.; Folmer, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery is derived from multiple channels or paired channel differences. Multiple channel products typically provide additional information than a single channel can provide alone. The RGB Air Mass imagery simplifies the interpretation of temperature and moisture characteristics of air masses surrounding synoptic and mesoscale features. Despite the ease of interpretation of multiple channel products, the combination of channels and channel differences means the resulting product does not represent a quantity or physical parameter such as brightness temperature in conventional single channel satellite imagery. Without a specific quantity to reference, forecasters are often confused as to what RGB products represent. Hyperspectral infrared retrieved profiles of temperature, moisture, and ozone can provide insight about the air mass represented on the RGB Air Mass product and provide confidence in the product and representation of air masses despite the lack of a quantity to reference for interpretation. This study focuses on RGB Air Mass analysis of Hurricane Sandy as it moved north along the U.S. East Coast, while transitioning to a hybrid extratropical storm. Soundings and total column ozone retrievals were analyzed using data from the Cross-track Infrared and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder Suite (CrIMSS) on the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership satellite and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aqua satellite along with dropsondes that were collected from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Air Force research aircraft. By comparing these datasets to the RGB Air Mass, it is possible to capture quantitative information that could help in analyzing the synoptic environment enough to diagnose the onset of extratropical transition. This was done by identifying any stratospheric air intrusions (SAIs) that existed in the vicinity of Sandy as the wind

  8. Resolution enhancement of multichannel microwave imagery from the Nimbus-7 SMMR for maritime rainfall analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, W. S.; Yeh, C. L.; Weinman, J. A.; Chin, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    A restoration of the 37, 21, 18, 10.7, and 6.6 GHz satellite imagery from the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) aboard Nimbus-7 to 22.2 km resolution is attempted using a deconvolution method based upon nonlinear programming. The images are deconvolved with and without the aid of prescribed constraints, which force the processed image to abide by partial a priori knowledge of the high-resolution result. The restored microwave imagery may be utilized to examined the distribution of precipitating liquid water in marine rain systems.

  9. Snow cover of the Upper Colorado River Basin from satellite passive microwave and visual imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, E.G.; Beauvillain, E.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of passive microwave images from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and visual images from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) of the Upper Colorado River Basin shows that passive microwave satellite imagery can be used to determine the extent of the snow cover. Eight cloud-free DMSP images throughout the winter of 1985-1986 show the extent of the snowpack, which, when compared to the corresponding SMMR images, determine the threshold microwave characteristics for snow-covered pixels. With these characteristics, the 27 sequential SMMR images give a unique view of the temporal history of the snow cover extent through the first half of the water year. -from Authors

  10. Microwave diagnostics of laser-induced avalanche ionization in air

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhili; Shneider, Mikhail N.; Miles, Richard B.

    2006-10-01

    This work presents a simplified model of microwave scattering during the avalanche ionization stage of laser breakdown and corresponding experimental results of microwave scattering from laser breakdown in room air. The model assumes and measurements confirm that the breakdown regime can be viewed as a point dipole scatterer of the microwave radiation and thus directly related to the time evolving number of electrons. The delay between the laser pulse and the rise of the microwave scattering signal is a direct measure of the avalanche ionization process.

  11. Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Chateauneuf, M.; Dubois, J.; Payeur, S.; Kieffer, J.-C.

    2008-03-03

    Microwave guiding was demonstrated over 16 cm in air using a large diameter hollow plasma waveguide. The waveguide was generated with the 100 TW femtosecond laser system at the Advanced Laser Light Source facility. A deformable mirror was used to spatially shape the intense laser pulses in order to generate hundreds of filaments judiciously distributed in a cylindrical shape, creating a cylindrical plasma wall that acts as a microwave waveguide. The microwaves were confined for about 10 ns, which corresponds to the free electron plasma wall recombination time. The characteristics of the plasma waveguide and the results of microwave guiding are presented.

  12. The AMY experiment: Microwave emission from air shower plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Blanco, M.; Boháčová, M.; Buonomo, B.; Cataldi, G.; Coluccia, M. R.; Creti, P.; De Mitri, I.; Di Giulio, C.; Facal San Luis, P.; Foggetta, L.; Gaïor, R.; Garcia-Fernandez, D.; Iarlori, M.; Le Coz, S.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Louedec, K.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Mazzitelli, G.; Monasor, M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Salamida, F.; Salina, G.; Settimo, M.; Valente, P.; Vazquez, J. R.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2016-07-01

    You The Air Microwave Yield (AMY) experiment investigate the molecular bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in the GHz frequency range from an electron beam induced air-shower. The measurements have been performed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of Frascati INFN National Laboratories with a 510 MeV electron beam in a wide frequency range between 1 and 20 GHz. We present the apparatus and the results of the tests performed.

  13. Portable microwave air plasma device for wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S. K.; Kim, H. Y.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, J. K.

    2015-06-01

    A portable microwave air plasma has been developed for safe and effective wound healing. The device is operated by a fixed microwave power and two different air gas flows (main and cooling air flow). It was found that the speeds of the two air flows determine the stability of the plasma jet and gas temperature and thereby regulate the concentrations of the individual reactive species. Two different regimes, i.e. the NO abundant (0.1 slm main air flow) and ozone abundant regimes (4 slm main air flow), were identified as suitable for wound healing without thermal damage and toxicity. These regimes show similar plasma characteristics (e.g. less than 40 °C at the treatment point, less than 4 ppm of NO2) except for different NO and ozone amounts. Both regimes show more than twice as fast wound healing speed compared with the untreated case without any histological damages. Faster healing speed with intrinsic ozone safety make the NO abundant regime the best operation regime for wound healing. Finally, the stability of the developed device was demonstrated by a one-hour continuous operation test with a 24 V battery.

  14. Microwave Probing of Air-Plasma and Plasma Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Katherine; Rock, Ben; Helle, Mike

    2016-10-01

    Plasma metamaterials are of recent interest due to their unique ability to be engineered with specific electromagnetic responses. One potential metamaterial architecture is based on a `forest' of plasma rods that can be produced using intense laser plasma filaments. In our work, we use a continuous microwave source at 26.5 GHz to measure a single air plasma filament characteristics generated from a 5 mJ laser pulse within a cylindrical hole in a Ka-band waveguide. Preliminary results show the air plasma produces a strong shock and acts to reflect microwave radiation. A computational comparison using 3D EM modeling is performed to examine the reflection and transmission properties of a single plasma rod, and further, to investigate an array of plasma rods as a potential plasma based metamaterial.

  15. Clear air turbulence avoidance using an airborne microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    The avoidance of Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) is theoretically possible by selecting flight levels that are a safe distance from the tropopause and inversion layers. These favored sites for CAT generation can be located by an 'airborne microwave radiometer' (AMR) passive sensor system that measures altitude temperature profiles. A flight evaluation of the AMR sensor shows that most CAT could be avoided by following sensor-based advisories. Some limitations still exist for any hypothetical use of the sensor. The principal need is to augment the sensor's 'where' advisories to include useful 'when' forecasts.

  16. Microwave energy versus convected hot air for rapidly drying ceramic tile

    SciTech Connect

    Earl, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine if microwave energy could provide advantages over the conventional hot air method currently used for rapidly drying ceramic tile. Tiles consisting of a typical fast-fire body formula were dried to 0.5% moisture using a 2.45 GHz, 950W microwave oven and a natural gas-fired roller dryer. Statistical methods were employed to develop equations for predicting microwave energy consumption, tile % moisture and surface temperature given drying time, tile volume and % relative humidity. Microwave drying was found to require 36% less energy than hot air drying. Moisture was removed and surface temperature elevated at faster rates using microwave energy.

  17. Use of ERTS imagery in air pollution and marine biology studies, tasks 1 through 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E.; Ludwick, J. C.; Marshall, H. G. (Principal Investigator); Bandy, A. R.; Fleischer, P.; Hanna, W. J.; Gosink, T. A.; Bowker, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The general suitability of ERTS imagery in detecting ground originated air pollution has proved to be excellent. The quality and resolution exceeded expectations and has permitted in some instances location of point sources to within a thousand feet. Suitable techniques have not yet been developed for determining or measuring area and line sources of air pollution. A major problem has been cloud cover that has persisted over the area of primary interest, the Chesapeake Bay. Work has been completed on mounting the shipboard transmissometer which will be used for investigations to relate the chlorophyll and suspended sediment content in the waters of the Lower Chesapeake Bay to ERTS-1 imagery. Water sampling, plankton analysis, and preparations for sea collection of water truth along the eastern continental shelf of the U.S. have been completed for use in comparisons with ERTS-1 data.

  18. The Use of Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass Imagery to Investigate the Role of Stratospheric Air in a Non-Convective Wind Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    AIRS ozone and model PV analysis confirm the stratospheric air in RGB Air Mass imagery. Trajectories confirm winds south of the low were distinct from CCB driven winds. Cross sections connect the tropopause fold, downward motion, and high nearsurface winds. Comparison to conceptual models show Shapiro-Keyser features and sting jet characteristics were observed in a storm that impacted the U.S. East Coast. RGB Air Mass imagery can be used to identify stratospheric air and regions susceptible to tropopause folding and attendant non-convective winds.

  19. A Comparison of the Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass Imagery and Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles and NOAA G-IV Dropsondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Emily; Folmer, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    RGB air mass imagery is derived from multiple channels or paired channel differences. The combination of channels and channel differences means the resulting imagery does not represent a quantity or physical parameter such as brightness temperature in conventional single channel imagery. Without a specific quantity to reference, forecasters are often confused as to what RGB products represent. Hyperspectral infrared retrieved profiles and NOAA G-IV dropsondes provide insight about the vertical structure of the air mass represented on the RGB air mass imagery and are a first step to validating the imagery.

  20. Arctic sea-ice variations from time-lapse passive microwave imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.; Ramseier, R. O.; Zwally, H. J.; Gloersen, P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents: (1) a short historical review of the passive microwave research on sea ice, which established the observational and theoretical base permitting the interpretation of the first passive microwave images of earth obtained by the Nimbus-5 ESMR; (2) the construction of a time-lapse motion picture film of a 16-month set of serial ESMR images to aid in the formidable data analysis task; and (3) a few of the most significant findings resulting from an early analysis of these data, using selected ESMR images to illustrate these findings.

  1. Arctic sea-ice variations from time-lapse passive microwave imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.J.; Ramseier, R.O.; Zwally, H.J.; Gloersen, P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents: (1) a short historical review of the passive microwave research on sea ice which established the observational and theoretical base permitting the interpretation of the first passive microwave images of Earth obtained by the Nimbus-5 ESMR; (2) the construction of a time-lapse motion picture film of a 16-month set of serial ESMR images to aid in the formidable data analysis task; and (3) a few of the most significant findings resulting from an early analysis of these data, using selected ESMR images to illustrate these findings. ?? 1980 D. Reidel Publishing Co.

  2. The Air Microwave Yield (AMY) experiment to measure the GHz emission from air shower plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Bohacova, M.; Cataldi, G.; Coluccia, M. R.; Creti, P.; De Mitri, I.; Di Giulio, C.; Engel, R.; Facal San Luis, P.; Iarlori, M.; Martello, D.; Monasor, M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Riegel, M.; Rizi, V.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Salamida, F.; Salina, G.; Settimo, M.; Smida, R.; Verzi, V.; Werner, F.; Williams, C.

    2013-06-01

    The AMY experiment aims to measure the Microwave Bremsstrahlung Radiation (MBR) emitted by air-showers secondary electrons accelerating in collisions with neutral molecules of the atmosphere. The measurements are performed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of Frascati INFN National Laboratories and the final purpose is to characterize the process to be used in a next generation detectors of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (up to 1020eV). We describe the experimental set-up and the first test measurement performed in November 2011.

  3. Development of Infrared and Microwave Techniques for Cloud Parameter Inference from Satellite Imagery and Sounder Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-30

    clouds and precipitation on the Nimbus VI ESMR channel and the use of ESMR vertical and horizontal polarization components for the determination ot...channels of the Nimbus VI satellite. Random error analyses revealed that the cloud sounding technique employin’g a combiration of infrared and...microwave frequencies appears to be theoretically rigorous and practically workable. Thus, applications of the cloud sounding technique to the Nimbus VI

  4. Assessment of EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Concentrations using Landsat-7 and Airborne Microwave Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten; Hall, Dorothy K.; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Klein, Marian; Ivanoff, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    An assessment of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sea ice concentrations under winter conditions using ice concentrations derived from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery obtained during the March 2003 Arctic sea ice validation field campaign is presented. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory's Airborne Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer Measurements, which were made from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration P 3B aircraft during the campaign, were used primarily as a diagnostic tool to understand the comparative results and to suggest improvements to the AMSR-E ice concentration algorithm. Based on the AMSR-E/ETM+ comparisons, a good overall agreement with little bias (approx. 1%) for areas of first year and young sea ice was found. Areas of new ice production result in a negative bias of about 5% in the AMSR-E ice concentration retrievals, with a root mean square error of 8%. Some areas of deep snow also resulted in an underestimate of the ice concentration (approx. 10%). For all ice types combined and for the full range of ice concentrations, the bias ranged from 0% to 3%, and the rms errors ranged from 1% to 7%, depending on the region. The new-ice and deep-snow biases are expected to be reduced through an adjustment of the new-ice and ice-type C algorithm tie points.

  5. Skin surface removal on breast microwave imagery using wavelet multiscale products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Tapia, Daniel; Thomas, Gabriel; Pistorius, Stephen

    2006-03-01

    In many parts of the world, breast cancer is the leading cause mortality among women and it is the major cause of cancer death, next only to lung cancer. In recent years, microwave imaging has shown its potential as an alternative approach for breast cancer detection. Although advances have improved the likelihood of developing an early detection system based on this technology, there are still limitations. One of these limitations is that target responses are often obscured by surface reflections. Contrary to ground penetrating radar applications, a simple reference subtraction cannot be easily applied to alleviate this problem due to differences in the breast skin composition between patients. A novel surface removal technique for the removal of these high intensity reflections is proposed in this paper. This paper presents an algorithm based on the multiplication of adjacent wavelet subbands in order to enhance target echoes while reducing skin reflections. In these multiscale products, target signatures can be effectively distinguished from surface reflections. A simple threshold is applied to the signal in the wavelet domain in order to eliminate the skin responses. This final signal is reconstructed to the spatial domain in order to obtain a focused image. The proposed algorithm yielded promising results when applied to real data obtained from a phantom which mimics the dielectric properties of breast, cancer and skin tissues.

  6. Constraining Microwave Emission from Extensive Air Showers via the MIDAS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Matthew; Privitera, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are accelerated by the most energetic processes in the universe. Upon entering Earth’s atmosphere they produce particle showers known as extensive air showers (EASs). Observatories like the Pierre Auger Observatory sample the particles and light produced by the EASs through large particle detector arrays or nitrogen fluorescence detectors to ascertain the fundamental properties of UHECRs. The large sample of high quality data provided by the Pierre Auger Observatory can be attributed to the hybrid technique which utilizes the two aforementioned techniques simultaneously; however, the limitation of only being able to observe nitrogen fluorescence from EASs on clear moonless nights yields a limited 10% duty cycle for the hybrid technique. One proposal for providing high quality data at increased statistics is the observation of isotropic microwave emission from EASs, as such emission would be observed with a 100% duty cycle. Measurements of microwave emission from laboratory air plasmas conducted by Gorham et al. (2008) produced promising results indicating that the microwave emission should be observable using inexpensive detectors. The Microwave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment was built at the University of Chicago to characterize the isotropic microwave emission from EASs and has collected 359 days of observational data at the location of the Pierre Auger experiment. We have performed a time coincidence analysis between this data and data from Pierre Auger and we report a null result. This result places stringent limits on microwave emission from EASs and demonstrates that the laboratory measurements of Gorham et al. (2008) are not applicable to EASs, thus diminishing the feasibility of using isotropic microwave emission to detect EASs.

  7. Microwave application on air drying of apple (var. Granny Smith). The influence of vacuum impregnation pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin Esparza, Maria Eugenia

    Combined hot air-microwave drying has been studied on apple (var. Granny Smith), with and without vacuum impregnation (VI) pretreatment with isotonic solution, respect to kinetics, microstructural and final quality items. In order to reach this objective, a drier has been designed and built, that allows to control and to register all the variables which take place during the drying process. Thermal and dielectric properties, that are very important characteristics when studying heat and mass transfer phenomena that occur during the combined drying process, have been related to temperature and/or moisture content throughout empirical equations. It could be observed that all these properties decreased with product moisture content. Respect to dielectric properties, a relationship among water binding forms to food structure and water molecules relaxation frequency has been found. On the other hand, the effect of drying treatment conditions (air rate, drying temperature, sample thickness and incident microwave power) on the drying rate, from an empirical model based on diffusional mechanisms with two kinetic parameters (k1 and k2), both function of the incident microwave power, has been studied. Microwave application to air drying implied a notable decrease on drying time, the higher the applied power the higher the reduction. Microstructural study by Cryo-Sem revealed fast water vaporization taking place when microwaves are applied. Vacuum impregnation did not implied an additional advantage for combined drying as drying rate was similar to that of NIV samples. Finally, it has been studied the influence of process conditions on the color and mechanical properties of the dried product (IV and NIV). Vacuum impregnation implied an increase on the fracture resistance and less purity and tone angle. Microwave application induced product browning with respect to air drying (tone decreased and purity increased).

  8. The Use of Red Green Blue Air Mass Imagery to Investigate the Role of Stratospheric Air in a Non-Convective Wind Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, E. B.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Moltham, A. L.; Folmer, M. J.; Jedlovec, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of non-convective winds associated with passing extratropical cyclones and the formation of the sting jet in North Atlantic cyclones that impact Europe has been gaining interest. Sting jet research has been limited to North Atlantic cyclones that impact Europe because it is known to occur in Shapiro-Keyser cyclones and theory suggests it does not occur in Norwegian type cyclones. The global distribution of sting jet cyclones is unknown and questions remain as to whether cyclones with Shapiro-Keyser characteristics that impact the United States develop features similar to the sting jet. Therefore unique National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) products were used to analyze an event that impacted the Northeast United States on 09 February 2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) ozone data were used in conjunction with NASA's global Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis and higher-resolution regional 13-km Rapid Refresh (RAP) data to analyze the role of stratospheric air in producing high winds. The RGB Air Mass imagery and a new AIRS ozone anomaly product were used to confirm the presence of stratospheric air. Plan view and cross sectional plots of wind, potential vorticity, relative humidity, omega, and frontogenesis were used to analyze the relationship between stratospheric air and high surface winds during the event. Additionally, the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to plot trajectories to determine the role of the conveyor belts in producing the high winds. Analyses of new satellite products, such as the RGB Air Mass imagery, show the utility of future GOES-R products in forecasting non-convective wind events.

  9. A rapid microwave protocol for Heck vinylation of aryl chlorides under air.

    PubMed

    Datta, Gopal K; Vallin, Karl S A; Larhed, Mats

    2003-01-01

    In modern high-throughput chemistry, the overall workflow is a crucial factor and much work is devoted to speeding up the process of chemistry development. Since automated microwave-based synthesizers are known to streamline the compound production and to accelerate slow organic transformations, this technology was implemented for Heck reactions with sluggish aryl chlorides. Furthermore, homogeneous palladium-catalyzed Heck vinylations of aryl chlorides can be performed under air under optimized conditions. Based on this finding, controlled microwave heating was utilized to accelerate model reactions down to 30 min employing a mixture of ionic liquid and 1,4-dioxane as solvent.

  10. Recent Improvements in Retrieving Near-Surface Air Temperature and Humidity Using Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent

    2010-01-01

    Detailed studies of the energy and water cycles require accurate estimation of the turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat across the atmosphere-ocean interface at regional to basin scale. Providing estimates of these latent and sensible heat fluxes over the global ocean necessitates the use of satellite or reanalysis-based estimates of near surface variables. Recent studies have shown that errors in the surface (10 meter)estimates of humidity and temperature are currently the largest sources of uncertainty in the production of turbulent fluxes from satellite observations. Therefore, emphasis has been placed on reducing the systematic errors in the retrieval of these parameters from microwave radiometers. This study discusses recent improvements in the retrieval of air temperature and humidity through improvements in the choice of algorithms (linear vs. nonlinear) and the choice of microwave sensors. Particular focus is placed on improvements using a neural network approach with a single sensor (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) and the use of combined sensors from the NASA AQUA satellite platform. The latter algorithm utilizes the unique sampling available on AQUA from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A). Current estimates of uncertainty in the near-surface humidity and temperature from single and multi-sensor approaches are discussed and used to estimate errors in the turbulent fluxes.

  11. Gas heating effects on the formation and propagation of a microwave streamer in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtzanidis, Konstantinos; Rogier, François; Boeuf, Jean-Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The development of microwave plasma streamers at 110 GHz in atmospheric pressure air is numerically investigated taking into account the intense gas heating and its effects on the plasma formation and dynamics. The simulations are based on an implicit finite difference time domain formulation of Maxwell's equations coupled with a simple plasma fluid model and a real gas Euler equation solver. The numerical results show how the formation of a shock wave due to the large microwave power absorbed by the plasma and converted into gas heating strongly modifies the streamer elongation and dynamics. A microwave streamer filament stretches along its axis because of ionization-diffusion mechanisms in the enhanced electric field at the streamer tips. The change in the gas density distribution associated with the formation of shock wave due to gas heating strongly modifies the ionization and diffusion mechanisms and tends to limit the on-axis microwave streamer elongation by enhancing resonance effects. The simulations suggest that gas heating effects also play an important role in the observed bending or branching of microwave streamers after they have reached a critical length.

  12. Investigation of microwave backscatter from the air-sea interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Robert E.; Carswell, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Monitoring the ocean surface winds and mean ocean surface level is essential for improving our knowledge of the climate. Two instruments that may provide us with this information are satellite-based scatterometers and altimeters. However, these instruments measure the backscatter characteristics of the ocean surface from which other physical parameters, such as the wind speed or ocean surface height, are derived. To improve the algorithms or models that relate the electromagnetic backscatter to the desired physical parameters, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL) designed and fabricated three airborne scatterometers: a C-band scatterometer (CSCAT), Ku-band scatterometer (KUSCAT) and C/Ku-band scatterometer (EMBR). One or more of these instruments participated in the Electromagnetic Bias experiment (EM Bias), Shelf Edge Exchange Processes experiment (SEEP), Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE), Southern Ocean Wave Experiment (SOWEX), Hurricane Tina research flights, Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE), and Ladir In-space Technology Experiment (LITE). This document describes the three scatterometers, summarizes our measurement campaigns and major contributions to the scientific and engineering communities, lists the publications that resulted, and presents the degrees earned under the support of this NASA grant.

  13. Initial Testing of a Two-Dimensional Computer Code for Microwave-Induced Surface Breakdown in Air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    operation of high- voltage electrical equipment are electron emission and surface flashover . As a step toward further understanding of these phenomena in gas...INITIAL TESTING OF A TWO-DIMENSIONAL COMPUTER CODE FOR MICROWAVE-INDUCED SURFACE BREAKDOWN IN AIR* D.J. Mayhall and J.H. Yee Lawrence Livermore...computer code for microwave-induced surface breakdown in air is developed. This code is based on finite difference approximations to Maxwell’s curl

  14. Microwave temperature profiler for clear air turbulence prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining Richardson Number, Ri, or its reciprocal, RRi, for clear air prediction using measured potential temperature and determining the vertical gradient of potential temperature, d(theta)/dz. Wind vector from the aircraft instrumentation versus potential temperature, dW/D(theta), is determined and multiplies by d(theta)/dz to obtain dW/dz. Richardson number or its reciprocal is then determined from the relationship Ri = K(d theta)/dz divided by (dW/dz squared) for use in detecting a trend toward a threshold value for the purpose of predicting clear air turbulence. Other equations for this basic relationship are disclosed together with the combination of other atmospheric observables using multiple regression techniques.

  15. Drying kinetics of apricot halves in a microwave-hot air hybrid oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2017-01-01

    Drying behavior and kinetics of apricot halves were investigated in a microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at 120, 150 and 180 W microwave power and 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperature. Drying operation was finished when the moisture content reached to 25% (wet basis) from 77% (w.b). Increase in microwave power and air temperature increased drying rates and reduced drying time. Only falling rate period was observed in drying of apricot halves in hybrid oven. Eleven mathematical models were used for describing the drying kinetics of apricots. Modified logistic model gave the best fitting to the experimental data. The model has never been used to explain drying behavior of any kind of food materials up to now. Fick's second law was used for determination of both effective moisture diffusivity and thermal diffusivity values. Activation energy values of dried apricots were calculated from Arrhenius equation. Those that obtained from effective moisture diffusivity, thermal diffusivity and drying rate constant values ranged from 31.10 to 39.4 kJ/mol, 29.56 to 35.19 kJ/mol, and 26.02 to 32.36 kJ/mol, respectively.

  16. OH(A,X) radicals in microwave plasma-assisted combustion of methane/air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Fuh, Che; Wang, Chuji; Laser Spectroscopy and Plasma Team

    2014-10-01

    A novel microwave plasma-assisted combustion (PAC) system, which consists of a microwave plasma-assisted combustor, a gas flow control manifold, and a set of optical diagnostic systems, was developed as a new test platform to study plasma enhancement of combustion. Using this system, we studied the state-resolved OH(A,X) radicals in the plasma-assisted combustion and ignition of a methane/air mixture. Experimental results identified three reaction zones in the plasma-assisted combustor: the plasma zone, the hybrid plasma-flame zone, and the flame zone. The OH(A) radicals in the three distinct zones were characterized using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Results showed a surge of OH(A) radicals in the hybrid zone compared to the plasma zone and the flame zone. The OH(X) radicals in the flame zone were measured using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS), and the absolute number density distribution of OH(X) was quantified in two-dimension. The effect of microwave argon plasma on combustion was studied with two different fuel/oxidizer injection patterns, namely the premixed methane/air injection and the nonpremixed (separate) methane/air injection. Parameters investigated included the flame geometry, the lean flammability limit, the emission spectra, and rotational temperature. State-resolved OH(A,X) radicals in the PAC of both injection patterns were also compared. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation through the Grant No. CBET-1066486.

  17. Improvements and Additions to NASA Near Real-Time Earth Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cechini, Matthew; Boller, Ryan; Baynes, Kathleen; Schmaltz, Jeffrey; DeLuca, Alexandar; King, Jerome; Thompson, Charles; Roberts, Joe; Rodriguez, Joshua; Gunnoe, Taylor; Wong, Minnie; Alarcon, Christian; DeCesare, Cristina; Pressley, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    For many years, the NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) has worked closely with the Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) system to provide near real-time imagery visualizations of AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), and recently VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) science parameters. These visualizations are readily available through standard web services and the NASA Worldview client. Access to near real-time imagery provides a critical capability to GIBS and Worldview users. GIBS continues to focus on improving its commitment to providing near real-time imagery for end-user applications. The focus of this presentation will be the following completed or planned GIBS system and imagery enhancements relating to near real-time imagery visualization.

  18. Transfer of microwave energy along a filament plasma column in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prade, B.; Houard, A.; Larour, J.; Pellet, M.; Mysyrowicz, A.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of microwave radiation into a plasma channel formed by laser filamentation in air, leading to the amplification by two orders of magnitude of longitudinal oscillations of the plasma. Transfer of this longitudinal excitation toward unexcited region of the plasma column occurs over >10 cm, in good agreement with a theoretical model describing the propagation of a TM wave guided along the surface between air and plasma. We foresee that high-power low-frequency electromagnetic waves injected into a multi-filament plasma could initiate and sustain a long-lived plasma over several meters distance.

  19. Plasma column and nano-powder generation from solid titanium by localized microwaves in air

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Simona; Jerby, Eli Meir, Yehuda; Ashkenazi, Dana; Barkay, Zahava; Mitchell, J. Brian A.; Le Garrec, Jean-Luc; Narayanan, Theyencheri

    2015-07-14

    This paper studies the effect of a plasma column ejected from solid titanium by localized microwaves in an ambient air atmosphere. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (titania) are found to be directly synthesized in this plasma column maintained by the microwave energy in the cavity. The process is initiated by a hotspot induced by localized microwaves, which melts the titanium substrate locally. The molten hotspot emits ionized titanium vapors continuously into the stable plasma column, which may last for more than a minute duration. The characterization of the dusty plasma obtained is performed in-situ by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), optical spectroscopy, and microwave reflection analyses. The deposited titania nanoparticles are structurally and morphologically analyzed by ex-situ optical and scanning-electron microscope observations, and also by X-ray diffraction. Using the Boltzmann plot method combined with the SAXS results, the electron temperature and density in the dusty plasma are estimated as ∼0.4 eV and ∼10{sup 19 }m{sup −3}, respectively. The analysis of the plasma product reveals nanoparticles of titania in crystalline phases of anatase, brookite, and rutile. These are spatially arranged in various spherical, cubic, lamellar, and network forms. Several applications are considered for this process of titania nano-powder production.

  20. Engine Cycle Analysis of Air Breathing Microwave Rocket with Reed Valves

    SciTech Connect

    Fukunari, Masafumi; Komatsu, Reiji; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro; Katsurayama, Hiroshi

    2011-11-10

    The Microwave Rocket is a candidate for a low cost launcher system. Pulsed plasma generated by a high power millimeter wave beam drives a blast wave, and a vehicle acquires impulsive thrust by exhausting the blast wave. The thrust generation process of the Microwave Rocket is similar to a pulse detonation engine. In order to enhance the performance of its air refreshment, the air-breathing mechanism using reed valves is under development. Ambient air is taken to the thruster through reed valves. Reed valves are closed while the inside pressure is high enough. After the time when the shock wave exhausts at the open end, an expansion wave is driven and propagates to the thrust-wall. The reed valve is opened by the negative gauge pressure induced by the expansion wave and its reflection wave. In these processes, the pressure oscillation is important parameter. In this paper, the pressure oscillation in the thruster was calculated by CFD combined with the flux through from reed valves, which is estimated analytically. As a result, the air-breathing performance is evaluated using Partial Filling Rate (PFR), the ratio of thruster length to diameter L/D, and ratio of opening area of reed valves to superficial area {alpha}. An engine cycle and predicted thrust was explained.

  1. Application of multispectral radar and LANDSAT imagery to geologic mapping in death valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, M.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T.; Stromberg, W.; Williams, S.; Schaber, G.

    1978-01-01

    Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) images, acquired by JPL and Strategic Air Command Systems, and visible and near-infrared LANDSAT imagery were applied to studies of the Quaternary alluvial and evaporite deposits in Death Valley, California. Unprocessed radar imagery revealed considerable variation in microwave backscatter, generally correlated with surface roughness. For Death Valley, LANDSAT imagery is of limited value in discriminating the Quaternary units except for alluvial units distinguishable by presence or absence of desert varnish or evaporite units whose extremely rough surfaces are strongly shadowed. In contrast, radar returns are most strongly dependent on surface roughness, a property more strongly correlated with surficial geology than is surface chemistry.

  2. Snow depth and snow cover retrieval from FengYun3B microwave radiation imagery based on a snow passive microwave unmixing method in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Zhao, Kai; Li, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    The precision of snow parameter retrieval is unsatisfactory for current practical demands. The primary reason is because of the problem of mixed pixels that are caused by low spatial resolution of satellite passive microwave data. A snow passive microwave unmixing method is proposed in this paper, based on land cover type data and the antenna gain function of passive microwaves. The land cover type of Northeast China is partitioned into grass, farmland, bare soil, forest, and water body types. The component brightness temperatures (CBT), namely unmixed data, with 1 km data resolution are obtained using the proposed unmixing method. The snow depth determined by the CBT and three snow depth retrieval algorithms are validated through field measurements taken in forest and farmland areas of Northeast China in January 2012 and 2013. The results show that the overall of the retrieval precision of the snow depth is improved by 17% in farmland areas and 10% in forest areas when using the CBT in comparison with the mixed pixels. The snow cover results based on the CBT are compared with existing MODIS snow cover products. The results demonstrate that more snow cover information can be obtained with up to 86% accuracy.

  3. Rapid PCR amplification using a microfluidic device with integrated microwave heating and air impingement cooling.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kirsty J; Docker, Peter T; Yelland, John V; Dyer, Charlotte E; Greenman, John; Greenway, Gillian M; Haswell, Stephen J

    2010-07-07

    A microwave heating system is described for performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a microfluidic device. The heating system, in combination with air impingement cooling, provided rapid thermal cycling with heating and cooling rates of up to 65 degrees C s(-1) and minimal over- or under-shoot (+/-0.1 degrees C) when reaching target temperatures. In addition, once the required temperature was reached it could be maintained with an accuracy of +/-0.1 degrees C. To demonstrate the functionality of the system, PCR was successfully performed for the amplification of the Amelogenin locus using heating rates and quantities an order of magnitude faster and smaller than current commercial instruments.

  4. Comparison of Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Aircraft, and Radiosonde Measurements From the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements from a profiling microwave radiometer are compared to measurements from a research aircraft and radiosondes. Data compared is temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles. Data was gathered at the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) at Mirabel Airport outside Montreal, Canada during December 1999 and January 2000. All radiometer measurements were found to lose accuracy when the radome was wet. When the radome was not wetted, the radiometer was seen to indicate an inverted distribution of liquid water within a cloud. When the radiometer measurements were made at 15 deg. instead of the standard zenith, the measurements were less accurate.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy and Tensile Strength of a Type IV Gypsum Using Microwave and Air Drying Methods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anuraag; Shetty, Manoj; Hegde, Chethan; Shetty, N Sridhar; Prasad, D Krishna

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate dimensional accuracy and tensile strength of a type IV gypsum product, at different time intervals, dried in air or a microwave oven. Eighty specimens prepared from a cylindrical mould were used for measuring tensile strength (group A). Twenty specimens from a master die mould were used for determining dimensional accuracy (group B). In group A, 40 specimens were dried in open air at room temperature (A1). The other 40 were removed after 30 min and air dried for 20 min. These were subjected to microwave oven drying for 5 min (A2). Ten specimens each were tested under diametral compression at each of the following time periods: 1, 2, 4 and 24 h after drying. In group B, ten specimens were dried in open air at room temperature (B1). Ten specimens were removed from the mould after 30 min and air dried for 20 min. These were then dried in a microwave oven for 5 min (B2). The data was statistically analyzed using students unpaired "t" test. At all time intervals, diametral tensile strength (DTS) values for specimens dried in microwave oven were significantly higher than for those dried in open air. There were no significant differences between the dimensional accuracy of the two groups. In this study, microwave oven drying had a positive effect on the DTS of a type IV gypsum and the microwave oven dried specimens were as accurate as the air dried specimens over the same time period.

  6. Microwave interferometry of laser induced air plasmas formed by short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Jungwirth, P.W.

    1993-08-01

    Applications for the interaction of laser induced plasmas with electromagnetic probes requires time varying complex conductivity data for specific laser/electromagnetic probe geometries. Applications for this data include plasma switching (Q switching) and the study of ionization fronts. The plasmas were created in laboratory air by 100 ps laser pulses at a wavelength of 1 {mu}m. A long focal length lens focused the laser pulse into WR90 (X band) rectangular waveguide. Two different laser beam/electromagnetic probe geometries were investigated. For the longitudinal geometry, the laser pulse and the microwave counterpropagated inside the waveguide. For the transverse geometry, the laser created a plasma ``post`` inside the waveguide. The effects of the laser beam deliberately hitting the waveguide were also investigated. Each geometry exhibits its own characteristics. This research project focused on the longitudinal geometry. Since the laser beam intensity varies inside the waveguide, the charge distribution inside the waveguide also varies. A 10 GHz CW microwave probe traveled through the laser induced plasma. From the magnitude and phase of the microwave probe, a spatially integrated complex conductivity was calculated. No measurements of the temporal or spatial variation of the laser induced plasma were made. For the ``plasma post,`` the electron density is more uniform.

  7. Study of a 2.45 GHz microwave micro-plasma in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorio, J.; Synek, P.; Alves, L. L.; Boisse-Laporte, C.; Leprince, P.; Leroy, O.; Teulé-Gay, L.

    2007-10-01

    This paper studies a 2.45 GHz microwave micro-plasma source, working in air at atmospheric pressure. The discharge, similar to the one developed by Kono et al [1], is sustained within a slit (50-200 μm wide and 1.4cm width) delimited by two metallic blades placed at one end of a microstrip line. At the other end, a movable short circuit works as an impedance matching unit. The plasma source is placed inside a microwave absorbent box. The power coupling is analyzed theoretically by using the commercial software CST Microwave Studio, and experimentally by taking the ratio of the reflected to incident power, with and without plasma and for different slit sizes. A spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy study was also realized, using the SPECAIR software [2] to deduce the gas temperature Tg along the plasma width. In general, Tg is found between 650 and 1650 K, for 60-140W input power and 50-200 μm slit size. [1] A. Kono, T. Sugiyama, T. Goto, H. Furuhashi, Y. Uchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol. 40 (2001) pp. L238-L241 [2] http://www.specair-radiation.net/

  8. ADI-FDTD modeling of microwave plasma discharges in air towards fully three-dimensional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtzanidis, Konstantinos; Rogier, François; Boeuf, Jean-Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Plasma formation and propagation during microwave breakdown has been extensively studied during the last decades. Numerical modeling of the strong coupling between the high frequency electromagnetic waves and the plasma is still a challenging topic due to the different time and space scales involved. In this article, an Alternative Direction Implicit (ADI) formulation of the Finite Difference Time Domain method for solving Maxwell's equations coupled with a simplified plasma model via the electric current is being proposed, leading to a significant reduction of the computational cost as the CFL criterion for stability of the FDTD method is being removed. An energy estimate has been used to prove the unconditional stability of the ADI-FDTD leapfrog scheme as well as its coupled formulation. The computational efficiency and accuracy of this approach has been studied in a simplified case. The proposed method is applied and validated in two dimensional microwave breakdown in air while its computational efficiency allows for fully three dimensional simulations, an important step for understanding the complex nature and evolution of a microwave plasma discharge and its possible applicability as an aerodynamic flow control method.

  9. Microwave interrogation of an air plasma plume as a model system for hot spots in explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Ronald J.; Tringe, Joseph W.; Klunder, Gregory L.; Baluyot, Emer V.; Densmore, John M.; Converse, Mark C.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of hot spots within explosives is critical to understand for predicting how detonation waves form and propagate. However, it is challenging to observe hot spots directly because they are small (˜micron diameter), form quickly (much less than a microsecond), and many explosives of interest are optically opaque. Microwaves are well-suited to characterize hot spots because they readily penetrate most explosives. They also have sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to measure the coalescence of an ensemble of hot spots inside explosives. Here we employ 94 GHz microwaves to characterize the evolution of individual plasma plumes formed by laser ionization of air. We use interferometry to obtain plume diameter as a function of time. Although the plasma plumes are larger than individual hot spots in explosives, they expand rapidly and predictably, and their structure can be optically imaged. They are therefore useful model systems to establish the spatial and temporal limits of microwave interferometry (MI) for understanding more complex hot spot behavior in solid explosives.

  10. Microwave interrogation of an air plasma plume as a model system for hot spots in explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Ron; Tringe, Joseph; Klunder, Greg; Baluyot, Emer; Densmore, John; Converse, Mark

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of hot spots within explosives is critical to understand for predicting how detonation waves form and propagate. However, it is challenging to observe hot spots directly because they are small (~ micron diameter), form quickly (much less than a microsecond), and many explosives of interest are optically opaque. Microwaves are well-suited to characterize hot spots because they readily penetrate most explosives. They also have sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to measure the coalescence of an ensemble of hot spots inside explosives. Here we employ 94 GHz microwaves to characterize the evolution of individual plasma plumes formed by laser ionization of air. We use interferometry to obtain velocity records as a function of plume position and orientation. Although the plasma plumes are larger than individual hot spots in explosives, they expand rapidly and predictably, and their structure can be optically imaged. They are therefore useful model systems to establish the spatial and temporal limits of microwave interferometry (MI) for understanding more complex hot spot behavior in solid explosives. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Analysis of tropospheric scintillation due to clear-air and meteorological elements on slant microwave links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruike; Wu, ZhenSen; Li, Yingle

    2003-04-01

    Analysis of log-amplitude scintillation due to troposphere clear-air turbulent and meteorological parameters variation is shown at microwaves (MW) on slant paths, based on ITU-R turbulence atmosphere structure parameter, temperature and relative humidity along vertical path. Comparisons of Karasawa model based on the data obtained from a low-elevation microwave propagation experiment and ITU-R Recommendation model prediction results with evaluation results are shown and discussed. The results show that although the relative humidity effected on optical refractive index of a cell is not principally element at optical wave band, at microwave and millimeter-wave band, the relative humidity and temperature is the major factor impacted on log-amplitude scintillation. Hence, the variations of temperature and relative humidity with height, which can be obtained by experiment (or test) and weather observation method is important for low-elevation satellite communication and microwave remote sensing. A atmosphere structure constant Cn2 model, which varies with height, is presented based on ITU-R and Karasawa amplitude scintillation model, existing ITU-R Cn2 model for optical and meteorologic measured relative humidity and temperature data, at 10~30GHz. In this Cn2 model it is considered that relative humidity and temperature varies with height. The log-amplitude scintillation deviation calculated in terms of the Cn2 model based on humidity and temperature vertical profile compare with values predicted by means of ITU-R and Ortgies model applied to Italsat channels. It is emerged that the calculation results based on the Cn2 model agree almost with prediction results by ITU-R and Ortgies model at 10~30GHz and there is an advantage that relative humidity and temperature varied with height has be considered in the Cn2 model. Therefore, it is shown that the Cn2 model is usable and is more practical.

  12. First results from the microwave air yield beam experiment (MAYBE): Measurement of GHz radiation for ultra-high energy cosmic ray detection

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Cataldi, G.; Chemerisov, S.; De Mello Neto, J. R.T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fox, B.; Gorham, P. W.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Meyhandan, R.; Monasor, M.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Santos, E. M.; Pochez, J.; Privitera, P.; Spinka, H.; Verzi, V.; Zhou, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of microwave emission from an electron-beam induced air plasma performed at the 3 MeV electron Van de Graaff facility of the Argonne National Laboratory. Results include the emission spectrum between 1 and 15 GHz, the polarization of the microwave radiation and the scaling of the emitted power with respect to beam intensity. MAYBE measurements provide further insight on microwave emission from extensive air showers as a novel detection technique for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays.

  13. A comparison of sea ice parameters computed from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and Landsat satellite imagery and from airborne passive microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, W. J.; Radebaugh, M.; Fowler, C. W.; Cavalieri, D.; Steffen, K.

    1991-01-01

    AVHRR-derived sea ice parameters from the Bering Sea are compared with those computed from nearly coincident (within 6 hr) Landsat MSS imagery and from the Aircraft Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (AMMR) flown on the NASA DC-8 in order to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of AVHRR-mapped sea-ice concentration and ice edge. Mean ice-concentration differences between AVHRR near-infrared (channel 2) and Landsat MSS data ranged from -0.8 to 1.8 percent with a mean value of 0.5 percent; rms differences ranged from 6.8 to 17.7 percent. Mean differences were larger for AVHRR thermal infrared (channel 4) ice concentrations ranging from -2.2 to 8.4 percent with rms differences from 8.6 to 26.8 percent. Mean differences between AVHRR channel 2 concentrations and the AMMR data ranged from -19.7 to 18.9 percent, while rms values went from 17.0 to 44.8 percent.

