Science.gov

Sample records for airs products show

  1. Air-adapted Methanosarcina acetivorans shows high methane production and develops resistance against oxygen stress.

    PubMed

    Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Santiago-Martínez, M Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Pineda, Erika; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; Belmont-Díaz, Javier; Encalada, Rusely; Saavedra, Emma; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Methanosarcina acetivorans, considered a strict anaerobic archaeon, was cultured in the presence of 0.4-1% O2 (atmospheric) for at least 6 months to generate air-adapted cells; further, the biochemical mechanisms developed to deal with O2 were characterized. Methane production and protein content, as indicators of cell growth, did not change in air-adapted cells respect to cells cultured under anoxia (control cells). In contrast, growth and methane production significantly decreased in control cells exposed for the first time to O2. Production of reactive oxygen species was 50 times lower in air-adapted cells versus control cells, suggesting enhanced anti-oxidant mechanisms that attenuated the O2 toxicity. In this regard, (i) the transcripts and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase significantly increased; and (ii) the thiol-molecules (cysteine + coenzyme M-SH + sulfide) and polyphosphate contents were respectively 2 and 5 times higher in air-adapted cells versus anaerobic-control cells. Long-term cultures (18 days) of air-adapted cells exposed to 2% O2 exhibited the ability to form biofilms. These data indicate that M. acetivorans develops multiple mechanisms to contend with O2 and the associated oxidative stress, as also suggested by genome analyses for some methanogens.

  2. Air-Adapted Methanosarcina acetivorans Shows High Methane Production and Develops Resistance against Oxygen Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Santiago-Martínez, M. Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Pineda, Erika; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; Belmont-Díaz, Javier; Encalada, Rusely; Saavedra, Emma; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Methanosarcina acetivorans, considered a strict anaerobic archaeon, was cultured in the presence of 0.4–1% O2 (atmospheric) for at least 6 months to generate air-adapted cells; further, the biochemical mechanisms developed to deal with O2 were characterized. Methane production and protein content, as indicators of cell growth, did not change in air-adapted cells respect to cells cultured under anoxia (control cells). In contrast, growth and methane production significantly decreased in control cells exposed for the first time to O2. Production of reactive oxygen species was 50 times lower in air-adapted cells versus control cells, suggesting enhanced anti-oxidant mechanisms that attenuated the O2 toxicity. In this regard, (i) the transcripts and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase significantly increased; and (ii) the thiol-molecules (cysteine + coenzyme M-SH + sulfide) and polyphosphate contents were respectively 2 and 5 times higher in air-adapted cells versus anaerobic-control cells. Long-term cultures (18 days) of air-adapted cells exposed to 2% O2 exhibited the ability to form biofilms. These data indicate that M. acetivorans develops multiple mechanisms to contend with O2 and the associated oxidative stress, as also suggested by genome analyses for some methanogens. PMID:25706146

  3. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  4. Lockheed Electra - animation showing air turbulence detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On Mar. 24, 1998, an L-188 Electra aircraft owned by the National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia, and operated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, flew near Boulder with an Airborne Coherent LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) for Advanced In-flight Measurement. This aircraft was on its first flight to test its ability to detect previously invisible forms of clear air turbulence. Coherent Technologies Inc., Lafayette, Colorado, built the LiDAR device for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. NASA Dryden participated in the effort as part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, for which the lead center was Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Results of the test indicated that the device did successfully detect the clear air turbulence. Computer animation of the clear air turbulence (CAT) detection system known as the 'Airborne Coherent LiDAR for Advanced In-flight Measurement' was tested aboard the National Science Foundation L-188 Lockheed Electra.

  5. 4. DETAIL SHOWING FLAME DEFLECTOR. Looking southeast. Edwards Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL SHOWING FLAME DEFLECTOR. Looking southeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. 42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE AT 46T DAY OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION. "BUILDING TOPPED OFF, 7 JULY, 1974. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  7. U.S. Civil Air Show Crashes, 1993 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Osorio, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides new public health data about U.S. civil air shows. Risk factors for fatalities in civil air show crashes were analyzed. The value of the FIA score in predicting fatal outcomes was evaluated. With the use of the FAA’s General Aviation and Air Taxi Survey and the National Transportation Safety Board’s data, the incidence of civil air show crashes from 1993 to 2013 was calculated. Fatality risk factors for crashes were analyzed by means of regression methods. The FIA index was validated to predict fatal outcomes by using the factors of fire, instrument conditions, and away-from-airport location, and was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The civil air show crash rate was 31 crashes per 1,000 civil air events. Of the 174 civil air show crashes that occurred during the study period, 91 (52%) involved at least one fatality; on average, 1.1 people died per fatal crash. Fatalities were associated with four major risk factors: fire [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4 to 20.6, P < .001], pilot error (AOR = 5.2, 95% CI = 1.8 to 14.5, P = .002), aerobatic flight (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.6 to 8.2, P = .002), and off-airport location (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.5 to 7.5, P = .003). The area under the FIA score’s ROC curve was 0.71 (95% CI = 0.64 to 0.78). Civil air show crashes were marked by a high risk of fatal outcomes to pilots in aerobatic performances but rare mass casualties. The FIA score was not a valid measurement of fatal risk in civil air show crashes. PMID:27773963

  8. 4. VENTILATION FAN SHOWING RELATIVE POSITION IN THE AIR TUNNEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VENTILATION FAN SHOWING RELATIVE POSITION IN THE AIR TUNNEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  9. CONTROL BUILDING, WEST FRONT SHOWING ENTRANCE Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL BUILDING, WEST FRONT SHOWING ENTRANCE - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Firing Control Building, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system on east side, looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Maintenance Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  11. Exterior, detail, showing spiral stair, looking northwest Beale Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior, detail, showing spiral stair, looking northwest - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Guard Tower, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  12. Detail of interior of compressed air chamber showing top of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of interior of compressed air chamber showing top of working chamber and tie rods that strengthen the outer shell plates of the compression chamber. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.

  14. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  15. AIRS Level 2 Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Standard Retrieval Product consists of retrieved cloud and surface properties; profiles of retrieved temperature, water vapor, and ozone; and a flag indicating the presence of cloud ice or water. They contain quality assessment flags in addition to retrieved quantities and are generated for all locations where atmospheric soundings are taken. An AIRS granule consists of 6 minutes of data. This corresponds to approximately 1/15 of an orbit but exactly 45 scan lines of AMSU-A data or 135 scan lines of AIRS and HSB data.

  16. 76 FR 18395 - Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show..., Texas in support of the 2011 Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show. This temporary safety zone is... necessary to ensure the safety of participants and spectators in the Naval Air Station Corpus Christi...

  17. Properties of air and combustion products of fuel with air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties have been calculated for air, the combustion products of natural gas and air, and combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air. Properties calculated include: ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy.

  18. 149. Interior of Room B3, Air Compressor Room, showing a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    149. Interior of Room B-3, Air Compressor Room, showing a ca. 1960s Worthington air compressor used to provide compressed air for powerhouse; air compressor powered by an electric motor; stairway (far left) leads to the generator room. Looking south. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  19. 76 FR 29647 - Safety Zone; Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show; Bogue Sound, Morehead City, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show; Bogue Sound... establishing a temporary Safety Zone for the ``Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show,'' an aerial demonstration to be... published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show;...

  20. Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air…

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification (ETV) for indoor air products. RTI is developing the framework for a verification testing program for indoor air products, as part of EPA's ETV program. RTI is establishing test protocols for products that fit into three...

  2. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  3. 77 FR 43517 - Safety Zone; Flying Magazine Air Show, Lake Winnebago, Oshkosh, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Flying Magazine Air Show, Lake Winnebago... restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Winnebago during the Flying Magazine Air show. This...

  4. 78 FR 12598 - Safety Zone; Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information On July... Air Show. As a result no changes were made to the rule. As described in 69 FR 35249-01, the Coast... Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, which include low flying high speed aircraft, and will do so...

  5. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean... proposes establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland... the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners and the public from the hazards associated with air show...

  6. 77 FR 11387 - Safety Zone; Lauderdale Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lauderdale Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Fort... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Fort Lauderdale... Lauderdale Air Show will include numerous aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic...

  7. 78 FR 31840 - Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia... Concerts Entertainment, Inc. will host an air show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA. In... mariners and the public transiting the Atlantic Ocean immediately below the air show from...

  8. 77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean... proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. This..., 2012, the Town of Ocean City will host an air show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD....

  9. 76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean... establish a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, MD to support the... Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners from the hazards associated with air show events. DATES: This rule...

  10. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  11. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  12. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  13. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  14. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  15. 75 FR 23589 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Guard will enforce a safety zone on Lake Washington, WA for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show from... establish a safety zone on the waters of Lake Washington for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show... area is designated as a safety zone: All waters of Lake Washington, Washington State, enclosed by...

  16. 76 FR 18672 - Safety Zone; Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show; Bogue Sound, Morehead City, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show; Bogue Sound... proposes to establish a temporary Safety Zone for the ``Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show'', an...

  17. Version 5 product improvements from the atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Manning, Evan; Friedman, Steve; Broberg, Steven E.; Licata, Stephen J.; Elliott, Denis A.; Irion, Fredrick W.; Kahn, Brian H.; Fishbein, Evan; Olsen, Edward; Granger, Stephanie; Susskind, Joel; Keita, Fricky; Blaisdell, John; Strow, Larrabee; DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Barnet, Chris

    2006-12-01

    The AIRS instrument was launched in May 2002 into a polar sun-synchronous orbit onboard the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. Since then we have released three versions of the AIRS data product to the scientific community. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles and trace gas amounts. The first version of software, Version 2.0 was available to scientists shortly after launch with Version 3.0 released to the public in June 2003. Like all AIRS product releases, all products are accessible to the public in order to have the best user feedback on issues that appear in the data. Fortunately the products have had exceptional accuracy and stability. This paper presents the improvement between AIRS Version 4.0 and Version 5.0 products and shows examples of the new products available in Version 5.0.

  18. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  19. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick and concrete paving of patio, and circular planters. View facing east. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone wall around patio. View facing east-southeast. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING LASER LABORATORY. WrightPatterson Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING LASER LABORATORY. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 71A, Propulsion Research Laboratory, Seventh Street between D & G Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  2. 75 FR 33692 - Safety Zone; Tacoma Freedom Fair Air Show, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    .... 2064; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1. 0 2. Add temporary section 33 CFR 165.T13-148 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T13-148: Safety Zone; Tacoma Freedom Fair Air Show, Commencement...

  3. 78 FR 39594 - Safety Zone; Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... enforce the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show safety zone on Lake Washington, Seattle, WA from 9 a.m. on... waters of Lake Washington, Washington State, enclosed by the following points: Near the termination...

  4. 77 FR 27123 - Safety Zone; Baltimore Air Show, Patapsco River, Baltimore, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone during the ``Baltimore Air Show'', which consists of aerial practices, performance demonstrations and air shows, to be held over certain waters of the Patapsco River adjacent to the Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine in Baltimore, Maryland from June 14, 2012 through June 17, 2012. This rule is necessary to provide for the......

  5. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing new flush air data system sensor holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The small numbers on the nose of this F-18 aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, show the locations of 11 tiny holes which are an integral part of a new air data system installed on the aircraft. The Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system measures the speed and direction of the airflow past the aircraft and its altitude, similar to standard air data systems. It incorporates flush-mounted pressure taps, miniature transducers and an advanced research computer to give pilots more accurate information than standard systems employing external probes can provide. Developed by Dryden researchers in cooperation with Honeywell's Research and Technology Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, the system was flight tested on Dryden's Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) last year, and is now being used as a precise reference for other air data systems currently being evaluated on the modified F-18.

  6. Drilling and production - Economics show CO2 EOR potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    CO2 EOR may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. A simple model aided in assessing the economics of CO2 EOR for central Kansas and the Midcontinent. The model used CO2 Prophet, a DOE freeware reservoir numerical simulation program, to determine reservoir performance, including injected and produced fluid rates, and CO2 utilization. Economic parameters, e.g., oil price, CO2 costs, capital costs, net revenue interest, production taxes, and lease operating expenses, are typical for anticipated conditions in the region and present price climate. Preliminary economic analysis shows that CO2 EOR should give an internal rate of return (IRR) > 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for $20/bbl, CO2 costs $1/million cu ft, and gross utilization is 10 million cu ft of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 is reduced to $0.75/million cu ft, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling shows that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost.

  7. 77 FR 49349 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Water Filtration Plant, then due west to the shore. Entry into, transiting, or anchoring within the... corner of the Jardine Water Filtration Plant, then due west to the shore. (b) Enforcement period. This... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL...

  8. 75 FR 32664 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ..., Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the Federal Register (75 FR 19307). The Coast Guard received 0 comments on this... life or property from the dangers that are associated with a large scale air show and a fireworks... returning to the point of origin (NAD 83). (b) Effective period. This regulation is effective from 12:01...

  9. 75 FR 57857 - Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled: Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI in the Federal Register (75 FR 159). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was..., HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is...

  10. 77 FR 29932 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select ``Proposed Rule... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... Proposed Rule To safeguard against the dangers posed by the Nautical City Festival air show near...

  11. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean... Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In recent years, there have been unfortunate instances of jets and...

  12. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ..., Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in..., 2012 through June 3, 2012, the United States Navy will host an air show event over the Atlantic...

  13. 75 FR 56467 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Beachfront Air Show, Ocean City, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... zone in an area of the Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, NJ. The temporary safety zone will restrict vessel traffic from a portion of the Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean City Beachfront Air Show, which is an aerial demonstration to be held over the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The temporary safety zone is necessary...

  14. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida... approximately 20 aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach,...

  15. 76 FR 55347 - Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission at Singapore Air Show

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... International Trade Administration Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission at Singapore Air Show AGENCY... organizing an Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission (AESTM) to Singapore in conjunction with the Singapore Airshow 2012 ( http://www.singaporeairshow.com.sg ). The AESTM is designed to include...

  16. 77 FR 40798 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... associated with an air show performance. DATES: This rule is effective from 1 p.m. on August 3, 2012 until 5 p.m. on August 5, 2012. ADDRESSES: Comments and material received from the public, as well as...., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR...

  17. 68. Interior view in pit "B" showing air compressor/purifier on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Interior view in pit "B" showing air compressor/purifier on left, and entry door to pit in center, with fallout shelter/escapr route on right, looking east - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  18. 75 FR 19307 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Milwaukee, Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... safe environment for the public to enjoy a large-scale air show. This year they will be adding a short... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do... technical standards. Therefore, we did not consider the use of voluntary consensus standards. Environment...

  19. Air cleaning and radon decay product mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K. ); Li, C.S. . John B. Pierce Foundation Lab.); Ramamurthi, M. )

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated air cleaning as a means to mitigate risks arising from exposure to indoor radon progeny in several single-family houses in the northeastern United States, using a new, automated, semi-continuous activity-weighted size distribution measurement system. Measurements included radon concentration, condensation nuclei count, and activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products. Measurements were made with and without the air cleaning system operating. The influence of particles generated by various sources common to normal indoor activities on radon progeny behavior was evaluated. Aerosols were generated by running water in a shower, burning candles, smoking cigarettes, vacuuming, opening doors, and cooking. Both a filtration unit and an electrostatic precipitator were evaluated. Using a room model, the changes in attachment rates, average attachment diameters, and deposition rates of the unattached'' fraction with and without the air cleaning systems were calculated. The air cleaner typically reduced the radon progeny concentrations by 50 to 60%.

  20. Air cleaning and radon decay product mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.; Li, C.S.; Ramamurthi, M.

    1990-12-31

    We evaluated air cleaning as a means to mitigate risks arising from exposure to indoor radon progeny in several single-family houses in the northeastern United States, using a new, automated, semi-continuous activity-weighted size distribution measurement system. Measurements included radon concentration, condensation nuclei count, and activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products. Measurements were made with and without the air cleaning system operating. The influence of particles generated by various sources common to normal indoor activities on radon progeny behavior was evaluated. Aerosols were generated by running water in a shower, burning candles, smoking cigarettes, vacuuming, opening doors, and cooking. Both a filtration unit and an electrostatic precipitator were evaluated. Using a room model, the changes in attachment rates, average attachment diameters, and deposition rates of the ``unattached`` fraction with and without the air cleaning systems were calculated. The air cleaner typically reduced the radon progeny concentrations by 50 to 60%.

  1. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing new flush air data system sensor holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Small numbers on the nose cap of this F-18 Systems Research Aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, show the locations of 11 tiny holes, which are an integral part of a new air data system installed on the aircraft. The Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system measures the speed and direction of the airflow past the aircraft and its altitude, similar to standard air data systems. It differs from those systems by incorporating flush-mounted pressure taps, miniature transducers and an advanced research computer to give the pilot more accurate information than systems employing external probes provide. Stephen A. Whitmore of Dryden's Aerodynamics Branch won NASA's Space Act Award for his development of the Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system. The award honors projects which are scientifically or technologically significant to the aeronautics and space community. The system was flight tested on the modified F-18 last year, and is now being used as a precise reference system for other air data systems currently being evaluated on the aircraft.

  2. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF AIR CLEANING PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discuses the application of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program for products that clean ventilation air to the problem of protecting buildings from chemical and biological attack. This program is funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency und...

  3. A Guide to Dance Production. "0n With the Show."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others

    This publication provides suggestions for school and professional level dance program production. The first chapter contains a brief history of twentieth century costumes and settings for dance. The second chapter discusses program planning, auditions, and rehearsals. Costume design and construction are covered in the third and fourth chapters. In…

  4. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor....

  5. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor....

  6. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor....

  7. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor....

  8. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor....

  9. In vivo microvascular mosaics show air embolism reduction after perfluorocarbon emulsion treatment.

    PubMed

    Torres Filho, Ivo P; Torres, Luciana N; Spiess, Bruce D

    2012-11-01

    Massive arteriolar gas embolism (AGE) has never been evaluated in vivo using intravital microscopy and previous perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions were only effective in AGE when administered before AGE. We implemented a new system for quantitative studies of massive AGE using brightfield microscopy and tested a treatment with a third-generation PFC emulsion after massive AGE. We studied bubble dynamics in cremaster muscles from anesthetized rats after AGE was induced by direct air injection into the femoral artery ipsilateral to the studied muscle. Using a motorized microscope stage and a color camera, in vivo microvascular mosaics were produced on-line from over 2000 digital images to evaluate multiple networks in order to investigate the distribution, lodging, breaking, reduction and moving of 105 air bubbles in microvessels. Thirty minutes after PFC treatment, there was a reduction of 80% in bubble volume while untreated and saline-treated rats showed significantly smaller decreases of 33% and 40%, respectively (p<0.05). Air bubbles also dissolved into a larger number of smaller bubbles after PFC treatment. The proposed methodology may prove useful for rapid in vivo data acquisition from large networks. Since large air bubbles broke-up, decreased in length and volume, and moved toward smaller microvessels, the study provides quantitative data to support a mechanism by which PFC may improve tissue blood flow following massive AGE. The findings suggest that this new generation of PFC emulsions administered after severe AGE may reach compromised microvascular networks and provide help to alleviate microvascular obstruction by increasing air bubble reabsorption.

  10. New Courses: Unlock the Mysteries of Productivity, Air Quality, and the Indoor Environment in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiford, Regina

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between indoor air quality and productivity and a three-year research project to measure productivity within an educational setting. Also discusses research showing the impact of good indoor air quality on increasing productivity. Ten ways to manage asthma in a school environment are highlighted. (GR)

  11. Polymer Brush Surfaces Showing Superhydrophobicity and Air-Bubble Repellency in a Variety of Organic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Dunderdale, Gary J; England, Matt W; Urata, Chihiro; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2015-06-10

    Silicon (Si) substrates were modified with polyalkyl methacrylate brushes having different alkyl chain lengths (C(n), where n = 1, 4, 8, and 18) using ARGET-ATRP at ambient temperature without purging the reaction solution of oxygen. The dynamic hydrophobicity of these polymer brush-covered Si surfaces when submerged in a variety of organic solvents (1-butanol, dichloromethane, toluene, n-hexane) depended markedly on the alkyl chain length and to a lesser extent polymer solubility. Long-chain poly(stearyl methacrylate) brushes (C(n) = 18) submerged in toluene showed excellent water-repellant properties, having large advancing/receding contact angles (CAs) of 169°/168° with negligible CA hysteresis (1°). Whereas polymer brushes with short alkyl-chain (C(n) ≤ 4) had significantly worse water drop mobility because of small CAs (as low as 125°/55°) and large CA hysteresis (up to 70°). However, such poor dynamic dewetting behavior of these surfaces was found to significantly improve when water drops impacted onto the surfaces at moderate velocities. Under these conditions, all brush surfaces were able to expel water drops from their surface. In addition, our brush surfaces were also highly repellant toward air bubbles under all conditions, irrespective of C(n) or polymer solubility. These excellent surface properties were found to be vastly superior to the performance of conventional perfluoroalkylsilane-derived surfaces. PMID:25988214

  12. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This L-shaped probe mounted on the forward fuselage of a modified F-18 Systems Research Aircraft was the focus of an air data collection experiment flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration (ALADIN) experiment focused on providing pilots with angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip information as well as traditional airspeed and altitude data from a single system. For the experiment, the probes--one mounted on either side of the F-18's forward fuselage--were hooked to a series of four transducers, which relayed pressure measurements to an on-board research computer.

  13. Swine production impact on residential ambient air quality.

    PubMed

    Godbout, Stéphane; Lemay, Stéphane P; Duchaine, Caroline; Pelletier, Frédéric; Larouche, Jean-Pierre; Belzile, Martin; Feddes, John J R

    2009-01-01

    Numerous residents in agricultural areas are concerned about the impact that the swine industry may have on the ambient air quality. They assume there is a risk because there is limited information on the airborne contaminant that may originate from these facilities. The objective of the project was to assess the impact of swine production on ambient air quality related to public health in farming communities. Of the six chosen communities, three were considered not to be in a swine production area, whereas the three others were considered to be within a swine production area. Data were collected during three periods in spring and summer 2006. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations were monitored on a continuous basis whereas odor concentrations and intensities were monitored twice a week. Odor concentrations were measured by dynamic olfactometry and odor intensities were determined by trained odor assessors. Public health was evaluated by survey questionnaires sent to a sample of residents in each of the six communities. Average NH(3) concentrations ranged from 6.9 to 12.6 ppb for nonexposed communities and from 8.9 to 18.3 ppb for exposed communities. Average H(2)S concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 ppb for nonexposed communities and from 1.1 to 1.6 ppb for exposed communities. For a community in a swine production area, ambient NH(3) and H(2)S concentrations were found to be higher than those communities not in a swine production area; however, that difference was not significant and they were within air quality standards for public health and safety. Odor concentrations showed no significant difference between the nonexposed and exposed communities and between evening and morning periods. Odor intensities were found to be significantly higher in the communities within swine production areas. More research will be required to fully understand the correlation between specific physical symptoms from residents and the presence of odors from swine production.

  14. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing L-Probe experiment and standard air data sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This under-the-nose view of a modified F-18 Systems Research Aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, shows three critical components of the aircraft's air data systems which are mounted on both sides of the forward fuselage. Furthest forward are two L-probes that were the focus of the recent Advanced L-probe Air Data Integration (ALADIN) experiment. Behind the L-probes are angle-of-attack vanes, while below them are the aircraft's standard pitot-static air data probes. The ALADIN experiment focused on providing pilots with angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip air data as well as traditional airspeed and altitude information, all from a single system. Once fully developed, the new L-probes have the potential to give pilots more accurate air data information with less hardware.

  15. Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control.

    PubMed

    Mountcastle, A M; Daniel, T L

    2010-12-01

    Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles.

  16. Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control.

    PubMed

    Mountcastle, A M; Daniel, T L

    2010-12-01

    Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles. PMID:21098955

  17. 78 FR 37966 - Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice..., the Coast Guard published an NPRM in the Federal Register (78 FR 25407) regarding two temporary safety... 38'18'' W, then back to the point of origin. The air show safety zone will be effective and...

  18. 77 FR 22218 - Safety Zone; Temporary Change for Air and Water Shows Within the Captain of the Port Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... published an NPRM (see 76 FR 30072) for the annual events listed in 33 CFR 165.929. When the NPRM was made... paragraphs (pp), (qq), and (lll); and 0 b. Add paragraphs (sss), (ttt), and (uuu) to read as follows: Sec... zone. * * * * * (sss) Gary Air and Water Show; Gary, IN. (i) Location. All waters of Lake...

  19. 75 FR 20802 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ..., Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... an air show which consist of aircraft performing aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean off of... other aircraft over a specified area of the Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach State Park. Several...

  20. 77 FR 39169 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Blue Angels Air Show; Gulf of Mexico & Santa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Blue Angels Air Show; Gulf of Mexico & Santa Rosa Sound; Pensacola, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the...

  1. 75 FR 59966 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Wantagh, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... over the Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach State Park. DATES: This rule is effective October 29, 2010... Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh, NY, in the Federal Register... aircraft over a specified area of the Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach State Park. The safety zone...

  2. Effects of air velocity on laying hen production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conditions play a major role in production efficiency in commercial poultry production. Mitigation of thermal stress can improve productivity, but must be achieved economically. Weather and system design can limit effectiveness of evaporative cooling and increased air movement has been sho...

  3. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaroff, William W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which reacts rapidly with organics, leading to the formation of other potentially toxic air pollutants. Indoor reactive chemistry involving the nitrate radical and cleaning-product constituents is also of concern, since it produces organic nitrates as well as some of the same oxidation products generated by ozone and hydroxyl radicals. Few studies have directly addressed the indoor concentrations of TACs that might result from primary emissions or secondary pollutant formation following the use of cleaning agents and air fresheners. In this paper, we combine direct empirical evidence with the basic principles of indoor pollutant behavior and with information from relevant studies, to analyze and critically assess air pollutant exposures resulting from the use of cleaning products and air fresheners. Attention is focused on compounds that are listed as HAPs, TACs or Proposition 65 carcinogens/reproductive toxicants and compounds that can readily react to generate secondary pollutants. The toxicity of many of these secondary pollutants has yet to be evaluated. The inhalation

  4. Antiproton Production by CR on Air Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskalenko, I. V.; Mashnik, S. G.

    2003-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic ray (CR) antiproton flux have been shown to challenge existing CR propagation models. In particular, the conventional reacceleration model designed to match secondary/primary nuclei ratios produces too few antiprotons. Recently there appear some indications that the atmospheric contribution to antiproton production is considerably underestimated, which implies that antiproton CR flux might be lower. This may be the primary reason of the discrepancy discovered in CR propagation. We use the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model code LAQGSM together with available data on antiproton production on nuclei to analyse the accuracy of existing parameterizations of antiproton production cross section. The LAQGSM model has been shown to reproduce well nuclear reactions and hadronic data in the range 0.01-800 GeV/nucleon.

  5. Production of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in open air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Riveiro, A.; del Val, J.; Pou, J.

    2015-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles have attracted much attention as a subject of investigation due to their well-known properties, such as good conductivity, antibacterial and catalytic effects, etc. They are used in many different areas, such as medicine, industrial applications, scientific investigation, etc. There are different techniques for producing Ag nanoparticles, chemical, electrochemical, sonochemical, etc. These methods often lead to impurities together with nanoparticles or colloidal solutions. In this work, laser ablation of solids in open air conditions (LASOA) is used to produce silver nanoparticles and collect them on glass substrates. Production and deposition of silver nanoparticles are integrated in the same step to reduce the process. The obtained particles are analysed and the nanoparticles formation mechanism is discussed. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles consisted of Ag nanoparticles showing rounded shape with diameters ranging from few to 50 nm

  6. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  7. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  8. VIIRS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Products for Air Quality Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, A. K.; Zhang, H.; Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.

    2014-12-01

    The air quality community uses satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) for a variety of applications, including daily air quality forecasting, retrospective event analysis, and justification for Exceptional Events. AOD is suitable for ambient air quality applications because is related to particulate matter (e.g., PM2.5) concentrations in the atmosphere; higher values of AOD correspond to higher concentrations of particulate matter. AOD is useful for identifying and tracking areas of high PM2.5 concentrations that correspond to air quality events, such as wildfires, dust storms, or haze episodes. Currently, the air quality community utilizes AOD from the MODIS instrument on NASA's polar-orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites and from NOAA's GOES geostationary satellites (e.g, GASP). The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on the Suomi-NPP satellite is making AOD measurements that are similar to MODIS AOD, but with higher spatial resolution. Two AOD products are available from VIIRS: the 750 m nadir resolution Intermediate Product (IP) and the 6 km resolution Environmental Data Record (EDR) product, which is aggregated from IP measurements. These VIIRS AOD products offer a substantial increase in spatial resolution compared to the MODIS AOD 3 km and 10 km AOD products, respectively. True color (RGB) imagery is also available from VIIRS as a decision aid for air quality applications. It serves as a complement to AOD measurements by providing visible information about areas of smoke, haze, and blowing dust in the atmosphere. Case studies of VIIRS AOD and RGB data for recent air quality events will be presented, with a focus on wildfires, and the relative pros and cons of the VIIRS AOD IP and EDR for air quality applications will be discussed in comparison to MODIS AOD products. Improvements to VIIRS aerosol products based on user feedback as part of the NOAA Satellite Air Quality Proving Ground (AQPG) will be outlined, and an overview of future

  9. Michigan Basin maps showing oil and gas production in the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, R.D.

    1980-02-01

    This report consists primarily of a set of maps which show the locations in the Michigan Basin of wells which have been reported as producing or as having shows of gas or oil from the Antrim and Berea formations. A brief discussion of the production of the maps is included.

  10. Global Carbon Monoxide Products from Combined AIRS, TES and MLS Measurements on A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Juying X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attie, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background modelbased field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  11. Transition of AIRS Products to the National Weather Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) is a proven community leader for transitioning satellite products to operational end users and is working hard to bring data from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to forecasters. SPoRT products using AIRS data are currently or will soon be evaluated at WFOs and National Centers (1) T and q profiles: HWT, Alaska WFOs, HRD/OPC, HMT (2) Ozone profiles: HPC/OPC (3) Carbon Monoxide: Southern and Western Region WFOs SPoRT is actively evaluating differences between V5 and V6 profiles for selected cases and will continue to provide feedback to the AIRS team as V6 development efforts conclude.

  12. Ethanol production from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Klebsiella variicola shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshihiro; Nishikawa, Chiaki; Seta, Kohei; Shigeno, Toshiya; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-05-25

    Biodiesel fuel (BDF) waste contains large amounts of crude glycerol as a by-product, and has a high alkaline pH. With regard to microbial conversion of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol, bacteria that can produce ethanol at alkaline pH have not been reported to date. Isolation of bacteria that shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions is essential to effective production of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol. In this study, we isolated the Klebsiella variicola TB-83 strain, which demonstrated maximum ethanol productivity at alkaline pH. Strain TB-83 showed effective usage of crude glycerol with maximum ethanol production at pH 8.0-9.0, and the culture pH was finally neutralized by formate, a by-product. In addition, the ethanol productivity of strain TB-83 under various culture conditions was investigated. Ethanol production was more efficient with the addition of yeast extract. Strain TB-83 produced 9.8 g/L ethanol (0.86 mol/mol glycerol) from cooking oil-derived BDF waste. Ethanol production from cooking oil-derived BDF waste was higher than that of new frying oil-derived BDF and pure-glycerol. This is the first report to demonstrate that the K. variicola strain TB-83 has the ability to produce ethanol from glycerol at alkaline pH.

  13. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  14. Enhanced heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris under increased air pressure.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marlene; Oliveira, Carla; Domingues, Lucília; Mota, Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is a widely used host for the production of heterologous proteins. In this case, high cell densities are needed and oxygen is a major limiting factor. The increased air pressure could be used to improve the oxygen solubility in the medium and to reach the high oxygen demand of methanol metabolism. In this study, two P. pastoris strains producing two different recombinant proteins, one intracellular (β-galactosidase) and other extracellular (frutalin), were used to investigate the effect of increased air pressure on yeast growth in glycerol and heterologous protein production, using the methanol AOX1-inducible system. Experiments were carried out in a stainless steel bioreactor under total air pressure of 1 bar and 5 bar. The use of an air pressure raise of up to 5 bar proved to be applicable for P. pastoris cultivation. Moreover, no effects on the kinetic growth parameters and methanol utilization (Mut) phenotype of strains were found, while an increase in recombinant β-galactosidase-specific activity (ninefold) and recombinant frutalin production was observed. Furthermore, the air pressure raise led to a reduction in the secreted protease specific activity. This work shows for the first time that the application of an air pressure of 5 bar may be used as a strategy to decrease protease secretion and improve recombinant protein production in P. pastoris.

  15. Nitric oxide production by haemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Novas, Ana; Barcia, Ramiro; Ramos-Martínez, Juan Ignacio

    2007-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as an important physiological modulator, with evidence of its role as a signalling molecule throughout the whole phylogenetic scale. In marine molluscs, it intervenes in processes related to the immune function of haemocytes. The presented results indicate that basal NO production by haemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations, with summer values statistically higher than those of winter. The presence of IL-2 increased NO production in winter. In summer, incubating the haemocytes with TNF-alpha for 6h slightly increased NO production. LPS, TGF-beta1 or PDGF did not induce significant effects on NO production by the haemocytes. Immunoblotting experiments detected two proteins that bind to vertebrate iNOS and eNOS antibodies, with different seasonal expression: the protein that binds to anti-iNOS antibody was expressed throughout the year, whereas the anti-eNOS antibody bound with a protein that was only detected in winter. IL-2 is suggested to start a signalling system dependent on the seasonal presence of winter protein. Such a system would activate the enzyme, thus favouring the higher NO production detected in winter.

  16. Nitric oxide production by haemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Novas, Ana; Barcia, Ramiro; Ramos-Martínez, Juan Ignacio

    2007-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as an important physiological modulator, with evidence of its role as a signalling molecule throughout the whole phylogenetic scale. In marine molluscs, it intervenes in processes related to the immune function of haemocytes. The presented results indicate that basal NO production by haemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations, with summer values statistically higher than those of winter. The presence of IL-2 increased NO production in winter. In summer, incubating the haemocytes with TNF-alpha for 6h slightly increased NO production. LPS, TGF-beta1 or PDGF did not induce significant effects on NO production by the haemocytes. Immunoblotting experiments detected two proteins that bind to vertebrate iNOS and eNOS antibodies, with different seasonal expression: the protein that binds to anti-iNOS antibody was expressed throughout the year, whereas the anti-eNOS antibody bound with a protein that was only detected in winter. IL-2 is suggested to start a signalling system dependent on the seasonal presence of winter protein. Such a system would activate the enzyme, thus favouring the higher NO production detected in winter. PMID:17574865

  17. 33 CFR 165.T09-0189 - Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 165.7(a). The primary method of notification, however, will be through Broadcast Notice to... Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay, Traverse City, MI. 165.T09-0189 Section... Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay, Traverse City, MI. (a)...

  18. Impact of room fragrance products on indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhde, Erik; Schulz, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Everyday life can no longer be imagined without fragrances and scented products. For the consumer, countless products exists which are solely or partly intended to give off a certain scent in sufficient concentrations to odorize a complete room. Sprays, diffusers and evaporators, scented candles and automatic devices for the distribution of fragrance liquids are typical examples of such products. If the consumer uses such products, his consent to the release of certain chemicals in his home can be implied, however, he may not know what kind of fragrance substances and solvents will be present in which concentrations. In this study, we determined the volatile emissions of a number of fragrance products in detail. Measurements were carried out under controlled conditions in test chambers. The products were tested in a passive (unused) and an active state, wherever applicable. Following a defined test protocol, the release of volatile organic compounds, ultrafine particles and NOx was monitored for each product. The potential for forming secondary organic aerosols under the influence of ozone was studied, and for a selection of products the long-term emission behavior was assessed. A remarkable variety of fragrance substances was found and more than 100 relevant compounds were identified and quantified. While it is the intended function of such products to release fragrance substances, also considerable amounts of non-odorous solvents and by-products were found to be released from several air fresheners. Emissions rates exceeding 2 mg/(unit*h) were measured for the five most common solvents.

  19. The azo dye Disperse Red 13 and its oxidation and reduction products showed mutagenic potential.

    PubMed

    Chequer, Farah Maria Drumond; Lizier, Thiago Mescoloto; de Felício, Rafael; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Debonsi, Hosana Maria; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-10-01

    Common water pollutants, azo dyes and their degradation products have frequently shown toxicity, including carcinogenic and mutagenic effects, and can induce serious damage in aquatic organisms and humans. In the present study, the mutagenic potential of the azo dye Disperse Red 13 (DR13) was first evaluated using the Micronucleus Assay in human lymphocytes. Subsequently, in order to mimic hepatic biotransformation, controlled potential electrolysis was carried out with a DR13 solution using a Potentiostat/Galvanostat. In addition, a DR13 solution was oxidized using S9 (homogenate of rat liver cells). DR13 oxidation and the reduction products were identified using HPLC-DAD and GC/MS, and their mutagenic potential investigated by way of a Salmonella/microsome assay using TA98 and YG1041 strains, with no S9. The original azo dye DR13 induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes, and the respective oxidation and reduction products also showed mutagenic activity, as detected by the Salmonella/microsome assay. Furthermore sulfate 2-[(4-aminophenyl)ethylamino]-ethanol monohydrate, 2-chloro-4-nitro-benzamine, 4-nitro-benzamine and 2-(ethylphenylamine)-ethanol were identified as products of the DR13 reduction/oxidation reactions. Thus it was concluded that the contamination of water effluents with DR13 is a health risk not only due to the dye itself, but also due to the possibility of drinking contaminated water, considering the harmful compounds that can be produced after hepatic biotransformation. PMID:26247324

  20. Rhodococcus sp. F92 immobilized on polyurethane foam shows ability to degrade various petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Quek, Eugene; Ting, Yen-Peng; Tan, Hai Meng

    2006-01-01

    This work reports on the immobilization and performance of a hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism on polyurethane foam (PUF) in the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The ability of four different microorganisms to immobilize on PUF and to degrade various petroleum products (Arabian light crude (ALC), Al-Shaheen crude (ASC), diesel and oil slops) was assessed by measuring the n-alkane fraction remaining in the petroleum products over time. A Rhodococcus sp. (designated as F92) had the highest number of immobilized viable cells (10(9) cells per cm3 PUF) and a maximum attachment efficiency of 90% on PUF of a density of 14 kg/m3. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of extracellular structures that could play an important role in the immobilization of F92 on PUF. Analysis by GC-MS revealed that both free and immobilized F92 cells were able to degrade approximately 90% of the total n-alkanes in the petroleum products tested within 1 week at 30 degrees C. Rhodococcus sp. F92 was efficiently immobilized onto PUF and the immobilized cells were able to degrade a variety of petroleum products such as ALC, ASC, diesel and oil slops. The results suggest the potential of using PUF-immobilized Rhodococcus sp. F92 to bioremediate petroleum hydrocarbons in an open marine environment.

  1. The azo dye Disperse Red 13 and its oxidation and reduction products showed mutagenic potential.

    PubMed

    Chequer, Farah Maria Drumond; Lizier, Thiago Mescoloto; de Felício, Rafael; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Debonsi, Hosana Maria; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-10-01

    Common water pollutants, azo dyes and their degradation products have frequently shown toxicity, including carcinogenic and mutagenic effects, and can induce serious damage in aquatic organisms and humans. In the present study, the mutagenic potential of the azo dye Disperse Red 13 (DR13) was first evaluated using the Micronucleus Assay in human lymphocytes. Subsequently, in order to mimic hepatic biotransformation, controlled potential electrolysis was carried out with a DR13 solution using a Potentiostat/Galvanostat. In addition, a DR13 solution was oxidized using S9 (homogenate of rat liver cells). DR13 oxidation and the reduction products were identified using HPLC-DAD and GC/MS, and their mutagenic potential investigated by way of a Salmonella/microsome assay using TA98 and YG1041 strains, with no S9. The original azo dye DR13 induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes, and the respective oxidation and reduction products also showed mutagenic activity, as detected by the Salmonella/microsome assay. Furthermore sulfate 2-[(4-aminophenyl)ethylamino]-ethanol monohydrate, 2-chloro-4-nitro-benzamine, 4-nitro-benzamine and 2-(ethylphenylamine)-ethanol were identified as products of the DR13 reduction/oxidation reactions. Thus it was concluded that the contamination of water effluents with DR13 is a health risk not only due to the dye itself, but also due to the possibility of drinking contaminated water, considering the harmful compounds that can be produced after hepatic biotransformation.

  2. GRACE, GLDAS and measured groundwater data products show water storage loss in Western Jilin, China.

    PubMed

    Moiwo, Juana Paul; Lu, Wenxi; Tao, Fulu

    2012-01-01

    Water storage depletion is a worsening hydrological problem that limits agricultural production in especially arid/semi-arid regions across the globe. Quantifying water storage dynamics is critical for developing water resources management strategies that are sustainable and protective of the environment. This study uses GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) and measured groundwater data products to quantify water storage in Western Jilin (a proxy for semi-arid wetland ecosystems) for the period from January 2002 to December 2009. Uncertainty/bias analysis shows that the data products have an average error <10% (p < 0.05). Comparisons of the storage variables show favorable agreements at various temporal cycles, with R(2) = 0.92 and RMSE = 7.43 mm at the average seasonal cycle. There is a narrowing soil moisture storage change, a widening groundwater storage loss, and an overall storage depletion of 0.85 mm/month in the region. There is possible soil-pore collapse, and land subsidence due to storage depletion in the study area. Invariably, storage depletion in this semi-arid region could have negative implications for agriculture, valuable/fragile wetland ecosystems and people's livelihoods. For sustainable restoration and preservation of wetland ecosystems in the region, it is critical to develop water resources management strategies that limit groundwater extraction rate to that of recharge rate.

  3. Recent Advances in Improvement of Forecast Skill and Understanding Climate Processes Using AIRS Version-5 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. These observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, have been analyzed using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. AIRS is a high spectral resolution infrared grating spectrometer with spect,ral coverage from 650 per centimeter extending to 2660 per centimeter, with low noise and a spectral resolving power of 2400. A brief overview of the AIRS Version-5 retrieval procedure will be presented, including the AIRS channels used in different steps in the retrieval process. Many researchers have used these products to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. Recent significant results of these experiments will be presented, including results showing that 1) assimilation of AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles into a General Circulation Model (GCM) significantly improves the ability to predict storm tracks of intense precipitation events; and 2) anomaly time-series of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) computed using AIRS sounding products closely match those determined from the CERES instrument, and furthermore explain that the phenomenon that global and especially tropical mean OLR have been decreasing since September 2002 is a result of El Nino/La Nina oscillations during this period.