  14. Simulation study on nitrogen vibrational and translational temperature in air breakdown plasma generated by 110 GHz focused microwave pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zhou, Qianhong; Dong, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    We report a simulation study on nitrogen vibrational and translational temperature in 3 μs pulse 110 GHz microwave air breakdown at pressure from 1 Torr to 100 Torr. The one-dimensional model is based on a self-consistent solution to Helmholtz equation for microwave field, electron density equation, and the average energy equation for electrons, nitrogen vibrational, and translational degrees. The breakdown threshold is calculated from the transmitted microwave profile, and it agrees well with that from experiment. The spatio-temporal characteristics of vibrational and translational temperature are shown, and the peak values at the end of pulse are compared to the results fitted from optical emission spectroscopy. The dependences of vibrational and translational temperature on normalized microwave fields and gas pressure are investigated, and the underlying mechanisms are unveiled.

  15. A Further Study of High Air Pollution Episodes in Taiwan Using the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP-5HE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Che-Ming; Chang, Long-Nan; Hsiao, Hui-Chuan; Lu, Fang-Chuan; Shieh, Ping-Fei; Chen, Chi-Nan; Lu, Shish-Chong

    In the metropolitan areas of Taiwan with high population density, heavy traffic, and/or zones of heavy industries, serious air pollution episodes may occur during stable weather conditions. The information of mixing height is therefore essential to the air pollution control in this area. In this study, diurnal variation of the mixing height derived using the newly established EPA-Taiwan microwave temperature profiler (MTP-5HE) and that obtained through the CWB soundings are compared. The relationships between the air quality and the diurnal variation of the mixing height is discussed during different air pollution episodes.

  16. Imagery Production Specialist (AFSC 23350).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This course of study is designed to lead the student to full qualification as an Air Force imagery production specialist. The complete course consists of six volumes: general subjects in imagery production (39 hours), photographic fundamentals (57 hours), continuous imagery production (54 hours), chemical analysis and process control (volumes A…

  17. Air-water microwave plasma torch as a NO source for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C. M.; Gordiets, B.; Tatarova, E.; Henriques, J.; Dias, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    A surface wave (2.45 GHz) driven, atmospheric plasma torch in air with a small admixture of water vapor (2%) is investigated as a source of exogenic NO. A 1D theoretical model of this source based on a self-consistent treatment of particles kinetics, gas dynamics, gas thermal balance, and wave electrodynamics is developed. Mass spectrometry is used to determine the relative NO(X) number density in the exhaust stream and validate the model predictions. The relative NO(X) density reaches values of up to 3% in the discharge zone, the maximum values being observed at the higher powers (400 W) and the lower gas flow rates (500 sccm). The NO(X) relative density is nearly constant along the afterglow plasma jet, with values between 1.1% and 1.6% for microwave powers and gas flow rates in the range 200-400 W and 500-2000 sccm, respectively.

  18. Propagation of long, high-power microwave pulses through the air

    SciTech Connect

    Khanaka, G.H.; Yee, J.H.

    1986-03-01

    The passage of long, high-power microwave pulses in the atmosphere was studied using a one-dimensional computer code. The objective of this study was to obtain a time history of the electron conductivity and peak density, as well as the peak plasma density. The results are summarized as follows: (1) the threshold level depends on pulse frequency and length; (2) electron avalanche occurs only when the pulse intensity exceeds the threshold level for air break-down, and this results in tail erosion; (3) for higher pulse intensities, it requires less time to initiate electron avalanche, which results in transmitting smaller portions of the pulse; (4) the general characteristics of the electron density, conductivity, and plasma frequency are quite similar for both cases; and (5) as the pulse amplitude rises, the electron conductivity and density and the plasma frequency also rise. 10 figs.

  19. Microwave drying of granules containing a moisture-sensitive drug: a promising alternative to fluid bed and hot air oven drying.

    PubMed

    Chee, Sze Nam; Johansen, Anne Lene; Gu, Li; Karlsen, Jan; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2005-07-01

    The impact of microwave drying and binders (copolyvidone and povidone) on the degradation of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and physical properties of granules were compared with conventional drying methods. Moist granules containing ASA were prepared using a high shear granulator and dried with hot air oven, fluid bed or microwave (static or dynamic bed) dryers. Percent ASA degradation, size and size distribution, friability and flow properties of the granules were determined. Granules dried with the dynamic bed microwave dryer showed the least amount of ASA degradation, followed by fluid bed dryer, static bed microwave oven and hot air oven. The use of microwave drying with a static granular bed adversely affected ASA degradation and drying capability. Dynamic bed microwave dryer had the highest drying capability followed by fluid bed, static bed microwave dryer and conventional hot air oven. The intensity of microwave did not affect ASA degradation, size distribution, friability and flow properties of the granules. Mixing/agitating of granules during drying affected the granular physical properties studied. Copolyvidone resulted in lower amount of granular residual moisture content and ASA degradation on storage than povidone, especially for static bed microwave drying. In conclusion, microwave drying technology has been shown to be a promising alternative for drying granules containing a moisture-sensitive drug.

  20. Microwave plasma-assisted ignition and flameholding in premixed ethylene/air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Che A.; Wu, Wei; Wang, Chuji

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a 2.45 GHz microwave source and a surfatron were used, coupled with a T-shaped quartz combustor, to investigate the role of a nonthermal microwave argon plasma jet on the plasma-assisted ignition and flameholding of a premixed ethylene/air mixture. A modified U-shaped plot of the minimum plasma power required for ignition versus fuel equivalence ratio was obtained, whereby the plasma power required for plasma-assisted ignition decreased with increase in fuel equivalence ratios in the range 0.2-0.6, but for fuel equivalence ratios of 0.7 and above, the plasma power required for ignition remained fairly constant throughout. It was observed that leaner fuel/air mixtures were more sensitive to heat losses to the surrounding and this sensitivity decreased with increase in the fuel equivalence ratio. Comparison with results obtained from previous studies suggested that the mixing scheme between the plasma and the premixed fuel/air mixture and the energy density of the fuel used played an important role in influencing the minimum plasma power required for ignition with the effect being more pronounced for near stoichiometric to rich fuel equivalence ratios (0.7-1.4). Flame images obtained showed a dual layered flame with an inner white core and a bluish outer layer. The images also showed an increased degree of flameholding (tethering of the flame to the combustor orifice) with increase in plasma power. The concurrency of the dual peaks in the emission intensity profiles for OH(A), CH(A), C2(d), and the rotational temperature profiles obtained via optical emission spectroscopy along with the ground state OH(X) number density profiles in the flame using cavity ringdown spectroscopy led to the proposal that the mechanism of plasma-assisted flameholding in ethylene/air flames is predominantly radical dependent with the formation of an inner radical rich flame core which enhances the ignition and stabilization of the surrounding coflow.

  1. Snow Depth Estimation Using Time Series Passive Microwave Imagery via Genetically Support Vector Regression (case Study Urmia Lake Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahir, N.; Mahdi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Urmia is one of the most important ecosystems of the country which is on the verge of elimination. Many factors contribute to this crisis among them is the precipitation, paly important roll. Precipitation has many forms one of them is in the form of snow. The snow on Sahand Mountain is one of the main and important sources of the Lake Urmia's water. Snow Depth (SD) is vital parameters for estimating water balance for future year. In this regards, this study is focused on SD parameter using Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments on board the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16. The usual statistical methods for retrieving SD include linear and non-linear ones. These methods used least square procedure to estimate SD model. Recently, kernel base methods widely used for modelling statistical problem. From these methods, the support vector regression (SVR) is achieved the high performance for modelling the statistical problem. Examination of the obtained data shows the existence of outlier in them. For omitting these outliers, wavelet denoising method is applied. After the omission of the outliers it is needed to select the optimum bands and parameters for SVR. To overcome these issues, feature selection methods have shown a direct effect on improving the regression performance. We used genetic algorithm (GA) for selecting suitable features of the SSMI bands in order to estimate SD model. The results for the training and testing data in Sahand mountain is [R²_TEST=0.9049 and RMSE= 6.9654] that show the high SVR performance.

  2. The influence of snow depth and surface air temperature on satellite-derived microwave brightness temperature. [central Russian steppes, and high plains of Montana, North Dakota, and Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Chang, A. T. C.; Rango, A.; Allison, L. J.; Diesen, B. C., III

    1980-01-01

    Areas of the steppes of central Russia, the high plains of Montana and North Dakota, and the high plains of Canada were studied in an effort to determine the relationship between passive microwave satellite brightness temperature, surface air temperature, and snow depth. Significant regression relationships were developed in each of these homogeneous areas. Results show that sq R values obtained for air temperature versus snow depth and the ratio of microwave brightness temperature and air temperature versus snow depth were not as the sq R values obtained by simply plotting microwave brightness temperature versus snow depth. Multiple regression analysis provided only marginal improvement over the results obtained by using simple linear regression.

  3. A one-dimensional study of the evolution of the microwave breakdown in air

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, V. E.; Rakova, E. I.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2015-09-15

    The microwave breakdown in air is simulated numerically within a simple 1D model taking into account a perturbation of electromagnetic field by plasma. The simulations were performed using two qualitatively different codes. One of these codes is based on computation of Maxwell equations, whereas the other one utilizes an approximation of quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic field. There is a good agreement between simulation results obtained by using both codes. Calculations have been carried out in a wide range of air pressures and field frequencies; also varied were initial spatial distributions of plasma density. The results reveal strong dependence of the breakdown evolution on the relation between the field frequency and the gas pressure as well as on the presence of extended rarefied background plasma. At relatively low gas pressures (or high field frequencies), the breakdown process is accompanied by the stationary ionization wave propagating towards the incident electromagnetic wave. In the case of a high gas pressure (or a relatively low field frequency), the peculiarities of the breakdown are associated with a formation of plasma filament array. The extended background plasma can suppress formation of the plasma filament array completely even at high pressures (or low frequencies)

  4. Air-water ‘tornado’-type microwave plasmas applied for sugarcane biomass treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundaleska, N.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Lino da Silva, M.; Ferreira, C. M.; Amorim, J.

    2014-02-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane biomass is an attractive alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Pretreatment is needed to separate the cellulosic material, which is packed with hemicellulose and lignin in cell wall of sugarcane biomass. A microwave ‘tornado’-type air-water plasma source operating at 2.45 GHz and atmospheric pressure has been applied for this purpose. Samples of dry and wet biomass (˜2 g) have been exposed to the late afterglow plasma stream. The experiments demonstrate that the air-water highly reactive plasma environment provides a number of long-lived active species able to destroy the cellulosic wrapping. Scanning electron microscopy has been applied to analyse the morphological changes occurring due to plasma treatment. The effluent gas streams have been analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Optical emission spectroscopy and FT-IR have been applied to determine the gas temperature in the discharge and late afterglow plasma zones, respectively. The optimal range of the operational parameters is discussed along with the main active species involved in the treatment process. Synergistic effects can result from the action of singlet O2(a 1Δg) oxygen, NO2, nitrous acid HNO2 and OH hydroxyl radical.

  5. The use of ERTS-1 imagery in air pollution and mesometeorological studies around the Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Northouse, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 images continue to be highly useful in studies of: (1) long range transport of air pollutants over the Great Lakes; (2) the mesoscale atmospheric dynamics associated with episodic levels of photochemical smog along the western shore of Lake Michigan; and (3) inadvertant weather modification by large industrial complexes. Also unusual wave patterns in fogs and low stratus over the Great Lakes are being detected for the first time due to the satellites high resolution.

  6. The Future of Air Force Motion Imagery Exploitation: Lessons from the Commercial World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    broader range of activities , from identifying improvised explosive device (IED) emplacement to understanding “patterns of life” of civilian populations...April 2010, defines ISR somewhat more abstractly as an “ activity that synchronizes and integrates the planning and operation of sensors, assets...its dozen or so deployable ground station (DGS) sites around the world—including active duty, Air National Guard, and reserve units—are not intended

  7. Microwave-swing adsorption to capture and recover vapors from air streams with activated carbon fiber cloth.

    PubMed

    Hashisho, Zaher; Rood, Mark; Botich, Leon

    2005-09-01

    Adsorption with regeneration is a desirable means to control the emissions of organic vapors such as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air streams as it allows for capture, recovery, and reuse of those VOCs/HAPS. Integration of activated-carbon fiber-cloth (ACFC) adsorbent with microwave regeneration provides promise as a new adsorption/ regeneration technology. This research investigates the feasibility of using microwaves to regenerate ACFC as part of a process for capture and recovery of organic vapors from gas streams. A bench-scale fixed-bed microwave-swing adsorption (MSA) system was built and tested for adsorption of water vapor, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) from an airstream and then recovery of those vapors with microwave regeneration. The electromagnetic heating behavior of dry and vapor-saturated ACFC was also characterized. The MSA system successfully adsorbed organic vapors from the airstreams, allowed for rapid regeneration of the ACFC cartridge, and recovered the water and organic vapors as liquids.

  8. Analysis of the US Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Imagery for Global Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharfen, Gregory R.

    1999-01-01

    The U. S. Air Force operates the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), a system of near-polar orbiting satellites designed for use in operational weather forecasting and other applications. DMSP satellites carry a suite of sensors that provide images of the earth and profiles of the atmosphere. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at the University of Colorado has been involved with the archival of DMSP data and its use for several research projects since 1979. This report summarizes the portion of this involvement funded by NASA.

  9. Removal of volatile organic compounds from air streams by making use of a microwave plasma burner with reverse vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji H.; Ma, Suk H.; Cho, Chang H.; Hong, Yong C.; Ahn, Jae Y.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma burner for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from polluted air streams. This study focused on the destruction of the VOCs in the high flow rate polluted streams required for industrial use. Plasma flames were sustained by injecting liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is composed of CH4, into the microwave plasma torch. With its high temperature and high density of atomic oxygen, the microwave torch attained nearly complete combustion of LNG, thereby providing a large-volume, high-temperature plasma flame. The plasma flame was applied to reactors in which the polluted streams were in one of two vortex flows: a conventional vortex reactor (CVR) or a reverse vortex reactor (RVR). The RVR, using a plasma power of 2 kW and an LNG flow of 20 liters per minute achieved a destruction removal efficiency (DRE) of 98% for an air flow rate of 5 Nm3/min polluted with 550 pm of VOCs.. For the same experimental parameters, the CVR provided a DRE of 90.2%. We expect that this decontamination system will prove effective in purifying contaminated air at high flow rates.

  10. Experiment and theoretical study of the propagation of high power microwave pulse in air breakdown environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Ren, A.; Zhang, Y. S.

    1991-01-01

    In the study of the propagation of high power microwave pulse, one of the main concerns is how to minimize the energy loss of the pulse before reaching the destination. In the very high power region, one has to prevent the cutoff reflection caused by the excessive ionization in the background air. A frequency auto-conversion process which can lead to reflectionless propagation of powerful EM pulses in self-generated plasmas is studied. The theory shows that under the proper conditions the carrier frequency, omega, of the pulse will indeed shift upward with the growth of plasma frequency, omega(sub pe). Thus, the plasma during breakdown will always remain transparent to the pulse (i.e., omega greater than omega(sub pe)). A chamber experiment to demonstrate the frequency auto-conversion during the pulse propagation through the self-generated plasma is then conducted in a chamber. The detected frequency shift is compared with the theoretical result calculated y using the measured electron density distribution along the propagation path of the pulse. Good agreement between the theory and the experiment results is obtained.

  11. Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Microwave Pulse Propagation in Air Breakdown Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Kim, J.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulation is used to investigate the extent of the electron density at a distant altitude location which can be generated by a high-power ground-transmitted microwave pulse. This is done by varying the power, width, shape, and carrier frequency of the pulse. The results show that once the breakdown threshold field is exceeded in the region below the desired altitude location, electron density starts to build up in that region through cascading breakdown. The generated plasma attenuates the pulse energy (tail erosion) and thus deteriorates the energy transmission to the destined altitude. The electron density saturates at a level limited by the pulse width and the tail erosion process. As the pulse continues to travel upward, though the breakdown threshold field of the background air decreases, the pulse energy (width) is reduced more severely by the tail erosion process. Thus, the electron density grows more quickly at the higher altitude, but saturates at a lower level. Consequently, the maximum electron density produced by a single pulse at 50 km altitude, for instance, is limited to a value below 10(exp 6) cm(exp -3). Three different approaches are examined to determine if the ionization at the destined location can be improved: a repetitive pulse approach, a focused pulse approach, and two intersecting beams. Only the intersecting beam approach is found to be practical for generating the desired density level.

  12. Treatment of airborne asbestos and asbestos-like microfiber particles using atmospheric microwave air plasma.

    PubMed

    Averroes, A; Sekiguchi, H; Sakamoto, K

    2011-11-15

    Atmospheric microwave air plasma was used to treat asbestos-like microfiber particles that had two types of ceramic fiber and one type of stainless fiber. The treated particles were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experiment results showed that one type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=1:1) and the stainless fiber were spheroidized, but the other type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=7:3) was not. The conversion of the fibers was investigated by calculating the equivalent diameter, the aspect ratio, and the fiber content ratio. The fiber content ratio in various conditions showed values near zero. The relationship between the normalized fiber vanishing rate and the energy needed to melt the particles completely per unit surface area of projected particles, which is defined as η, was examined and seen to indicate that the normalized fiber vanishing rate decreased rapidly with the increase in η. Finally, some preliminary experiments for pure asbestos were conducted, and the analysis via XRD and phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) showed the availability of the plasma treatment.

  13. Microwave air plasmas in capillaries at low pressure I. Self-consistent modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coche, P.; Guerra, V.; Alves, L. L.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents the self-consistent modeling of micro-plasmas generated in dry air using microwaves (2.45 GHz excitation frequency), within capillaries (<1 mm inner radius) at low pressure (300 Pa). The model couples the system of rate balance equations for the most relevant neutral and charged species of the plasma to the homogeneous electron Boltzmann equation. The maintenance electric field is self-consistently calculated adopting a transport theory for low to intermediate pressures, taking into account the presence of O- ions in addition to several positive ions, the dominant species being O{}2+ , NO+ and O+ . The low-pressure small-radius conditions considered yield very-intense reduced electric fields (˜600-1500 Td), coherent with species losses controlled by transport and wall recombination, and kinetic mechanisms strongly dependent on electron-impact collisions. The charged-particle transport losses are strongly influenced by the presence of the negative ion, despite its low-density (˜10% of the electron density). For electron densities in the range (1-≤ft. 4\\right)× {{10}12} cm-3, the system exhibits high dissociation degrees for O2 (˜20-70%, depending on the working conditions, in contrast with the  ˜0.1% dissociation obtained for N2), a high concentration of O2(a) (˜1014 cm-3) and NO(X) (5× {{10}14} cm-3) and low ozone production (<{{10}-3}% ).

  14. EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of 'Frozen-in' Anticyclonic Air in Arctic Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Livesey, N. J.; Jimenez, C. J.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Santee, M. L.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Waters, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    A previously unreported phenomenon, a 'frozen-in' anticyclone (FrIAC) after the 2005 Arctic spring vortex breakup, was discovered in Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) long-lived trace gas data. A tongue of low-latitude (high-N2O, low-H2O) air was drawn into high latitudes and confined in a tight anticyclone, then advected intact in the summer easterlies through late August. A similar feature in O3 disappeared by early April as a result of chemical processes. The FrIAC was initially advected upright at nearly the same speed at all levels from approx.660 to 1300 K (approx.25-45 km); increasing vertical wind shear after early June tilted the FrIAC and weakened it at higher levels. The associated feature in PV disappeared by early June; transport calculations fail to reproduce the remarkable persistence of the FrIAC, suggesting deficiencies in summer high-latitude winds. The historical PV record suggests that this phenomenon may have occurred several times before. The lack of a persistent signature in O3 or PV, along with its small size and rapid motion, make it unlikely that a FrIAC could have been reliably identified without hemispheric daily longlived trace gas profiles such as those from EOS MLS.

  15. Set-theoretic deconvolution (STD) for multichromatic ground/air/space-based imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronov, Aleksandr N.

    1997-09-01

    This paper proposes a class of nonlinear methods, called Set-Theoretic Deconvolution (STD), developed for joint restoration of M(M >1) monochrome distorted 2-dimensional images (snapshots) of an unknown extended object, being viewed through the optical channel with unknown PSF, whose true monochrome brightness profiles look distinct at M(M>!) slightly different wavelengths chosen. The presented method appeals to the generalized Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS) formalism, so that the proper projective metric is introduced and then minimized. Thus, a number of operators is derived in closed form and cyclically applied to M-dimensional functional vector built up from estimates for combinations of monochrome images. During the projecting of vector onto convex sets one attempts to avoid non-physical inversion and to correctly form a feasible solution (fixed point) consistent with qualitative not quantitative information being assumed to be known in advance. Computer simulation demonstrates that the resulting improved monochrome images reveal fine details which could not easily be discerned in the original distorted images. This technique recovers fairly reliably the total multichromatic 2-D portrait of an arbitrary compact object whose monochrome brightness distributions have discontinuities and are highly nonconvex plus multiply connected ones. Originally developed for the deblurring of passively observed objects, the STD approach can be carried over to scenario with actively irradiated objects (f.e., near-Earth space targets). Under advanced conditions, such as spatio-spectrally diversified laser illumination or coherent Doppler imaging implementation, the synthesized loop deconvolver could be universal tool in object feature extraction by means of occasionally aberrated space-borne telescope or turbulence-affected ground/air-based large aperture optical systems.

  16. Microwave air plasmas in capillaries at low pressure II. Experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancu, G. D.; Leroy, O.; Coche, P.; Gadonna, K.; Guerra, V.; Minea, T.; Alves, L. L.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents an experimental study of microwave (2.45 GHz excitation frequency) micro-plasmas, generated in dry air (N2 80%: O2 20%) within a small radius silica capillary (345 µm inner radius) at low pressure (300 Pa) and low powers (80-130 W). Experimental diagnostics are performed using optical emission spectroscopy calibrated in absolute intensity. Axial-resolved measurements (50 µm spatial resolution) of atomic transitions N(3p4S)  →  N(3s4P) O(3p5P)  →  O(3s5S) and molecular transitions N2(C,v‧)  →  N2(B,v″) \\text{N}2+ (B,v‧)  →  \\text{N}2+ (X,v″) allow us to obtain, as a function of the coupled power, the absolute densities of N(3p4S), O(3p5P), N2(C), N2(B) and \\text{N}2+ (B), as well as the gas (rotational) temperature (700-1000 K), the vibrational temperature of N2(C,v) (7000-10 000 K) and the excitation temperatures of N2(C) and N2(B) (11 000 K). The analysis of the H β line-width gives an upper limiting value of 1013 cm-3 for the electron density; its axial variation (4  ×  1011-6  ×  1012 cm-3) being estimated by solving the wave electrodynamics equations for the present geometry, plasma length and electron-neutral collision frequency. The experimental results were compared with the results from a 0D model, presented in companion paper I [1], which couples the system of rate balance equations for the dominant neutral and charged plasma species to the homogeneous two-term electron Boltzmann equation, taking the measured gas temperature and the estimated electron density as input parameters. Good qualitative agreement is found between the measurements and calculations of the local species densities for various powers and axial positions. The dissociation degree of oxygen is found above 10%. Moreover, both the measurements and calculations show evidence of the non-equilibrium behavior of low-temperature plasmas, with vibrational and excitation temperatures at least

  17. The Use of Red Green Blue Air Mass Imagery to Investigate the Role of Stratospheric Air in a Non-convective Wind Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, E. B.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Molthan, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Non-convective wind events commonly occur with passing extratropical cyclones and have significant societal and economic impacts. Since non-convective winds often occur in the absence of specific phenomena such as a thunderstorm, tornado, or hurricane, the public are less likely to heed high wind warnings and continue daily activities. Thus non-convective wind events result in as many fatalities as straight line thunderstorm winds. One physical explanation for non-convective winds includes tropopause folds. Improved model representation of stratospheric air and associated non-convective wind events could improve non-convective wind forecasts and associated warnings. In recent years, satellite data assimilation has improved skill in forecasting extratropical cyclones; however errors still remain in forecasting the position and strength of extratropical cyclones as well as the tropopause folding process. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of assimilating satellite temperature and moisture retrieved profiles from hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounders (i.e. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)) on the model representation of the tropopause fold and an associated high wind event that impacted the Northeast United States on 09 February 2013. Model simulations using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW) were conducted on a 12-km grid with cycled data assimilation mimicking the operational North American Model (NAM). The results from the satellite assimilation run are compared to a control experiment (without hyperspectral IR retrievals), Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis, and Rapid Refresh analyses.

  18. Performance of greenhouse gas profiling by infrared-laser and microwave occultation in cloudy air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.; Emde, C.; Schweitzer, S.

    2012-12-01

    ACCURATE is a proposed future satellite mission enabling simultaneous measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs), wind and thermodynamic variables from Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The measurement principle is a combination of LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO) and microwave occultation (LMO), the LMIO method, where the LIO signals are very sensitive to clouds. The GHG retrieval will therefore be strongly influenced by clouds in parts of the troposphere. The IR-laser signals, at wavelengths within 2--2.5μ m, are chosen to measure six GHGs (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CO; incl.~key isotopes 13CO2, C18OO, HDO). The LMO signals enable to co-measure the thermodynamic variables. In this presentation we introduce the algorithm to retrieve GHG profiles under cloudy-air conditions by using quasi-realistic forward simulations, including also influence of Rayleigh scattering, scintillations and aerosols. Data from CALIPSO--Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations--with highest vertical resolution of about 60 m and horizontal resolution of about 330 m were used for simulation of clouds. The IR-laser signals consist for each GHG of a GHG-sensitive and a close-by reference signal. The key process, ``differencing'' of these two signals, removes the atmospheric ``broadband'' effects, resulting in a pure GHG transmission profile. Very thin ice clouds, like sub-visible cirrus, are fairly transparent to the IR-laser signals, thicker and liquid water clouds block the signals. The reference signal is used to produce a cloud layering profile from zero to blocking clouds and is smoothed in a preprocess to suppress scintillations. Sufficiently small gaps, of width <2 km in the cloud layering profile, are found to enable a decent retrieval of entire GHG profiles over the UTLS under broken cloudiness and are therefore bridged by interpolation. Otherwise in case of essentially continuous cloudiness the profiles are found to terminate at cloud top level. The accuracy of

  19. Femtosecond filament initiated, microwave heated cavity-free nitrogen laser in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashov, Daniil; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of numerical modeling of the igniter-heater concept for initiation of standoff, cavity free lasing action in the atmosphere when a femtosecond laser filament is used for plasma generation (igniter) and a microwave heater provides electron-collision pumping of electronic states in molecular nitrogen. By solving numerically the kinetic equation for the energy distribution function of electrons, generated in a femtosecond laser filament and heated by a microwave beam, we identify the conditions enabling single-pass, standoff UV-laser from molecular nitrogen in the atmosphere. The plasma density, the minimum amplitude of the microwave field, and the small-signal gain, necessary to achieve the lasing, are determined. We demonstrate that lasing build up time can be minimized and efficiency improved by using elliptically polarized laser pulses for filamentation. It is shown that realization of the filament-igniter, microwave-heater concept of the sky laser at low altitudes would require a microwave source of hundreds of kilowatt-megawatt power. The required microwave power can be reduced by several orders of magnitude when the igniter-heater scheme is used at the 10-30 km range of altitudes.

  20. The interaction of polarized microwaves with planar arrays of femtosecond laser-produced plasma filaments in air

    SciTech Connect

    Marian, Anca; El Morsli, Mbark; Vidal, Francois; Payeur, Stephane; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Chateauneuf, Marc; Theberge, Francis; Dubois, Jacques

    2013-02-15

    The interaction of polarized microwaves with subwavelength arrays of parallel plasma filaments, such as those produced by the propagation of high-power femtosecond laser pulses in ambient air, was investigated by calculating the reflection and transmission coefficients as a function of the incidence angles using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The time evolution of these coefficients was calculated and compared with experiments. It is found that the plasma filaments array becomes transparent when the polarization of the microwave radiation is perpendicular to the filaments axis, regardless the incidence angle of the microwave with respect to the filaments, except near grazing incidence. Increasing the filaments electron density or diameter, or decreasing the electron collision frequency or filaments spacing, decreases the transmission and increases the reflection. Transmission decreases when increasing the number of filament layers while reflection remains unchanged as the number of filament layers exceeds a given number ({approx}3 in our case). Transmission slightly increases when disorder is introduced in the filament arrays. The detailed calculation results are compared with those obtained from the simple birefringent slab model, which provides a convenient framework to calculate approximately the properties of filament arrays.

  1. Three dimensional simulations of pattern formation during high-pressure, freely localized microwave breakdown in air

    SciTech Connect

    Kourtzanidis, K. Boeuf, J. P.; Rogier, F.

    2014-12-15

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that a freely localized 100 GHz microwave discharge can propagate towards the microwave source with high speed, forming a complex pattern of self-organized filaments. We present three-dimensional simulations of the formation and propagation of such patterns that reveal more information on their nature and interaction with the electromagnetic waves. The developed three-dimensional Maxwell-plasma solver permits the study of different forms of incident field polarization. Results for linear and circular polarization of the wave are presented and comparisons with recent experiments show a good overall agreement. The three dimensional simulations provide a quantitative analysis of the parameters controlling the time and length scales of the strongly non-linear plasma dynamics and could be useful for potential microwave plasma applications such as aerodynamic flow and combustion control.

  2. Atmospheric absorption model for dry air and water vapor at microwave frequencies below 100 GHz derived from spaceborne radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, Frank J.; Meissner, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The Liebe and Rosenkranz atmospheric absorption models for dry air and water vapor below 100 GHz are refined based on an analysis of antenna temperature (TA) measurements taken by the Global Precipitation Measurement Microwave Imager (GMI) in the frequency range 10.7 to 89.0 GHz. The GMI TA measurements are compared to the TA predicted by a radiative transfer model (RTM), which incorporates both the atmospheric absorption model and a model for the emission and reflection from a rough-ocean surface. The inputs for the RTM are the geophysical retrievals of wind speed, columnar water vapor, and columnar cloud liquid water obtained from the satellite radiometer WindSat. The Liebe and Rosenkranz absorption models are adjusted to achieve consistency with the RTM. The vapor continuum is decreased by 3% to 10%, depending on vapor. To accomplish this, the foreign-broadening part is increased by 10%, and the self-broadening part is decreased by about 40% at the higher frequencies. In addition, the strength of the water vapor line is increased by 1%, and the shape of the line at low frequencies is modified. The dry air absorption is increased, with the increase being a maximum of 20% at the 89 GHz, the highest frequency considered here. The nonresonant oxygen absorption is increased by about 6%. In addition to the RTM comparisons, our results are supported by a comparison between columnar water vapor retrievals from 12 satellite microwave radiometers and GPS-retrieved water vapor values.

  3. The EV-1 airborne microwave observatory of subcanopy and subsurface (AirMOSS) investigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AirMOSS is one of the five Earth Venture-1 investigations selected in May 2010, with the goal of improving the estimates of the North American net ecosystem exchange (NEE) through high-resolution observations of root zone soil moisture (RZSM). The 5-year AirMOSS investigation is deigned to overlap w...

  4. A Microwave Technique for Mapping Ice Temperature in the Arctic Seasonal Sea Ice Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Germain, Karen M.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    A technique for deriving ice temperature in the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone from passive microwave radiances has been developed. The algorithm operates on brightness temperatures derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and uses ice concentration and type from a previously developed thin ice algorithm to estimate the surface emissivity. Comparisons of the microwave derived temperatures with estimates derived from infrared imagery of the Bering Strait yield a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and an RMS difference of 2.1 K when coastal and cloud contaminated pixels are removed. SSM/I temperatures were also compared with a time series of air temperature observations from Gambell on St. Lawrence Island and from Point Barrow, AK weather stations. These comparisons indicate that the relationship between the air temperature and the ice temperature depends on ice type.

  5. NASA team algorithm for sea ice concentration retrieval from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program special sensor microwave imager - Comparison with Landsat satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Konrad; Schweiger, Axel

    1991-01-01

    The present study describes the validation of the the NASA team algorithm for the determination of sea ice concentrations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I). A total of 28 cloud-free Landsat scenes were selected to permit validation of the passive microwave ice concentration algorithm for a range of ice concentrations and ice types. The sensitivity of the NASA team algorithm to the selection of locally and seasonally adjusted algorithm parameters is discussed. Mean absolute differences between SSM/I and Landsat ice concentrations are within 1 percent during fall using local and global tie points (standard deviations of the difference are +/-3.1 and +/-6.2 percent, respectively). In areas with greater amounts of nilas and young ice, the NASA team algorithm was found to underestimate ice concentrations by as much as 9 percent. It is inferred that the standard deviation between SSM/I and Landsat ice concentrations decreases from +/-7 to +/-5 percent with local tie points compared to the global ones for spring and fall.

  6. Measurements of electron avalanche formation time in W-band microwave air breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Alan M.; Hummelt, Jason S.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2011-08-15

    We present measurements of formation times of electron avalanche ionization discharges induced by a focused 110 GHz millimeter-wave beam in atmospheric air. Discharges take place in a free volume of gas, with no nearby surfaces or objects. When the incident field amplitude is near the breakdown threshold for pulsed conditions, measured formation times are {approx}0.1-2 {mu}s over the pressure range 5-700 Torr. Combined with electric field breakdown threshold measurements, the formation time data shows the agreement of 110 GHz air breakdown with the similarity laws of gas discharges.

  7. Measurements of electron avalanche formation time in W-band microwave air breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Alan M.; Hummelt, Jason S.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2011-08-01

    We present measurements of formation times of electron avalanche ionization discharges induced by a focused 110 GHz millimeter-wave beam in atmospheric air. Discharges take place in a free volume of gas, with no nearby surfaces or objects. When the incident field amplitude is near the breakdown threshold for pulsed conditions, measured formation times are ˜0.1-2 μs over the pressure range 5-700 Torr. Combined with electric field breakdown threshold measurements, the formation time data shows the agreement of 110 GHz air breakdown with the similarity laws of gas discharges.

  8. Physical Retrievals of Over-Ocean Rain Rate from Multichannel Microwave Imagery. Part 1; Theoretical Characteristics of Normalized Polarization and Scattering Indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petty, G. W.

    1994-01-01

    Microwave rain rate retrieval algorithms have most often been formulated in terms of the raw brightness temperatures observed by one or more channels of a satellite radiometer. Taken individually, single-channel brightness temperatures generally represent a near-arbitrary combination of positive contributions due to liquid water emission and negative contributions due to scattering by ice and/or visibility of the radiometrically cold ocean surface. Unfortunately, for a given rain rate, emission by liquid water below the freezing level and scattering by ice particles above the freezing level are rather loosely coupled in both a physical and statistical sense. Furthermore, microwave brightness temperatures may vary significantly (approx. 30-70 K) in response to geophysical parameters other than liquid water and precipitation. Because of these complications, physical algorithms which attempt to directly invert observed brightness temperatures have typically relied on the iterative adjustment of detailed micro-physical profiles or cloud models, guided by explicit forward microwave radiative transfer calculations. In support of an effort to develop a significantly simpler and more efficient inversion-type rain rate algorithm, the physical information content of two linear transformations of single-frequency, dual-polarization brightness temperatures is studied: the normalized polarization difference P of Petty and Katsaros (1990, 1992), which is intended as a measure of footprint-averaged rain cloud transmittance for a given frequency; and a scattering index S (similar to the polarization corrected temperature of Spencer et al.,1989) which is sensitive almost exclusively to ice. A reverse Monte Carlo radiative transfer model is used to elucidate the qualitative response of these physically distinct single-frequency indices to idealized 3-dimensional rain clouds and to demonstrate their advantages over raw brightness temperatures both as stand-alone indices of

  9. Concomitant adsorption and desorption of organic vapor in dry and humid air streams using microwave and direct electrothermal swing adsorption.

    PubMed

    Hashisho, Zaher; Emamipour, Hamidreza; Rood, Mark J; Hay, K James; Kim, Byung J; Thurston, Deborah

    2008-12-15

    Industrial gas streams can contain highly variable organic vapor concentrations that need to be processed before they are emitted to the atmosphere. Fluctuations in organic vapor concentrations make it more difficult to operate a biofilter when compared to a constant vapor concentration. Hence, there is a need to stabilize the concentration of rapidly fluctuating gas streams for optimum operation of biofilters. This paper describes new concomitant adsorption desorption (CAD) systems used with variable organic vapor concentration gas streams to provide the same gas stream, but at a user-selected constant vapor concentration that can then be more readily processed by a secondary air pollution control device such as a biofilter. The systems adsorb organic vapor from gas streams and simultaneously heat the adsorbent using microwave or direct electrothermal energy to desorb the organic vapor at a user-selected set-point concentration. Both systems depicted a high degree of concentration stabilization with a mean relative deviation between set-point and stabilized concentration of 0.3-0.4%. The direct electrothermal CAD system was also evaluated to treat a humid gas stream (relative humidity = 85%) that contained a variable organic vapor concentration. The high humidity did not interfere with CAD operation as water vapor did not adsorb but penetrated through the adsorbent These results are important because they demonstrate the ability of CAD to effectively dampen concentration fluctuation in gas streams.

  10. Cloud cover determination in polar regions from satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, R. G.; Key, J.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives are to develop a suitable validation data set for evaluating the effectiveness of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) algorithm for cloud retrieval in polar regions, to identify limitations of current procedures and to explore potential means to remedy them using textural classifiers, and to compare synoptic cloud data from model runs with observations. Toward the first goal, a polar data set consisting of visible, thermal, and passive microwave data was developed. The AVHRR and SMMR data were digitally merged to a polar stereographic projection with an effective pixel size of 5 sq km. With this data set, two unconventional methods of classifying the imagery for the analysis of polar clouds and surfaces were examined: one based on fuzzy sets theory and another based on a trained neural network. An algorithm for cloud detection was developed from an early test version of the ISCCP algorithm. This algorithm includes the identification of surface types with passive microwave, then temporal tests at each pixel location in the cloud detection phase. Cloud maps and clear sky radiance composites for 5 day periods are produced. Algorithm testing and validation was done with both actural AVHRR/SMMR data, and simulated imagery. From this point in the algorithm, groups of cloud pixels are examined for their spectral and textural characteristics, and a procedure is developed for the analysis of cloud patterns utilizing albedo, IR temperature, and texture. In a completion of earlier work, empirical analyses of arctic cloud cover were explored through manual interpretations of DMSP imagery and compared to U.S. Air Force 3D-nephanalysis. Comparisons of observed cloudiness from existing climatologies to patterns computed by the GISS climate model were also made.

  11. Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) Earth Venture Suborbital Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Entekhabi, D.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Lou, Y.; Chapin, E.; Saatchi, S. S.; Reichle, R. H.; Crow, W. T.; Cuenca, R. H.; Tabatabaeenejad, A.; Shepson, P. B.; Hensley, S.; Hagimoto, Y.; Chen, R.; Milak, S.; Ali, A. A.; Hollinger, D. Y.

    2015-12-01

    AirMOSS was selected by NASA in 2010 as one of the first 5 Earth-Venture-Suborbital missions, with the goal of reducing the uncertainty of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in north America through provision of high-resolution surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture to land hydrology and ecosystem models. AirMOSS is accomplishing this goal by producing retrieved maps of so-called root zone soil moisture (RZSM) at approximately 100-m resolution for 9 biomes (10 sites) in north America, ranging from the boreal forests in Canada to the tropical rainforests in Costa Rica. RZSM has been hypothesized to account for 60% or more of the uncertainty in estimates of NEE. AirMOSS, currently in its final mission year, has acquired about 3 years of observations of RZSM at its study sites, with a total of 21 flight campaigns per year. Each flight campaign has included 2-3 flight dates. The RZSM maps have been retrieved from polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instrument built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and flyign aboard a Gulfstream-3 airplane, operated by NASA Johnson Space Center. The estimation algorithms for deriving the RZSM maps have been matured throughout the mission, and have been shown to produce estimates of RZSM that are accurate to within 0.02-0.12 m3/m3 compared to in-situ validation data. The mission has also produced higher level RZSM products at hourly intervals, using land hydrology models, whose parameters are optimized using the AirMOSS snapshots. The ultimate product of the mission are the NEE estimates, generated not only for the mission study sites, but also upscaled to the entire scale of north America. These results are all under production, with the final mission products expected in May 2016. This presentation will give an overview of the mission, its products, and the main scientific findings. Several other papers in this session provide more details on each of the various aspects of the mission.

  12. Investigations on the on-line determination of metals in air flows by capacitively coupled microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelig, M.; Broekaert, J. A. C.

    2001-09-01

    Plasma optical emission spectrometry with a capacitively coupled microwave plasma (CMP) operated with air has been investigated with respect to its possibilities for real-time environmental monitoring of combustion processes. The unique feature is the possibility to operate the CMP with air as working gas, as is usually the case in exhaust gases of combustion processes. The CMP also is shown to be stable in the presence of large amounts of water and CO 2, which makes this source ideally suitable for this purpose. The detection limits obtained for the environmentally relevant elements Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mg, Ni and Pb show the possibility to monitor directly heavy metals in air in an on-line mode and down to the 2-160-μg m -3 level. These detection limits are generally lower than the threshold limit values of the 'Federal Law for Immission Protection' in Germany in the gaseous effluents of industrial plants. In order to investigate the influence of the water loading (32-222 g m -3) on the detection limits a comparison of results obtained with three different nebulizers (Légère nebulizer, hydraulic high-pressure nebulizer and ultrasonic nebulizer) was made, with which aerosols with different water loading are entered into the plasma. For the hydraulic high-pressure nebulizer and the ultrasonic nebulizer no desolvation unit was found to be necessary. It was shown that especially for elements with lines having high excitation energy (Cd) or for which ion lines are used (Mg II) the increase in water loading deteriorates the detection limits. The rotational temperatures ( Trot) and excitation temperatures ( Texe) in the case of different amounts of water are of the order of 3700-4900 K and 4700-7100 K, respectively. The temperatures show that changes in the geometry and temperature distribution in the case of Trot but also the values of Texe themselves are responsible for this increase in detection limits. Furthermore, different amounts of CO 2 mixed to the working gas (3

  13. Microwave Lightcraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Looking like an alien space ship or a flying saucer the Microwave Lightcraft is an unconventional launch vehicle approach for delivering payload to orbit using power transmitted via microwaves. Microwaves re beamed from either a ground station or an orbiting solar power satellite to the lightcraft. The energy received breaks air molecules into a plasma and a magnetohydrodynamic fanjet provides the lifting force. Only a small amount of propellant is required for circulation, attitude control and deorbit.

  14. Perpetual factors involved in performance of air traffic controllers using a microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershzohn, G.

    1978-01-01

    The task involved the control of two simulated aircraft targets per trial, in a 37.0 -km radius terminal area, by means of conventional radar vectoring and/or speed control. The goal was to insure that the two targets crossed the Missed Approach Point (MAP) at the runway threshold exactly 60 sec apart. The effects on controller performance of the MLS configuration under wind and no-wind conditions were examined. The data for mean separation time between targets at the MAP and the range about that mean were analyzed by appropriate analyses of variance. Significant effects were found for mean separation times as a result of the configuration of the MLS and for interaction between the configuration and wind conditions. The analysis of variance for range indicated significantly poorer performance under the wind condition. These findings are believed to be a result of certain perceptual factors involved in radar air traffic control (ATC) using the MLS with separation of targets in time.

  15. Characterizing and Monitoring Hazardous Air Pollution Caused by Wildfire in Interior Alaska in Summer 2005 Using MODIS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Cobb, P.; Sassen, K.; Engle, K.

    2005-12-01

    By mid-August 2005, about 600 fires had burned more than 3 million acres in Alaska. Approximately 90-95 percent of the Interior Alaska was impacted by smoke and air quality reached "very unhealthy" to "dangerous" levels between August 12, and 17, 2005. MODIS level 1B images are used study the spectral characteristics of the Wildfires. All 36 MODIS spectral bands are used to analyze the spectral characteristics of background forest and tundra, fires, clouds and smoke plumes. Analysis indicates that clouds have high reflectance at visible and near infrared wavelengths and low emission at thermal infrared wavelengths. Fires have high emission at middle infrared, especially at MODIS Band 21 (3.959 microns). Vegetation covered ground has lowest reflectance at visible wavelengths. Smoke plumes from forest fires have intermediate reflectance at visible wavelengths. The spatial coverage and temporal evolution of the wildfire patches and smoke plumes are monitored using MODIS time series. The characteristics of the smoke plumes are also studied using both ground based remote sensing instrument and MODIS derived aerosol product (MOD04), which monitors aerosol type, aerosol optical thickness, particle size distribution, aerosol mass concentration, optical properties.

  16. Accurate quantification of tio2 nanoparticles collected on air filters using a microwave-assisted acid digestion method

    PubMed Central

    Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Anthony, T. Renée; Grassian, Vicki H.; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles, including nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 100 nm, are used extensively in consumer products. In a 2011 current intelligence bulletin, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended methods to assess worker exposures to fine and ultrafine TiO2 particles and associated occupational exposure limits for these particles. However, there are several challenges and problems encountered with these recommended exposure assessment methods involving the accurate quantitation of titanium dioxide collected on air filters using acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Specifically, recommended digestion methods include the use of chemicals, such as perchloric acid, which are typically unavailable in most accredited industrial hygiene laboratories due to highly corrosive and oxidizing properties. Other alternative methods that are used typically involve the use of nitric acid or combination of nitric acid and sulfuric acid, which yield very poor recoveries for titanium dioxide. Therefore, given the current state of the science, it is clear that a new method is needed for exposure assessment. In this current study, a microwave-assisted acid digestion method has been specifically designed to improve the recovery of titanium in TiO2 nanoparticles for quantitative analysis using ICP-OES. The optimum digestion conditions were determined by changing several variables including the acids used, digestion time, and temperature. Consequently, the optimized digestion temperature of 210°C with concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid (2:1 v/v) resulted in a recovery of >90% for TiO2. The method is expected to provide for a more accurate quantification of airborne TiO2 particles in the workplace environment. PMID:26181824

  17. Accurate quantification of tio2 nanoparticles collected on air filters using a microwave-assisted acid digestion method.

    PubMed

    Mudunkotuwa, Imali A; Anthony, T Renée; Grassian, Vicki H; Peters, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles, including nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 100 nm, are used extensively in consumer products. In a 2011 current intelligence bulletin, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended methods to assess worker exposures to fine and ultrafine TiO(2) particles and associated occupational exposure limits for these particles. However, there are several challenges and problems encountered with these recommended exposure assessment methods involving the accurate quantitation of titanium dioxide collected on air filters using acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Specifically, recommended digestion methods include the use of chemicals, such as perchloric acid, which are typically unavailable in most accredited industrial hygiene laboratories due to highly corrosive and oxidizing properties. Other alternative methods that are used typically involve the use of nitric acid or combination of nitric acid and sulfuric acid, which yield very poor recoveries for titanium dioxide. Therefore, given the current state of the science, it is clear that a new method is needed for exposure assessment. In this current study, a microwave-assisted acid digestion method has been specifically designed to improve the recovery of titanium in TiO(2) nanoparticles for quantitative analysis using ICP-OES. The optimum digestion conditions were determined by changing several variables including the acids used, digestion time, and temperature. Consequently, the optimized digestion temperature of 210°C with concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid (2:1 v/v) resulted in a recovery of >90% for TiO(2). The method is expected to provide for a more accurate quantification of airborne TiO(2) particles in the workplace environment.

  18. Perceptual Fidelity for Digital Color Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    AFIT/DS/ENG/96-14 PERCEPTUAL FIDELITY FOR DIGITAL COLOR IMAGERY DISSERTATION Curtis Eli Martin Captain, USAF AFIT/DS/ENG/96-14 Approved for public...SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF COLOR PAGES WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY ON BLACK AND WHITE MICROFICHE. The views expressed in this dissertation are those of the...FOR DIGITAL COLOR IMAGERY DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air

  19. Kinetics of the formation of ozone and nitrogen oxides due to a pulsed microwave discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, V. F.; Rumiantsev, S. A.

    1989-03-01

    The paper presents results of a numerical simulation of the kinetics of plasma-chemical processes induced by a single microwave pulse in the stratosphere. It is shown that the gas temperature is one of the main factors influencing the concentration ratio of ozone and nitrogen oxides formed under the effect of a microwave pulse. Long pulses, producing considerable gas heating, favor the formation of nitrogen oxides.

  20. CoNi@SiO2 @TiO2 and CoNi@Air@TiO2 Microspheres with Strong Wideband Microwave Absorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinghe; Cao, Qi; Bi, Han; Liang, Chongyun; Yuan, Kaiping; She, Wen; Yang, Yongji; Che, Renchao

    2016-01-20

    The synthesis of CoNi@SiO2 @TiO2 core-shell and CoNi@Air@TiO2 yolk-shell microspheres is reported for the first time. Owing to the magnetic-dielectric synergistic effect, the obtained CoNi@SiO2 @TiO2 microspheres exhibit outstanding microwave absorption performance with a maximum reflection loss of -58.2 dB and wide bandwidth of 8.1 GHz (8.0-16.1 GHz, < -10 dB).

  1. An Analysis of Modeling Satellite Data in Air Land Combat Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    of the spectral regions (20:71-72). When the man in the hot air balloon spotted something of interest, he would call or come down out of the balloon...pulses 12 Remotely Imagery in the ultra-violet, Sensed visible, infrared, and microwave Data spectral regions . IMAGE Observations with image scanners...standard deviation, respectively, of the differences between observations. The rejection region for the hypothesis tests occurred when tpaired ? t,n-l

  2. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  3. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  4. Direct correlation and strong reduction of native point defects and microwave dielectric loss in air-annealed (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Z. Q.; Podpirka, A.; Kirchoefer, S. W.; Asel, T. J.; Brillson, L. J.

    2015-05-04

    We report on the native defect and microwave properties of 1 μm thick Ba{sub 0.50}Sr{sub 0.50}TiO{sub 3} (BST) films grown on MgO (100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS) showed high densities of native point defects in as-deposited BST films, causing strong subgap emission between 2.0 eV and 3.0 eV due to mixed cation V{sub C} and oxygen Vo vacancies. Post growth air anneals reduce these defects with 2.2, 2.65, and 3.0 eV V{sub O} and 2.4 eV V{sub C} intensities decreasing with increasing anneal temperature and by nearly two orders of magnitude after 950 °C annealing. These low-defect annealed BST films exhibited high quality microwave properties, including room temperature interdigitated capacitor tunability of 13% under an electric bias of 40 V and tan δ of 0.002 at 10 GHz and 40 V bias. The results provide a feasible route to grow high quality BST films by MBE through post-air annealing guided by DRCLS.

  5. Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emitting Products Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Microwave ... for Consumers Laws, Regulations & Standards Industry Guidance Other Resources Description Microwave ...

  6. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  7. Current and Future Applications of Multispectral (RGB) Satellite Imagery for Weather Analysis and Forecasting Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Fuell, Kevin K.; LaFontaine, Frank; McGrath, Kevin; Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Current and future satellite sensors provide remotely sensed quantities from a variety of wavelengths ranging from the visible to the passive microwave, from both geostationary and low ]Earth orbits. The NASA Short ]term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has a long history of providing multispectral imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA fs Terra and Aqua satellites in support of NWS forecast office activities. Products from MODIS have recently been extended to include a broader suite of multispectral imagery similar to those developed by EUMETSAT, based upon the spectral channels available from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) aboard METEOSAT ]9. This broader suite includes products that discriminate between air mass types associated with synoptic ]scale features, assists in the identification of dust, and improves upon paired channel difference detection of fog and low cloud events. Future instruments will continue the availability of these products and also expand upon current capabilities. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES ]R will improve the spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution of our current geostationary capabilities, and the recent launch of the Suomi National Polar ]Orbiting Partnership (S ]NPP) carries instruments such as the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Cross ]track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), which have unrivaled spectral and spatial resolution, as precursors to the JPSS era (i.e., the next generation of polar orbiting satellites. New applications from VIIRS extend multispectral composites available from MODIS and SEVIRI while adding new capabilities through incorporation of additional CrIS channels or information from the Near Constant Contrast or gDay ]Night Band h, which provides moonlit reflectance from clouds and detection of fires or city lights. This presentation will

  8. Quantitative Determination of Density of Ground State Atomic Oxygen from Both TALIF and Emission Spectroscopy in Hot Air Plasma Generated by Microwave Resonant Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, F.; Yousfi, M.; Merbahi, N.; Wattieaux, G.; Piquemal, A.

    2016-03-01

    Two experimental techniques have been used to quantify the atomic oxygen density in the case of hot air plasma generated by a microwave (MW) resonant cavity. The latter operates at a frequency of 2.45 GHz inside a cell of gas conditioning at a pressure of 600 mbar, an injected air flow of 12 L/min and an input MW power of 1 kW. The first technique is based on the standard two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) using xenon for calibration but applied for the first time in the present post discharge hot air plasma column having a temperature of about 4500 K near the axis of the nozzle. The second diagnostic technique is an actinometry method based on optical emission spectroscopy (OES). In this case, we compared the spectra intensities of a specific atomic oxygen line (844 nm) and the closest wavelength xenon line (823 nm). The two lines need to be collected under absolutely the same spectroscopic parameters. The xenon emission is due to the addition of a small proportion of xenon (1% Xe) of this chemically inert gas inside the air while a further small quantity of H2 (2%) is also added in the mixture in order to collect OH(A-X) and NH(A-X) spectra without noise. The latter molecular spectra are required to estimate gas and excitation temperatures. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements, at for instance the position z=12 mm on the axis plasma column that leads to a gas measured temperature equal to 3500 K, an excitation temperature of about 9500 K and an atomic oxygen density 2.09×1017±0.2×1017 cm-3. This is in very good agreement with the TALIF measurement, which is equal to 2.0×1017 cm-3.

  9. Covellite CuS nanocrystals: realizing rapid microwave-assisted synthesis in air and unravelling the disappearance of their plasmon resonance after coupling with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mee Rahn; Hafez, Hassan A.; Chai, Xin; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Tan, Long; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Govorov, Alexander O.; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Ma, Dongling

    2016-06-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals that show plasmonic resonance represent an emerging class of highly promising plasmonic materials with potential applications in diverse fields, such as sensing and optical and optoelectronic devices. We report a new approach to synthesizing homogeneous covellite CuS nanoplatelets in air and the almost complete disappearance of their plasmonic resonance once coupled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). These nanoplatelets were rapidly synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted approach at a relatively low reaction temperature in air, instead of under N2 as reported previously. These less severe synthesis conditions were enabled by appropriately selecting a Cu precursor and preparing a precursor sulfur solution (instead of using solid sulfur) and by using microwave radiation as the heat source. The advantages of utilizing microwave irradiation, including uniform and rapid heating, became clear after comparing the results of the synthesis with those achieved using a conventional oil-bath method under N2. The CuS nanoplatelets prepared in this way showed very strong plasmon resonance at c. 1160 nm as a result of their free charge carriers at the calculated density of nh = 1.5 × 1022 cm-3 based on the Drude model. With the aim of exploring their potential for near-infrared responsive optoelectronic devices, they were hybridized with functionalized MWCNTs. Their strong plasmon resonance almost completely disappeared on hybridization. Detailed investigations excluded the effect of possible structural changes in the CuS nanoplatelets during the hybridization process and a possible effect on the plasmon resonance arising from the chemical bonding of surface ligands. Charge transfer was considered to be the main reason for the almost complete disappearance of the plasmon resonance, which was further confirmed by terahertz (THz) time-domain spectrometry and THz time-resolved spectrometry measurements performed on the CuS-MWCNT nanohybrids

  10. Microwave assisted catalytic wet air oxidation of H-acid in aqueous solution under the atmospheric pressure using activated carbon as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Yazhi; Yang, Fenglin

    2006-09-01

    Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is a promising method for the treatment of heavily contaminated wastewater. However, its application is restricted due to severe operation conditions (high pressure and high temperature). A microwave (MW) assisted oxidation method was investigated aiming to treat heavily contaminated wastewater under milder conditions. H-acid (1-amino-8-naphthol-3, 6-disulfonic acid) was selected as target compound to evaluate the performance of this novel process. The removal of H-acid and TOC (total organic carbon) for H-acid solution of 3000 mg/L reached as high as 92.6% in 20 min and 84.2% in 60 min, respectively under optimal conditions. The existence of activated carbon and oxygen proved to be critical for effective treatment. The activated carbon acted not only as a catalyst for H-acid decomposition, but also as a special material for the absorption of MW energy. Air was supplied to the reactor as an oxygen source at constant flows. The amino group in H-acid was converted ultimately into nitrate, and sulfonic group into sulfate. This observation gave an evidence of H-acid mineralization although other organic intermediates were unable to be determined. The value of BOD(5)/COD (ratio of 5d biochemical oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand) increased from 0.008 to 0.467 indicating a significant improvement of biodegradability for the solution, which is beneficial for the further biological treatment of the wastewater.

  11. Studies of microwave scattering and canopy architecture for boreal forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, G. Lance; Gogineni, S. P.

    1995-01-01

    This is an annual report on the project titled 'Study of Microwave Scattering and Canopy Architecture for Boreal Forests.' The objectives of our work are to study the interaction of microwave signals with vegetation components and to determine the radar's ability to provide accurate estimates of biophysical parameters such as biomass. Our research is aimed at refining the current microwave models and using these improvements to facilitate more accurate interpretations of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imagery.

  12. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa2O4 with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meng; Li, Danzhen; Zhang, Wenjuan; Chen, Zhixin; Huang, Hanjie; Li, Wenjuan; He, Yunhui; Fu, Xianzhi

    2012-06-01

    ZnGa2O4 was synthesized from Ga(NO3)3 and ZnCl2 via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa2O4 were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa2O4 had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa2O4 has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa2O4 (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa2O4 was also proposed.

  13. A Look at the U.S. Cold Snap from NASA Infrared Imagery

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of AIRS imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite from Dec. 1 to 11 shows the movement of cold air over the U.S. Cooler temperatures appear in darker blue and warmer temperatures in dark or...

  14. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  15. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, Heiner W.; Cusson, Ronald Y.; Johnson, Ray M.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  16. Imagery Integration Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one

  17. Effectiveness of Vegetation Index Transformation for Land Use Identifying and Mapping in the Area of Oil palm Plantation based on SPOT-6 Imagery (Case Study: PT.Tunggal Perkasa Plantations, Air Molek, Indragiri Hulu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyowati, H. A.; S, S. H. Murti B.; Sukentyas, E. S.

    2016-11-01

    The reflection of land surface, atmosphere and vegetation conditions affect the reflectance value of the object is recorded on remote sensing image so that it can affect the outcome of information extraction from remote sensing imagery one multispectral classification. This study aims to assess the ability of the transformation of generic vegetation index (Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index), the vegetation index transformation that is capable reducing the influence of the atmosphere (Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index), and the transformation of vegetation index that is capable of reducing the influence of the background soil (Second Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) for the identification and mapping of land use in the oil palm plantation area based on SPOT-6 archived on June 13, 2013 from LAPAN. The study area selected oil palm plantations PT. Tunggal Perkasa Plantations, Air Molek, Indragiri Hulu, Riau Province. The method is using the transformation of the vegetation index ARVI, MSAVI2, and WDRVI. Sample selection method used was stratified random sampling. The test method used mapping accuracy of the confusion matrix. The results showed that the best transformation of the vegetation index for the identification and mapping of land use in the plantation area is ARVI transformation with a total of accuracy is 96%. Accuracy of mapping land use settlements 100%, replanting 82.35%, 81.25% young oil palm, old oil palm 99.46%, 100% bush, body of water 100%, and 100% bare-soil.

  18. Recombination of atomic oxygen on α-Al 2O 3 at high temperature under air microwave-induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balat-Pichelin, M.; Bedra, L.; Gerasimova, O.; Boubert, P.

    2007-11-01

    New ceramic materials are necessary for the design of primary heat shields for future reusable space vehicles re-entering atmospheric planet. During the re-entry phase on earth, one of the most important phenomena occurring on the heat shield is the recombination of atomic species and among them atomic oxygen. The recombination of atomic oxygen is catalyzed by the material of the heat shield. This paper presents some experimental results for the recombination coefficient γ and the thermal flux of recombination transferred to the material in the surface-catalyzed recombination of oxygen atoms based on experiments performed on the MESOX set-up using optical emission spectroscopy, actinometry and calorimetry techniques. Experimental results on the recombination coefficient are presented for three types of α-Al 2O 3 in the temperature range 900-2400 K for 300 Pa total air pressure. The thermal flux of recombination is given for only two representative samples. These three alumina differ essentially by their content of sintering additives. Different behaviors of the recombination coefficient versus temperature are observed according to the impurity level of the α-alumina.

  19. Reconstruction of super-resolution fields of ocean pCO2 and air-sea fluxes of CO2 from satellite imagery in the Southeastern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Carrasco, I.; Sudre, J.; Garçon, V.; Yahia, H.; Garbe, C.; Paulmier, A.; Dewitte, B.; Illig, S.; Dadou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of Green House Gases GHGs fluxes at the air-sea interface at high resolution is crucial to accurately quantify the role of the ocean in the absorption and emission of GHGs. In this paper we present a novel method to reconstruct maps of surface ocean partial pressure of CO2, pCO2, and air-sea CO2 fluxes at super resolution (4 km) using Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Ocean Colour (OC) data at this resolution, and CarbonTracker CO2 fluxes data at low resolution (110 km). Inference of super-resolution of pCO2, and air-sea CO2 fluxes is performed using novel nonlinear signal processing methodologies that prove efficient in the context of oceanography. The theoretical background comes from the Microcanonical Multifractal Formalism which unlocks the geometrical determination of cascading properties of physical intensive variables. As a consequence, a multiresolution analysis performed on the signal of the so-called singularity exponents allows the correct and near optimal cross-scale inference of GHGs fluxes, as the inference suits the geometric realization of the cascade. We apply such a methodology to the study offshore of the Benguela area. The inferred representation of oceanic partial pressure of CO2 improves and enhances the description provided by CarbonTracker, capturing the small scale variability. We examine different combinations of Ocean Colour and Sea Surface Temperature products in order to increase the number of valid points and the quality of the inferred pCO2 field. The methodology is validated using in-situ measurements by means of statistical errors. We obtain that mean absolute and relative errors in the inferred values of pCO2 with respect to in-situ measurements are smaller than for CarbonTracker.

  20. High-spatial-resolution passive microwave sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Barrett, J. W.; Bonanni, Pierino Gianni; Chiarchiaro, W. J., II; Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1991-01-01

    During this period the emphasis was on the following: (1) further design, construction, and testing of the improved 54-GHz portion of the 54-118 GHz microwave temperature sounder (MTS) aircraft radiometer system in preparation for ER-2 observations in July 1991; and (2) final analysis and documentation of procedures for detecting and analyzing thermal waves in our 118-GHz MTS imagery. In addition, we have new unpublished measurements of dry-air attenuation at frequencies of 54 to 66 GHz and over a temperature range of 280K to 326K; these measurements should enable us to improve further our atmospheric transmittance models. It was further noted that the proposed SSMIS conical-scanning microwave spectrometer on the military DMSP Block 5D-3 spacecraft designed to measure stratospheric and mesospheric temperature profiles will be observing the Zeeman-split oxygen lines with sufficient spectral resolution that the changing Doppler shifts with view angle will substantially degrade the potential system performance unless remedied; this was briefly studied and documented.

  1. Current Usage and Future Prospects of Multispectral (RGB) Satellite Imagery in Support of NWS Forecast Offices and National Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Knaff, John; Lee, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Current and future satellite sensors provide remotely sensed quantities from a variety of wavelengths ranging from the visible to the passive microwave, from both geostationary and low-Earth orbits. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has a long history of providing multispectral imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA s Terra and Aqua satellites in support of NWS forecast office activities. Products from MODIS have recently been extended to include a broader suite of multispectral imagery similar to those developed by EUMETSAT, based upon the spectral channel s available from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) aboard METEOSAT-9. This broader suite includes products that discriminate between air mass types associated with synoptic-scale features, assists in the identification of dust, and improves upon paired channel difference detection of fog and low cloud events. Similarly, researchers at NOAA/NESDIS and CIRA have developed air mass discrimination capabilities using channels available from the current GOES Sounders. Other applications of multispectral composites include combinations of high and low frequency, horizontal and vertically polarized passive microwave brightness temperatures to discriminate tropical cyclone structures and other synoptic-scale features. Many of these capabilities have been transitioned for evaluation and operational use at NWS Weather Forecast Offices and National Centers through collaborations with SPoRT and CIRA. Future instruments will continue the availability of these products and also expand upon current capabilities. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-R will improve the spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution of our current geostationary capabilities, and the recent launch of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) carries instruments such as the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Cross

  2. Interactively Browsing NASA's EOS Imagery in Full Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, R. A.; Joshi, T.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Worldview is a new tool designed to interactively browse full-resolution imagery from NASA's fleet of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. It is web-based and developed using open standards (JavaScript, CSS, HTML) for cross-platform compatibility. It addresses growing user demands for access to full-resolution imagery by providing a responsive, interactive interface with global coverage, no artificial boundaries, and views in geographic and polar projections. Currently tailored to the near real-time community, Worldview enables the rapid evaluation and comparison of imagery related to such application areas as fires, floods, and air quality. It is supported by the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), a system that continuously ingests, mosaics, and serves approximately 21GB of imagery daily. This imagery spans over 50 data products that are available within three hours of observation from instruments aboard Terra, Aqua, and Aura. The GIBS image archive began in May 2012 and will have published approximately 4.4TB of imagery as of December 2012. Worldview facilitates rapid access to this archive and is supplemented by socioeconomic data layers from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), including products such as population density and economic risk from cyclones. Future plans include the accessibility of additional products that cover the entire Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS missions (>150TB) and the ability to download the underlying science data of the onscreen imagery.

  3. Microwave detector

    SciTech Connect

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1986-12-02

    A detector is described for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations, the detector comprising: a B-dot loop linking the magnetic field of the microwave pulse; a biased ferrite, that produces a magnetization field flux that links the B-dot loop. The ferrite is positioned within the B-dot loop so that the magnetic field of the microwave pulse interacts with the ferrite and thereby participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux; and high-frequency insensitive means for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop.

  4. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Meng; Li Danzhen; Zhang Wenjuan; Chen Zhixin; Huang Hanjie; Li Wenjuan; He Yunhui; Fu Xianzhi

    2012-06-15

    ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized from Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and ZnCl{sub 2} via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was also proposed. - Graphical abstract: In the degradation of RhB under UV light irradiation, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photo-activity, and after only 24 min of irradiation the decomposition ratio was up to 99.8%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and facile M-H method to synthesize ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst exhibits high activity toward benzene and dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst possesses more surface hydroxyl sites than TiO{sub 2} (P25). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep oxidation of different aromatic compounds and dyes over catalyst.

  5. Microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  6. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  7. Structural geologic interpretations from radar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Robert G.

    1969-01-01

    Certain structural geologic features may be more readily recognized on sidelooking airborne radar (SLAR) images than on conventional aerial photographs, other remote sensor imagery, or by ground observations. SLAR systems look obliquely to one or both sides and their images resemble aerial photographs taken at low sun angle with the sun directly behind the camera. They differ from air photos in geometry, resolution, and information content. Radar operates at much lower frequencies than the human eye, camera, or infrared sensors, and thus "sees" differently. The lower frequency enables it to penetrate most clouds and some precipitation, haze, dust, and some vegetation. Radar provides its own illumination, which can be closely controlled in intensity and frequency. It is narrow band, or essentially monochromatic. Low relief and subdued features are accentuated when viewed from the proper direction. Runs over the same area in significantly different directions (more than 45° from each other), show that images taken in one direction may emphasize features that are not emphasized on those taken in the other direction; optimum direction is determined by those features which need to be emphasized for study purposes. Lineaments interpreted as faults stand out on radar imagery of central and western Nevada; folded sedimentary rocks cut by faults can be clearly seen on radar imagery of northern Alabama. In these areas, certain structural and stratigraphic features are more pronounced on radar images than on conventional photographs; thus radar imagery materially aids structural interpretation.

  8. The Imagery-Creativity Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels-McGhee, Susan; Davis, Gary A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews historical highlights of the imagery-creativity connection, including early and contemporary accounts, along with notable examples of imagery in the creative process. It also looks at cross-modal imagery (synesthesia), a model of image-based creativity and the creative process, and implications for strengthening creativity by…

  9. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  10. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Janney, Mark A.; Ferber, Mattison K.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  11. Multispectral microwave imaging radar for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. W.; Rawson, R.; Ausherman, D.; Bryan, L.; Porcello, L.

    1974-01-01

    A multispectral airborne microwave radar imaging system, capable of obtaining four images simultaneously is described. The system has been successfully demonstrated in several experiments and one example of results obtained, fresh water ice, is given. Consideration of the digitization of the imagery is given and an image digitizing system described briefly. Preliminary results of digitization experiments are included.

  12. Exploration of conditions for microwave roasting of almonds (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond roasting is an energy-intensive process that is usually performed via hot-air convection. Microwave roasting could be a more energy-efficient alternative to hot-air roasting, but microwave roasting of almonds has not yet been thoroughly explored. Thus, the purpose of this study was to deter...

  13. Exploration of conditions for microwave roasting of almonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond roasting is an energy-intensive process that is usually performed via hot-air convection. Microwave roasting could be a more energy-efficient alternative to hot-air roasting, but microwave roasting of almonds has not yet been thoroughly explored. Thus, the purpose of this study was to deter...

  14. Search for microwave emission from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R., Jr.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J. F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, L. C.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.; Zhou, J.

    2012-09-01

    We present a search for microwave emission from air showers induced by ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with the microwave detection of air showers experiment. No events were found, ruling out a wide range of power flux and coherence of the putative emission, including those suggested by recent laboratory measurements.

  15. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  16. GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

  17. Implementation Convention (IC) 1 for Unmanned System Interoperability Profile (USIP) 1 For Line of Sight Transmission of Motion Imagery for Battle Space Awareness Using Standard Common Data Link

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-24

    STANAG 4609 AIR (EDITION 1) – NATO DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY STANDARD, 23 March 2005 • AEDP -8 (Edition 2), NATO Motion Imagery (MI) STANAG 4609 (Edition 2...MOTION IMAGERY STANDARD, 23 March 2005 and the associated AEDP -8 (Edition 2), NATO Motion Imagery (MI) STANAG 4609 (Edition 2) Implementation Guide...section identifies the differences in implementation detail between the STANAG 4609/ AEDP 8 and the MISB standards. • STANAG 4609 Annex C

  18. Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Camera Asset Planning: Imagery Previsualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaulieu, K.

    2014-01-01

    Using JSC-developed and other industry-standard off-the-shelf 3D modeling, animation, and rendering software packages, the Image Science Analysis Group (ISAG) supports Orion Project imagery planning efforts through dynamic 3D simulation and realistic previsualization of ground-, vehicle-, and air-based camera output.

  19. Ikonos Imagery Product Nonuniformity Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Smith, Charles

    2002-01-01

    During the early stages of the NASA Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) program, three approximately equal vertical stripes were observable in the IKONOS imagery of highly spatially uniform sites. Although these effects appeared to be less than a few percent of the mean signal, several investigators requested new imagery. Over time, Space Imaging updated its processing to minimize these artifacts. This however, produced differences in Space Imaging products derived from archive imagery processed at different times. Imagery processed before 2/22/01 is processed with one set of coefficients, while imagery processed after that date requires another set. Space Imaging produces its products from raw imagery, so changes in the ground processing over time can change the delivered digital number (DN) values, even for identical orders of a previously acquired scene. NASA Stennis initiated studies to investigate the magnitude and changes in these artifacts over the lifetime of the system and before and after processing updates.

  20. Thermal Imagery of Groundwater Seeps: Possibilities and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Erin; Gleeson, Tom; Roberts, Mark; Baraer, Michel; McKenzie, Jeffrey M

    2017-03-01

    Quantifying groundwater flow at seepage faces is crucial because seepage faces influence the hydroecology and water budgets of watersheds, lakes, rivers and oceans, and because measuring groundwater fluxes directly in aquifers is extremely difficult. Seepage faces provide a direct and measurable groundwater flux but there is no existing method to quantitatively image groundwater processes at this boundary. Our objective is to determine the possibilities and limitations of thermal imagery in quantifying groundwater discharge from discrete seeps. We developed a conceptual model of temperature below discrete seeps, observed 20 seeps spectacularly exposed in three dimensions at an unused limestone quarry and conducted field experiments to examine the role of diurnal changes and rock face heterogeneity on thermal imagery. The conceptual model suggests that convective air-water heat exchange driven by temperature differences is the dominant heat transfer mechanism. Thermal imagery is effective at locating and characterizing the flux of groundwater seeps. Areas of active groundwater flow and ice growth can be identified from thermal images in the winter, and seepage rates can be differentiated in the summer. However, the application of thermal imagery is limited by diverse factors including technical issues of image acquisition, diurnal changes in radiation and temperature, and rock face heterogeneity. Groundwater discharge rates could not be directly quantified from thermal imagery using our observations but our conceptual model and experiments suggest that thermal imagery could quantify groundwater discharge when there are large temperature differences, simple cliff faces, non-freezing conditions, and no solar radiation.

  1. Summer snowmelt patterns in the South Shetlands using TerraSAR-X imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, C.; Jimenez, J. J.; Catalao Fernades, J.; Ferreira, A.; David, A.; Ramos, M.; Vieira, G.

    2014-12-01

    Snow plays an important role in controlling ground thermal regime and thus influencing permafrost distribution in the lower areas of the South Shetlands archipelago, where late lying snowpatches protect the soil from summer warming. However, summer snow distribution is complex in the mountainous environments of the Maritime Antarctica and it is very difficult to obtain accurate mapping products of snow cover extent and also to monitor snowmelt. Field observations of snow cover in the region are currently based on: i) thickness data from a very scarce network of meteorological stations, ii) temperature poles allowing to estimate snow thickness, iii) and time-lapse cameras allowing for assessing snow distribution over relatively small areas. The high cloudiness of the Maritime Antarctic environment limits good mapping results from the analysis of optical remote sensing imagery such as Landsat, QuickBird or GeoEye. Therefore, microwave sensors provide the best imagery, since they are not influenced by cloudiness and are sensitive to wet-snow, typical of the melting season. We have acquired TerraSAR-X scenes for Deception and Livingston Islands for January-March 2014 in spotlight (HH, VV and HH/VV) and stripmap modes (HH) and analyse the radar backscattering for determining the differences between wet-snow, dry-snow and bare soil aiming at developing snow melt pattern maps. For ground truthing, snowpits were dug in order to characterize snow stratigraphy, grain size, grain type and snow density and to evaluate its effects on radar backscattering. Time-lapse cameras allow to identify snow patch boundaries in the field and ground surface temperatures obtained with minloggers, together with air temperatures, allow to identify the presence of snow cover in the ground. The current research is conducted in the framework of the project PERMANTAR-3 (Permafrost monitoring and modelling in Antarctic Peninsula - PTDC/AAG-GLO/3908/2012 of the FCT and PROPOLAR).

  2. Detection of rotating thunderstorms using satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C. E.; Schlesinger, R.

    1985-01-01

    In the case of the Carolina tornadoes, researchers prepared visible and IR GOES imagery covering the period 2000 Z when the storm entered South Carolina from Georgia until it exited North Carolina at 0200 Z into Virginia. The GOES IR imagery clearly demonstrated that this storm was imbedded in a continuously propagating mesolow with a well defined cold dome. The ground damage track paralleled exactly with the cold dome throughout the storm's life across the Carolinas. There were no advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data during the period to allow researchers to inspect the cloud top for warm temperature anomalies. The Carolina storm did exhibit rightward deviating outflow which was oriented about 60 degrees to the 300 mb streamlines. The tornadoes of April 27, 1984 were part of a tornado producing cold front which stretched from Oklahoma to Minnesota. As the front moved eastward it touched off numerous tornadoes in eastern Wisconsin. GOES imagery for this data was prepared and it was strikingly clear that all along the North-South oriented squall line, the individual tunderstorms had cirrus plumes which had remarkable right deviation to the upper air flow. Unlike the Carolina long track supercell cell-mesolow system, these storms were isolated individual thunderstorms which touched off at least 16 tornadoes in eastern Wisconsin stretching from the Milwaukee area on the south to Vilas County in the north. The monster tornado of June 8, 1984 which leveled 90 percent of the village of Barneveld, Wisconsin and killed 9 persons is also discussed.

  3. Digital elevation modelling using ASTER stereo imagery.

    PubMed

    Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    2010-04-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) in recent times has become an integral part of national spatial data infrastructure of many countries world-wide due to its invaluable importance. Although DEMs are mostly generated from contours maps, stereo aerial photographs and air-borne and terrestrial laser scanning, the stereo interpretation and auto-correlation from satellite image stereo-pairs such as with SPOT, IRS, and relatively new ASTER imagery is also an effective means of producing DEM data. In this study, terrain elevation data were derived by applying photogrammetric process to ASTER stereo imagery. Also, the quality ofDEMs produced from ASTER stereo imagery was analysed by comparing it with DEM produced from topographic map at a scale of 1:50,000. While analyzing the vertical accuracy of the generated ASTER DEM, fifty ground control points were extracted from the map and overlaid on the DEM. Results indicate that a root-mean-square error in elevation of +/- 14 m was achieved with ASTER stereo image data of good quality. The horizontal accuracy obtained from the ground control points was 14.77, which is within the acceptable range of +/- 7m to +/- 25 m. The generated (15 m) DEM was compared with a 20m, 25m, and a 30 m pixel DEM to the original map. In all, the results proved that, the 15 m DEM conform to the original map DEM than the others. Overall, this analysis proves that, the generated digital terrain model, DEM is acceptable.

  4. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain. Imagery does not replace pain medicine. It works with your pain medicine to help you have better pain relief. How Imagery Helps Imagery is used to help reduce stress that can cause muscle tension. It can help ...

  5. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on microwave processing of ceramics: Microwave-material interactions; anticipated advantage of microwave sintering; ceramic sintering; and ceramic joining. 24 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  6. Imagery of pineal tumors.

    PubMed

    Deiana, G; Mottolese, C; Hermier, M; Louis-Tisserand, G; Berthezene, Y

    2015-01-01

    Pineal tumors are rare and include a large variety of entities. Germ cell tumors are relatively frequent and often secreting lesions. Pineal parenchymal tumors include pineocytomas, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, pineoblastomas and papillary tumors of the pineal region. Other lesions including astrocytomas and meningiomas as well as congenital malformations i.e. benign cysts, lipomas, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, which can also arise from the pineal region. Imagery is often non-specific but detailed analysis of the images compared with the hormone profile can narrow the spectrum of possible diagnosis.

  7. High Lapse Rates in AIRS Retrieved Temperatures in Cold Air Outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian; Olsen, Edward T.; Fishbein, Evan

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) experiment, on NASA's Aqua spacecraft, uses a combination of infrared and microwave observations to retrieve cloud and surface properties, plus temperature and water vapor profiles comparable to radiosondes throughout the troposphere, for cloud cover up to 70%. The high spectral resolution of AIRS provides sensitivity to important information about the near-surface atmosphere and underlying surface. A preliminary analysis of AIRS temperature retrievals taken during January 2003 reveals extensive areas of superadiabatic lapse rates in the lowest kilometer of the atmosphere. These areas are found predominantly east of North America over the Gulf Stream, and, off East Asia over the Kuroshio Current. Accompanying the high lapse rates are low air temperatures, large sea-air temperature differences, and low relative humidities. Imagery from a Visible / Near Infrared instrument on the AIRS experiment shows accompanying clouds. These lines of evidence all point to shallow convection in the bottom layer of a cold air mass overlying warm water, with overturning driven by heat flow from ocean to atmosphere. An examination of operational radiosondes at six coastal stations in Japan shows AIRS to be oversensitive to lower tropospheric lapse rates due to systematically warm near-surface air temperatures. The bias in near-surface air temperature is seen to be independent of sea surface temperature, however. AIRS is therefore sensitive to air-sea temperature difference, but with a warm atmospheric bias. A regression fit to radiosondes is used to correct AIRS near-surface retrieved temperatures, and thereby obtain an estimate of the true atmosphere-ocean thermal contrast in five subtropical regions across the north Pacific. Moving eastward, we show a systematic shift in this air-sea temperature differences toward more isothermal conditions. These results, while preliminary, have implications for our understanding of heat flow from ocean to

  8. Microwave heating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Andrew J.; Petersen, Robert D.; Swanson, Stephen D.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for heating and melting materials using microwave energy, and for permitting them to solidify. The apparatus includes a microwave energy source, a resonant cavity having an opening in its floor, a microwave energy choke encompassing the opening in the floor of the cavity, a metal container to hold the materials to be heated and melted, a turntable, and a lift-table. During operation, the combined action of the turntable and the lift-table position the metal container so that the top of the container is level with the floor of the cavity, is in substantial registration with the floor opening, and is encompassed by the microwave energy choke; thus, during operation, the interior of the container defines part of the resonant cavity. Additionally, a screw feeder, extending into the cavity and sheltered from microwave energy by a conveyor choke, may convey the materials to be heated to the container. Also, preferably, the floor of the resonant cavity may include perforatins, so that the offgases and dust generated in the apparatus may be removed from the resonant cavity by pulling outside air between the container choke and the exterior wall of the container into the resonant cavity and out from the cavity through the perforations.

  9. Imagery Rescripting for Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-01-01

    Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…

  10. Visual Imagery without Visual Perception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertolo, Helder

    2005-01-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review…

  11. Polarimetric imagery collection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Joao M.; Felton, Melvin; Chenault, David; Sohr, Brian

    2010-04-01

    The Spectral and Polarimetric Imagery Collection Experiment (SPICE) is a collaborative effort between the US Army ARDEC and ARL that is focused on the collection of mid-wave and long-wave infrared imagery using hyperspectral, polarimetric, and broadband sensors. The objective of the program is to collect a comprehensive database of the different modalities over the course of 1 to 2 years to capture sensor performance over a wide variety of weather conditions, diurnal, and seasonal changes inherent to Picatinny's northern New Jersey location. Using the Precision Armament Laboratory (PAL) tower at Picatinny Arsenal, the sensors will autonomously collect the desired data around the clock at different ranges where surrogate 2S3 Self-Propelled Howitzer targets are positioned at different viewing perspectives in an open field. The database will allow for: 1) Understanding of signature variability under adverse weather conditions; 2) Development of robust algorithms; 3) Development of new sensors; 4) Evaluation of polarimetric technology; and 5) Evaluation of fusing the different sensor modalities. In this paper, we will present the SPICE data collection objectives, the ongoing effort, the sensors that are currently deployed, and how this work will assist researches on the development and evaluation of sensors, algorithms, and fusion applications.

  12. Spectral imagery collection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Joao M.; Rosario, Dalton; Farley, Vincent; Sohr, Brian

    2010-04-01

    The Spectral and Polarimetric Imagery Collection Experiment (SPICE) is a collaborative effort between the US Army ARDEC and ARL for the collection of mid-wave and long-wave infrared imagery using hyperspectral, polarimetric, and broadband sensors. The objective of the program is to collect a comprehensive database of the different modalities over the course of 1 to 2 years to capture sensor performance over a wide variety of adverse weather conditions, diurnal, and seasonal changes inherent to Picatinny's northern New Jersey location. Using the Precision Armament Laboratory (PAL) tower at Picatinny Arsenal, the sensors will autonomously collect the desired data around the clock at different ranges where surrogate 2S3 Self-Propelled Howitzer targets are positioned at different viewing perspectives at 549 and 1280m from the sensor location. The collected database will allow for: 1) Understand of signature variability under the different weather conditions; 2) Development of robust algorithms; 3) Development of new sensors; 4) Evaluation of hyperspectral and polarimetric technologies; and 5) Evaluation of fusing the different sensor modalities. In this paper, we will present the SPICE data collection objectives, the ongoing effort, the sensors that are currently deployed, and how this work will assist researches on the development and evaluation of sensors, algorithms, and fusion applications.

  13. Replacing craving imagery with alternative pleasant imagery reduces craving intensity.

    PubMed

    Knäuper, Bärbel; Pillay, Rowena; Lacaille, Julien; McCollam, Amanda; Kelso, Evan

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory studies have shown that asking people to engage in imagery reduces the intensity of laboratory-induced food cravings. This study examined whether the intensity of naturally occurring cravings can be reduced by replacing the craving-related imagery with alternative, pleasant imagery. Participants were instructed to vividly imagine engaging in their favorite activity. They had to apply this imagery technique over a period of four days whenever they felt a craving arising and were asked to keep applying this technique until the craving passed. Compared to baseline, craving intensity and vividness of craving-related imagery were both significantly reduced. Vividness of craving-related imagery fully mediated the effect of the alternative imagery on craving intensity. No effects were found for control conditions in which participants (1) just formed the goal intention to reduce their cravings, (2) formed implementation intentions to reduce their cravings, and (3) engaged in a cognitive task (reciting the alphabet backwards). The findings suggest that vividly imagining a pleasant element can be an effective technique to curb cravings in everyday life.

  14. Development of RGB Composite Imagery for Operational Weather Forecasting Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Oswald, Hayden, K; Knaff, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, in collaboration with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA), is providing red-green-blue (RGB) color composite imagery to several of NOAA s National Centers and National Weather Service forecast offices as a demonstration of future capabilities of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) to be implemented aboard GOES-R. Forecasters rely upon geostationary satellite imagery to monitor conditions over their regions of responsibility. Since the ABI will provide nearly three times as many channels as the current GOES imager, the volume of data available for analysis will increase. RGB composite imagery can aid in the compression of large data volumes by combining information from multiple channels or paired channel differences into single products that communicate more information than provided by a single channel image. A standard suite of RGB imagery has been developed by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), based upon the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). The SEVIRI instrument currently provides visible and infrared wavelengths comparable to the future GOES-R ABI. In addition, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites can be used to demonstrate future capabilities of GOES-R. This presentation will demonstrate an overview of the products currently disseminated to SPoRT partners within the GOES-R Proving Ground, and other National Weather Service forecast offices, along with examples of their application. For example, CIRA has used the channels of the current GOES sounder to produce an "air mass" RGB originally designed for SEVIRI. This provides hourly imagery over CONUS for looping applications while demonstrating capabilities similar to the future ABI instrument. SPoRT has developed similar "air mass" RGB imagery from MODIS, and through

  15. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Methods Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Results Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Conclusions Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. PMID:23929886

  16. Restoration of multichannel microwave radiometric images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, R. T.; Yeh, C. L.; Olson, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    A constrained iterative image restoration method is applied to multichannel diffraction-limited imagery. This method is based on the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm utilizing incomplete information and partial constraints. The procedure is described using the orthogonal projection operators which project onto two prescribed subspaces iteratively. Some of its properties and limitations are also presented. The selection of appropriate constraints was emphasized in a practical application. Multichannel microwave images, each having different spatial resolution, were restored to a common highest resolution to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. Both noise-free and noisy images were used in this investigation.