  4. An indica rice genotype showed a similar yield enhancement to that of hybrid rice under free air carbon dioxide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chunwu; Xu, Xi; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Jianguo; Liu, Gang

    2015-07-31

    Although the rice growth response to FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) has been widely studied and is considered important within the scientific community, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of FACE on the yield of indica rice, which is typically the parent of indica hybrids in China. The effects of FACE on the yield, yield components, biomass, N uptake and leaf photosynthesis of Yangdao 6 Hao (an indica rice) in China were examined over 2 years. The grain yield increased over 30%, the panicle number increased 12.4% on average, and the spikelet number per panicle also showed an average increase of 8.2% at elevated CO2. FACE caused a significant enhancement in both the filled spikelet percentage (+5.9%) and the individual grain weight (+3.0%). Compared with three prior FACE studies on rice, a similar enhancement of yield in hybrid indica was shown under FACE, with much a higher value than for the japonica rice cultivar (approximately + 13%) because of indica's stronger sink generation and N uptake capacity, which help coordinate the C/N balance to avoid photosynthetic acclimation. The high enhancement of the indica rice yield under FACE holds promise for improved cultivar selection for future food security.

  5. An indica rice genotype showed a similar yield enhancement to that of hybrid rice under free air carbon dioxide enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunwu; Xu, Xi; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Jianguo; Liu, Gang

    2015-07-01

    Although the rice growth response to FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) has been widely studied and is considered important within the scientific community, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of FACE on the yield of indica rice, which is typically the parent of indica hybrids in China. The effects of FACE on the yield, yield components, biomass, N uptake and leaf photosynthesis of Yangdao 6 Hao (an indica rice) in China were examined over 2 years. The grain yield increased over 30%, the panicle number increased 12.4% on average, and the spikelet number per panicle also showed an average increase of 8.2% at elevated CO2. FACE caused a significant enhancement in both the filled spikelet percentage (+5.9%) and the individual grain weight (+3.0%). Compared with three prior FACE studies on rice, a similar enhancement of yield in hybrid indica was shown under FACE, with much a higher value than for the japonica rice cultivar (approximately + 13%) because of indica’s stronger sink generation and N uptake capacity, which help coordinate the C/N balance to avoid photosynthetic acclimation. The high enhancement of the indica rice yield under FACE holds promise for improved cultivar selection for future food security.

  6. An indica rice genotype showed a similar yield enhancement to that of hybrid rice under free air carbon dioxide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chunwu; Xu, Xi; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Jianguo; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Although the rice growth response to FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) has been widely studied and is considered important within the scientific community, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of FACE on the yield of indica rice, which is typically the parent of indica hybrids in China. The effects of FACE on the yield, yield components, biomass, N uptake and leaf photosynthesis of Yangdao 6 Hao (an indica rice) in China were examined over 2 years. The grain yield increased over 30%, the panicle number increased 12.4% on average, and the spikelet number per panicle also showed an average increase of 8.2% at elevated CO2. FACE caused a significant enhancement in both the filled spikelet percentage (+5.9%) and the individual grain weight (+3.0%). Compared with three prior FACE studies on rice, a similar enhancement of yield in hybrid indica was shown under FACE, with much a higher value than for the japonica rice cultivar (approximately + 13%) because of indica's stronger sink generation and N uptake capacity, which help coordinate the C/N balance to avoid photosynthetic acclimation. The high enhancement of the indica rice yield under FACE holds promise for improved cultivar selection for future food security. PMID:26228872

  7. Analysis of air pollution from swine production by using air dispersion model and GIS in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Joachim H; Goïta, Kalifa; Desmarais, Camille

    2010-01-01

    Swine production, the second most important contributor to Quebec's agricultural revenue, faces many problems. Intensive piggeries, with up to 599 animal units, are used to raise finishing pigs for slaughter. Among the great number of gaseous species emitted to the atmospheric environment from livestock buildings and manure storage units is NH3, which is one of the most important and most offensive with respect to human health. Under appropriate meteorological and topographical conditions, gaseous contaminants can spread and cause a public nuisance--up to a 1-km radius around the farm. To mitigate these effects, the Quebec Government adopted regulations that set minimum buffer distances to be observed by any expansion of an existing or new pig farm. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the efficiency of the current buffer distance prescriptions in Quebec in mitigating effects of air pollution from swine units and (ii) to identify potential areas for establishing pig farm operations that will not be offensive to people. The air dispersion American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) with receptors distributed at 1.6 km around each source was used first, followed by a spatial geographic information system (GIS) model. Results from the dispersion model showed that the highest hourly concentration with a 99.5% compliance frequency for a single farm was 3078.1 microg/m3 and exceeded the NH3 odor criterion hourly standard set by the Quebec Government at 183.4 microg/m3. Thus, for public safety, densely populated areas like housing developments must be located >1300 m from a pig farm. This distance is in the range of setback distances (723 to 1447 m) obtained by using abacuses defined in the L'Erable Regional County Municipality. That is why we can say the current rules established by the Quebec Government, if rigorously applied, can prevent odor nuisance, due to NH3 emission, from swine farms. In the spatial model

  8. Remediation of saturated soil contaminated with petroleum products using air sparging with thermal enhancement.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M I; El-menshawy, Nabil; Saif, Amany M

    2007-05-01

    Pollutants in the form of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), such as petroleum products, pose a serious threat to the soil and groundwater. A mathematical model was derived to study the unsteady pollutant concentrations through water saturated contaminated soil under air sparging conditions for different NAPLs and soil properties. The comparison between the numerical model results and the published experimental results showed acceptable agreement. Furthermore, an experimental study was conducted to remove NAPLs from the contaminated soil using the sparging air technique, considering the sparging air velocity, air temperature, soil grain size and different contaminant properties. This study showed that sparging air at ambient temperature through the contaminated soil can remove NAPLs, however, employing hot air sparging can provide higher contaminant removal efficiency, by about 9%. An empirical correlation for the volatilization mass transfer coefficient was developed from the experimental results. The dimensionless numbers used were Sherwood number (Sh), Peclet number (Pe), Schmidt number (Sc) and several physical-chemical properties of VOCs and porous media. Finally, the estimated volatilization mass transfer coefficient was used for calculation of the influence of heated sparging air on the spreading of the NAPL plume through the contaminated soil.

  9. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year. PMID:27423771

  10. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year.

  11. Confined combustion of TNT explosion products in air

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, J; Ferguson, R E; Forbes, J; Kuhl, A L; Oppenheim, A K; Spektor, R

    1998-08-31

    Effects of turbulent combustion induced by explosion of a 0.8 kg cylindrical charge of TNT in a 17 m3 chamber filled with air, are investigated. The detonation wave in the charge transforms the solid explosive (C7H5N3O6) to gaseous products, rich (~20% each) in carbon dust and carbon monoxide. The detonation pressure (~210 kb) thereby engendered causes the products to expand rapidly, driving a blast wave into the surrounding air. The interface between the products and air, being essentially unstable as a consequence of strong acceleration to which it is subjected within the blast wave, evolves into a turbulent mixing layer-a process enhanced by shock reflections from the walls. Under such circumstances rapid combustion takes place where the expanded detonation products play the role of fuel. Its dynamic effect is manifested by the experimental measurement of ~3 bar pressure increase in the chamber, in contrast to ~1bar attained by a corresponding TNT explosion in nitrogen. The experiments were modeled as a turbulent combustion in an unmixed system at infinite Reynolds, Peclet and DamkGhler numbers. The CFD solution was obtained by a high-order Godunov scheme using an AMR (Adaptive Mesh Refinement) to trace the turbulent mixing on the computational grid in as much detail as possible. The evolution of the mass fraction of fuel consumed by combustion thus determined exhibited the properties of an exponential decay following a sharp initiation. The results reveal all the dynamic features of the exothermic process of combustion controlled by fluid mechanic transport in a highly turbulent field, in contrast to those elucidated by the conventional reaction-diffusion model.

  12. Biomass production chamber air analysis of wheat study (BWT931)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, J. H.; Peterson, B. V.; Berdis, E.; Wheeler, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) biomass production chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center provides a test bed for bioregenerative studies using plants to provide food, oxygen, carbon dioxide removal, and potable water to humans during long term space travel. Growing plants in enclosed environments has brought about concerns regarding the level of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) emitted from plants and the construction materials that make up the plant growth chambers. In such closed systems, the potential exists for some VOC's to reach toxic levels and lead to poor plant growth, plant death, or health problems for human inhabitants. This study characterized the air in an enclosed environment in which wheat cv. Yocora Rojo was grown. Ninty-four whole air samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry throughout the eighty-four day planting. VOC emissions from plants and materials were characterized and quantified.

  13. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  14. Numerical models for afterburning of TNT detonation products in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, L.; Zhang, F.; Ripley, R. C.

    2013-11-01

    Afterburning occurs when fuel-rich explosive detonation products react with oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. This energy release can further contribute to the air blast, resulting in a more severe explosion hazard particularly in confined scenarios. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the products equation of state (EOS) on the prediction of the efficiency of trinitrotoluene (TNT) afterburning and the times of arrival of reverberating shock waves in a closed chamber. A new EOS is proposed, denoted the Afterburning (AB) EOS. This EOS employs the JWL EOS in the high pressure regime, transitioning to a Variable-Gamma (VG) EOS at lower pressures. Simulations of three TNT charges suspended in a explosion chamber were performed. When compared to numerical results using existing methods, it was determined that the Afterburning EOS delays the shock arrival times giving better agreement with the experimental measurements in the early to mid time. In the late time, the Afterburning EOS roughly halved the error between the experimental measurements and results obtained using existing methods. Use of the Afterburning EOS for products with the Variable-Gamma EOS for the surrounding air further significantly improved results, both in the transient solution and the quasi-static pressure. This final combination of EOS and mixture model is recommended for future studies involving afterburning explosives, particularly those in partial and full confinement.

  15. Functional characterization of a soybean growth stimulator Bradyrhizobium sp. strain SR-6 showing acylhomoserine lactone production.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amanat; Ayesha; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Iqbal, Mazhar; Iqbal, Javed; Oresnik, Ivan J

    2016-09-01

    A soybean nodule endophytic bacterium Bradyrhizobium sp. strain SR-6 was characterized for production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum sensing molecules. Mass spectrometry analysis of AHLs revealed the presence of C6-HSL, 3OH-C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL, 3oxoC10-HSL, 3oxo-C12-HSL and 3OH-C12-HSL which are significantly different from those reported earlier in soybean symbionts. Purified AHL extracts significantly improved wheat and soybean seedling growth and root hair development along with increased soybean nodulation under axenic conditions. A positive correlation was observed among in vivo nitrogenase and catalase enzyme activities of the strain SR-6. Transmission electron microscopic analysis showed the cytochemical localization of catalase activity within the bacteroids, specifically attached to the peribacteroidal membrane. Root and nodule colonization proved rhizosphere competence of SR-6. The inoculation of SR-6 resulted in increased shoot length (13%), plant dry matter (50%), grain weight (16%), seed yield (20%) and N-uptake (14%) as compared to non-inoculated soybean plants. The symbiotic bacterium SR-6 has potential to improve soybean growth and yield in sub-humid climate of Azad Jammu and Kashmir region of Pakistan. The production and mass spectrometric profiling of AHLs as well as in vivo cytochemical localization of catalase enzyme activity in soybean Bradyrhizobium sp. have never been reported earlier elsewhere before our these investigations.

  16. Biparental products of bacterial protoplast fusion showing unequal parental chromosome expression.

    PubMed Central

    Hotchkiss, R D; Gabor, M H

    1980-01-01

    Efficiently regenerated single colonies from mixed multiply auxotrophic Bacillus subtilis protoplasts, fused with polyethylene glycol, reveal colonies carrying each of the parent types (biparentals) and recombinant colonies. The latter appear in high yields (up to 1% of certain recombinant classes); the yield of biparentals may be as large as 10%, in the range of the indicated physical fusion events. Many of the biparentals are diploids although, contrary to expectation, they are not complementing prototrophs, but show precisely the phenotype of one (either one) of the parent strains. Extensive pedigree analysis and subcloning of diploid lines show that they can propagate with varying stability on the appropriate parental selective medium to reproduce diploid progeny, parental segregants, and late-appearing recombinants, including some prototrophs. Thus, the principal product of intertype protoplast fusion is a diploid carrying two chromosomes, only one of which is expressed in each particular clone. The extinction of one parental genome is especially well demonstrated when it includes suppression of a normally dominant antibiotic sensitivity marker. In transformation experiments, DNA made from a selected diploid clone was able to transfer several of the unexpressed genes. The structural or topological character of DNA associated with the chromosome extinction remains unexplained. PMID:6774340

  17. Performance of Introducing Outdoor Cold Air for Cooling a Plant Production System with Artificial Light.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang; Xin, Min

    2016-01-01

    The commercial use of a plant production system with artificial light (PPAL) is limited by its high initial construction and operation costs. The electric-energy consumed by heat pumps, applied mainly for cooling, accounts for 15-35% of the total electric-energy used in a PPAL. To reduce the electric-energy consumption, an air exchanger with low capacity (180 W) was used for cooling by introducing outdoor cold air. In this experiment, the indoor air temperature in two PPALs (floor area: 6.2 m(2) each) was maintained at 25 and 20°C during photoperiod and dark period, respectively, for lettuce production. A null CO2 balance enrichment method was used in both PPALs. In one PPAL (PPALe), an air exchanger (air flow rate: 250 m(3)·h(-1)) was used along with a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) to maintain the indoor air temperature at the set-point. The other PPAL (PPALc) with only a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) was used for reference. Effects of introducing outdoor cold air on energy use efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP), electric-energy consumption for cooling and growth of lettuce were investigated. The results show that: when the air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor ranged from 20.2 to 30.0°C: (1) the average energy use efficiency of the air exchanger was 2.8 and 3.4 times greater than the COP of the heat pumps in the PPALe and PPALc, respectively; (2) hourly electric-energy consumption for cooling in the PPALe reduced by 15.8-73.7% compared with that in the PPALc; (3) daily supply of CO2 in the PPALe reduced from 0.15 to 0.04 kg compared with that in the PPALc with the outdoor air temperature ranging from -5.6 to 2.7°C; (4) no significant difference in lettuce growth was observed in both PPALs. The results indicate that using air exchanger to introduce outdoor cold air should be considered as an effective way to reduce electric-energy consumption for cooling with little effects on plant growth in a PPAL. PMID:27066012

  18. Performance of Introducing Outdoor Cold Air for Cooling a Plant Production System with Artificial Light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang; Xin, Min

    2016-01-01

    The commercial use of a plant production system with artificial light (PPAL) is limited by its high initial construction and operation costs. The electric-energy consumed by heat pumps, applied mainly for cooling, accounts for 15–35% of the total electric-energy used in a PPAL. To reduce the electric-energy consumption, an air exchanger with low capacity (180 W) was used for cooling by introducing outdoor cold air. In this experiment, the indoor air temperature in two PPALs (floor area: 6.2 m2 each) was maintained at 25 and 20°C during photoperiod and dark period, respectively, for lettuce production. A null CO2 balance enrichment method was used in both PPALs. In one PPAL (PPALe), an air exchanger (air flow rate: 250 m3·h−1) was used along with a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) to maintain the indoor air temperature at the set-point. The other PPAL (PPALc) with only a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) was used for reference. Effects of introducing outdoor cold air on energy use efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP), electric-energy consumption for cooling and growth of lettuce were investigated. The results show that: when the air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor ranged from 20.2 to 30.0°C: (1) the average energy use efficiency of the air exchanger was 2.8 and 3.4 times greater than the COP of the heat pumps in the PPALe and PPALc, respectively; (2) hourly electric-energy consumption for cooling in the PPALe reduced by 15.8–73.7% compared with that in the PPALc; (3) daily supply of CO2 in the PPALe reduced from 0.15 to 0.04 kg compared with that in the PPALc with the outdoor air temperature ranging from −5.6 to 2.7°C; (4) no significant difference in lettuce growth was observed in both PPALs. The results indicate that using air exchanger to introduce outdoor cold air should be considered as an effective way to reduce electric-energy consumption for cooling with little effects on plant growth in a PPAL. PMID:27066012

  19. Transgenic tobacco expressing a foreign calmodulin gene shows an enhanced production of active oxygen species.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, S A; Oh, S H; Roberts, D M

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for elucidating specific molecular targets of calcium and calmodulin in plant defense responses has been developed. We have used a dominant-acting calmodulin mutant (VU-3, Lys to Arg115) to investigate the oxidative burst and nicotinamide co-enzyme fluxes after various stimuli (cellulase, harpin, incompatible bacteria, osmotic and mechanical) that elicit plant defense responses in transgenic tobacco cell cultures. VU-3 calmodulin differs from endogenous plant calmodulin in that it cannot be methylated post-translationally, and as a result it hyperactivates calmodulin-dependent NAD kinase. Cells expressing VU-3 calmodulin exhibited a stronger active oxygen burst that occurred more rapidly than in normal control cells challenged with the same stimuli. Increases in NADPH level were also greater in VU-3 cells and coincided both in timing and magnitude with development of the active oxygen species (AOS) burst. These data show that calmodulin is a target of calcium fluxes in response to elicitor or environmental stress, and provide the first evidence that plant NAD kinase may be a downstream target which potentiates AOS production by altering NAD(H)/NADP(H) homeostasis. PMID:9135130

  20. Production of lipopeptides among Bacillus strains showing growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Velho, R V; Medina, L F C; Segalin, J; Brandelli, A

    2011-07-01

    The biological activity and the presence of genes sfp and ituD (surfactin and iturin A) among Bacillus strains isolated from the Amazon basin were determined. Bacillus spp. were tested for hemolytic activity and inhibition of fungal growth by agar plate assays in parallel with PCR for identification of sfp and ituD genes. All strains tested produced surface-active compounds, giving evidence by lysis of erythrocytes and emulsifying activity on mineral oil and soybean oil. These strains of Bacillus caused growth inhibition of several phytopathogenic fungi, including Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Bipolaris sorokiniana. The presence of genes ituD and sfp was confirmed by PCR and sequence analysis. The only exception was Bacillus sp. P34 that lacks sfp gene. Lipopeptides were isolated from culture supernatants and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Characteristic m/z peaks for surfactin and iturin were observed, and some strains also produced fengycin and bacillomycin. The remarkable antifungal activity showed by the strains could be associated with the co-production of three or more lipopeptide antibiotics. Screening for novel bacteria producing useful biosurfactants or biocontrol agents for agriculture is a topic of greatest importance to eliminate chemical pollutants.

  1. Plant resistance mechanisms to air pollutants: rhythms in ascorbic acid production during growth under ozone stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between ozone (O3) tolerance and leaf ascorbic acid concentrations in O3-susceptible (O3-S) 'Hark' and O3-resistant (O3-R) 'Hood' soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., cultivars were examined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Leaf samples were analyzed at 4 intervals during a 24 h period. Soybean cultivars grown in the greenhouse with charcoal filtered (CF) and nonfiltered (NF) air showed daily oscillations in ascorbic acid production. Highest ascorbic acid levels in leaves during light coincided with highest concentrations of photochemical oxidants in the atmosphere at 2:00 p.m. The resistant genotype produced more ascorbic acid in its trifoliate leaves than did the corresponding susceptible genotype. Under CF air (an O3-reduced environment) O3-S and O3-R cultivars showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. In NF air (an O3 stress environment) the O3-R cultivar alone showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. Results indicated that superior O3 tolerance in the Hood soybean cultivar (compared with Hark) was associated with a greater increase in endogenous levels of ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid may scavenge free radicals and thereby protect cells from injury by O3 or other oxyradical products. Plants defend themselves against photochemical oxidant stress, such as O3, by several mechanisms. Experimental evidence indicates that antioxidant defense systems existing in plant tissues may function to protect cellular components from deleterious effects of photochemical oxidants through endogenous and exogenous controls.

  2. AirNow Information Management System - Global Earth Observation System of Systems Data Processor for Real-Time Air Quality Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haderman, M.; Dye, T. S.; White, J. E.; Dickerson, P.; Pasch, A. N.; Miller, D. S.; Chan, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Built upon the success of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program (www.AirNow.gov), the AirNow-International (AirNow-I) system contains an enhanced suite of software programs that process and quality control real-time air quality and environmental data and distribute customized maps, files, and data feeds. The goals of the AirNow-I program are similar to those of the successful U.S. program and include fostering the exchange of environmental data; making advances in air quality knowledge and applications; and building a community of people, organizations, and decision makers in environmental management. In 2010, Shanghai became the first city in China to run this state-of-the-art air quality data management and notification system. AirNow-I consists of a suite of modules (software programs and schedulers) centered on a database. One such module is the Information Management System (IMS), which can automatically produce maps and other data products through the use of GIS software to provide the most current air quality information to the public. Developed with Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) interoperability in mind, IMS is based on non-proprietary standards, with preference to formal international standards. The system depends on data and information providers accepting and implementing a set of interoperability arrangements, including technical specifications for collecting, processing, storing, and disseminating shared data, metadata, and products. In particular, the specifications include standards for service-oriented architecture and web-based interfaces, such as a web mapping service (WMS), web coverage service (WCS), web feature service (WFS), sensor web services, and Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds. IMS is flexible, open, redundant, and modular. It also allows the merging of data grids to create complex grids that show comprehensive air quality conditions. For example, the AirNow Satellite Data Processor

  3. Analysis of bokbunja products show they contain Rubus occidentalis L. fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of species adulteration in a collection of commercially available bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) products sold in Korea and the US (all originated from Korea). Seventeen bokbunja products were obtained for examination, though twelve samples contained R. occidentalis L. fru...

  4. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If the person desiring to make entry is unable to present a bill of lading, air waybill, or other evidence...

  5. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If the person desiring to make entry is unable to present a bill of lading, air waybill, or other evidence...

  6. Level-1C Product from AIRS: Principal Component Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Evan M.; Jiang, Yibo; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Elliott, Denis A.; Hannon, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), launched on the EOS Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002, is a grating spectrometer with 2378 channels in the range 3.7 to 15.4 microns. In a grating spectrometer each individual radiance measurement is largely independent of all others. Most measurements are extremely accurate and have very low noise levels. However, some channels exhibit high noise levels or other anomalous behavior, complicating applications needing radiances throughout a band, such as cross-calibration with other instruments and regression retrieval algorithms. The AIRS Level-1C product is similar to Level-1B but with instrument artifacts removed. This paper focuses on the "cleaning" portion of Level-1C, which identifies bad radiance values within spectra and produces substitute radiances using redundant information from other channels. The substitution is done in two passes, first with a simple combination of values from neighboring channels, then with principal components. After results of the substitution are shown, differences between principal component reconstructed values and observed radiances are used to investigate detailed noise characteristics and spatial misalignment in other channels.

  7. Examining air pollution in China using production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Guan, Dabo; Su, Xin; Zhao, Hongyan; He, Kebin

    2014-12-16

    Two important reasons for China's air pollution are the high emission factors (emission per unit of product) of pollution sources and the high emission intensity (emissions per unit of GDP) of the industrial structure. Therefore, a wide variety of policy measures, including both emission abatement technologies and economic adjustment, must be implemented. To support such measures, this study used the production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches to simulate the SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and VOC emissions flows among producers and consumers. This study analyzed the emissions and GDP performance of 36 production sectors. The results showed that the equipment, machinery, and devices manufacturing and construction sectors contributed more than 50% of air pollutant emissions, and most of their products were used for capital formation and export. The service sector had the lowest emission intensities, and its output was mainly consumed by households and the government. In China, the emission intensities of production activities triggered by capital formation and export were approximately twice that of the service sector triggered by final consumption expenditure. This study suggests that China should control air pollution using the following strategies: applying end-of-pipe abatement technologies and using cleaner fuels to further decrease the emission factors associated with rural cooking, electricity generation, and the transportation sector; continuing to limit highly emission-intensive but low value-added exports; developing a plan to reduce construction activities; and increasing the proportion of service GDP in the national economy.

  8. Contributions to Climate Research Using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares recent spatial anomaly time series of OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) and OLRCLR (Clear Sky OLR) as determined using CERES and AIRS observations over the time period September 2002 through June 2010. We find excellent agreement in OLR anomaly time series of both data sets in almost every detail, down to the 1 x 1 spatial grid point level. This extremely close agreement of OLR anomaly time series derived from observations by two different instruments implies that both sets of results must be highly stable. This agreement also validates to some extent the anomaly time series of the AIRS derived products used in the computation of the AIRS OLR product. The paper then examines anomaly time series of AIRS derived products over the extended time period September 2002 through April 2011. We show that OLR anomalies during this period are closely in phase with those of an El Nino index, and that recent global and tropical mean decreases in OLR and OLR(sub CLR) are a result of a transition from an El Nino condition at the beginning of the data record to La Nina conditions toward the end of the data period. This relationship can be explained by temporal changes of the distribution of mid-tropospheric water vapor and cloud cover in two spatial regions that are in direct response to El Nino/La Nina activity which occurs outside these spatial regions

  9. Study shows turret-moored oil production vessel capabilities in typhoons

    SciTech Connect

    Akiba, Takehiko; Komiya, Haruhiko; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Kodan, Norihisa; Mikami, Jun

    1995-08-21

    A turret-moored, floating-type early production and testing system (EPTS) can weather the severe conditions for marginal field exploitation of East Asian offshore oil fields. These vessels are an alternative to permanent facilities such as conventional jackets that often are uneconomical for marginal fields and deepwater, harsh environments. The required production system must withstand the severe weather conditions of a typhoon. Weather downtime and the associated motion performance, weather-vaning capabilities, and mooring system requirements are main considerations in designing EPTSs for these environments. An example of the EPTS concept is the Petrojarl 1, which operates in the North Sea and was built by NKK Corp. The results of 6 years` experience with the Petrojarl 1 have proven that such vessels can operate even in the harsh environment of the North Sea. The study, summarized in this article, verified that satisfactory operational efficiency can be achieved in environments where typhoons exits.

  10. Ovalbumin Modified with Pyrraline, a Maillard Reaction Product, shows Enhanced T-cell Immunogenicity*

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Monika; Wellner, Anne; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Ilchmann, Anne; Briza, Peter; Krause, Maren; Nagai, Ryoji; Burgdorf, Sven; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan; Henle, Thomas; Toda, Masako

    2014-01-01

    The Maillard reaction (also referred to as “glycation”) takes place between reducing sugars and compounds with free amino groups during thermal processing of foods. In the final stage of the complex reaction cascade, the so-called advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed, including proteins with various glycation structures. It has been suggested that some AGEs could have immunostimulatory effects. Here, we aimed to identify specific glycation structure(s) that could influence the T-cell immunogenicity and potential allergenicity of food allergens, using ovalbumin (OVA, an egg white allergen) as a model allergen. OVA was specifically modified with representative glycation structures: Nϵ-carboxymethyl lysine (CM-OVA), Nϵ-carboxyethyl lysine (CE-OVA), pyrraline (Pyr-OVA), or methylglyoxal-derived arginine derivatives (MGO-OVA). As well as AGE-OVA, a crude glycation product in thermal incubation of OVA with glucose, only Pyr-OVA, and not other modified OVAs, was efficiently taken up by bone marrow-derived murine dendritic cells (BMDCs). The uptake of Pyr-OVA was reduced in scavenger receptor class A (SR-A)-deficient BMDCs, but not in cells treated with inhibitors of scavenger receptor class B, galectin-3, or blocking antibodies against CD36, suggesting that pyrraline binds to SR-A. Compared with other modified OVAs, Pyr-OVA induced higher activation of OVA-specific CD4+ T-cells in co-culture with BMDCs. Furthermore, compared with native OVA, AGE-OVA and Pyr-OVA induced higher IgE production in mice. Pyrraline could induce better allergen uptake by DCs via association with SR-A and subsequently enhance CD4+ T-cell activation and IgE production. Our findings help us to understand how Maillard reaction enhances the potential allergenicity of food allergens. PMID:24505139

  11. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-02

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  12. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Mori, Trevor A.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  13. Development of a Mutant Strain of Bacillus polymyxa Showing Enhanced Production of 2,3-Butanediol

    PubMed Central

    Mallonee, D. H.; Speckman, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol is a feedstock chemical of potential industrial importance. It can serve as a monomer for many polymers of consumer interest that are currently supplied by the fossil fuel industry. Bacillus polymyxa can grow on inexpensive waste products of the food-processing industry and produce this glycol. This paper describes a mutant strain of B. polymyxa which displays constitutive production of catabolic α-acetolactate synthase, an enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway which is normally produced only in the late log or stationary phase of growth. The mutant was obtained by treating the wild type with nitrosoguanidine and subjecting it to a penicillin counterselection procedure. One of the selected mutant strains produced four times as much of the glycol as the wild type and utilized approximately 25% of the energy source, compared with essentially complete utilization of the energy source by the wild type. Studies are under way to optimize the production of the glycol by the mutant. PMID:16347522

  14. Production and comprehension show divergent constituent order preferences: Evidence from elicited pantomime

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew L.; Ahn, Y. Danbi; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2015-01-01

    All natural languages develop devices to communicate who did what to whom. Elicited pantomime provides one model for studying this process, by providing a window into how humans (hearing non-signers) behave in a natural communicative modality (silent gesture) without established conventions from a grammar. Most studies in this paradigm focus on production, although they sometimes make assumptions about how comprehenders would likely behave. Here, we directly assess how naïve speakers of English (Experiments 1 & 2), Korean (Experiment 1), and Turkish (Experiment 2) comprehend pantomimed descriptions of transitive events, which are either semantically reversible (Experiments 1 & 2) or not (Experiment 2). Contrary to previous assumptions, we find no evidence that Person-Person-Action sequences are ambiguous to comprehenders, who simply adopt an agent-first parsing heuristic for all constituent orders. We do find that Person-Action-Person sequences yield the most consistent interpretations, even in native speakers of SOV languages. The full range of behavior in both production and comprehension provides counter-evidence to the notion that producers’ utterances are motivated by the needs of comprehenders. Instead, we argue that production and comprehension are subject to different sets of cognitive pressures, and that the dynamic interaction between these competing pressures can help explain synchronic and diachronic constituent order phenomena in natural human languages, both signed and spoken. PMID:25642018

  15. Development of a mutant strain of Bacillus polymyxa showing enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Mallonee, D.H.; Speckman, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol is a feedstock chemical of potential industrial importance. It can serve as a monomer for many polymers of consumer interest that are currently supplied by the fossil fuel industry. Bacillus polymyxa can grow on inexpensive waste products of the food-processing industry and produce this glycol. This paper describes a mutant strain of B. polymyxa which displays constitutive production of catabolic ..cap alpha..-acetolactate synthase, an enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway which is normally produced only in the late log or stationary phase of growth. The mutant was obtained by treating the wild type with nitrosoguanidine and subjecting it to a penicillin counterselection procedure. One of the selected mutant strains produced four times as much of the glycol as the wild type and utilized approximately 25% of the energy source, compared with essentially complete utilization of the energy source by the wild type. Studies are under way to optimize the production of the glycol by the mutant.

  16. Spectroscopic characterization of discharge products in Li-Air cells with aprotic carbonate electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M; Nanda, Jagjit; Howe, Jane Y; Dudney, Nancy J

    2011-01-01

    Raman, infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to characterize the thick coating of reaction products on carbon and MnO2 coated carbon cathodes produced during discharge of Li-air cells. The results show that neither Li2O2 or Li2O are major components of the insoluble discharge products; instead the products are largely composed of fluorine, lithium, and carbon, with surprisingly little oxygen. The complex reaction chemistry also appears to involve the formation of ethers or alkoxide products at the expense of the carbonate solvent molecules (ethylene carbonate and dimethylcarbonate). The irreversible discharge reaction is likely electrochemically promoted with Li-anion species and dissolved oxygen. Exactly how the molecular O2 participates in the reaction is unclear and requires further study. The addition of a conformal coating of MnO2 on the carbon lowers the cell s operating voltage, but does not alter the overall discharge chemistry.

  17. Neanderthal paintings? Production of prototypical human (Homo sapiens) faces shows systematic distortions.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Wirth, Benedikt Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    People's sketches of human faces seem to be systematically distorted: the eye position is always higher than in reality. This bias was experimentally analyzed by a series of experiments varying drawing conditions. Participants either drew prototypical faces from memory (studies 1 and 2: free reconstruction; study 3: cued reconstruction) or directly copied average faces (study 4). Participants consistently showed this positioning bias, which is even in accord with facial depictions published in influential research articles by famous face researchers (study 5). We discuss plausible explanations for this reliable and stable bias, which is coincidentally similar to the morphology of Neanderthals.

  18. Study on particulate matter air pollution in Beijing with MODIS aerosol level 2 products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jietai; Li, Chengcai; Lau, Alexis K.

    2004-09-01

    In the run-up to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, Chinese government officials at both the central and municipal levels are keenly aware that they must transform Beijing into a world-class city. According to the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB) to improve its air quality some actions are adopting, including taking steps to increase the forested area surrounding the city preventing dust storms, reducing the automotive vehicles, moving polluting factories now inside the fourth ring road ringing the inner city to locations outside of the fourth ring road, and switching the fuel of public buses and taxis from diesel to natural gas, etc. Will they eliminate most serious environmental problems in Beijing? MODIS aerosol products are helping us to answer this kind of questions. A long-term validation has been finished by sun-photometer observations, and the results proved the relative error of MODIS level 2 products was slightly larger than the estimation of Chu et al. (2002) from the results in most AERONET sites. However, the comparison between the products and moisture-corrected air pollution index (API) data, which were daily released to public by EPB, showed a high correlation coefficient. An air pollution episode in 2003 was investigated by the usage of satellite products. Our conclusion for the air pollution control strategy in Beijing is that only reducing the pollution sources from inner city can't fully solve the pollution problems in Beijing and the regional transports from the nearby southern provinces are contributing a lot to the pollution situation in Beijing.

  19. TESTING INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS: ONE APPROACH TO DEVELOPING WIDELY ACCEPTED PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes an approach to developing widely acce ted products for testing indoor air products. [NOTE: Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is a partner in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program with responsibil...

  20. Optical spectroscopy of radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy responses in normal rat skin shows vascular breakdown products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teles de Andrade, Cintia; Nogueira, Marcelo S.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Marra, Kayla; Gunn, Jason; Andreozzi, Jacqueline; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radiotherapy are non-systemic cancer treatment options with different mechanisms of damage. So combining these techniques has been shown to have some synergy, and can mitigate their limitations such as low PDT light penetration or radiotherapy side effects. The present study monitored the induced tissue changes after PDT, radiotherapy, and a combination protocol in normal rat skin, using an optical spectroscopy system to track the observed biophysical changes. The Wistar rats were treated with one of the protocols: PDT followed by radiotherapy, PDT, radiotherapy and radiotherapy followed by PDT. Reflectance spectra were collected in order to observe the effects of these combined therapies, especially targeting vascular response. From the reflectance, information about oxygen saturation, met-hemoglobin and bilirubin concentration, blood volume fraction (BVF) and vessel radius were extracted from model fitting of the spectra. The rats were monitored for 24 hours after treatment. Results showed that there was no significant variation in the vessel size or BVF after the treatments. However, the PDT caused a significant increase in the met-hemoglobin and bilirubin concentrations, indicating an important blood breakdown. These results may provide an important clue on how the damage establishment takes place, helping to understand the effect of the combination of those techniques in order to verify the existence of a known synergistic effect.

  1. Re-evaluation of the product of (W/e)air and the graphite to air stopping-power ratio for 60Co air kerma standards.

    PubMed

    Thomson, R M; Rogers, D W O

    2010-07-01

    Experiments which determine the product of (W/e)air, the average energy deposited per coulomb of charge of one sign released by an electron coming to rest in dry air, and (LDelta/rho)Ca, the Spencer-Attix mean restricted mass collision stopping-power ratio for graphite to air, in a 60Co or 137Cs beam are reanalysed. Correction factors, e.g., to account for gaps about a calorimeter core or perturbations due to a cavity's presence, are calculated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system and these generally decrease the value of (W/e)air(LDelta/rho)Ca for each experiment. Stopping-power ratios are calculated for different choices of density correction and average excitation energy (I-value) for graphite. To calculate an average value (W/e)air(LBIPM/rho)Ca for the BIPM air kerma standard, each experimental result is multiplied by the ratio (LBIPM/rho)Ca/(LDelta/Rho)Ca. While individual values of (LDelta/rho)Ca are sensitive to the I-values and density corrections assumed, this ratio varies by less than 0.1% for different choices. Hence, the product (W/e)air(LBIPM/rho)Ca is relatively insensitive to these choices. The weighted mean of the updated data is (W/e)air(LBIPM/rho)Ca=33.68 J C(-1)+/-0.2%, suggesting that the accepted value of 33.97 J C(-1)+/-0.1% is 0.8% too high. This has implications for primary 60Co air kerma standards worldwide and potentially for the choice of graphite I-value and density correction for the calculation of the graphite stopping power, as well as the value of (W/e)air.

  2. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If...

  3. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If...

  4. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If...

  5. Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2014-07-01

    Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic.

  6. CORSIKA implementation of heavy quark production and propagation in extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, A.; Gascón, A.

    2014-02-01

    Heavy quarks are commonly produced in current accelerator experiments. Hence it is natural to think that they should be likewise created in collisions with larger center of mass energies like the ones involving ultra-high energy cosmic rays and atmospheric nuclei. Despite this fact, a detailed treatment of heavy hadrons is missing in Monte Carlo generators of Extensive Air Showers (EAS). It is a must to improve the description of how heavy flavors appear and evolve in atmospheric showers. With this goal in mind, we study two different models for heavy quark production in proton-air collisions. We also analyze a dedicated treatment of heavy hadrons interactions with atmospheric nuclei. This paper shows how those models have been implemented as new options available in CORSIKA, one of the most used EAS simulators. This new computational tool allows us to analyze the effects that the propagation of heavy hadrons has in the EAS development.

  7. Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianxiong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Daosheng; Wang, Xiaocong; Song, Jing; Liu, Dongqi

    This study investigated the feasibility of coupling a catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), with CuO/Al 2O 3 as catalyst, and an anaerobic/aerobic biological process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production. Results showed that the CWAO enhanced the biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) from 0.10 to 0.80. The oxidized effluents with COD of 10,000 mg l -1 was subjected to subsequent continuous anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and 99.3% of total COD removal was achieved. The quality of the effluent obtained met the discharge standards of water pollutants for pharmaceutical industry Chemical Synthesis Products Category (GB21904-2008), and thereby it implies that the integrated CWAO and anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment may offer a promising process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production.

  8. Development of Level 3 (gridded) products for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, Stephanie L.; Leroy, Stephen S.; Manning, Evan M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Oliphant, Robert B.; Braverman, Amy; Lee, Sung-Yung; Lambrigtsen, Bjom H.

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) sounding system is a suite of infrared and microwave instruments flown as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) onboard the Aqua platform. The AIRS dataset provides a daily, global view of Earth processes at a finer vertical resolution than ever before. However, analysis of the AIRS data is a daunting task given the sheer volume and complexity of the data. The volume of data produced by the EOS project is unprecedented; the AIRS project alone will produce many terabytes of data over the lifetime of the mission. This paper describes development of AIRS Level 3 data products that will help to alleviate problems of access and usability.

  9. Demonstration of AIRS Total Ozone Products to Operations to Enhance User Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cyclogenesis is a key forecast challenge at operational forecasting centers such as WPC and OPC, so these centers have a particular interest in unique products that can identify key storm features. In some cases, explosively developing extratropical cyclones can produce hurricane force, non-convective winds along the East Coast and north Atlantic as well as the Pacific Ocean, with the potential to cause significant damage to life and property. Therefore, anticipating cyclogenesis for these types of storms is crucial for furthering the NOAA goal of a "Weather Ready Nation". Over the last few years, multispectral imagery (i.e. RGB) products have gained popularity among forecasters. The GOES-R satellite champion at WPC/OPC has regularly evaluated the Air Mass RGB products from GOES Sounder, MODIS, and SEVIRI to aid in forecasting cyclogenesis as part of ongoing collaborations with SPoRT within the framework of the GOES-R Proving Ground. WPC/OPC has used these products to identify regions of stratospheric air associated with tropopause folds that can lead to cyclogenesis and hurricane force winds. RGB products combine multiple channels or channel differences into multi-color imagery in which different colors represent a particular cloud or air mass type. Initial interaction and feedback from forecasters evaluating the legacy Air Mass RGBs revealed some uncertainty regarding what physical processes the qualitative RGB products represent and color interpretation. To enhance forecaster confidence and interpretation of the Air Mass RGB, NASA SPoRT has transitioned a total column ozone product from AIRS retrievals to the WPC/OPC. The use of legacy AIRS demonstrates future JPSS capabilities possible with CrIS or OMPS. Since stratospheric air can be identified by anomalous potential vorticity and warm, dry, ozone-rich air, hyperspectral infrared sounder ozone products can be used in conjunction with the Air Mass RGB for identifying the role of stratospheric air in explosive

  10. Hydrocarbon Observations and Ozone Production Rates in Western Houston During the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Spicer, Chet W.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2005-06-01

    Measurements of total non-methane hydrocarbon in whole air canisters collected from the top of a skyscraper on the western edge of Houston, Texas are summarized with an emphasis on samples collected during the passage of plumes of O{sub 3} and the associated rapid increase in the mixing ratio of this species. The back-trajectories associated with these events showed a pronounced deceleration of air parcels over central and western Houston and were not necessarily associated with direct passage over the petrochemical plants located in the heavily industrialized eastern part of Houston. As a result of the time these air parcels spent over the central and western parts of Houston, their VOC mix and associated chemical production rates were expected to differ from similar observations made over eastern Houston from aircraft sampling at low altitudes. Although periods of high O{sub 3} in the western part of the city were closely associated with light alkenes, these same observations show isoprene to make a significant contribution to the total VOC reactivity in the early afternoon (the start of peak photochemical activity) in contrast to observations made east of our sampling site that found the reactivity to be dominated by anthropogenic species. By initializing a 0-dimensional chemical kinetic model with observations made at the Williams Tower, we find that the ozone production efficiency scaled linearly to the ratio of total hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}, with an average OPE of 7.2, ranging from 2.3 to 16.9; these values are smaller than those reported in eastern Houston, suggesting a strong gradient in photochemical productivity across the city.

  11. Indoor air pollutants from household-product sources: Project report

    SciTech Connect

    Sack, T.M.; Steele, D.H.