  17. Advanced microwave sounding unit study for atmospheric infrared sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenkranz, Philip W.; Staelin, David H.

    1992-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A), and the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS, formerly AMSU-B) together constitute the advanced sounding system facility for the Earth Observing System (EOS). A summary of the EOS phase B activities are presented.

  18. The Imagery Exchange (TIE): Open Source Imagery Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Roberts, J. T.; Hall, J. R.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; McGann, J. M.; Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Bingham, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA's Global Imagery Browse Service (GIBS) is the Earth Observation System (EOS) imagery solution for delivering global, full-resolution satellite imagery in a highly responsive manner. GIBS consists of two major subsystems, OnEarth and The Imagery Exchange (TIE). TIE is the GIBS horizontally scaled imagery workflow manager component, an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) responsible for orchestrating the acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by OnEarth. TIE is an extension of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), a high performance data management system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory by leveraging open source tools and frameworks, which includes Groovy/Grails, Restlet, Apache ZooKeeper, Apache Solr, and other open source solutions. This presentation focuses on the application of Open Source technologies in developing a horizontally scaled data system like DMAS and TIE. As part of our commitment in contributing back to the open source community, TIE is in the process of being open sourced. This presentation will also cover our current effort in getting TIE in to the hands of the community from which we benefited from.

  19. A multifrequency evaluation of active and passive microwave sensors for oil spill detection and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenner, R. G.; Reid, S. C.; Solie, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation is given of how active and passive microwave sensors can best be used in oil spill detection and assessment. Radar backscatter curves taken over oil spills are presented and their effect on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery are discussed. Plots of microwave radiometric brightness variations over oil spills are presented and discussed. Recommendations as to how to select the best combination of frequency, viewing angle, and sensor type for evaluation of various aspects of oil spills are also discussed.

  20. Imagery: Paintings in the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Albert R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes using the overlapping areas of relaxation, meditation, hypnosis, and imagery as a counseling technique. Explains the methods in terms of right brain functioning, a capability children use naturally. (ABB)

  1. Intelligence and imagery in personality.

    PubMed

    Tedford, W H; Penk, M L

    1977-08-01

    One hundred college undergraduates were administered the Richardson revision of the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control, the Betts-Sheehan Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery, and the Shipley-Hartford Institute of Living Scale. The latter provided a conceptual quotient (CQ) score of intellectual impairment based upon a ratio between vocabulary and abstraction scores. Subjects with CQs above 100 had significantly higher control scores (p less than .02). High control subjects had significantly higher total IQ scores than did low control subjects (p less than .04). Subjects with high and medium range control had higher vocabulary scores than those with low control. This suggests possible assessment of proneness toward introverted and extraverted neuroticism based upon a combination type of imagery score and the ratio between abstract or vocabulary scores. The connection of imagery with dimensions of IQ may be a start toward a more refined measure of this aspect of personality. Problems and implications are discussed.

  2. Simulation of parafoil reconnaissance imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogler, Kent J.; Sutkus, Linas; Troast, Douglas; Kisatsky, Paul; Charles, Alain M.

    1995-08-01

    Reconnaissance from unmanned platforms is currently of interest to DoD and civil sectors concerned with drug trafficking and illegal immigration. Platforms employed vary from motorized aircraft to tethered balloons. One appraoch currently under evaluation deploys a TV camera suspended from a parafoil delivered to the area of interest by a cannon launched projectile. Imagery is then transmitted to a remote monitor for processing and interpretation. This paper presents results of imagery obtained from simulated parafoil flights in which software techniques were developed to process-in image degradation caused by atmospheric obscurants and perturbations in the normal parafoil flight trajectory induced by wind gusts. The approach to capturing continuous motion imagery from captive flight test recordings, the introduction of simulated effects, and the transfer of the processed imagery back to video tape is described.

  3. [Psychophysiologic research on mental imagery].

    PubMed

    Fontana, A E; Heumann, G A

    1988-06-01

    This paper studies the different types of imagery likely to occur during the sleep/wake cycle in experiment subjects under part sensory deprivation conditions, where they are administered a sound-stimulus- namely an electronically recorded heart-beat which acts as propioceptive inductor. Meanwhile, a polysmonographic register in recorded so that a correlation between the time the imagery appears, and the states of consciousness likely to arouse the images is duly established. The study allows a fresh re-elaboration to be raised as regards imagery matureness and formation in the mind, a semiologic re-statement of imagery types, and a better understanding how the self works during sleep stage, dream state, and hypnagogic-hypnopompic phases as well. Finally, the authors stress up the importance of interpersonal relationship between the subjects and the research team, altogether with the frame of reference the professionals work in since their focusing could modify the sleep recording characteristics.

  4. 63. Refrigerator, microwave oven, storage cabinet open, north side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Refrigerator, microwave oven, storage cabinet open, north side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  5. 62. Refrigerator, microwave oven, equipment storage at top, north side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Refrigerator, microwave oven, equipment storage at top, north side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  6. Multi-Disciplinary Techniques for Understanding Time-Varying Space-Based Imagery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-29

    space-based image processing . A special feature of this effort is the attempt to use both optical and digital processing methods. Subpixel target...Framework for Hybrid Optical/Digital Image Processing 3 1.3. Problem Definition 3 1.4. Benefit to Air Force Technology 9 0 1.5. Summary of Research...Generation of Synthetic Imagery 21 2.2.1. Ground-Level Imagery 21 2.2.2. Detector Imagery 23 2.3. Processing Algorithms 25 2.3.1. Single Differencing 26 0

  7. Total microwave processing using microwave technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, P.J.; Kingston, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The implementation of total microwave processing of samples involves all processes after the collection of a sample up to but not including the analysis. These processes are often time consuming and a primary source of critical analytical errors. The use of microwave technology has been shown to improve sample digestion while also reducing contamination. However, microwave technology can also be used in the preparation of representative samples and matrix modifications; essentially total sample preparation. The concept of total microwave processing will be discussed as applied to the routine analysis of samples according to proposed Environmental Protection Agency Method 3052. This method requires microwave digestion and provides for several methods of post-digestion removal of hydrofluoric acid. Microwave technologies will be shown to efficiently dry, digest, and perform matrix modifications.

  8. Apperception of Clouds in AIRS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Hung-Lung; Smith, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Our capacity to simulate the radiative characteristics of the Earth system has advanced greatly over the past decade. However, new space based measurements show that idealized simulations might not adequately represent the complexity of nature. For example, AIRS simulated multi-layer cloud clearing research provides an excellent groundwork for early Atmospheric Infra-Red Sounder (AIRS) operational cloud clearing and atmospheric profile retrieval. However, it doesn't reflect the complicated reality of clouds over land and coastal areas. Thus far, operational AIRS/AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit) cloud clearing is not only of low yield but also of unsatisfying quality. This is not an argument for avoiding this challenging task, rather a powerful argument for exploring other synergistic approaches, and for adapting these strategies toward improving both indirect and direct use of cloudy infrared sounding data. Ample evidence is shown in this paper that the indirect use of cloudy sounding data by way of cloud clearing is sub-optimal for data assimilation. Improvements are needed in quality control, retrieval yield, and overall cloud clearing retrieval performance. For example, cloud clearing over land, especially over the desert surface, has led to much degraded retrieval quality and often a very low yield of quality controlled cloud cleared radiances. If these indirect cloud cleared radiances are instead to be directly assimilated into NWP models, great caution must be used. Our limited and preliminary cloud clearing results from AIRS/AMSU (with the use of MODIS data) and an AIRS/MODIS synergistic approach have, however, shown that higher spatial resolution multispectral imagery data can provide much needed quality control of the AIRS/AMSU cloud clearing retrieval. When AIRS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are used synergistically, a higher spatial resolution over difficult terrain (especially desert areas) can be achieved and with a

  9. A STANAG for NATO imagery interoperable data links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, H. M.

    1993-12-01

    NATO, under the direction of Air Group IV (A/C 224) of the Air Force Armament Group is writing a Standardization Agreement (STANAG) for an Imagery Interoperable Data Link. This is the last segment of the NATO Imagery Interoperable Architecture (NIIA) to be completed. This paper will briefly the background of the development of the NIIA and the inter-relationship of the three segments, and then describe the approach being taken to the preparation of the data link STANAG. The concept of the data link described by a layered model using Open Systems Interconnect concepts to define interfaces between the layers will be discussed and then the specific interfaces being used for the STANAG development will be described.

  10. Emissions from cooking microwave popcorn.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Jacky A; Krebs, Kenneth A; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2007-01-01

    This study characterized chemicals released into a chamber in the process of cooking microwave popcorn. Seventeen types of microwave popcorn from eight different brands were studied. The work proceeded in two phases: phase one investigated chemicals emitted during popping and opening, phase two investigated chemicals emitted at discrete intervals from 0-40 minutes post-pop opening. The research was performed using a microwave oven enclosed in a chamber with ports for air sampling of particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs in the air samples were identified and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). PM was characterized using both an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) to cover a full range of emitted sizes. The compounds measured during popping and opening included butter flavoring components such as diacetyl, butyric acid, acetoin, propylene glycol, 2-nonanone, and triacetin and bag components such as p-xylene and perfluorinated alcohol 8:2 telomer. The greatest chemical quantity is emitted when the bag is opened post-popping; more than 80% of the total chemical emissions occur at this time.

  11. MICROWAVE SOLID-STATE GENERATORS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RADIOFREQUENCY GENERATORS , *SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES, *TRANSISTORS, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, X BAND, FREQUENCY MULTIPLIERS, MICROWAVE OSCILLATORS, CIRCUITS, BROADBAND, NARROWBAND, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS.

  12. Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Sponsored by DTIC Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry Supply Chain Viability for the US Microwave Power Tube...Industry iii Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry September 2002 Therese M. Philippi Federico M. Sciammarella...Patterson Air Force Base 45433-7739 Supply Chain Viability for the US Microwave Power Tube Industry ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved Public

  13. A Numerical Simulation of the Energy Conversion Process in Microwave Rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Teppei; Oda, Yasuhisa; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2008-04-28

    In Microwave Rocket, a high power microwave beam ionizes atmospheric air inside of the thruster and the ionization front drives a shock wave. In this paper, CFD simulation was conducted using measured propagation velocity of the ionization front to evaluate the engine performance. As a result, maximum cycle efficiency was obtained at the power density of about 200 kW/m{sup 2} which is the transitional beam power condition between Microwave Supported Combustion and Microwave Supported Detonation regimes.

  14. Combination microwave gas convection oven

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.J. Jr.

    1984-02-07

    A combination microwave gas convection oven is described having a tubular burner operating in an induced draft environment. A blower system draws air from a combustion chamber forcing it into the heating cavity. The slight pressure created in the combustion chamber draws in air from the heating cavity through perforations communicating therebetween completing the convection recirculation. The negative pressure in the combustion chamber also causes secondary combustion air to be drawn up along the sides of the burner which is positioned adjacent to an aperture in the floor of the combustion chamber. A plurality of top ports in the burner provides low port loading. The structure provides good flame characteristics with low noise of combustion.

  15. A cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea observed with the Tiros-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claud, Chantal; Katsaros, Kristina B.; Petty, Grant W.; Chedin, Alain; Scott, Noelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Until recently, the scarcity of meteorological observations over polar areas has limited studies of high latitude weather systems, but now data from polar orbiting satellites offer a new opportunity to observe and describe these systems. TOVS data were used successfully for delineating synoptic and subsynoptic systems since they provide the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere: SSM/I observations have proved valuable for analyzing storms through water vapor and rain determinations. These positive results prompted us to analyze simultaneous TOVS and SSM/I observations obtained during a cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea. After a description of the instruments and the retrieval schemes, the mutually supporting information from these two independent instruments is discussed. Implications for the monitoring of polar lows are presented.

  16. A cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea observed with the Tiros-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claud, Chantal; Katsaros, Kristina B.; Petty, Grant W.; Chedin, Alain; Scott, Noelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Until recently, the scarcity of meteorological observations over polar areas has limited studies of high-latitude weather systems, but now data from polar orbiting satellites offer a new opportunity to observe and describe these systems. TOVS data have been used successfully for delineating synoptic and subsynoptic systems, since they provide the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere; SSM/I observations have proved valuable for analyzing storms through water vapor and rain determinations. These positive results prompted simultaneous analysis of TOVS and SSM/I observations obtained during a cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea. After a description of the instruments and the retrieval schemes, the mutually supporting information from these two independent instruments is discussed. Implications for the monitoring of polar lows are presented.

  17. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third…

  18. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, VR

    2006-08-01

    The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

  19. High Power Microwaves on the Future Battlefield: Implications for U.S. Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-17

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HIGH POWER MICROWAVES ON THE FUTURE BATTLEFIELD: IMPLICATIONS FOR U.S. DEFENSE by Robert J. Capozzella...2 HPM Weapons’ Capabilities, Today and in the Future...into its greatest liability as recent advances in the area of high power microwave (HPM) weapons are garnering interest around the world. Current

  20. IMPROVING BIOGENIC EMISSION ESTIMATES WITH SATELLITE IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review how existing and future applications of satellite imagery can improve the accuracy of biogenic emission estimates. Existing applications of satellite imagery to biogenic emission estimates have focused on characterizing land cover. Vegetation dat...

  1. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  2. The relationship between the microwave radar cross section and both wind speed and stress: Model function studies using Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, David E.; Davidson, Kenneth L.; Brown, Robert A.; Friehe, Carl A.; Li, Fuk

    1994-01-01

    The Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX) provided a unique data set with coincident airborne scatterometer measurements of the ocean surface radar cross section (RCS)(at Ku band) and near-surface wind and wind stress. These data have been analyzed to study new model functions which relate wind speed and surface friction velocity (square root of the kinematic wind stress) to the radar cross section and to better understand the processes in the boundary layer that have a strong influence on the radar backscatter. Studies of data from FASINEX indicate that the RCS has a different relation to the friction velocity than to the wind speed. The difference between the RCS models using these two variables depends on the polarization and the incidence angle. The radar data have been acquired from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne scatterometer. These data span 10 different flight days. Stress measurements were inferred from shipboard instruments and from aircraft flying at low altitudes, closely following the scatterometer. Wide ranges of radar incidence angles and environmental conditions needed to fully develop algorithms are available from this experiment.

  3. Microwave sintering of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Successful adaptation of microwave heating to the densification of ceramic materials require a marriage of microwave and materials technologies. Using an interdisciplinary team of microwave and materials engineers, we have successfully demonstrated the ability to density ceramic materials over a wide range of temperatures. Microstructural evolution during microwave sintering has been found to be significantly different from that observed in conventional sintering. Our results and those of others indicate that microwave sintering has the potential to fabricate components to near net shape with mechanical properties equivalent to hot pressed or hot isostatically pressed material. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Monitoring tropical cyclone evolution with NOAA satellite microwave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, C.; Smith, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    NOAA satellite microwave soundings, which penetrate high clouds, delineate the development and dissipation of the upper tropospheric warm core associated with a tropical cyclone. The storm's 'core" may be detected from microwave imagery. Vertical cross sections reveal the intensification of the upper tropospheric warm core as the storm develops, and the downward propagation of the warm core as the storm dissipates. Excellent correlation is found between the horizontal Laplacian of an upper tropospheric temperature field and the intensity of the storm, as categorized by its surface central pressure and maximum sustained wind speed at the eye wall. The microwave monitoring of tropical cyclones is achieved in real time at the University of Wisconsin's Space Science and Engineering Center through high-speed teleconnections to direct readout receiving systems at Wallops Island, Virginia and Redwood City, California.

  5. Perceptual evaluation of colorized nighttime imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; de Jong, Michael J.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2014-02-01

    We recently presented a color transform that produces fused nighttime imagery with a realistic color appearance (Hogervorst and Toet, 2010, Information Fusion, 11-2, 69-77). To assess the practical value of this transform we performed two experiments in which we compared human scene recognition for monochrome intensified (II) and longwave infrared (IR) imagery, and color daylight (REF) and fused multispectral (CF) imagery. First we investigated the amount of detail observers can perceive in a short time span (the gist of the scene). Participants watched brief image presentations and provided a full report of what they had seen. Our results show that REF and CF imagery yielded the highest precision and recall measures, while both II and IR imagery yielded significantly lower values. This suggests that observers have more difficulty extracting information from monochrome than from color imagery. Next, we measured eye fixations of participants who freely explored the images. Although the overall fixation behavior was similar across image modalities, the order in which certain details were fixated varied. Persons and vehicles were typically fixated first in REF, CF and IR imagery, while they were fixated later in II imagery. In some cases, color remapping II imagery and fusion with IR imagery restored the fixation order of these image details. We conclude that color remapping can yield enhanced scene perception compared to conventional monochrome nighttime imagery, and may be deployed to tune multispectral image representation such that the resulting fixation behavior resembles the fixation behavior for daylight color imagery.

  6. Strategies for Defeating Commercial Imagery Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    STRATEGIES FOR DEFEATING COMMERCIAL IMAGERY SYSTEMS by Stephen Latchford, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF December 2005 Occasional...DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Strategies for Defeating Commercial Imagery Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...FOR DEFEATING COMMERCIAL IMAGERY SYSTEMS Stephen Latchford, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF December 2005 The Occasional papers series was

  7. Imagery: A Neglected Correlate of Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillmer, H. T.; Parkay, Forrest W.

    Imagery has a significant role in cognitive development. Reading research has established the fact that good readers image spontaneously and that there is a high interrelationship between overall preference for a story, the amount of text-related imagery in the story, comprehension, and recall. Imagery researchers agree that everyone is capable of…

  8. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  9. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOEpatents

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  10. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  11. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  12. The Los Alamos microwave interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, M.W.; Carlos, R.; Shao, X.M.; DeHaven, X.V.; Jacobson, A.R.

    2000-03-01

    The authors describe a multi-antenna microwave receiver system that monitors an unmodulated beacon transmission from a geosynchronous satellite. The system interferometrically measures temporal fluctuations in tropospheric differential path length, which include fluctuations in precipitable water vapor, over 100- to 400-meter baseline lengths. Over 300 s, the system root mean square error (rms) noise is 0.01 radian. These observations will facilitate studies of air parcel motion as the means by which the causative, phase-corrupting atmospheric inhomogeneities drift over the array. The resulting data will be useful for studies of convective boundary layer turbulence, a region difficult to fully access.

  13. The Los Alamos microwave interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, M. W.; Carlos, R.; Shao, X.-M.; Dehaven, X. V.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2000-03-01

    The authors describe a multi-antenna microwave receiver system that monitors an unmodulated beacon transmission from a geosynchronous satellite. The system interferometrically measures temporal fluctuations in tropospheric differential path length, which include fluctuations in precipitable water vapor, over 100 to 400-meter baseline lengths. Over 300 s, the system root mean square error (rms) noise is 0.01 radian. These observations will facilitate studies of air parcel motion as the means by which the causative, phase-corrupting atmospheric inhomogeneities drift over the array. The resulting data will be useful for studies of convective boundary layer turbulence, a region difficult to fully access.

  14. Precipitation estimation using passive microwave radiometry at 92 and 183 GHz - Aircraft results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkarinen, Ida M.; Adler, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    The applications of satellite and aircraft sensors to precipitation estimation are discussed. The advanced microwave moisture sensor and imagery and the PPI photographs and digital radar data are described. The aircraft microwave sensor and radar imagery representing the relationships between patterns and gradients of brightness temperature, T(B), and echo intensities for three cases (evolution of an oceanic squall line, convection over land, and intense thunderstorms over land) are examined and compared. The observed T(B)s are also compared with the theoretical calculations of Wu and Weinman (1984) and Szejwach et al. (1986). The observations of convective precipitation from an aircraft microwave radiometer operating at 92 and 183 GHz reveal that the areas of T(B) much colder than atmospheric temperature are positively correlated with regions of higher radar reflectivity, and the patterns and gradients of T(B) are similar in appearance to the radar echoes.

  15. New Percepts via Mental Imagery?

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Fred W.; Tartaglia, Elisa M.; Herzog, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    We are able to extract detailed information from mental images that we were not explicitly aware of during encoding. For example, we can discover a new figure when we rotate a previously seen image in our mind. However, such discoveries are not “really” new but just new “interpretations.” In two recent publications, we have shown that mental imagery can lead to perceptual learning (Tartaglia et al., 2009, 2012). Observers imagined the central line of a bisection stimulus for thousands of trials. This training enabled observers to perceive bisection offsets that were invisible before training. Hence, it seems that perceptual learning via mental imagery leads to new percepts. We will argue, however, that these new percepts can occur only within “known” models. In this sense, perceptual learning via mental imagery exceeds new discoveries in mental images. Still, the effects of mental imagery on perceptual learning are limited. Only perception can lead to really new perceptual experience. PMID:23060830

  16. Digital Imagery, Preservation and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesk, Michael; Lynn, M. Stuart

    1990-01-01

    These two reports published by the Commission on Preservation and Access (CPA) include a comparison of digital and microfilm imagery, as well as discussions of chemical deacidification; ASCII (nonimage) files; and storage, conversion, and transmission considerations. A structured glossary of terms relating to media conversion and digital computer…

  17. Dialectical Imagery and Postmodern Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kevin G.

    2006-01-01

    This article suggests utilizing dialectical imagery, as understood by German social philosopher Walter Benjamin, as an additional qualitative data analysis strategy for research into the postmodern condition. The use of images mined from research data may offer epistemological transformative possibilities that will assist in the demystification of…

  18. Stereoscopy in cinematographic synthetic imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present experiments and results pertaining to the perception of depth in stereoscopic viewing of synthetic imagery. In computer animation, typical synthetic imagery is highly textured and uses stylized illumination of abstracted material models by abstracted light source models. While there have been numerous studies concerning stereoscopic capabilities, conventions for staging and cinematography in stereoscopic movies have not yet been well-established. Our long-term goal is to measure the effectiveness of various cinematography techniques on the human visual system in a theatrical viewing environment. We would like to identify the elements of stereoscopic cinema that are important in terms of enhancing the viewer's understanding of a scene as well as providing guidelines for the cinematographer relating to storytelling. In these experiments we isolated stereoscopic effects by eliminating as many other visual cues as is reasonable. In particular, we aim to empirically determine what types of movement in synthetic imagery affect the perceptual depth sensing capabilities of our viewers. Using synthetic imagery, we created several viewing scenarios in which the viewer is asked to locate a target object's depth in a simple environment. The scenarios were specifically designed to compare the effectiveness of stereo viewing, camera movement, and object motion in aiding depth perception. Data were collected showing the error between the choice of the user and the actual depth value, and patterns were identified that relate the test variables to the viewer's perceptual depth accuracy in our theatrical viewing environment.

  19. Development of a High Resolution Passive Microwave 3U Cubesat for High Resolution Temperature Sounding and Imaging at 118 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Sanders, B. T.; Gallaher, D. W.; Periasamy, L.; Alvarenga, G.; Weaver, R.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    PolarCube is a 3U CubeSat based on the CU ALL-STAR bus hosting an eight-channel passive microwave scanning spectrometer operating at the 118.7503 GHz (1-) O2 resonance. The anticipated launch date is in late 2015. It is being designed to operate for 12 months on orbit to provide global 118-GHz spectral imagery of the Earth over a full seasonal cycle. The mission will focus on the study of Arctic vertical temperature structure and its relation to sea ice coverage, but include the secondary goals of assessing the potential for convective cloud mass detection and cloud top altitude measurement and hurricane warm core sounding. The principles used by PolarCube for sounding and cloud measurement have been well established in number of peer-reviewed papers, although measurements using the 118 GHz oxygen line over the dry polar regions (unaffected by water vapor) have never been demonstrated from space. The PolarCube channels are selected to probe clear-air emission over vertical levels from the surface to the lower stratosphere. Operational spaceborne microwave soundings have available for decades but using lower frequencies (50-57 GHz) and from higher altitudes. While the JPSS ATMS sensor provides global coverage at ~32 km resolution PolarCube will improve on this resolution by a factor of two (~16 km), thus facilitating a key science goal of mapping sea ice concentration and extent while obtaining temperature profile data. Additionally, we seek to correlate freeze-thaw line data from the NASA SMAP mission with atmospheric temperature structure to help understand the relationship between clouds, temperature, and surface energy fluxes during seasonal transitions. PolarCube will also provide the first demonstration of a very low cost passive microwave sounder that if operated in a fleet configuration would have the potential to fulfill the goals of the Precipitation Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission, as defined in the NRC Decadal Survey.

  20. Movement and stretching imagery during flexibility training.

    PubMed

    Vergeer, Ineke; Roberts, Jenny

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of movement and stretching imagery on increases in flexibility. Thirty volunteers took part in a 4 week flexibility training programme. They were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) movement imagery, where participants imagined moving the limb they were stretching; (2) stretching imagery, where participants imagined the physiological processes involved in stretching the muscle; and (3) control, where participants did not engage in mental imagery. Active and passive range of motion around the hip was assessed before and after the programme. Participants provided specific ratings of vividness and comfort throughout the programme. Results showed significant increases in flexibility over time, but no differences between the three groups. A significant relationship was found, however, between improved flexibility and vividness ratings in the movement imagery group. Furthermore, both imagery groups scored significantly higher than the control group on levels of comfort, with the movement imagery group also scoring significantly higher than the stretching imagery group. We conclude that the imagery had stronger psychological than physiological effects, but that there is potential for enhancing physiological effects by maximizing imagery vividness, particularly for movement imagery.

  1. Mental Imagery in Depression: Phenomenology, Potential Mechanisms, and Treatment Implications.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Emily A; Blackwell, Simon E; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Renner, Fritz; Raes, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Mental imagery is an experience like perception in the absence of a percept. It is a ubiquitous feature of human cognition, yet it has been relatively neglected in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of depression. Imagery abnormalities in depression include an excess of intrusive negative mental imagery; impoverished positive imagery; bias for observer perspective imagery; and overgeneral memory, in which specific imagery is lacking. We consider the contribution of imagery dysfunctions to depressive psychopathology and implications for cognitive behavioral interventions. Treatment advances capitalizing on the representational format of imagery (as opposed to its content) are reviewed, including imagery rescripting, positive imagery generation, and memory specificity training. Consideration of mental imagery can contribute to clinical assessment and imagery-focused psychological therapeutic techniques and promote investigation of underlying mechanisms for treatment innovation. Research into mental imagery in depression is at an early stage. Work that bridges clinical psychology and neuroscience in the investigation of imagery-related mechanisms is recommended.

  2. Researching on the process of remote sensing video imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He-rao; Zheng, Xin-qi; Sun, Yi-bo; Jia, Zong-ren; Wang, He-zhan

    Unmanned air vehicle remotely-sensed imagery on the low-altitude has the advantages of higher revolution, easy-shooting, real-time accessing, etc. It's been widely used in mapping , target identification, and other fields in recent years. However, because of conditional limitation, the video images are unstable, the targets move fast, and the shooting background is complex, etc., thus it is difficult to process the video images in this situation. In other fields, especially in the field of computer vision, the researches on video images are more extensive., which is very helpful for processing the remotely-sensed imagery on the low-altitude. Based on this, this paper analyzes and summarizes amounts of video image processing achievement in different fields, including research purposes, data sources, and the pros and cons of technology. Meantime, this paper explores the technology methods more suitable for low-altitude video image processing of remote sensing.

  3. Cloud cover determination in polar regions from satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, R. G.; Maslanik, J. A.; Key, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A definition is undertaken of the spectral and spatial characteristics of clouds and surface conditions in the polar regions, and to the creation of calibrated, geometrically correct data sets suitable for quantitative analysis. Ways are explored in which this information can be applied to cloud classifications as new methods or as extensions to existing classification schemes. A methodology is developed that uses automated techniques to merge Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data, and to apply first-order calibration and zenith angle corrections to the AVHRR imagery. Cloud cover and surface types are manually interpreted, and manual methods are used to define relatively pure training areas to describe the textural and multispectral characteristics of clouds over several surface conditions. The effects of viewing angle and bidirectional reflectance differences are studied for several classes, and the effectiveness of some key components of existing classification schemes is tested.

  4. Microwave Processing of Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    of peak output power of 100 megawatts at 10 GHz. Microwave Fundamentals 11 RESONANT HELIX TWT STO KLYSTRON CTf C 0 Grid oShadow Grid PPM FOCUS SPACE C...Rather, broadband and high-temperature measurement techniques that have been used in conjunction with microwave processing of materials-specifically... Broadband Dielectric Properties Measurement Techniques. Pp. 527-539 in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 269, Microwave Processing

  5. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  6. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  7. Digital communications: Microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feher, K.

    Transmission concepts and techniques of digital systems are presented; and practical state-of-the-art implementation of digital communications systems by line-of-sight microwaves is described. Particular consideration is given to statistical methods in digital transmission systems analysis, digital modulation methods, microwave amplifiers, system gain, m-ary and QAM microwave systems, correlative techniques and applications to digital radio systems, hybrid systems, digital microwave systems design, diversity and protection switching techniques, measurement techniques, and research and development trends and unsolved problems.

  8. Excessive breathlessness through emotional imagery in asthma.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, S; Everaerd, W; van Beest, I

    2000-10-01

    Breathlessness and negative emotions during asthma attacks interact in complex patterns. This study tested the influence of emotional imagery on breathlessness during voluntary breath holding. Adolescents with and without asthma (n = 36 + 36) were assigned to positive imagery, negative imagery, or no imagery. There were four trials with close to thresholds for breath holding combined with imagery. Breathlessness and quality of imagery were measured by the end of breath holding. Additional measures were lung function and anxiety. The results showed that positive and negative imagery were only influencing breathlessness in participants with asthma. Although threshold duration for the groups were not significantly different, participants with asthma reported more breathlessness. The intensity of imagery enhanced breathlessness but diminished the accuracy of symptom perception. Positive imagery diminished breathlessness in participants with asthma, but also the difference in breathlessness between 75% and 95% of threshold duration. Breathlessness did not correlate with lung function, anxiety or other variables. It was concluded that emotional imagery during asthma attacks distracts from accurate introspection or enhances breathlessness, irrespective of anxiety.

  9. Bistatic SAR: Imagery & Image Products.

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, David A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Jakowatz, Charles V,

    2014-10-01

    While typical SAR imaging employs a co-located (monostatic) RADAR transmitter and receiver, bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. The transmitter and receiver geometry determines if the scattered signal is back scatter, forward scatter, or side scatter. The monostatic SAR image is backscatter. Therefore, depending on the transmitter/receiver collection geometry, the captured imagery may be quite different that that sensed at the monostatic SAR. This document presents imagery and image products formed from captured signals during the validation stage of the bistatic SAR research. Image quality and image characteristics are discussed first. Then image products such as two-color multi-view (2CMV) and coherent change detection (CCD) are presented.

  10. Resolution Enhancement of Multilook Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, Amy E.

    2004-07-01

    This dissertation studies the feasibility of enhancing the spatial resolution of multi-look remotely-sensed imagery using an iterative resolution enhancement algorithm known as Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS). A multi-angle satellite image modeling tool is implemented, and simulated multi-look imagery is formed to test the resolution enhancement algorithm. Experiments are done to determine the optimal con guration and number of multi-angle low-resolution images needed for a quantitative improvement in the spatial resolution of the high-resolution estimate. The important topic of aliasing is examined in the context of the POCS resolution enhancement algorithm performance. In addition, the extension of the method to multispectral sensor images is discussed and an example is shown using multispectral confocal fluorescence imaging microscope data. Finally, the remote sensing issues of atmospheric path radiance and directional reflectance variations are explored to determine their effect on the resolution enhancement performance.

  11. Geomorphic analyses from space imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisawa, M.

    1985-01-01

    One of the most obvious applications of space imagery to geomorphological analyses is in the study of drainage patterns and channel networks. LANDSAT, high altitude photography and other types of remote sensing imagery are excellent for depicting stream networks on a regional scale because of their broad coverage in a single image. They offer a valuable tool for comparing and analyzing drainage patterns and channel networks all over the world. Three aspects considered in this geomorphological study are: (1) the origin, evolution and rates of development of drainage systems; (2) the topological studies of network and channel arrangements; and (3) the adjustment of streams to tectonic events and geologic structure (i.e., the mode and rate of adjustment).

  12. NOVEL MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN TECHNIQUES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE FILTERS, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY, PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, BANDPASS FILTERS, TUNED CIRCUITS, NETWORKS, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , LOW PASS FILTERS, MULTIPLEXING, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, WAVEGUIDE FILTERS, WAVEGUIDE COUPLERS.

  13. NOVEL MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN TECHNIQUES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTRIC FILTERS, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY), (*MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, ELECTRIC FILTERS), CIRCUITS, CAPACITORS, COILS, RESONATORS, STRIP TRANSMISSION LINES, WAVEGUIDES, TUNING DEVICES, PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIERS, FREQUENCY CONVERTERS .

  14. Team 2: AIRS Only Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sung-Yung; Manning, Evan; Blaisdell, John; Susskind, Joel; Barnet, Chris; Goldberg, Mitch; Cho, Chuck; Staelin, Dave; Blackwelll, Bill

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation makes the case for the retrieval of data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). AIRS only retrieval is not only a risk reduction for failure of AMSU, but also important because NWP centers are reluctant to assimilate AMSU twice.

  15. Imagery Ability and Task Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-24

    size of the dots was varied to test visual * . acuity , the number of dots was varied to test the ability to maintain complex images, and the trajectory...REPORT NUMBER 12. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER Technical Report #2 Ti b i / V Q/) _ 4. TITLE ( amd Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT...Mental imagery Visual thinking Spatial reasoning . 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an reverse aide If necesery mid identify by block numtber) Kosslyn, Brunn

  16. Components of Mental Imagery Representation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-24

    distance on scanning time have been replicated repeatedly (see 4 Beach, 1978; Kosslyn, 1973, 1978; Kosslyn, Ball, & Reiser, 1978; Pinker , 1980; Pinker ...neural tissue; see Kosslyn, Pinker , Smith & Shwartz, 1979). Other factors, such as the accuracy and efficacy of the FIND, PUT, and RESOLUTION...Submitted for publication. Pinker , S. Mental imagery and the third dimension. Journal of ExDerimental * Psycholo : General, 1980, M09l 354-371. Pinker

  17. Mental imagery of positive and neutral memories: A fMRI study comparing field perspective imagery to observer perspective imagery.

    PubMed

    Grol, Maud; Vingerhoets, Guy; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-02-01

    Imagery perspective can influence what information is recalled, processing style, and emotionality; however, the understanding of possible mechanisms mediating these observed differences is still limited. We aimed to examine differences between memory recall from a field perspective and observer perspective at the neurobiological level, in order to improve our understanding of what is underlying the observed differences at the behavioral level. We conducted a fMRI study in healthy individuals, comparing imagery perspectives during recall of neutral and positive autobiographical memories. Behavioral results revealed field perspective imagery of positive memories, as compared to observer perspective, to be associated with more positive feelings afterwards. At the neurobiological level, contrasting observer perspective to field perspective imagery was associated with greater activity, or less decrease relative to the control visual search task, in the right precuneus and in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ). Greater activity in the right TPJ during an observer perspective as compared to field perspective could reflect performing a greater shift of perspective and mental state during observer perspective imagery than field perspective imagery. Differential activity in the precuneus may reflect that during observer perspective imagery individuals are more likely to engage in (self-) evaluative processing and visuospatial processing. Our findings contribute to a growing understanding of how imagery perspective can influence the type of information that is recalled and the intensity of the emotional response. Observer perspective imagery may not automatically reduce emotional intensity but this could depend on how the imagined situation is evaluated in relation to the self-concept.

  18. The Perpetuation of Subtle Prejudice: Race and Gender Imagery in 1990s Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltrane, Scott; Messineo, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed television commercials aired on programs with high ratings for specific target audiences from 1992-94 to investigate how advertising imagery simultaneously constructed racial and gender stereotypes. Results indicated that 1990s television commercials portrayed white men as powerful, white women as sex objects, African American men as…

  19. Introversion-extraversion, tempo, and guided imagery.

    PubMed

    Strelow, Barbara R; Davidson, William B

    2002-04-01

    This research tested the hypotheses that (a) introverts would produce more vivid imagery than would extraverts, and (b) introverts would produce better mental imagery if the background auditory tempo was slow, and extraverts would produce better mental imagery of the background auditory tempo was fast. Participants (N=240) were classified as introverts or extraverts and were randomly assigned one of three tempo conditions: slow, fast, or none. They were instructed to form mental images while listening individually to one of two stories. Clicks (slow or fast) sounded in the background during the stories. All participants then completed detailed questionnaires about the vividness of their mental imagery. Analysis showed that introverts reported significantly more vividness in their imagery than did extraverts. The hypothesized interaction between personality and tempo was not found. Implications were drawn for therapeutic applications of mental imagery.

  20. A study of atmospheric diffusion from the LANDSAT imagery. [pollution transport over the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Viswanadham, Y.; Torsani, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT multispectral scanner data of the smoke plumes which originated in eastern Cabo Frio, Brazil and crossed over into the Atlantic Ocean, are analyzed to illustrate how high resolution LANDSAT imagery can aid meteorologists in evaluating specific air pollution events. The eleven LANDSAT images selected are for different months and years. The results show that diffusion is governed primarily by water and air temperature differences. With colder water, low level air is very stable and the vertical diffusion is minimal; but water warmer than the air induces vigorous diffusion. The applicability of three empirical methods for determining the horizontal eddy diffusivity coefficient in the Gaussian plume formula was evaluated with the estimated standard deviation of the crosswind distribution of material in the plume from the LANDSAT imagery. The vertical diffusion coefficient in stable conditions is estimated using Weinstock's formulation. These results form a data base for use in the development and validation of meso scale atmospheric diffusion models.

  1. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Thigpen, Larry T.

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  2. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.

    1999-10-05

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  3. Coaxial microwave plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Gushchin, P. A.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A.; Kotelev, M. S.

    2011-11-15

    Physical principles underlying the operation of a pulsed coaxial microwave plasma source (micro-wave plasmatron) are considered. The design and parameters of the device are described, and results of experimental studies of the characteristics of the generated plasma are presented. The possibility of application of this type of plasmatron in gas-discharge physics is discussed.

  4. Active microwave water equivalence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyne, H. S.; Ellerbruch, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of water equivalence using an active FM-CW microwave system were conducted over the past three years at various sites in Colorado, Wyoming, and California. The measurement method is described. Measurements of water equivalence and stratigraphy are compared with ground truth. A comparison of microwave, federal sampler, and snow pillow measurements at three sites in Colorado is described.

  5. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  6. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  7. Television Microwave--1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roger E.

    Since it became a reality just before World War II, terrestrial microwave has improved in systems and equipments, but with the improvements have come higher costs. Television microwave costs are so high because users are demanding more capability, land prices have increased, operating costs are higher, and there is frequency congestion along many…

  8. Microwave device investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, K. K. D.; Haddad, G. I.; Kwok, S. P.; Masnari, N. A.; Trew, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, devices and novel schemes for generation, amplification and detection of microwave and millimeter wave energy are studied. Considered are: (1) Schottky-barrier microwave devices; (2) intermodulation products in IMPATT diode amplifiers; and (3) harmonic generation using Read diode varactors.

  9. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

  10. Restoration of multichannel microwave radiometric images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, R. T.; Yeh, C.-L.; Olson, W. S.

    1985-01-01

    A constrained iterative image restoration method is applied to multichannel diffraction-limited imagery. This method is based on the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm utilizing incomplete information and partial constraints. The procedure is described using the orthogonal projection operators which project onto two prescribed subspaces iteratively. Its properties and limitations are presented. The effect of noise was investigated and a better understanding of the performance of the algorithm with noisy data has been achieved. The restoration scheme with the selection of appropriate constraints was applied to a practical problem. The 6.6, 10.7, 18, and 21 GHz satellite images obtained by the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR), each having different spatial resolution, were restored to a common, high resolution (that of the 37 GHz channels) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. Both simulated data and real data were used in this study. The restored multichannel images may be utilized to retrieve rainfall distributions.

  11. Restoration of multichannel microwave radiometric images.

    PubMed

    Chin, R T; Yeh, C L; Olson, W S

    1985-04-01

    A constrained iterative image restoration method is applied to multichannel diffraction-limited imagery. This method is based on the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm utilizing incomplete information and partial constraints. The procedure is described using the orthogonal projection operators which project onto two prescribed subspaces iteratively. Its properties and limitations are presented. The effect of noise was investigated and a better understanding of the performance of the algorithm with noisy data has been achieved. The restoration scheme with the selection of appropriate constraints was applied to a practical problem. The 6.6, 10.7, 18, and 21 GHz satellite images obtained by the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR), each having different spatial resolution, were restored to a common, high resolution (that of the 37 GHz channels) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. Both simulated data and real data were used in this study. The restored multichannel images may be utilized to retrieve rainfall distributions.

  12. High Angular Resolution Microwave Sensing with Large, Sparse, Random Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    MICROWAVE SENSING WITH LARGE, SPARSE, RANDOM ARRAYS Final Scientific Report AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AFOSR 82-0012 Valley Forge Research ...CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Air Force Office of Scientific Research /NE Nov 1983 - . Bildin 41073. NUMBER Or PAG ES BOllinZ AFB, DIC...Air Force Office of Scientific Research , under Grant No. AFOSR-78-3688. March, 1981 QPR No. 37 VFRC QPR No. 37 A-1 S

  13. A New Inversion-Based Algorithm for Retrieval of Over-Water Rain Rate from SSM/I Multichannel Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petty, Grant W.; Stettner, David R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses certain aspects of a new inversion based algorithm for the retrieval of rain rate over the open ocean from the special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) multichannel imagery. This algorithm takes a more detailed physical approach to the retrieval problem than previously discussed algorithms that perform explicit forward radiative transfer calculations based on detailed model hydrometer profiles and attempt to match the observations to the predicted brightness temperature.

  14. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  15. Microwave ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  16. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  17. Combined synthetic aperture radar/Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marque, R. E.; Maurer, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into merging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images using optical and digital merging techniques. The unique characteristics of airborne and orbital SAR and Landsat MSS imagery are discussed. The case for merging the imagery is presented and tradeoffs between optical and digital merging techniques explored. Examples of Landsat and airborne SAR imagery are used to illustrate optical and digital merging. Analysis of the merged digital imagery illustrates the improved interpretability resulting from combining the outputs from the two sensor systems.

  18. The Functional Equivalence between Movement Imagery, Observation, and Execution Influences Imagery Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah E.; Cumming, Jennifer; Edwards, Martin G.

    2011-01-01

    Based on literature identifying movement imagery, observation, and execution to elicit similar areas of neural activity, research has demonstrated that movement imagery and observation successfully prime movement execution. To investigate whether movement and observation could prime ease of imaging from an external visual-imagery perspective, an…

  19. The Intersection of Imagery Ability, Imagery Use, and Learning Style: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolles, Gina; Chatfield, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the intersection of the individual's imagery ability, imagery use in dance training and performance, and learning style. Thirty-four intermediate-level ballet and modern dance students at the University of Oregon completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R) and Kolb's Learning Style Inventory-3 (LSI-3). The four…

  20. Propagating Structure Of A Microwave Driven Shock wave Inside A Tube

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Yutaka; Shibata, Teppei; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2010-05-06

    The thrust generation process of a microwave rocket is similar to a pulse detonation engine, and understanding the interactions between microwave plasma and shock waves is important. Shadowgraph images of the microwave plasma generated in a tube under atmospheric air were taken. The observed plasma and shock wave were propagating one-dimensionally at constant velocity inside the tube. In order to understand the flow field inside the rocket, one-dimensional CFD analysis was conducted. With the change of microwave power density, the structure of the flow field was classified into two regimes: Microwave Supported Combustion (MSC), and Microwave Supported Detonation (MSD). The structure of the MSD was different from the structure of a chemical detonation, which implied the existence of a preheating in front of the shock wave. Furthermore, the flight performance was estimated by calculating the momentum coupling coefficient. It was confirmed that the efficiency was nearly constant in the MSD regime, with the increase of microwave power density.

  1. Microwave bonding of MEMS component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Mai, John D. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor); Budraa, Nasser K. (Inventor); Pike, William T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bonding of MEMs materials is carried out using microwave. High microwave absorbing films are placed within a microwave cavity, and excited to cause selective heating in the skin of the material. This causes heating in one place more than another. Thereby minimizing the effects of the bonding microwave energy.

  2. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Washington, II, Aaron L.; Murph, Simona H.

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  3. Classification of protein crystallization imagery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Sun, Shaohua; Bern, Marshall

    2004-01-01

    We investigate automatic classification of protein crystallization imagery, and evaluate the performance of several modern mathematical tools when applied to the problem. For feature extraction, we try a combination of geometric and texture features; for classification algorithms, the support vector machine (SVM) is compared with an automatic decision-tree classifier. Experimental results from 520 images are presented for the binary classification problem: separating successful trials from failed attempts. The best false positive and false negative rates are at 14.6% and 9.6% respectively, achieved by feeding both sets of features to the decision-tree classifier with boosting.

  4. Vector statistics of LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.; Underwood, D.

    1977-01-01

    A digitized multispectral image, such as LANDSAT data, is composed of numerous four dimensional vectors, which quantitatively describe the ground scene from which the data are acquired. The statistics of unique vectors that occur in LANDSAT imagery are studied to determine if that information can provide some guidance on reducing image processing costs. A second purpose of this report is to investigate how the vector statistics are changed by various types of image processing techniques and determine if that information can be useful in choosing one processing approach over another.

  5. Phase Sequence Estimation for Laser Line-Scan Imagery in the Presence of Rayleigh Fading.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Warning Radar for Det 4, 14 Missle Warning Squadron, Mt. Laguna AFS, California. In May 1975, he was assigned to the 1961st Communications Group, Clark Air...unlimited Preface This study was prompted by a phase estimation problem of a fading signal in a laser line-scan imagery system . The sys- tem is sponsored by...114 ii I List of Figures Figure 1 Geometry of the Laser Line-scan System . . . . .. 3 2. Block Diagram of Laser Line-scan Imagery System . 4 3

  6. Microwave thawing apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for thawing a frozen material includes: a microwave energy source; a microwave applicator which defines a cavity for applying microwave energy from the microwave source to a material to be thawed; and a shielded region which is shielded from the microwave source, the shielded region in fluid communication with the cavity so that thawed material may flow from the cavity into the shielded region.

  7. Temporal variations of the microwave signatures of sea ice during the late spring and early summer near Mould Bay, NWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, T. C.; Lohanick, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been shown that passive microwave imagery obtained from satellite-borne sensors provides an important basis for the study of the polar regions. Because of the optical thinness of high-latitude clouds at microwave frequencies, radiometry can provide all-weather all-time observing capability. However, in order to clarify observational uncertainties and investigate the information content of passive microwave imagery, detailed ground-based observations are needed. Multifrequency data are also required to utilize the strong spectral dependence of both the dielectric properties of liquid water and volume scattering. The present investigation has the aim to provide information of the considered type for the calibration and interpretation of satellite observations of the Arctic during the summer season. Attention is given to instruments and calibration, the field program and the state of the ice cover, and the results.

  8. Microwave coupler and method

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  9. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucel, R. A.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), a new microwave technology which is expected to exert a profound influence on microwave circuit designs for future military systems as well as for the commercial and consumer markets, is discussed. The book contains an historical discussion followed by a comprehensive review presenting the current status in the field. The general topics of the volume are: design considerations, materials and processing considerations, monolithic circuit applications, and CAD, measurement, and packaging techniques. All phases of MMIC technology are covered, from design to testing.

  10. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  11. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  12. Beyond visual imagery: how modality-specific is enhanced mental imagery in synesthesia?

    PubMed

    Spiller, Mary Jane; Jonas, Clare N; Simner, Julia; Jansari, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia based in visual modalities has been associated with reports of vivid visual imagery. We extend this finding to consider whether other forms of synesthesia are also associated with enhanced imagery, and whether this enhancement reflects the modality of synesthesia. We used self-report imagery measures across multiple sensory modalities, comparing synesthetes' responses (with a variety of forms of synesthesia) to those of non-synesthete matched controls. Synesthetes reported higher levels of visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory and tactile imagery and a greater level of imagery use. Furthermore, their reported enhanced imagery is restricted to the modalities involved in the individual's synesthesia. There was also a relationship between the number of forms of synesthesia an individual has, and the reported vividness of their imagery, highlighting the need for future research to consider the impact of multiple forms of synesthesia. We also recommend the use of behavioral measures to validate these self-report findings.

  13. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  14. Imagery and the Recall of Connected Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingart, Sandra Koser; Glock, Marvin D.

    1979-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted exploring the effects of imagery and text organization on what is learned from reading a passage. Some of the results were that imagery was more successful for learning than repetition and that randomized text resulted in the poorest comprehension. (MKM)

  15. Imagery Deficits in Nonverbal Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Rigoni, Fiorenza; Tressoldi, Patrizio Emmanuele; Vio, Claudio

    1999-01-01

    A study compared 11 Italian children (ages 7-11) with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) to 49 controls on four tasks requiring visuospatial working memory and visual imagery. Results found the children with NVLD showed deficits in the use of visuospatial working memory and visual imagery. (Author/CR)

  16. Mental Imagery and Visual Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory - but not iconic visual memory - can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage. PMID:22195024

  17. New NOAA-15 Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) Datasets for Stratospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D.

    1999-01-01

    The NOAA-15 spacecraft launched in May 1998 carried the first Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). The AMSU has eleven oxygen absorption channels with weighting functions peaking from near the surface to 2 mb. Twice-daily, limb-corrected I degree gridded datasets of layer temperatures have been constructed since the AMSU went operational in early August 1998. Examples of AMSU imagery will be shown, as will preliminary analyses of daily fluctuations in tropical stratospheric temperatures and their relationship to daily variations in tropical-average rainfall measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The AMSU datasets are now available for other researchers to utilize.

  18. Mental Imagery: Functional Mechanisms and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Joel; Naselaris, Thomas; Holmes, Emily A; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2015-10-01

    Mental imagery research has weathered both disbelief of the phenomenon and inherent methodological limitations. Here we review recent behavioral, brain imaging, and clinical research that has reshaped our understanding of mental imagery. Research supports the claim that visual mental imagery is a depictive internal representation that functions like a weak form of perception. Brain imaging work has demonstrated that neural representations of mental and perceptual images resemble one another as early as the primary visual cortex (V1). Activity patterns in V1 encode mental images and perceptual images via a common set of low-level depictive visual features. Recent translational and clinical research reveals the pivotal role that imagery plays in many mental disorders and suggests how clinicians can utilize imagery in treatment.

  19. Imagining predictions: mental imagery as mental emulation

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Samuel T.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the primary function of mental imagery is to allow us to generate specific predictions based upon past experience. All imagery allows us to answer ‘what if’ questions by making explicit and accessible the likely consequences of being in a specific situation or performing a specific action. Imagery is also characterized by its reliance on perceptual representations and activation of perceptual brain systems. We use this conception of imagery to argue that all imagery is simulation—more specifically, it is a specific type of simulation in which the mental processes that ‘run’ the simulation emulate those that would actually operate in the simulated scenario. This type of simulation, which we label emulation, has benefits over other types of simulations that merely mimic the content of the simulated scenario. PMID:19528008

  20. Mental Imagery: Functional Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Joel; Naselaris, Thomas; Holmes, Emily A.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery research has weathered both disbelief of the phenomenon and inherent methodological limitations. Here we review recent behavioral, brain imaging, and clinical research that has reshaped our understanding of mental imagery. Research supports the claim that visual mental imagery is a depictive internal representation that functions like a weak form of perception. Brain imaging work has demonstrated that neural representations of mental and perceptual images resemble one another as early as the primary visual cortex (V1). Activity patterns in V1 encode mental images and perceptual images via a common set of low-level depictive visual features. Recent translational and clinical research reveals the pivotal role that imagery plays in many mental disorders and suggests how clinicians can utilize imagery in treatment. PMID:26412097

  1. Cognitive maps in imagery neglect.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Liana; Ranieri, Giulia; Nemmi, Federico; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-04-01

    Patients with imagery neglect (RI+) show peculiar difficulties in orienting themselves in the environment. Navigational impairments could be due to a deficit in creating or using a mental representation of the environment (Guariglia, Piccardi, Iaria, Nico, & Pizzamiglio, 2005) or, according to the BBB model (Burgess, Becker, King, & O'Keefe, 2001), to a specific deficit in a mechanism that transforms an allocentric representation into an egocentric one and vice versa. Previous studies, however, do not allow discerning between a deficit in forming or in using a cognitive map, taking no notice of the fact that these are two different abilities underlain by different neuroanatomical areas, which could be independently impaired. Furthermore, the BBB model has never been verified in a population of brain-damaged patients. Therefore, we administered two tasks that separately assess the ability to create and use a cognitive map of the environment to 28 right brain-damaged patients (4 patients with imagery neglect and 4 patients with perceptual neglect) and 11 healthy participants. RI+ patients showed no specific deficit in creating or using a cognitive map, but failed to transform an egocentric representation of the environment into an allocentric one and vice versa, as predicted by the BBB model.

  2. Dry Air Entrainment into Hurricane Earl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.; Hood, Robbie E.; LaFontaine, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    Hurricane Earl formed in the Gulf of Mexico in September 1998. It quickly was upgraded from a tropical disturbance to tropical storm status and then to a hurricane. Earl possessed hybrid (tropical and extratropical) characteristics throughout its lifetime. The system maintained and erratic track, which led to wide variability in the operational track forecasts. It eventually made landfall on the Florida panhandle on 2 September and raced northeastward. During August and September 1998, NASA conducted the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3). The experiment was focused on studying hurricanes with an emphasis toward developing a better understanding of their intensification and motion. Earl provides a unique opportunity to utilize high spatial and temporal resolution data collected from the DC-8 and high altitude ER-2 NASA platforms, which flew over Earl as it made landfall. These data can also be put into broader view provided by other instruments from the Geosychronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellites. Hurricane Earl was affected by entrainment of dry air from the northwest. Hurricane Isis was intensifying and approaching the Mexican Pacific coast with its associated outflow potentially affecting the inflow into Earl as the storm neared Florida. In addition, a longwave synoptic trough circulation was present over the eastern U.S. Either or both of these could be responsible for the dry air into the system. This paper will focus on identifying the source of the dry by using upper-level wind and moisture fields derived from the GOES 6.7 um water vapor imagery. We will attempt to relate the large-scale observations to those from the NASA aircraft. An infrared instrument onboard the ER-2 also has a similar wavelength and may be able to confirm some of the GOES findings. In addition, a microwave radiometer with 4 channels focused on measuring precipitation and its associated ice

  3. Investigating the value of passive microwave observations for monitoring volcanic eruption source parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montopoli, Mario; Cimini, Domenico; Marzano, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject both gas and solid particles into the Atmosphere. Solid particles are made by mineral fragments of different sizes (from few microns to meters), generally referred as tephra. Tephra from volcanic eruptions has enormous impacts on social and economical activities through the effects on the environment, climate, public health, and air traffic. The size, density and shape of a particle determine its fall velocity and thus residence time in the Atmosphere. Larger particles tend to fall quickly in the proximity of the volcano, while smaller particles may remain suspended for several days and thus may be transported by winds for thousands of km. Thus, the impact of such hazards involves local as well as large scales effects. Local effects involve mostly the large sized particles, while large scale effects are caused by the transport of the finest ejected tephra (ash) through the atmosphere. Forecasts of ash paths in the atmosphere are routinely run after eruptions using dispersion models. These models make use of meteorological and volcanic source parameters. The former are usually available as output of numerical weather prediction models or large scale reanalysis. Source parameters characterize the volcanic eruption near the vent; these are mainly the ash mass concentration along the vertical column and the top altitude of the volcanic plume, which is strictly related to the flux of the mass ejected at the emission source. These parameters should be known accurately and continuously; otherwise, strong hypothesis are usually needed, leading to large uncertainty in the dispersion forecasts. However, direct observations during an eruption are typically dangerous and impractical. Thus, satellite remote sensing is often exploited to monitor volcanic emissions, using visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) channels available on both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. VIS and IR satellite imagery are very useful to monitor

  4. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  5. Emitron: microwave diode

    DOEpatents

    Craig, G.D.; Pettibone, J.S.; Drobot, A.T.

    1982-05-06

    The invention comprises a new class of device, driven by electron or other charged particle flow, for producing coherent microwaves by utilizing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron flow in diodes not requiring an external magnetic field. Anode and cathode surfaces are electrically charged with respect to one another by electron flow, for example caused by a Marx bank voltage source or by other charged particle flow, for example by a high energy charged particle beam. This produces an electric field which stimulates an emitted electron beam to flow in the anode-cathode region. The emitted electrons are accelerated by the electric field and coherent microwaves are produced by the three dimensional spatial and temporal interaction of the accelerated electrons with geometrically allowed microwave modes which results in the bunching of the electrons and the pumping of at least one dominant microwave mode.

  6. Microwave Oven Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  7. Processes and imagery of first-year fast sea ice during the melt season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, B.; Digby, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    In June and July 1982, a field program was conducted in the Canadian Arctic on Prince Patrick Island to study sea ice during the melt season with in situ measurements and microwave instrumentation operated near the surface and from aircraft. The objective of the program was to measure physical characteristics together with microwave backscatter and emission coefficients of sea ice during this major period of transition. The present paper is concerned with a study of both surface measurements and imagery of first-year fast ice during the melt season. The melting process observed in first-year fast ice was found to begin with the gradual reduction of the snow cover. For a two- to three-day period in this melt stage, a layer of superimposed ice nodules formed at the snow/ice interface as meltwater froze around ice and snow grains.

  8. Tunable Microwave Transversal Filters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER AFOSR-TR. 84-0977 S4. TI TLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYP ?FE&T&PEO OEE U!NABLE MICROWAVE TRANSVERSAL FILTERS...this goal through magnetostatic waves MSW propagating at microwave frequency in magnetically biased, liquid phase epitaxial films of yttrium iron...garnet (YIG) grown on gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG). This technology has a number of advantages; low loss (greater than 30db/usec at xband), tunable by

  9. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  10. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  11. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  12. Automatic Microwave Network Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A program and procedure are developed for the automatic measurement of microwave networks using a Hewlett-Packard network analyzer and programmable calculator . The program and procedure are used in the measurement of a simple microwave two port network. These measurements are evaluated by comparing with measurements on the same network using other techniques. The programs...in the programmable calculator are listed in Appendix 1. The step by step procedure used is listed in Appendix 2. (Author)

  13. NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE): Changing patterns in the use of NRT satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D.; Michael, K.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Harrison, S.; Ding, F.; Durbin, P. B.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Rinsland, P. L.; Ye, G.; Mauoka, E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) provides data and imagery approximately 3 hours from satellite observation, to monitor natural events globally and to meet the needs of the near real-time (NRT) applications community. This article describes LANCE, and how the use of NRT data and imagery has evolved. Since 2010 there has been a four-fold increase in both the volume of data and the number of files downloaded. Over the last year there has been a marked shift in the way in which users are accessing NRT imagery; users are gravitating towards Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) and away from MODIS Rapid Response, in part due to the increased exposure through social media. In turn this is leading to a broader range of users viewing NASA NRT imagery. This article also describes new, and planned, product enhancements to LANCE. Over the last year, LANCE has expanded to support NRT products from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). LANCE elements are also planning to ingest and process NRT data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), and the advanced Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite in the near future.

  14. Localized microwave pulsed plasmas for ignition and flame front enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, James Bennett

    Modern combustor technologies require the ability to match operational parameters to rapidly changing demands. Challenges include variable power output requirements, variations in air and fuel streams, the requirement for rapid and well-controlled ignition, and the need for reliability at low fuel mixture fractions. Work on subcritical microwave coupling to flames and to weakly ionized laser-generated plasmas has been undertaken to investigate the potential for pulsed microwaves to allow rapid combustion control, volumetric ignition, and leaner combustion. Two strategies are investigated. First, subcritical microwaves are coupled to femtosecond laser-generated ionization to ignite methane/air mixtures in a quasi-volumetric fashion. Total energy levels are comparable to the total minimum ignition energies for laser and spark discharges, but the combined strategy allows a 90 percent reduction in the required laser energy. In addition, well-defined multi-dimensional ignition patterns are designated with multiple laser passes. Second, microwave pulse coupling to laminar flame fronts is achieved through interaction with chemiionization-produced electrons in the reaction zone. This energy deposition remains well-localized for a single microwave pulse, resulting in rapid temperature rises of greater than 200 K and maintaining flame propagation in extremely lean methane/air mixtures. The lean flammability limit in methane/air mixtures with microwave coupling has been decreased from an equivalence ratio 0.6 to 0.3. Additionally, a diagnostic technique for laser tagging of nitrogen for velocity measurements is presented. The femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) technique utilizes a 120 fs laser to dissociate nitrogen along a laser line. The relatively long-lived emission from recombining nitrogen atoms is imaged with a delayed and fast-gated camera to measure instantaneous velocities. The emission strength and lifetime in air and pure nitrogen allow

  15. Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's diseases (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disease that occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. The cause and treatment of AD remain unknown. However, AD is a disease that affects the brain, an organ that controls behavior. Accordingly, anything that can interact with the brain may affect this organ positively or negatively, thereby protecting or encouraging AD. In this regard, modern life encompasses microwaves for all issues including industrial, communications, medical and domestic tenders, and among all applications, the cell phone wave, which directly exposes the brain, continues to be the most used. Evidence suggests that microwaves may produce various biological effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and many arguments relay the possibility that microwaves may be involved in the pathophysiology of CNS disease, including AD. By contrast, previous studies have reported some beneficial cognitive effects and that microwaves may protect against cognitive impairment in AD. However, although many of the beneficial effects of microwaves are derived from animal models, but can easily be extrapolated to humans, whether microwaves cause AD is an important issue that is to be addressed in the current review. PMID:27698682

  16. Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's diseases (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disease that occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. The cause and treatment of AD remain unknown. However, AD is a disease that affects the brain, an organ that controls behavior. Accordingly, anything that can interact with the brain may affect this organ positively or negatively, thereby protecting or encouraging AD. In this regard, modern life encompasses microwaves for all issues including industrial, communications, medical and domestic tenders, and among all applications, the cell phone wave, which directly exposes the brain, continues to be the most used. Evidence suggests that microwaves may produce various biological effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and many arguments relay the possibility that microwaves may be involved in the pathophysiology of CNS disease, including AD. By contrast, previous studies have reported some beneficial cognitive effects and that microwaves may protect against cognitive impairment in AD. However, although many of the beneficial effects of microwaves are derived from animal models, but can easily be extrapolated to humans, whether microwaves cause AD is an important issue that is to be addressed in the current review.

  17. Microwave sintering process model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hu; Tinga, W R; Sundararaj, U; Eadie, R L

    2003-01-01

    In order to simulate and optimize the microwave sintering of a silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt toolbits process, a microwave sintering process model has been built. A cylindrical sintering furnace was used containing a heat insulating layer, a susceptor layer, and an alumina tube containing the green toolbit parts between parallel, electrically conductive, graphite plates. Dielectric and absorption properties of the silicon nitride green parts, the tungsten carbide/cobalt green parts, and an oxidizable susceptor material were measured using perturbation and waveguide transmission methods. Microwave absorption data were measured over a temperature range from 20 degrees C to 800 degrees C. These data were then used in the microwave process model which assumed plane wave propagation along the radial direction and included the microwave reflection at each interface between the materials and the microwave absorption in the bulk materials. Heat transfer between the components inside the cylindrical sintering furnace was also included in the model. The simulated heating process data for both silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt samples closely follow the experimental data. By varying the physical parameters of the sintering furnace model, such as the thickness of the susceptor layer, the thickness of the allumina tube wall, the sample load volume and the graphite plate mass, the model data predicts their effects which are helpful in optimizing those parameters in the industrial sintering process.

  18. Microwave radiation absorption: behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, J A

    1991-07-01

    The literature contains much evidence that absorption of microwave energy will lead to behavioral changes in man and laboratory animals. The changes include simple perturbations or outright stoppage of ongoing behavior. On one extreme, intense microwave absorption can result in seizures followed by death. On the other extreme, man and animals can hear microwave pulses at very low rates of absorption. Under certain conditions of exposure, animals will avoid microwaves, while under other conditions, they will actively work to obtain warmth produced by microwaves. Some research has shown behavioral effects during chronic exposure to low-level microwaves. The specific absorption rates that produce behavioral effects seem to depend on microwave frequency, but controversy exists over thresholds and mechanism of action. In all cases, however, the behavioral disruptions cease when chronic microwave exposure is terminated. Thermal changes in man and animals during microwave exposure appear to account for all reported behavioral effects.

  19. Microwave assisted laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viljanen, Jan; Sun, Zhiwei; Alwahabi, Zeyad T.

    2016-04-01

    Signal enhancements in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using external microwave power are demonstrated in ambient air. Pulsed microwave at 2.45 GHz and of 1 millisecond duration was delivered via a simple near field applicator (NFA), with which an external electric field is generated and coupled into laser induced plasma. The external microwave power can significantly increase the signal lifetime from a few microseconds to hundreds of microseconds, resulting in a great enhancement on LIBS signals with the use of a long integration time. The dependence of signal enhancement on laser energy and microwave power is experimentally assessed. With the assistance of microwave source, a significant enhancement of ~ 100 was achieved at relatively low laser energy that is only slightly above the ablation threshold. A limit of detection (LOD) of 8.1 ppm was estimated for copper detection in Cu/Al2O3 solid samples. This LOD corresponds to a 93-fold improvement compared with conventional single-pulse LIBS. Additionally, in the microwave assisted LIBS, the self-reversal effect was greatly reduced, which is beneficial in measuring elements of high concentration. Temporal measurements have been performed and the results revealed the evolution of the emission process in microwave-enhanced LIBS. The optimal position of the NFA related to the ablation point has also been investigated.

  20. Real Time Monitoring of Flooding from Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galantowicz, John F.; Frey, Herb (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a new method for making high-resolution flood extent maps (e.g., at the 30-100 m scale of digital elevation models) in real-time from low-resolution (20-70 km) passive microwave observations. The method builds a "flood-potential" database from elevations and historic flood imagery and uses it to create a flood-extent map consistent with the observed open water fraction. Microwave radiometric measurements are useful for flood monitoring because they sense surface water in clear-or-cloudy conditions and can provide more timely data (e.g., compared to radars) from relatively wide swath widths and an increasing number of available platforms (DMSP, ADEOS-II, Terra, NPOESS, GPM). The chief disadvantages for flood mapping are the radiometers' low resolution and the need for local calibration of the relationship between radiances and open-water fraction. We present our method for transforming microwave sensor-scale open water fraction estimates into high-resolution flood extent maps and describe 30-day flood map sequences generated during a retrospective study of the 1993 Great Midwest Flood. We discuss the method's potential improvement through as yet unimplemented algorithm enhancements and expected advancements in microwave radiometry (e.g., improved resolution and atmospheric correction).

  1. High-Power Microwave Breakdown of Dielectric Interfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calico, Steve Eugene

    A project to study the electrical breakdown of microwave windows due to high-power pulsed microwave fields was undertaken at Texas Tech University. The pulsed power equipment was acquired from the Air Force Weapons Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM, refurbished and redesigned as necessary, and serves as the high-power microwave source. The microwaves are used to test various vacuum to atmosphere interfaces (windows) in an attempt to isolate the mechanisms governing the electrical breakdown at the window. Windows made of three different materials and of three basic geometrical designs were tested in this experiment. Additionally, the surfaces of two windows were sanded with different grit sandpapers to determine the effect the surface texture has on the breakdown. The windows were tested in atmospheric pressure air, argon, helium, and to a lesser extent sulfur-hexafluoride. Estimates of the breakdown threshold in air and argon on a Lexan window were obtained as a consequence of these tests and were found to be considerably lower than that reported for pulsed microwave breakdown in gases. A hypothesis is presented in an attempt to explain the lower breakdown phenomena. A discussion of the comparative performance of the windows and an explanation as to the enhanced performance of some windows is given.

  2. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  3. Does motor imagery enhance stretching and flexibility?

    PubMed

    Guillot, Aymeric; Tolleron, Coralie; Collet, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Although several studies have demonstrated that motor imagery can enhance learning processes and improve motor performance, little is known about its effect on stretching and flexibility. The increased active and passive range of motion reported in preliminary research has not been shown to be elicited by motor imagery training alone. We thus compared flexibility scores in 21 synchronized swimmers before and after a 5-week mental practice programme that included five stretching exercises in active and passive conditions. The imagery training programme resulted in selective increased flexibility, independently of the stretching method. Overall, the improvement in flexibility was greater in the imagery group than in the control group for the front split (F(1,18) = 4.9, P = 0.04), the hamstrings (F(1,18) = 5.2, P = 0.035), and the ankle stretching exercises (F(1,18) = 5.6, P = 0.03). There was no difference in shoulders and side-split flexibility (F(1,18) = 0.1, P = 0.73 and F(1,18) = 3.3, P = 0.08 respectively). Finally, there was no correlation between individual imagery ability and improvement in flexibility. Psychological and physiological effects of motor imagery could explain the increase in range of motion, suggesting that imagery enhances joint flexibility during both active and passive stretching.

  4. Motor imagery facilitates force field learning.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammad Nabeel; Tomi, Naoki; Ito, Koji

    2011-06-13

    Humans have the ability to produce an internal reproduction of a specific motor action without any overt motor output. Recent findings show that the processes underlying motor imagery are similar to those active during motor execution and both share common neural substrates. This suggests that the imagery of motor movements might play an important role in acquiring new motor skills. In this study we used haptic robot in conjunction with motor imagery technique to improve learning in a robot-based adaptation task. Two groups of subjects performed reaching movements with or without motor imagery in a velocity-dependent and position-dependent mixed force field. The groups performed movements with motor imagery produced higher after effects and decreased muscle co-contraction with respect to no-motor imagery group. These results showed a positive influence of motor imagery on acquiring new motor skill and suggest that motor learning can be facilitated by mental practice and could be used to increase the rate of adaptation.

  5. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire for Children (SIQ-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, C. R.; Munroe-Chandler, K. J.; Fishburne, G. J.; Hall, N. D.

    2009-01-01

    Athletes of all ages report using imagery extensively to enhance their sport performance. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) was developed to assess cognitive and motivational imagery used by adult athletes. No such instrument currently exists to measure the use of imagery by young athletes. The aim of the…

  6. Loss of form vision impairs spatial imagery

    PubMed Central

    Occelli, Valeria; Lin, Jonathan B.; Lacey, Simon; Sathian, K.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences (“cognitive style”) on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery task requiring memorization of a 4 × 4 lettered matrix and subsequent mental construction of shapes within the matrix from four-letter auditory cues. They also completed the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSoDS) and a self-evaluation of cognitive style. The sighted participants also completed the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ). Visual status affected performance on the spatial imagery task: the blind performed significantly worse than the sighted, independently of the age at which form vision was completely lost. Visual status did not affect the distribution of preferences based on self-reported cognitive style. Across all participants, self-reported verbalizer scores were significantly negatively correlated with accuracy on the spatial imagery task. There was a positive correlation between the SBSoDS score and accuracy on the spatial imagery task, across all participants, indicating that a better sense of direction is related to a more proficient spatial representation and that the imagery task indexes ecologically relevant spatial abilities. Moreover, the older the participants were, the worse their performance was, indicating a detrimental effect of age on spatial imagery performance. Thus, spatial skills represent an important target for rehabilitative approaches to visual impairment, and individual differences, which can modulate performance, should be taken into account in such approaches. PMID:24678294

  7. Fundamentals of Acoustic Backscatter Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-20

    pressure, I,, of 1 /iPa, corresponds to 0.67 x 10- 8 Wim2. Assuming spherical spreading, the one meter distance reference frame, and the definition of dB (Eq...then be approximated by an infinite series Fundamentals ofAcoustic Backscatter Imagery 11 W(r) = Wm (r) + X Fjsc (r) j=O where "tic(r) is the incident...f( x ,y, Z)Iz=h(xy) = 0 f( x , y, z)I z=h( x ,y)= f( x , y, Z) I z o + h di+ h 2 d2f +zz z= The function ftx,y,z) can represent, for example, the stress

  8. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  9. Crop identification using ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, M. L.; Heilman, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Digital analysis of August 15 ERTS-I imagery for southeastern South Dakota was performed to determine the feasibility of conducting crop surveys from satellites. Selected areas of bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 positive transparencies were converted to digital form utilizing Signal Analysis and Dissemination Equipment (SADE). The optical transmission values were printed out in a spatial format. Visual analysis of the printouts indicated that cultivated areas were readily distinguished from non-cultivated areas in all four bands. Bare soil was easily recognized in all four bands. Corn and soybeans, the two major crops in the area, were treated as separate classes rather than as a single class called row crops. Bands 6 and 7 provided good results in distinguishing between corn and soybeans.

  10. Attention, Imagery and Memory: A Neuromagnetic Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-14

    Neural Science AD-A243 859 r󈧅 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORTC Attention , Imagery and Memory 1 March 1988 -30 September 1991 , Q6’i iQ’ UA Dr.~~~~C A..Fel...Classification) Attention , Imagery and Memory: A NeixArovx ac rIeA .C J.Vo\\ 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lloyd Kaufman and Samuel J. Williamson 13a. TYPE OF REPORT...mental imagery, cortical activity, visual spatial attention , auditory sensorv memory 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by

  11. Optical emission spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure microwave plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Haijun; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Michio; Kuraseko, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    The optical emission behaviors of Ar, He, and Ar+He plasmas generated in air using an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma source have been studied employing optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Emissions from various source gas species and air were observed. The variations in the intensities and intensity ratios of specific emissions as functions of the microwave power and gas flow rate were analyzed to investigate the relationship between the emission behavior and the plasma properties. We find that dependence of the emission behavior on the input microwave power is mainly determined by variations in electron density and electron temperature in the plasmas. On the other hand, under different gas flow rate conditions, changes in the density of the source gas atoms also significantly affect the emissions. Interestingly, when plasma is generated using an Ar+He mixture, emissions from excited He atoms disappear while a strong H{sub {alpha}} signal appears. The physics behind these behaviors is discussed in detail.

  12. Data processing for the DMSP microwave radiometer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigone, J. L.; Stogryn, A. P.

    1977-01-01

    A software program was developed and tested to process microwave radiometry data to be acquired by the microwave sensor (SSM/T) on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program spacecraft. The SSM/T 7-channel microwave radiometer and systems data will be data-linked to Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) where they will be merged with ephemeris data prior to product processing for use in the AFGWC upper air data base (UADB). The overall system utilizes an integrated design to provide atmospheric temperature soundings for global applications. The fully automated processing at AFGWC was accomplished by four related computer processor programs to produce compatible UADB soundings, evaluate system performance, and update the a priori developed inversion matrices. Tests with simulated data produced results significantly better than climatology.

  13. Design of a microwave calorimeter for the microwave tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Marinak, M. )

    1988-10-07

    The initial design of a microwave calorimeter for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment is presented. The design is optimized to measure the refraction and absorption of millimeter rf microwaves as they traverse the toroidal plasma of the Alcator C tokamak. Techniques utilized can be adapted for use in measuring high intensity pulsed output from a microwave device in an environment of ultra high vacuum, intense fields of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and intense magnetic fields. 16 refs.

  14. Relativistic-microwave theory of ball lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Ball lightning, a fireball sometimes observed during lightnings, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a lightning stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball lightning, such as the occurrence site, relation to the lightning channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for lightning protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics.

  15. Relativistic-microwave theory of ball lightning

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Ball lightning, a fireball sometimes observed during lightnings, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a lightning stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball lightning, such as the occurrence site, relation to the lightning channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for lightning protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics. PMID:27328835

  16. Relativistic-microwave theory of ball lightning.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-C

    2016-06-22

    Ball lightning, a fireball sometimes observed during lightnings, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a lightning stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball lightning, such as the occurrence site, relation to the lightning channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for lightning protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics.

  17. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training: a comparison between motor execution and motor imagery of sequential finger tapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hang; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2011-03-01

    Motor imagery training, as an effective strategy, has been more and more applied to mental disorders rehabilitation and motor skill learning. Studies on the neural mechanism underlying motor imagery have suggested that such effectiveness may be related to the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery. However, as compared to the studies on motor imagery, the studies on motor imagery training are much fewer. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training and the effectiveness of motor imagery training on motor performance improvement still needs further investigation. Using fMRI, we employed a sequential finger tapping paradigm to explore the functional alterations associated with motor imagery training in both motor execution and motor imagery task. We hypothesized through 14 consecutive days motor imagery training, the motor performance could be improved and the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery would be sustained form pre-training phase to post-training phase. Our results confirmed the effectiveness of motor imagery training in improving motor performance and demonstrated in both pre and post-training phases, motor imagery and motor execution consistently sustained the congruence in functional neuroanatomy, including SMA (supplementary motor cortex), PMA (premotor area); M1( primary motor cortex) and cerebellum. Moreover, for both execution and imagery tasks, a similar functional alteration was observed in fusiform through motor imagery training. These findings provided an insight into the effectiveness of motor imagery training and suggested its potential therapeutic value in motor rehabilitation.

  18. Estimating stomatal conductance with thermal imagery.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Grant, O M; Tagliavia, C P P; Chaves, M M; Jones, H G

    2006-08-01

    Most thermal methods for the study of drought responses in plant leaves are based on the calculation of 'stress indices'. This paper proposes and compares three main extensions of these for the direct estimation of absolute values of stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs) using infrared thermography (IRT). All methods use the measured leaf temperature and two environmental variables (air temperature and boundary layer resistance) as input. Additional variables required, depending on the method, are the temperatures of wet and dry reference surfaces, net radiation and relative humidity. The methods were compared using measured gs data from a vineyard in Southern Portugal. The errors in thermal estimates of conductance were of the same order as the measurement errors using a porometer. Observed variability was also compared with theoretical estimates of errors in estimated gs determined on the basis of the errors in the input variables (leaf temperature, boundary layer resistance, net radiation) and the partial derivatives of the energy balance equations used for the gs calculations. The full energy balance approach requires accurate estimates of net radiation absorbed, which may not be readily available in field conditions, so alternatives using reference surfaces are shown to have advantages. A new approach using a dry reference leaf is particularly robust and recommended for those studies where the specific advantages of thermal imagery, including its non-contact nature and its ability to sample large numbers of leaves, are most apparent. Although the results suggest that estimates of the absolute magnitude of gs are somewhat subjective, depending on the skill of the experimenter at selecting evenly exposed leaves, relative treatment differences in conductance are sensitively detected by different experimenters.

  19. Elimination of dimethyl methylphosphonate by plasma flame made of microwave plasma and burning hydrocarbon fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S. C.; Uhm, H. S.; Hong, Y. C.; Park, Y. G.; Park, J. S.

    2008-06-01

    Elimination of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) in liquid phase was studied by making use of a microwave plasma burner, exhibiting a safe removal capability of stockpiled chemical weapons. The microwave plasma burner consisted of a fuel injector and a plasma flame exit connected in series to a microwave plasma torch. The burner flames were sustained by injecting hydrocarbon fuels into the microwave plasma torch in air discharge. The Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated near perfect elimination of DMMP in the microwave plasma burner. This was confirmed by gas chromatography spectra as supporting data, revealing the disappearance of even intermediary compounds in the process of DMMP destruction. The experimental results and the physical configuration of the microwave plasma burner may provide an effective means of on-site removal of chemical warfare agents found on a battlefield.

  20. Elimination of dimethyl methylphosphonate by plasma flame made of microwave plasma and burning hydrocarbon fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S. C.; Uhm, H. S.; Hong, Y. C.; Park, Y. G.; Park, J. S.

    2008-06-15

    Elimination of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) in liquid phase was studied by making use of a microwave plasma burner, exhibiting a safe removal capability of stockpiled chemical weapons. The microwave plasma burner consisted of a fuel injector and a plasma flame exit connected in series to a microwave plasma torch. The burner flames were sustained by injecting hydrocarbon fuels into the microwave plasma torch in air discharge. The Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated near perfect elimination of DMMP in the microwave plasma burner. This was confirmed by gas chromatography spectra as supporting data, revealing the disappearance of even intermediary compounds in the process of DMMP destruction. The experimental results and the physical configuration of the microwave plasma burner may provide an effective means of on-site removal of chemical warfare agents found on a battlefield.

  1. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  2. Microwave detection of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, P.

    2011-09-01

    A novel detection technique for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays based on microwave emission from the extensive air showers may provide large area coverage with 100% duty cycle at low cost. The status and prospects of several complementary R&D projects for GHz detectors is reviewed.

  3. Review of Literature on High Power Microwave Pulse Biological Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    AFRL-RH-BR-TR-2009-0068 Review of Literature on High Power Microwave Pulse Biological Effects Ronald L. Seaman General...2009 Air Force Research Laboratory 711 Human Performance Wing Human Effectiveness Directorate Directed Energy Bioeffects...Performance Wing Human Effectiveness Directorate This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange

  4. Optimization of microwave roasting of almond (Prunus dulcis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave (MW) almond roasting was investigated as an alternative to hot air (HA) roasting. Nonpareil almonds (Prunus dulcis) were roasted at 140°C in a convection oven for different times to achieve light, medium, and dark roasting levels. Several instrumental measurements were taken, establishin...

  5. Uniform batch processing using microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A microwave oven and microwave heating method generates microwaves within a cavity in a predetermined mode such that there is a known region of uniform microwave field. Samples placed in the region will then be heated in a relatively identical manner. Where perturbations induced by the samples are significant, samples are arranged in a symmetrical distribution so that the cumulative perturbation at each sample location is the same.

  6. Disinfection of Wastewater by Microwaves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    temperature of the cells before treatment with microwaves nor the temperature of the diluent buffer showed any effect on the rate and extent of...suspension on the sur- vival of E. coli B cells subjected to microwave treatment. 11 2. Effect of the temperature of diluent upon the survival of microwave...the surface of the material to be heated by conduction, convection, and/or radiation. While microwave energy is recognized to have bactericidal ability

  7. Mental imagery boosts music compositional creativity

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Stephen Wee Hun

    2017-01-01

    We empirically investigated the effect of mental imagery on young children’s music compositional creativity. Children aged 5 to 8 years participated in two music composition sessions. In the control session, participants based their composition on a motif that they had created using a sequence of letter names. In the mental imagery session, participants were given a picture of an animal and instructed to imagine the animal’s sounds and movements, before incorporating what they had imagined into their composition. Six expert judges independently rated all music compositions on creativity based on subjective criteria (consensual assessment). Reliability analyses indicated that the expert judges demonstrated a high level of agreement in their ratings. The mental imagery compositions received significantly higher creativity ratings by the expert judges than did the control compositions. These results provide evidence for the effectiveness of mental imagery in enhancing young children’s music compositional creativity. PMID:28296965

  8. Mental imagery boosts music compositional creativity.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sarah Shi Hui; Lim, Stephen Wee Hun

    2017-01-01

    We empirically investigated the effect of mental imagery on young children's music compositional creativity. Children aged 5 to 8 years participated in two music composition sessions. In the control session, participants based their composition on a motif that they had created using a sequence of letter names. In the mental imagery session, participants were given a picture of an animal and instructed to imagine the animal's sounds and movements, before incorporating what they had imagined into their composition. Six expert judges independently rated all music compositions on creativity based on subjective criteria (consensual assessment). Reliability analyses indicated that the expert judges demonstrated a high level of agreement in their ratings. The mental imagery compositions received significantly higher creativity ratings by the expert judges than did the control compositions. These results provide evidence for the effectiveness of mental imagery in enhancing young children's music compositional creativity.

  9. Imagery limitations in totally congenitally blind subjects.

    PubMed

    De Beni, R; Cornoldi, C

    1988-10-01

    Research on totally blind subjects performing tasks that involve visual imagery has often shown that they do not behave differently from matched sighted subjects, even when their blindness is congenital. If visual imagery is based on visual perception, such tasks may not required visual imagery. In the present article visual images are considered as representations maintaining some properties of visible objects and constructed on the basis of information from various sources. Owing to the absence of visual experience, the limitations of such representations are explored in a series of experiments requiring memorization of single nouns, pairs of nouns, or triplets of nouns associated with a cue noun. Recall by blind subjects was impaired when multiple interactive images (with noun pairs and triplets) are formed. The poorer recall of blind subjects reflected also loss of order information. Recall was better for both groups with locative noun cues and high-imagery targets.

  10. Technical parameters for specifying imagery requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Paul P.; Dunnette, Sheri J.

    1994-01-01

    Providing visual information acquired from remote events to various operators, researchers, and practitioners has become progressively more important as the application of special skills in alien or hazardous situations increases. To provide an understanding of the technical parameters required to specify imagery, we have identified, defined, and discussed seven salient characteristics of images: spatial resolution, linearity, luminance resolution, spectral discrimination, temporal discrimination, edge definition, and signal-to-noise ratio. We then describe a generalizing imaging system and identified how various parts of the system affect the image data. To emphasize the different applications of imagery, we have constrasted the common television system with the significant parameters of a televisual imaging system for technical applications. Finally, we have established a method by which the required visual information can be specified by describing certain technical parameters which are directly related to the information content of the imagery. This method requires the user to complete a form listing all pertinent data requirements for the imagery.