    1991-09-01

    A Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GS/MS) data base obtained during the analysis of 1,159 household products for six common chlorocarbon solvents has been reanalyzed for the presence and concentration of 25 additional chemicals. Using computerized GS/MS software, 1,043 of the original GC/MS data files were recovered and analyzed for the presence of the additional chemicals. Of the 25 additional chemicals, those found most frequently in the household products include acetone (315 products), 2-butanone (200 products), methylcyclohexane (150 products), toluene (488 products), ethylbenzene (157 products), m-xylene (101 products), and o.p-xylene (93 products). A total of 63.6% of the products analyzed in the study contained one or more of the 25 additional analytes at concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1% by weight. The quantitative information presented in the report is also available on diskette in a spreadsheet format.

  12. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles.

  13. Improved Ethanol Production from Xylose by Candida shehatae Induced by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Air Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huixia; Xiu, Zhilong; Bai, Fengwu

    2014-06-01

    Xylose fermentation is essential for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Exposure of the xylose-fermenting yeast Candida shehatae (C. shehatae) CICC1766 to atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma yields a clone (designated as C81015) with stability, which exhibits a higher ethanol fermentation rate from xylose, giving a maximal enhancement in ethanol production of 36.2% compared to the control (untreated). However, the biomass production of C81015 is lower than that of the control. Analysis of the NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)- and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-linked xylose reductases and NAD+-linked xylitol dehydrogenase indicates that their activities are enhanced by 34.1%, 61.5% and 66.3%, respectively, suggesting that the activities of these three enzymes are responsible for improving ethanol fermentation in C81015 with xylose as a substrate. The results of this study show that DBD air plasma could serve as a novel and effective means of generating microbial strains that can better use xylose for ethanol fermentation.

  14. DEVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR TESTING INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development of a framework for testing products used indoors for appropriate environmental attributes, as part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. Test protocols are being established for products that fit into three categories: ...

  15. SRT Evaluation of AIRS Version-6.02 and Version-6.02 AIRS Only (6.02 AO) Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Molnar, Gyula; Blaisdell, John

    2012-01-01

    Version-6 contains a number of significant improvements over Version-5. This report compares Version-6 products resulting from the advances listed below to those from Version-5. 1. Improved methodology to determine skin temperature (T(sub s)) and spectral emissivity (Epsilon(sub v)). 2. Use of Neural-net start-up state. 3. Improvements which decrease the spurious negative Version-5 trend in tropospheric temperatures. 4. Improved QC methodology. Version-6 uses separate QC thresholds optimized for Data Assimilation (QC=0) and Climate applications (QC=0,1) respectively. 5. Channel-by-channel clear-column radiances R-hat(sub tau) QC flags. 6. Improved cloud parameter retrieval algorithm. 7. Improved OLR RTA. Our evaluation compared V6.02 and V6.02 AIRS Only (V6.02 AO) Quality Controlled products with those of Version-5.0. In particular we evaluated surface skin temperature T(sub s), surface spectral emissivity Epsilon(sub v), temperature profile T(p), water vapor profile q(p), OLR, OLR(sub CLR), effective cloud fraction alpha-Epsilon, and cloud cleared radiances R-hat(sub tau) . We conducted two types of evaluations. The first compared results on 7 focus days to collocated ECMWF truth. The seven focus days are: September 6, 2002; January 25, 2003; September 29, 2004; August 5, 2005; February 24, 2007; August 10, 2007; and May 30, 2010. In these evaluations, we show results for T(sub s), Epsilon(sub v), T(p), and q(p) in terms of yields, and RMS differences and biases with regard to ECMWF. We also show yield trends as well as bias trends of these quantities relative to ECMWF truth. We also show yields and accuracy of channel by channel QC d values of R-hat(sub tau) for V6.02 and V6.02 AO. Version-5 did not contain channel by channel QC d values of R-hat(sub tau). In the second type of evaluation, we compared V6.03 monthly mean Level-3 products to those of Version-5.0, for four different months: January, April, July, and October; in 3 different years 2003, 2007, and 2011

  16. 75 FR 31223 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... method for crediting heat pumps that provide a demand defrost capability. 53 FR 8304. The next revision... Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 105... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Central Air Conditioners and...

  17. Carbonyl atmospheric reaction products of aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermeyer, Genevieve; Aschmann, Sara M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet

    To convert gaseous carbonyls to oximes during sampling, an XAD-4 resin denuder system pre-coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine and followed by analysis with methane positive chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure carbonyls in ambient air samples in Riverside, CA. In conjunction with similar analyses of environmental chamber OH radical-initiated reactions of o- and p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, ethylbenzene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 1,4-butanediol, we identified benzaldehyde, o-, m- and p-tolualdehyde and acetophenone and the dicarbonyls glyoxal, methylglyoxal, biacetyl, ethylglyoxal, 1,4-butenedial, 3-hexene-2,5-dione, 3-oxo-butanal, 1,4-butanedial and malonaldehyde in the ambient air samples. As discussed, these carbonyls and dicarbonyls can be formed from the OH radical-initiated reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons and other volatile organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere, and we conclude that in situ atmospheric formation is a major source of these carbonyls in our Riverside, CA, ambient air samples.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - AIR PURATOR CORPORATION HUYGLAS 1405M FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  19. Differential Instructional Productivity Indices. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Allan M.

    A set of weighting factors on student credit hour production by discipline was developed so that instructional productivity could be equitably compared across disparate disciplines and within disciplines. The new statistical methodology was applied to 3 years of teaching load data from 21 major public universities (the Southern University Group…

  20. Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes: A Three Dimensional View

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Jagjit; Allu, Srikanth; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Dudney, Nancy J; Pannala, Sreekanth; Veith, Gabriel M; Voisin, Sophie; Walker, Lakeisha MH; Archibald, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    Using neutron tomographic imaging we report for the first time three dimensional spatial distribution of lithium product distribution in electrochemically discharged Lithium-Air cathodes. Neutron imaging finds a non-uniform lithium product distribution across the electrode thickness; the lithium species concentration being higher near the edges of the Li-air electrode and relatively uniform in the center of the electrode. The experimental neutron images were analyzed in context of results obtained from 3D modeling of the spatial lithium product distribution using a kinetically coupled diffusion based transport model that accounts for the dynamical reaction rate dependence on the discharge product formation, porosity changes and mass transfer.

  1. Health and productivity benefits of improved indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, C.B.; Dorgan, C.E.; Kanarek, M.S.; Willman, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    This paper is a summary of two studies completed for a national contractor`s association on the health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The original study documented the general health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The second study expanded the scope to include medical cost reductions for specific illnesses from improved IAQ. General information on the objectives, assumptions, definitions, and results of the studies are presented, followed by detailed information on research methodology, building inventory and wellness categories, health and medical effects of poor IAQ, health cost benefits, productivity benefits, recommended improvements, and conclusions and future improvements.

  2. Thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of gaseous products resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Results of calculations to determine thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of combustion product gases are presented. The product gases are those resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures. The oxygen content of products resulting from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures was similiar to that of air; however, the oxygen contained in products of methane-oxygen combustion ranged from 20 percent by volume to zero for stoichiometric combustion. Calculations were made for products of reactant mixtures with fuel percentages, by mass, of 7.5 to 20. Results are presented for specific mixtures for a range of pressures varying from 0.0001 to 1,000 atm and for temperatures ranging from 200 to 3,800 K.

  3. Molecular dynamics shows that ion pairing and counterion anchoring control the properties of triflate micelles: a comparison with triflate at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Lima, Filipe S; Chaimovich, Hernan; Cuccovia, Iolanda M; Horinek, Dominik

    2014-02-11

    Micellar properties of dodecyltrimethylammonium triflate (DTA-triflate, DTATf) are very different from those of DTA-bromide (DTAB). DTATf aggregates show high aggregation numbers (Nagg), low degree of counterion dissociation (α), disk-like shape, high packing, ordering, and low hydration. These micellar properties and the low surface tension of NaTf aqueous solutions point to a high affinity of Tf(-) to the micellar and air/water interfaces. Although the micellar properties of DTATf are well defined, the source of the Tf(-) effect upon the DTA aggregates is unclear. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Tf(-) (and Br(-)) at the air/water interface and as counterion of a DTA aggregate were performed to clarify the nature of Tf(-) preferences for these interfaces. The effect of NaTf or NaBr on surface tension calculated from MD simulations agreed with the reported experimental values. From the MD simulations a high affinity of Tf(-) toward the interface, which occurred in a specific orientation, was calculated. The micellar properties calculated from the MD simulations for DTATf and DTAB were consistent with experimental data: in MD simulations, the DTATf aggregate was more ordered, packed, and dehydrated than the DTAB aggregate. The Tf(-)/alkyltrimethylammonium interaction energies, calculated from the MD simulations, suggested ion pair formation at the micellar interface, stabilized by the preferential orientation of the adsorbed Tf(-) at the micellar interface.

  4. Ozone production by a dc corona discharge in air contaminated by n-heptane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekárek, S.

    2008-01-01

    Beneficial purposes of ozone such as elimination of odours, harmful bacteria and mildew can be used for transportation of food, fruits and vegetables with the aim to extend their storage life. To date the main technique used for this purpose in the transportation of these commodities, e.g. by trucks, was cooling. Here a combination of cooling together with the supply of ozone into containers with these commodities is considered. For these purposes we studied the effect of air contamination by n-heptane (part of automotive fuels) and humidity on ozone production by a dc hollow needle to mesh corona discharge. We found that, for both polarities of the needle electrode, addition of n-heptane to air (a) decreases ozone production; (b) causes discharge poisoning to occur at lower current than for air; (c) does not substantially influence the current for which the ozone production reaches the maximum. Finally the maximum ozone production for the discharge in air occurs for the same current as the maximum ozone production for the discharge contaminated by n-heptane. We also found that humidity decreases ozone production from air contaminated by n-heptane irrespective of the polarity of the coronating needle electrode. This dependence is stronger for the discharge with the needle biased positively.

  5. Environmental footprints show China and Europe’s evolving resource appropriation for soybean production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Johnson, Mark S.; Galford, Gillian L.; Couto, Eduardo G.

    2014-07-01

    Mato Grosso has become the center of Brazil’s soybean industry, with production located across an agricultural frontier expanding into savanna and rainforest biomes. We present environmental footprints of soybean production in Mato Grosso and resource flows accompanying exports to China and Europe for the 2000s using five indicators: deforestation, land footprint (LF), carbon footprint (CF), water footprint (WF), and nutrient footprints. Soybean production was associated with 65% of the state’s deforestation, and 14-17% of total Brazilian land use change carbon emissions. The decade showed two distinct production systems illustrated by resources used in the first and second half of the decade. Deforestation and carbon footprint declined 70% while land, water, and nutrient footprints increased almost 30% between the two periods. These differences coincided with a shift in Mato Grosso’s export destination. Between 2006 and 2010, China surpassed Europe in soybean imports when production was associated with 97 m2 deforestation yr-1 ton-1 of soybean, a LF of 0.34 ha yr-1 ton-1, a carbon footprint of 4.6 ton CO2-eq yr-1 ton-1, a WF of 1908 m3 yr-1 ton-1, and virtual phosphorous and potassium of 5.0 kg P yr-1 ton-1 and 0.0042 g K yr-1 ton-1. Mato Grosso constructs soil fertility via phosphorous and potassium fertilizer sourced from third party countries and imported into the region. Through the soybean produced, Mato Grosso then exports both water derived from its abundant, seasonal precipitation and nutrients obtained from fertilizer. In 2010, virtual water flows were 10.3 km3 yr-1 to China and 4.1 km3 yr-1 to Europe. The total embedded nutrient flows to China were 2.12 Mtons yr-1 and 2.85 Mtons yr-1 to Europe. As soybean production grows with global demand, the role of Mato Grosso’s resource use and production vulnerabilities highlight the challenges with meeting future international food security needs.

  6. Proctor & Gamble: Compressed Air System Upgrade Saves Energy & Improves Production at a Paper Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2004-05-01

    In 2002, Procter & Gamble applied a system-level strategy to optimize a compressed air system at its paper products mill in Mehoopany, Pennsylvania. The project improved production, improved system performance, and saved 7.6 million kWh per year and $309,000 per year in maintenance costs.

  7. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... for hazardous air pollutants for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending the... Aluminum Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of extension of public..., as well as review the test data for Group I furnaces. DATES: Comments. The public comment period...

  8. A comparison of radon and its decay products' behaviour in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, R; Cardellini, F; Leonardi, F; Vargas Trassierra, C; Franci, D

    2014-11-01

    The inhalation of short-lived radon decay products (RDP) yields the greatest contribution to the natural radiation exposure. This paper deals with a study carried out to improve the knowledge of the behaviour of RDPs, their interaction with particulates and the plateout during the time. The tests confirmed that a high aerosol particle concentration increases the probability that an ion sticks to aerosol and remains long in the air, leading to both an increase of F and a decrease of fp, as reported in the literature. The same experimental protocol applied in a small radon chamber showed a strong reduction of the equilibrium factor (an average of ∼10 %), because in a small environment the plateout phenomenon prevails on the attachment to particulate.

  9. The Utility of the OMI HCHO and NO2 Data Products in Air Quality Decision- Making Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.

    2010-01-01

    We will present three related air quality applications of the OMI HCHO (formaldehyde) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) data products, which we us to support mission planning of an OMI-like instrument for the proposed GEO-CAPE satellite that has as one of its objectives to study air quality from space. First, we will discuss a novel and practical application of the data products to the "weight of evidence" in the air quality decision-making process (e.g., State Implementation Plan (SIP)) for a city, region, or state to demonstrate that it is making progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Any trend, or lack thereof, in the observed OMI HCHO/NO2, which we use as an air quality indicator, may support that an emission control strategy implemented to reduce ozone is or is not occurring for a metropolitan area. Second, we will discuss how we use variations in the OMI HCHO product as a proxy for variability in the biogenic hydrocarbon, isoprene, which is an important player for the formation of high levels of ozone and the dominant source of HCHO in the eastern U.S. Third, we will discuss the variability of NO2 in the U.S. as indicated by the OMI NO2 product. In addition, we will show the impact of the 2005 hurricanes on pollutant emissions, including those associated with the intensive oil extraction and refining activities, in the Gulf of Mexico region using the OMI NO2 product. The variability of HCHO and NO2 as indicated by OMI helps us to understand changes in the OMI HCHO/NO2 and the implications for ozone formation.

  10. Appropriate nonwoven filters effectively capture human peripheral blood cells and mesenchymal stem cells, which show enhanced production of growth factors.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hideo; Iwamoto, Ushio; Niimi, Gen; Shinzato, Masanori; Hiki, Yoshiyuki; Tokushima, Yasuo; Kawaguchi, Kazunori; Ohashi, Atsushi; Nakai, Shigeru; Yasutake, Mikitomo; Kitaguchi, Nobuya

    2015-03-01

    Scaffolds, growth factors, and cells are three essential components in regenerative medicine. Nonwoven filters, which capture cells, provide a scaffold that localizes and concentrates cells near injured tissues. Further, the cells captured on the filters are expected to serve as a local supply of growth factors. In this study, we investigated the growth factors produced by cells captured on nonwoven filters. Nonwoven filters made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA), or chitin (1.2-22 μm fiber diameter) were cut out as 13 mm disks and placed into cell-capturing devices. Human mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissues (h-ASCs) and peripheral blood cells (h-PBCs) were captured on the filter and cultured to evaluate growth factor production. The cell-capture rates strongly depended on the fiber diameter and the number of filter disks. Nonwoven filter disks were composed of PET or PLA fibers with fiber diameters of 1.2-1.8 μm captured over 70% of leukocytes or 90% of h-ASCs added. The production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor β1, and platelet-derived growth factor AB were significantly enhanced by the h-PBCs captured on PET or PLA filters. h-ASCs on PLA filters showed significantly enhanced production of VEGF. These enhancements varied with the combination of the nonwoven filter and cells. Because of the enhanced growth factor production, the proliferation of human fibroblasts increased in conditioned medium from h-PBCs on PET filters. This device consisting of nonwoven filters and cells should be investigated further for possible use in the regeneration of impaired tissues.

  11. MODIS aerosol product at 3 km spatial resolution for urban and air quality studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Holben, B. N.; Smirnov, A.

    2008-12-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites has been producing an aerosol product since early 2000. The original product reports aerosol optical depth and a variety of other aerosol parameters at a spatial resolution of 10 km over both land and ocean. The 10 km product is actually constructed from 500 m pixels, which permits a strict selection process to choose the "best" or "cleanest" pixels in each 10 km square for use in the aerosol retrieval. Thus, the original 10 km product provides a useful product, accurate in many applications. However, the 10 km product can miss narrow aerosol plumes and the spatial variability associated with urban air pollution. The MODIS aerosol team will be introducing a finer resolution aerosol product over land regions in the next release of the product (Collection 6). The new product will be produced at 3 km resolution. It is based on the same procedures as the original product and benefits from the same spatial variability criteria for finding and masking cloudy pixels. The 3 km product does capture the higher spatial variability associated with individual aerosol plumes. However, it is noisier than the 10 km product. Both products will be available operationally in Collection 6. The new 3km product offers new synergistic possibilities with PM2.5 monitoring networks, AERONET and various air quality models such as CMAQ.

  12. Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting Applications of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, Shobha

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched on October 28, 2011. It provides Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at two different spatial resolutions: a pixel level (~750 m at nadir) product called the Intermediate Product (IP) and an aggregated (~6 km at nadir) product called the Environmental Data Record (EDR), and a Suspended Matter (SM) EDR that provides aerosol type (dust, smoke, sea salt, and volcanic ash) information. An extensive validation of VIIRS best quality aerosol products with ground based L1.5 Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) data shows that the AOT EDR product has an accuracy/precision of -0.01/0.11 and 0.01/0.08 over land and ocean respectively. Globally, VIIRS mean AOT EDR (0.20) is similar to Aqua MODIS (0.16) with some important regional and seasonal differences. The accuracy of the SM product, however, is found to be very low (20 percent) when compared to Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and AERONET. Several algorithm updates which include a better approach to retrieve surface reflectance have been developed for AOT retrieval. For dust aerosol type retrieval, a new approach that takes advantage of spectral dependence of Rayleigh scattering, surface reflectance, dust absorption in the deep blue (412 nm), blue (440 nm), and mid-IR (2.2 um) has been developed that detects dust with an accuracy of ~80 percent. For smoke plume identification, a source apportionment algorithm that combines fire hot spots with AOT imagery has been developed that provides smoke plume extent with an accuracy of ~70 percent. The VIIRS aerosol products will provide continuity to the current operational use of aerosol products from Aqua and Terra MODIS. These include aerosol data assimilation in Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) global aerosol model, verification of National Weather Service (NWS) dust and smoke forecasts, exceptional events monitoring by different states

  13. Level 1B products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, H. H.; Overoye, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. A discussion is given of the objectives of the AIRS experiment, including requirements on the data products. We summarize the instrument characteristics, including sensitivity, noise, and spectral response, and preflight calibration results leading to the estimate of the calibration accuracy. The Level 1B calibration algorithm is presented as well as the results of in-flight stability and sensitivity measurements.

  14. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study.

  15. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study. PMID:25466683

  16. Divergent effects of T cell costimulation and inflammatory cytokine production on autoimmune peripheral neuropathy provoked by Aire deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaopei L; Nagavalli, Anil; Smith, Colin-Jamal; Howard, James F; Su, Maureen A

    2013-04-15

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy results from autoimmune destruction of the peripheral nervous system and is a component of the multiorgan autoimmunity syndrome that results from Aire gene mutations in humans. In parallel, peripheral nervous system autoimmunity resembling chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy develops spontaneously in NOD mice with a partial loss of Aire function (NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice) and is a T cell-mediated disease. In this study, we analyze how key aspects of T cell activation and function modulate disease development in Aire-deficient mice. We show that genetic ablation of the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ completely prevents clinical and electrophysiological evidence of neuropathy in NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice. IFN-γ deficiency is associated with absence of immune infiltration and decreased expression of the T cell chemoattractant IP-10 in sciatic nerves. Thus, IFN-γ is absolutely required for the development of autoimmune peripheral neuropathy in NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice. Because IFN-γ secretion is enhanced by B7-CD28 costimulation of T cells, we sought to determine the effects of these costimulatory molecules on neuropathy development. Surprisingly, B7-2 deficiency accelerated neuropathy development in NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice, and Ab blockade of both B7-1 and B7-2 resulted in fulminant, early-onset neuropathy. Thus, in contrast to IFN-γ, B7-2 alone and B7-1/B7-2 in combination function to ameliorate neuropathy development in NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice. Together, these findings reveal distinct and opposing effects of the T cell costimulatory pathway and IFN-γ production on the pathogenesis of autoimmune peripheral neuropathy.

  17. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability.

  18. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

  19. Graphite fiber brush anodes for increased power production in air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Logan, Bruce; Cheng, Shaoan; Watson, Valerie; Estadt, Garett

    2007-05-01

    To efficiently generate electricity using bacteria in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), highly conductive noncorrosive materials are needed that have a high specific surface area (surface area per volume) and an open structure to avoid biofouling. Graphite brush anodes, consisting of graphite fibers wound around a conductive, but noncorrosive metal core, were examined for power production in cube (C-MFC) and bottle (B-MFC) air-cathode MFCs. Power production in C-MFCs containing brush electrodes at 9600 m2/m3 reactor volume reached a maximum power density of 2400 mW/m2 (normalized to the cathode projected surface area), or 73 W/m3 based on liquid volume, with a maximum Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 60%. This power density, normalized by cathode projected area, is the highest value yet achieved by an air-cathode system. The increased power resulted from a reduction in internal resistance from 31 to 8 Q. Brush electrodes (4200 m2/m3) were also tested in B-MFCs, consisting of a laboratory media bottle modified to have a single side arm with a cathode clamped to its end. B-MFCs inoculated with wastewater produced up to 1430 mW/m2 (2.3 W/m3, CE = 23%) with brush electrodes, versus 600 mW/m2 with a plain carbon paper electrode. These findings show that brush anodes that have high surface areas and a porous structure can produce high power densities, and therefore have qualities that make them ideal for scaling up MFC systems.

  20. Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli show strain dependent reductions under dry-fermented sausage production and post-processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Rode, Tone Mari; Holck, Askild; Axelsson, Lars; Høy, Martin; Heir, Even

    2012-04-16

    Dry-fermented sausages (DFS) are considered possible risk products regarding Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC). We have compared the reduction of 11 E. coli isolates of various serogroups in salami during the sausage production process and during post-process measures including storage, heating and freezing. The 11 E. coli isolates, mainly STEC, included enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) outbreak strains linked to DFS along with apathogenic E. coli. During sausage production, there was a statistically significant difference in reduction between the E. coli strains ranging from 1.3 to 2.4 log₁₀ (p<0.001). When sausages were subjected to post-process heat treatment of 43 °C for 24 h, a total reduction of more than 5 log₁₀ was obtained for all E. coli isolates. Freezing and thawing of DFS with subsequent storage for 1 month at 16 or 20 °C generally contributed to large E. coli reductions with the latter conditions giving an average additional 3.9 log₁₀ reduction, with a range from 3.4 to 4.4 log₁₀. The combination of freezing and 1 month of storage gave higher reductions compared with storage for 2 months for all examined temperatures. No systematic differences in survival of E. coli of different serogroups were detected for the different post-process measures. The reductions were also similar to those of apathogenic control isolates. Isolates showing higher survival during the ripening process did not have a lower reduction when exposed to post-process stress like storage, heating and freezing. The ability of the isolates to survive in salami was also compared with their survival at equivalent conditions in a tryptic soy broth (TSB) model. There was a low and not significant correlation (p>0.1) between the reductions of E. coli in salami and in the TSB broth model. Results based on broth models and/or single or surrogate strains must therefore be interpreted with caution. The EHEC reducing post-processing measures tested can easily be

  1. Pulsed-flow air classification for waste to energy production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peirce, J.J.; Vesilind, P.A.

    1983-09-30

    The development and testing of pulsed-flow air classification for waste-to-energy production are discussed. Standard designs generally permit large amounts of combustible material to escape as reject while producing a fuel that is high in metal and glass contaminants. Pulsed-flow classification is presented as a concept which can avoid both pitfalls. Each aspect of theory and laboratory testing is summarized: particle characteristics, theory of pulsed-flow classification, laboratory testing, and pulsed-flow air classification for waste-to-energy production. Conclusions from the research are summarized.

  2. Maps showing petroleum exploration intensity and production in major Cambrian to Ordovician reservoir rocks in the Anadarko Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Mitch; Hester, Tim

    1996-01-01

    The Anadarko basin is a large, deep, two-stage Paleozoic basin (Feinstein, 1981) that is petroleum rich and generally well explored. The Anadarko basin province, a geogrphic area used here mostly for the convenience of mapping and data management, is defined by political boundaries that include the Anadarko basin proper. The boundaries of the province are identical to those used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1995 National Assessment of United Stated Oil and Gas Resources. The data in this report, also identical to those used in the national assessment, are from several computerized data bases including Nehring Research Group (NRG) Associates Inc., Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States (1992); Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Well History Control System (1991); and Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Petro-ROM: Production data on CD-ROM (1993). Although generated mostly in response to the national assessment, the data presented here arc grouped differently and arc displayed and described in greater detail. In addition, the stratigraphic sequences discussed may not necessarily correlate with the "plays" of the 1995 national assessment. This report uses computer-generated maps to show drilling intensity, producing wells, major fields, and other geologic information relevant to petroleum exploration and production in the lower Paleozoic part of the Anadarko basin province as defined for the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 national petroleum assessment. Hydrocarbon accumulations must meet a minimum standard of 1 million barrels of oil (MMBO) or 6 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) estimated ultimate recovery to be included in this report as a major field or revoir. Mapped strata in this report include the Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Arbuckle and Low Ordovician Ellenburger Groups, the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, and the Middle to Upper Ordovician Viola Group.

  3. Phenol production in benzene/air plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Role of radical and ionic routes.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Daniela; Franceschi, Pietro; Guella, Graziano; Tosi, Paolo

    2006-06-29

    Benzene can be efficiently converted into phenol when it is treated by either corona or dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas operating at atmospheric pressure in air or mixtures of N(2) and O(2). Phenol produced by corona discharge in an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (APCI) has been detected as the corresponding radical cation C(6)H(5)OH(+*) at m/z 94 by an ion trap mass spectrometer. On the other hand, phenol has been observed also as neutral product by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS) after treatment in a DBD plasma. Experiments aimed at shading light on the elementary processes responsible for benzene oxidation were carried out (i) by changing the composition of the gas in the corona discharge source; (ii) by using isotopically labeled reagents; and (iii) by investigating some relevant ion-molecule reactions (i.e. C(6)H(6)(+*) + O(2), C(6)H(5)(+) + O(2)) via selected guided ion beam measurements and with the help of ab initio calculations. The results of our approach show that ionic mechanisms do not play a significant role in phenol production, which can be better explained by radical reactions resulting in oxygen addition to the benzene ring followed by 1,2 H transfer.

  4. Stationary source sampling report: Ambient and source volatile organic compound testing, Production air stripper unit 1 (PASU-1) and pilot air stripper (PAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-05

    Tests were performed to measure the ambient concentrations of perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in the A/M area and to determine, for compliance purposes, the emissions and concentrations of those compounds issued from the Production Air Stripper Unit 1 (PASU-1) column and from the Pilot Air Stripper (PAS) column.

  5. An experimental quantification of the NOX production efficiency of energetic alpha particles in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Cooray, Vernon; Possnert, Göran; Nyberg, Johan

    2006-07-01

    An experimental study on the production of NOX by alpha particles impact in air at atmospheric pressure is presented. A mixed radioactive source of 208Po and 209Po with an integrated activity of 9.6 MBq over a solid angle of 2π and an average alpha particle energy of 4.5 MeV was used for ionization of atmospheric air in an airtight chamber and the NOX production was measured by the chemiluminescence method. The NOX production rate is found to be about 1.2 NOX molecules per ion-pair. The NOX production efficiency per Joule of dissipated energy is calculated to be 20×1016 NOX molecules per Joule. This efficiency is comparable to that of hot laboratory sparks discharges.

  6. Considering the air quality impacts of bioenergy crop production: a case study involving Arundo donax.

    PubMed

    Porter, William C; Barsanti, Kelley C; Baughman, Eowyn C; Rosenstiel, Todd N

    2012-09-01

    The expanding production of bioenergy crops may impact regional air quality through the production of volatile organic compounds such as isoprene. To investigate the effects of isoprene-emitting crops on air quality, specifically ozone (O(3)) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, we performed a series of model runs using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) simulating a proposed cropland conversion to the giant cane Arundo donax for biomass production. Cultivation of A. donax in the relatively clean air of northeastern Oregon resulted in an average increase in 8 h O(3) levels of 0.52 ppb, while SOA was largely unaffected (<+0.01 μg m(-3)). Conversions in U.S. regions with reduced air quality (eastern Texas and northern Illinois) resulted in average 8 h O(3) increases of 2.46 and 3.97 ppb, respectively, with daily increases up to 15 ppb in the Illinois case, and daytime SOA increases up to 0.57 μg m(-3). While cultivation of isoprene-emitting bioenergy crops may be appropriate at some scales and in some regions, other areas may experience increased O(3) and SOA, highlighting the need to consider isoprene emissions when evaluating potential regional impacts of bioenergy crop production.

  7. Wind Tunnel Evaluation of Vegetative Buffer Effects on Air Flow near Swine Production Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing concerns about generation and transport of swine odor constituents have substantiated wind tunnel simulation studies on air flow dynamics near swine production facilities. A possible odor mitigation strategy is a forest vegetative buffer as a windbreak barrier near swine facilities becaus...

  8. Compressed Air System Retrofitting Project Improves Productivity at a Foundry (Cast Masters, Bowling Green, OH)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-06-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  9. Air Pollutant Emissions from Oil and Gas Production pads (Investigating Low Cost Passive Samplers)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help achieve the goal of sustainable, environmentally responsible development of oil and gas resources, it isnecessary to understand the potential for air pollutant emissions from various extraction and production (E&P)processes at the upstream, wellpad level. Upstream oil and...

  10. AIRS Version 6 Products and Data Services at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Hearty, T. J.; Theobald, M. L.; Vollmer, B.; Esfandiari, E.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission. The AIRS mission is entering its 11th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing longwave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the Version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. Among the most substantial advances are: improved soundings of Tropospheric and Sea Surface Temperatures; larger improvements with increasing cloud cover; improved retrievals of surface spectral emissivity; near-complete removal of spurious temperature bias trends seen in earlier versions; substantially improved retrieval yield (i.e., number of soundings accepted for output) for climate studies; AIRS-Only retrievals with comparable accuracy to AIRS+AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit) retrievals; and more realistic hemispheric seasonal variability and global distribution of carbon monoxide. The GES DISC is working to bring the distribution services up-to-date with these new developments. Our focus is on popular services, like variable subsetting and quality screening, which are impacted by the new elements in Version 6. Other developments in visualization services, such as Giovanni, Near-Real Time imagery, and a granule-map viewer, are progressing along with the introduction of the new data; each service presents its own challenge. This presentation will demonstrate the most significant improvements in Version 6 AIRS products, such as newly added variables (higher resolution outgoing longwave radiation, new cloud property products, etc.), the new quality control schema, and improved retrieval yields. We will also

  11. Increased Stability Toward Oxygen Reduction Products for Lithium-Air Batteries with Oligoether-Functionalized Silane Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Lu, Jun; Assary, Rajeev S.; Du, Peng; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Sun, Yang-Kook; Qin, Yan; Lau, Kah Chun; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Redfern, Paul C.; Iddir, Hakim; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2011-12-29

    The successful development of Li-air batteries would significantly increase the possibility of extending the range of electric vehicles. There is much evidence that typical organic carbonate based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries form lithium carbonates from reaction with oxygen reduction products during discharge in lithium-air cells so more stable electrolytes need to be found. This combined experimental and computational study of an electrolyte based on a tri(ethylene glycol)-substituted trimethylsilane (1NM3) provides evidence that the ethers are more stable toward oxygen reduction discharge species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FTIR experiments show that only lithium oxides and no carbonates are formed when 1NM3 electrolyte is used. In contrast XPS shows that propylene carbonate (PC) in the same cell configuration decomposes to form lithium carbonates during discharge. Density functional calculations of probable decomposition reaction pathways involving solvated oxygen reduction species confirm that oligoether substituted silanes, as well as other ethers, are more stable to the oxygen reduction products than propylene carbonate. These results indicate that the choice of electrolyte plays a key role in the performance of Li-air batteries.

  12. The use of MODIS data and aerosol products for air quality prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Keith D.; Smith, Solar; Faruqui, Shazia

    2004-09-01

    The Center for Space Research (CSR) is exploring new approaches to integrate data collected by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, flown on NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, into a real-time prediction methodology to support operational air quality forecasts issued by the Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). Air pollution is a widespread problem in the United States, with over 130 million individuals exposed to levels of air pollution that exceed one or more health-based standards. Texas air quality is under assault by a variety of anthropogenic sources associated with a rapidly growing population along with increases in emissions from the diesel engines that drive international trade between the US and Central America. The challenges of meeting air quality standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency are further impacted by the transport of pollution into Texas that originates from outside its borders and are cumulative with those generated by local sources. In an earlier study, CSR demonstrated the value of MODIS imagery and aerosol products for monitoring ozone-laden pollution that originated in the central US before migrating into Texas and causing TCEQ to issue a health alert for 150 counties. Now, data from this same event are re-analyzed in an attempt to predict air quality from MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations. The results demonstrate a method to forecast air quality from remotely sensed satellite observations when the transient pollution can be isolated from local sources. These pollution sources can be separated using TCEQ's network of ground-based Continuous Air quality Monitoring (CAM) stations.

  13. Occupational exposure to acrylamide in closed system production plants: air levels and biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Moorman, William J; Reutman, Susan S; Shaw, Peter B; Blade, Leo Michael; Marlow, David; Vesper, Hubert; Clark, John C; Schrader, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biomarkers of acrylamide exposure, including hemoglobin adducts and urinary metabolites in acrylamide production workers. Biomarkers are integrated measures of the internal dose, and it is total acrylamide dose from all routes and sources that may present health risks. Workers from three companies were studied. Workers potentially exposed to acrylamide monomer wore personal breathing-zone air samplers. Air samples and surface-wipe samples were collected and analyzed for acrylamide. General-area air samples were collected in chemical processing units and control rooms. Hemoglobin adducts were isolated from ethylenediamine teraacetic acid (EDTA)-whole blood, and adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide, at the N-terminal valines of hemoglobin, were cleaved from the protein chain by use of a modified Edman reaction. Full work-shift, personal breathing zone, and general-area air samples were collected and analyzed for particulate and acrylamide monomer vapor. The highest general-area concentration of acrylamide vapor was 350 μg/cm(3) in monomer production. Personal breathing zone and general-area concentrations of acrylamide vapor were found to be highest in monomer production operations, and lower levels were in the polymer production operations. Adduct levels varied widely among workers, with the highest in workers in the monomer and polymer production areas. The acrylamide adduct range was 15-1884 pmol/g; glycidamide adducts ranged from 17.8 to 1376 p/mol/g. The highest acrylamide and glycidamide adduct levels were found among monomer production process operators. The primary urinary metabolite N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl) cysteine (NACEC) ranged from the limit of detection to 15.4 μg/ml. Correlation of workplace exposure and sentinel health effects is needed to determine and control safe levels of exposure for regulatory standards.

  14. AIRS Water Vapor and Cloud Products Validate and Explain Recent Negative Global and Tropical OLR Trends Observed by CERES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares spatial and temporal anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed based on AIRS retrieved surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters over the time period September 2002 February 2010. This time period is marked by a substantial decreasing OLR trend on the order of -0.1 W/m2/yr averaged over the globe. There are very large spatial variations of these trends however, with local values ranging from -2.6 W/m2/yr to +3.0 W/m2/yr in the tropics. The spatial patterns of the AIRS and CERES trends are in essentially perfect agreement with each other, as are the anomaly time series averaged over different spatial regions. This essentially perfect agreement of OLR anomalies and trends derived from observations by two different instruments, in totally independent and different manners, implies that both sets of results must be highly accurate. The agreement of anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed from AIRS derived products also indirectly validates the anomalies and trends of the AIRS derived products as well. We used the anomalies and trends of AIRS derived water vapor and cloud products to explain why global OLR has had a large negative trend over the time period September 2002 through February 2010. Tropical OLR began to decrease significantly at the onset of a strong La Nina in mid-2007. AIRS products show that cloudiness and mid-tropospheric water vapor began to increase in the region 5degN - 20degS latitude extending eastward from 150degW - 30 E longitude at that time, with a corresponding very large drop in OLR in this region. Late 2009 is characterized by a strong El-Nino, with a corresponding change in sign of observed anomalies of mid-tropospheric water vapor, cloud cover, and OLR in this region, as we] l as that of OLR anomalies in the tropics and globally. Monthly mean anomalies of OLR, water vapor and cloud cover over this region are all shown to be highly correlated in time with those of an El Nino

  15. Efficiencies for production of nitrogen oxides by proton impact in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Cooray, Vernon; Possnert, Göran

    2013-03-01

    We present the first laboratory measurements of nitrogen oxides generated by proton impact in air. Experiments were conducted at the Tandem Laboratory of Uppsala University. A proton beam with known current and energy was injected into an air tight ionising chamber for a fixed time duration and the resulting nitrogen oxides were measured by the method of chemiluminescence. The data are presented in terms of number of produced NOX (NO+NO2) molecules for different proton energy, proton beam current and duration. The efficiency for NOX production by proton impact in air can on average be estimated to about 0.2 NOX molecules per ion-pair based on 1 cm diameter proton beam with energies from 2 to 4 MeV and varied currents from 0.1 to 10 nA.

  16. An Expert Fault Diagnosis System for Vehicle Air Conditioning Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Khalil, S. N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to the problems. In the vehicle air-conditioning manufacturing industry, process can be very costly where an expert and experience personnel needed in certain circumstances. The expert of in the industry will retire or resign from time to time. When the expert is absent, their experience and knowledge is difficult to retrieve or lost forever. Expert system is a convenient method to replace expert. By replacing the expert with expert system, the accuracy of the processes will be increased compared to the conventional way. Therefore, the quality of product services that are produced will be finer and better. The inputs for the fault diagnosis are based on design data and experience of the engineer.

  17. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  18. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014). This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs and PAN + PAN precursors) over 8 vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performances of the system are assessed daily, weekly and 3 monthly (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the median ensemble to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The time period of this case study is also used to illustrate that the median ensemble generally outperforms each of the individual models and that it is still robust even if two of the seven models are missing. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10 and show an overall improvement over time. The change of the skills of the ensemble over the past two summers for ozone and the past two winters for PM10 are discussed in the paper. While the evolution of the ozone scores is not significant, there are improvements of PM10 over the past two winters

  19. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Tarasson, L.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in the MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014) and analyses the performance of the multi-model ensemble. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) and PAN+PAN precursors) over eight vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performance of the system is assessed daily, weekly and every 3 months (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the ensemble median to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10. The statistical indicators for ozone in summer 2014 show that the ensemble median gives on average the best performances compared to the seven models. There is very little degradation of the scores with the forecast day but there is a marked diurnal cycle, similarly to the individual models, that can be related partly to the prescribed diurnal variations of anthropogenic emissions in the models

  20. H2 production by Anabaena variabilis mutant in computer controlled two-stage air-lift tubular photobioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Hall, D. O.; Rao, K. K.; Tsygankov, A. A.; Sveshnikov, D. A.

    2000-06-01

    A 4.34 liter two-stage air-lift photobioreactor incorporating Anabaena variabilis ATCC29413 mutant PK84 was used to study H2 production. Results showed that H2 production increased with increasing light intensity from 47 μE/(m2·s) up to 190 μE/(m2·s), but that further increase of light intensity decreased the H2 production because of the inhibition due to the high pO2. The data also indicated that longer argon gas charge resulted in more H2 produced due to the increase of nitrogenase activities and heterocyst frequency, and that more than 1.3 L net H2 was produced from this computer controlled photobioreactor.

  1. Sustainable intensive livestock production demands manure and exhaust air treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Melse, Roland W; Timmerman, Maikel

    2009-11-01

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including discharges to soils and surface waters and emissions to the atmosphere. In areas with a high livestock density the low availability of nearby arable land, together with the preferred use of chemical fertilizer by arable farmers, results in high off-farm disposal costs for manure. Furthermore, ammonia abatement technologies, such as treatment of exhaust air, are important as ammonia emissions may account up to a quarter of the total nitrogen flux. Firstly, the paper describes and discusses the development of manure treatment in the Netherlands since the 1970's. Manure treatment processes that result in products that compete with and replace the use of chemical fertilizers can (partly) close the nutrient cycle again. From this point of view aerobic treatment of manure (nitrification/denitrification) can not be considered sustainable as nitrogen is taken out of the cycle at high environmental costs. Secondly, the state-of-the-art of techniques for treatment of exhaust air is presented. Besides ammonia, application of air treatment may also reduce environmental emissions of odour and particulate matter (dust). Both manure treatment and treatment of exhaust air are considered essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with a high livestock density.

  2. In vitro equine embryo production using air-dried spermatozoa, with different activation protocols and culture systems.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Baca Castex, C; Ferrante, A; Pinto, M; Castañeira, C; Trasorras, V; Gambarotta, M C; Losinno, L; Miragaya, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of air-dried spermatozoa for in vitro production of equine embryos and verify if sperm extract activation and in vivo culture improve in vitro embryo production. Cooled spermatozoa (control) and air-dried spermatozoa stored for 2, 14 or 28 days were used for ICSI sperm extract, or ionomycin was used for oocyte activation, and embryos were in vitro or in vivo (in mare's oviduct) cultured for 7 days. With in vitro culture, cleavage rate was higher when activating with sperm extract (P < 0.05). No differences in embryo development were seen between the two activation treatments nor between storage periods (P > 0.05). Blastocysts were obtained with cooled spermatozoa, and morulae were achieved using in vivo culture with 28-day storage spermatozoa and ionomycin-activated oocytes. When in vivo culture was performed, sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using the sperm chromatin dispersion test and did not show statistical correlation with cleavage nor embryo recovery rates. In conclusion, equine embryos can be produced using air-dried spermatozoa stored for several weeks. Sperm extract activation increased cleavage rates but did not improve embryo development. In vivo culture allowed intrauterine stage embryos to be achieved.

  3. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shao-Hua; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Yan; Li, Cong; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dong-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A) is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (BTA-55340-no-rsb) located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and six SNPs in 5′ regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p < 0.0001~0.0077). Interestingly, haplotype-based association analysis revealed similar effects on milk production traits (p < 0.01). In follow-up RNA expression analyses, two SNPs (c.-1376 G>A, c.-724 A>G) were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:26556348

  4. Detection of airborne bacteria in a duck production facility with two different personal air sampling devices for an exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elena; Dziurowitz, Nico; Jäckel, Udo; Schäfer, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Prevalent airborne microorganisms are not well characterized in industrial animal production buildings with respect to their quantity or quality. To investigate the work-related microbial exposure, personal bioaerosol sampling during the whole working day is recommended. Therefore, bioaerosol sampling in a duck hatchery and a duck house with two personal air sampling devices, a filter-based PGP and a NIOSH particle size separator, was performed. Subsequent, quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out with" culture independent methods. Total cell concentrations (TCC) determined via fluorescence microscopy showed no difference between the two devices. In average, 8 × 10(6) cells/m(3) were determined in the air of the duck hatchery and 5 × 10(7) cells/m(3) in the air of the duck house. A Generated Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) pattern revealed deviant bacterial compositions comparing samples collected with both devices. Clone library analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis from the hatchery's air showed 65% similarity between the two sampling devices. Detailed 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed the occurrence of bacterial species like Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia sp., and Shigella sp.; and a group of Staphylococcus delphini, S. intermedius, and S. pseudintermedius that provided the evidence of potential exposure to risk group 2 bacteria at the hatchery workplace. Size fractionated sampling with the developed by the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA) device revealed that pathogenic bacteria would deposit in the inhalable, the thorax, and possibly alveolar dust fraction according to EN481. TCC analysis showed the deposition of bacterial cells in the third stage (< 1μm) at the NIOSH device which implies that bacteria can reach deep into the lungs and contaminate the alveolus after inhalation. Nevertheless, both personal sampling devices

  5. Influence of the air Layer Between the Conductor and the Layer Ofinsulating Material in Cable Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Evgenia V.; Yashutina, Olga S.; Shidlovskiy, Stanisla V.

    2016-02-01

    There are developed mathematical model of physical and chemical processes of polymerization adhesive coating stranded cable. There are shown difference in the temperature distribution along the radius of the finished product in the presence of an air gap between the conductor and the rubber sheath. Also, due to the need to change process parameters with possible loose contacts inside the cable. Such as the temperature of the heating surface, feeding speed and dwell time in the oven.

  6. Ozone production by nanoporous dielectric barrier glow discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J. H.; Koo, I. G.; Choi, M. Y.; Lee, W. M.

    2008-03-10

    This study is aimed at demonstrating plasma-chemical ozone production based on low temperature atmospheric pressure glow discharge through nanoporous dielectric barriers. The 20 kHz ac driven discharge is formed in air or oxygen gas flowing in the axial direction of the cylindrical plasma reactor containing four parallel aluminum rods covered with nanoporous alumina films. The discharge utilizing nanoporous dielectric barrier is more uniform and more energy efficient in ozone generation than the discharge through smooth-surface dielectric barriers.

  7. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    PubMed

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama.

  8. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    PubMed

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama. PMID:26490906

  9. The electron transfer flavoprotein fixABCX gene products from Azospirillum brasilense show a NifA-dependent promoter regulation.

    PubMed

    Sperotto, Raul Antonio; Gross, Jeferson; Vedoy, Cleber; Passaglia, Luciane Maria Pereira; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2004-10-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the A. brasilense fixA, fixB, fixC, and fixX genes is reported here. Sequence similarities between the protein sequences deduced from fixABCX genes and many electron transfer flavoproteins (ETFs) have been noted. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of both subunits of ETF with the A. brasilense fixA and fixB gene products exhibits an identity of 30%. The amino acid sequence of the other two genes, fixC and fixX, revealed similarity with the membrane-bound electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO). Using site-directed mutagenesis, mutations were introduced in the fixA promoter element of the A. brasilense fixABCX operon and chimeric p fixA-lacZ reporter gene fusions were constructed. The activation of the fixA promoter of A. brasilense is dependent upon the presence of the NifA protein being approximately 7 times less active than the A. brasilense nifH promoter. These results indicate that NifA from Klebsiella pneumoniae activates the fix promoter of A. brasilense and provide further evidence in support of the regulatory model of NifA activation in A. brasilense. Although no specific function has been assigned to the fixABCX gene products they are apparently required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. An electron-transferring capacity in the nitrogen fixation pathway has been suggested for the fix gene products based on sequence homologies to the ETFs and ETF-QO proteins and by the absence of orthologous electron transfer proteins NifJ and NifF in A. brasilense.

  10. Air pathway effects of nuclear materials production at the Hanford Site, 1983 to 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the air pathway effects of Hanford Site operations from 1983 to 1992 on the local environment by summarizing the air concentrations of selected radionuclides at both onsite and offsite locations, comparing trends in environment concentrations to changing facility emissions, and briefly describing trends in the radiological dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed member of the public. The years 1983 to 1992 represent the last Hanford Site plutonium production campaign, and this report deals mainly with the air pathway effects from the 200 Areas, in which the major contributors to radiological emissions were located. An additional purpose for report was to review the environmental data for a long period of time to provide insight not available in an annual report format. The sampling and analytical systems used by the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) to collect air samples during the period of this report were sufficiently sensitive to observe locally elevated concentrations of selected radionuclides near onsite source of emission as well as observing elevated levels, compared to distant locations, of some radionuclides at the down wind perimeter. The US DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) for airborne radionuclides were not exceeded for any air sample collected during 1983 to 1992, with annual average concentrations of all radionuclides at the downwind perimeter being considerably below the DCG values. Air emissions at the Hanford Site during the period of this report were dominated by releases from the PUREX Plant, with {sup 85}Kr being the major release on a curie basis and {sup 129}I being the major release on a radiological dose basis. The estimated potential radiological dose from Hanford Site point source emissions to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual (MEI) ranged from 0. 02 to 0.22 mrem/yr (effective dose equivalent), which is well below the DOE radiation limit to the public of 100 mrem/yr.

  11. Production and study of megawatt air-nitrogen plasmatron with divergent channel of an output electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakaev, E. H.; Chinnov, V. F.; Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh; Sargsyan, M. A.; Konovalov, P. V.

    2015-11-01

    Megawatt generator of high-enthalpy air plasma jet (H ≥ 30 kJ/g) is constructed. Plasmatron belongs to the class of plasma torches with thermionic cathode, tangential swirl flow and divergent channel of an output electrode-anode. Plasma torch ensures the formation of the slightly divergent (2α = 12°) air plasma jet with the diameter D = 50 mm. The current-voltage characteristics of the plasma torch has virtually unchanged voltage relative to its current with enhanced (compared with arcs in cylindrical channels) stable combustion zone. Preliminary analysis of the obtained air plasma spectra shows that at a current of 1500 A near-axis zone of the plasma jet is characterized by a temperature of up to 15000 K, and the peripheral radiating area has a temperature of 8000-9000 K.

  12. Clinical MRSA isolates from skin and soft tissue infections show increased in vitro production of phenol soluble modulins

    PubMed Central

    Berlon, Nicholas R.; Qi, Robert; Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K.; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Park, Lawrence P.; George, Dennis; Thaden, Joshua T.; Messina, Julia A.; Maskarinec, Stacey A.; Mueller-Premru, Manica; Athan, Eugene; Tattevin, Pierre; Pericas, Juan M.; Woods, Christopher W.; Otto, Michael; Fowler, Vance G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are amphipathic, pro-inflammatory proteins secreted by most Staphylococcus aureus isolates. This study tested the hypothesis that in vitro PSM production levels are associated with specific clinical phenotypes. Methods 177 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates from infective endocarditis (IE), skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI), and hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP) were matched by geographic origin, then genotyped using spa-typing. In vitro PSM production was measured by high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-squared or Kruskal–Wallis tests as appropriate. Results Spa type 1 was significantly more common in SSTI isolates (62.7% SSTI; 1.7% IE; 16.9% HAP; p < 0.0001) while HAP and IE isolates were more commonly spa type 2 (0% SSTI; 37.3% IE; 40.7% HAP; p < 0.0001). USA300 isolates produced the highest levels of PSMs in vitro. SSTI isolates produced significantly higher quantities of PSMα1-4, PSMβ1, and δ-toxin than other isolates (p < 0.001). These findings persisted when USA300 isolates were excluded from analysis. PMID:26079275

  13. Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brett C.; Coleman, Beverly K.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    This study investigated the formation of secondary pollutants resulting from household product use in the presence of ozone. Experiments were conducted in a 50-m 3 chamber simulating a residential room. The chamber was operated at conditions relevant to US residences in polluted areas during warm-weather seasons: an air exchange rate of 1.0 h -1 and an inlet ozone concentration of approximately 120 ppb, when included. Three products were used in separate experiments. An orange oil-based degreaser and a pine oil-based general-purpose cleaner were used for surface cleaning applications. A plug-in scented-oil air freshener (AFR) was operated for several days. Cleaning products were applied realistically with quantities scaled to simulate residential use rates. Concentrations of organic gases and secondary organic aerosol from the terpene-containing consumer products were measured with and without ozone introduction. In the absence of reactive chemicals, the chamber ozone level was approximately 60 ppb. Ozone was substantially consumed following cleaning product use, mainly by homogeneous reaction. For the AFR, ozone consumption was weaker and heterogeneous reaction with sorbed AFR-constituent VOCs was of similar magnitude to homogeneous reaction with continuously emitted constituents. Formaldehyde generation resulted from product use with ozone present, increasing indoor levels by the order of 10 ppb. Cleaning product use in the presence of ozone generated substantial fine particle concentrations (more than 100 μg m -3) in some experiments. Ozone consumption and elevated hydroxyl radical concentrations persisted for 10-12 h following brief cleaning events, indicating that secondary pollutant production can persist for extended periods.

  14. Comparison of Methane Data Products from the TES and AIRS Infrared Sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, T. J.; Pagano, T. S.; Worden, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is the second most powerful greenhouse gas with a highly positive radiative forcing of 0.48 W/m2 (IPCC 2013). Global concentrations of methane have been steadily increasing since 2007 (Bruhwiler 2014), raising concerns about methane's impact on the future global climate. For about the last decade, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura spacecraft has been detecting several trace gas species in the troposphere including methane. The goal of this study is to compare TES methane retrievals to that of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua spacecraft so that scientific investigations may be transferred from TES to AIRS. The two instruments fly in the afternoon constellation (A-Train), providing numerous coincident measurements for comparison. In addition, they also have a similar spectral range, (3.3 to 15.4 µm) for TES (Beer, 2006) and (3.7 to 15.4 µm) for AIRS (Chahine, 2006), making both instruments sensitive to the mid and upper troposphere. This makes them ideal candidates to compare methane data products. However, because AIRS spectral resolution is lower than that of the TES, there may be a difference in vertical sensitivity. In addition, the retrieval techniques and error characteristics are different for the two data sets. The current state of validation for these data products will be presented. To identify conditions in which the data sets agree and dis agree, we present global maps of methane concentrations from monthly level 3 (L3) data products. We also investigate the temporal stability between the two datasets by comparing global zonal averages derived from L3 over the last decade. Finally, we compare L2 retrieval profiles from representative granules in the tropical, mid-latitude and northern latitudes.

  15. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  16. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems–Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y.; Shepherd, T. A.; Li, H.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens’ activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  17. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  18. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  19. The Use of OMPS Near Real Time Products in Volcanic Cloud Risk Mitigation and Smoke/Dust Air Quality Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftor, C. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McPeters, R. D.; Li, J. Y.; Durbin, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Near real time (NRT) SO2 and aerosol index (AI) imagery from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has proven invaluable in mitigating the risk posed to air traffic by SO2 and ash clouds from volcanic eruptions. The OMI products, generated as part of NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) NRT system and available through LANCE and both NOAA's NESDIS and ESA's Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS) portals, are used to monitor the current location of volcanic clouds and to provide input into Volcanic Ash (VA) advisory forecasts. NRT products have recently been developed using data from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite onboard the Suomi NPP platform; they are currently being made available through the SACS portal and will shortly be incorporated into the LANCE NRT system. We will show examples of the use of OMPS NRT SO2 and AI imagery to monitor recent volcanic eruption events. We will also demonstrate the usefulness of OMPS AI imagery to detect and track dust storms and smoke from fires, and how this information can be used to forecast their impact on air quality in areas far removed from their source. Finally, we will show SO2 and AI imagery generated from our OMPS Direct Broadcast data to highlight the capability of our real time system.

  20. Fungal colonization of air filters and insulation in a multi-story office building: production of volatile organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Crow, S. A.; Simmons, R. B.; Price, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary air filters in the air-handling units on four floors of a multi-story office building with a history of fungal colonization of insulation within the air distribution system were examined for the presence of growing fungi and production of volatile organic compounds. Fungal mycelium and conidia of Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were observed on insulation from all floors and both sides of the air filters from one floor. Lower concentrations of volatile organics were released from air filter medium colonized with fungi as compared with noncolonized filter medium. However, the volatiles from the colonized filter medium included fungal metabolites such as acetone and a carbonyl sulfide-like compound that were not released from noncolonized filter medium. The growth of fungi in air distribution systems may affect the content of volatile organics in indoor air.

  1. Biosynthesis of fatty acid derived aldehydes is induced upon mechanical wounding and its products show fungicidal activities in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Kenji; Minami, Akari; Hornung, Ellen; Shibata, Hidetoshi; Kishimoto, Kyutaro; Ahnert, Volker; Kindl, Helmut; Kajiwara, Tadahiko; Feussner, Ivo

    2006-04-01

    Fatty acid 9/13-hydroperoxide lyase (9/13-HPL) in cucumber is an enzyme that can cleave either 9- or 13-hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids to form C9- or C6-aldehydes, respectively, as products. In order to reveal the physiological function of 9/13-HPL, its expression profiles were analyzed, and it was found that 9/13-HPL expression was developmentally regulated and high in the hypocotyls, female flowers and mature fruits. However, its transcript as well as its activity was only induced by mechanical wounding in mature leaves. To analyze the biosynthesis of HPL-derived aldehydes in more detail we isolated and characterized the yet missing 9-lipoxygenase (LOX) that is mainly expressed in hypocotyls, cotyledons and flowers and that may provide HPL with fatty acid 9-hydroperoxides as substrates. As in the case with C6-aldehydes in most plant species, C9-aldehydes were also formed rapidly after disruption of the tissues. C9-aldehydes had fungicidal activities against fungal pathogens, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum. Because the concentration needed to cause toxic effect on the pathogens was almost equivalent to that found in disrupted tissues, the C9-aldehydes thus formed could be helpful to sterilize the wounds since they are less volatile in comparison to C6-aldehydes. PMID:16497344

  2. Simulation of quitting smoking in the military shows higher lifetime medical spending more than offset by productivity gains.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenya; Dall, Timothy M; Zhang, Yiduo; Zhang, Shiping; Arday, David R; Dorn, Patricia W; Jain, Anjali

    2012-12-01

    Despite the documented benefits of quitting smoking, studies have found that smokers who quit may have higher lifetime medical costs, in part because of increased risk for medical conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, brought on by associated weight gain. Using a simulation model and data on 612,332 adult smokers in the US Department of Defense's TRICARE Prime health plan in 2008, we estimated that cessation accompanied by weight gain would increase average life expectancy by 3.7 years, and that the average lifetime reduction in medical expenditures from improved health ($5,600) would be offset by additional expenditures resulting from prolonged life ($7,300). Results varied by age and sex: For females ages 18-44 at time of cessation, there would be net savings of $1,200 despite additional medical expenditures from prolonged life. Avoidance of weight gain after quitting smoking would increase average life expectancy by four additional months and reduce mean extra spending resulting from prolonged life by $700. Overall, the average net lifetime health care cost increase of $1,700 or less per ex-smoker would be modest and, for employed people, more than offset by even one year's worth of productivity gains. These results boost the case for smoking cessation programs in the military in particular, along with not selling cigarettes in commissaries or at reduced prices.

  3. Recombination of Hydrogen-Air Combustion Products in an Exhaust Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lezberg, Erwin A.; Lancashire, Richard B.

    1961-01-01

    Thrust losses due to the inability of dissociated combustion gases to recombine in exhaust nozzles are of primary interest for evaluating the performance of hypersonic ramjets. Some results for the expansion of hydrogen-air combustion products are described. Combustion air was preheated up to 33000 R to simulate high-Mach-number flight conditions. Static-temperature measurements using the line reversal method and wall static pressures were used to indicate the state of the gas during expansion. Results indicated substantial departure from the shifting equilibrium curve beginning slightly downstream of the nozzle throat at stagnation pressures of 1.7 and 3.6 atmospheres. The results are compared with an approximate method for determining a freezing point using an overall rate equation for the oxidation of hydrogen.

  4. Applications of MODIS satellite data and products for monitoring air quality in the state of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    The Center for Space Research (CSR), in conjunction with the Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), is evaluating the use of remotely sensed satellite data to assist in monitoring and predicting air quality in Texas. The challenges of meeting air quality standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) are impacted by the transport of pollution into Texas that originates from outside our borders and are cumulative with those generated by local sources. In an attempt to quantify the concentrations of all pollution sources, MOD has installed ground-based monitoring stations in rural regions along the Texas geographic boundaries including the Gulf coast, as well as urban regions that are the predominant sources of domestic pollution. However, analysis of time-lapse GOES satellite imagery at MOD, clearly demonstrates the shortcomings of using only ground-based observations for monitoring air quality across Texas. These shortcomings include the vastness of State borders, that can only be monitored with a large number of ground-based sensors, and gradients in pollution concentration that depend upon the location of the point source, the meteorology governing its transport to Texas, and its diffusion across the region. With the launch of NASA's MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the transport of aerosol-borne pollutants can now be monitored over land and ocean surfaces. Thus, CSR and MOD personnel have applied MODIS data to several classes of pollution that routinely impact Texas air quality. Results demonstrate MODIS data and products can detect and track the migration of pollutants. This paper presents one case study in which continental haze from the northeast moved into the region and subsequently required health advisories to be issued for 150 counties in Texas. It is concluded that MODIS provides the basis for developing advanced data products that will, when used in

  5. Sustainable, alternative farming practices as a means to simultaneously secure food production and reduce air pollution in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Fung, K. M.; Yong, T.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Proper agricultural land management is essential for securing food supply and minimizing damage to the environment. Among available farming practices, relay strip intercropping and fertilizer application are commonly used, but to study their wider environmental implications and possible feedbacks we require an Earth system modeling framework. In this study, the effectiveness of a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system and fertilizer reduction is investigated using a multi-model method. The DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) model is used to simulate agricultural activities and their impacts on the environment through nitrogen emissions and changes in soil chemical composition. Crop yield, soil nutrient content and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere in major agricultural regions of China are predicted under various cultivation scenarios. The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model is then used to estimate the effects on downwind particle and ozone air pollution. We show that relay strip intercropping and optimal fertilization not only improve crop productivity, but also retain soil nutrients, reduce ammonia emission and mitigate downwind air pollution. By cutting 25% fertilization inputs but cultivating maize and soybean together in a relay strip intercropping system used with field studies, total crop production was improved slightly by 4.4% compared to monoculture with conventional amount of fertilizers. NH3 volatilization decreases by 29%, equivalent to saving the pollution-induced health damage costs by about US$2.5 billion per year. The possible feedback effects from atmospheric nitrogen deposition onto the croplands are also investigated. We show that careful management and better quantitative understanding of alternative farming practices hold huge potential in simultaneously addressing different global change issues including the food crisis, air pollution and climate change, and calls for greater collaboration between scientists, farmers and

  6. Effects of air velocity on laying hen production from 24 to 27 weeks under simulated evaporatively cooled conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conditions play a major role in production efficiency in commercial poultry production. Mitigation of thermal stress can improve productivity, but must be achieved economically. Weather and system design can limit effectiveness of evaporative cooling and increased air movement has been sho...

  7. The gallium(III)-salicylidene acylhydrazide complex shows synergistic anti-biofilm effect and inhibits toxin production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Rzhepishevska, Olena; Hakobyan, Shoghik; Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbro; Nygren, Yvonne; Karlsson, Torbjörn; Bucht, Anders; Elofsson, Mikael; Boily, Jean-François; Ramstedt, Madeleine

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial biofilms cause a range of problems in many areas and especially in health care. Biofilms are difficult to eradicate with traditional antibiotics and consequently there is a need for alternative ways to prevent and/or remove bacterial biofilms. Furthermore, the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria creates a challenge to find new types of antibiotics with a lower evolutionary pressure for resistance development. One route to develop such drugs is to target the so called virulence factors, i.e. bacterial systems used when bacteria infect a host cell. This study investigates synergy effects between Ga(III) ions, previously reported to suppress biofilm formation and growth in bacteria, and salicylidene acylhydrazides (hydrazones) that have been proposed as antivirulence drugs targeting the type three secretion system used by several Gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aerugionosa, during bacterial infection of host cells. A library of hydrazones was screened for: Fe(III) binding, enhanced anti-biofilm effect with Ga(III) on P. aeruginosa, and low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. The metal coordination for the most promising ligand, 2-Oxo-2-[N-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazino]-acetamide (ME0163) with Ga(III) was investigated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy as well as density functional theory. The results showed that Ga(III) chelates the hydrazone with 5- and 6-membered chelating rings, and that the Ga(III)-ME0163 complex enhanced the antibiofilm effect of Ga(III) while suppressing the type three secretion system in P. aeruginosa. The latter effect was not observed for the hydrazone alone and was similar for Ga(III)-citrate and Ga(III)-ME0163 complexes, indicating that the inhibition of virulence was caused by Ga(III).

  8. Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and ResultingConcentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff,William W.

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at {approx}0.5 h{sup -1}. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 {micro}g m{sup -3} for individual terpenoids, including {alpha}-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and {alpha}-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or dlimonene were 300-6000 {micro}g m{sup -3} after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, {approx}25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were {approx}35-70% with towels retained, 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and {beta}-citronellol were emitted at 35-180 mg d{sup -1} over three days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 {micro}g m{sup -3}.

  9. Formation of calcium in the products of iron oxide-aluminum thermite combustion in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, A. A.; Gromov, A. M.; Popenko, E. M.; Sergienko, A. V.; Sabinskaya, O. G.; Raab, B.; Teipel, U.

    2016-10-01

    The composition of condensed products resulting from the combustion of thermite mixtures (Al + Fe2O3) in air is studied by precise methods. It is shown that during combustion, calcium is formed and stabilized in amounts of maximal 0.55 wt %, while is missing from reactants of 99.7 wt % purity. To explain this, it is hypothesized that a low-energy nuclear reaction takes place alongside the reactions of aluminum oxidation and nitridation, resulting in the formation of calcium (Kervran-Bolotov reaction).

  10. Experimental analysis and modelling of positive streamer in air: towards an estimation of O and N radical production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichwald, O.; Ducasse, O.; Dubois, D.; Abahazem, A.; Merbahi, N.; Benhenni, M.; Yousfi, M.

    2008-12-01

    This paper is mainly devoted to the comparison between the calculation and experimental results of primary and secondary streamer development in a point-to-plane positive corona discharge in dry air at atmospheric pressure. The qualitative agreement between experimental and calculation results based on the hydrodynamics approximation shows that the O radical is mainly produced in the secondary streamer which is in good agreement with the recent literature measurements using TALIF diagnostics. However, the O radical production yield (in terms of radicals produced per energy injected) is more efficient in the primary streamer than in the secondary one. The main positive corona discharge characteristics are revisited using fast electrical and optical ICCD and streak camera measurements. The calculation shows two streamer radii of, respectively, 10 µm (associated with the radial extension of a high electron density region) and 200 µm (corresponding to the extension of the radial space charge electric field).

  11. 2D simulation of active species and ozone production in a multi-tip DC air corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziane, M.; Eichwald, O.; Sarrette, J. P.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.

    2011-11-01

    The present paper shows for the first time in the literature a complete 2D simulation of the ozone production in a DC positive multi-tip to plane corona discharge reactor crossed by a dry air flow at atmospheric pressure. The simulation is undertaken until 1 ms and involves tens of successive discharge and post-discharge phases. The air flow is stressed by several monofilament corona discharges generated by a maximum of four anodic tips distributed along the reactor. The nonstationary hydrodynamics model for reactive gas mixture is solved using the commercial FLUENT software. During each discharge phase, thermal and vibrational energies as well as densities of radical and metastable excited species are locally injected as source terms in the gas medium surrounding each tip. The chosen chemical model involves 10 neutral species reacting following 24 reactions. The obtained results allow us to follow the cartography of the temperature and the ozone production inside the corona reactor as a function of the number of high voltage anodic tips.

  12. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is possible to reconstruct a muon production depth distribution. We characterize the goodness of this reconstruction for zenith angles around 60° and different energies of the primary particle. From these distributions, we define Xmaxμ as the depth along the shower axis where the production of muons reaches maximum. We explore the potentiality of Xmaxμ as a useful observable to infer the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Likewise, we assess its ability to constrain hadronic interaction models.

  13. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  14. Exploration of OMI Products for Air Quality Applications Through Comparisons with Models and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, K. E.; Ziemke, J.; Bucsela, E.; Gleason, J.; Marufu, L.; Dickerson, R.; Mathur, R.; Davidson, P.; Duncan, B.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA s Aura satellite was launched in July 2004, and is now providing daily global observations of total column ozone, NO2, and SO2, as well as aerosol information. Algorithms have also been developed to produce daily tropospheric ozone and NO2 products. The tropospheric ozone product reported here is a tropospheric residual computed through use of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone profile data to quantify stratospheric ozone. We are investigating the applicability of OMI products for use in air quality modeling, forecasting, and analysis. These investigations include comparison of the OMI tropospheric O3 and NO2 products with global and regional models and with lower tropospheric aircraft observations. Large-scale transport of pollution seen in the OM1 tropospheric O3 data is compared with output from NASA's Global Modeling Initiative global chemistry and transport model. On the regional scale we compare the OMI tropospheric O3 and NO2 with fields from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environmental Protection Agency (NOAA/EPA) operational Eta/CMAQ air quality forecasting model over the eastern United States. This 12-km horizontal resolution model output is roughly of equivalent resolution to the OMI pixel data. Correlation analysis between lower tropospheric aircraft O3 profile data taken by the University of Maryland over the Mid-Atlantic States and OMI tropospheric column mean volume mixing ratio for O3 will be presented. These aircraft data are representative of the lowest 3 kilometers of the atmosphere, the region in which much of the locally-generated and regionally-transported ozone exists.

  15. Biomass production of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond for biofuel potential.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, P; Umadevi, K

    2016-04-01

    Biodiesel gains attention as it is made from renewable resources and has considerable environmental benefits. The present investigation has focused on large scale cultivation of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond using natural sea water without any additional nutritive supplements for low cost biomass production as a possible source of biofuel in large scale. Open air algal pond attained average chlorophyll concentration of 11.01 µg/L with the maximum of 43.65 µg/L as well as a higher lipid concentration of 18% (w/w) with lipid content 9.3 mg/L on the 10th day of the culture; and maximum biomass of 0.36 g/L on the 7th day of the culture. Composition analysis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS). Multipopulation of algal biomass had 18% of total lipid content with 55% of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), 35.3% of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 9.7% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), revealing a potential source of biofuel production at low cost.

  16. Biomass production of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond for biofuel potential.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, P; Umadevi, K

    2016-04-01

    Biodiesel gains attention as it is made from renewable resources and has considerable environmental benefits. The present investigation has focused on large scale cultivation of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond using natural sea water without any additional nutritive supplements for low cost biomass production as a possible source of biofuel in large scale. Open air algal pond attained average chlorophyll concentration of 11.01 µg/L with the maximum of 43.65 µg/L as well as a higher lipid concentration of 18% (w/w) with lipid content 9.3 mg/L on the 10th day of the culture; and maximum biomass of 0.36 g/L on the 7th day of the culture. Composition analysis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS). Multipopulation of algal biomass had 18% of total lipid content with 55% of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), 35.3% of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 9.7% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), revealing a potential source of biofuel production at low cost. PMID:27295924

  17. AIRS Water Vapor and Cloud Products Validate and Explain Recent Negative Global and Tropical OLR Trends Observed by CERES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, J.; Molnar, G. I.; Iredell, L. F.; Sounder Research Team

    2010-12-01

    Joel Susskind, Gyula Molnar, and Lena Iredell NASA GSFC Sounder Research Team Abstract This paper compares spatial and temporal anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed based on AIRS retrieved surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters over the time period September 2002 - February 2010. This time period is marked by a substantial decreasing OLR trend on the order of -0.1 W/m2/yr averaged over the globe. There are very large spatial variations of these trends however, with local values ranging from -2.6 W/m2/yr to +3.0 W/m2/yr in the tropics. The spatial patterns of the AIRS and CERES trends are in essentially perfect agreement with each other, as are the anomaly time series averaged over different spatial regions. This essentially perfect agreement of OLR anomalies and trends derived from observations by two different instruments, in totally independent and different manners, implies that both sets of results must be highly accurate. The agreement of anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed from AIRS derived products also indirectly validates the anomalies and trends of the AIRS derived products as well. We used the anomalies and trends of AIRS derived water vapor and cloud products to explain why global OLR has had a large negative trend over the time period September 2002 through February 2010. Tropical OLR began to decrease significantly at the onset of a strong La Niña in mid-2007. AIRS products show that cloudiness and mid-tropospheric water vapor began to increase in the region 5°N - 20°S latitude extending eastward from 150°W - 30°E longitude at that time, with a corresponding very large drop in OLR in this region. Late 2009 is characterized by a strong El-Niño, with a corresponding change in sign of observed anomalies of mid-tropospheric water vapor, cloud cover, and OLR in this region, as well as that of OLR anomalies in the tropics and globally. Monthly mean anomalies of OLR, water vapor and cloud cover

  18. Mutations in rpsL that confer streptomycin resistance show pleiotropic effects on virulence and the production of a carbapenem antibiotic in Erwinia carotovora.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Anne M L; Simpson, Natalie J L; Lilley, Kathryn S; Salmond, George P C

    2010-04-01

    Spontaneous streptomycin-resistant derivatives of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora strain ATTn10 were isolated. Sequencing of the rpsL locus (encoding the ribosomal protein S12) showed that each mutant was missense, with a single base change, resulting in the substitution of the wild-type lysine by arginine, threonine or asparagine at codon 43. Phenotypic analyses showed that the rpsL mutants could be segregated into two groups: K43R mutants showed reduced production of the beta-lactam secondary metabolite 1-carbapen-2-em-3 carboxylic acid (Car), but little effect on exoenzyme production or virulence in potato tuber tests. By contrast, the K43N and K43T mutations were pleiotropic, resulting in reduced exoenzyme production and virulence, as well as diminished Car production. The effect on Car production was due to reduced transcription of the quorum-sensing-dependent car biosynthetic genes. The effects of K43N and K43T mutations on Car production were partially alleviated by provision of an excess of the quorum-sensing signalling molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. Finally, a proteomic analysis of the K43T mutant indicated that the abundance of a subset of intracellular proteins was affected by this rpsL mutation.

  19. Contact allergens formed on air exposure of linalool. Identification and quantification of primary and secondary oxidation products and the effect on skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Sköld, Maria; Börje, Anna; Harambasic, Elma; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2004-12-01

    Linalool (3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol) is an important fragrance chemical, frequently used in scented products because of its fresh, flowery odor. Linalool is an unsaturated hydrocarbon and is therefore susceptible to oxidation in the presence of air. The primary oxidation products, that is, hydroperoxides, formed in the autoxidation process, are reactive compounds that can be suspected to act as sensitizers. In the present investigation, we studied the autoxidation of linalool with emphasis on the formation of hydroperoxides. The oxidation products were isolated using flash chromatography and preparative HPLC and were identified with NMR and GC/MS, using synthesized reference compounds. Two hydroperoxides and several different secondary oxidation products were identified, among which some contain structural features that make them potential allergens. The amounts of linalool and the major oxidation products were quantified over time, using GC and an HPLC-method, suitable for the analysis of thermolabile primary oxidation products. The hydroperoxide 7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethylocta-1,5-diene-3-ol was found to be present in 15% in an oxidized sample. The local lymph node assay (LLNA) was used to investigate the sensitizing potential of pure linalool, two samples of air-exposed linalool, and oxidation products of linalool (an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, a mixture of two hydroperoxides, and an alcohol). Pure linalool showed no sensitizing potential. The air-exposed samples of linalool produced clearly positive responses, and the hydroperoxides were the strongest allergens of the tested oxidation products. The study demonstrates the importance of autoxidation on the sensitizing potential of linalool. We also conclude that the sensitizing potential differs with the composition of the oxidation mixture and thus with the air exposure time.

  20. Study of the potential of the air lift bioreactor for xylitol production in fed-batch cultures by Debaryomyces hansenii immobilized in alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bibbins, Belinda; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Torrado, Ana; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cell immobilization has shown to be especially adequate for xylitol production. This work studies the suitability of the air lift bioreactor for xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii immobilized in Ca-alginate operating in fed-batch cultures to avoid substrate inhibition. The results showed that the air lift bioreactor is an adequate system since the minimum air flow required for fluidization was even lower than that leading to the microaerobic conditions that trigger xylitol accumulation by this yeast, also maintaining the integrity of the alginate beads and the viability of the immobilized cells until 3 months of reuses. Maximum productivities and yields of 0.43 g/l/h and 0.71 g/g were achieved with a xylose concentration of 60 g/l after each feeding. The xylose feeding rate, the air flow, and the biomass concentration at the beginning of the fed-batch operation have shown to be critical parameters for achieving high productivities and yields. Although a maximum xylitol production of 139 g/l was obtained, product inhibition was evidenced in batch experiments, which allowed estimating at 200 and 275 g/l the IC50 for xylitol productivity and yield, respectively. The remarkable production of glycerol in the absence of glucose was noticeable, which could not only be attributed to the osmoregulatory function of this polyol in conditions of high osmotic pressure caused by high xylitol concentrations but also to the role of the glycerol synthesis pathway in the regeneration of NAD(+) in conditions of suboptimal microaeration caused by insufficient aeration or high oxygen demand when high biomass concentrations were achieved.

  1. Photosensitized Production of Atmospherically Reactive Organic Compounds at the Air/Aqueous Interface

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on experiments that probe photosensitized chemistry at the air/water interface, a region that does not just connect the two phases but displays its own specific chemistry. Here, we follow reactions of octanol, a proxy for environmentally relevant soluble surfactants, initiated by an attack by triplet-state carbonyl compounds, which are themselves concentrated at the interface by the presence of this surfactant. Gas-phase products are determined using PTR-ToF-MS, and those remaining in the organic layer are determined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and HPLC-HRMS. We observe the photosensitized production of carboxylic acids as well as unsaturated and branched-chain oxygenated products, compounds that act as organic aerosol precursors and had been thought to be produced solely by biological activity. A mechanism that is consistent with the observations is detailed here, and the energetics of several key reactions are calculated using quantum chemical methods. The results suggest that the concentrating nature of the interface leads to its being a favorable venue for radical reactions yielding complex and functionalized products that themselves could initiate further secondary chemistry and new particle formation in the atmospheric environment. PMID:26068588

  2. Production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus restricted to endogenous air in tampons.

    PubMed

    Reiser, R F; Hinzman, S J; Bergdoll, M S

    1987-08-01

    All types of four brands of tampons were tested in triplicate by a tampon sac method for their effect on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). In this method the available air is limited to that which is in the tampon sac. Tampons were weighed and inserted into dialysis sacs inoculated with a TSST-1-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain; the sacs were submerged into brain heart infusion agar, which was allowed to harden around the sacs, and were incubated for 18 h at 37 degrees C. The tampons were removed, weighed, and extracted; the CFU of staphylococci and the amount of toxin present in the extracts were determined. Glass wool was used in place of the tampons as one control, and inoculated empty sacs were used as a second control. The total CFU were consistently greater than 2 X 10(11) for the tampons and glass wool and less than or equal to 10(11) for the empty sac control. Total toxin production for all tampons tested and the glass wool was 2 to 10 times higher than the toxin produced with the empty sac control. These results indicate that tampons provide increased surface area for the staphylococci to grow and adequate oxygen for toxin production. No significant inhibition of growth of the staphylococci or TSST-1 production by any of the tampons tested was noted.

  3. What You Need to Know About the OMI NO2 Data Product for Air Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celarier, E. A.; Gleason, J. F.; Bucsela, E. J.; Brinksma, E.; Veefkind, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    The standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data product, produced from measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), are publicly available online from the NASA GESDISC facility. Important data fields include total and tropospheric column densities, as well as collocated data for cloud fraction and cloud top height, surface albedo and snow/ice coverage, at the resolution of the OMI instrument (12 km x 26 km, at nadir). The retrieved NO2 data have been validated, principally under clear-sky conditions. The first public-release version has been available since September 2006. An improved version of the data product, which includes a number of new data fields, and improved estimates of the retrieval uncertainties will be released by the end of 2007. This talk will describe the standard NO2 data product, including details that are essential for the use of the data for air quality studies. We will also describe the principal improvements with the new version of the data product.

  4. Investigation of AIRS and AMSU sounding products in regional numerical weather simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shen-Cha; Liu, Chian-Yi; Kuo, Szu-Chen

    2016-05-01

    The initial and boundary conditions are critical to the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. It is known that satellite observations can overcome the limitations of the terrain, especially over the oceans where conventional observations are difficult to obtain. Therefore, the use of satellite data will expect to improve those regions where lack of traditional observation. The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's EOS Aqua satellite, represent microwave and hyperspectral infrared observations, respectively. Both of them may provide atmospheric temperature and moisture soundings with complementary characteristics. For example, AMSU has the advantage to give cloudy retrievals while AIRS may retain the atmospheric gradient due to its finer high spatial resolution. Both data could estimate atmospheric thermodynamic state with substantial accuracy to improve high impact weather forecast In this study, we adopt the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system to evaluate the use of AMSU/AIRS retrievals for severe precipitation at Taiwan. The front, UTC 2016/01/05 22Z, is selected to demonstrate the benefit of using sounding data. The preliminary results shows a positive impact on total precipitable water while the time slope may need further investigation.

  5. Valorization of cotton stalks by fast pyrolysis and fixed bed air gasification for syngas production as precursor of second generation biofuels and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kantarelis, E; Zabaniotou, A

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the potential of cotton stalks utilization for H(2) and syngas production with respect to CO(2) mitigation, by means of thermochemical conversion (pyrolysis and gasification) was investigated. Pyrolysis was conducted at temperature range of 400-760 degrees C and the main parametric study concerned the effect of temperature on pyrolysis product distribution. Atmospheric pressure, air gasification at 750-950 degrees C for various lambda (0.02-0.07) was also studied. Experimental results showed that high temperature favors gas production in both processes; while low lambda gasification gave high gas yield. Syngas (CO and H(2)) was increased with temperature, while CO(2) followed an opposite trend. By pyrolysis, higher H(2) concentration in the produced gas (approximately 39% v/v) was achieved and at the same time lower amounts of CO(2) produced, compared to air gasification.

  6. Quantifying the emissions and air quality co-benefits of lower-carbon electricity production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachinski, Steven D.; Holloway, Tracey; Meier, Paul J.; Nemet, Gregory F.; Rrushaj, Arber; Oberman, Jacob T.; Duran, Phillip L.; Voigt, Caitlin L.

    2014-09-01

    The impact of air emissions from electricity generation depends on the spatial distribution of power plants and electricity dispatch decisions. Thus, any realistic evaluation of the air quality impacts of lower-carbon electricity must account for the spatially heterogeneous changes in associated emissions. Here, we present an analysis of the changes in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with current, expected, and proposed energy efficiency and renewable energy policies in Wisconsin. We simulate the state's electricity system and its potential response to policies using the MyPower electricity-sector model, which calculates plant-by-plant reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions. We find that increased efficiency and renewable generation in a 2024 policy scenario substantially reduce statewide emissions of NOx and SO2 (55% and 59% compared to 2008, 32% and 33% compared to 2024 business-as-usual, BAU). PM2.5 is quantified across the Great Lakes region using the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for some emissions scenarios. We find that summer mean surface concentrations of sulfate and PM2.5 are less sensitive to policy changes than emissions. In the 2024 policy scenario, sulfate aerosol decreases less than 3% over most of the region relative to BAU and 3-13% relative to 2008 over most of Wisconsin. The lower response of these secondary aerosols arises from chemical and meteorological processing of electricity emissions, and mixing with other emission sources. An analysis of model performance and response to emission reduction at five sites in Wisconsin shows good model agreement with observations and a high level of spatial and temporal variability in sulfate and PM2.5 reductions. In this case study, the marginal improvements in emissions and air quality associated with carbon policies were less than the technology, renewable, and conservation assumptions under a business-as-usual scenario. However, this analysis for Wisconsin shows how

  7. Fragrance compound geraniol forms contact allergens on air exposure. Identification and quantification of oxidation products and effect on skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Hagvall, Lina; Bäcktorp, Carina; Svensson, Sophie; Nyman, Gunnar; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-05-01

    Fragrances are common causes of contact allergy. Geraniol (trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-1-ol) is an important fragrance terpene. It is considered a weak contact allergen and is used for fragrance allergy screening among consecutive dermatitis patients. Analogous to other monoterpenes studied, such as limonene and linalool, geraniol has the potential to autoxidize on air exposure and form highly allergenic compounds. The aim of the present study was to investigate and propose a mechanism for the autoxidation of geraniol at room temperature. To investigate whether allergenic compounds are formed, the sensitizing potency of geraniol itself, air-exposed geraniol, and its oxidation products was determined using the local lymph node assay in mice. The results obtained show that the allylic alcohol geraniol follows an oxidation pattern different from those of linalool and limonene, which autoxidize forming hydroperoxides as the only primary oxidation products. The autoxidation of geraniol follows two paths, originating from allylic hydrogen abstraction near the two double bonds. From geraniol, hydrogen peroxide is primarily formed together with aldehydes geranial and neral from a hydroxyhydroperoxide. In addition, small amounts of a hydroperoxide are formed, analogous to the formation of the major linalool hydroperoxide. The autoxidation of geraniol greatly influenced the sensitizing effect of geraniol. The oxidized samples had moderate sensitizing capacity, quite different from that of pure geraniol. The hydroperoxide formed is believed to be the major contributor to allergenic activity, together with the aldehydes geranial and neral. On the basis of the present study and previous experience, we recommend that the possibility of autoxidation and the subsequent formation of contact allergenic oxidation products are considered in risk assessments performed on fragrance terpenes.

  8. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  9. Smog O3 Production Rate in California Air: Marker Compounds Allow Checks on Source Attribution to Fire and Other Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Esswein, R. F.; Cai, C.; Kaduwela, A.; Kulkarni, S.; Blake, D. R.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Fried, A.; Huey, L. G.