  11. PV output variability modeling using satellite imagery.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.

    2010-11-01

    High frequency irradiance variability measured on the ground is caused by the formation, dissipation, and passage of clouds in the sky. If we can identify and associate different cloud types/patterns from satellite imagery, we may be able to predict irradiance variability in areas lacking sensors. With satellite imagery covering the entire U.S., this allows for more accurate integration planning and power flow modeling over wide areas. Satellite imagery from southern Nevada was analyzed at 15 minute intervals over a year. Methods for image stabilization, cloud detection, and textural classification of clouds were developed and tested. High Performance Computing parallel processing algorithms were also investigated and tested. Artificial Neural Networks using imagery as inputs were trained on ground-based measurements of irradiance to model the variability and were tested to show some promise as a means for predicting irradiance variability.

  12. Microwave drying of high strength dental stone: effects on dimensional accuracy.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Yap, S H; Teo, Jason C K; Tay, C M; Ng, K L; Thean, Hilary P Y

    2003-01-01

    High-strength dental stone is widely used to produce dies for the fabrication of restorations with the lost-wax technique. It is normal to wait at least 24 hours for casts to dry and gain sufficient strength prior to initiating laboratory procedures. This waiting time may be greatly reduced by using microwave drying. This study determined the optimum microwave energy density for preserving working die accuracy of a Type IV high-strength dental stone (Silky Rock; Whipmix). Cylindrical die specimens were fabricated according to manufacturer's instructions and allowed to set for one hour. The specimens were subsequently treated as follows: Group I (Control group)--air dried; Group II--microwaved at 700W for 40 seconds; Group III--microwaved at 490W for 60 seconds. The percentage weight loss of cylindrical specimens (n = 6) and the percentage dimensional change (n = 7) of die specimens in three axes (x, y and z) were determined at 30 minutes, 1 hour and 24 hours after air drying/microwaving. Weight loss was measured using an electronic digital balance, while dimensional changes were assessed using image analysis software. Data was subject to ANOVA/Scheffe's tests at significance level 0.05. No significant difference in percentage weight loss was observed between air drying for 24 hours and microwaved specimens at all time intervals. Although no significant difference in percentage dimensional changes was observed between specimens microwaved at 490W for 60 seconds and specimens air dried for 24 hours, significant changes in x, y and z dimensions were observed after microwaving at 700W for 40 seconds at various time intervals. Microwave radiation at 490W for 60 seconds is recommended for drying Type IV high-strength dental stone. Further investigations are required to determine changes in physical properties associated with the aforementioned microwave power density.

  13. Physics of the Microwave Oven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of two articles about the physics of microwave ovens. This article deals with the generation of microwaves in the oven and includes the operation of the magnetrons, waveguides and standing waves in resonant cavities. It then considers the absorption of microwaves by foods, discussing the dielectric relaxation of water,…

  14. Microwave-assisted Chemical Transformations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in developing sustainable chemistries utilizing green chemistry principles. Since the first published report in 1986 by Gedye and Giguere on microwave assisted synthesis in household microwave ovens, the use of microwaves as...

  15. Synthesis of photorealistic whole earth imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Todd K.; Papaik, Michael J.; Wylie, Jack L.

    1993-03-01

    A variety of remotely sensed digital imagery data sources now exists that enable the computer graphics synthesis of convincing real, whole Earth images similar to those recorded by orbiting astronauts using conventional photographic techniques. Within data resolution limitations, such data sets can be rendered (using three dimensional graphics technologies) to produce views of our planet from any vantage point. By utilizing time series of collected data in conjunction with synthetic Lambertian lighting models, such views can be animated, in time, to produce dynamic visualizations of the Earth and its weather systems. This paper describes an effort to produce an animation for commercial use in the broadcast industry. To be used for entertainment purposes, the animation was designed to show the dramatic, fluid nature of the Earth as it might appear from space. GOES infra red imagery was collected over the western hemisphere for 15 days at half hour intervals. This imagery was processed to remove sensor artifacts and drop-outs and to create synthetic imagery which appears to the observer to be nature visible wavelength imagery. Cloud free imagery of the entire planet, re- sampled to 4 Km resolution, based on mosaicked AVHRR, polar orbiting imagery was used as a 'base map' to reflect surface features. Graphics techniques to simulate Lambertian lighting of the Earth surface were used to impart the effects of changing solar illumination. All of the graphics elements were then, on a frame by frame basis, digitally composited together, with varying cloud transparency to produce the final rendered imagery, which in turn is recorded onto video tape.

  16. Mental concerts: musical imagery and auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Zatorre, Robert J; Halpern, Andrea R

    2005-07-07

    Most people intuitively understand what it means to "hear a tune in your head." Converging evidence now indicates that auditory cortical areas can be recruited even in the absence of sound and that this corresponds to the phenomenological experience of imagining music. We discuss these findings as well as some methodological challenges. We also consider the role of core versus belt areas in musical imagery, the relation between auditory and motor systems during imagery of music performance, and practical implications of this research.

  17. Discriminative Sparse Representations in Hyperspectral Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    classification , and unsupervised labeling (clustering) [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. Recently, a non-parametric (Bayesian) approach to sparse modeling and com...DISCRIMINATIVE SPARSE REPRESENTATIONS IN HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY By Alexey Castrodad, Zhengming Xing John Greer, Edward Bosch Lawrence Carin and...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Discriminative Sparse Representations in Hyperspectral Imagery 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  18. ERTS imagery for ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.; Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    ERTS imagery offers the first opportunity to apply moderately high-resolution satellite data to the nationwide study of water resources. This imagery is both a tool and a form of basic data. Like other tools and basic data, it should be considered for use in ground-water investigations. The main advantage of its use will be to reduce the need for field work. In addition, however, broad regional features may be seen easily on ERTS imagery, whereas they would be difficult or impossible to see on the ground or on low-altitude aerial photographs. Some present and potential uses of ERTS imagery are to locate new aquifers, to study aquifer recharge and discharge, to estimate ground-water pumpage for irrigation, to predict the location and type of aquifer management problems, and to locate and monitor strip mines which commonly are sources for acid mine drainage. In many cases, boundaries which are gradational on the ground appear to be sharp on ERTS imagery. Initial results indicate that the accuracy of maps produced from ERTS imagery is completely adequate for some purposes.

  19. Handbook of microwave testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverghetta, T. S.

    A description of microwave test equipment is presented, taking into account signal generators, signal detection/indicating devices, auxiliary testing devices, and microwave systems. Low power, medium power, high power, and peak power measurements are considered along with noise measurements, spectrum analyzer measurements, active testing, antenna measurements, and automatic testing. Attention is given to phase noise, Q measurements, the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurement, swept impedance, noise sources, noise meters, manual noise measurements, automatic noise figure measurements, gain, gain compression, intermodulation, the third order intercept, and questions of spectral purity.

  20. Microwave Frequency Polarizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Vien The; Mirel, Paul; Kogut, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication and analysis of microwave frequency polarizing grids. The grids are designed to measure polarization from the cosmic microwave background. It is effective in the range of 500 to 1500 micron wavelength. It is cryogenic compatible and highly robust to high load impacts. Each grid is fabricated using an array of different assembly processes which vary in the types of tension mechanisms to the shape and size of the grids. We provide a comprehensive study on the analysis of the grids' wire heights, diameters, and spacing.

  1. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  2. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Minich, Roger W.

    1988-01-01

    A device (10) for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode (20) that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode (24), proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode (26), and form a cylindrical virtual cathode (32). Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode (32), and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode (32) and the cylindrical real cathode (20).

  3. Uniform bulk Material Processing using Multimode Microwave Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Ravi; Vaughan, Worth E.

    1999-06-18

    An apparatus for generating uniform heating in material contained in a cylindrical vessel is described. TE{sub 10}-mode microwave radiation is coupled into a cylindrical microwave transition such that microwave radiation having TE{sub 11}-, TE{sub 01}- and TM{sub 01}-cylindrical modes is excited therein. By adjusting the intensities of these modes, substantially uniform heating of materials contained in a cylindrical drum which is coupled to the microwave transition through a rotatable choke can be achieved. The use of a poor microwave absorbing insulating cylindrical insert, such as aluminum oxide, for separating the material in the container from the container walls and for providing a volume through which air is circulated is expected to maintain the container walls at room temperature. The use of layer of highly microwave absorbing material, such as SiC, inside of the insulating insert and facing the material to be heated is calculated to improve the heating pattern of the present apparatus.

  4. Uniform bulk material processing using multimode microwave radiation

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Ravi; Vaughn, Worth E.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for generating uniform heating in material contained in a cylindrical vessel is described. TE.sub.10 -mode microwave radiation is coupled into a cylindrical microwave transition such that microwave radiation having TE.sub.11 -, TE.sub.01 - and TM.sub.01 -cylindrical modes is excited therein. By adjusting the intensities of these modes, substantially uniform heating of materials contained in a cylindrical drum which is coupled to the microwave transition through a rotatable choke can be achieved. The use of a poor microwave absorbing insulating cylindrical insert, such as aluminum oxide, for separating the material in the container from the container walls and for providing a volume through which air is circulated is expected to maintain the container walls at room temperature. The use of layer of highly microwave absorbing material, such as SiC, inside of the insulating insert and facing the material to be heated is calculated to improve the heating pattern of the present apparatus.

  5. Building Detection in SAR Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbach, Ryan Matthew; Koch, Mark William; Moya, Mary M; Goold, Jeremy

    2014-08-01

    Current techniques for building detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery can be computationally expensive and/or enforce stringent requirements for data acquisition. The desire is to present a technique that is effective and efficient at determining an approximate building location. This approximate location can be used to extract a portion of the SAR image to then perform a more robust detection. The proposed technique assumes that for the desired image, bright lines and shadows, SAR artifact effects, are approximately labeled. These labels are enhanced and utilized to locate buildings, only if the related bright lines and shadows can be grouped. In order to find which of the bright lines and shadows are related, all of the bright lines are connected to all of the shadows. This allows the problem to be solved from a connected graph viewpoint. Where the nodes are the bright lines and shadows and the arcs are the connections between bright lines and shadows. Constraints based on angle of depression and the relationship between connected bright lines and shadows are applied to remove unrelated arcs. Once the related bright lines and shadows are grouped, their locations are combined to provide an approximate building location. Experimental results are provided showing the outcome of the technique.

  6. Building detection in SAR imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbach, Ryan Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Current techniques for building detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery can be computationally expensive and/or enforce stringent requirements for data acquisition. I present two techniques that are effective and efficient at determining an approximate building location. This approximate location can be used to extract a portion of the SAR image to then perform a more robust detection. The proposed techniques assume that for the desired image, bright lines and shadows, SAR artifact effects, are approximately labeled. These labels are enhanced and utilized to locate buildings, only if the related bright lines and shadows can be grouped. In order to find which of the bright lines and shadows are related, all of the bright lines are connected to all of the shadows. This allows the problem to be solved from a connected graph viewpoint, where the nodes are the bright lines and shadows and the arcs are the connections between bright lines and shadows. For the first technique, constraints based on angle of depression and the relationship between connected bright lines and shadows are applied to remove unrelated arcs. The second technique calculates weights for the connections and then performs a series of increasingly relaxed hard and soft thresholds. This results in groups of various levels on their validity. Once the related bright lines and shadows are grouped, their locations are combined to provide an approximate building location. Experimental results demonstrate the outcome of the two techniques. The two techniques are compared and discussed.

  7. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  8. Cognitive aesthetics of alchemical imagery.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Angela M

    2013-02-01

    Jung's contribution to the understanding of the relevance of psychology to alchemy has become increasingly invalidated by the ahistorical nature of his approach, just as his tendency to ignore the importance of cognitive aesthetics for an improved comprehension of the functions of alchemical images has prevented Jungians from further extending Jung's insight of the importance of alchemy for psychology. This paper explores the history of the development of alchemical illustrations in Western Europe from the 14(th) to the 16(th) century, tracing the emergent processes over time. It is only when we take into consideration the historical dimension and the aesthetics of alchemical imagery that it becomes possible to demonstrate how the increasing use of certain aesthetic techniques such as the disjunction and recombination of separate metaphorical elements of previous illustrations, the use of compressive combinations and the use of framing devices worked to gradually increase the cognitive function and the symbolical power of the images. If alchemy is still relevant to psychotherapy it is exactly because it helps us to understand the importance of cognitive aesthetics in our approach to the images, metaphors and narratives of our patients.

  9. The microwave instruments onboard FY-3 and their application in tropical cyclone precipitation retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Naimeng; Gu, Songyan; Guo, Yang; Zhang, Miao

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing awareness of the importance of meteorological satellite, China initialed FENGYUN satellite program in 1971 and the first polar orbiting meteorological satellite FY-1A was launched in 1988. Up to now, totally 6 FENGYUN polar orbiting meteorological satellites were launched, of which FY-A/B/C/D belongs to the first generation with only one instrument on board and their applications mainly focused on image analyses. The second generation of Chinese polar orbit meteorological satellite, FY-3A /B /C were launched in 2008,,2010 and 2012 respectively. there were 11 instruments onboard FYA/B/C with both sounding and imaging capability, covering the spectrum from ultraviolet, visible, infrared to microwave. There are three microwave instruments onboard FY-3 series, including Microwave Humidity Sounder (MWHS), Microwave Temperature Sounder (MWTS) and Microwave Radiation Imager (MWRI). This paper first introduces these three instruments, their channel characteristics and their global O-B results. Their observations are also compared with NOAA equivalent channels. The second part of this paper introduces the tropical cyclone precipitation retrieval technique developed by NSMC, which include: 1) Precipitation concept model introduction 2) Precipitation sensitivity analysis 3) Satellite microwave imagery analysis 4) "Overlap lookup table" technique introduction 5) Results analysis The FY-3 precipitation retrieval products are operationally used in weather analysis and forecast. Due to China's vast territory and complex climate, the satellite data are irreplaceable and have been intensively applied to monitoring the severe weather such as typhoon, heavy precipitation etc. over China.

  10. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  11. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  12. Leakage of Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.

    2011-01-01

    Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…

  13. Electronically Tuned Microwave Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshminarayana, Mysore

    1987-01-01

    Features include low phase noise and frequency stability. Bias-tuned, low-phase-noise microwave oscillator circuit based on npn bipolar transistor and dielectric resonator. Operating at frequency of about 8.4 GHz, oscillator adjusted to give low phase noise, relatively flat power output versus frequency, and nearly linear frequency versus bias voltage.

  14. Comments on 'Rapid pulsed microwave propagation'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.; Rodrigue, George P.

    1992-01-01

    Giakos and Ishii (1991) claim conclusive experimental evidence that microwave pulse propagation in waveguides and in air occurs at velocities exceeding the free-space speed of light, and assert that it is possible to transmit both energy and information in a non-TEM waveguiding medium at the lightspeed-exceeding phase velocity. The present analysis of their results reveals several significant potential sources of error in both their laboratory findings and those findings' interpretation. Giakos and Ishii reply that the accuracy of the propagation measurements presented in their study exceeds 0.2 percent.

  15. Skylab imagery: Application to reservoir management in New England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, S.; Anderson, D. (Principal Investigator); Mckim, H. L.; Gatto, L. W.; Merry, C. J.; Haugen, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. S190B imagery is superior to the LANDSAT imagery for land use mapping and is as useful for level 1 and 2 land use mapping as the RB-57/RC8 high altitude imagery. Detailed land use mapping at levels 3 and finer from satellite imagery requires better resolution. For evaluating factors that are required to determine volume runoff potentials in a watershed, the S190B imagery was found to be as useful as the RB-57/RC8 high altitude aircraft imagery.

  16. Instrument description of the airborne microwave temperature profiler

    SciTech Connect

    Denning, R.F.; Guidero, S.L.; Parks, G.S.; Gary, B.L. )

    1989-11-30

    The microwave temperature profiler (MTP) is a passive microwave radiometer installed in the NASA ER-2 aircraft and used to measure profiles of air temperature versus altitude. It operates at 57.3 and 58.8 GHz, where oxygen molecules emit thermal radiation. Brightness temperature is measured at a selection of viewing elevation angles every 14 s. MTP was the only remote sensing experiment aboard the ER-2 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. This paper describes hardware, calibration, and performance aspects of the MTP.

  17. Instrument description of the airborne microwave temperature profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Richard F.; Guidero, Steven L.; Parks, Gary S.; Gary, Bruce L.

    1989-01-01

    The microwave temperature profiler (MTP) is a passive microwave radiometer installed in the NASA ER-2 aircraft and used to measure profiles of air temperature versus altitude. It operates at 57.3 and 58.8 GHz, where oxygen molecules emit thermal radiation. Brightness temperature is measured at a selection of viewing elevation angles every 14 s. MTP was the only remote sensing experiment aboard the ER-2 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. This paper describes hardware, calibration, and performance aspects of the MTP.

  18. Integrated snow and avalanche monitoring system for Indian Himalaya using multi-temporal satellite imagery and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. S.; Mani, Sneh; Mathur, P.

    The variations in the local climate, environment and altitude as well as fast snow cover build up and rapid changes in snow characteristics with passage of winter are major contributing factors to make snow avalanches as one of the threatening problems in the North West Himalaya. For sustainable development of these mountainous areas, a number of multi-purpose projects are being planned. In recent times, the danger of natural and man-made hazards is increasing and the availability of water is fluctuating; and thus, making the project implementation difficult. To overcome these difficulties to a great extent, an integrated monitoring system is required for short term as well as long term assessment of snowcover variation and avalanche hazard. In order to monitor the spatial extent of snow cover, satellite data can be employed on an operational basis. Spectral settings as well as the temporal and spatial resolution make time series NOAA-AVHHR and MODIS sensor data well suited for operational snow cover monitoring at regional or continental scale; Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) LISS, WiFS and AWiFS sensor data suitable for studies at larger scale; and microwave data for extraction of snow wetness information.. In the present paper, an attempt is made to study the trends of changes in snow characteristics and related avalanche phenomenon using time series multi-temporal, multi-resolution satellite data with respect to different ranges in Western Himalaya, namely Pir Panjal range, Great Himalaya range, Zanskar range, Ladakh range and Great Karakoram range. The operational processing of these data included geocoding, calibration, terrain normalization, classification, statistical post classification and derivation of snow cover statistics. The calibration and normalization of imageries allowed the application of physically based classification thresholds possible for albedo, brightness temperature and the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) parameters

  19. Integrated snow and avalanche monitoring syatem for Indian Himalaya using multi-temporal satellite imagery and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. S.; Mani, Sneh; Mathur, P.

    The variations in the local climate, environment and altitude as well as fast snow cover build up and rapid changes in snow characteristics with passage of winter are major contributing factors to make snow avalanches as one of the threatening problems in the North West Himalaya. For sustainable development of these mountainous areas, a number of multi-purpose projects are being planned. In recent times, the danger of natural and man-made hazards is increasing and the availability of water is fluctuating; and thus, making the project implementation difficult. To overcome these difficulties to a great extent, an integrated monitoring system is required for short term as well as long term assessment of snowcover variation and avalanche hazard. In order to monitor the spatial extent of snow cover, satellite data can be employed on an operational basis. Spectral settings as well as the temporal and spatial resolution make time series NOAA-AVHHR and MODIS sensor data well suited for operational snow cover monitoring at regional or continental scale; Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) LISS, WiFS and AWiFS sensor data suitable for studies at larger scale; and microwave data for extraction of snow wetness information.. In the present paper, an attempt is made to study the trends of changes in snow characteristics and related avalanche phenomenon using time series multi-temporal, multi-resolution satellite data with respect to different ranges in Western Himalaya, namely Pir Panjal range, Great Himalaya range, Zanskar range, Ladakh range and Great Karakoram range. The operational processing of these data included geocoding, calibration, terrain normalization, classification, statistical post classification and derivation of snow cover statistics. The calibration and normalization of imageries allowed the application of physically based classification thresholds possible for albedo, brightness temperature and the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) parameters

  20. Imagery in Dance: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Katherine; Nordin-Bates, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Dance imagery is a consciously created mental representation of an experience, either real or imaginary, that may affect the dancer and her or his movement. In this study, imagery research in dance was reviewed in order to: 1. describe the themes and ideas that the current literature has attempted to illuminate and 2. discover the extent to which this literature fits the Revised Applied Model of Deliberate Imagery Use. A systematic search was performed, and 43 articles from 24 journals were found to fit the inclusion criteria. The articles were reviewed, analyzed, and categorized. The findings from the articles were then reported using the Revised Applied Model as a framework. Detailed descriptions of Who, What, When and Where, Why, How, and Imagery Ability were provided, along with comparisons to the field of sports imagery. Limitations within the field, such as the use of non-dance-specific and study-specific measurements, make comparisons and clear conclusions difficult to formulate. Future research can address these problems through the creation of dance-specific measurements, higher participant rates, and consistent methodologies between studies.

  1. ATARS/JSIPS/E-O LOROPS imagery storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgill, Garth; Kidwell, Orval

    1993-02-01

    The ATARS RMS is an advanced digital image formatting and computing unit. It links the ATARS EO and IR sensors, digital tape recorders and datalink together into a coherent tactical reconnaissance sensor suite. Image management, storage and display functions ensure effective reconnaissance data handling. Comprehensive Operational Flight Program processing facilities provide automatic mission management and effective integration of ATARS with the flight crew, host aircraft, and ground station. data. The Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Patuxent River, Maryland has developed a ground test capability which supplies highly diverse and repeatable data and which provides a solid statistical base for the determination of system resolution. Working closely with the 3246 TW/DOR, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, the exploitable nature of these data has been verified. This paper presents the data as actually taken from ground tests of a pushbroom sensor performed at Eglin Air Force Base and illustrates the methods and techniques employed to analyze and evaluate the resulting imagery. recorded by a moving microscope and by a ccd camera with 1-ms charging time interval. The exact distance between the microscope positions at the time of charging the ccd pixels is deduced from the interference and video synchronization signals. It is expected that a total uncertainty of about 100 nm for a 1000-mm scale will be reached. recorder operates in severe airborne environments. Obviously, this same recorder is also suitable for the airborne acquisition of data for other applications.

  2. Microwave Observations of Precipitation and the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Rosenkranz, Philip W.

    2004-01-01

    This research effort had three elements devoted to improving satellite-derived passive microwave retrievals of precipitation rate: morphological rain-rate retrievals, warm rain retrievals, and extension of a study of geostationary satellite options. The morphological precipitation-rate retrieval method uses for the first time the morphological character of the observed storm microwave spectra. The basic concept involves: 1) retrieval of point rainfall rates using current algorithms, 2) using spatial feature vectors of the observations over segmented multi-pixel storms to estimate the integrated rainfall rate for that storm (cu m/s), and 3) normalization of the point rain-rate retrievals to ensure consistency with the storm-wide retrieval. This work is ongoing, but two key steps have been completed: development of a segmentation algorithm for defining spatial regions corresponding to single storms for purposes of estimation, and reduction of some of the data from NAST-M that will be used to support this research going forward. The warm rain retrieval method involved extension of Aquai/AIRS/AMSU/HSB algorithmic work on cloud water retrievals. The central concept involves the fact that passive microwave cloud water retrievals over approx. 0.4 mm are very likely associated with precipitation. Since glaciated precipitation is generally detected quite successfully using scattering signatures evident in the surface-blind 54- and 183-GHz bands, this new method complements the first by permitting precipitation retrievals of non-glaciated events. The method is most successful over ocean, but has detected non-glaciated convective cells over land, perhaps in their early formative stages. This work will require additional exploration and validation prior to publication. Passive microwave instrument configurations for use in geostationary orbit were studied. They employ parabolic reflectors between 2 and 4 meters in diameter, and frequencies up to approx.430 GHz; this

  3. Sintering Behavior of Metal Powders Involving Microwave-Enhanced Chemical Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Sadatsugu; Saito, Yasushi; Sato, Motoyasu; Nagasaka, Takuya; Muroga, Takeo; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko

    2006-03-01

    Copper powder compacts were sintered by microwave radiation in air. In this procedure, the samples were sintered by microwave in air without using any special atmosphere, only by protecting them in a container filled with ceramic powder. The enhancement of the deoxidation reaction by the microwave was observed. The samples were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The samples were deoxidized on the surface and were well sintered to the edge from the inside throughout the entire cross section. The tensile strength of the copper samples sintered by the microwave in air was higher than that found in conventional sintering in N2 gas. No other differences were noticed between the samples sintered by the microwave under the air-rich conditions and in the conventional furnace in H2+N2 gas. The microwave-sintered copper samples were of good quality; for example, the tensile strength measured throughout the cross section was the same as that for the samples sintered in H2+N2 gas by the conventional method.

  4. STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF IMAGERY INTELLIGENCE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    CIU studied targets that could not be overlooked because every location could be a hiding place for weapons: lunatic asylums, chocolate factories...www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/modern_flight/mf10.htm>; Internet; accessed 23 January 2005. 84United States Air Force Museum , “RB-47E Overflies Russia ...Force Museum. “RB-47E Overflies Russia 8 May 1954.” Available from <http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/history/coldwar/cw13.htm>. Internet. Accessed

  5. Landsat-1 imagery for geologic evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the geologic evaluation of the North Carolina coastal plain using Landsat-1 imagery as related to a general study of the geomorphology to assess the imagery as a tool for upgrading the understanding of the coastal plain, along with recognition of subsurface structures. Among the more prominent features displayed on the Landsat imagery are the scarps and beach ridges associated with former positions of the shoreline. Compilations of various types of lineaments reveal two dominant trends, one northwest-southeast and the other northeast-southwest, which are significant in the tectonic development of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The synoptic view recorded by the satellite allows a perspective that aids geologic studies of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

  6. Validation and acceptance of synthetic infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Bernhardt, Mark; Angell, Christopher R.; Hickman, Duncan; Whitehead, Philip; Patel, Dilip

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the use of an image query database (IQ-DB) tool as a means of implementing a validation strategy for synthetic long-wave infrared images of sea clutter. Specifically it was required to determine the validity of the synthetic imagery for use in developing and testing automatic target detection algorithms. The strategy adopted for exploiting synthetic imagery is outlined and the key issues of validation and acceptance are discussed in detail. A wide range of image metrics has been developed to achieve pre-defined validation criteria. A number of these metrics, which include post processing algorithms, are presented. Furthermore, the IQ-DB provides a robust mechanism for configuration management and control of the large volume of data used. The implementation of the IQ-DB is reviewed in terms of its cardinal point specification and its central role in synthetic imagery validation and EOSS progressive acceptance.

  7. Visual mental imagery in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Grüter, Thomas; Grüter, Martina; Bell, Vaughan; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2009-04-10

    Congenital prosopagnosia (cPA) is a selective impairment in the visual learning and recognition of faces without detectable brain damage or malformation. There is evidence that it can be inherited in an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. We assessed the capacity for visual mental imagery in 53 people with cPA using an adapted Marks' VVIQ (Vividness of Visual Imaging Questionnaire). The mean score of the prosopagnosic group showed the lowest mental imagery scores ever published for a non-brain damaged group. In a subsample of 12 people with cPA, we demonstrated that the cPA is a deficit of configural face processing. We suggest that the 'VVIQ-PA' (VVIQ-Prosopagnosia) questionnaire can help to confirm the diagnosis of cPA. Poor mental imagery, a configural face processing impairment and clinical prosopagnosia should be considered as symptoms of a yet poorly understood hereditary cerebral dysfunction.

  8. High resolution Microwave Spectrometer Sounder (HIMSS) instrument program. Appendix: TRMM study (an instrument for NASA's tropical rainfall measuring mission)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobl, E. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The TRMM (Tropical Rain Measuring Mission) Study shows the feasibility of a conically scanned, total power radiometer. The heritage of the TRMM radiometer is the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) flying for the Air Force DMSP.

  9. Auditory imagery and the poor-pitch singer.

    PubMed

    Pfordresher, Peter Q; Halpern, Andrea R

    2013-08-01

    The vocal imitation of pitch by singing requires one to plan laryngeal movements on the basis of anticipated target pitch events. This process may rely on auditory imagery, which has been shown to activate motor planning areas. As such, we hypothesized that poor-pitch singing, although not typically associated with deficient pitch perception, may be associated with deficient auditory imagery. Participants vocally imitated simple pitch sequences by singing, discriminated pitch pairs on the basis of pitch height, and completed an auditory imagery self-report questionnaire (the Bucknell Auditory Imagery Scale). The percentage of trials participants sung in tune correlated significantly with self-reports of vividness for auditory imagery, although not with the ability to control auditory imagery. Pitch discrimination was not predicted by auditory imagery scores. The results thus support a link between auditory imagery and vocal imitation.

  10. Geobotanical characterization of a geothermal system using hyperspectral imagery: Long Valley Caldera, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M R; Cochran, S A; Martini, B A; Pickles, W L; Potts, D C; Priest, R E; Silver, E A; Wayne, B A; White, W T

    1998-12-01

    We have analyzed hyperspectral Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging System (AVIRIS) imagery taken in September of 1992 in Long Valley Caldera, CA, a geothermally active region expressed surficially by hot springs and fumaroles. Geological and vegetation mapping are attempted through spectral classification of imagery. Particular hot spring areas in the caldera are targeted for analysis. The data is analyzed for unique geobotanical patterns in the vicinity of hot springs as well as gross identification of dominant plant and mineral species. Spectra used for the classifications come from a vegetation spectral library created for plant species found to be associated with geothermal processes. This library takes into account the seasonality of vegetation by including spectra for species on a monthly basis. Geological spectra are taken from JPL and USGS mineral libraries. Preliminary classifications of hot spring areas indicate some success in mineral identification and less successful vegetation species identification. The small spatial extent of individual plants demands either sub-pixel analysis or increased spatial resolution of imagery. Future work will also include preliminary analysis of a hyperspectral thermal imagery dataset and a multitemporal air photo dataset. The combination of these remotely sensed datasets for Long Valley will yield a valuable product for geothermal exploration efforts in other regions.

  11. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  12. Microwave sounding units and global warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.; Keihm, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    A recent work of Spencer and Christy (1990) on precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites is critically examined. It is tentatively concluded in the present comment that remote sensing using satellite microwave radiometers can in fact provide a means for the monitoring of troposphere-averaged air temperature. However, for this to be successful more than one decade of data will be required to overcome the apparent inherent variability of global average air temperature. It is argued that the data set reported by Spencer and Christy should be subjected to careful review before it is interpreted as evidence of the presence or absence of global warming. In a reply, Christy provides specific responses to the commenters' objections.

  13. Microwave superheaters for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.B.; Hoffman, M.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1987-10-16

    The microwave superheater uses the synchrotron radiation from a thermonuclear plasma to heat gas seeded with an alkali metal to temperatures far above the temperature of material walls. It can improve the efficiency of the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle described elsewhere in these proceedings. For a proof-of-principle experiment using helium, calculations show that a gas superheat ..delta..T of 2000/sup 0/K is possible when the wall temperature is maintained at 1000/sup 0/K. The concept can be scaled to reactor grade systems. Because of the need for synchrotron radiation, the microwave superheater is best suited for use with plasmas burning an advanced fuel such as D-/sup 3/He. 5 refs.

  14. Interior, looking northeast Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking northeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Microwave Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  15. Microwave Quantum Illumination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-29

    target detection than the optical, due to the naturally -occurring bright thermal background in the microwave regime. We use an electro-opto...technologically-driven information task. So far, QI has only been demonstrated at optical wave- lengths [9, 14, 15], for which naturally -occurring back...background. The QI communication protocol from [8, 9] deals with this ∗ stefano.pirandola@york.ac.uk problem in a natural way by purposefully injecting am

  16. Microwave Radiation and Thermoregulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    environment ................................................ 33 19. A plot of dry heat losses as a function of the skin-to- ambient temperature gradient...avapora- - on of water to be 0.72 W-h/g. Dry heat exchanged with the environment ’hrough convection C and radiation R must be expressed in terms of...microwave field was present, the animals were observed to sit much more quietly than during the equilibration period, often with eyes closed as though

  17. Sensor Calibration and Ocean Products for TRMM Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, Frank J.; Lawrence, Richard J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    During the three years of finding, we have carefully corrected for two sensor/platform problems, developed a physically based retrieval algorithm to calculate SST, wind speed, water vapor, cloud liquid water and rain rates, validated these variables, and demonstrated that satellite microwave radiometers can provide very accurate SST retrievals through clouds. Prior to this, there was doubt by some scientists that the technique of microwave SST retrieval from satellites is a viable option. We think we have put these concerns to rest, and look forward to making microwave SSTs a standard component of the Earth science data sets. Our TMI SSTs were featured on several network news broadcasts and were reported in Science magazine. Additionally, we have developed a SST algorithm for VIRS to facilitate IR/MW inter-comparisons and completed research into diurnal cycles and air-sea interactions.

  18. Sensor Calibration and Ocean Products for TRMM Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Richard J. (Technical Monitor); Wentz, Frank J.

    2003-01-01

    During the three years of fundin& we have carefully corrected for two sensor/platform problems, developed a physically based retrieval algorithm to calculate SST, wind speed, water vapor, cloud liquid water and rain rates, validated these variables, and demonstrated that satellite microwave radiometers can provide very accurate SST retrievals through clouds. Prior to this, there was doubt by some scientists that the technique of microwave SST retrieval from satellites is a viable option. We think we have put these concerns to rest, and look forward to making microwave SSTs a standard component of the Earth science data sets. Our TMI SSTs were featured on several network news broadcasts and were reported in Science magazine. Additionally, we have developed a SST algorithm for VIRS to facilitate IR/MW inter-comparisons and completed research into diurnal cycles and air-sea interactions.

  19. Electric probe investigations of microwave generated, atmospheric pressure, plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Porteanu, H. E.; Kuehn, S.; Gesche, R.

    2010-07-15

    We examine the applicability of the Langmuir-type of characterization for atmospheric pressure plasma jets generated in a millimeter-size cavity microwave resonator at 2.45 GHz. Wide range I-V characteristics of helium, argon, nitrogen, air and oxygen are presented for different gas fluxes, distances probe-resonator, and microwave powers. A detailed analysis is performed for the fine variation in the current around the floating potential. A simplified theory specially developed for this case is presented, considering the ionic and electronic saturation currents and the floating potential. Based on this theory, we conclude that, while the charge carrier density depends on gas flow, distance to plasma source, and microwave absorbed power, the electron temperature is quite independent of these parameters. The resulting plasma parameters for helium, argon, and nitrogen are presented.

  20. Athletes' use of exercise imagery during weight training.

    PubMed

    Silbernagel, Michael S; Short, Sandra E; Ross-Stewart, Lindsay C

    2007-11-01

    Imagery is a cognitive process during which people use their minds to create (or recreate) experiences that are similar to real-life situations. This study examined how college athletes used imagery during weight training. Subjects were 295 Division I (n = 163) and Division II (n = 132) college student athletes (men: n = 138, women: n = 157) who participated in a weight training program as a requirement of their sport. They completed a slightly modified version of the "Weight Lifting Imagery Questionnaire." Results showed that appearance imagery (i.e., images related to the attainment of a fit-looking body) was used and considered the most effective followed by technique imagery (i.e., images related to performing the skill and techniques correctly with good form) and energy imagery (i.e., images related to getting "psyched up" or feeling energized). Other variables that effected imagery use were gender, age, time of season, and levels of motivation. In addition, gender, previous imagery training, and level of motivation had an effect on the perceptions of imagery effectiveness. Confidence in the ability to image was associated with both imagery use and effectiveness, and imagery use and effectiveness were associated with confidence in the weight room. The findings support previous research in exercise imagery that appearance imagery is most used followed by technique and energy imagery and extend them in such a way that strength coaches have practical advice on how to use imagery in a positive way with their athletes. Suggestions about how strength coaches can use imagery with their clients are provided.

  1. The neural substrates for the different modalities of movement imagery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dan; Edwards, Martin G; Mullins, Paul; Callow, Nichola

    2015-07-01

    Research highlights that internal visual, external visual and kinesthetic imagery differentially effect motor performance (White & Hardy, 1995; Hardy & Callow, 1999). However, patterns of brain activation subserving these different imagery perspectives and modalities have not yet been established. In the current study, we applied the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 (VMIQ-2) to study the brain activation underpinning these types of imagery. Participants with high imagery ability (using the VMIQ-2) were selected to participate in the study. The experimental conditions involved imagining an action (one item from the VMIQ-2) using internal visual imagery, external visual imagery, kinesthetic imagery and a perceptual control condition involved looking at a fixation cross. The imagery conditions were presented using a block design and the participants' brain activation was recorded using 3T fMRI. A post-experimental questionnaire was administered to test if participants were able to maintain the imagery during the task and if they switched between the imagery perspective/modalities. Four participants failed to adhere to the imagery conditions, and their data was excluded from analysis. As hypothesized, the different perspectives and modalities of imagery elicited both common areas of activation (in the right supplementary motor area, BA6) and dissociated areas of activation. Specifically, internal visual imagery activated occipital, parietal and frontal brain areas (i.e., the dorsal stream) while external visual imagery activated occipital ventral stream areas and kinesthetic imagery activated caudate and cerebellum areas. These results provide the first central evidence for the visual perspectives and modalities delineated in the VMIQ-2, and, initial biological validity for the VMIQ-2. However, given that only one item from the VMIQ-2 was employed, future fMRI research needs to explore all items to further examine these contentions.

  2. Bathymetric mapping with passive multispectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Philpot, W D

    1989-04-15

    Bathymetric mapping will be most straightforward where water quality and atmospheric conditions are invariant over the scene. Under these conditions, both depth and an effective attenuation coefficient of the water over several different bottom types may be retrieved from passive, multispectral imagery. As scenes become more complex-with changing water type and variable atmospheric conditions-it is probable that a strictly spectral analysis will no longer be sufficient to extract depth from multispectral imagery. In these cases an independent source of information will be required. The most likely sources for such information are spatial and temporal variations in image data.

  3. Interpretation of Airphotos and Remotely Sensed Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainsworth, Thomas L.; Jansen, Robert

    With the proliferation of easily accessible remotely sensed imagery over the last several years, image analysts from a wide variety of working environments are in high demand. These analysts do not always have advanced technical backgrounds in science. Robert Arnold's useful and timely laboratory manual serves as an adequate introduction to interpreting remotely sensed photographs and imagery. The book poses a graduated set of examples and questions with a generally increasing but low level of sophistication. It is easy to read, and considerable care has been exercised in the layout of the subject index and overall organization of the manual.

  4. A color prediction model for imagery analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaley, J. E.; Fisher, J. R.; Hardy, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    A simple model has been devised to selectively construct several points within a scene using multispectral imagery. The model correlates black-and-white density values to color components of diazo film so as to maximize the color contrast of two or three points per composite. The CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) color coordinate system is used as a quantitative reference to locate these points in color space. Superimposed on this quantitative reference is a perceptional framework which functionally contrasts color values in a psychophysical sense. This methodology permits a more quantitative approach to the manual interpretation of multispectral imagery while resulting in improved accuracy and lower costs.

  5. Mineral exploration from high altitude imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    Types of remote sensing which can best be done from spacecraft and types which can best be done from aircraft are discussed. Five geologically distinctive areas in northwestern Saudi Arabia were selected for detailed study. The areas were mapped as thoroughly as possible on each of several different types of imagery. The final objective was to identify those classes of geologic problems that can best be resolved using satellite data and then to identify areas where orbital imagery might profitably be used to extend existing knowledge, with emphasis placed on mineral exploration.

  6. Multispectral scanner imagery for plant community classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.; Spencer, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Optimum channel selection among 12 channels of multispectral scanner imagery identified six as providing the best information for computerized classification of 11 plant communities and two nonvegetation classes. Intensive preprocessing of the spectral data was required to eliminate bidirectional reflectance effects of the spectral imagery caused by scanner view angle and varying geometry of the plant canopy. Generalized plant community types - forest, grassland, and hydrophytic systems - were acceptably classified based on ecological analysis. Serious, but soluble, errors occurred with attempts to classify specific community types within the grassland system. However, special clustering analyses provided for improved classification of specific grassland communities.

  7. A Physicist's Anschauungen Concerning Mental Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Arthur I.; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an integration of historical and psychological analyses, with the goal of understanding the role of mental imagery in three seminal developments of early 20th-century physics: special relativity (1905), general relativity (1915), and quantum mechanics (1925). The book focuses on the insights that can be gleaned from Gesalt psychology, genetic epistemology, and recent theories of imagery in cognitive science. The book is divided into three sections. The first presents the comparative epistemologies of the scientists whose developments provide the data base for analyses. The second section considers the role of aesthetics and "visuability" in the transformation (and evaluation) of scientific concepts.

  8. Microwave-Assisted Olefin Metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicks, François; Borguet, Yannick; Sauvage, Xavier; Bicchielli, Dario; Delfosse, Sébastien; Delaude, Lionel; Demonceau, Albert

    Since the first reports on the use of microwave irradiation to accelerate organic chemical transformations, a plethora of papers have been published in this field. In most examples, microwave heating has been shown to dramatically reduce reaction times, increase product yields, and enhance product purity by reducing unwanted side reactions compared to conventional heating methods. The present contribution aims at illustrating the advantages of this technology in olefin metathesis and, when data are available, at comparing microwave-heated and conventionally heated experiments

  9. Passive Microwave Power Distribution Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    wavelength by switching a reciprocal latching ferrite phase shifter in the stub, in response to termination of microwave power from one of the feed tubes....A standby microwave transmitter power amplifier tube is switched into a microwave power distribution system for a phased array in microseconds when...after the switching is completed, the switching being accomplished by changing electrical length of a quarter-wavelength waveguide stub to one-half

  10. Cognitive Imagery and Diagrams in Teaching Personality Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Linda E.

    Summarized in this paper are the literature on cognitive imagery and teaching methodologies and an approach to the teaching of theories of personality that emphasize cognitive imagery as a strategy for enhancing learning in college students. The work of Kosslyn represents a major approach to the study of imagery in cognitive psychology. Central to…

  11. Imagery Arousal as a Function of Exposure to Artistic Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilotta, Joseph

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent music and art can arouse imagery experiences in an audience. Because of the relationship found between imagery and the arts in past research, it was hypothesized that artistic stimuli would have a greater influence on imagery than other kinds of stimuli (art-information or non-artistic).…

  12. The Development and Function of Children's Spatial Imagery. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Anne L.

    A program of research was conducted to study transitions from preoperational to concrete operational forms of spatial imagery (area 1), to compare results from spatial imagery studies based on open-ended measures (such as drawings) with results based on reaction time measures (area 2), and to study anticipatory imagery in the contexts of memory…

  13. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of satellite imagery. 611.22 Section 611... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery received from a satellite are prepared and released to the pubic by NRCS. The maps offer the first image...

  14. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of satellite imagery. 611.22 Section 611... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery received from a satellite are prepared and released to the pubic by NRCS. The maps offer the first image...

  15. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of satellite imagery. 611.22 Section 611... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery received from a satellite are prepared and released to the pubic by NRCS. The maps offer the first image...

  16. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of satellite imagery. 611.22 Section 611... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery received from a satellite are prepared and released to the pubic by NRCS. The maps offer the first image...

  17. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of satellite imagery. 611.22 Section 611... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery received from a satellite are prepared and released to the pubic by NRCS. The maps offer the first image...

  18. Using indium tin oxide material to implement the imaging of microwave plasma ignition process

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiang; Hou, Lingyun; Zhang, Guixin Zhang, Boya; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Jian

    2014-02-17

    In this paper, a method is introduced to get global observation of microwave plasma ignition process at high pressure. A microwave resonator was designed with an indium tin oxide coated glass at bottom. Microwave plasma ignition was implemented in methane and air mixture at 10 bars by a 2 ms-3 kW-2.45 GHz microwave pulse, and the high speed images of the ignition process were obtained. The images visually proved that microwave plasma ignition could lead to a multi-point ignition. The system may also be applied to obtain Schlieren images, which is commonly used to observe the development of flame kernel in an ignition process.