    2012-12-01

    We are able to attribute sources of both radical reactivity and NO that determined the smog-chemical production rate of ozone, P(O3), for NASA's wide-ranging sampling of California air in June, 2008, part of the ARCTAS intensive. We relate formaldehyde, HCHO, and reactive nitrogen oxides, NOx, to a variety of distinct "marker" species that identify origins. We have labeled the sources and markers as (i) Fire emissions (CH3CN), (ii) Biogenic emissions (Isoprene), (iii) Urban/business emissions (CHCl3), (iv) Transport-related fuel consumption, (SO2), and (v) Refining/Port emissions ("residual" toluene). We use multiple linear regression with some appropriate restrictions. We achieve R-squared or explained variance of 88% for HCHO (VOC's) and 60% for NOx. HCHO and NOx are slowly evolving measures of potential ozone generation. The two related but radiation-influenced measures j (HCHO->H+HCO) x [HCHO] and [NO] quantitatively, but non-linearly, relate to instantaneous ozone production in California air, with R-squared of 86-93%, just as in New York City (Chatfield et al., Atmos. Environ., 2010). Maps of attribution for 650 samples from the Port of San Diego to the Northern Sierra foothills, and offshore -— all show huge variability in source attributions for VOCs and NOx. They indicate a widespread fire-emission influence on VOCs as they produce peroxy radicals, but show no positive influence on NOx, in fact consuming NOx from other sources. Comparisons with simulations help to refine our attribution classes and also to check balances of VOC emissions in available inventories. The use of the P(O3) measures is directly translatable to a method for estimate smog-ozone production rate from space, as data from another intensive, DISCOVER-AQ, show. (Left) A rare example where all sources contribute significantly, with markers and tentative attributions marked. (Right) Three different situations describing the control of smog ozone production, all from the same geographic

  10. Effects of Confinement on Combustion of TNT Explosion Products in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.; Oppenheim, A.K.; Ferguson, R.E.; Reichenback, H.; Neuwald, P.

    2000-02-05

    Turbulent combustion fields established by detonative explosions of TNT in confinements of different sizes are studied by high-resolution numerical simulation, using AMR (Adaptive Mesh Refinement) method. The chambers are filled with nitrogen or air at NPT conditions. In the second case, the detonation products, rich in C and CO, act, upon turbulent mixing with air, as fuel in an exothermic process of combustion, manifested by a distinct pressure rise. It is the evolution in space and time of this dynamic process that formed the principal focus of this study. Our results demonstrate a dominating influence of the size of the enclosure on the burning rate--an effect that cannot be expressed in terms of the classical burning speed. Under such circumstances, combustion is of considerable significance, since it is associated with a calorific value (''heat release'') of an order of 3500 Cal/gm, as compared to 1100 Cal/gm of TNT detonation. The numerical simulations provide considerable insight into the evolution of combustion fields dominated by shock-turbulence interactions. Fuel consumption histories, extracted from the simulations, reveal the dynamic features of the system, represented by the rate of combustion (akin to velocity) and its change (akin to acceleration). Time profiles of the mass fraction consumed fuel are expressed, with a remarkable accuracy, by bi-parametric life functions, whereby the trajectories of these parameters, obtained by differentiation, can be evaluated with precision commensurate with their commanding role in the identification of the dynamic nature of the system.

  11. Analysis of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a radiopharmaceutical production facility based on a medical cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.; Greco, D.

    2015-11-01

    Positron emitting radionuclides are increasingly used in medical diagnostics and the number of radiopharmaceutical production facilities have been estimated to be growing worldwide. During the process of production and/or patient administration of radiopharmaceuticals, an amount of these radionuclides might become airborne and escape into the environment. Therefore, the analysis of radionuclide concentration in the air released to the stack is a very important issue to evaluate the dose to the population living around the plant. To this end, sampling and measurement of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a Nuclear Medicine Center (NMC), provided with a cyclotron for radiopharmaceuticals production, must be routinely carried out with an automatic measurement system. In this work is presented the air monitoring system realized at "San Gaetano" NMC at Bagheria (Italy) besides the analysis of the recorded stack relesead air concentration data. Sampling of air was carried out continuously and gamma-ray spectrometric measurement are made on-line and for a short time by using a shielded Marinelli beaker filled with sampled air and a gamma detector. The use of this system allows to have 1440 values of air concentration per day from 2002, year of the start of operation with the cyclotron. Therefore, the concentration values are very many and an analysis software is needed to determine the dose to the population. A comparison with the results of a simulation code based on a Gaussian Plume air dispersion modelling allow us to confirm the no-radiological significance of the stack effluent releases in terms of dose to population and to evaluate possible improvements in the plant devices to reduce the air concentration at stack.

  12. Simulation of climate change impacts on grain sorghum production grown under free air CO2 enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tongcheng; Ko, Jonghan; Wall, Gerard W.; Pinter, Paul J.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ottman, Michael J.; Kim, Han-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Potential impacts of climate change on grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) productivity were investigated using the CERES-sorghum model in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer v4.5. The model was first calibrated for a sorghum cultivar grown in a free air CO2 enrichment experiment at the University of Arizona, Maricopa, Arizona, USA in 1998. The model was then validated with an independent dataset collected in 1999. The simulated grain yield, growth, and soil water of sorghum for the both years were in statistical agreement with the corresponding measurements, respectively. Neither simulated nor measured yields responded to elevated CO2, but both were sensitive to water supply. The validated model was then applied to simulate possible effects of climate change on sorghum grain yield and water use efficiency in western North America for the years 2080-2100. The projected CO2 fertilizer effect on grain yield was dominated by the adverse effect of projected temperature increases. Therefore, temperature appears to be a dominant driver of the global climate change influencing future sorghum productivity. These results suggest that an increase in water demand for sorghum production should be anticipated in a future high-CO2 world.

  13. Comparisons of Ship-based Observations of Air-Sea Energy Budgets with Gridded Flux Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Blomquist, B.

    2015-12-01

    Air-surface interactions are characterized directly by the fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture, trace gases, and particles near the interface. In the last 20 years advances in observation technologies have greatly expanded the database of high-quality direct (covariance) turbulent flux and irradiance observations from research vessels. In this paper, we will summarize observations from the NOAA sea-going flux system from participation in various field programs executed since 1999 and discuss comparisons with several gridded flux products. We will focus on comparisons of turbulent heat fluxes and solar and IR radiative fluxes. The comparisons are done for observing programs in the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans and SE subtropical Pacific.

  14. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  15. Photosensitized production of functionalized and unsaturated organic compounds at the air-sea interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuraru, Raluca; Fine, Ludovic; van Pinxteren, Manuela; D'Anna, Barbara; Herrmann, Hartmut; George, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) has different physical, chemical and biological properties compared to the subsurface water, with an enrichment of organic matter i.e., dissolved organic matter including UV absorbing humic substances, fatty acids and many others. Here we present experimental evidence that dissolved organic matter, such as humic acids, when exposed to sunlight, can photosensitize the chemical conversion of linear saturated fatty acids at the air-water interface into unsaturated functionalized gas phase products (i.e. saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and acids, alkenes and dienes,…) which are known precursors of secondary organic aerosols. These functionalized molecules have previously been thought to be of biological origin, but here we demonstrate that abiotic interfacial photochemistry has the potential to produce such molecules. As the ocean is widely covered by the SML, this new understanding will impact on our ability to describe atmospheric chemistry in the marine environment.

  16. Photosensitized production of functionalized and unsaturated organic compounds at the air-sea interface.

    PubMed

    Ciuraru, Raluca; Fine, Ludovic; van Pinxteren, Manuela; D'Anna, Barbara; Herrmann, Hartmut; George, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) has different physical, chemical and biological properties compared to the subsurface water, with an enrichment of organic matter i.e., dissolved organic matter including UV absorbing humic substances, fatty acids and many others. Here we present experimental evidence that dissolved organic matter, such as humic acids, when exposed to sunlight, can photosensitize the chemical conversion of linear saturated fatty acids at the air-water interface into unsaturated functionalized gas phase products (i.e. saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and acids, alkenes and dienes,...) which are known precursors of secondary organic aerosols. These functionalized molecules have previously been thought to be of biological origin, but here we demonstrate that abiotic interfacial photochemistry has the potential to produce such molecules. As the ocean is widely covered by the SML, this new understanding will impact on our ability to describe atmospheric chemistry in the marine environment. PMID:26244712

  17. Photosensitized production of functionalized and unsaturated organic compounds at the air-sea interface

    PubMed Central

    Ciuraru, Raluca; Fine, Ludovic; van Pinxteren, Manuela; D’Anna, Barbara; Herrmann, Hartmut; George, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) has different physical, chemical and biological properties compared to the subsurface water, with an enrichment of organic matter i.e., dissolved organic matter including UV absorbing humic substances, fatty acids and many others. Here we present experimental evidence that dissolved organic matter, such as humic acids, when exposed to sunlight, can photosensitize the chemical conversion of linear saturated fatty acids at the air-water interface into unsaturated functionalized gas phase products (i.e. saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and acids, alkenes and dienes,…) which are known precursors of secondary organic aerosols. These functionalized molecules have previously been thought to be of biological origin, but here we demonstrate that abiotic interfacial photochemistry has the potential to produce such molecules. As the ocean is widely covered by the SML, this new understanding will impact on our ability to describe atmospheric chemistry in the marine environment. PMID:26244712

  18. Assessment of air quality at neighbor residences in the vicinity of swine production facilities.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Lee, Joung Ae; Thu, Kendall; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    Air sampling was completed on the front lawn of 35 homes neighboring swine farms in three different regions in the Upper Midwest of the United States. One region was dominated by large scale, swine confined animal feeding operations (CAFO's) noted as swine confinement area (SCA). The second area was dominated by smaller scale operations utilizing hoop structure facilities (HA). The third area was basically devoid of livestock, dominated by row-crop production, and served as the control area (CA). The time weighted average concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (8.42 ppb) was higher (p = 0.047) in SCA area than the control (3.48 ppb). However, carbon dioxide (449.6 ppm), ammonia (12.78 ppb) and PM10 (42.25 microg/m3) were higher in the hoop structure area than the other areas. Swine population density, distance between the homes and swine facilities, and wind direction had an interactive effect on the average levels of ammonia (p = 0.04). The contaminant levels at the homes were relatively low compared to typical concentrations inside animal buildings. However, exceedences of federal recommended limits for hydrogen sulfide in outdoor air were observed in the swine CAFO area. Concentration of hydrogen sulfide exceeded the recommended limits of the ATSDR (30 ppb) for chronic exposure at two of the 12 homes in the CAFO area (17%). Average hydrogen sulfide concentration exceeded the EPA recommended community standards (0.7 ppb) in all three areas assessed (SCA, HA, and CA). As chronic exposure to hydrogen sulfide may be present in areas of production agriculture, a potential health risk may be present. Further studies to provide additional information regarding exposures to hydrogen sulfide in rural environments are warranted. PMID:19274894

  19. Liquid products from oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with different oxygen concentrations of air.

    PubMed

    Shie, J L; Chang, C Y; Lin, J P; Le, D J; Wu, C H

    2001-01-01

    Oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with different oxygen concentrations of air by using a dynamic thermogravimetric (TG) reaction system is investigated. The experimental conditions employed are: gas flow rate of 50 cm3/min (value at 298 K) for 300 mg dry waste, a constant heating rate of 5.2 K/min, the oxygen concentrations in air of 1.09, 8.62 and 20.95 vol. % O2, and the temperature (T) range of 378-873 K. From the experimental results, the residual mass fractions (M) are about 78.95, 28.49, 8.77 and 4.13 wt. % at the oxidative T of 563, 713, 763 and 873 K for the case with 20.95 vol. % O2, respectively. The values of M with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2 at T of 873 K are 4.87 and 9.44 wt. %, respectively. The distillation characteristics of the oil portion of liquid products (condensates of gas at 298 K) from the oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with 20.95 vol. % O2 at T of 378-873 K is close to those of commercial gasoline. Nevertheless, the liquid product contains a large amount of water. The distillation characteristics of the oil portions of liquid products with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2 at T of 378-873 K are close to those of diesel and fuel oils, respectively. The oil quality with 8.62 vol. % O2 is better than that with 1.09 vol. % O2. However, the liquid product with 8.62 vol. % O2 still contains a large amount of water; nonetheless, that with 1.09 vol. % O2 is with negligible water. Compared with the oil product of nitrogen pyrolysis, the oil quality with 1.09 vol. % O2 is better. Certainly, low oxygen conditions (i.e. 1.09 vol. % O2) not only accelerate the thermal reaction of oil sludge, but also at the same time avoid or reduce the production of water. Further, from the analysis of benzene (B), ethylbenzene (E), toluene (T) and iso-xylene (X) concentrations of the oil portion of liquid products, the BETX concentrations of oil with 20.95 vol. % O2 are higher than those with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2. The yields of liquid products with 20.95, 8

  20. Assessment of Air Emissions at the U S Liquids Exploration and Production Land Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pardue; K.T. Valsaraj

    2000-12-01

    This project was initiated to make the first set of measurements documenting the potential for emissions of pollutants from exploration and production (E&P) waste disposal facilities at Bourg, Louisiana and Bateman Island, Louisiana. The objective of the project was to quantify the emissions and to determine whether the measured emissions were potentially harmful to human health of workers and the adjacent community. The study, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) is designed to complement additional studies funded by Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (LADNR) and the American Petroleum Institute. The distinguishing feature of this study is that actual, independent field measurements of emissions were used to assess the potential problems of this disposal technology. Initial measurements were made at the Bourg, LA facility, adjacent to the community of Grand Bois in late 1998-early 1999. Emission measurements were performed using aluminum chambers placed over the surface of the landfarm cells. Air was pulled through the chambers and the concentration of the contaminants in the air exiting the chambers was measured. The contaminants of interest were the ''BTEX'' compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), commonly found in E&P wastes and hydrogen sulfide, a noxious gas present naturally in many E&P wastes and crude oils. Measurements indicated that emissions were measurable using the techniques developed for the study. However, when the air concentrations of these contaminants that developed above the landfarm cells were compared with standards for workers from the Occupational and Safety and Health Association (''OSHA'') and for communities (Louisiana's ambient air standards), levels were not of concern. Since amounts of wastes being processed by the Bourg facility were considerably lower than normal, a decision was made to continue the study at the Bateman Island facility near Morgan City, LA. This facility was receiving more normal loadings

  1. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds During Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults produced syllable trains of /pΛ/ using a mouthpiece coupled to a computer-controlled perturbator. The device randomly created bleed apertures that ranged from 0 to 40 mm2 during production of the 2nd or 4th syllable of an utterance. Although peak oral air pressure dropped in a linear manner across bleed apertures, it averaged 2 to 3 cm H2O at the largest bleed. While slope of oral pressure also decreased in a linear trend, duration of the oral pressure pulse remained relatively constant. The patterns suggest that respiratory reflexes, if present, have little effect on oral air pressure levels. In Study 2, both oral and subglottal air pressure responses were monitored in 2 adults while bleed apertures of 20 and 40 mm2 were randomly created. For 1 participant, peak oral air pressure dropped across bleed apertures, as in Study 1. Subglottal air pressure and slope, however, remained relatively stable. These patterns provide some support for the occurrence of respiratory reflexes to regulate subglottal air pressure. Overall, the studies indicate that the inherent physiologic processes of the respiratory system, which may involve reflexes, and passive aeromechanical resistance of the upper airway are capable of developing oral air pressure in the face of substantial pressure bleeds. Implications for understanding speech production and the characteristics of individuals with velopharyngeal dysfunction are discussed. PMID:15324286

  2. Air pressure responses to sudden vocal tract pressure bleeds during production of stop consonants: new evidence of aeromechanical regulation.

    PubMed

    Zajac, David J; Weissler, Mark C

    2004-08-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults produced syllable trains of "puh" using a mouthpiece coupled to a computer-controlled perturbator. The device randomly created bleed apertures that ranged from 0 to 40 mm2 during production of the 2nd or 4th syllable of an utterance. Although peak oral air pressure dropped in a linear manner across bleed apertures, it averaged 2 to 3 cm H2O at the largest bleed. While slope of oral pressure also decreased in a linear trend, duration of the oral pressure pulse remained relatively constant. The patterns suggest that respiratory reflexes, if present, have little effect on oral air pressure levels. In Study 2, both oral and subglottal air pressure responses were monitored in 2 adults while bleed apertures of 20 and 40 mm2 were randomly created. For 1 participant, peak oral air pressure dropped across bleed apertures, as in Study 1. Subglottal air pressure and slope, however, remained relatively stable. These patterns provide some support for the occurrence of respiratory reflexes to regulate subglottal air pressure. Overall, the studies indicate that the inherent physiologic processes of the respiratory system, which may involve reflexes, and passive aeromechanical resistance of the upper airway are capable of developing oral air pressure in the face of substantial pressure bleeds. Implications for understanding speech production and the characteristics of individuals with velopharyngeal dysfunction are discussed.

  3. Compressed Air System Optimization Improves Production and saves energy at a Satellite Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    In 2001, a compressed air improvement project was implemented following an audit on the compressed air system at Boeing Satellite Systems (formerly Hughes Space & Communications Company) in Los Angeles, California.

  4. Xanthan production on polyurethane foam and its enhancement by air pressure pulsation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-guo; Chen, Hong-zhang

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of solid-state fermentation (SSF) on polyurethane foam (PUF) for xanthan production. The effects of air pressure pulsation (APP) on biomass accumulation and final xanthan concentration were also studied. Under suitable conditions (15% inoculum, 0.5-cm (side length) PUF cubes, 15 mL medium per gram cubes and 4.5 cm bed depth), the broth was dispersed on the PUF as a film. When the initial glucose concentration in the media was low (20 and 40 g L⁻¹), there was no significant difference between the final xanthan concentration in static SSF and submerged fermentation (SMF). When high initial glucose concentrations (60 and 80 g L⁻¹) were used, the final gum concentrations in SSF were much higher than those in SMF. When the APP technique was applied in xanthan production with a medium containing a high glucose concentration (80 g L⁻¹), the oxygen consumption rate of Xanthomonas campestris was significantly enhanced at the later stages of fermentation, and both the biomass and xanthan concentration were improved. The results indicated that SSF on PUF is suitable for xanthan preparation, especially when the initial glucose concentration ranged from 60 to 80 g L⁻¹. Those results also demonstrated that APP technology can be used to enhance xanthan yields.

  5. Non-contact evaluation of milk-based products using air-coupled ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, S.; Hindle, S. A.; Sandoz, J.-P.; Gan, T. H.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2006-07-01

    An air-coupled ultrasonic technique has been developed and used to detect physicochemical changes of liquid beverages within a glass container. This made use of two wide-bandwidth capacitive transducers, combined with pulse-compression techniques. The use of a glass container to house samples enabled visual inspection, helping to verify the results of some of the ultrasonic measurements. The non-contact pulse-compression system was used to evaluate agglomeration processes in milk-based products. It is shown that the amplitude of the signal varied with time after the samples had been treated with lactic acid, thus promoting sample destabilization. Non-contact imaging was also performed to follow destabilization of samples by scanning in various directions across the container. The obtained ultrasonic images were also compared to those from a digital camera. Coagulation with glucono-delta-lactone of skim milk poured into this container could be monitored within a precision of a pH of 0.15. This rapid, non-contact and non-destructive technique has shown itself to be a feasible method for investigating the quality of milk-based beverages, and possibly other food products.

  6. Microoxic Niches within the Thylakoid Stroma of Air-Grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Protect [FeFe]-Hydrogenase and Support Hydrogen Production under Fully Aerobic Environment.

    PubMed

    Liran, Oded; Semyatich, Rinat; Milrad, Yuval; Eilenberg, Haviva; Weiner, Iddo; Yacoby, Iftach

    2016-09-01

    Photosynthetic hydrogen production in the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is catalyzed by two [FeFe]-hydrogenase isoforms, HydA1 and HydA2, both irreversibly inactivated upon a few seconds exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Until recently, it was thought that hydrogenase is not active in air-grown microalgal cells. In contrast, we show that the entire pool of cellular [FeFe]-hydrogenase remains active in air-grown cells due to efficient scavenging of oxygen. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry, (18)O2 isotope, and various inhibitors, we were able to dissect the various oxygen uptake mechanisms. We found that both chlororespiration, catalyzed by plastid terminal oxidase, and Mehler reactions, catalyzed by photosystem I and Flavodiiron proteins, significantly contribute to oxygen uptake rate. This rate is considerably enhanced with increasing light, thus forming local anaerobic niches at the proximity of the stromal face of the thylakoid membrane. Furthermore, we found that in transition to high light, the hydrogen production rate is significantly enhanced for a short duration (100 s), thus indicating that [FeFe]-hydrogenase functions as an immediate sink for surplus electrons in aerobic as well as in anaerobic environments. In summary, we show that an anaerobic locality in the chloroplast preserves [FeFe]-hydrogenase activity and supports continuous hydrogen production in air-grown microalgal cells. PMID:27443604

  7. Microoxic Niches within the Thylakoid Stroma of Air-Grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Protect [FeFe]-Hydrogenase and Support Hydrogen Production under Fully Aerobic Environment1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liran, Oded; Milrad, Yuval; Eilenberg, Haviva; Weiner, Iddo

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic hydrogen production in the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is catalyzed by two [FeFe]-hydrogenase isoforms, HydA1 and HydA2, both irreversibly inactivated upon a few seconds exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Until recently, it was thought that hydrogenase is not active in air-grown microalgal cells. In contrast, we show that the entire pool of cellular [FeFe]-hydrogenase remains active in air-grown cells due to efficient scavenging of oxygen. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry, 18O2 isotope, and various inhibitors, we were able to dissect the various oxygen uptake mechanisms. We found that both chlororespiration, catalyzed by plastid terminal oxidase, and Mehler reactions, catalyzed by photosystem I and Flavodiiron proteins, significantly contribute to oxygen uptake rate. This rate is considerably enhanced with increasing light, thus forming local anaerobic niches at the proximity of the stromal face of the thylakoid membrane. Furthermore, we found that in transition to high light, the hydrogen production rate is significantly enhanced for a short duration (100 s), thus indicating that [FeFe]-hydrogenase functions as an immediate sink for surplus electrons in aerobic as well as in anaerobic environments. In summary, we show that an anaerobic locality in the chloroplast preserves [FeFe]-hydrogenase activity and supports continuous hydrogen production in air-grown microalgal cells. PMID:27443604

  8. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being

  9. Effect of production microclimate on female thermal state with increased temperature and air humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machablishvili, O. G.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal state of women during the effect of high air temperature and relative humidity with a varying degree of physical loads was studied. Parameters for air temperature, relative humidity, and air movement were established. It was established that in women the thermo-regulatory stress occurs at lower air temperatures and with lower physical loads than in men. The accumulation of heat in women was revealed with lower air temperature than in men. It is concluded that to preserve the normal physiological state of the female organism it is necessary to create more favorable microclimate conditions and decrease the physical loads.

  10. Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing Products to Enhance and Evaluate the AIRPACT Regional Air Quality Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron-Thorpe, F. L.; Mount, G. H.; Emmons, L. K.; Lamb, B. K.; Jaffe, D. A.; Wigder, N. L.; Chung, S. H.; Zhang, R.; Woelfle, M.; Vaughan, J. K.; Leung, F. T.

    2013-12-01

    The WSU AIRPACT air quality modeling system for the Pacific Northwest forecasts hourly levels of aerosols and atmospheric trace gases for use in determining potential health and ecosystem impacts by air quality managers. AIRPACT uses the WRF/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling framework, derives dynamic boundary conditions from MOZART-4 forecast simulations with assimilated MOPITT CO, and uses the BlueSky framework to derive fire emissions. A suite of surface measurements and satellite-based remote sensing data products across the AIRPACT domain are used to evaluate and improve model performance. Specific investigations include anthropogenic emissions, wildfire simulations, and the effects of long-range transport on surface ozone. In this work we synthesize results for multiple comparisons of AIRPACT with satellite products such as IASI ammonia, AIRS carbon monoxide, MODIS AOD, OMI tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and MISR plume height. Features and benefits of the newest version of AIRPACT's web-interface are also presented.

  11. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds during Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults…

  12. Chemometric analysis of chromatographic fingerprints shows potential of Cyclopia maculata (Andrews) Kies for production of standardized extracts with high xanthone content.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Alexandra E; de Beer, Dalene; de Villiers, André; Manley, Marena; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2014-10-29

    Cyclopia species are used for the production of honeybush tea and food ingredient extracts associated with many health benefits. A species-specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for Cyclopia maculata, developed and validated, allowed quantification of the major compounds in extracts from "unfermented" and fermented C. maculata. Two xanthones were tentatively identified for the first time in a Cyclopia species, whereas an additional four compounds were tentatively identified for the first time in C. maculata. "Fermentation" (oxidation) decreased the content of all compounds, with the exception of vicenin-2. Similarity analysis of the chromatographic fingerprints of unfermented C. maculata aqueous extracts showed extremely low variation (r ≥ 0.97) between samples. Some differences between wild-harvested and cultivated seedling plants were, however, demonstrated using principal component analysis. Quantitative data of selected compounds confirmed the low level of variation, making this Cyclopia species ideal for the production of standardized food ingredient extracts.

  13. Airborne and ground-based observations of a weekend effect in ozone, precursors, and oxidation products in the California South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.; Andrews, A. E.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Brown, S. S.; Commane, R.; Daube, B. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Flynn, J.; Frost, G. J.; Gilman, J. B.; Grossberg, N.; Holloway, J. S.; Kofler, J.; Kort, E. A.; Kuster, W. C.; Lang, P. M.; Lefer, B.; Lueb, R. A.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Novelli, P. C.; Peischl, J.; Perring, A. E.; Roberts, J. M.; Santoni, G.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Wagner, N. L.; Warneke, C.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Xiang, B.

    2012-02-01

    Airborne and ground-based measurements during the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) field study in May/June 2010 show a weekend effect in ozone in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) consistent with previous observations. The well-known and much-studied weekend ozone effect has been attributed to weekend reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO + NO2) emissions, which affect ozone levels via two processes: (1) reduced ozone loss by titration and (2) enhanced photochemical production of ozone due to an increased ratio of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to NOx. In accord with previous assessments, the 2010 airborne and ground-based data show an average decrease in NOx of 46 ± 11% and 34 ± 4%, respectively, and an average increase in VOC/NOx ratio of 48 ± 8% and 43 ± 22%, respectively, on weekends. This work extends current understanding of the weekend ozone effect in the SoCAB by identifying its major causes and quantifying their relative importance from the available CalNex data. Increased weekend production of a VOC-NOx oxidation product, peroxyacetyl nitrate, compared to a radical termination product, nitric acid, indicates a significant contribution from increased photochemical production on weekends. Weekday-to-weekend differences in the products of NOx oxidation show 45 ± 13% and 42 ± 12% more extensive photochemical processing and, when compared with odd oxygen (Ox = O3 + NO2), 51 ± 14% and 22 ± 17% greater ozone production efficiency on weekends in the airborne and ground-based data, respectively, indicating that both contribute to higher weekend ozone levels in the SoCAB.

  14. Atmospheric infrared sounder on AIRS with emphasis on level 2 products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sung-Yung; Fetzer, Eric; Granger, Stephanie; Hearty, Thomas; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Manning, Evan M.; Olsen, Edward; Pagano, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched aboard EOS Aqua in May of 2002. AIRS is a grating spectrometer with almost 2400 channels covering the 3.74 to 15.40 micron spectral region with a nominal spectral resolution ((nu)/(delta)(nu)) of 1200, with some gaps. In addition, AIRS has 4 channels in the NIR/VIS region. The AIRS operates in conjunction with the microwave sounders Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) and Humidity Sounder of Brazil (HSB). The microwave sounders are mainly used for cloud clearing of IR radiances, or to remove the effect of cloud on the IR radiances.

  15. A Well-Mixed Computational Model for Estimating Room Air Levels of Selected Constituents from E-Vapor Product Use

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Ali A.; Pithawalla, Yezdi B.; Liu, Jianmin; Oldham, Michael J.; Wagner, Karl A.; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Sarkar, Mohamadi A.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in the literature for the potential of secondhand exposure from e-vapor product (EVP) use. It would be difficult to experimentally determine the impact of various factors on secondhand exposure including, but not limited to, room characteristics (indoor space size, ventilation rate), device specifications (aerosol mass delivery, e-liquid composition), and use behavior (number of users and usage frequency). Therefore, a well-mixed computational model was developed to estimate the indoor levels of constituents from EVPs under a variety of conditions. The model is based on physical and thermodynamic interactions between aerosol, vapor, and air, similar to indoor air models referred to by the Environmental Protection Agency. The model results agree well with measured indoor air levels of nicotine from two sources: smoking machine-generated aerosol and aerosol exhaled from EVP use. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing air exchange rate reduces room air level of constituents, as more material is carried away. The effect of the amount of aerosol released into the space due to variability in exhalation was also evaluated. The model can estimate the room air level of constituents as a function of time, which may be used to assess the level of non-user exposure over time. PMID:27537903

  16. A Well-Mixed Computational Model for Estimating Room Air Levels of Selected Constituents from E-Vapor Product Use.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Ali A; Pithawalla, Yezdi B; Liu, Jianmin; Oldham, Michael J; Wagner, Karl A; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Sarkar, Mohamadi A

    2016-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in the literature for the potential of secondhand exposure from e-vapor product (EVP) use. It would be difficult to experimentally determine the impact of various factors on secondhand exposure including, but not limited to, room characteristics (indoor space size, ventilation rate), device specifications (aerosol mass delivery, e-liquid composition), and use behavior (number of users and usage frequency). Therefore, a well-mixed computational model was developed to estimate the indoor levels of constituents from EVPs under a variety of conditions. The model is based on physical and thermodynamic interactions between aerosol, vapor, and air, similar to indoor air models referred to by the Environmental Protection Agency. The model results agree well with measured indoor air levels of nicotine from two sources: smoking machine-generated aerosol and aerosol exhaled from EVP use. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing air exchange rate reduces room air level of constituents, as more material is carried away. The effect of the amount of aerosol released into the space due to variability in exhalation was also evaluated. The model can estimate the room air level of constituents as a function of time, which may be used to assess the level of non-user exposure over time. PMID:27537903

  17. Neutrophils from patients with SAPHO syndrome show no signs of aberrant NADPH oxidase-dependent production of intracellular reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Wekell, Per; Björnsdottir, Halla; Björkman, Lena; Sundqvist, Martina; Christenson, Karin; Osla, Veronica; Berg, Stefan; Fasth, Anders; Welin, Amanda; Bylund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to investigate if aberrant intracellular production of NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils is a disease mechanism in the autoinflammatory disease SAPHO syndrome, characterized by synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis, as has previously been suggested based on a family with SAPHO syndrome-like disease. Methods. Neutrophil function was explored in a cohort of four patients with SAPHO syndrome, two of whom were sampled during both inflammatory and non-inflammatory phase. Intracellular neutrophil ROS production was determined by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence in response to phorbol myristate acetate. Results. Cells from all patients produced normal amounts of ROS, both intra- and extracellularly, when compared with internal controls as well as with a large collection of healthy controls assayed in the laboratory over time (showing an extensive inter-personal variability in a normal population). Further, intracellular production of ROS increased during the inflammatory phase. Neutrophil activation markers were comparable between patients and controls. Conclusion. Dysfunctional generation of intracellular ROS in neutrophils is not a generalizable feature in SAPHO syndrome. Secondly, serum amyloid A appears to be a more sensitive inflammatory marker than CRP during improvement and relapses in SAPHO syndrome. PMID:27121779

  18. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    PubMed

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm], or mold levels, which were tested by 7 parameters) correlated directly with individual health symptoms. Indicators of atopy or allergy (sinusitis, allergies, and asthma), when present singly, in combinations of 2 conditions, or together, were hierarchically associated with the following: increased absence, increased presenteeism (presence at work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely

  19. 77 FR 8575 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... February 14, 2012 Part V Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 63 National Emissions Standards for... 63 RIN 2060-AQ40 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum... proposing amendments to the national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for Secondary...

  20. The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

    2012-07-01

    Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

  1. Effects of anti-odor automobile air-conditioning system products on adherence of Serratia marcescens to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Drago, G K; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    2002-12-01

    Sixteen commercial products for use in automobile air-conditioning systems (ACS), most designated for abatement of malodors presumably of microbial origin, were examined for their potential to inhibit attachment and to detach cells of the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens on aluminum sections. Numbers of attached cells were appreciably reduced (>60%) following immersion in three alcohol-type and two acrylic-coating-type products. Several products had essentially no effect on the attached cells. Most of the products indicated for alleviation of associated microbial odors from ACS provided only short-term effects. When products were coated onto aluminum prior to exposure to the cells, water-insoluble coatings appeared to provide more consistent inhibition of primary adherence of S. marcescens. The differences in degrees of primary adherence of a selected strain of S. marcescens to variously treated aluminum provided a rapid and reproducible assessment of potential antimicrobial efficacy of ACS products. PMID:12483481

  2. Measurement of HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate due to radon decay in air

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huiling

    1993-08-01

    Radon in indoor air may cause the exposure of the public to excessive radioactivity. Radiolysis of water vapor in indoor air due to radon decay could produce ({center_dot}OH and HO{sub 2} {center_dot}) that may convert atmospheric constituents to compounds of lower vapor pressure. These lower vapor pressure compounds might then nucleate to form new particles in the indoor atmosphere. Chemical amplification was used to determine HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate in indoor air caused by radon decay. Average HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate was found to be (4.31{plus_minus}0.07) {times} 10{sup 5} HO{sub x}{center_dot} per Rn decay per second (Bq) 3.4 to 55.0% at 22C. This work provided G{sub (HO{sub x}{center_dot})}-value, 7.86{plus_minus}0.13 No./100 eV in air by directly measuring [HO{sub x}{center_dot}] formed from the radiolysis procedure. This G value implies that HO{sub x}{center_dot} produced by radon decay in air might be formed by multiple processes and may be result of positive ion-molecule reactions, primary radiolysis, and radical reactions. There is no obvious relation between HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate and relative humidity. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been used for {center_dot}OH production rate measurement; it consists of an excimer laser, a dye laser, a frequency doubler, a gaseous fluorescence chamber, and other optical and electronic parts. This system needs to be improved to eliminate the interferences of light scattering and artificial {center_dot}OH produced from the photolysis of O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O.

  3. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (< C6). Although measured ambient VOC concentrations were well below health-based safe exposure levels, the existence of urban-level mean concentrations of benzene and other mobile source air toxics combined with soot to total carbon ratios that were high for an area with little residential or commercial development may be indicative of the impact of increased heavy-duty vehicle traffic related to gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near

  4. Air humidity as key determinant of morphogenesis and productivity of the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii.

    PubMed

    Schwerbrock, R; Leuschner, C

    2016-07-01

    (1) Most ferns are restricted to moist and shady habitats, but it is not known whether soil moisture or atmospheric water status are decisive limiting factors, or if both are equally important. (2) Using the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii, we conducted a three-factorial climate chamber experiment (soil moisture (SM) × air humidity (RH) × air temperature (T)) to test the hypotheses that: (i) atmospheric water status (RH) exerts a similarly large influence on the fern's biology as soil moisture, and (ii) both a reduction in RH and an increase in air temperature reduce vigour and growth. (3) Nine of 11 morphological, physiological and growth-related traits were significantly influenced by an increase in RH from 65% to 95%, leading to higher leaf conductance, increased above- and belowground productivity, higher fertility, more epidermal trichomes and fewer leaf deformities under high air humidity. In contrast, soil moisture variation (from 66% to 70% in the moist to ca. 42% in the dry treatment) influenced only one trait (specific leaf area), and temperature variation (15 °C versus 19 °C during daytime) only three traits (leaf conductance, root/shoot ratio, specific leaf area); RH was the only factor affecting productivity. (4) This study is the first experimental proof for a soil moisture-independent air humidity effect on the growth of terrestrial woodland ferns. P. braunii appears to be an air humidity hygrophyte that, whithin the range of realistic environmental conditions set in this study, suffers more from a reduction in RH than in soil moisture. A climate warming-related increase in summer temperatures, however, seems not to directly threaten this endangered species. PMID:26891763

  5. Air humidity as key determinant of morphogenesis and productivity of the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii.

    PubMed

    Schwerbrock, R; Leuschner, C

    2016-07-01

    (1) Most ferns are restricted to moist and shady habitats, but it is not known whether soil moisture or atmospheric water status are decisive limiting factors, or if both are equally important. (2) Using the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii, we conducted a three-factorial climate chamber experiment (soil moisture (SM) × air humidity (RH) × air temperature (T)) to test the hypotheses that: (i) atmospheric water status (RH) exerts a similarly large influence on the fern's biology as soil moisture, and (ii) both a reduction in RH and an increase in air temperature reduce vigour and growth. (3) Nine of 11 morphological, physiological and growth-related traits were significantly influenced by an increase in RH from 65% to 95%, leading to higher leaf conductance, increased above- and belowground productivity, higher fertility, more epidermal trichomes and fewer leaf deformities under high air humidity. In contrast, soil moisture variation (from 66% to 70% in the moist to ca. 42% in the dry treatment) influenced only one trait (specific leaf area), and temperature variation (15 °C versus 19 °C during daytime) only three traits (leaf conductance, root/shoot ratio, specific leaf area); RH was the only factor affecting productivity. (4) This study is the first experimental proof for a soil moisture-independent air humidity effect on the growth of terrestrial woodland ferns. P. braunii appears to be an air humidity hygrophyte that, whithin the range of realistic environmental conditions set in this study, suffers more from a reduction in RH than in soil moisture. A climate warming-related increase in summer temperatures, however, seems not to directly threaten this endangered species.

  6. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 5 Multi-Phase Extraction And Product Recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  7. [Microbial contamination of the air in the commercial production of poultry meat].

    PubMed

    Baĭkov, B D; Petkov, G

    1987-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out on industrial premises for the raising of broiler birds on deep litter over a flooring area of 2000 m2 at mechanical ventilation of negative pressure. The microbial count was established through culturing in meat-and-peptone agar regarding the presence of coli bacteria, microscopic fungi, hemolytic cocci and Salmonellae in the air. Studies were also performed to establish the contamination of the atmospheric air at a distance of 10 m surrounding the premises, of the litter as well as of the feed and the soil in immediate proximity to the buildings. It was found that as a result of raising the 'biologic loading' of the ecotope by 60 per cent the microbial contamination of the air in the industrial buildings rose. The basic sources of contamination were the deep litter, the atmospheric air introduced by the ventilation system, the soil, and the feed.

  8. Rapid evolution of air pollution sensor technology for research and consumer product applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor air pollution measurement approaches have historically been conducted using stationary shelters that require significant space, power, and expertise to operate. The cost and logistical requirements to conduct monitoring have limited the number of locations with continuou...

  9. Demonstration of Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage to Support Renewable Energy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, Benjamin

    2015-01-02

    This project develops and demonstrates a megawatt (MW)-scale Energy Storage System that employs compressed air as the storage medium. An isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAESTM) system rated for 1 MW or more will be demonstrated in a full-scale prototype unit. Breakthrough cost-effectiveness will be achieved through the use of proprietary methods for isothermal gas cycling and staged gas expansion implemented using industrially mature, readily-available components.The ICAES approach uses an electrically driven mechanical system to raise air to high pressure for storage in low-cost pressure vessels, pipeline, or lined-rock cavern (LRC). This air is later expanded through the same mechanical system to drive the electric motor as a generator. The approach incorporates two key efficiency-enhancing innovations: (1) isothermal (constant temperature) gas cycling, which is achieved by mixing liquid with air (via spray or foam) to exchange heat with air undergoing compression or expansion; and (2) a novel, staged gas-expansion scheme that allows the drivetrain to operate at constant power while still allowing the stored gas to work over its entire pressure range. The ICAES system will be scalable, non-toxic, and cost-effective, making it suitable for firming renewables and for other grid applications.

  10. Reversal to air-driven sound production revealed by a molecular phylogeny of tongueless frogs, family Pipidae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evolutionary novelties often appear by conferring completely new functions to pre-existing structures or by innovating the mechanism through which a particular function is performed. Sound production plays a central role in the behavior of frogs, which use their calls to delimit territories and attract mates. Therefore, frogs have evolved complex vocal structures capable of producing a wide variety of advertising sounds. It is generally acknowledged that most frogs call by moving an air column from the lungs through the glottis with the remarkable exception of the family Pipidae, whose members share a highly specialized sound production mechanism independent of air movement. Results Here, we performed behavioral observations in the poorly known African pipid genus Pseudhymenochirus and document that the sound production in this aquatic frog is almost certainly air-driven. However, morphological comparisons revealed an indisputable pipid nature of Pseudhymenochirus larynx. To place this paradoxical pattern into an evolutionary framework, we reconstructed robust molecular phylogenies of pipids based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nine nuclear protein-coding genes that coincided in placing Pseudhymenochirus nested among other pipids. Conclusions We conclude that although Pseudhymenochirus probably has evolved a reversal to the ancestral non-pipid condition of air-driven sound production, the mechanism through which it occurs is an evolutionary innovation based on the derived larynx of pipids. This strengthens the idea that evolutionary solutions to functional problems often emerge based on previous structures, and for this reason, innovations largely depend on possibilities and constraints predefined by the particular history of each lineage. PMID:21524293

  11. Air-water transfer of MTBE, its degradation products, and alternative fuel oxygenates: the role of temperature.

    PubMed

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2004-10-15

    The gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has become one of the world's mostwidespread groundwater and surface water contaminants. As a result, there has been increasing interest in the environmental behavior of MTBE and its degradation products, mainly tert-butyl formate (TBF) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). In contrast, the environmental behavior of the proposed alternatives to MTBE, namely ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) has hardly been studied yet, although some of them are already in substantial use in various countries. A key parameter for the assessment of the fate, transport, and possible remediation of these contaminants is the air-water partitioning constant (KiH). The KiH is highly temperature dependent, and it is therefore necessary to obtain reliable experimental values at relevant temperatures. Hence, the KiH of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and DIPE, along with the degradation products, TBF and methyl acetate, were determined from 5 degrees C-40 degrees C. The alternatives to MTBE generally had a higher KiH, which implies that, upon emission into the environment, the alternatives partition more readily into the air phase than MTBE. This may favor their use, as it is in the air phase where dilution and degradation are the most effective. The degradation products of MTBE, with the exception of TBF, have much lower KiH values at all temperatures. Hence, the degradation products will have a stronger affinity for the water phase. The temperature dependency of the kinetics of air-watertransfer is discussed using a boundary layer model. Only for TBA but not for the ethers a significant effect of temperature was found.