  19. Silicon heating by a microwave-drill applicator with optical thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herskowits, R.; Livshits, P.; Stepanov, S.; Aktushev, O.; Ruschin, S.; Jerby, E.

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a method for heating silicon wafers locally by open-end coaxial microwave applicators, with optical techniques employed for measuring the temperature. Silicon samples of ~2 × 2 cm2 area were radiated in air atmosphere by a microwave drill operating at 2.45 GHz in the range of 20-450 W. The rate of temperature variation was measured by the Fabry-Pérot etalon effect in samples illuminated by InGaAs lasers. The steady-state temperatures were measured by the changes in the absorption index of an InGaAs laser beam. The experimental results indicate heating rates of ~150 K s-1 and a temperature range of 300-900 K across the silicon sample during the microwave heating process. Further operation of the microwave drill caused local melting of the silicon samples. This paper presents the experimental setup and results, as well as numerical simulations of the microwave heating process.

  20. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The AgRISTARS Soil Moisture Project has made significant progress in the quantification of microwave sensor capabilities for soil moisture remote sensing. The 21-cm wavelength has been verified to be the best single channel for radiometric observations of soil moisture. It has also been found that other remote sensing approaches used in conjunction with L-band passive data are more successful than multiple wavelength microwave radiometry in this application. AgRISTARS studies have also improved current understanding of noise factors affecting the interpretability of microwave emission data. The absorption of soil emission by vegetation has been quantified, although this effect is less important than absorption effects for microwave radiometry.

  1. Microwave effects on plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Sagripanti, J L; Swicord, M L; Davis, C C

    1987-05-01

    The exposure of purified plasmid DNA to microwave radiation at nonthermal levels in the frequency range from 2.00 to 8.75 GHz produces single- and double-strand breaks that are detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Microwave-induced damage to DNA depends on the presence of small amounts of copper. This effect is dependent upon both the microwave power and the duration of the exposure. Cuprous, but not cupric, ions were able to mimic the effects produced by microwaves on DNA.

  2. Microwave effects on plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sagripanti, J.L.; Swicord, M.L.; Davis, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    The exposure of purified plasmid DNA to microwave radiation at nonthermal levels in the frequency range from 2.00 to 8.75 GHz produces single- and double-strand breaks that are detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Microwave-induced damage to DNA depends on the presence of small amounts of copper. This effect is dependent upon both the microwave power and the duration of the exposure. Cuprous, but not cupric, ions were able to mimic the effects produced by microwaves on DNA.

  3. Statistical effects in high-power microwave beam propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, R. A.; Bolton, P. R.; Sieger, G. E.

    1988-06-01

    At very high power levels pulsed microwave beams can generate air-breakdown plasmas which may limit the fluence that the beam can transport through the atmosphere. Conventional air breakdown is an avalanche process wherein free electrons, driven by the microwave fields, produce ionization through collisions with air molecules. Propagation of a beam is affected when the plasma electron density approaches the critical density for the particular microwave frequency. The rate of growth of the plasma depends on the competition between the ionization probability and electron loss processes such as attachment and diffusion. The physics of the avalanche process is reasonably well understood, and fluence limits can be fairly accurately predicted, so long as there are free seed electrons to initiate the breakdown. At sea level and low altitudes, seed electrons are, in fact, expected to be fairly rare, and air breakdown, and the consequences for beam propagation, must be treated as a statistical problem; the effective fluence limit may be much greater than would be predicted on the basis of conventional breakdown thresholds. The statistical effects are currently being investigated.

  4. New estimates of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extent during September 1964 from recovered Nimbus I satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, W. N.; Gallaher, D.; Campbell, G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the 1964 Nimbus I satellite has been recovered, digitized, and processed to estimate Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extent for September 1964. September is the month when the Arctic reaches its minimum annual extent and the Antarctic reaches its maximum. Images were manually analyzed over a three-week period to estimate the location of the ice edge and then composited to obtain a hemispheric average. Uncertainties were based on limitations in the image analysis and the variation of the ice cover over the three week period. The 1964 Antarctic extent is higher than estimates from the 1979-present passive microwave record, but is in accord with previous indications of higher extents during the 1960s. The Arctic 1964 extent was near the 1979-2000 average from the passive microwave record, suggesting relatively stable summer extents until the recent large decrease. This early satellite record puts the recently observed into a longer-term context.

  5. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  6. Entrainment of Upper Level Dry Air Into Hurricane Earl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Hood, Robbie E.; Atkinson, Robert J.; LaFontaine, Frank J.

    1999-01-01

    Hurricane Earl formed in the Gulf of Mexico in September 1998. It quickly was upgraded from a tropical disturbance to tropical storm status and then to a hurricane. Earl possessed hybrid (tropical and extratropical) characteristics throughout its lifetime. The system maintained and erratic track, which led to wide variability in the operational track forecasts. It eventually made landfall on the Florida panhandle on 2 September and raced northeastward. During August and September 1998, NASA conducted the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3). The experiment was focused on studying hurricanes with an emphasis toward developing a better understanding of their intensification and motion. Earl provides a unique opportunity to utilize high spatial and temporal resolution data collected from the DC-8 and high altitude ER-2 NASA platforms, which flew over Earl as it made landfall. These data can also be put into broader view provided by other instruments from the Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellites. Hurricane Earl was affected by entrainment of dry air from the northwest. Hurricane Isis was intensifying and approaching the Mexican Pacific coast with its associated outflow potentially affecting the inflow into Earl as the storm neared Florida. In addition, a longwave synoptic trough circulation was present over the eastern U.S. Either or both of these could be responsible for the dry air into the system. This paper will focus on identifying the source of the dry by using upper-level wind and moisture fields derived from the GOES 6.7 um water vapor imagery. We will attempt to relate the large-scale observations to those from the NASA aircraft. An infrared instrument onboard the ER-2 also has a similar wavelength and may be able to confirm some of the GOES findings. In addition, a microwave radiometer with 4 channels focused on measuring precipitation and its associated ice

  7. How imagery changes self-motion perception

    PubMed Central

    Nigmatullina, Y.; Arshad, Q.; Wu, K.; Seemungal, B.M.; Bronstein, A.M.; Soto, D.

    2015-01-01

    Imagery and perception are thought to be tightly linked, however, little is known about the interaction between imagery and the vestibular sense, in particular, self-motion perception. In this study, the observers were seated in the dark on a motorized chair that could rotate either to the right or to the left. Prior to the physical rotation, observers were asked to imagine themselves rotating leftward or rightward. We found that if the direction of imagined rotation was different to the physical rotation of the chair (incongruent trials), the velocity of the chair needed to be higher for observers to experience themselves rotating relative to when the imagined and the physical rotation matched (on congruent trials). Accordingly, the vividness of imagined rotations was reduced on incongruent relative to congruent trials. Notably, we found that similar effects of imagery were found at the earliest stages of vestibular processing, namely, the onset of the vestibular–ocular reflex was modulated by the congruency between physical and imagined rotations. Together, the results demonstrate that mental imagery influences self-motion perception by exerting top-down influences over the earliest vestibular response and subsequent perceptual decision-making. PMID:25637805

  8. Investigation of Satellite Imagery for Regional Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harting, W. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite multispectral imagery was found to be useful in regional planning for depicting general developed land patterns, wooded areas, and newly constructed highways by using visual photointerpretation methods. Other characteristics, such as residential and nonresidential development, street patterns, development density, and some vacant land components cannot be adequately detected using these standard methods.

  9. Visual Imagery, Lifecourse Structure and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Imagery could add an extra dimension to analyses of lifelong learning, which need to draw on diverse sources and techniques. This article has two principal components. First I suggest that the use of images might be divided into three categories: as illustration; as evidence; and as heuristic. I go on to explore the latter two categories, first by…

  10. User interface development for semiautomated imagery exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, R. P.; Bohling, Edward H.

    1991-08-01

    Operational reconnaissance technical organizations are burdened by greatly increasing workloads due to expanding capabilities for collection and delivery of large-volume near-real- time multisensor/multispectral softcopy imagery. Related to the tasking of reconnaissance platforms to provide the imagery are more stringent timelines for exploiting the imagery in response to the rapidly changing threat environment being monitored. The development of a semi-automated softcopy multisensor image exploitation capability is a critical step toward integrating existing advanced image processing techniques in conjunction with appropriate intelligence and cartographic data for next-generation image exploitation systems. This paper discusses the results of a recent effort to develop computer-assisted aids for the image analyst (IA) in order to rapidly and accurately exploit multispectral/multisensor imagery in combination with intelligence support data and cartographic information for the purpose of target detection and identification. A key challenge of the effort was to design and implement an effective human-computer interface that would satisfy any generic IA task and readily accommodate the needs of a broad range of IAs.

  11. Motion Imagery and Robotics Application Project (MIRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney P.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Motion Imagery and Robotics Application (MIRA) Project. A detailed description of the MIRA camera service software architecture, encoder features, and on-board communications are presented. A description of a candidate camera under development is also shown.

  12. A Role for Imagery in Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Examples of imagery and visualization in medicine, sports, and preservice teaching explore the potential of these techniques in mentoring relationships. They help proteges develop a positive self-image in a new role, make mentors' experience more explicit, and depict possible selves toward which proteges can work. (SK)

  13. Imagery Rescripting across Disorders: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stopa, Lusia

    2011-01-01

    Intrusive images occur in many disorders and, as well as causing distress, they frequently represent important negative meanings about the self, other people, or the world. Imagery rescripting describes a set of therapeutic techniques that are aimed at changing these negative meanings. This special series focuses on when and how to do imagery…

  14. Speech imagery recalibrates speech-perception boundaries.

    PubMed

    Scott, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The perceptual boundaries between speech sounds are malleable and can shift after repeated exposure to contextual information. This shift is known as recalibration. To date, the known inducers of recalibration are lexical (including phonotactic) information, lip-read information and reading. The experiments reported here are a proof-of-effect demonstration that speech imagery can also induce recalibration.

  15. Mapping Waterhyacinth Infestations Using Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] is an exotic aquatic weed that often invades and clogs waterways in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different image classification techniques for mapp...

  16. Water turbidity detection using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 images of two federal reservoirs in Kansas exhibit good correlation with suspended load. The major reservoirs in Kansas, as well as in other Great Plains states, are playing increasingly important roles in flood control, recreation, agriculture, and urban water supply. Satellite imagery may prove useful for acquiring timely low cost water quality data required for optimum management of these fresh water resources.

  17. Women, Power, and Empowering Imagery. Instructional Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Julie

    1994-01-01

    Presents four lessons based on three paintings and one woodcut by women artists. Contends that the lessons provide visual imagery that will challenge the imagination of female students and enhance their self-esteem. Includes full-page color reproductions of the art works, student objectives, and instructional strategies. (CFR)

  18. Multipactor Discharge in High Power Microwave Systems: Analyzing Effects and Mitigation through Simulation in ICEPIC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government...and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States . AFIT-ENP-13-M-22 MULTIPACTOR DISCHARGE IN HIGH POWER MICROWAVE SYSTEMS: ANALYZING...led to the development of free electron MASERS capable of generating 1 GW in the X-band of the microwave spectrum The most recent DoD research

  19. Microwave radiation effects on the thermally driven oxidase of erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, J.L.; Erwin, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) were labelled with a concanavalin A-luminol-bovine serum albumin conjugate specific for the transmembrane anion transport protein (Band 3) and exposed to 2450-MHz continuous-wave microwave radiation at an average specific absorption rate of 91W/kg for 10 min. The temperature was held constant at 25, 37, 40, 42, or 45C with an airflow heat-exchange system. Following exposure to microwave or air heating, the decrease in residual base-activated chemiluminescence (CL) of the SRBCs was measured as an indication of infield oxidase activity. Air heating resulted in a significant decrease in residual CL at temperatures above 37C (74% decrease at 45C). Microwave radiation inhibited the decline in residual CL above 37C. At 45C the inhibition was 40%. The results suggest microwave radiation either reversibly altered the thermodynamics of oxygen binding to haemoglobin or failed to energize a significant portion of the haemoglobin molecules in each sample to the thermal threshold of haemoglobin autoxidation.

  20. Hyperenergetic manned aerospacecraft propelled by intense pulsed microwave power beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this research was to exploit wireless power transmission (microwave/millimeter)--to lower manned space transportation costs by two or three orders of magnitude. Concepts have been developed for lightweight, mass-producible, beam-propelled aerospacecraft called Lightcraft. The vehicles are designed for a 'mass-poor, energy-rich' (i.e. hyper-energentic flight infrastructure which utilizes remote microwave power stations to build an energy-beam highway to space. Although growth in laser power levels has lagged behind expectations, microwave and millimeter-wave source technology now exists for rapid scaling to the megawatt and gigawatt time-average power levels. The design exercise focused on the engine, structure, and receptive optics requirements for a 15 meter diameter, 5 person Earth- to-moon aerospacecraft. Key elements in the airbreathing accelerator propulsion system are: a) a 'flight-weight' 35GHz rectenna electric powerplant, b) microwave-induced 'Air Spike' and perimeter air-plasma generators, and c) MagnetoHydroDynamic-Fanjet engine with its superconducting magnets and external electrodes.

  1. Using hyperspectral imagery to assist federal forest monitoring and restoration projects in the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamser, Kyle

    Hyperspectral imagery and the corresponding ability to conduct analysis below the pixel level have tremendous potential to aid in landcover monitoring. During large ecosystem restoration projects, being able to monitor specific aspects of the recovery over large and often inaccessible areas under constrained finances are major challenges. The Civil Air Patrol's Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER) can provide hyperspectral data in most parts of the United States at relatively low cost. Although designed specifically for use in locating downed aircraft, the imagery holds the potential to identify specific aspects of landcover at far greater fidelity than traditional multispectral means. The goals of this research were to improve the use of ARCHER hyperspectral imagery to classify sub-canopy and open-area vegetation in coniferous forests located in the Southern Rockies and to determine how much fidelity might be lost from a baseline of 1 meter spatial resolution resampled to 2 and 5 meter pixel size to simulate higher altitude collection. Based on analysis comparing linear spectral unmixing with a traditional supervised classification, the linear spectral unmixing proved to be statistically superior. More importantly, however, linear spectral unmixing provided additional sub-pixel information that was unavailable using other techniques. The second goal of determining fidelity loss based on spatial resolution was more difficult to determine due to how the data are represented. Furthermore, the 2 and 5 meter imagery were obtained by resampling the 1 meter imagery and therefore may not be representative of the quality of actual 2 or 5 meter imagery. Ultimately, the information derived from this research may be useful in better utilizing hyperspectral imagery to conduct forest monitoring and assessment.

  2. Advances on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using activated carbon irradiated by microwaves.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuang-Chen; Gao, Li; Ma, Jing-Xiang; Jin, Xin; Yao, Juan-Juan; Zhao, Yi

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the research background and chemistry of desulfurization and denitrification technology using microwave irradiation. Microwave-induced catalysis combined with activated carbon adsorption and reduction can reduce nitric oxide to nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to sulfur from flue gas effectively. This paper also highlights the main drawbacks of this technology and discusses future development trends. It is reported that the removal of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide using microwave irradiation has broad prospects for development in the field of air pollution control.

  3. Microwave Sterilization in School Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, Brian; Dixon, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Described are two investigations carried out in a high school biology department using a domestic microwave oven to compare the relative attributes of the autoclave and microwave oven in school use. Discussed are equipment, methods, and results of each investigation. (Author/CW)

  4. Computer-Generated Microwave Holograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leming, Charles W.; Hastings, Orestes Patterson, III

    1980-01-01

    Described is the phasor method of superposition of waves. The intensity pattern from a system of microwave sources is calculated point by point on a plane corresponding to a film emulsion, and then printed and directly converted to a hologram for 3-cm microwaves. Calculations, construction, and viewing of holograms are included. (Author/DS)

  5. High-Sensitivity Microwave Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, W. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a 3.33-cm wavelength (9 GHz) microwave system that achieves a high overall signal sensitivity and a well-collimated beam with moderate-size equipment. The system has been used to develop microwave versions of the Michelson interferometer, Bragg reflector, Brewster's law and total internal reflection, and Young's interference experiment.…

  6. Advanced components for microwave photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonjallaz, Pierre-Yves; Gunnarsson, Ola; Popov, Mikhail; Margulis, Walter; Petermann, Ingemar; Berlemont, David; Carlsson, Fredrik

    2003-04-01

    This persentation gives an overveiw of the field of microwave photonics with an emphasis on new fiber based devices which we belive have a real practical potential. Microwave photonics can be considered as the fruitful meeting point bewteen optics and microwave engineering, where optoelectronic devices and systems are used both for processing at microwave rates and for signal handling in microwave systems. The use of specialty fibers, glass poling and naturally fiber Bragg gratings opens new perspectives for the realization of low-cost devices with appropriate functionality. The application field for optical microwave transmission and processing spans from radar technology to cable TV and mobile communications systems. Over the last few years very much attention has been directed towards radio-over-fiber systems for the next-generation mobile communications infrastructure as well as hybrid fiber radio for picocell systems at 60 GHz or above. As a matter of fact, the higher the microwave frequencies, the greater are the similarities with the optical carrier and the more there is to be gained by processing the microwave signal in the optical domain. Other important application examples are beamforming networks for phased array antennas and subcarrier processing for routing in optical networks.

  7. GREENER SYNTHETIC TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave irradiation has been used for a variety of organic transformations wherein chemical reactions are expedited because of selective adsorption of microwave (MW) energy by polar molecules, non-polar molecules being inert to the MW dielectric loss. The MW application under s...

  8. Microwave sintering of multiple articles

    DOEpatents

    Blake, Rodger D.; Katz, Joel D.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  9. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS & TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A historical account of the utility of microwaves in a variety of chemical synthesis applications will be presented, including a solvent-free strategy that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such...

  10. More Experiments with Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    Microwave ovens can be used to perform exciting demonstrations that illustrate a variety of physics topics. Experiments discussed here show superheating, visualize the inhomogeneous heating that takes place in a microwave and also show how to use a mobile phone to detect radiation leaking from the oven. Finally eggs can give some spectacular…

  11. Image formation in microwave holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cribbs, R. W.; Lamb, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    Microwave holograms are made without offset reference beam, but it has been found that Van der Lugt filter can be used to produce image offset. Also, filter permits "decoding" of holograms in contrast with usual practice of reconstructing visible-light analogs of original micro-wave wave fronts.

  12. Analysis of microwave leaky modes propagating through laser plasma filaments column waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Alshershby, Mostafa; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan

    2012-12-15

    A plasma column waveguide formed by a bundle of closely spaced plasma filaments induced by the propagation of ultrafast laser pulses in air and revived by a longer infrared laser pulse is shown to support microwave radiation. We consider values of both the plasma electron density and microwave frequency for which the refractive index of plasma is lower than the refractive index of air; therefore, a leaky plasma waveguide can be realized in extremely high frequency band. The guiding mechanism does not require high conductance of the plasma and can be easily excited by using commercial femtosecond laser sources. A theoretical study of leaky mode characteristics of isotropic and homogeneous plasma column waveguides is investigated with several values of plasma and waveguide structure parameters. The microwave transmission loss was found to be mainly caused by the microwave leakage through the air-plasma interface and is weakly dependent on the plasma absorption. In spite of losses of microwaves caused by leakage and plasma absorption, it is shown to be much lower than both that accompanying to surface waves attaching to single conducting plasma wire and the free space propagation over distances in the order of the filament length, which opens exciting perspectives for short distance point to point wireless transmission of pulsed-modulated microwaves.

  13. Development of heating method by microwave for sterilization of bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Ujihira, Masanobu; Mabuchi, Kiyoshi; Takahira, Naonobu; Komiya, Koichiro; Itoman, Moritoshi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a disinfection method using a microwave apparatus to treat large bone allografts. Heating of a bone allograft is an effective method for the disinfection of bacteria or inactivation of viruses. However, the size of the bone we can treat is limited, and following the popular method of using a bathtub is a lengthy process. The experimental system described here was designed using a microwave oven, an optical-fiber thermometer, and a power regulator. Large and small specimens, a femoral head, and a metatarsal were harvested from a bovine femur. The influence of size and the electrical or thermal characteristics of the specimens were assessed regarding temperature distribution after microwave irradiation. The effects of humidity or hot-air supply were also assessed. The average temperature of the bovine femoral head became 80 degrees C throughout the 15 min of microwave irradiation, although the temperature in the metatarsal did not attain uniformity. Microwave irradiation with a hot-air supply realized a uniform distribution of temperature at 83.0 degrees +/- 0.4 degrees C in the metatarsal within 15 min. Use of microwave irradiation enables quick heating for disinfection of large allograft bones when a hot-air supply was used as well.

  14. Microwave and Pulsed Power

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, E.K.

    1993-03-01

    The goals of the Microwave and Pulsed Power thrust area are to identify realizable research and development efforts and to conduct high-quality research in those pulse power and microwave technologies that support existing and emerging programmatic requirements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Our main objective is to work on nationally important problems while enhancing our basic understanding of enabling technologies such as component design and testing, compact systems packaging, exploratory physics experiments, and advanced systems integration and performance. During FY-92, we concentrated our research efforts on the six project areas described in this report. (1) We are investigating the superior electronic and thermal properties of diamond that may make it an ideal material for a high-power, solid-state switch. (2) We are studying the feasibility of using advanced Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar technology for reliable non-destructive evaluation of bridges and other high-value concrete structures. These studies include conceptual designs, modeling, experimental verifications, and image reconstruction of simulated radar data. (3) We are exploring the efficiency of pulsed plasma processing techniques used for the removal of NO{sub x} from various effluent sources. (4) We have finished the investigation of the properties of a magnetically delayed low-pressure gas switch, which was designed here at LLNL. (5) We are applying statistical electromagnetic theory techniques to help assess microwave effects on electronic subsystems, by using a mode stirred chamber as our measurement tool. (6) We are investigating the generation of perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in proposed CFC replacement fluids when they are subjected to high electrical stresses and breakdown environments.

  15. Microwave and pulsed power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freytag, E. K.

    1993-03-01

    The goals of the Microwave and Pulsed Power thrust area are to identify realizable research and development efforts and to conduct high-quality research in those pulse power and microwave technologies that support existing and emerging programmatic requirements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Our main objective is to work on nationally important problems while enhancing our basic understanding of enabling technologies such as component design and testing, compact systems packaging, exploratory physics experiments, and advanced systems integration and performance. During FY-92, we concentrated our research efforts on the six project areas described in this report. We are investigating the superior electronic and thermal properties of diamond that may make it an ideal material for a high-power, solid-state switch. We are studying the feasibility of using advanced Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar technology for reliable non-destructive evaluation of bridges and other high-value concrete structures. These studies include conceptual designs, modeling, experimental verifications, and image reconstruction of simulated radar data. We are exploring the efficiency of pulsed plasma processing techniques used for the removal of NO(x) from various effluent sources. We have finished the investigation of the properties of a magnetically delayed low-pressure gas switch, which was designed here at LLNL. We are applying statistical electromagnetic theory techniques to help assess microwave effects on electronic subsystems, by using a mode stirred chamber as our measurement tool. We are investigating the generation of perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in proposed CFC replacement fluids when they are subjected to high electrical stresses and breakdown environments.

  16. Development of scale model imagery for ATR investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Bergeron, Stuart; Delp, Nathaniel T.; Lewis, Derek R.

    2006-05-01

    Automated target recognition (ATR) methods hold promise for rapid extraction of critical information from imagery data to support military missions. Development of ATR tools generally requires large amounts of imagery data to develop and test algorithms. Deployment of operational ATR systems requires performance validation using operationally relevant imagery. For early algorithm development, however, restrictions on access to such data is a significant impediment, especially for the academic research community. To address this limitation, we have developed a set of grayscale imagery as a surrogate for panchromatic imagery that would be acquired from airborne sensors. This surrogate data set consists of imagery of ground order of battle (GOB) targets in an arid environment. The data set was developed by imaging scale models of these targets set in a scale model background. The imagery spans a range of operating conditions and provides a useful image set for initial explorations of new approaches for ATR development.

  17. Event-related potentials during mental imagery of animal sounds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhui; Mai, Xiaoqin; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Zheng, Yaqin; Luo, Yuejia

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the neural correlates of imagined animal sounds, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects were presented with (1) animal pictures without any imagery instruction (control) or (2) animal pictures with instructions to imagine the corresponding sounds (imagery). The results revealed imagery effects starting with an enhancement of the P2, possibly indexing the top-down allocation of attention to the imagery task, and continuing into a more positive-going deflection in the time window of 350-600 ms poststimulus, probably reflecting the formation of auditory imagery. A centro-parietally distributed late positive complex (LPC) was identified in the difference waveform (imagery minus control) and might reflect two subprocesses of imagery formation: sound retrieval from stored information and representation in working memory.

  18. Land use mapping and change detection using ERTS imagery in Montgomery County, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of using remotely sensed data from ERTS-1 for mapping land use and detecting land use change was investigated. Land use information was gathered from 1964 air photo mosaics and from 1972 ERTS data. The 1964 data provided the basis for comparison with ERTS-1 imagery. From this comparison, urban sprawl was quite evident for the city of Montgomery. A significant trend from forestland to agricultural was also discovered. The development of main traffic arteries between 1964 and 1972 was a vital factor in the development of some of the urban centers. Even though certain problems in interpreting and correlating land use data from ERTS imagery were encountered, it has been demonstrated that remotely sensed data from ERTS is useful for inventorying land use and detecting land use change.

  19. Microwave semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitch, J. E.

    1985-03-01

    The state of the art of microwave semiconductor design is reviewed, with emphasis on developments of the past 10-12 years. Consideration is given to: varistor diodes; varactor diodes; and transit time negative diodes. The design principles of bipolar and unipolar transistors are discussed, with reference to power FETs, traveling-wave FETs, and camel or planar-doped barrier transistors. Recent innovations in the field of fabrication technology are also considered, including: crystal growth; doping; and packaging. Several schematic drawings and photographs of the different devices are provided.

  20. Microwave imaging of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.

    1988-12-01

    Three methods of imaging aircraft from the ground with microwave radar with quality suitable for aircraft target recognition are described. The imaging methods are based on a self-calibration procedure called adaptive beamforming that compensates for the severe geometric distortion inherent in any imaging system that is large enough to achieve the high angular resolution necessary for two-dimensional target imaging. The signal processing algorithm is described and X-band (3-cm)-wavelength experiments demonstrate its success on commercial aircraft flying into Philadelphia International Airport.

  1. Microwave PASER Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Antipov, S.; Poluektov, O.; Jing, C.

    2009-01-22

    The PASER (Particle Acceleration by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) concept for particle acceleration entails the direct transfer of energy from an active medium to a charged particle beam. The PASER was originally formulated for optical (laser) media; we are planning a PASER demonstration experiment based on an optically pumped X-band paramagnetic medium consisting of porphyrin or fullerene (C{sub 60}) derivatives in a toluene solution or polystyrene matrix. We discuss the background of this project and report on the status of the experiment to measure the acceleration of electrons using the microwave PASER.

  2. Combination microwave and gas oven

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, N.; Taga, Y.

    1980-07-08

    One selling point of a combined microwave and gas oven is that it can not only defrost and reheat foods quickly but can also brown them to make the food look more appetizing. Although other combined oven designs have been proposed, they have proved to be impractical due to microwave leakage or radiant-heat damage to the microwave energy source. This improved design provides a fan that effectively circulates the heat. The microwave source is protected by a heat-insulating cover with a film that reflects radiant energy. A choking system terminates microwave energy leaks, particularly around the shaft of the circulating fan and its connectors. The oven is relatively simple in construction and can be manufactured at low cost.

  3. Microwave coupling in EBT reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.; Uckan, T.; Dandl, R.A.

    1980-02-01

    For a typical size ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor (approx. 1000 MWe), microwave frequencies required lie in the range of 60 to 110 GHz at power levels of 50 to 75 MW. As the frequency rises, the unloaded cavity (i.e., without plasma) quality factor Q decreases. Because of the short wavelengths of microwave heating power and the large cavity dimensions of a reactor, it is possible to apply quasi-optical principles in the efficient coupling of power to the plasma. The use of a confocal Fabry-Perot resonator with spherical mirrors is discussed; these serve to confine the microwave power to the region occupied by the plasma. The potential advantages of these resonators include high efficiency utilization of microwave power, minimal thermal burden on the cryopumping system, and significant benefit in preventing microwave leakage from the device. An estimation of the unloaded cavity quality factor Q and the design considerations of Fabry-Perot resonator are given.

  4. Analysis of the Greenland Ice Sheet's surface hydrology using Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Katie; Benedek, Corinne; Tedesco, Marco; Willis, Ian

    2016-04-01

    The behaviour of surface water on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has recently received much attention due to its ponding to form supraglacial lakes. These can drain and impact ice sheet dynamics by facilitating increased basal sliding, thus leading to a more rapid transfer of ice to the oceans and contributing to rising sea levels. Research into supraglacial lakes has primarily used the optical and infrared wavelength bands of MODIS due to their high temporal resolution. However, this comes with an associated low spatial resolution, potentially resulting in smaller lakes being overlooked, and an inability to image through clouds or in darkness. Conversely, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), a satellite-borne active imaging method uses microwave wavelength bands which are unaffected by cloud or lack of illumination from the sun. SAR imagery often has a much higher spatial resolution than optical imagery without compromising temporal resolution, and radar systems have even detected lakes covered by ice/snow or buried at shallow depths [Koenig et al., 2015]. This gives SAR imagery the potential to significantly increase the size of the database of supraglacial lakes. The current Sentinel-1A mission comprises two polar-orbiting satellites performing C-band SAR imaging, and provides a novel method for investigating the surface hydrology of the GrIS. Here, we explore a year's worth of images since the launch of Sentinel-1A in April 2014. These images have a higher spatial (5 m x 20 m) and temporal (up to daily) resolution than any previously available imagery, so will revolutionise the amount of information that can be yielded about GrIS hydrology. We use these images in combination with other remotely sensed data, including Landsat-8 imagery, to elicit spatial and temporal variations in the water content of the GrIS's surface ice layers. Our primary focus is on the area upstream of Jakobshavn Isbræ, where preliminary analysis has indicated that liquid water may persist

  5. Movement imagery for speech in healthy women: influences on articulation accuracy and fluidity, imagery times, and expectations of success.

    PubMed

    Mantie-Kozlowski, Alana; Netsell, Ronald; Daniel, Todd

    2012-12-01

    The use of movement imagery in speech performance has received less attention than it has in many other professional disciplines. 30 healthy monolingual native English speakers participated in this within-subjects study. Participants' speech accuracy and fluidity was compared when they used movement imagery and when they did not. The timing of imagery and articulation were compared using a chronometric paradigm. Participants' expectations of improvement when using movement imagery for speech were compared to their actual performance. The results from this study support the use of movement imagery for speech with a single imaging event for the purpose of improving speech fluidity, but not for improving articulation accuracy. The chronometric system as a tool for monitoring adherence to the movement imagery protocol for speech proved valuable. Finally, while estimation inflation has been reported by some using movement imagery techniques, this was not the case for the participants of this study.

  6. Tuning Broadband Microwave Amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Alaniz, Gabriel

    2003-09-05

    The PEP-II/DA {Phi} NE/ALS longitudinal feedback systems are complex wide bandwidth systems requiring analog, digital and microwave circuits. The solid-state amplifier is one of the components in the microwave circuit that is required to suppress the coupled bunch instabilities that exist in the PEP-II accelerator. The suppression is achieved by using an antenna as a kicker structure that provides an electric field in order to increase or decrease the energy of particles passing through the structure. The amplifier is made up of sixteen 30 to 35W microstrip GaAs FET modules that are combined to obtain 500W over a bandwidth of 850MHz to 1850MHz. The amplifier malfunctioned causing a reduction in the functionality and power output of the individual GaAs FET modules. The amplifier must be repaired. After repair, the amplifier must be tuned to optimize the gain while maintaining proper power output. The amplifier is tuned using microstrip circuit techniques. A variety of microstrip methods are used to obtain the proper line impedance. The result is a working amplifier that operates efficiently.

  7. Transcatheter Microwave Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, Dickey G. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method, simulation, and apparatus are provided that are highly suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A catheter is disclosed that includes a small diameter disk loaded monopole antenna surrounded by fusion material having a high heat of fusion and a melting point preferably at or near body temperature. Microwaves from the antenna heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. The fusion material keeps the urethra cool by means of the heat of fusion of the fusion material. This prevents damage to the urethra while the prostatic tissue is necrosed. A computer simulation is provided that can be used to predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of the catheter and method of applying microwave energy a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  8. Microwave hematoma detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.; Matthews, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

  9. Microwave Frequency Multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazco, J. E.

    2017-02-01

    High-power microwave radiation is used in the Deep Space Network (DSN) and Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) for uplink communications with spacecraft and for monitoring asteroids and space debris, respectively. Intense X-band (7.1 to 8.6 GHz) microwave signals are produced for these applications via klystron and traveling-wave microwave vacuum tubes. In order to achieve higher data rate communications with spacecraft, the DSN is planning to gradually furnish several of its deep space stations with uplink systems that employ Ka-band (34-GHz) radiation. Also, the next generation of planetary radar, such as Ka-Band Objects Observation and Monitoring (KaBOOM), is considering frequencies in the Ka-band range (34 to 36 GHz) in order to achieve higher target resolution. Current commercial Ka-band sources are limited to power levels that range from hundreds of watts up to a kilowatt and, at the high-power end, tend to suffer from poor reliability. In either case, there is a clear need for stable Ka-band sources that can produce kilowatts of power with high reliability. In this article, we present a new concept for high-power, high-frequency generation (including Ka-band) that we refer to as the microwave frequency multiplier (MFM). The MFM is a two-cavity vacuum tube concept where low-frequency (2 to 8 GHz) power is fed into the input cavity to modulate and accelerate an electron beam. In the second cavity, the modulated electron beam excites and amplifies high-power microwaves at a frequency that is a multiple integer of the input cavity's frequency. Frequency multiplication factors in the 4 to 10 range are being considered for the current application, although higher multiplication factors are feasible. This novel beam-wave interaction allows the MFM to produce high-power, high-frequency radiation with high efficiency. A key feature of the MFM is that it uses significantly larger cavities than its klystron counterparts, thus greatly reducing power density and arcing

  10. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Kurz, Heiko G.; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled to the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions in the picosecond regime are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. In focused propagation geometry, a unique feature of picosecond filamentation is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for many applications including laser-guided electrical breakdown of air, channeling microwave beams and air lasing.

  11. Microwave-driven ultraviolet light sources

    DOEpatents

    Manos, Dennis M.; Diggs, Jessie; Ametepe, Joseph D.

    2002-01-29

    A microwave-driven ultraviolet (UV) light source is provided. The light source comprises an over-moded microwave cavity having at least one discharge bulb disposed within the microwave cavity. At least one magnetron probe is coupled directly to the microwave cavity.

  12. 47 CFR 101.141 - Microwave modulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Microwave modulation. 101.141 Section 101.141 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.141 Microwave modulation. (a) Microwave transmitters employing...

  13. 47 CFR 101.141 - Microwave modulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Microwave modulation. 101.141 Section 101.141 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.141 Microwave modulation. (a) Microwave transmitters employing...

  14. 47 CFR 101.141 - Microwave modulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microwave modulation. 101.141 Section 101.141 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.141 Microwave modulation. (a) Microwave transmitters employing...

  15. Microwave applications to rock specimen drying in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihwan; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    Microwave heating is the process in which electromagnetic wave with 300 MHz - 300 GHz heats dielectric material. Although in the beginning microwave was mainly used in food industry to cook or heat the food, it soon became clear that microwave had a large potential for other applications. It was thus introduced in geological fields of investigation like mineral processing, oil sand and oil shale extraction, soil remediation, waste treatment. However, the drying techniques using microwave was rarely treated in geology field. According to the ISRM suggested methods, experimental rock specimens in laboratory test were dried in 105°C oven for a period of at least 24 hours. In this method, hot air transmits heats to material by means of thermal conduction, and the heat was transferred from the surface to the inside of the rock specimens. The thermal gradient and moisture gradient can deteriorate the specimens, and energy can be wasted in bulk heating the specimens. The aim of our study was to compare physical property, microstructural property, and energy efficiency between microwave drying method and conventional oven drying method, and to suggest new method for rock drying. Granite, basalt, and sandstone were selected as specimens and were made in cylinder shape with 54 mm diameter. To compare two different methods, one set of saturated specimens were dried in 105°C conventional oven and the other set of saturated specimens were dried in microwave oven. After dried, the specimens were cooled and saturated in 20°C water 48 hours. The saturation-drying were repeated 50 cycles, and the physical property and microstructural property were measured every 10 cycles. Absorption and elastic wave velocity were measured to investigate the change of physical property, and microscope image and X-ray computed tomography image were obtained to investigate the change of microstructural property of rock specimens. The electricity consumption of conventional oven and microwave oven

  16. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    The ever-present need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with transportation motivates this investigation of a novel ignition technology for internal combustion engine applications. Advanced engines can achieve higher efficiencies and reduced emissions by operating in regimes with diluted fuel-air mixtures and higher compression ratios, but the range of stable engine operation is constrained by combustion initiation and flame propagation when dilution levels are high. An advanced ignition technology that reliably extends the operating range of internal combustion engines will aid practical implementation of the next generation of high-efficiency engines. This dissertation contributes to next-generation ignition technology advancement by experimentally analyzing a prototype technology as well as developing a numerical model for the chemical processes governing microwave-assisted ignition. The microwave-assisted spark plug under development by Imagineering, Inc. of Japan has previously been shown to expand the stable operating range of gasoline-fueled engines through plasma-assisted combustion, but the factors limiting its operation were not well characterized. The present experimental study has two main goals. The first goal is to investigate the capability of the microwave-assisted spark plug towards expanding the stable operating range of wet-ethanol-fueled engines. The stability range is investigated by examining the coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure as a metric for instability, and indicated specific ethanol consumption as a metric for efficiency. The second goal is to examine the factors affecting the extent to which microwaves enhance ignition processes. The factors impacting microwave enhancement of ignition processes are individually examined, using flame development behavior as a key metric in determining microwave effectiveness. Further development of practical combustion applications implementing microwave

  17. Transient Interaction of Electromagnetic Pulses in Dielectrics and Microwave Biophysics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-12

    the thermoclasfic effect. (.. C-.:-,id on revorci- side ) 0 .,,STR;BUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSPRACT 2 ABSTRACT SEC’RITY CZASS:F;CTION SJNCt... side of the interface. The total acoustic energy coupled into the air may be obtained by calculating the work done by the dielectric on the air at the...at the end of the last paragraph, for most dielectrics and for microwave intensity up to gigawatts/cm 2, the term alp on both sides of eq. 18 may be

  18. The Liverpool Microwave Palaeointensity System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mimi; Biggin, Andrew; Hawkins, Louise; Hodgson, Emma; Hurst, Elliot

    2016-04-01

    The motivation for the group at Liverpool in the 1990s (led by John Shaw and Derek Walton) to start experimenting with using microwaves to demagnetise and remagnetise palaeomagnetic samples, rather than heating using conventional ovens, was to reduce laboratory induced alteration in absolute palaeointensity experiments. As with other methods, the non-ideal effects of grain size and naturally altered remanence must still be addressed. From humble beginnings using a domestic microwave oven the current 4th generation microwave system (MWS) has developed in to an integrated combined 14 GHz microwave resonant cavity and SQUID magnetometer system. The MWS is designed to investigate one 5 mm diameter sample at a time with microwave exposure (the equivalent of a heating step in conventional experiments) ranging from a few seconds up to around a minute. Each experiment (protocol, checks, direction and strength of applied field, number of steps etc) can be tailored to the behaviour of each individual sample. There have been many published studies demonstrating the equivalence of conventional thermal (Thellier) and microwave techniques using both artificial and natural remanence and also that the microwave method can indeed reduce laboratory induced alteration. Here an overview of the present MWS including a discussion of the physical processes occurring will be given. Examples of current projects (both archaeological and geological) utilising the method will also be described. Finally, future developments and applications of the method will be discussed.

  19. Method and apparatus for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Harry A. (Inventor); Brain, Ruth A. (Inventor); Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwaves. A heterostructure, comprised of a material having higher microwave absorption and a material having lower microwave absorption, is exposed to microwaves in the cavity. The higher microwave absorbing material absorbs the microwaves and selectively heats while the lower microwave absorbing material absorbs small amounts of microwaves and minimally heats. The higher microwave absorbing material is thereby annealed onto the less absorbing material which is thermally isolated.

  20. Method and apparatus for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Harry A. (Inventor); Brain, Ruth A. (Inventor); Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwaves. A heterostructure, comprised of a material having higher microwave absorption and a material having lower microwave absorption, is exposed to microwaves in the cavity. The higher microwave absorbing material absorbs the microwaves and selectively heats while the lower microwave absorbing material absorbs small amounts of microwaves and minimally heats. The higher microwave absorbing material is thereby annealed onto the less absorbing material which is thermally isolated.

  1. Lyman-alpha imagery of Comet Kohoutek

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.; Page, T. L.; Meier, R. R.; Prinz, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Electrographic imagery of Comet Kohoutek in the 1100-1500 A wavelength range was obtained from a sounding rocket on Jan. 8, 1974, and from the Skylab space station on 13 occasions between Nov. 26, 1973 and Feb. 2, 1974. These images are predominantly due to Lyman-alpha (1216 A) emission from the hydrogen coma of the comet. The rocket pictures have been calibrated for absolute sensitivity and a hydrogen production rate has been determined. However, the Skylab camera suffered degradation of its sensitivity during the mission, and its absolute sensitivity for each observation can only be estimated by comparison of the comet images with those taken by the rocket camera, with imagery of the geocoronal Lyman-alpha glow, of the moon in reflected Lyman-alpha, and of ultraviolet-bright stars. The rocket and geocoronal comparisons are used to derive a preliminary, qualitative history of the development of the cometary hydrogen coma and the associated hydrogen production rate.

  2. Smart compression using high-dimensional imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario, Dalton

    2011-06-01

    This paper offers an innovative image processing technique (smart data compression) for some Department of Defense and Government users, who may be disadvantaged in terms of network and resource availability as they operate at the tactical edge. Specifically, we propose using the concept of autonomous anomaly detection to significantly reduce the amount of data transmitted to the disadvantaged user. The primary sensing modality is hyperspectral, where a national asset is expected to fly over the region of interest acquiring and processing data in real time, but transmitting only the corresponding data of scene anomalies, their spatial relationships in the imagery, range and navigational direction. Results from a proof of principle experiment using real hyperspectral imagery are encouraging.

  3. Locating subsurface gravel with thermal imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholen, Douglas E.; Clerke, William H.; Luepke, Douglas E.