  12. Simulation of heat and mass transfer processes in the experimental section of the air-condensing unit of Scientific Production Company "Turbocon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemov, V. I.; Minko, K. B.; Yan'kov, G. G.; Kiryukhin, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    A mathematical model was developed to be used for numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer processes in the experimental section of the air condenser (ESAC) created in the Scientific Production Company (SPC) "Turbocon" and mounted on the territory of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute. The simulations were performed using the author's CFD code ANES. The verification of the models was carried out involving the experimental data obtained in the tests of ESAC. The operational capability of the proposed models to calculate the processes in steam-air mixture and cooling air and algorithms to take into account the maldistribution in the various rows of tube bundle was shown. Data on the influence of temperature and flow rate of the cooling air on the pressure in the upper header of ESAC, effective heat transfer coefficient, steam flow distribution by tube rows, and the dimensions of the ineffectively operating zones of tube bundle for two schemes of steam-air mixture flow (one-pass and two-pass ones) were presented. It was shown that the pressure behind the turbine (in the upper header) increases significantly at increase of the steam flow rate and reduction of the flow rate of cooling air and its temperature rise, and the maximum value of heat transfer coefficient is fully determined by the flow rate of cooling air. Furthermore, the steam flow rate corresponding to the maximum value of heat transfer coefficient substantially depends on the ambient temperature. The analysis of the effectiveness of the considered schemes of internal coolant flow was carried out, which showed that the two-pass scheme is more effective because it provides lower pressure in the upper header, despite the fact that its hydraulic resistance at fixed flow rate of steam-air mixture is considerably higher than at using the one-pass schema. This result is a consequence of the fact that, in the two-pass scheme, the condensation process involves the larger internal surface of tubes

  13. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air and its products of combustion with ASTMA-A-1 fuel and natural gas at 20, 30, and 40 atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The isentropic exponent, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy were calculated for air, the combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air, and the combustion products of natural gas and air. The properties were calculated over a temperature range from 300 to 2800 K in 100 K increments and for pressures of 20, 30 and 40 atmospheres. The data for natural gas and ASTM-A-1 were calculated for fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric in 0.01 increments.

  14. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    PubMed

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  15. Volatile metabolite production of spoilage micro-organisms on a mixed-lettuce agar during storage at 7 degrees C in air and low oxygen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ragaert, P; Devlieghere, F; Devuyst, E; Dewulf, J; Van Langenhove, H; Debevere, J

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes the volatile metabolite production of spoilage bacteria (Pantoea agglomerans and Rahnella aquatilis) and spoilage yeasts (Pichia fermentans and Cryptococcus laurentii), previously isolated from mixed lettuce, on a simulation medium of shredded mixed lettuce (mixed-lettuce agar) both under air conditions and modified atmosphere (MA)-conditions at 7 degrees C. These latter conditions simulated the equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging, which is used to extend the shelf-life of shredded mixed lettuce. Besides volatile metabolites, organic acid metabolites and consumption of sugars were measured. Microbiological growth on the mixed-lettuce agar resulted in metabolite production and consumption of sugars. Bacteria and yeasts produced a range of volatile organic compounds both under air conditions and MA-conditions: ethanol, ethyl acetate, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,3-butanedione, 3-methyl-1-pentanol, 1-butanol and 1-hexanol. Under MA-conditions, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and ethanol were the first compounds that were detected in the headspace as being produced by the inoculated micro-organisms. In the case of the yeast P. fermentans, production of these compounds was detected from a count of 5.0+/-0.1 log cfu/cm(2) with a fast increase when exceeding 6.0-6.5 log cfu/cm(2). Unlike P. fermentans, the yeast C. laurentii showed a slow metabolism under MA-conditions, compared to air conditions. In the case of the bacteria, production of 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol was detected starting from a count of 6.7+/-0.1 log cfu/cm(2) in the case of R. aquatilis and from a count of 7.1+/-0.4 log cfu/cm(2) in the case of P. agglomerans with a fast increase when exceeding 8 log cfu/cm(2). No production of ethanol by the bacteria under MA-conditions was detected in contradiction to air conditions. It could be concluded that, if these counts are reached on the cut surfaces of shredded mixed lettuce

  16. Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production.

    PubMed

    Rau, Greg H; Carroll, Susan A; Bourcier, William L; Singleton, Michael J; Smith, Megan M; Aines, Roger D

    2013-06-18

    We experimentally demonstrate the direct coupling of silicate mineral dissolution with saline water electrolysis and H2 production to effect significant air CO2 absorption, chemical conversion, and storage in solution. In particular, we observed as much as a 10(5)-fold increase in OH(-) concentration (pH increase of up to 5.3 units) relative to experimental controls following the electrolysis of 0.25 M Na2SO4 solutions when the anode was encased in powdered silicate mineral, either wollastonite or an ultramafic mineral. After electrolysis, full equilibration of the alkalized solution with air led to a significant pH reduction and as much as a 45-fold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This demonstrated significant spontaneous air CO2 capture, chemical conversion, and storage as a bicarbonate, predominantly as NaHCO3. The excess OH(-) initially formed in these experiments apparently resulted via neutralization of the anolyte acid, H2SO4, by reaction with the base mineral silicate at the anode, producing mineral sulfate and silica. This allowed the NaOH, normally generated at the cathode, to go unneutralized and to accumulate in the bulk electrolyte, ultimately reacting with atmospheric CO2 to form dissolved bicarbonate. Using nongrid or nonpeak renewable electricity, optimized systems at large scale might allow relatively high-capacity, energy-efficient (<300 kJ/mol of CO2 captured), and inexpensive (<$100 per tonne of CO2 mitigated) removal of excess air CO2 with production of carbon-negative H2. Furthermore, when added to the ocean, the produced hydroxide and/or (bi)carbonate could be useful in reducing sea-to-air CO2 emissions and in neutralizing or offsetting the effects of ongoing ocean acidification. PMID:23729814

  17. Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Greg H.; Carroll, Susan A.; Bourcier, William L.; Singleton, Michael J.; Smith, Megan M.; Aines, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the direct coupling of silicate mineral dissolution with saline water electrolysis and H2 production to effect significant air CO2 absorption, chemical conversion, and storage in solution. In particular, we observed as much as a 105-fold increase in OH− concentration (pH increase of up to 5.3 units) relative to experimental controls following the electrolysis of 0.25 M Na2SO4 solutions when the anode was encased in powdered silicate mineral, either wollastonite or an ultramafic mineral. After electrolysis, full equilibration of the alkalized solution with air led to a significant pH reduction and as much as a 45-fold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This demonstrated significant spontaneous air CO2 capture, chemical conversion, and storage as a bicarbonate, predominantly as NaHCO3. The excess OH− initially formed in these experiments apparently resulted via neutralization of the anolyte acid, H2SO4, by reaction with the base mineral silicate at the anode, producing mineral sulfate and silica. This allowed the NaOH, normally generated at the cathode, to go unneutralized and to accumulate in the bulk electrolyte, ultimately reacting with atmospheric CO2 to form dissolved bicarbonate. Using nongrid or nonpeak renewable electricity, optimized systems at large scale might allow relatively high-capacity, energy-efficient (<300 kJ/mol of CO2 captured), and inexpensive (<$100 per tonne of CO2 mitigated) removal of excess air CO2 with production of carbon-negative H2. Furthermore, when added to the ocean, the produced hydroxide and/or (bi)carbonate could be useful in reducing sea-to-air CO2 emissions and in neutralizing or offsetting the effects of ongoing ocean acidification. PMID:23729814

  18. Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production.

    PubMed

    Rau, Greg H; Carroll, Susan A; Bourcier, William L; Singleton, Michael J; Smith, Megan M; Aines, Roger D

    2013-06-18

    We experimentally demonstrate the direct coupling of silicate mineral dissolution with saline water electrolysis and H2 production to effect significant air CO2 absorption, chemical conversion, and storage in solution. In particular, we observed as much as a 10(5)-fold increase in OH(-) concentration (pH increase of up to 5.3 units) relative to experimental controls following the electrolysis of 0.25 M Na2SO4 solutions when the anode was encased in powdered silicate mineral, either wollastonite or an ultramafic mineral. After electrolysis, full equilibration of the alkalized solution with air led to a significant pH reduction and as much as a 45-fold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This demonstrated significant spontaneous air CO2 capture, chemical conversion, and storage as a bicarbonate, predominantly as NaHCO3. The excess OH(-) initially formed in these experiments apparently resulted via neutralization of the anolyte acid, H2SO4, by reaction with the base mineral silicate at the anode, producing mineral sulfate and silica. This allowed the NaOH, normally generated at the cathode, to go unneutralized and to accumulate in the bulk electrolyte, ultimately reacting with atmospheric CO2 to form dissolved bicarbonate. Using nongrid or nonpeak renewable electricity, optimized systems at large scale might allow relatively high-capacity, energy-efficient (<300 kJ/mol of CO2 captured), and inexpensive (<$100 per tonne of CO2 mitigated) removal of excess air CO2 with production of carbon-negative H2. Furthermore, when added to the ocean, the produced hydroxide and/or (bi)carbonate could be useful in reducing sea-to-air CO2 emissions and in neutralizing or offsetting the effects of ongoing ocean acidification.

  19. Impact of air pollution control costs on the cost and spatial arrangement of cellulosic biofuel production in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Colin W; Parker, Nathan C

    2014-02-18

    Air pollution emissions regulation can affect the location, size, and technology choice of potential biofuel production facilities. Difficulty in obtaining air pollutant emission permits and the cost of air pollution control devices have been cited by some fuel producers as barriers to development. This paper expands on the Geospatial Bioenergy Systems Model (GBSM) to evaluate the effect of air pollution control costs on the availability, cost, and distribution of U.S. biofuel production by subjecting potential facility locations within U.S. Clean Air Act nonattainment areas, which exceed thresholds for healthy air quality, to additional costs. This paper compares three scenarios: one with air quality costs included, one without air quality costs, and one in which conversion facilities were prohibited in Clean Air Act nonattainment areas. While air quality regulation may substantially affect local decisions regarding siting or technology choices, their effect on the system as a whole is small. Most biofuel facilities are expected to be sited near to feedstock supplies, which are seldom in nonattainment areas. The average cost per unit of produced energy is less than 1% higher in the scenarios with air quality compliance costs than in scenarios without such costs. When facility construction is prohibited in nonattainment areas, the costs increase by slightly over 1%, due to increases in the distance feedstock is transported to facilities in attainment areas.

  20. Operational use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals along with the RGB Airmass product as part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folmer, M. J.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Molthan, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Red, Green, Blue (RGB) Air Mass product has been demonstrated in the GOES-R Proving Ground as a possible decision aid. Forecasters have been trained on the usefulness of identifying stratospheric intrusions and potential vorticity (PV) anomalies that can lead to explosive cyclogenesis, genesis of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), or the transition of tropical cyclones to extratropical cyclones. It has also been demonstrated to distinguish different air mass types from warm, low ozone air masses to cool, high ozone air masses and the various interactions with the PV anomalies. To assist the forecasters in understanding the stratospheric contribution to high impact weather systems, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Total Column Ozone Retrievals have been made available as an operational tool. These AIRS retrievals provide additional information on the amount of ozone that is associated with the red coloring seen in the RGB Air Mass product. This paper discusses how the AIRS retrievals can be used to quantify the red coloring in RGB Air Mass product. These retrievals can be used to diagnose the depth of the stratospheric intrusions associated with different types of weather systems and provide the forecasters with decision aid tools that can improve the quality of forecast products.

  1. Operational use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals along with the RGB Airmass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, M.; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Red, Green, Blue (RGB) Air Mass product has been demonstrated in the GOES ]R Proving Ground as a possible decision aid. Forecasters have been trained on the usefulness of identifying stratospheric intrusions and potential vorticity (PV) anomalies that can lead to explosive cyclogenesis, genesis of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), or the transition of tropical cyclones to extratropical cyclones. It has also been demonstrated to distinguish different air mass types from warm, low ozone air masses to cool, high ozone air masses and the various interactions with the PV anomalies. To assist the forecasters in understanding the stratospheric contribution to high impact weather systems, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Total Column Ozone Retrievals have been made available as an operational tool. These AIRS retrievals provide additional information on the amount of ozone that is associated with the red coloring seen in the RGB Air Mass product. This paper discusses how the AIRS retrievals can be used to quantify the red coloring in RGB Air Mass product. These retrievals can be used to diagnose the depth of the stratospheric intrusions associated with different types of weather systems and provide the forecasters decision aid tools that can improve the quality of forecast products.

  2. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  3. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  4. Prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in the Karoo basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, Katye E.; Stone, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    The increased use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to produce gas from unconventional deposits has led to concerns about the impacts to local and regional air quality. South Africa has the 8th largest technically recoverable shale gas reserve in the world and is in the early stages of exploration of this resource. This paper presents a prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in South Africa's Karoo basin. A bottom-up Monte Carlo assessment of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), and non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions was conducted for major categories of well development and production activities. NOx emissions are estimated to be 68 tons per day (±42; standard deviation), total NMVOC emissions are 39 tons per day (±28), and PM2.5 emissions are 3.0 tons per day (±1.9). NOx and NMVOC emissions from shale gas development and production would dominate all other regional emission sources, and could be significant contributors to regional ozone and local air quality, especially considering the current lack of industrial activity in the region. Emissions of PM2.5 will contribute to local air quality, and are of a similar magnitude as typical vehicle and industrial emissions from a large South African city. This emissions inventory provides the information necessary for regulatory authorities to evaluate emissions reduction opportunities using existing technologies and to implement appropriate monitoring of shale gas-related activities.

  5. Gas phase formation of extremely oxidized pinene reaction products in chamber and ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehn, M.; Kleist, E.; Junninen, H.; Petäjä, T.; Lönn, G.; Schobesberger, S.; Dal Maso, M.; Trimborn, A.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Wahner, A.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.

    2012-06-01

    High molecular weight (300-650 Da) naturally charged negative ions have previously been observed at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland. The long-term measurements conducted in this work showed that these ions are observed practically every night between spring and autumn in Hyytiälä. The ambient mass spectral patterns could be reproduced in striking detail during additional measurements of α-pinene (C10H16) oxidation at low-OH conditions in the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC). The ions were identified as clusters of the nitrate ion (NO3-) and α-pinene oxidation products reaching oxygen to carbon ratios of 0.7-1.3, while retaining most of the initial ten carbon atoms. Attributing the ions to clusters instead of single molecules was based on additional observations of the same extremely oxidized organics in clusters with HSO4- (Hyytiälä) and C3F5O2- (JPAC). The most abundant products in the ion spectra were identified as C10H14O7, C10H14O9, C10H16O9, and C10H14O11. The mechanism responsible for forming these molecules is still not clear, but the initial reaction is most likely ozone attack at the double bond, as the ions are mainly observed under dark conditions. β-pinene also formed highly oxidized products under the same conditions, but less efficiently, and mainly C9 compounds which were not observed in Hyytiälä, where β-pinene on average is 4-5 times less abundant than α-pinene. Further, to explain the high O/C together with the relatively high H/C, we propose that geminal diols and/or hydroperoxide groups may be important. We estimate that the night-time concentration of the sum of the neutral extremely oxidized products is on the order of 0.1-1 ppt (~106-107 molec cm-3). This is in a similar range as the amount of gaseous H2SO4 in Hyytiälä during day-time. As these highly oxidized organics are roughly 3 times heavier, likely with extremely low vapor pressures, their role in the initial steps of new aerosol particle formation and

  6. Gas phase formation of extremely oxidized pinene reaction products in chamber and ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehn, M.; Kleist, E.; Junninen, H.; Petäjä, T.; Lönn, G.; Schobesberger, S.; Dal Maso, M.; Trimborn, A.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Wahner, A.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.

    2012-02-01

    High molecular weight (300-650 Da) naturally charged negative ions have previously been observed at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland. The long-term measurements conducted in this work showed that these ions are observed practically every night during spring and summer in Hyytiälä. The ambient mass spectral patterns could be reproduced in striking detail during additional measurements of α-pinene (C10H16) oxidation at low-OH conditions in the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC). The ions were identified as clusters of the nitrate ion (NO3-) and α-pinene oxidation products reaching oxygen to carbon ratios of 0.7-1.3, while retaining most of the initial ten carbon atoms. Attributing the ions to clusters instead of single molecules was based on additional observations of the same extremely oxidized organics in clusters with HSO4- (Hyytiälä) and C3F5O2- (JPAC). The most abundant products in the ion spectra were identified as C105H14O7, C10H14O9, C10H16O9, and C10H14O11. The mechanism responsible for forming these molecules is still not clear, but the initial reaction is most likely ozone attack at the double bond, as the ions are mainly observed under dark conditions. β-pinene also formed highly oxidized products under the same conditions, but less efficiently, and mainly C9 compounds which were not observed in Hyytiälä, where β-pinene on average is 4-5 times less abundant than α-pinene. Further, to explain the high O/C together with the relatively high H/C, we propose that geminal diols and/or hydroperoxide groups may be important. We estimate that the night-time concentration of the sum of the neutral extremely oxidized products is on the order of 0.1-1 ppt (~106-107 molec cm-3). This is in a similar range as the amount of gaseous H2SO4 in Hyytiälä during day-time. As these highly oxidized organics are roughly 3 times heavier, likely with extremely low vapor pressures, their role in the initial steps of new aerosol particle formation and

  7. 76 FR 30555 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... proposed rulemaking (SNOPR), 76 FR 18105, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed amendments to those... released in a June 2010 notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR). 75 FR 31224. The proposed amendments in the... Procedures for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  8. 76 FR 72507 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... is no higher than approximately one in 10 thousand, that risk level is considered acceptable.'' 54 FR... of the residual risk and technology review that the EPA is required to conduct under the Clean Air....gov . For specific information regarding the risk modeling methodology, contact Ms. Darcie...

  9. Sociophonetic Variation in the Production and Perception of Obstruent Voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohena-Madrazo, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents an instrumental study of variation in fricative voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish (BAS), particularly with respect to the devoicing change of the postalveolar fricative: /y/greater than/[function of]/. It proposes a novel way of determining the completion of this change by comparing the percentage voicing of the…

  10. 75 FR 28227 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ..., 2010, when EPA published the proposed rule (75 FR 22470). Several parties requested that EPA extend the... provided in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of the April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22470) Federal Register... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 63 RIN 2060-AP48 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  11. Compressed Air System Upgrade Improves Production at an Automotive Glass Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    In 2000, The Visteon automotive glass plant improved its compressed air system at its automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee. This improvement allowed Visteon to save $711,000 annually, reduce annual energy consumption by 7.9 million kilowatt-hours, reduce maintenance, improve system performance, and avoid $800,000 in asbestos abatement costs.

  12. Rechargeability of Li-air cathodes pre-filled with discharge products using an ether-based electrolyte solution: implications for cycle-life of Li-air cells.

    PubMed

    Meini, Stefano; Tsiouvaras, Nikolaos; Schwenke, K Uta; Piana, Michele; Beyer, Hans; Lange, Lukas; Gasteiger, Hubert A

    2013-07-21

    The instability of currently used electrolyte solutions and of the carbon support during charge-discharge in non-aqueous lithium-oxygen cells can lead to discharge products other than the desired Li2O2, such as Li2CO3, which is believed to reduce cycle-life. Similarly, discharge in an O2 atmosphere which contains H2O and CO2 impurities would lead to LiOH and Li2CO3 discharge products. In this work we therefore investigate the rechargeability of model cathodes pre-filled with four possible Li-air cell discharge products, namely Li2O2, Li2CO3, LiOH, and Li2O. Using Online Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry (OEMS), we determined the charge voltages and the gases evolved upon charge of pre-filled electrodes, thus determining the reversibility of the formation/electrooxidation reactions. We show that Li2O2 is the only reversible discharge product in ether-based electrolyte solutions, and that the formation of Li2CO3, LiOH, or Li2O is either irreversible and/or reacts with the electrolyte solution or the carbon during its oxidation.

  13. Rechargeability of Li-air cathodes pre-filled with discharge products using an ether-based electrolyte solution: implications for cycle-life of Li-air cells.

    PubMed

    Meini, Stefano; Tsiouvaras, Nikolaos; Schwenke, K Uta; Piana, Michele; Beyer, Hans; Lange, Lukas; Gasteiger, Hubert A

    2013-07-21

    The instability of currently used electrolyte solutions and of the carbon support during charge-discharge in non-aqueous lithium-oxygen cells can lead to discharge products other than the desired Li2O2, such as Li2CO3, which is believed to reduce cycle-life. Similarly, discharge in an O2 atmosphere which contains H2O and CO2 impurities would lead to LiOH and Li2CO3 discharge products. In this work we therefore investigate the rechargeability of model cathodes pre-filled with four possible Li-air cell discharge products, namely Li2O2, Li2CO3, LiOH, and Li2O. Using Online Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry (OEMS), we determined the charge voltages and the gases evolved upon charge of pre-filled electrodes, thus determining the reversibility of the formation/electrooxidation reactions. We show that Li2O2 is the only reversible discharge product in ether-based electrolyte solutions, and that the formation of Li2CO3, LiOH, or Li2O is either irreversible and/or reacts with the electrolyte solution or the carbon during its oxidation. PMID:23748698

  14. In Vitro Systems Toxicology Assessment of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product Shows Reduced Toxicity Compared to That of a Conventional Cigarette.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Ignacio; Martin, Florian; Marescotti, Diego; Guedj, Emmanuel; Acali, Stefano; Johne, Stephanie; Dulize, Remi; Baumer, Karine; Peric, Dariusz; Goedertier, Didier; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Mathis, Carole; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2016-01-19

    Cigarette smoke increases the risk for respiratory and other diseases. Although smoking prevalence has declined over the years, millions of adults choose to continue to smoke. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are potentially valuable tools for adult smokers that are unwilling to quit their habit. Here, we investigated the biological impact of a candidate MRTP, the tobacco-heating system (THS) 2.2, compared to that of the 3R4F reference cigarette in normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Chemical characterization of the THS 2.2 aerosol showed reduced levels of harmful constituents compared to those of a combustible cigarette. Multiparametric indicators of cellular toxicity were measured via real-time cellular analysis and high-content screening. The study was complemented by a whole transcriptome analysis, followed by computational approaches to identify and quantify perturbed molecular pathways. Exposure of cells to 3R4F cigarette smoke resulted in a dose-dependent response in most toxicity end points. Moreover, we found a significant level of perturbation in multiple biological pathways, particularly in those related to cellular stress. By contrast, exposure to THS 2.2 resulted in an overall lower biological impact. At 3R4F doses, no toxic effects were observed. A toxic response was observed for THS 2.2 in some functional end points, but the responses occurred at doses between 3 and 15 times higher than those of 3R4F. The level of biological network perturbation was also significantly reduced following THS 2.2 aerosol exposure compared to that of 3R4F cigarette smoke. Taken together, the data suggest that THS 2.2 aerosol is less toxic than combustible cigarette smoke and thus may have the potential to reduce the risk for smoke-related diseases. PMID:26651182

  15. Persistence of the synaptosomal-associated protein-25 cleavage product after intradetrusor botulinum toxin A injections in patients with myelomeningocele showing an inadequate response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Baukloh, Heinrich; Zurawski, Tomas H; Knispel, Helmut H; Miller, Kurt; Haferkamp, Axel; Dolly, J Oliver

    2007-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To monitor the presence and cleavage of synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) by botulinum toxin type A (botox-A), in human detrusor muscle, as the effects of botox-A in the urinary bladder last significantly longer than when applied for disorders of striated muscles. PATIENTS AND METHODS Tissue samples were obtained from eight patients with end-stage neurogenic bladder at different times after injection with botox-A. The resected bladder domes were examined using biochemical and immunohistological techniques. RESULTS The presence of intact SNAP-25 in human bladder was detected, for the first time, in all samples by both Western blotting and immunofluorescence. By contrast, detection of a band potentially representing toxin-cleaved SNAP-25(A) required its enrichment by precipitation with a specific antibody. This putative product was present in four of six patients treated with botox-A 5 weeks to 11 months previously, but could not be detected in one patient 30 months after botox injection, and in an untreated control. Fluorescence microscopy showed no obvious effects of the toxin treatment on the presence and pattern of SNAP-25-positive neurones. CONCLUSIONS A limited amount of SNAP-25 appears to be cleaved in nerves that innervate the smooth detrusor muscle in most patients who had been injected with botox-A; its absolute identification was precluded by the sensitivity of the detection. This protein was detectable much longer after toxin treatment than published for rodent striated muscle, and thus could contribute to the clinically reported longer duration of the effectiveness of botox-A.

  16. Slower ozone production in Houston, Texas following emission reductions: evidence from Texas Air Quality Studies in 2000 and 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Cohan, D. S.; Henderson, B. H.

    2014-03-01

    Airborne measurements from two Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) field campaigns have been used to investigate changes of ozone production in Houston, Texas, from 2000 to 2006, a period of major emission reduction measures for petrochemical and other sources. Simultaneous declines in nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOCs) were observed between the two periods. We simulate HOx (OH and HO2) and organic radicals with a box model, the Dynamically Simple Model of Atmospheric Chemical Complexity, constrained by available airborne observations. Parameters such as total radical production, total OH reactivity of VOCs and ozone production rate (OPR) are computed to characterize the change of ozone production between 2000 and 2006 in the Houston area. The reduction in HRVOCs led to a decline in total radical production by 20-50%. Ozone production rates in the Houston area declined by 40-50% from 2000 to 2006, to which the reduction in NOx and HRVOCs made large contributions. Despite the significant decline in OPR, ozone production efficiency held steady, and VOC-sensitive conditions dominated during times of most rapid ozone formation, while the slow ozone formation continued to be NOx-limited. Our results highlight the importance of a balanced approach of ongoing HRVOC controls with NOx controls to further reduce O3 levels in the Houston area.

  17. Intercomparison of Recent Anomaly Time-Series of OLR as Observed by CERES and Computed Using AIRS Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Loeb, Norman G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares recent spatial and temporal anomaly time series of OLR as observed by CERES and computed based on AIRS retrieved surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters over the 7 year time period September 2002 through February 2010. This time period is marked by a substantial decrease of OLR, on the order of +/-0.1 W/sq m/yr, averaged over the globe, and very large spatial variations of changes in OLR in the tropics, with local values ranging from -2.8 W/sq m/yr to +3.1 W/sq m/yr. Global and Tropical OLR both began to decrease significantly at the onset of a strong La Ni a in mid-2007. Late 2009 is characterized by a strong El Ni o, with a corresponding change in sign of both Tropical and Global OLR anomalies. The spatial patterns of the 7 year short term changes in AIRS and CERES OLR have a spatial correlation of 0.97 and slopes of the linear least squares fits of anomaly time series averaged over different spatial regions agree on the order of +/-0.01 W/sq m/yr. This essentially perfect agreement of OLR anomaly time series derived from observations by two different instruments, determined in totally independent and different manners, implies that both sets of results must be highly stable. This agreement also validates the anomaly time series of the AIRS derived products used to compute OLR and furthermore indicates that anomaly time series of AIRS derived products can be used to explain the factors contributing to anomaly time series of OLR.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, PUROLATOR PRODUCTS AIR FILTRATION CO. D95084415, DMK 80-4404 AND PB2424

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of March 26-29, 1999, tests of Purolator Products Air Filtration Co's D95084415, DMK80-4404, and PB2424 paint overspray arrestors (POAs) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verificatio...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting...

  3. Ohio Aluminum Industries: Compressed air system improvement project saves energy and improves product quality

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, Ohio Aluminum Industries implemented the first phase of a compressed air system improvement project at its Cleveland, Ohio, plant. By completing this phase, the plant stabilized the system's pressure and improved its performance. Furthermore, it yielded annual energy savings of 716,000 kilowatt-hours and $73,200. The total cost for the project's first phase was $83,500, making the simple payback slightly more than 1 year.

  4. Reporting air emissions from animal production activities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Patel, Parag G

    2010-04-01

    Major releases of airborne ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from the decomposition of animal waste have the American public concerned about the health of persons near farms. Emissions of these hazardous substances are regulated by the US Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). Moreover, federal regulatory provisions delineate thresholds for reporting hazardous pollutants being released into the air. In 2008, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a reporting exemption under which all farms were exempted from reporting air emissions under CERCLA and small farms were exempted under EPCRA. The US EPA's exemption poses questions about whether the rule is contrary to congressional mandates. Environmental and industry groups have challenged this exemption in federal circuit court, and the judiciary will need to decide whether the agency had authority to adopt the rule. To accord protection to humans from hazardous airborne emissions from farms producing livestock, state agencies may want to adopt scientifically-justified ambient air quality standards.

  5. Reporting air emissions from animal production activities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Patel, Parag G

    2010-04-01

    Major releases of airborne ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from the decomposition of animal waste have the American public concerned about the health of persons near farms. Emissions of these hazardous substances are regulated by the US Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). Moreover, federal regulatory provisions delineate thresholds for reporting hazardous pollutants being released into the air. In 2008, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a reporting exemption under which all farms were exempted from reporting air emissions under CERCLA and small farms were exempted under EPCRA. The US EPA's exemption poses questions about whether the rule is contrary to congressional mandates. Environmental and industry groups have challenged this exemption in federal circuit court, and the judiciary will need to decide whether the agency had authority to adopt the rule. To accord protection to humans from hazardous airborne emissions from farms producing livestock, state agencies may want to adopt scientifically-justified ambient air quality standards. PMID:20056277

  6. The unattached fraction of radon decay products: Potential effects of in-home air cleaners on lung cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radon decay products are a factor in the development of lung cancer. Because of their efficient deposition within the lung, the fraction of decay products not attached to particulate (i.e., the unattached fraction) is very important in lung dosimetry. This study simulated the use of two in-home air cleaning devices to reduce airborne particulate concentrations, measure the effect on the unattached fraction, and estimate the radon lung cancer risk. Radon was released into a chamber having a volume-to-surface-area ratio similar to a small home. At radon-decay product equilibrium, radon and airborne particle concentrations were measured, and the concentration of the unattached fraction was estimated. The effect of particle concentration on the unattached fraction was then determined. The average unattached fractions corresponding to the particle concentration ranges expected for the air cleaning devices were used to calculate the annual alpha radiation dose and annual radon lung cancer for men, women and children at rest and under light activity. The annual doses and related risks were compared to those used in the models published by the Environmental Protection Agency. For particulate concentrations of a home with no particulate generating activities (e.g., smoking, cooking), the electronic air cleaner is predicted to reduce the unattached fraction from seven percent (the value used by the NCRP and confirmed in this study) to four percent. These conditions represent the maximum reduction in the unattached fraction. The decrease in the unattached fraction is tentatively attributed to an increase in plateout. Based on these results, a reduction of less than ten percent in the calculated annual lung cancer risk is found in all cases.

  7. Use of AIRS-derived Products in Tropical Cyclone Intensity Analysis During the HS3 Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garms, E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Plokhenko, Y.; Smith, W.; Weisz, E.; Revercomb, H. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The high-resolution data collected during a field experiment is extremely valuable, but it is equally valuable to have observations that provide context for such in situ measurements. For this reason, satellite data coincident with observations taken from the Global Hawk UAVs during the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) field experiment are vital to a gaining a more complete understanding of tropical cyclone (TC) processes. The primary data used in this study are calibrated hyperspectral infrared radiances obtained from the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), onboard the Aqua satellite. AIRS measures upwelling Earth-emitted infrared spectra using more than 2300 IR channels between 3.7 and 15.4 microns. Several products derived from this high-spectral resolution data are used in this study. These products include a 3-D cloud amount vertical profile (CAVP) product as well as temperature and water vapor profiles retrieved using a Dual-Regression algorithm (DR), both of which were developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS). The CAVP product will be used to measure the slope of the cloud tops of rainbands in a tropical cyclone. Observations from the UW Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS), NASA Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL), and NCAR dropsondes taken during the 2012 Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) field experiment will be used to validate the rainband slope analysis and the DR retrievals. The methodology behind the TC rainband slope analysis, which is hypothesized to correlate with TC intensity, will be discussed. This product will then be used to obtain a TC intensity estimate, which will be compared to other accepted intensity estimates like the Advanced Dvorak Technique (ADT), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), and Satellite Consensus (SATCON) estimates. Additionally, the DR product will be used to

  8. luxS mutants of Serratia defective in autoinducer-2-dependent 'quorum sensing' show strain-dependent impacts on virulence and production of carbapenem and prodigiosin.

    PubMed

    Coulthurst, Sarah J; Kurz, C Léopold; Salmond, George P C

    2004-06-01

    The enzyme LuxS is responsible for the production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a molecule that has been implicated in quorum sensing in many bacterial species. This study investigated whether there is a luxS-dependent signalling system in the Gram-negative bacteria Serratia spp. Serratia marcescens is a broad-host-range pathogen and an important cause of nosocomial infections. Production of AI-2 activity was detected in S. marcescens ATCC 274 and Serratia ATCC 39006 and their luxS genes were sequenced. luxS mutants were constructed in these strains and were analysed to determine which phenotypes are regulated by luxS and therefore, potentially, by AI-2. The phenotypes of the luxS mutants included decreased carbapenem antibiotic production in Serratia ATCC 39006 and decreased prodigiosin and secreted haemolysin production in S. marcescens ATCC 274. The luxS mutant of S. marcescens ATCC 274 was also found to exhibit modestly reduced virulence in a Caenorhabditis elegans model. Finally, it was shown that the culture supernatant of a wild-type strain contains a signal, presumably AI-2, capable of complementing the prodigiosin defect of the luxS mutant of another strain, even when substantially diluted. It is concluded that luxS modulates virulence and antibiotic production in Serratia, in a strain-dependent manner, and that, for at least one phenotype, this regulation is via extracellular signalling.

  9. Measurements of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their decay products in the environmental air of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y; Morishima, H; Shen, T; Koga, T; Wei, L; Sugahara, T

    2000-10-01

    For the renewal of dose estimation from internal irradiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, the measurements of radon, thoron and their decay products in the environmental air were conducted, including: (1) integrating measurements of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentrations; (2) eqilibrium factor F for Rn-222 and alpha-potential energy value of Rn-220; (3) external gamma radiation in places where radon measurements were undertaken; (4) cumulative exposure to indoor radon for each family in a case-control study on lung cancer. The Rn-Tn cup monitor method was used for the integrating measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentration. An alpha track detector was used for the integration measurement of Rn-222 concentration in the case-control study on lung cancer. The results of measurements show that although the investigated areas are located between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer, and that people live in well-ventilated dwellings, the concentrations of radon, especially of Rn-220 are significantly higher in the indoor air of HBRA than those in the control area. The value of equilibrium factors for Rn-222, the alpha potential energy of decay products from Rn-222 and Rn-220 are determined.

  10. CO2 Fixation, Lipid Production, and Power Generation by a Novel Air-Lift-Type Microbial Carbon Capture Cell System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xia; Liu, Baojun; Zhou, Jiti; Jin, Ruofei; Qiao, Sen; Liu, Guangfei

    2015-09-01

    An air-lift-type microbial carbon capture cell (ALMCC) was constructed for the first time by using an air-lift-type photobioreactor as the cathode chamber. The performance of ALMCC in fixing high concentration of CO2, producing energy (power and biodiesel), and removing COD together with nutrients was investigated and compared with the traditional microbial carbon capture cell (MCC) and air-lift-type photobioreactor (ALP). The ALMCC system produced a maximum power density of 972.5 mW·m(-3) and removed 86.69% of COD, 70.52% of ammonium nitrogen, and 69.24% of phosphorus, which indicate that ALMCC performed better than MCC in terms of power generation and wastewater treatment efficiency. Besides, ALMCC demonstrated 9.98- and 1.88-fold increases over ALP and MCC in the CO2 fixation rate, respectively. Similarly, the ALMCC significantly presented a higher lipid productivity compared to those control reactors. More importantly, the preliminary analysis of energy balance suggested that the net energy of the ALMCC system was significantly superior to other systems and could theoretically produce enough energy to cover its consumption. In this work, the established ALMCC system simultaneously achieved the high level of CO2 fixation, energy recycle, and municipal wastewater treatment effectively and efficiently.

  11. A novel carbon black graphite hybrid air-cathode for efficient hydrogen peroxide production in bioelectrochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; An, Jingkun; Zhou, Lean; Li, Tian; Li, Junhui; Feng, Cuijuan; Wang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Carbon black and graphite hybrid air-cathode is proved to be effective for H2O2 production in bioelectrochemical systems. The optimal mass ratio of carbon black to graphite is 1:5 with the highest H2O2 yield of 11.9 mg L-1 h-1 cm-2 (12.3 mA cm-2). Continuous flow is found to improve the current efficiency due to the avoidance of H2O2 accumulation. In the biological system, the highest H2O2 yield reaches 3.29 mg L-1h-1 (0.079 kg m-3day-1) with a current efficiency of 72%, which is higher than the abiotic system at the same current density. H2O2 produced in this system is mainly from the oxygen diffused through this air-cathode (>66%), especially when a more negative cathode potential is applied (94% at -1.0 V). This hybrid air-cathode has advantages of high H2O2 yield, high current density and no need of aeration, which make the synthesis of H2O2 more efficient and economical.

  12. Air quality and land productivity in the northeastern United States, 1980-85

    SciTech Connect

    Westenbarger, D.; Frisvold, F.

    1992-12-01

    This study estimates the impact of ozone pollution and acid rain on agricultural land productivity. Sulfate depositions and ozone reduce productivity, while nitrate depositions increase it. The countervailing effects of sulfate and nitrate depositions cancel each other out. The net effect of acid depositions is negligible over the sample region.

  13. Simulation of climate change impacts on grain sorghum production grown under free air CO2 enrichment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential impacts of global climate change on crop productivity have drawn much attention in recent years. To investigate these impacts on grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench] productivity, we calibrated the CERES-Sorghum model in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT...

  14. 77 FR 3223 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...-3224] [FR Doc No: 2012-1222] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-1042; FRL... Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed...: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing.'' The EPA was asked to hold a public...

  15. Potential impacts of advanced aerodynamic technology on air transportation system productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of a workshop held at NASA Langley Research Center in 1993 to explore the application of advanced aerodynamics to airport productivity improvement are discussed. Sessions included discussions of terminal area productivity problems and advanced aerodynamic technologies for enhanced high lift and reduced noise, emissions, and wake vortex hazard with emphasis upon advanced aircraft configurations and multidisciplinary solution options.

  16. The production of drops by the bursting of a bubble at an air liquid interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darrozes, J. S.; Ligneul, P.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental mechanism arising during the bursting of a bubble at an air-liquid interface is described. A single bubble was followed from an arbitrary depth in the liquid, up to the creation and motion of the film and jet drops. Several phenomena were involved and their relative order of magnitude was compared in order to point out the dimensionless parameters which govern each step of the motion. High-speed cinematography is employed. The characteristic bubble radius which separates the creation of jet drops from cap bursting without jet drops is expressed mathematically. The corresponding numerical value for water is 3 mm and agrees with experimental observations.

  17. Weyerhaeuser: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Sawmill

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    In 2000, Weyerhaeuser Company, a U.S. Department of Energy Allied Partner in the Industrial Technologies Program, increased the efficiency of the compressed air system at its sawmill facility in Coburg, Oregon. This improved the system's performance and will save about 1.3 million kWh annually. Total project costs were $55,000; because annual energy cost savings were also $55,000, the simple payback period was only 1 year. Subsequent improvements at six other company plants and mills are yielding 6.8 million kWh in energy savings and reducing annual energy costs by $250,000.

  18. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin with Intensive Oil and Gas Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matichuk, R.; Tonnesen, G.; Luecken, D.; Roselle, S. J.; Napelenok, S. L.; Baker, K. R.; Gilliam, R. C.; Misenis, C.; Murphy, B.; Schwede, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is an important source of domestic energy resources. One of the primary environmental impacts associated with oil and natural gas production is related to air emission releases of a number of air pollutants. Some of these pollutants are important precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone. To better understand ozone impacts and other air quality issues, photochemical air quality models are used to simulate the changes in pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere on local, regional, and national spatial scales. These models are important for air quality management because they assist in identifying source contributions to air quality problems and designing effective strategies to reduce harmful air pollutants. The success of predicting oil and natural gas air quality impacts depends on the accuracy of the input information, including emissions inventories, meteorological information, and boundary conditions. The treatment of chemical and physical processes within these models is equally important. However, given the limited amount of data collected for oil and natural gas production emissions in the past and the complex terrain and meteorological conditions in western states, the ability of these models to accurately predict pollution concentrations from these sources is uncertain. Therefore, this presentation will focus on understanding the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model's ability to predict air quality impacts associated with oil and natural gas production and its sensitivity to input uncertainties. The results will focus on winter ozone issues in the Uinta Basin, Utah and identify the factors contributing to model performance issues. The results of this study will help support future air quality model development, policy and regulatory decisions for the oil and gas sector.

  19. Computer program for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of air and products of combustion of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Colladay, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (or enthalpy), molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, isentropic exponent (equal to the specific heat ratio at conditions where gases do not react), Prandtl number, and entropy for air and a combustion gas mixture of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air over fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric, pressures from 1 to 40 atm, and temperatures from 250 to 2800 K.

  20. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  1. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  2. Cost Analysis of an Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System in Selected Annual Production Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  3. Air-substrate mercury exchange associated with landfill disposal of coal combustion products.

    PubMed

    Xin, Mei; Gustin, Mae S; Ladwig, Kenneth; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra F

    2006-08-01

    Previous laboratory studies have shown that lignite-derived fly ash emitted mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, whereas bituminous- and subbituminous-derived fly ash samples adsorbed Hg from the air. In addition, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were found to have higher Hg emission rates than fly ash. This study investigated in situ Hg emissions at a blended bituminous-subbituminous ash landfill in the Great Lakes area and a lignite-derived ash and FGD solids landfill in the Midwestern United States using a dynamic field chamber. Fly ash and saturated FGD materials emitted Hg to atmosphere at low rates (-0.1 to 1.2 ng/ m2hr), whereas FGD material mixed with fly ash and pyrite exhibited higher emission rates (approximately 10 ng/m2hr) but were still comparable with natural background soils (-0.3 to 13 ng/ m2hr). Air temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity were important factors correlated with measured Hg fluxes. Field study results were not consistent with corresponding laboratory observations in that fluxes measured in the latter were higher and more variable. This is hypothesized to be partially an artifact of the flux measurement methods.

  4. Plant Production Systems for Microgravity: Critical Issues in Water, Air, and Solute Transport Through Unsaturated Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan L. (Editor); Ming, Doug W. (Editor); Henninger, Don (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Technical Memorandum is a compilation of presentations and discussions in the form of minutes from a workshop entitled 'Plant Production Systems for Microgravity: Critical Issues in Water, Air, and Solute Transport Through Unsaturated Porous Media' held at NASA's Johnson Space Center, July 24-25, 2000. This workshop arose from the growing belief within NASA's Advanced Life Support Program that further advances and improvements in plant production systems for microgravity would benefit from additional knowledge of fundamental processes occurring in the root zone. The objective of the workshop was to bring together individuals who had expertise in various areas of fluid physics, soil physics, plant physiology, hardware development, and flight tests to identify, discuss, and prioritize critical issues of water and air flow through porous media in microgravity. Participants of the workshop included representatives from private companies involved in flight hardware development and scientists from universities and NASA Centers with expertise in plant flight tests, plant physiology, fluid physics, and soil physics.

  5. Modeling the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere of the south coast air basin of California. 2. HOx radical production.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Robert J

    2004-02-01

    The production of HOx radicals in the South Coast Air Basin of California is investigated during the smog episode of September 9, 1993 using the California Institute of Technology (CIT) air-quality model. Sources of HOx(hydroxyl, hydroperoxy, and organic peroxy radicals) incorporated into the associated gas-phase chemical mechanism include the combination of excited-state singlet oxygen (formed from ozone (O3) photolysis (hv)) with water, the photolysis of nitrous acid, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde (HCHO) or higher aldehydes and ketones), the consumption of aldehydes and alkenes (ALK) by the nitrate radical, and the consumption of alkenes by O3 and the oxygen atom (O). At a given time or location for surface cells and vertical averages, each route of HOx formation may be the greatest contributor to overall formation except HCHO-hv, H2O2-hv, and ALK-O, the latter two of which are insignificant pathways in general. The contribution of the ALK-O3 pathway is dependent on the stoichiometric yield of OH, but this pathway, at least for the studied smog episode, may not be as generally significant as previous research suggests. Future emissions scenarios yield lower total HOx production rates and a shift in the relative importance of individual pathways.

  6. Modeling the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere of the south coast air basin of California. 2. HOx radical production.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Robert J

    2004-02-01

    The production of HOx radicals in the South Coast Air Basin of California is investigated during the smog episode of September 9, 1993 using the California Institute of Technology (CIT) air-quality model. Sources of HOx(hydroxyl, hydroperoxy, and organic peroxy radicals) incorporated into the associated gas-phase chemical mechanism include the combination of excited-state singlet oxygen (formed from ozone (O3) photolysis (hv)) with water, the photolysis of nitrous acid, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde (HCHO) or higher aldehydes and ketones), the consumption of aldehydes and alkenes (ALK) by the nitrate radical, and the consumption of alkenes by O3 and the oxygen atom (O). At a given time or location for surface cells and vertical averages, each route of HOx formation may be the greatest contributor to overall formation except HCHO-hv, H2O2-hv, and ALK-O, the latter two of which are insignificant pathways in general. The contribution of the ALK-O3 pathway is dependent on the stoichiometric yield of OH, but this pathway, at least for the studied smog episode, may not be as generally significant as previous research suggests. Future emissions scenarios yield lower total HOx production rates and a shift in the relative importance of individual pathways. PMID:14968860

  7. 75 FR 22469 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ..., EPA published a list of section 112(c)(6) categories (63 FR 17838, April 10, 1998). At that time... sulfuric acid product), peroxide scrubber (to control NO X ), and regenerative thermal oxidizer (for...

  8. Extracellular tyrosinase from the fungus Trichoderma reesei shows product inhibition and different inhibition mechanism from the intracellular tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Gasparetti, Chiara; Nordlund, Emilia; Jänis, Janne; Buchert, Johanna; Kruus, Kristiina

    2012-04-01

    Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) is a widely distributed type 3 copper enzyme participating in essential biological functions. Tyrosinases are potential biotools as biosensors or protein crosslinkers. Understanding the reaction mechanism of tyrosinases is fundamental for developing tyrosinase-based applications. The reaction mechanisms of tyrosinases from Trichoderma reesei (TrT) and Agaricus bisporus (AbT) were analyzed using three diphenolic substrates: caffeic acid, L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine), and catechol. With caffeic acid the oxidation rates of TrT and AbT were comparable; whereas with L-DOPA or catechol a fast decrease in the oxidation rates was observed in the TrT-catalyzed reactions only, suggesting end product inhibition of TrT. Dopachrome was the only reaction end product formed by TrT- or AbT-catalyzed oxidation of L-DOPA. We produced dopachrome by AbT-catalyzed oxidation of L-DOPA and analyzed the TrT end product (i.e. dopachrome) inhibition by oxygen consumption measurement. In the presence of 1.5mM dopachrome the oxygen consumption rate of TrT on 8mM L-DOPA was halved. The type of inhibition of potential inhibitors for TrT was studied using p-coumaric acid (monophenol) and caffeic acid (diphenol) as substrates. The strongest inhibitors were potassium cyanide for the TrT-monophenolase activity, and kojic acid for the TrT-diphenolase activity. The lag period related to the TrT-catalyzed oxidation of monophenol was prolonged by kojic acid, sodium azide and arbutin; contrary it was reduced by potassium cyanide. Furthermore, sodium azide slowed down the initial oxidation rate of TrT- and AbT-catalyzed oxidation of L-DOPA or catechol, but it also formed adducts with the reaction end products, i.e., dopachrome and o-benzoquinone.

  9. Baseload power production from wind turbine arrays coupled to compressed air energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succar, Samir

    An analysis is presented of compressed air energy storage (CAES) and its potential for mitigating the intermittency of wind power, facilitating access to remote wind resources and transforming wind into baseload power. Although CAES has traditionally served other grid support applications, it is also well suited for wind balancing applications due its ability to provide long duration storage, its fast ramp rates and its high part load efficiencies. In addition, geologies potentially suitable for CAES appear to be abundant in regions with high-quality wind resources. This is especially true of porous rock formations, which have the potential to be the least costly air storage option for CAES. The characteristics of formations suitable for CAES storage and the challenges associated with using air as a storage fluid are discussed. An optimization framework is developed for analyzing the cost of baseload plants comprised of wind turbine arrays backed by natural gas-fired generating capacity and/or CAES. The optimization model analyzes changes to key aspects of the system configuration such as the wind turbine rating, the relative capacities of the system components, the size of the CAES storage reservoir and the wind turbine spacing. The response of the optimal system configuration to changes in natural gas price, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions price, capital cost, and wind resource is also considered. Wind turbine rating is given focused attention because of its substantial impact on system configuration and output behavior. The generation cost of baseload wind is compared to that of other baseload options. To highlight the carbon-mitigation potential of baseload wind, the competition with coal power (with and without CO2 capture and storage, CCS) is given prominent attention. The ability of alternative options to compete under dispatch competition is explored thereby clarifying the extent to which baseload wind can defend high capacity factors in the market. This

  10. Measurement systems and indices of miners' exposure to radon daughter products in the air of mines.

    PubMed

    Domański, T

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the classification of measurement systems that may be used for the assessment of miners' exposure to radiation in mines. The following systems were described and characterized as the Air Sampling System (ASS), the Environmental Control System (ECS), the Individual Dosimetry System (IDS), the Stream Monitoring System (SMS) and the Exhaust Monitoring System (EMS). The indices for evaluation of miners' working environments, or for assessment of individual or collective miners' exposure, were selected and determined. These are: average expected concentration (CAE), average observed concentration (CAO), average expected rate of exposure cumulation rate (EEXP), average observed exposure cumulation rate (EOBS), average effective exposure cumulation rate (EEFF). Mathematical formulae for determining all these indicators, according to the type of measurement system used in particular mines, are presented. The reliability of assessment of miners' exposure in particular measurement systems, as well as the role of the possible reference system, are discussed. PMID:2134320

  11. Uncertainty analysis of moderate- versus coarse-scale satellite fire products for quantifying agricultural burning: Implications for Air Quality in European Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, J. L.; Krylov, A.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Banach, D. M.; Potapov, P.; Tyukavina, A.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Turubanova, S.; Romanenkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Cropland and pasture burning are common agricultural management practices that negatively impact air quality at a local and regional scale, including contributing to short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). This research focuses on both cropland and pasture burning in European Russia, Lithuania, and Belarus. Burned area and fire detections were derived from 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 30 m Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Carbon, particulate matter, volatile organic carbon (VOCs), and harmful air pollutants (HAPs) emissions were then calculated using MODIS and Landsat-based estimates of fire and land-cover and land-use. Agricultural burning in Belarus, Lithuania, and European Russia showed a strong and consistent seasonal geographic pattern from 2002 to 2012, with the majority of fire detections occurring in March - June and smaller peak in July and August. Over this 11-year period, there was a decrease in both cropland and pasture burning throughout this region. For Smolensk Oblast, a Russian administrative region with comparable agro-environmental conditions to Belarus and Lithuania, a detailed analysis of Landsat-based burned area estimations for croplands and pastures and field data collected in summer 2014 showed that the agricultural burning area can be up to 10 times higher than the 1 km MODIS active fire estimates. In general, European Russia is the main source of agricultural burning emissions compared to Lithuania and Belarus. On average, all cropland burning in European Russia as detected by the MCD45A1 MODIS Burned Area Product emitted 17.66 Gg of PM10 while annual burning of pasture in Smolensk Oblast, Russia as detected by Landsat burn scars emitted 494.85 Gg of PM10, a 96% difference. This highlights that quantifying the contribution of pasture burning and burned area versus cropland burning in agricultural regions is important for accurately

  12. Measurement of radon decay products and thoron decay products in air by beta counting using end-window Geiger-Muller counter.

    PubMed

    Papp, Z; Daróczy, S

    1997-04-01

    A new grab sampling method has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of radon decay products and thoron decay products in air. It is based on direct beta counting of filtered aerosol sample over successive time intervals by end-window Geiger-Muller counter. Defined solid angle absolute counting was used to evaluate the efficiencies for the decay products one by one. Absolute activity concentrations can be determined with less than 10% systematic error. Glass-fiber filter, high sampling flow rate, and long duration of sampling can be used, as a result of which the detection limits are about 0.1, 0.2, and 0.01 Bq m(-3) for 214Pb, 214Bi, and 212Pb, respectively. Indoor saturated activity concentrations were measured in 86 buildings in Ajka town, Hungary, where industrial wastes rich in uranium had been used as building materials. Elevated radon decay product levels were found in houses built before 1960. Radon gas concentration was also measured simultaneously in 26 cases and the minimum, maximum, and average values of the equilibrium factor were 0.17, 0.73, and 0.40, respectively.

  13. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  14. Nanoaerosols Including Radon Decay Products in Outdoor and Indoor Air at a Suburban Site

    PubMed Central

    Smerajec, Mateja; Vaupotič, Janja

    2012-01-01

    Nanoaerosols have been monitored inside a kitchen and in the courtyard of a suburban farmhouse. Total number concentration and number size distribution (5–1000 nm) of general aerosol particles, as measured with a Grimm Aerosol SMPS+C 5.400 instrument outdoors, were mainly influenced by solar radiation and use of farming equipment, while, indoors, they were drastically changed by human activity in the kitchen. In contrast, activity concentrations of the short-lived radon decay products 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Bi, both those attached to aerosol particles and those not attached, measured with a Sarad EQF3020-2 device, did not appear to be dependent on these activities, except on opening and closing of the kitchen window. Neither did a large increase in concentration of aerosol particles smaller than 10 or 20 nm, with which the unattached radon products are associated, augment the fraction of the unattached decay products significantly. PMID:22523488

  15. Substantiation of 25 kGy radiation sterilization dose for banked air dried amniotic membrane and evaluation of personnel skill in influencing finished product bioburden.

    PubMed

    Marsit, Nagi; Dwejen, Samira; Saad, Ibrahim; Abdalla, Sedigh; Shaab, Arej; Salem, Salma; Khanfas, Enas; Hasan, Anas; Mansur, Mohamed; Abdul Sammad, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Preparation of amniotic membrane (AM) by air drying method followed by radiation sterilization is simple and valuable approach; sterility and quality of the final AM product are depending on the quality management system at the tissue bank. Validation and substantiation of radiation sterilization dose (RSD) for tissue allografts is an essential step for the development and validation of the standard operating procedures (SOP). Application of SOP is perfectly relying on trained staff. Skills differences among personnel involved in AM preparation could have an effect on microbiological quality of the finished product and subsequently on the RSD required. AM were processed by four different couples of the tissue bank technicians. The AM grafts were randomly selected and subjected to bioburden test to validate and substantiate the 25 kGy RSD. Bioburden test for AM grafts were also useful to evaluate the skill of the tissue bank technicians and thus, to validate the current SOP for air dried AM. Moreover, the effect of placental source on bioburden counts on AM grafts was assessed. Substantiation of the 25 kGy RSD at a sterility assurance level of 10(-1), and sample item portion = 1, was carried out using Method VD max (25) of the International Organization for Standardization, document no. 11137-2 (ISO in Sterilization of healthcare products-radiation-part 2: establishing the sterilization dose, Method VDmax-substantiation of 25 kGy or 15 kGy as the sterilization dose, International Standard Organization, 2006). The results showed that there were no significant differences in the bioburdens of the four batches (α = 1 %), this means no significant differences in the skill of the four couples of the tissue bank technicians in terms of their ability to process AM according to the air dried AM SOP. The 25 kGy RSD was validated and substantiated as a valid sterilization dose for the AM prepared with the current established SOP at the Biotechnology Research Center

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INNOVATIVE SPRAY DISPENSER TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM AEROSOL CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the operating principles and performance of a new type of spray nozzle. This nozzle, termed a "ligament-controlled effervescent atomizer," was developed to allow consumer product manufacturers to replace volatile organic compound (VOC) solvents with water, and...

  17. 78 FR 26301 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... resolves the issues raised in the June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33659) conditional approval of Illinois' rules. EPA is also proposing to approve volatile organic compound (VOC) content limits and associated provisions for additional consumer products categories into the State's SIP. Finally, EPA is proposing to...

  18. 76 FR 72769 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...-Product Recovery Plants (Benzene NESHAP), (54 FR 38044, September 14, 1989), described in the next...., 100-in-1 million]'' (54 FR 38045). In the second step of the process, the EPA sets the standard at a... considered acceptable.'' 54 FR 38045. We discussed the maximum individual lifetime cancer risk as being...

  19. Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride can alter the reaction product to produce nitryl chlo...

  20. 77 FR 33659 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ..., or decomposition. AIM coatings are paints, varnishes, and other similar coatings that are meant for... means to consumer products. See EPA's October 27, 2011, proposed approval at 76 FR 66663 for discussion.... On October 27, 2011, we proposed to approve 35 IAC Part 223 into the Illinois SIP (76 FR 66663)....

  1. 78 FR 26258 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... generally paints, varnishes, and other similar materials that are meant for use on external surfaces of...' consumer products and AIM rules into the State's SIP (77 FR 33659). In our June 7, 2012, rulemaking, we... that were affected by the rule as approved by EPA at 77 FR 33659), and July 1, 2012 (for...

  2. Assessing Faculty Productivity: An Issue for Decentralization. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Thomas R.

    A 1979 study conducted by the Colorado Commission on Higher Education to develop a plan for assessing and increasing faculty productivity is described. The central issue was the demand for individual faculty, departmental, and institutional autonomy versus demand by the political system for evidence that the faculty it funds produces adequate…

  3. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Kurz, Heiko G.; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled to the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions in the picosecond regime are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. In focused propagation geometry, a unique feature of picosecond filamentation is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for many applications including laser-guided electrical breakdown of air, channeling microwave beams and air lasing.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of...

  5. Influence of brick air scrubber by-product on growth and development of corn and hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Carla N; Bauerle, William L; Owino, Tom O; Chastain, John P; Klaine, Stephen J

    2007-03-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of spent reagent from air pollution control scrubbers used at a brick manufacturing facility on emergence, growth, and physiological responses of corn and hybrid poplar plants. Scrubber by-product was obtained from General Shale Brick, Louisville, KY. Potting substrate was weighed and quantities of scrubber by-product were added to the substrate to obtain treatments of 0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% scrubber by-product (w:w) for the corn study. Each treatment mix was potted into nine replicate polyethylene pots and four corn seeds were sown per pot. The pots were randomized in a greenhouse at Clemson University and the number of seedlings emerging from each treatment, dark-adapted leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence, and shoot heights were measured at the end of a 21-day growth period. Then, dry shoot biomass was determined for plants from each treatment and plant tissues were analyzed for selected constituents. For the poplar study, nine-inch cuttings of hybrid poplar clone 15-29 (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) and clone OP367 (P. deltoides x P. nigra) were planted in treatments of scrubber by-product-potting soil mixes of 0% , 5% , 10% , and 25% w:w. Leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured over six weeks and cumulative leaf area, dry biomass, and nutrient content of tissues were determined upon harvest. Results of these studies indicate that percent seedling emergence for corn plants decreased with increasing scrubber by-product application rates. Application rates up to 12.5% scrubber by-product w:w had no adverse effect on corn seedling emergence. Shoot elongation, biomass production, and the status of the photosynthetic apparatus of the seedlings were also not severely impaired at applications below this level. A critical value of 58.2% w:w scrubber by-product was estimated to cause 25% inhibition of seedling emergence. Biomass production, cumulative leaf area, and chlorophyll a fluorescence of

  6. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity.

    PubMed

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália R A; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  7. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity.

    PubMed

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália R A; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure.

  8. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity

    PubMed Central

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália RA; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  9. Experimental Behavior of Pentaborane-Air Combustion Products During Expansion in a Convergent Divergent Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, J. R.; Setze, P. C.

    1958-01-01

    In order to evaluate the post combustion behavior of boric oxide, pentaborane-air mixtures, burned to completion at a combustor pressure of 3 atmospheres, were expanded through a 7.1-inch-long convergent-divergent nozzle having a 4-inch-diameter throat and an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1.68. The experimentally determined thrust performance was in good agreement with the ideal equilibrium performance at stagnation temperatures of 3300 deg R and lower. The boric oxide vapor at the combustor exit required about 400 F deg supercooling before any condensed phase was observed. For a given thrust, fuel consumption was as much as 20 percent greater than predicted from vapor-pressure data for combustor outlet temperatures i n the vicinity of 3600 deg R. A similar result could be expected in full-scale engines, since the test combustor provided an unusually long dwell time and a highly turbulent environment. During the expansion process, the vapor (when present) did not condense to the extent predicted for an equilibrium expansion process. Moreover, condensation was observed only i n the form of small, abrupt phase changes i n the subsonic flow near the throat. Friction, due to liquid boric oxide films on the nozzle surfaces, was negligible when the surface temperature was above 800 F.

  10. Production of geopolymers using glass produced from DC plasma treatment of air pollution control (APC) residues.

    PubMed

    Kourti, Ioanna; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D; Boccaccini, A R; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-04-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues are the hazardous waste produced from cleaning gaseous emissions at energy-from-waste (EfW) facilities processing municipal solid waste (MSW). APC residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium alumino-silicate glass. This research has investigated the optimisation and properties of geopolymers prepared from this glass. Work has shown that high strength geopolymers can be formed and that the NaOH concentration of the activating solution significantly affects the properties. The broad particle size distribution of the APC residue glass used in these experiments results in a microstructure that contains unreacted glass particles included within a geopolymer binder phase. The high calcium content of APC residues may cause the formation of some amorphous calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. A mix prepared with S/L=3.4, Si/Al=2.6 and [NaOH]=6M in the activating solution, produced high strength geopolymers with compressive strengths of approximately 130 MPa. This material had high density (2070 kg/m(3)) and low porosity. The research demonstrates for the first time that glass derived from DC plasma treatment of APC residues can be used to form high strength geopolymer-glass composites that have potential for use in a range of applications.

  11. Pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy: fast gas heating and active particle production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    The results of a numerical study on kinetic processes initiated by a pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy, when the dissociation degree of oxygen molecules is high, are presented. The calculations of the temporal dynamics of the electron concentration, density of atomic oxygen, vibrational distribution function of nitrogen molecules, and gas temperature agree with the experimental data. It is shown that quenching of electronically excited states of nitrogen N2(B3Πg), N2(C3Πu), N2(a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) by oxygen molecules leads to the dissociation of O2. This conclusion is based on the comparison of calculated dynamics of atomic oxygen in air, excited by a pulsed nanosecond discharge, with experimental data. In air plasma at a high dissociation degree of oxygen molecules ([O]/[O2] > 10%), relaxation of the electronic energy of atoms and molecules in reactions with O atoms becomes extremely important. Active production of NO molecules and fast gas heating in the discharge plasma due to the quenching of electronically excited N2(B3Πg, C3Πu, a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) molecules by oxygen atoms is notable. Owing to the high O atom density, electrons are effectively detached from negative ions in the discharge afterglow. As a result, the decay of plasma in the afterglow is determined by electron-ion recombination, and the electron density remains relatively high between the pulses. An increase in the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules at the periphery of the plasma channel at time delay t = 1-30 μs after the discharge is obtained. This is due to intense gas heating and, as a result, gas-dynamic expansion of a hot gas channel. Vibrationally excited N2(v) molecules produced near the discharge axis move from the axial region to the periphery. Consequently, at the periphery the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules is increased.

  12. Fission product transport and behavior during two postulated loss of flow transients in the air

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    This document discusses fission product behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure core degradation, respectively) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These transients are designated ATR Transient LCPI5 (high-pressure) and LPP9 (low-pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these safety systems was assumed so that core degradation and fission product release could be analyzed. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that the probability of occurrence for these two transients is of the order of 10{sup {minus}5 }and 10{sup {minus}7} per reactor year for LCP15 and LPP9, respectively.

  13. Fission product transport and behavior during two postulated loss of flow transients in the air

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This document discusses fission product behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure core degradation, respectively) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These transients are designated ATR Transient LCPI5 (high-pressure) and LPP9 (low-pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these safety systems was assumed so that core degradation and fission product release could be analyzed. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that the probability of occurrence for these two transients is of the order of 10{sup {minus}5 }and 10{sup {minus}7} per reactor year for LCP15 and LPP9, respectively.

  14. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  15. Regional air quality impacts of increased natural gas production and use in Texas.

    PubMed

    Pacsi, Adam P; Alhajeri, Nawaf S; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Webster, Mort D; Allen, David T

    2013-04-01

    Natural gas use in electricity generation in Texas was estimated, for gas prices ranging from $1.89 to $7.74 per MMBTU, using an optimal power flow model. Hourly estimates of electricity generation, for individual electricity generation units, from the model were used to estimate spatially resolved hourly emissions from electricity generation. Emissions from natural gas production activities in the Barnett Shale region were also estimated, with emissions scaled up or down to match demand in electricity generation as natural gas prices changed. As natural gas use increased, emissions decreased from electricity generation and increased from natural gas production. Overall, NOx and SO2 emissions decreased, while VOC emissions increased as natural gas use increased. To assess the effects of these changes in emissions on ozone and particulate matter concentrations, spatially and temporally resolved emissions were used in a month-long photochemical modeling episode. Over the month-long photochemical modeling episode, decreases in natural gas prices typical of those experienced from 2006 to 2012 led to net regional decreases in ozone (0.2-0.7 ppb) and fine particulate matter (PM) (0.1-0.7 μg/m(3)). Changes in PM were predominantly due to changes in regional PM sulfate formation. Changes in regional PM and ozone formation are primarily due to decreases in emissions from electricity generation. Increases in emissions from increased natural gas production were offset by decreasing emissions from electricity generation for all the scenarios considered. PMID:23441728

  16. Regional air quality impacts of increased natural gas production and use in Texas.

    PubMed

    Pacsi, Adam P; Alhajeri, Nawaf S; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Webster, Mort D; Allen, David T

    2013-04-01

    Natural gas use in electricity generation in Texas was estimated, for gas prices ranging from $1.89 to $7.74 per MMBTU, using an optimal power flow model. Hourly estimates of electricity generation, for individual electricity generation units, from the model were used to estimate spatially resolved hourly emissions from electricity generation. Emissions from natural gas production activities in the Barnett Shale region were also estimated, with emissions scaled up or down to match demand in electricity generation as natural gas prices changed. As natural gas use increased, emissions decreased from electricity generation and increased from natural gas production. Overall, NOx and SO2 emissions decreased, while VOC emissions increased as natural gas use increased. To assess the effects of these changes in emissions on ozone and particulate matter concentrations, spatially and temporally resolved emissions were used in a month-long photochemical modeling episode. Over the month-long photochemical modeling episode, decreases in natural gas prices typical of those experienced from 2006 to 2012 led to net regional decreases in ozone (0.2-0.7 ppb) and fine particulate matter (PM) (0.1-0.7 μg/m(3)). Changes in PM were predominantly due to changes in regional PM sulfate formation. Changes in regional PM and ozone formation are primarily due to decreases in emissions from electricity generation. Increases in emissions from increased natural gas production were offset by decreasing emissions from electricity generation for all the scenarios considered.

  17. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil’s high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m3 and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline. PMID:27409628

  18. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil's high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m³ and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline. PMID:27409628

  19. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-07-11

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil's high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m³ and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  20. An investigation of air emission levels from distinct iron and steel production processes with the adoption of pollution control and pollution prevention alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

    1999-07-01

    This paper aims to investigate environmental aspects from different iron and steel production processes. A methodology based on material flows is developed in order to verify some air emission levels attained by Pollution Control and Pollution Prevention alternatives. The data basis for modeling energy and materials flows in iron and steel production is obtained from a literature review on different technological processes, energy and materials consumption and pollutant releases to the environmental Modeling combines both process analysis and input-output techniques to simulate the different iron and steel production routes and to estimate the resulting total atmospheric pollution releases based on air emission factors for several pollutants by each production step. Processes examined include: (1) Conventional Integrated (100% ore-based and partly scrap-based); (2) Mini-mill with EAF (100% scrap-based and partly DRI-based); and (3) New Integrated based on the COREX smelting reduction process. Among the alternatives considered for air emissions reductions are those related to Pollution Control (mainly gas cleaning systems) and to Pollution Prevention (change/reduction in input materials, operational procedures and housekeeping improvements, on-site recycling and technology innovations and modifications). Results indicate higher air pollution intensity for the Conventional Integrated Route over the Mini-mill with EAF and COREX smelting reduction processes, though pointing out that final figures are strongly affected by the systems' boundaries and the different air emission levels of each production step.

  1. Health Effects of a Mixture of Indoor Air Volatile Organics, Their Ozone Oxidation Products, and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Nancy; Laumbach, Robert; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Lioy, Paul; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Junfeng; Ottenweller, John; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Kipen, Howard

    2005-01-01

    In our present study we tested the health effects among women of controlled exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with and without ozone (O3), and psychological stress. Each subject was exposed to the following three conditions at 1-week intervals (within-subject factor): VOCs (26 mg/m3), VOCs + O3 (26 mg/m3 + 40 ppb), and ambient air with a 1-min spike of VOCs (2.5 mg/m3). As a between-subjects factor, half the subjects were randomly assigned to perform a stressor. Subjects were 130 healthy women (mean age, 27.2 years; mean education, 15.2 years). Health effects measured before, during, and after each 140-min exposure included symptoms, neurobehavioral performance, salivary cortisol, and lung function. Mixing VOCs with O3 was shown to produce irritating compounds including aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, secondary organic aerosols, and ultrafine particles (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 μm). Exposure to VOCs with and without O3 did not result in significant subjective or objective health effects. Psychological stress significantly increased salivary cortisol and symptoms of anxiety regardless of exposure condition. Neither lung function nor neurobehavioral performance was compromised by exposure to VOCs or VOCs + O3. Although numerous epidemiologic studies suggest that symptoms are significantly increased among workers in buildings with poor ventilation and mixtures of VOCs, our acute exposure study was not consistent with these epidemiologic findings. Stress appears to be a more significant factor than chemical exposures in affecting some of the health end points measured in our present study. PMID:16263509

  2. The use of heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products to support the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Pinar, Ahmet; Ramirez, Julio A; Schindler, Laura L; Miller, Richard D; Summersgill, James T

    2002-03-01

    Air conditioner condensates have not been previously associated with cases of Legionnaires' disease. We report the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioning system's leaking water onto the floorboard of a car driven for a long distance by the patient. Heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products was used to help establish an epidemiologic link between the water specimen and the patient. PMID:11918120

  3. Genetic dissection of an alien chromosomal segment may enable the production of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotype showing shoot developmental instability.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Youki; Sato, Yoshikazu

    2015-04-01

    During the course of evolutionary history, organisms have acquired genes which cooperate harmoniously and subsequently express a stable pattern of development. In an earlier study we introduced a large chromosomal segment of chromosome 6 from a rice (Oryza sativa L.) ecotype, carrying the two flowering-time genes, which showed complex epistatic interactions in relation to environmental change, into a different ecotype by successive backcrossings. Four-near-isogenic lines (NILs) with respect to these two loci were obtained by subsequent hybridization with the recurrent parent. In the study reported here, these four NILs were the major plant material used to evaluate changes in days to leaf appearance (DLA) during shoot development using a quadratic-polynomial regression. The regressions were regarded as developmental norms because of the high values of R (2). Absolute Y-residuals (AYRs) (or size of deviation) of DLA from the norms were significantly affected by genotype. Dissections of the alien chromosomal segment resulted in one NIL that showed an increased level of AYR. Since this NIL also expressed a low survival rate in a stress environment, we suggest that the increased level of AYR during development might indicate an increased level of instability in shoot development. PMID:25677854

  4. Analysis of Efficiency Standards for Air Conditioners, Heat Pumps, and Other Products

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    A series of analyses showing the impacts of each of the selected provisions of the bills on energy supply, demand, and prices, macroeconomic variables where feasible, import dependence, and emissions.

  5. A combination of a dairy product fermented by lactobacilli and galactooligosaccharides shows additive effects on mineral balances in growing rats with hypochlorhydria induced by a proton pump inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Takasugi, Satoshi; Ashida, Kinya; Maruyama, Suyaka; Matsukiyo, Yukari; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Yamaji, Taketo

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a combination of a dairy product fermented by lactobacilli (DFL) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on mineral balances in growing rats with hypochlorhydria induced by a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Three-week-old male rats were assigned to receive one of six diets: a control diet, control diets containing 1.6 or 5.0 % GOS, a DFL diet and DFL diets containing 1.6 or 5.0 % GOS for 9 days. From day 5 of the feeding period, half of the rats fed with control diets were subcutaneously administered with saline, whereas the remaining rats were administered with PPI for 5 days. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) balances were determined from days 6 to 9. PPI administration significantly decreased the apparent absorption of Ca and Fe and increased urinary P excretion, resulting in decreased Ca, Fe and P retention. GOS dose-dependently increased the apparent absorption of Ca, Mg and Fe and urinary Mg excretion and decreased urinary P excretion. DFL significantly increased the apparent absorption of Ca and Mg and urinary Mg excretion. The combination of DFL and GOS additively affected these parameters, resulting in increased Ca, P and Fe retention, and it further increased the apparent absorption and retention of Zn at 5.0 % GOS. In conclusion, the combination of DFL and GOS improves Ca, P and Fe retention in an additive manner and increases the Zn retention in growing rats with hypochlorhydria induced by PPI.

  6. Impact of crop production on air quality in life support dynamics in closed habitats

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, T.

    1987-01-01

    Interest in human-designed closed habitats - where the substances needed for human life support are continuously regenerated from waste products - is growing, as apparent from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Closed Ecological Life Support Systems Program, the Soviet Union's Bios experiments, and the Biosphere II Project in Arizona. Nuclear-powered bases on the moon and Mars will have food-growing capabilities, and through gas-exchange processes these crops will alter the atmospheric composition. This study focuses on major gases tied to human life support: CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and water vapor. Since actual systems are years and likely decades away, simulation studies can indicate necessary further research and provide instruction about the predicted behavior of such systems. To look at the first-order plant dynamics, i.e., the production of O/sub 2/ and water vapor and the consumption of CO/sub 2/, a simulation model is constructed with crop, human, and waste subsystems. The plant can either share an atmosphere with the humans or be separate, linked by osmotic or mechanical gas exchangers. The crop subsystem is sketched. Stoichiometric equations for the biosynthesis of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids in the edible portion and carbohydrates, fiber, and lignin in the inedible portion govern growth, mimicking that currently observed in the latest hydroponic wheat experiments.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Effects of Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (POPFACE) on Leaf Growth, Cell Expansion, and Cell Production in a Closed Canopy of Poplar1

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Gail; Tricker, Penny J.; Zhang, Fang Z.; Alston, Victoria J.; Miglietta, Franco; Kuzminsky, Elena

    2003-01-01

    Leaf expansion in the fast-growing tree, Populus × euramericana was stimulated by elevated [CO2] in a closed-canopy forest plantation, exposed using a free air CO2 enrichment technique enabling long-term experimentation in field conditions. The effects of elevated [CO2] over time were characterized and related to the leaf plastochron index (LPI), and showed that leaf expansion was stimulated at very early (LPI, 0–3) and late (LPI, 6–8) stages in development. Early and late effects of elevated [CO2] were largely the result of increased cell expansion and increased cell production, respectively. Spatial effects of elevated [CO2] were also marked and increased final leaf size resulted from an effect on leaf area, but not leaf length, demonstrating changed leaf shape in response to [CO2]. Leaves exhibited a basipetal gradient of leaf development, investigated by defining seven interveinal areas, with growth ceasing first at the leaf tip. Interestingly, and in contrast to other reports, no spatial differences in epidermal cell size were apparent across the lamina, whereas a clear basipetal gradient in cell production rate was found. These data suggest that the rate and timing of cell production was more important in determining leaf shape, given the constant cell size across the leaf lamina. The effect of elevated [CO2] imposed on this developmental gradient suggested that leaf cell production continued longer in elevated [CO2] and that basal increases in cell production rate were also more important than altered cell expansion for increased final leaf size and altered leaf shape in elevated [CO2]. PMID:12529526

  8. Ozone Production in the Boston Urban Area and Transport Downwind: Computation from Lidar Measurements and Comparison with Air Quality Forecast Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardesty, R. M.; Senff, C. J.; Alvarez, R. J.; Sandberg, S. P.; McKeen, S. A.; Wilczak, J. M.; Djalalova, I. V.; White, A. B.

    2005-12-01

    An important element in understanding and successfully forecasting local air quality events is accurate characterization of production of pollutants in urban regions and advection to areas downwind. During the 2004 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS), which was conducted within the framework of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) field experiment, NOAA deployed its airborne ozone and aerosol lidar to characterize the 3-dimensional structure of ozone and aerosol fields in the New England region. We have used the data set gathered with the lidar to compute ozone production in the Boston urban plume and to investigate transport and mixing processes for several days of the study. One of the few high ozone events in northern New England during the summer of 2004 occurred on July 30, when ozone levels exceeded 100 ppbv on Appledore Island just east of Portsmouth, NH. On this day, trajectories computed from wind profiler data showed that the New York plume was transported directly over Boston and then north-northeastwards along the New Hampshire and Maine coasts. By flying across the plume upstream and downwind of Boston and computing the horizontal ozone flux within the plume, we were able to estimate that the ozone flux downwind of Boston increased by 36 percent, concentrating the pollutants and likely playing a role in the high ozone observed. We also examined transport on August 3, when a shallow plume of high ozone was observed near Bar Harbor, ME. Trajectories indicated that this was a piece of the previous day's Boston plume, which was likely transported overnight across the Gulf of Maine in a very shallow layer. Later in the day, another plume was observed further south near Portland, ME. Trajectories showed that this was the Boston plume emitted on the morning of August 3, which followed a different transport path due to changes in the wind field over the period. On August 9, we mapped out the Boston

  9. Airborne particulate matter from livestock production systems: a review of an air pollution problem.

    PubMed

    Cambra-López, María; Aarnink, André J A; Zhao, Yang; Calvet, Salvador; Torres, Antonio G

    2010-01-01

    Livestock housing is an important source of emissions of particulate matter (PM). High concentrations of PM can threaten the environment, as well as the health and welfare of humans and animals. Particulate matter in livestock houses is mainly coarse, primary in origin, and organic; it can adsorb and contain gases, odorous compounds, and micro-organisms, which can enhance its biological effect. Levels of PM in livestock houses are high, influenced by kind of housing and feeding, animal type, and environmental factors. Improved knowledge on particle morphology, primarily size, composition, levels, and the factors influencing these can be useful to identify and quantify sources of PM more accurately, to evaluate their effects, and to propose adequate abatement strategies in livestock houses. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of PM in and from livestock production systems. Future research to characterize and control PM in livestock houses is discussed.

  10. Adverse effects of air pollutants on wood products and a method for preventing resulting degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, W.Y.

    1992-01-01

    A study of wood surface in hostile environments was undertaken to elucidate the degradation mechanism and develop a method to protect wood in outdoor applications. In this investigation, wood was exposed to SO[sub 2] and NO[sub 2] in the presence and absence of ultraviolet light for up to 4 weeks. The effect of the simulated acid rain on wood with and without an epoxy film was evaluated by intermittent spraying of the wood with either sulfuric, nitric acid or water and irradiated with and without the xenon light in a weatherometer for up to 8 weeks. The surface properties of degraded wood and protective epoxy films were analyzed. UV light changed the wood color. The samples lost weight and generated water-soluble degradation products after the photoirradiation. Sulfur dioxide lighted the wood color; nitrogen dioxide changed wood color to brown. Wood increased its weight during the exposure of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub 2], however, the presence of such gases triggered photo-induced degradation. Lignin was degraded and carbonyl groups were formed at irradiated wood. Sulfur and nitrogen dioxides reduced the intensity of carbonyl groups due to degradative hydrolysis. Water-soluble products were derived from polysaccharides and lignin, nitric acid, sulfuric acid and its dissociated ions. During the simulated acidic weathering, xenon light changed the wood color. The color change rate of earlywood was greater than latewood. The presence of acids and water facilitated the wood degradation, and eventually caused leaching. The primary photodegradation phenomena of lignin was confirmed by the FTIR and UV analyses of the irradiated samples. Transparent anhydride-cured epoxy films partially protected wood against the acidic degradation and photoirradiation. Epoxy film cracked, yellowed and had O-ring shapes cavities after the exposure. Salol-added film provided the best protection for wood, followed by a film without an UV stabilizer and Tinuvin 770-added film last.

  11. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  12. Ozonolysis of methyl oleate monolayers at the air-water interface: oxidation kinetics, reaction products and atmospheric implications.

    PubMed

    Pfrang, Christian; Sebastiani, Federica; Lucas, Claire O M; King, Martin D; Hoare, Ioan D; Chang, Debby; Campbell, Richard A

    2014-07-14

    Ozonolysis of methyl oleate monolayers at the air-water interface results in surprisingly rapid loss of material through cleavage of the C=C bond and evaporation/dissolution of reaction products. We determine using neutron reflectometry a rate coefficient of (5.7 ± 0.9) × 10(-10) cm(2) molecule(-1) s(-1) and an uptake coefficient of ∼3 × 10(-5) for the oxidation of a methyl ester monolayer: the atmospheric lifetime is ∼10 min. We obtained direct experimental evidence that <2% of organic material remains at the surface on atmospheric timescales. Therefore known long atmospheric residence times of unsaturated fatty acids suggest that these molecules cannot be present at the interface throughout their ageing cycle, i.e. the reported atmospheric longevity is likely to be attributed to presence in the bulk and viscosity-limited reactive loss. Possible reaction products were characterized by ellipsometry and uncertainties in the atmospheric fate of organic surfactants such as oleic acid and its methyl ester are discussed. Our results suggest that a minor change to the structure of the molecule (fatty acid vs. its methyl ester) considerably impacts on reactivity and fate of the organic film. PMID:24870051

  13. Technology of oxygen production in the membranecryogenic air separation system for a 600 MW oxy-type pulverized bed boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdowska, Sylwia; Skorek-Osikowska, Anna

    2012-09-01

    In this paper the results of the thermodynamic analysis of the oxy-combustion type pulverized bed boiler integrated with a hybrid, membrane- cryogenic oxygen separation installation are presented. For the calculations a 600 MW boiler with live steam parameters at 31.1 MPa /654.9 oC and reheated steam at 6.15 MPa/672.4 oC was chosen. In this paper the hybrid membrane-cryogenic technology as oxygen production unit for pulverized bed boiler was proposed. Such an installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. Models of these installations were built in the Aspen software. The energy intensity of the oxygen production process in the hybrid system was compared with the cryogenic technology. The analysis of the influence of membrane surface area on the energy intensity of the process of air separation as well as the influence of oxygen concentration at the inlet to the cryogenic installation on the energy intensity of a hybrid unit was performed.

  14. Investigation on pretreatment of centrifugal mother liquid produced in the production of polyvinyl chloride by air-Fenton technique.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingying; Hua, Xiuyi; Ge, Rui; Guo, Aitong; Guo, Zhiyong; Dong, Deming; Sun, Wentian

    2013-08-01

    Centrifugal mother liquid (CML) is one of the main sources of wastewater produced during the production of polyvinyl chloride in chlor-alkali industry. CML is a typical poorly biodegradable organic wastewater, containing many kinds of refractory pollutants. Specifically, it contains dissolved refractory polymers, especially polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), which can pass though the biotreatment processes and clog the membranes used for further treatment. In this study, to ensure the CML applicable to biotreatment and membrane treatment, a novel efficient and mild technique, air-Fenton treatment, was employed as a pretreatment technique to improve biodegradability of the CML and to break down the polymers in the CML. Firstly, the technique was optimized for the CML treatment by optimizing the main parameters, including the dosage of ferrous sulfate, initial pH of the wastewater, [H2O2]/[Fe(2+)], aeration rate, reaction time, and temperature, based on removal efficiency of COD and PVA from the CML. Then, the optimized technique was tested and evaluated. The results indicated that under the optimized conditions, the air-Fenton treatment could remove 66, 98, and 55 % of the COD, PVA, and TOC, respectively, from the CML. After the treatment, biodegradability of the wastewater increased significantly (BOD/COD increased from 0.31 to 0.68), and almost all of the PVA polymers were removed or broken down. Meanwhile, concentration of the remaining iron ions, which were added during the treatment, was also quite low (only 2.9 mg/L). Furthermore, most of the suspended materials and ammonia nitrogen, and some of the phosphorus in the wastewater were removed simultaneously.