    1986-01-01

    A method was discussed for using 6 band thermal imagery to locate subsurface gravel deposits in vegetated areas. Geologic history is reviewed to select potential areas of study. An overflight was made using a thermal scanner. The data were processed with a computerized system to delineate areas showing a quartz signature radiated by a gravel deposit. The method was developed during a search for gravel on National Forest land in Louisiana. Processed data from thermal imagery was compared with known gravel deposits and exploratory drill hole logs. A high correlation was noted for a wide range of deposits, from commercial pits to trace deposits only a foot thick. Overburden at these sites varied from zero to sixty feet, near the maximum annual penetration by the thermal wave. It was concluded that the method can be used to locate buried gravel deposits and that more time and effort are needed to verify the usefulness for developing gravel pits adjacent to proposed construction sites.

  4. Task 1: Correlation of satellite and ground data in air pollution studies. Task 2: Investigation to relate the chlorophyll and suspended sediment content in the waters of the lower Chesapeake Bay to ERTS-1 imagery. Task 3: The use of ERTS-1 to more fully utilize and apply marine station data to the study of productivity along the Eastern Shelf expanded waters of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E. (Principal Investigator); Bandy, A. R.; Fleischer, P.; Ludwick, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Hanna, W. J.; Gosink, T. A.; Bowker, D. W.; Marshall, H. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of U-2 imagery of CARETS site indicates smoke plumes can be easily detected. First look at selected ERTS-1 color composites demonstrates plumes from forest fires can be detected.

  5. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, David G.; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M.A.; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. PMID:23123567

  6. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: a review of imagery measures and a guiding framework.

    PubMed

    Pearson, David G; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M A; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Holmes, Emily A

    2013-02-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment.

  7. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis.

  8. Maritime target identification in gated viewing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Marcus; Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The growing interest in unmanned surface vehicles, accident avoidance for naval vessels and automated maritime surveillance leads to a growing need for automatic detection, classification and pose estimation of maritime objects in medium and long ranges. Laser radar imagery is a well proven tool for near to medium range, but up to now for higher distances neither the sensor range nor the sensor resolution was satisfying. As a result of the mentioned limitations of laser radar imagery the potential of laser illuminated gated viewing for automated classification and pose estimation was investigated. The paper presents new techniques for segmentation, pose estimation and model-based identification of naval vessels in gated viewing imagery in comparison with the corresponding results of long range data acquired with a focal plane array laser radar system. The pose estimation in the gated viewing data is directly connected with the model-based identification which makes use of the outline of the object. By setting a sufficient narrow gate, the distance gap between the upper part of the ship and the background leads to an automatic segmentation. By setting the gate the distance to the object is roughly known. With this distance and the imaging properties of the camera, the width of the object perpendicular to the line of sight can be calculated. For each ship in the model library a set of possible 2D appearances in the known distance is calculated and the resulting contours are compared with the measured 2D outline. The result is a match error for each reasonable orientation of each model of the library. The result gained from the gated viewing data is compared with the results of target identification by laser radar imagery of the same maritime objects.

  9. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  10. Ultrastable Cryogenic Microwave Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Anthony G.

    Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are secondary frequency standards in the microwave domain. The best of these oscillators have demonstrated a short term frequency stability in the range 10-14 to a few times 10-16. The main application for these oscillators is as flywheel oscillators for the next generation of passive atomic frequency standards, and as local oscillators in space telemetry ground stations to clean up the transmitter close in phase noise. Fractional frequency stabilities of passive atomic frequency standards are now approaching 3 x10^-14 /τ where τ is the measurement time, limited only by the number of atoms that are being interrogated. This requires an interrogation oscillator whose short-term stability is of the order of 10-14 or better, which cannot be provided by present-day quartz technology. Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are based on resonators which have very high electrical Q-factors. The resolution of the resonator's linewidth is typically limited by electronics noise to about 1ppm and hence Q-factors in excess of 108 are required. As these are only attained in superconducting cavities or sapphire resonators at low temperatures, use of liquid helium cooling is mandatory, which has so far restricted these oscillators to the research or metrology laboratory. Recently, there has been an effort to dispense with the need for liquid helium and make compact flywheel oscillators for the new generation of primary frequency standards. Work is under way to achieve this goal in space-borne and mobile liquid-nitrogen-cooled systems. The best cryogenic oscillators developed to date are the ``whispering gallery'' (WG) mode sapphire resonator-oscillators of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of Western Australia (UWA), as well as Stanford University's superconducting cavity stabilized oscillator (SCSO). All of these oscillators have demonstrated frequency

  11. Microwave properties of ferromagnetic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, R; Alvarez, G; Mata-Zamora, M E

    2008-06-01

    A review of the dynamic properties of nanostructured ferromagnetic materials at microwave frequencies (1-40 GHz) is presented. Since some confusion has recently appeared between giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), a detailed analysis is made in order to establish their differences. A brief review of a novel microwave absorption mode, the low-field microwave absorption (LFA) is then presented, together with a discussion about its similarities with GMI. Recent results on high-frequency measurements on nanogranular thin films and FMR in nanowire arrays are finally addressed.

  12. Image recorder with microwave fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosono, N.; Isaka, K.

    1984-11-13

    The present invention is directed to improvement in an image recorder for recording developed images or toner images by microwave fixation. According to the invention there is used a novel thermoplastic developer comprising of two components. The first component contains a dielectric material which is able to absorb microwave and generate heat by dielectric loss. The second component contains magnetic loss exothermic material. The microwave absorbing power of the first component is improved by heating the first component with heat generated from the second component.

  13. The Microwave Applications Theory Program at NRL and Some Chemistry Code Applications to Ionospheric Heating by Microwave Radiation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-26

    RADIATION 1. INTRODUCTION The advent of high power pulsed microwave devices, the magnetrons, at NRL,I which currently generate ’U 1 G Watt at X 1 0 cm and a...separation needed to sustain such a plasma. ( g ) relaxation of the disturbed air and the impact of the late time air chemistry on multi pulse breakdown...and the first negative bands of N 2+ . These two band systems correspond2 7 to N2 +(B2E - X2 E) and N2 (C 3Tu - B 3 g ) transitions, respectively. The

  14. Radiometric Characterization of IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    A radiometric characterization of Space Imaging's IKONOS 4-m multispectral imagery has been performed by a NASA funded team from the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group (UARSG), and South Dakota State University (SDSU). Both intrinsic radiometry and the effects of Space Imaging processing on radiometry were investigated. Relative radiometry was examined with uniform Antarctic and Saharan sites. Absolute radiometric calibration was performed using reflectance-based vicarious calibration methods on several uniform sites imaged by IKONOS, coincident with ground-based surface and atmospheric measurements. Ground-based data and the IKONOS spectral response function served as input to radiative transfer codes to generate a Top-of-Atmosphere radiance estimate. Calibration coefficients derived from each vicarious calibration were combined to generate an IKONOS radiometric gain coefficient for each multispectral band assuming a linear response over the full dynamic range of the instrument. These calibration coefficients were made available to Space Imaging, which subsequently adopted them by updating its initial set of calibration coefficients. IKONOS imagery procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program is processed with or without a Modulation Transfer Function Compensation kernel. The radiometric effects of this kernel on various scene types was also investigated. All imagery characterized was procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program.

  15. Extraction of linear features on SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junyi; Li, Deren; Mei, Xin

    2006-10-01

    Linear features are usually extracted from SAR imagery by a few edge detectors derived from the contrast ratio edge detector with a constant probability of false alarm. On the other hand, the Hough Transform is an elegant way of extracting global features like curve segments from binary edge images. Randomized Hough Transform can reduce the computation time and memory usage of the HT drastically. While Randomized Hough Transform will bring about a great deal of cells invalid during the randomized sample. In this paper, we propose a new approach to extract linear features on SAR imagery, which is an almost automatic algorithm based on edge detection and Randomized Hough Transform. The presented improved method makes full use of the directional information of each edge candidate points so as to solve invalid cumulate problems. Applied result is in good agreement with the theoretical study, and the main linear features on SAR imagery have been extracted automatically. The method saves storage space and computational time, which shows its effectiveness and applicability.

  16. Motor Imagery in Unipolar Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bennabi, Djamila; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel; Carvalho, Nicolas; Vandel, Pierre; Pozzo, Thierry; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Motor imagery is a potential tool to investigate action representation, as it can provide insights into the processes of action planning and preparation. Recent studies suggest that depressed patients present specific impairment in mental rotation. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of unipolar depression on motor imagery ability. Methods: Fourteen right-handed patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for unipolar depression were compared to 14 matched healthy controls. Imagery ability was accessed by the timing correspondence between executed and imagined movements during a pointing task, involving strong spatiotemporal constraints (speed/accuracy trade-off paradigm). Results: Compared to controls, depressed patients showed marked motor slowing on both actual and imagined movements. Furthermore, we observed greater temporal discrepancies between actual and mental movements in depressed patients than in healthy controls. Lastly, depressed patients modulated, to some extent, mental movement durations according to the difficulty of the task, but this modulation was not as strong as that of healthy subjects. Conclusion: These results suggest that unipolar depression significantly affects the higher stages of action planning and point out a selective decline of motor prediction. PMID:25538580

  17. Hyperspectral Imagery Data for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garegnani, Jerry; Gualtney, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    In order for remotely sensed data to be useful in a practical application for agriculture, an information product must be made available to the land management decision maker within 24 to 48 hours of data acquisition. Hyperspectral imagery data is proving useful in differentiation of plant species potentially allowing identification of non-healthy areas and pest infestations within crop fields that may require the farm managers attention. Currently however, extracting the needed site-specific feature information from the vast spectral content of large hyperspectral image files is a labor intensive and time consuming task prohibiting the necessary fast turnaround from raw data to final product. We illustrate the methods, techniques and technologies necessary to produce field-level information products from imagery and other related spatial data that are useful to the farm manager for specific decisions that must be made throughout the growing season. We also propose to demonstrate the cost effectiveness of an integrated system, from acquisition to final product distribution, to utilize imagery for decisions on a working farm in conjunction with a commercial agricultural services company and their crop scouts. The demonstration farm is Chesapeake Farms, a 3000 acre research farm in Chestertown, Maryland on the Eastern Shore and is owned by the DuPont Corporation.

  18. Imagery deficits in nonverbal learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Cornoldi, C; Rigoni, F; Tressoldi, P E; Vio, C

    1999-01-01

    This study reports the observations gathered from 11 children referred to consulting services because of learning difficulties at school and diagnosed with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). These children had an average verbal IQ, but a WISC-R performance IQ lower than the verbal IQ by at least 15 points and experienced difficulties especially in mathematics and drawing. The children completed a battery of four tasks requiring visuospatial working memory and visual imagery: a memory task composed of pictures and their positions (Pictures task), a task that required them to memorize the positions filled in a matrix (Passive Matrix task), a task that required them to imagine a pathway along a matrix (Active Matrix task) and a task that required them to learn groups made up of three words, using a visual interactive imagery strategy (TV task). In comparison to a control group of 49 children, children with NVLD scored lower in all the tasks, showing deficits in the use of visuospatial working memory and visual imagery. By contrasting subgroups of children of different ages in the control group, it was possible to show that some tasks did not show a clear developmental trend. Thus the deficits shown by the children with NVLD cannot simply be attributed to a developmental delay of these children, but seem to reflect a more severe disability.

  19. Mental representation and motor imagery training

    PubMed Central

    Schack, Thomas; Essig, Kai; Frank, Cornelia; Koester, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that basic action concepts (BACs) are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation (SDA-M), to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations (MTMR) has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke. PMID:24904368

  20. Improved reduced-resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, James; Milstein, Jaime

    1995-01-01

    The resolution of satellite imagery is often traded-off to satisfy transmission time and bandwidth, memory, and display limitations. Although there are many ways to achieve the same reduction in resolution, algorithms vary in their ability to preserve the visual quality of the original imagery. These issues are investigated in the context of the Landsat browse system, which permits the user to preview a reduced resolution version of a Landsat image. Wavelets-based techniques for resolution reduction are proposed as alternatives to subsampling used in the current system. Experts judged imagery generated by the wavelets-based methods visually superior, confirming initial quantitative results. In particular, compared to subsampling, the wavelets-based techniques were much less likely to obscure roads, transmission lines, and other linear features present in the original image, introduce artifacts and noise, and otherwise reduce the usefulness of the image. The wavelets-based techniques afford multiple levels of resolution reduction and computational speed. This study is applicable to a wide range of reduced resolution applications in satellite imaging systems, including low resolution display, spaceborne browse, emergency image transmission, and real-time video downlinking.

  1. Typhoon June /1975/ viewed by a scanning microwave spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenkranz, P. W.; Staelin, D. H.; Grody, N. C.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected by the scanning microwave spectrometer onboard Nimbus 6 during the June 1975 typhoon in the Philippine Sea. The spectrometer was equipped with channels centered on 22.23 GHz (a water vapor band), 31.65 GHz (a transmittance window), and 52.85, 53.85, and 55.45 GHz (an oxygen band). Temperature maps, derived from oxygen band measurements, showed that the typhoon eye had a single peak varying in amplitude with time. Water line and window measurements were used to develop a coordinate system having mutually orthogonal atmospheric variables of column water-vapor content and cloud liquid-water content. Vapor measurements showed a maximum around the intensifying typhoon with a more developed structure during typhoon development. Values were extrapolated for surface wind speed and cloud liquid water vapor content by assuming the troposphere to be saturated with respect to the water vapor in the typhoon. Comparisons with infrared cloud imagery and aircraft flight data show different time variations, attributed to poor typhoon-eye resolution in the microwave images.

  2. Gigatron microwave amplifier

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, P.M.

    1993-07-13

    An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency is described, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot there through for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

  3. Microwave ice accretion meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magenheim, Bertram (Inventor); Rocks, James K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system for indicating ice thickness and rate of ice thickness growth on surfaces is disclosed. The region to be monitored for ice accretion is provided with a resonant surface waveguide which is mounted flush, below the surface being monitored. A controlled oscillator provides microwave energy via a feed point at a controllable frequency. A detector is coupled to the surface waveguide and is responsive to electrical energy. A measuring device indicates the frequency deviation of the controlled oscillator from a quiescent frequency. A control means is provided to control the frequency of oscillation of the controlled oscillator. In a first, open-loop embodiment, the control means is a shaft operated by an operator. In a second, closed-loop embodiment, the control means is a processor which effects automatic control.

  4. Gigatron microwave amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot therethrough for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

  5. A Microwave Pressure Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    An instrument to measure atmospheric pressure at the earth's surface from an orbiting satellite would be a valuable addition to the expanding inventory of remote sensors. The subject of this report is such an instrument - the Microwave Pressure Sounder (MPS). It is shown that global-ocean coverage is attainable with sufficient accuracy, resolution and observational frequency for meteorological, oceanographic and climate research applications. Surface pressure can be deduced from a measurement of the absorption by an atmospheric column at a frequency in the wing of the oxygen band centered on 60 GHz. An active multifrequency instrument is needed to make this measurement with sufficient accuracy. The selection of optimum operating frequencies is based upon accepted models of surface reflection, oxygen, water vapor and cloud absorption. Numerical simulation using a range of real atmospheres defined by radiosonde observations were used to validate the frequency selection procedure. Analyses are presented of alternative system configurations that define the balance between accuracy and achievable resolution.

  6. Fast microwave assisted pyrolysis of biomass using microwave absorbent.

    PubMed

    Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Du, Zhenyi; Xie, Qinglong; Trierweiler, Jorge Otávio; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Liu, Yuhuan; Zhu, Rongbi; Lin, Xiangyang; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-03-01

    A novel concept of fast microwave assisted pyrolysis (fMAP) in the presence of microwave absorbents was presented and examined. Wood sawdust and corn stover were pyrolyzed by means of microwave heating and silicon carbide (SiC) as microwave absorbent. The bio-oil was characterized, and the effects of temperature, feedstock loading, particle sizes, and vacuum degree were analyzed. For wood sawdust, a temperature of 480°C, 50 grit SiC, with 2g/min of biomass feeding, were the optimal conditions, with a maximum bio-oil yield of 65 wt.%. For corn stover, temperatures ranging from 490°C to 560°C, biomass particle sizes from 0.9mm to 1.9mm, and vacuum degree lower than 100mmHg obtained a maximum bio-oil yield of 64 wt.%. This study shows that the use of microwave absorbents for fMAP is feasible and a promising technology to improve the practical values and commercial application outlook of microwave based pyrolysis.

  7. Use of ERTS-1 imagery in forest inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennie, J. C.; Birth, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    The utility of ERTS-1 imagery when combined with field observations and with aircraft imagery and field observations is evaluated. Satellite imagery consisted of 9-1/2 inch black and white negatives of four multispectral scanner bands taken over Polk County, Tennessee. Aircraft imagery was obtained by a C-130 flying at 23,000 ft over the same area and provided the basis for locating ground plots for field observations. Correspondence between aircraft and satellite imagery was somewhat inaccurate due to seasonal differences in observations and lack of good photogrammetry with the data processing system used. Better correspondence was found between satellite imagery and ground observations. Ways to obtain more accurate data are discussed, and comparisons between aircraft and satellite observations are tabulated.

  8. Alcohol consumption in young adults: the role of multisensory imagery.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jason P; Kavanagh, David J; Andrade, Jackie; May, Jon; Feeney, Gerald F X; Gullo, Matthew J; White, Angela M; Fry, Marie-Louise; Drennan, Judy; Previte, Josephine; Tjondronegoro, Dian

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the subjective experience of alcohol desire and craving in young people. Descriptions of alcohol urges continue to be extensively used in the everyday lexicon of young, non-dependent drinkers. Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory contends that imagery is central to craving and desires, and predicts that alcohol-related imagery will be associated with greater frequency and amount of drinking. This study involved 1535 age stratified 18-25 year olds who completed an alcohol-related survey that included the Imagery scale of the Alcohol Craving Experience (ACE) questionnaire. Imagery items predicted 12-16% of the variance in concurrent alcohol consumption. Higher total Imagery subscale scores were linearly associated with greater drinking frequency and lower self-efficacy for moderate drinking. Interference with alcohol imagery may have promise as a preventive or early intervention target in young people.

  9. Passive Microwave Spectral Imaging of Amospheric Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Rosenkranz, Philip W.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to improve the scientific foundation necessary to full realization of the meteorological potential of the NOAA Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) recently first launched on the NOAA-15 satellite in May, 1998. These advances were made in four main areas: (1) improvements, based on aircraft observations, in the atmospheric transmittance expressions used for interpreting AMSU and similar data; (2) development of neural network retrieval methods for cloud top altitude estimates of approximately 1-km accuracy under cirrus shields--the altitude is that of the larger ice particles aloft, which is related to precipitation rate; (3) analysis of early AMSU flight data with respect to its precipitation sensitivity and fine-scale thermal structure; and (4) improvements to the 54-GHz and 118-GHz MTS aircraft imaging spectrometer now operating on the NASA ER-2 aircraft. More specifically, the oxygen transmittance expressions near 118 GHz were in better agreement with aircraft data when the temperature dependence exponent of the 118.75-GHz linewidth was increased from the MPM92 value (Liebe et al., 1992) of 0.8 to 0.97+/-0.03. In contrast, the observations 52.5-55.8 GHz were consistent with the MPM92 model. Neural networks trained on comparisons of 118-GHz spectral data and coincident stereoscopic video images of convective cells observed from 20-km altitude yielded agreement in their peak altitudes within as little as 1.36 km rms, much of which is stereoscopic error. Imagery using these methods produced useful characterizations for Cyclone Oliver in 1993 and other storms (Schwartz et al., 1996; Spina et al., 1998). Similar neural network techniques yielded simulated rms errors in relative humidity retrievals of 6-14 percent over ocean and 6-15 percent over land at pressure levels from 1013 to 131 mbar (Cabrera-Mercader and Staelin, 1995).

  10. EXPEDITIOUS SYNTHETIC TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-expedited solvent-free synthetic processes will be described for the synthesis of a variety of industrially significant compounds and intermediates namely, enamines, nitroalkenes, enones, oxidized sulfur compounds and ionic liquids. This solvent-free synthetic methodolo...

  11. The thin film microwave iris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, R. L.; Landes, H. S.; Manus, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of waveguide iris for microwave coupling applications using thin film techniques is discussed. Production process and installation of iris are described. Iris improves power transmission properties of waveguide window.

  12. Develop Prototype Microwave Interferometry Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, J. W.; Converse, M. C.; Kane, R. J.

    2016-11-15

    A prototype microwave interferometer was created at NSTec to characterize moving conductive fronts in upcoming experiments. The interferometer is capable of operation in the ~26-40 GHz band, and interrogating fronts with more than 1 W of power.

  13. EFFICIENT CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic organic transformations performed under non-traditional conditions are becoming popular primarily to circumvent the growing environmental concerns. A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants catalyzed by the surfaces of less-expensiv...

  14. Airborne microwave radiometric data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Results from the 1.5 cm, 19.35 GHz electrical scanning microwave radiometer which was once of the instruments used during the 1971 flight over Imperial Valley, California; Phoenix, Arizona; and Weslaco, Texas.

  15. Resonance microwave volume plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Kop'ev, V. A.; Kossyi, I. A.; Malykh, N. I.; Misakyan, M. A.; Taktakishvili, M. I.; Temchin, S. M.; Lee, Young Dong

    2007-07-15

    A conceptual design of a microwave gas-discharge plasma source is described. The possibility is considered of creating conditions under which microwave energy in the plasma resonance region would be efficiently converted into the energy of thermal and accelerated (fast) electrons. Results are presented from interferometric and probe measurements of the plasma density in a coaxial microwave plasmatron, as well as the data from probe measurements of the plasma potential and electron temperature. The dynamics of plasma radiation was recorded using a streak camera and a collimated photomultiplier. The experimental results indicate that, at relatively low pressures of the working gas, the nonlinear interaction between the microwave field and the inhomogeneous plasma in the resonance region of the plasmatron substantially affects the parameters of the ionized gas in the reactor volume.

  16. Delineation of major soil associations using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, W. L.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The delineation of a major soil association in the loess region of Obion County has been accomplished using ERTS-1 imagery. Channel 7 provides the clearest differentiation. The separation of other smaller soil associations in an intensive row crop agricultural area is somewhat more difficult. Soil differentiation has been accomplished visually as well as electronically using a scanning microdensitometer. Lower altitude aircraft imagery permits a more refined soil association identification and where imagery is of sufficient scale, even individual soils may be identified.

  17. Boundary-detection algorithm for locating edges in digital imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Russell, M. J.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Initial development of a computer program which implements a boundary detection algorithm to detect edges in digital images is described. An evaluation of the boundary detection algorithm was conducted to locate boundaries of lakes from LANDSAT-1 imagery. The accuracy of the boundary detection algorithm was determined by comparing the area within boundaries of lakes located using digitized LANDSAT imagery with the area of the same lakes planimetered from imagery collected from an aircraft platform.

  18. Panel Discussion: Near Real Time Imagery Intelligence How Will We Do It?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraitis, Arthur A.; Crane, Alfred C.; Daniels, George; Graham, Johnny; LaGesse, Francis R.

    1987-02-01

    This afternoon's panel discussion will address near real time imagery and intelligence--how will we do it? Our moderator is Arthur Andraitis, a consultant in intelligence reconnaissance systems and international marketing. He was commissioned in the United States Air Force out of the University of Idaho, and entered the Air Force in 1955 where he became an Image Intelligence Officer serving in a variety of intelligence and reconnaisance related assignments, including two tours each in Asia and Europe supporting tactical theater and national level operations. He also suffered through two Pentagon tours--one as Branch Chief of the Imagery Branch for the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence. He was the U. S. National Coordinator for two NATO intelligence and reconnaissance panels, and served several assignments in support of special operations, which included a year with the special forces in Viet Nam where he flew many missions in L-19s, 01 and assault helicopters. He has been an advisor on intelligence and reconnaissance matters to several foreign countries. In 1978 he retired from the United States Air Force, went to work for Itek, and then became an independent consultant in intelligence and reconaissance systems. I would like to introduce Art Andraitis.

  19. Magnetic spheres in microwave cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare Rameshti, Babak; Cao, Yunshan; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2015-06-01

    We apply Mie scattering theory to study the interaction of magnetic spheres with microwaves in cavities beyond the magnetostatic and rotating wave approximations. We demonstrate that both strong and ultrastrong coupling can be realized for stand alone magnetic spheres made from yttrium iron garnet (YIG), acting as an efficient microwave antenna. The eigenmodes of YIG spheres with radii of the order mm display distinct higher angular momentum character that has been observed in experiments.

  20. [Microwave-induced heating injury].

    PubMed

    Frey, F J

    2004-12-01

    The case reported herein involves burns at the lower extremities leading to amputation followed by an MRSA infection with subsequent myocardial infarction and death in a patient with diabetes on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. The burns were produced by the use of a warm-up pillow containing natural stones (grape seeds) heated by microwaves. This represents another of the strange potential hazards of serious microwave related injuries.

  1. Microwaves and Thermoregulation: A Symposium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    realization that body -a~rtne Increase Ip an experimental animl exposed to microwaves lirplies a breakdown of thenirulatory mechanisms. On the other hand, low...febrile states, cardiovascular adjustments, behavioral mechanisms, and models of human thermoregulation participated in the Symposium program. Their...refinement of simulation models of human ther- moregulation on the one hand and of the deposition of microwave energy in humans on the other hand. Recent

  2. Two Thick Microwave Dichroic Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Larry W.; Chen, Jacqueline C.; Stanton, Philip H.; Jorgenson, Roy E.

    1994-01-01

    Cross-shaped apertures enable relatively tight packing, eliminating some grating lobes. Two panels made of thin, honey-comblike metal walls constitute planar arrays of waveguidelike apertures designed to satisfy special requirements with respect to microwave transmittance and reflectance. Considered for use in multiplexing signals at various frequencies in microwave communication system. Both panels required to exhibit low insertion loss. Angle of incidence 30 degrees.

  3. On the role of imagery modalities on motor learning.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Lucette; Blandin, Yannick

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, we examine specifically how the sensory conditions available during physical practice of a task might influence the subsequent use of motor imagery. First, as a pre-test, participants had to physically reproduce knee joint positions with or without vision. Second, they practised motor imagery (15 and 150 trials) with visual, kinaesthetic or visuo-kinaesthetic imagery. A control group with no imagery was included. Post-tests were then performed 10 min and 24 h after each imagery session in a sensory condition similar to that used in the pre-test. Results showed that efficient motor imagery instructions have to take account of the sensory information available during physical experience of the task: kinaesthetic or visuo-kinaesthetic imagery in a no-vision condition, and visual imagery or, to a lesser extent, visuo-kinaesthetic imagery in a vision condition. Discussion focuses on the role of sensory motor memory on motor prediction to simulate a specific movement, and on the similarities between physical and mental practice in the development of sensory-specific movement representation.

  4. EEG Topographic Mapping of Visual and Kinesthetic Imagery in Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, V E; Dikman, Z; Bird, E I; Williams, J M; Harmison, R; Shaw-Thornton, L; Schwartz, G E

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated differences in QEEG measures between kinesthetic and visual imagery of a 100-m swim in 36 elite competitive swimmers. Background information and post-trial checks controlled for the modality of imagery, swimming skill level, preferred imagery style, intensity of image and task equality. Measures of EEG relative magnitude in theta, low (7-9 Hz) and high alpha (8-10 Hz), and low and high beta were taken from 19 scalp sites during baseline, visual, and kinesthetic imagery. QEEG magnitudes in the low alpha band during the visual and kinesthetic conditions were attenuated from baseline in low band alpha but no changes were seen in any other bands. Swimmers produced more low alpha EEG magnitude during visual versus kinesthetic imagery. This was interpreted as the swimmers having a greater efficiency at producing visual imagery. Participants who reported a strong intensity versus a weaker feeling of the image (kinesthetic) had less low alpha magnitude, i.e., there was use of more cortical resources, but not for the visual condition. These data suggest that low band (7-9 Hz) alpha distinguishes imagery modalities from baseline, visual imagery requires less cortical resources than kinesthetic imagery, and that intense feelings of swimming requires more brain activity than less intense feelings.

  5. Olfactomotor activity during imagery mimics that during perception.

    PubMed

    Bensafi, Moustafa; Porter, Jessica; Pouliot, Sandra; Mainland, Joel; Johnson, Bradley; Zelano, Christina; Young, Natasha; Bremner, Elizabeth; Aframian, Danny; Khan, Rehan; Sobel, Noam

    2003-11-01

    Neural representations created in the absence of external sensory stimuli are referred to as imagery, and such representations may be augmented by reenactment of sensorimotor processes. We measured nasal airflow in human subjects while they imagined sights, sounds and smells, and only during olfactory imagery did subjects spontaneously enact the motor component of olfaction--that is, they sniffed. Moreover, as in perception, imagery of pleasant odors involved larger sniffs than imagery of unpleasant odors, suggesting that the act of sniffing has a functional role in creating of olfactory percepts.

  6. Using Mental Imagery and Summarization to Achieve Independence in Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Recommends teaching both mental imagery (an unobtrusive, natural text processing strategy) and summarizing (an efficient text reorganization strategy) to students who do not spontaneously use them. (NKA)

  7. S-MODALS neural network query of medical and forensic imagery databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, Timothy G.; Brettle, Dean W.; Lavin, Andrew; Weingard, Fred; Henschke, Claudia I.; Yankelevitz, David; Mateescu, Ioan; Uvanni, Lee A.; Sibert, Robert W.; Birnbaum, Eric

    1995-01-01

    A dual-use neural network technology, called the statistical-multiple object detection and location system (S-MODALS), has been developed by Booz(DOT)Allen & Hamilton, Inc. over a five year period, funded by various U.S. Air Force organizations for automatic target recognition (ATR). S-MODALS performs multi-sensor fusion (Visible(EO), IR, ASARS) and multi-look evidence accrual for tactical and strategic reconnaissance. This paper presents the promising findings of applying S-MODALS to the medical field of lung cancer and the S- MODALS investigation into the intelligent database query of the FBI's ballistic forensic imagery. Since S-MODALS is a learning system, it is readily adaptable to object recognition problems other than ATR as evidenced by this joint government-academia-industry investigation into the S-MODALS automated lung nodule detection and characterization of CT imagery. This paper also presents the full results of a FBI test of the S-MODALS neural network's capabilities to perform an intelligent query of the FBI's ballistic forensic imagery.

  8. High power microwave switching utilizing a waveguide spark gap.

    PubMed

    Foster, J; Edmiston, G; Thomas, M; Neuber, A

    2008-11-01

    A reduction in the rise time of a 2.85 GHz high power microwave (HPM) pulse is achieved by implementing an overvoltaged spark gap inside a waveguide structure. The spark gap is oriented such that when triggered, the major electric field component of the dominant TE(10) mode is shorted. The transition from a transmissive to a highly reflective microwave structure in a relatively short period of time (tens of nanoseconds) creates a means to switch multimegawatt power levels on a much faster timescale than mechanical switches. An experimental arrangement composed of the waveguide spark gap and a high power circulator is used to reduce the effective rise time of a HPM pulse from a U.S. Air Force AW/PFS-6 radar set from 600 ns down to 50 ns. The resulting HPM pulse exhibits a much more desirable excitation profile when investigating microwave induced dielectric window flashover. Since most theoretical discussions on microwave breakdown assume an ideal step excitation, achieving a "squarelike" pulse is needed if substantial comparison between experiment and theory is sought. An overview of the experimental setup is given along with relevant performance data and comparison with computer modeling of the structure.

  9. Fast Tunable Microwave Devices Using Self-driven Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, David; Cappelli, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Tunable electromagnetic devices using plasmas are of interest for various applications such as high frequency communications and analog signal processing. At microwave frequencies of tens of gigahertz, low-pressure plasmas must be employed in order to avoid high wave damping from collisions. The drawback of low-pressure plasmas is that their diffusion timescales are long, on the order of hundreds of microseconds. Other mechanisms than diffusion must be employed to achieve fast tuning capabilities of these devices. One candidate mechanism is to use a self-driven plasma instability, which may allow for fast tuning of microwave resonant cavities. In this work, a microwave resonant cavity is studied consisting of a rectangular waveguide with two conducting posts spaced along the propagation direction to form a rectangular cavity. The cavity acts as a band pass filter and transmits microwave signals around its resonant frequency. Plasma may be introduced into the cavity between the conducting posts in order to change the refractive index and thus the resonant and transmission frequency of the device. The location of the plasma and its plasma density are important parameters in determining the resonant frequency, and both parameters are capable of being tuned with plasma instabilities. This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  10. A Robust, Microwave Rain Gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansheim, T. J.; Niemeier, J. J.; Kruger, A.

    2008-12-01

    Researchers at The University of Iowa have developed an all-electronic rain gauge that uses microwave sensors operating at either 10 GHz or 23 GHz, and measures the Doppler shift caused by falling raindrops. It is straightforward to interface these sensors with conventional data loggers, or integrate them into a wireless sensor network. A disadvantage of these microwave rain gauges is that they consume significant power when they are operating. However, this may be partially negated by using data loggers' or sensors networks' sleep-wake-sleep mechanism. Advantages of the microwave rain gauges are that one can make them very robust, they cannot clog, they don't have mechanical parts that wear out, and they don't have to be perfectly level. Prototype microwave rain gauges were collocated with tipping-bucket rain gauges, and data were collected for two seasons. At higher rain rates, microwave rain gauge measurements compare well with tipping-bucket measurements. At lower rain rates, the microwave rain gauges provide more detailed information than tipping buckets, which quantize measurement typically in 1 tip per 0.01 inch, or 1 tip per mm of rainfall.

  11. Study of federal microwave standards

    SciTech Connect

    David, L.

    1980-08-01

    Present and future federal regulatory processes which may impact the permissible levels of microwave radiation emitted by the SPS Microwave Power Transmission (MPTS) were studied. An historical development of US occupational and public microwave standards includes an overview of Western and East European philosophies of environmental protection and neurophysiology which have led to the current widely differing maximum permissible exposure limits to microwaves. The possible convergence of microwave standards is characterized by a lowering of Western exposure levels while Eastern countries consider standard relaxation. A trend toward stricter controls on activities perceived as harmful to public health is under way as is interest in improving the federal regulatory process. Particularly relevant to SPS is the initiation of long-term, low-level microwave exposure programs. Coupled with new developments in instrumentation and dosimetry, the results from chronic exposure program and population exposure studies could be expected within the next five to ten years. Also discussed is the increasing public concern that rf energy is yet another hazardous environmental agent.

  12. Plasma-assisted microwave processing of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin (Inventor); Ylin, Tzu-yuan (Inventor); Jackson, Henry (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave plasma assisted method and system for heating and joining materials. The invention uses a microwave induced plasma to controllably preheat workpiece materials that are poorly microwave absorbing. The plasma preheats the workpiece to a temperature that improves the materials' ability to absorb microwave energy. The plasma is extinguished and microwave energy is able to volumetrically heat the workpiece. Localized heating of good microwave absorbing materials is done by shielding certain parts of the workpiece and igniting the plasma in the areas not shielded. Microwave induced plasma is also used to induce self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) process for the joining of materials. Preferably, a microwave induced plasma preheats the material and then microwave energy ignites the center of the material, thereby causing a high temperature spherical wave front from the center outward.

  13. Controlled Microwave Heating Accelerates Rolling Circle Amplification.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takeo; Suzuki, Takamasa; Mineki, Shigeru; Ohuchi, Shokichi

    2015-01-01

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same.

  14. Two-Band, Low-Loss Microwave Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, Michael; Franco, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A window for a high-sensitivity microwave receiving system allows microwave radiation to pass through to a cryogenically cooled microwave feed system in a vacuum chamber, while keeping ambient air out of the chamber and helping to keep the interior of the chamber cold. The microwave feed system comprises a feed horn and a low-noise amplifier, both of which are required to be cooled to a temperature of 15 K during operation. The window is designed to exhibit very little microwave attenuation in two frequency bands: 8 to 9 GHz and 30 to 40 GHz. The window is 15 cm in diameter. It includes three layers (see figure): 1) The outer layer is made of a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) film 0.025 mm thick. This layer serves primarily to reflect and absorb solar ultraviolet radiation to prolong the life of the underlying main window layer, which is made of a polyimide that becomes weakened when exposed to ultraviolet. The poly(tetrafluoroethylene) layer also protects the main window layer against abrasion. Moreover, the inherent hydrophobicity of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) helps to prevent the highly undesirable accumulation of water on the outer surface. 2) The polyimide main window layer is 0.08 mm thick. This layer provides the vacuum seal for the window. 3) A 20-mm-thick layer of ethylene/ propylene copolymer foam underlies the main polyimide window layer. This foam layer acts partly as a thermal insulator: it limits radiational heating of the microwave feed horn and, concomitantly, limits radiational cooling of the window. This layer has high compressive strength and provides some mechanical support for the main window layer, reducing the strength required of the main window layer. The ethylene/propylene copolymer foam layer is attached to an aluminum window ring by means of epoxy. The outer poly(tetrafluoroethylene) film and the main polyimide window layer are sandwiched together and pressed against the window ring by use of a bolted clamp ring. The window has been found to

  15. Northern Hemisphere Snow Extent Trends Derived From Visible and Microwave Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodzik, M.; Armstrong, R. L.

    2002-12-01

    The extent and variability of seasonal snow cover are important parameters in climate and hydrologic systems due to effects on energy and moisture budgets. In terms of spatial extent, snow cover is the largest single component of the cryosphere with a mean maximum extent in the Northern Hemisphere of approximately 47 million km2, or nearly 50 percent of the land surface area. About 98 percent of the global seasonal snow cover is located in the Northern Hemisphere. During the past four decades much important information on Northern Hemisphere snow extent has been provided by the NOAA weekly snow extent charts derived from visible-band polar orbiting and geo-stationary satellite imagery. This product is available from NSIDC as the Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid Weekly Snow Cover and Sea Ice Extent Version 2. Because of the ability to penetrate clouds, provide data during darkness and the potential to provide an index of snow depth or water equivalent, passive microwave satellite remote sensing offers an attractive alternative for hemispheric scale snow monitoring given the availability of a twenty-three year data record (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) 1978-1987 and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) 1987-present). We evaluate trends in Northern Hemisphere snow extent using both the visible (NOAA) and the passive microwave (SMMR and SSM/I) data. The visible data have been manually interpreted while a single numerical algorithm is applied to the microwave data throughout the times series for each sensor. The visible data show higher magnitude departures from the monthly means while the passive microwave data indicate less snow-covered area during fall when the snow is shallow. The two data sets show comparable inter-annual variability with similar decreasing hemispheric trends of approximately 2 percent per decade. Individual trends for North America and Eurasia as well as monthly trends are presented.

  16. Technology Development for a Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, W.; Galbraith, C.; Hilliard, L.; Racette, P.; Thompson, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) is being developed at Lincoln Laboratories and accommodated by the Goddard Space Flight Center for a flight opportunity on a NASA research aircraft. The term hyperspectral microwave is used to indicate an all-weather sounding instrument that performs equivalent to hyperspectral infrared sounders in clear air with vertical resolution of approximately 1 km. Deploying the HyMAS equipped scanhead with the existing Conical Scanning Microwave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) shortens the path to a flight demonstration. Hyperspectral microwave is achieved through the use of independent RF antennas that sample the volume of the Earths atmosphere through various levels of frequencies, thereby producing a set of dense, spaced vertical weighting functions.

  17. Initial Operation of Microwave Discharge Ion Engines Onboard “HAYABUSA” Asteroid Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Yukio; Toki, Kyoichiro; Kawaguchi, Jun'Ichiro; Uesugi, Kuninori

    The microwave discharge ion engine generates plasmas of the main ion source as well as the neutralizer using 4GHz microwave without discharge electrodes and hollow cathodes, so that long life and durability against oxygen and air are expected. MUSES-C “HAYABUSA” spacecraft installing four microwave discharge ion engines was launched into deep space by M-V rocket on May 9, 2003. After vacuum exposure and several runs of baking for reduction of residual gas the ion engine system established the continuous acceleration of the spacecraft toward an asteroid. The Doppler shift measurement of the communication microwave revealed the performance of ion engines, which is 8mN thrust force for a single unit with 3,200sec specific impulse at 23mN/kW thrust power ratio. At the beginning of December 2003 the accumulated operational time exceeded 7,000 hours and units.

  18. Microwave-assisted chemical process for treatment of hazardous waste: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R.; Nandi, S.P.; Cleaveland, D.C.

    1987-10-01

    Microwave energy provides rapid in situ uniform heating and can be used to initiate chemical processes at moderate temperatures. We investigate the technical feasibility of microwave-assisted chemical processes for detoxification of liquid hazardous waste. Trichloroethylene, a major constituent of waste streams, was selected for this detoxification study. Experiments were performed to investigate the oxidative degradation of trichloroethylene over active carbons (with and without catalysts) in air streams with microwave in situ heating, and to examine the feasibility of regenerating the used carbons. This study established that trichloroethylene in a vapor stream can be adsorbed at room temperature on active carbon beds that are loaded with Cu and Cr catalysts. When the bed is heated by a microwave radiation to moderate temperatures (<400/sup 0/C) while a moist air stream is passed through it, the trichloroethylene is readily converted into less-noxious products such as HCl, CO, CO/sub 2/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/. Conversion higher than 80% was observed. Furthermore, the used carbon bed can be conveniently regenerated by microwave heating while a moist-N/sub 2/ or moist-air stream is passed through the bed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Microwave Sterilization and Depyrogenation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwave- based, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 C. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization. Several innovations culminated in the successful MSDS prototype design. The most significant is the antenna-directed microwave heating of a water stream flowing through a microwave sterilization chamber (MSC). Novel antenna designs were developed to increase microwave transmission efficiency. These improvements resulted in greater than 95-percent absorption of incident microwaves. In addition, incorporation of recuperative heat exchangers (RHxs) in the design reduced the microwave power required to heat a water stream flowing at 15 mL/min to 170 C to only 50 W. Further improvements in energy efficiency involved the employment of a second antenna to redirect reflected microwaves back into the MSC, eliminating the need for a water load and simplifying MSDS design. A quick connect (QC) is another innovation that can be sterilized and depyrogenated at temperature, and then cooled using a unique flow design, allowing collection of MGW at atmospheric pressure and 80 C. The final innovation was the use of in-line mixers incorporated in the flow path to disrupt laminar flow and increase contact time

  20. Kinetics and Quality of Microwave-Assisted Drying of Mango (Mangifera indica)

    PubMed Central

    Abano, Ernest Ekow

    2016-01-01

    The effect of microwave-assisted convective air-drying on the drying kinetics and quality of mango was evaluated. Both microwave power and pretreatment time were significant factors but the effect of power was more profound. Increase in microwave power and pretreatment time had a positive effect on drying time. The nonenzymatic browning index of the fresh samples increased from 0.29 to 0.60 while the ascorbic acid content decreased with increase in microwave power and time from 3.84 mg/100g to 1.67 mg/100g. The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 1.45 × 10−9 to 2.13 × 10−9 m2/s for microwave power range of 300-600 W for 2 to 4 minutes of pretreatment. The Arrhenius type power-dependent activation energy was found to be in the range of 8.58–17.48 W/mm. The fitting of commonly used drying models to the drying data showed the Midilli et al. model as the best. Microwave power of 300 W and pretreatment time of 4 minutes emerged as the optimum conditions prior to air-drying at 7°C. At this ideal condition, the energy savings as a result of microwave application was approximately 30%. Therefore, microwave-assisted drying should be considered for improved heat and mass transfer processes during drying to produce dried mangoes with better quality. PMID:26904667