  15. Investigation on pretreatment of centrifugal mother liquid produced in the production of polyvinyl chloride by air-Fenton technique.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingying; Hua, Xiuyi; Ge, Rui; Guo, Aitong; Guo, Zhiyong; Dong, Deming; Sun, Wentian

    2013-08-01

    Centrifugal mother liquid (CML) is one of the main sources of wastewater produced during the production of polyvinyl chloride in chlor-alkali industry. CML is a typical poorly biodegradable organic wastewater, containing many kinds of refractory pollutants. Specifically, it contains dissolved refractory polymers, especially polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), which can pass though the biotreatment processes and clog the membranes used for further treatment. In this study, to ensure the CML applicable to biotreatment and membrane treatment, a novel efficient and mild technique, air-Fenton treatment, was employed as a pretreatment technique to improve biodegradability of the CML and to break down the polymers in the CML. Firstly, the technique was optimized for the CML treatment by optimizing the main parameters, including the dosage of ferrous sulfate, initial pH of the wastewater, [H2O2]/[Fe(2+)], aeration rate, reaction time, and temperature, based on removal efficiency of COD and PVA from the CML. Then, the optimized technique was tested and evaluated. The results indicated that under the optimized conditions, the air-Fenton treatment could remove 66, 98, and 55 % of the COD, PVA, and TOC, respectively, from the CML. After the treatment, biodegradability of the wastewater increased significantly (BOD/COD increased from 0.31 to 0.68), and almost all of the PVA polymers were removed or broken down. Meanwhile, concentration of the remaining iron ions, which were added during the treatment, was also quite low (only 2.9 mg/L). Furthermore, most of the suspended materials and ammonia nitrogen, and some of the phosphorus in the wastewater were removed simultaneously. PMID:23471777

  16. Assessment of the possible drought impact on farm production in the SE of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Tomas; Di Bella, Carlos; Oricchio, Patricio

    The extended drought situation in the southeast of Buenos Aires during the second half of year 2000 caused the government to invoke emergency laws. This action allowed farmers in the area to receive waivers for taxes and loans. The emergency laws remained in force during 2001, without further verification of environmental conditions for agriculture. Developing an assessment of the actual drought situation was relevant for taxing and national credit institutions. An assessment was performed of the actual drought situation of farms during the spring of 2001 in seven counties in Buenos Aires Province area. The assessment was done by comparing vegetation index values (NDVI)—as measured from NOAA-AVHRR satellite data—of September 2001 against NDVI time series values from previous years. Five categories were established to describe the relationship between the present index and the average of the time series. Farms within the area covered by the study were assigned to the appropriate category using GIS tools. It was confirmed that most of the area had NDVI values that were similar to the average values, or even higher. It was found that there were subareas where the vegetation index had decreased. For those cases, LANDSAT TM images of the area of September and October of 2001 were used for a detailed inspection. The study included rainfall data as well, confirming a normal regional situation. Both low and high-resolution satellite images were found to be useful tools for obtaining fast, economic, objective and conclusive results about the production capability of individual farms as well as the region as a whole.

  17. Pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy: fast gas heating and active particle production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    The results of a numerical study on kinetic processes initiated by a pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy, when the dissociation degree of oxygen molecules is high, are presented. The calculations of the temporal dynamics of the electron concentration, density of atomic oxygen, vibrational distribution function of nitrogen molecules, and gas temperature agree with the experimental data. It is shown that quenching of electronically excited states of nitrogen N2(B3Πg), N2(С3Πu), N2(a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) by oxygen molecules leads to the dissociation of O2. This conclusion is based on the comparison of calculated dynamics of atomic oxygen in air, excited by a pulsed nanosecond discharge, with experimental data. In air plasma at a high dissociation degree of oxygen molecules ([O]/[O2]  >  10%), relaxation of the electronic energy of atoms and molecules in reactions with O atoms becomes extremely important. Active production of NO molecules and fast gas heating in the discharge plasma due to the quenching of electronically excited N2(B3Πg, C3Πu, a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) molecules by oxygen atoms is notable. Owing to the high O atom density, electrons are effectively detached from negative ions in the discharge afterglow. As a result, the decay of plasma in the afterglow is determined by electron–ion recombination, and the electron density remains relatively high between the pulses. An increase in the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules at the periphery of the plasma channel at time delay t  =  1–30 μs after the discharge is obtained. This is due to intense gas heating and, as a result, gas-dynamic expansion of a hot gas channel. Vibrationally excited N2(v) molecules produced near the discharge axis move from the axial region to the periphery. Consequently, at the periphery the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules is increased.

  18. Radiation effects in moist-air systems and the influence of radiolytic product formation on nuclear waste glass corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W.; Wang, L.M.

    1997-07-01

    Ionizing radiation may affect the performance of glass in an unsaturated repository site by interacting with air, water vapor, or liquid water to produce a variety of radiolytic products. Tests were conducted to examine the effects of radiolysis under high gas/liquid ratios. Results indicate that nitrate is the predominant radiolytic product produced following both gamma and alpha radiation exposure, with lesser amounts of nitrite and carboxylic acids. The formation of nitrogen acids during exposure to long-lived, alpha-particle-emitting transuranic elements indicates that these acids may play a role in influencing nuclear waste form reactions in a long-term unsaturated disposal scenario. Experiments were also conducted with samples that simulate the composition of Savannah River Plant nuclear waste glasses. Radiolytic product formation in batch tests (340 m{sup {minus}1}, 90 C) resulted in a small increase in the release rates of many glass components, such as alkali and alkaline earth elements, although silicon and uranium release rates were slightly reduced indicating an overall beneficial effect of radiation on waste form stability. The radiolytic acids increased the rate of ion exchange between the glass and the thin film of condensate, resulting in accelerated corrosion rates for the glass. The paragenetic sequence of alteration phases formed on both the irradiated and nonirradiated glass samples reacted in the vapor hydration tests matches closely with those developed during volcanic glass alteration in naturally occurring saline-alkaline lake systems. This correspondence suggests that the high temperatures used in these tests have not changed the underlying glass reaction mechanism relate to that which controls glass reactions under ambient surficial conditions.

  19. Occurrence and Spatial and Temporal Variations of Disinfection By-Products in the Water and Air of Two Indoor Swimming Pools

    PubMed Central

    Catto, Cyril; Sabrina, Simard; Ginette, Charest-Tardif; Manuel, Rodriguez; Robert, Tardif

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve disinfection by-product (DBP) exposure assessment, this study was designed to document both water and air levels of these chemical contaminants in two indoor swimming pools and to analyze their within-day and day-to-day variations in both of them. Intensive sampling was carried out during two one-week campaigns to measure trihalomethanes (THMs) and chloramines (CAMs) in water and air, and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in water several times daily. Water samples were systematically collected at three locations in each pool and air samples were collected at various heights around the pool and in other rooms (e.g., changing room) in the buildings. In addition, the ability of various models to predict air concentrations from water was tested using this database. No clear trends, but actual variations of contamination levels, appeared for both water and air according to the sampling locations and times. Likewise, the available models resulted in realistic but imprecise estimates of air contamination levels from water. This study supports the recommendation that suitable minimal air and water sampling should be carried out in swimming pools to assess exposure to DBPs. PMID:23066383

  20. Improvement of oxygen transfer coefficient during Penicillium canescens culture. Influence of turbine design, agitation speed, and air flow rate on xylanase production.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, A; Strodiot, L; Thonart, P

    1998-01-01

    To improve xylanase productivity from Penicillium canescens 10-10c culture, an optimization of oxygen supply is required. Because the strain is sensitive to shear forces, leading to lower xylanase productivity as to morphological alteration, vigorous mixing is not desired. The influence of turbine design, agitation speed, and air flow rate on K1a (global mass transfer coefficient, h(-1)) and enzyme production is discussed. K1a values increased with agitation speed and air flow rate, whatever the impeller, in our assay conditions. Agitation had more influence on K1a values than air flow, when a disk-mounted blade's impeller (DT) is used; an opposite result was obtained with a hub-mounted pitched blade's impeller (PBT). Xylanase production appeared as a function of specific power (W/m3), and an optimum was found in 20 and 100 L STRs fitted with DT impellers. On the other hand, the use of a hub-mounted pitched blade impeller (PBT8), instead of a disk-mounted blade impeller (DT4), reduced the lag time of hemicellulase production and increased xylanase productivity 1.3-fold. PMID:18576019

  1. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  2. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  3. Electrochemically exfoliated graphene anodes with enhanced biocurrent production in single-chamber air-breathing microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Najafabadi, Amin Taheri; Ng, Norvin; Gyenge, Előd

    2016-07-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) present promising options for environmentally sustainable power generation especially in conjunction with waste water treatment. However, major challenges remain including low power density, difficult scale-up, and durability of the cell components. This study reports enhanced biocurrent production in a membrane-free MFC, using graphene microsheets (GNs) as anode and MnOx catalyzed air cathode. The GNs are produced by ionic liquid assisted simultaneous anodic and cathodic electrochemical exfoliation of iso-molded graphite electrodes. The GNs produced by anodic exfoliation increase the MFC peak power density by over 300% compared to plain carbon cloth (i.e., 2.85Wm(-2) vs 0.66Wm(-2), respectively), and by 90% compared to conventional carbon black (i.e., Vulcan XC-72) anode. These results exceed previously reported power densities for graphene-containing MFC anodes. The fuel cell polarization results are corroborated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicating three times lower charge transfer resistance for the GN anode. Material characterizations suggest that the best performing GN samples were of relatively smaller size (~500nm), with higher levels of ionic liquid induced surface functionalization during the electrochemical exfoliation process.

  4. Reference air kerma and kerma-area product as estimators of peak skin dose for fluoroscopically guided interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Deukwoo; Little, Mark P.; Miller, Donald L.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To determine more accurate regression formulas for estimating peak skin dose (PSD) from reference air kerma (RAK) or kerma-area product (KAP). Methods: After grouping of the data from 21 procedures into 13 clinically similar groups, assessments were made of optimal clustering using the Bayesian information criterion to obtain the optimal linear regressions of (log-transformed) PSD vs RAK, PSD vs KAP, and PSD vs RAK and KAP. Results: Three clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK, seven clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs KAP, and six clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK and KAP. Prediction of PSD using both RAK and KAP is significantly better than prediction of PSD with either RAK or KAP alone. The regression of PSD vs RAK provided better predictions of PSD than the regression of PSD vs KAP. The partial-pooling (clustered) method yields smaller mean squared errors compared with the complete-pooling method.Conclusion: PSD distributions for interventional radiology procedures are log-normal. Estimates of PSD derived from RAK and KAP jointly are most accurate, followed closely by estimates derived from RAK alone. Estimates of PSD derived from KAP alone are the least accurate. Using a stochastic search approach, it is possible to cluster together certain dissimilar types of procedures to minimize the total error sum of squares.

  5. Electrochemically exfoliated graphene anodes with enhanced biocurrent production in single-chamber air-breathing microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Najafabadi, Amin Taheri; Ng, Norvin; Gyenge, Előd

    2016-07-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) present promising options for environmentally sustainable power generation especially in conjunction with waste water treatment. However, major challenges remain including low power density, difficult scale-up, and durability of the cell components. This study reports enhanced biocurrent production in a membrane-free MFC, using graphene microsheets (GNs) as anode and MnOx catalyzed air cathode. The GNs are produced by ionic liquid assisted simultaneous anodic and cathodic electrochemical exfoliation of iso-molded graphite electrodes. The GNs produced by anodic exfoliation increase the MFC peak power density by over 300% compared to plain carbon cloth (i.e., 2.85Wm(-2) vs 0.66Wm(-2), respectively), and by 90% compared to conventional carbon black (i.e., Vulcan XC-72) anode. These results exceed previously reported power densities for graphene-containing MFC anodes. The fuel cell polarization results are corroborated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicating three times lower charge transfer resistance for the GN anode. Material characterizations suggest that the best performing GN samples were of relatively smaller size (~500nm), with higher levels of ionic liquid induced surface functionalization during the electrochemical exfoliation process. PMID:26926591

  6. Characterization of Binary Ag-Cu Ion Mixtures in Zeolites: Their Reduction Products and Stability to Air Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Fiddy, Steven; Petranovskii, Vitalii; Ogden, Steve; Iznaga, Inocente Rodriguez

    2007-02-02

    A series of Ag+-Cu2+ binary mixtures with different Ag/Cu ratios were supported on mordenite with different Si/Al ratios and were subsequently reduced under hydrogen in the temperature range 323K - 473K. Ag and Cu K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) was conducted on these systems in-situ to monitor the reduction species formed and the kinetics of their reduction. In-situ XANES clearly demonstrates that the formation of silver particles is severely impeded by the addition of copper and that the copper is converted from Cu(II) to Cu(I) during reduction and completely reverts back to Cu(II) during cooling. There are no indications at any stage of the formation of bimetallic Ag-Cu clusters. Interestingly, the Ag/Cu ratio appears to have no influence of the reduction kinetics and reduction products formed with only the highest Si/Al ratio (MR = 128) investigated during this study having an influence on the reduction and stability to air oxidation.

  7. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  8. Temperature and Humidity Profiles in the TqJoint Data Group of AIRS Version 6 Product for the Climate Model Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Feng; Fang, Fan; Hearty, Thomas J.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Lynnes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission is entering its 13th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing long-wave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. Thus AIRS data have been widely used, among other things, for short-term climate research and observational component for model evaluation. One instance is the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) which uses AIRS version 5 data in the climate model evaluation. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the AIRS mission. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. The ongoing Earth System Grid for next generation climate model research project, a collaborative effort of GES DISC and NASA JPL, will bring temperature and humidity profiles from AIRS version 6. The AIRS version 6 product adds a new "TqJoint" data group, which contains data for a common set of observations across water vapor and temperature at all atmospheric levels and is suitable for climate process studies. How different may the monthly temperature and humidity profiles in "TqJoint" group be from the "Standard" group where temperature and water vapor are not always valid at the same time? This study aims to answer the question by comprehensively comparing the temperature and humidity profiles from the "TqJoint" group and the "Standard" group. The comparison includes mean differences at different levels globally and over land and ocean. We are also working on examining the sampling differences between the "TqJoint" and "Standard" group using MERRA data.

  9. Operational Use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals Along with the RGB Air Mass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, Michael; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) and Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) provide short-term and medium-range forecast guidance of heavy precipitation, strong winds, and other features often associated with mid-latitude cyclones over both land and ocean. As a result, detection of factors that lead to rapid cyclogenesis and high wind events is key to improving forecast skill. One phenomenon that has been identified with these events is the stratospheric intrusion that occurs near tropopause folds. This allows for deep mixing near the top of the atmosphere where dry air high in ozone concentrations and potential vorticity descends (sometimes rapidly) deep into the mid-troposphere. Observations from satellites can aid in detection of these stratospheric air intrusions (SAI) regions. Specifically, multispectral composite imagery assign a variety of satellite spectral bands to the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of imagery pixels and result in color combinations that can assist in the detection of dry stratospheric air associated with PV advection, which in turn may alert forecasters to the possibility of a rapidly strengthening storm system. Single channel or RGB satellite imagery lacks quantitative information about atmospheric moisture unless the sampled brightness temperatures or other data are converted to estimates of moisture via a retrieval process. Thus, complementary satellite observations are needed to capture a complete picture of a developing storm system. Here, total column ozone retrievals derived from a hyperspectral sounder are used to confirm the extent and magnitude of SAIs. Total ozone is a good proxy for defining locations and intensity of SAIs and has been used in studies evaluating that phenomenon (e.g. Tian et al. 2007, Knox and Schmidt 2005). Steep gradients in values of total ozone seen by satellites have been linked

  10. Urinary and air phthalate concentrations and self-reported use of personal care products among minority pregnant women in New York city.

    PubMed

    Just, Allan C; Adibi, Jennifer J; Rundle, Andrew G; Calafat, Antonia M; Camann, David E; Hauser, Russ; Silva, Manori J; Whyatt, Robin M

    2010-11-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are used extensively in personal care products, including fragrances (DEP) and nail polish (DnBP). Between May 2003 and July 2006, we gathered questionnaire data on the use of seven product categories (deodorant, perfume, hair spray, hair gel, nail polish/polish remover, liquid soap/body wash, and lotion/mist) over 48 h during the third trimester of pregnancy from 186 inner-city women. A 48-h personal air sample was collected and analyzed for DEP and DnBP; a maternal spot urine sample was collected and analyzed for their monoester metabolites, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), respectively. In all, 97% of air samples and 84% of urine samples were collected within ±2 days of the questionnaire. During the 48 h, 41% of women reported perfume use and 10% reported nail polish/polish remover use. In adjusted analyses, no association was seen between nail product use and air DnBP or urine MnBP concentrations. Women reporting perfume use had 2.3 times higher (95% CI 1.6, 3.3) urinary MEP concentrations. Personal air DEP increased by 7% for each 25% increase in a composite indicator of the six other product categories (P<0.05), but was not associated with perfume use. Air DEP was correlated with urine MEP concentrations only among non-perfume users (r=0.51, P<0.001). Results suggest that perfume use is a significant source of DEP exposure.

  11. Urinary and air phthalate concentrations and self-reported use of personal care products among minority pregnant women in New York city.

    PubMed

    Just, Allan C; Adibi, Jennifer J; Rundle, Andrew G; Calafat, Antonia M; Camann, David E; Hauser, Russ; Silva, Manori J; Whyatt, Robin M

    2010-11-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are used extensively in personal care products, including fragrances (DEP) and nail polish (DnBP). Between May 2003 and July 2006, we gathered questionnaire data on the use of seven product categories (deodorant, perfume, hair spray, hair gel, nail polish/polish remover, liquid soap/body wash, and lotion/mist) over 48 h during the third trimester of pregnancy from 186 inner-city women. A 48-h personal air sample was collected and analyzed for DEP and DnBP; a maternal spot urine sample was collected and analyzed for their monoester metabolites, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), respectively. In all, 97% of air samples and 84% of urine samples were collected within ±2 days of the questionnaire. During the 48 h, 41% of women reported perfume use and 10% reported nail polish/polish remover use. In adjusted analyses, no association was seen between nail product use and air DnBP or urine MnBP concentrations. Women reporting perfume use had 2.3 times higher (95% CI 1.6, 3.3) urinary MEP concentrations. Personal air DEP increased by 7% for each 25% increase in a composite indicator of the six other product categories (P<0.05), but was not associated with perfume use. Air DEP was correlated with urine MEP concentrations only among non-perfume users (r=0.51, P<0.001). Results suggest that perfume use is a significant source of DEP exposure. PMID:20354564

  12. [On the problem of the study of the chemical air pollution with chlororganic hydrocarbons at productions of polyvinyl chloride and epichlorohydrin].

    PubMed

    Taranenko, N A; Meshakova, N M; Zhurba, O M; Telezhkin, V V

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic assessment of working conditions at the chemical productions of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and epichlorohydrin (EPCH) in East Siberia has shown that the employees are exposed to the chlororganic hydrocarbons of hazard category 1-2, out of them there were found to be more toxical pollutants such as vinyl chloride, 1.2-dicloroethane in the production of polyvinyl chloride; allyl chloride and epichlorohydrin in the production of epichlorohydrin. Multistageness of the technological processes, the absence of the isolation of main stages of the technological processes as well as the heating microclimate contribute to the chemical pollution of the air environment. In spite of the significant improvement of the hygienic situation at the productions mentioned in the recent 10 years according to the chemical factor due to the introduction of the complex of curative measures, the working conditions of the employees still belonged to the harmful category. According to the content of the harmful chemical substances in the air of the working zone and the parameters of microclimate, the working conditions of the employees working at the production of epichlorohydrin and in the shop of vinyl chloride production must be qualified as the harmful ones of the first category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.1), in the production shop for PVC- as the harmful ones which correspond to the second category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.2).

  13. [Evaluation of occupational exposure to nickel and other metals based on the analysis of air in the production of nickel alloys].

    PubMed

    Dobecki, M; Matych, S; Kamecki, R; Matczak, W

    1988-01-01

    The measurements of air pollutions in the rolling mill of non-ferrous metals aimed at the evaluation of occupational exposure to nickel and other metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg) used during the production of nickel alloys. It was found that nickel fumes and dusts concentration can be the only hazardous factor for the workers' health. The majority (ca 85%) of the crew of 28 workers is exposed to the nickel concentration in air exceeding 0.05 mg/m3. Smelters (8 persons) at the stand of 97-99% nickel smelting are at the highest risk of the loss of health; average exposure of this group during 8 hours' shift may surpass 2 mg Ni/m3. Mean concentration in air of the fumes and dusts of copper, zinc, manganese and magnesium do not make a hygienic problem. PMID:3252104

  14. [Evaluation of occupational exposure to nickel and other metals based on the analysis of air in the production of nickel alloys].

    PubMed

    Dobecki, M; Matych, S; Kamecki, R; Matczak, W

    1988-01-01

    The measurements of air pollutions in the rolling mill of non-ferrous metals aimed at the evaluation of occupational exposure to nickel and other metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg) used during the production of nickel alloys. It was found that nickel fumes and dusts concentration can be the only hazardous factor for the workers' health. The majority (ca 85%) of the crew of 28 workers is exposed to the nickel concentration in air exceeding 0.05 mg/m3. Smelters (8 persons) at the stand of 97-99% nickel smelting are at the highest risk of the loss of health; average exposure of this group during 8 hours' shift may surpass 2 mg Ni/m3. Mean concentration in air of the fumes and dusts of copper, zinc, manganese and magnesium do not make a hygienic problem.

  15. "Supergreen" Renewables: Integration of Mineral Weathering Into Renewable Energy Production for Air CO2 Removal and Storage as Ocean Alkalinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G. H.; Carroll, S.; Ren, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    Excess planetary CO2 and accompanying ocean acidification are naturally mitigated on geologic time scales via mineral weathering. Here, CO2 acidifies the hydrosphere, which then slowly reacts with silicate and carbonate minerals to produce dissolved bicarbonates that are ultimately delivered to the ocean. This alkalinity not only provides long-term sequestration of the excess atmospheric carbon, but it also chemically counters the effects of ocean acidification by stabilizing or raising pH and carbonate saturation state, thus helping rebalance ocean chemistry and preserving marine ecosystems. Recent research has demonstrated ways of greatly accelerating this process by its integration into energy systems. Specifically, it has been shown (1) that some 80% of the CO2 in a waste gas stream can be spontaneously converted to stable, seawater mineral bicarbonate in the presence of a common carbonate mineral - limestone. This can allow removal of CO2 from biomass combustion and bio-energy production while generating beneficial ocean alkalinity, providing a potentially cheaper and more environmentally friendly negative-CO2-emissions alternative to BECCS. It has also been demonstrated that strong acids anodically produced in a standard saline water electrolysis cell in the formation of H2 can be reacted with carbonate or silicate minerals to generate strong base solutions. These solutions are highly absorptive of air CO2, converting it to mineral bicarbonate in solution. When such electrochemical cells are powered by non-fossil energy (e.g. electricity from wind, solar, tidal, biomass, geothermal, etc. energy sources), the system generates H2 that is strongly CO2-emissions-negative, while producing beneficial marine alkalinity (2-4). The preceding systems therefore point the way toward renewable energy production that, when tightly coupled to geochemical mitigation of CO2 and formation of natural ocean "antacids", forms a high capacity, negative-CO2-emissions, "supergreen

  16. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  17. 10. COPY OF OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF FLIGHTLINE SHOWING BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. COPY OF OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF FLIGHTLINE SHOWING BUILDING 8280 (DOUBLE CANTILEVER HANGAR) AT LEFT DATED JANUARY 18, 1968. PHOTOGRAPH FROM LORING AIR FORCE BASE MASTER PLAN LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  18. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein mediates cold air inducible airway mucin production through TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingxiu; Ran, Danhua; Xie, Wenyue; Xu, Qing; Zhou, Xiangdong

    2016-10-01

    Mucus overproduction is an important feature in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases and cold air stimulation has been shown to be associated with the severity of these diseases. However, the regulatory mechanisms that mediate excessive mucin production under cold stress remain elusive. Recently, the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) has been shown to be markedly induced after exposure to cold air. In this study, we sought to explore the expression of CIRP within bronchial biopsy specimens, the effect on mucin5AC (MUC5AC) production in chronic inflammatory airway diseases and the potential signaling pathways involved in cold air stimulation process. We found that CIRP protein expression was significantly increased in patients with COPD and in mice treated with cold air. Moreover, cold air stimulation induced MUC5AC expression in wild-type mice but not in CIRP(-/-) mice. In vitro, cold air stress significantly elevated the transcriptional and protein expression levels of MUC5AC in human bronchial epithelial cells. CIRP, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (p-p65) increased significantly in response to cold stress and CIRP siRNA, TLR4 - neutralizing Ab and a specific inhibitor of NF-κB could attenuated cold stress inducible MUC5AC expression. In addition, CIRP siRNA could hindered the expression levels of TLR4 and p-p65 both induced by cold stress. Taken together, these results suggest that airway epithelial cells constitutively express CIRP in vitro and in vivo. CIRP is responsible for cold-inducible MUC5AC expression by activating TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:27423012

  19. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein mediates cold air inducible airway mucin production through TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingxiu; Ran, Danhua; Xie, Wenyue; Xu, Qing; Zhou, Xiangdong

    2016-10-01

    Mucus overproduction is an important feature in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases and cold air stimulation has been shown to be associated with the severity of these diseases. However, the regulatory mechanisms that mediate excessive mucin production under cold stress remain elusive. Recently, the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) has been shown to be markedly induced after exposure to cold air. In this study, we sought to explore the expression of CIRP within bronchial biopsy specimens, the effect on mucin5AC (MUC5AC) production in chronic inflammatory airway diseases and the potential signaling pathways involved in cold air stimulation process. We found that CIRP protein expression was significantly increased in patients with COPD and in mice treated with cold air. Moreover, cold air stimulation induced MUC5AC expression in wild-type mice but not in CIRP(-/-) mice. In vitro, cold air stress significantly elevated the transcriptional and protein expression levels of MUC5AC in human bronchial epithelial cells. CIRP, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (p-p65) increased significantly in response to cold stress and CIRP siRNA, TLR4 - neutralizing Ab and a specific inhibitor of NF-κB could attenuated cold stress inducible MUC5AC expression. In addition, CIRP siRNA could hindered the expression levels of TLR4 and p-p65 both induced by cold stress. Taken together, these results suggest that airway epithelial cells constitutively express CIRP in vitro and in vivo. CIRP is responsible for cold-inducible MUC5AC expression by activating TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  20. Influence of substituting dietary soybean for air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) meal on egg production and steroid hormones in early-phase laying hens.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Nahashon, S N; Introna, M; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-02-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely and expensive protein source used in the formulation of poultry diets; however, when the price of SBM increases, poultry nutritionists seek alternative sources that are more economical in formulating least-cost rations. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary air-classified sunflower meal (SFM) on some productive parameters and plasma steroid hormones in laying hens. In this trial, 20-week-old laying hens (ISA Brown strain) in the early phase of production were randomly assigned to two groups and fed wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean (135 g/kg; 48% CP) or air-classified SFM (160 g/kg; 41% CP) as the main protein source. Laying performance, egg size and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 week. Plasma steroid hormones (progesterone and oestradiol) in the hens were quantified weekly. Substituting SBM with air-classified SFM did not change (p > 0.05) the hens' growth performance, whereas feed consumption and efficiency were positively influenced (p < 0.05) by SFM treatment. Egg production rate was improved in hens fed the SFM diet (p < 0.05), as well as the percentage of medium-size eggs that was higher for SFM treatment (p < 0.05). Steroid hormones levels were affected by dietary treatment (p < 0.01). From our findings, it could be effective to include air-classified SFM in early-phase laying hen diets as an alternative protein source substituting SBM, without negative influence on productive performance and egg traits, reducing also the production costs.

  1. Intercomparison and Validation of AIRS, MODIS, and ASTER Land Surface Emissivity Products over the Namib and Kalahari Deserts in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, G.; Hook, S.

    2008-12-01

    Land surface emissivity is a critical parameter for retrieving land surface temperatures from spaceborne Thermal Infrared (TIR) measurements. Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) data are key parameters in global climate change studies that involve climate modeling, ice dynamic analyses, surface- atmosphere interactions and land use, land cover change. The errors in retrievals of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from hyperspectral infrared radiances, such as those from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite, are strongly dependent on using constant or inaccurate surface emissivities, particularly over arid and semi-arid regions where the variation in emissivity is large, both spatially and spectrally. LST&E products are available from spaceborne sensors such as AIRS, MODIS and ASTER at varying spatial, spectral, temporal resolutions, and using different retrieval algorithms. ASTER provides LST&E data with the highest spatial resolution (90 m), compared with AIRS (50 km) and MODIS (1 and 5 km). AIRS has the highest spectral sampling and both AIRS and MODIS acquire data at much higher temporal frequencies (every 2-3 days) compared with ASTER (every 16 days). In this paper we present validation and intercomparisons of AIRS, MODIS and ASTER emissivity products over the Namib and Kalahari deserts in Southern Africa. The Namib, Africa's second largest desert, and the Kalahari cover areas of 80,900 and 900, 000 km² respectively and consist of pure quartz, giving the sand a deep red color. The dunes provide excellent areas for validation as they have little or no vegetation, are spatially homogeneous with known composition, and have large spectral variations in TIR emissivity. MODIS and ASTER data will be upsampled to the AIRS spatial resolution, and then compared to the emissivities of in-situ sand samples collected at designated areas at Sossusvlei in the Namib dunes and Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in the Kalahari. The

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, PUROLATOR PRODUCTS AIR FILTRATION COMPANY, DMK804404 AND PB2424

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than...

  3. Co-location of air capture, subseafloor CO2 sequestration, and energy production on the Kerguelen plateau.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David S; Lackner, Klaus S; Han, Patrick; Slagle, Angela L; Wang, Tao

    2013-07-01

    Reducing atmospheric CO2 using a combination of air capture and offshore geological storage can address technical and policy concerns with climate mitigation. Because CO2 mixes rapidly in the atmosphere, air capture could operate anywhere and in principle reduce CO2 to preindustrial levels. We investigate the Kerguelen plateau in the Indian Ocean, which offers steady wind resources, vast subseafloor storage capacities, and minimal risk of economic damages or human inconvenience and harm. The efficiency of humidity swing driven air capture under humid and windy conditions is tested in the laboratory. Powered by wind, we estimate ∼75 Mt CO2/yr could be collected using air capture and sequestered below seafloor or partially used for synfuel. Our analysis suggests that Kerguelen offers a remote and environmentally secure location for CO2 sequestration using renewable energy. Regional reservoirs could hold over 1500 Gt CO2, sequestering a large fraction of 21st century emissions.

  4. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  5. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  6. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  7. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  8. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  9. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  10. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  11. The Art Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolarici, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show…

  12. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  13. [Monitoring of wokplace air and coveralls pollution with mercury, and its content of biologic materials in workers engaged into caustic soda production].

    PubMed

    Lisetskaya, L G; Meshakova, N M; Shayakhmetov, S F

    2015-01-01

    The article covers retrospective evaluation of workplace air pollution with mercury in caustic production, and mercury content of swabs from coveralls and of biologic materials in the workers under study. The highest mercury content of biologic materials (blood, hair) was seen in workers of electrolysis workshop and mercury-containing sludge regeneration workshop. The authors revealed correlation between individual value of exposure to mercury and mercury content of biologic materials.

  14. Culture of East Indian sandalwood tree somatic embryos in air-lift bioreactors for production of santalols, phenolics and arabinogalactan proteins

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Biswapriya B.; Dey, Satyahari

    2013-01-01

    The East Indian sandalwood tree, Santalum album, yields one of the costliest heartwoods and precious essential oil. Unsurprisingly, this endangered forest species is severely affected due to unmet global demands, illegal trade and harvesting, overharvesting and an epidemic mycoplasmal spike disease. In vitro micropropagation endeavours have resulted in defined in vitro stages such as somatic embryos that are amenable to mass production in bioreactors. We report on somatic embryo production in a 10-L air-lift-type bioreactor, and compare the growth and biochemical parameters with those of a 2-L air-lift-type bioreactor. For the 10-L bioreactor with biomass (475.7 ± 18 g fresh weight; P < 0.01), concomitantly santalols (5.2 ± 0.15 mg L−1; P < 0.05), phenolics (31 ± 1.6 mg L−1) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) (39 ± 3.1 mg L−1; P < 0.05) are produced in 28 days. In addition, we identified and quantified several santalols and phenolics by means of high-performance thin-layer chromatography and reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography analyses, respectively. Results indicate that 10-L-capacity air-lift bioreactors are capable of supporting somatic embryo cultures, while the extracellular medium provides opportunities for production of industrial raw materials such as santalols, phenolics and AGPs. This will prove useful for further optimization and scale-up studies of plant-produced metabolites.

  15. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  16. Obesity in show dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  17. Characterization of Viral Load, Viability and Persistence of Influenza A Virus in Air and on Surfaces of Swine Production Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Neira, Victor; Rabinowitz, Peter; Rendahl, Aaron; Paccha, Blanca; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Indirect transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is poorly understood and information is lacking on levels of environmental exposure encountered by swine and people during outbreaks of IAV in swine barns. We characterized viral load, viability and persistence of IAV in air and on surfaces during outbreaks in swine barns. IAV was detected in pigs, air and surfaces from five confirmed outbreaks with 48% (47/98) of oral fluid, 38% (32/84) of pen railing and 43% (35/82) of indoor air samples testing positive by IAV RT-PCR. IAV was isolated from air and oral fluids yielding a mixture of subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2). Detection of IAV RNA from air was sustained during the outbreaks with maximum levels estimated between 7 and 11 days from reported onset. Our results indicate that during outbreaks of IAV in swine, aerosols and surfaces in barns contain significant levels of IAV potentially representing an exposure hazard to both swine and people. PMID:26757362

  18. Characterization of Viral Load, Viability and Persistence of Influenza A Virus in Air and on Surfaces of Swine Production Facilities.

    PubMed

    Neira, Victor; Rabinowitz, Peter; Rendahl, Aaron; Paccha, Blanca; Gibbs, Shawn G; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Indirect transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is poorly understood and information is lacking on levels of environmental exposure encountered by swine and people during outbreaks of IAV in swine barns. We characterized viral load, viability and persistence of IAV in air and on surfaces during outbreaks in swine barns. IAV was detected in pigs, air and surfaces from five confirmed outbreaks with 48% (47/98) of oral fluid, 38% (32/84) of pen railing and 43% (35/82) of indoor air samples testing positive by IAV RT-PCR. IAV was isolated from air and oral fluids yielding a mixture of subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2). Detection of IAV RNA from air was sustained during the outbreaks with maximum levels estimated between 7 and 11 days from reported onset. Our results indicate that during outbreaks of IAV in swine, aerosols and surfaces in barns contain significant levels of IAV potentially representing an exposure hazard to both swine and people. PMID:26757362

  19. Presence of pathogenic enteric viruses in illegally imported meat and meat products to EU by international air travelers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Montes-Briones, Rebeca; Gallego, David; Hernández, Marta; Rovira, Jordi

    2015-09-16

    One hundred twenty two meat samples confiscated from passengers on flights from non-European countries at the International Airport of Bilbao (Spain) were tested for the presence of the main foodborne viral pathogens (human noroviruses genogroups I and II, hepatitis A and E viruses) during 2012 and 2013. A sample process control virus, murine norovirus, was used to evaluate the correct performance of the method. Overall, 67 samples were positive for at least one enteric viruses, 65 being positive for hepatitis E virus (53.3%), 3 for human norovirus genogroup I (2.5%) and 1 for human norovirus genogroup II (0.8%), whereas hepatitis A virus was not detected in any sample. The type of positive meat samples was diverse, but mainly was pork meat products (64.2%). The geographical origin of the positive samples was wide and diverse; samples from 15 out 19 countries tested were positive for at least one virus. However, the estimated virus load was low, ranging from 55 to 9.0 × 10(4) PDU per gram of product. The results obtained showed the potential introduction of viral agents in travelers' luggage, which constitute a neglected route of introduction and transmission.

  20. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  1. Air quality index from charcoal production sites, carboxyheamoglobin and lung function among occupationally exposed charcoal workers in South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olujimi, O O; Ana, G R E E; Ogunseye, O O; Fabunmi, V T

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria. Four communities in Igbo-Ora and six communities in Alabata were purposively selected and levels of pollutant gases were assessed using appropriate gas meters, PM2.5 was assessed with Thermo Scientific MIE pDR-1500, FEV1 and PEFR were measured with Piko-1 spirometer while COHb was assessed using non-invasive pulse CO-oximeter (Rad 57). Data were statistically analyzed and results were compared with recommended guidelines. The mean FEV1, PEFR, COHb and BMI for subjects and controls were 2.35 ± 0.73 and 2.69 ± 0.56, 253.72 ± 103.45 and 330.02 ± 94.61 (p < 0.01), 13.28 ± 3.91 and 8.50 ± 3.68 (p < 0.01) and 21.97 ± 2.19 and 23.36 ± 3.74 (p < 0.05) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between actual and expected values of FEV1 (p < 0.01) and PEFR (p < 0.01) among charcoal workers. There existed a positive correlation between CO and COHb while FEV1 and PEFR correlated negatively with PM2.5. The study showed that charcoal workers are exposed to high levels of CO and PM2.5, contributing to lowered respiratory functions for FEV1 and PEFR and high levels of COHb compared to the control group. Routine respiratory and

  2. Air quality index from charcoal production sites, carboxyheamoglobin and lung function among occupationally exposed charcoal workers in South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olujimi, O O; Ana, G R E E; Ogunseye, O O; Fabunmi, V T

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria. Four communities in Igbo-Ora and six communities in Alabata were purposively selected and levels of pollutant gases were assessed using appropriate gas meters, PM2.5 was assessed with Thermo Scientific MIE pDR-1500, FEV1 and PEFR were measured with Piko-1 spirometer while COHb was assessed using non-invasive pulse CO-oximeter (Rad 57). Data were statistically analyzed and results were compared with recommended guidelines. The mean FEV1, PEFR, COHb and BMI for subjects and controls were 2.35 ± 0.73 and 2.69 ± 0.56, 253.72 ± 103.45 and 330.02 ± 94.61 (p < 0.01), 13.28 ± 3.91 and 8.50 ± 3.68 (p < 0.01) and 21.97 ± 2.19 and 23.36 ± 3.74 (p < 0.05) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between actual and expected values of FEV1 (p < 0.01) and PEFR (p < 0.01) among charcoal workers. There existed a positive correlation between CO and COHb while FEV1 and PEFR correlated negatively with PM2.5. The study showed that charcoal workers are exposed to high levels of CO and PM2.5, contributing to lowered respiratory functions for FEV1 and PEFR and high levels of COHb compared to the control group. Routine respiratory and

  3. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  4. Interior detail, view to northnortheast showing support system for roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail, view to north-northeast showing support system for roof truss (typical), 90 mm lens plus electronic flash lighting. - Travis Air Force Base, Readiness Maintenance Hangar, W Street, Air Defense Command Readiness Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  5. Interior, building 1205, view to west showing roof truss system, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, building 1205, view to west showing roof truss system, 90 mm lens plus electronic flash fill lighting. - Travis Air Force Base, Readiness Maintenance Hangar, W Street, Air Defense Command Readiness Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  6. 2. EAST ELEVATION OF BRIDGE SEEN FROM THE NORTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST ELEVATION OF BRIDGE SEEN FROM THE NORTHEAST, SHOWING APPROACH OF CARRS MILL ROAD FROM EAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  7. Telephone equipment room, showing channel terminal bank with vacuum tubes. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Telephone equipment room, showing channel terminal bank with vacuum tubes. View to east - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  8. 11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. 9. Roof. A view looking north, showing the elevator bulkheads ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Roof. A view looking north, showing the elevator bulkheads and the retrofit air-conditioning compressors and air handlers. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  10. 16. DETAIL SHOWING LIQUID OXYGEN TANK FOURTEENINCH BALL VALVE. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL SHOWING LIQUID OXYGEN TANK FOURTEEN-INCH BALL VALVE. Looking southwest. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 14. DETAIL SHOWING HYDROGEN (LEFT) AND OXYGEN (RIGHT) PREVALVES. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL SHOWING HYDROGEN (LEFT) AND OXYGEN (RIGHT) PREVALVES. Looking southeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  13. Effect of moisture control and air venting on H2S production and leachate quality in mature C&D debris landfills.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianye; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-10-21

    The effect of air venting and moisture variation on H2S production and the leaching of metals/metalloids (arsenic, copper, chromium, and boron) from treated wood in aged mature construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills were examined. Three simulated C&D debris landfill lysimeters were constructed and monitored, each containing as a major debris component either wooden pallets, chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood, or alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) treated wood. The lysimeters were operated with alternating periods of water addition (a total of 160 L in four equal amounts) and air venting (68.4 m(3)per day for 121 days in two phases). Moisture addition did not increase H2S levels in the long term, and a significant drop in H2S concentration was observed (up to 99%) when aerobic conditions were promoted through air venting. H2S concentrations increased after venting stopped up to values approximately two orders of magnitude lower than observed prior to venting. Venting had the immediate consequence of suppressing biological H2S production, and the longer-term effect of decreasing organic matter that could otherwise be utilized in this process. Under aerobic conditions, the levels of arsenic, chromium, and boron in leachate decreased up to 96%, 49%, and 68%, respectively, while copper was found to increase up to 200% in CCA and 445% in ACQ column leachates.

  14. Effect of moisture control and air venting on H2S production and leachate quality in mature C&D debris landfills.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianye; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-10-21

    The effect of air venting and moisture variation on H2S production and the leaching of metals/metalloids (arsenic, copper, chromium, and boron) from treated wood in aged mature construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills were examined. Three simulated C&D debris landfill lysimeters were constructed and monitored, each containing as a major debris component either wooden pallets, chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood, or alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) treated wood. The lysimeters were operated with alternating periods of water addition (a total of 160 L in four equal amounts) and air venting (68.4 m(3)per day for 121 days in two phases). Moisture addition did not increase H2S levels in the long term, and a significant drop in H2S concentration was observed (up to 99%) when aerobic conditions were promoted through air venting. H2S concentrations increased after venting stopped up to values approximately two orders of magnitude lower than observed prior to venting. Venting had the immediate consequence of suppressing biological H2S production, and the longer-term effect of decreasing organic matter that could otherwise be utilized in this process. Under aerobic conditions, the levels of arsenic, chromium, and boron in leachate decreased up to 96%, 49%, and 68%, respectively, while copper was found to increase up to 200% in CCA and 445% in ACQ column leachates. PMID:25244062

  15. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  16. A Simple Drought Product and Indicator Derived from Temperature and Relative Humidity Observed by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, S. L.; Behrangi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, drought results in agricultural losses, impacts to industry, power and energy production, natural resources, municipal water supplies and human health making it one of the costliest natural hazards in the nation. Monitoring drought is therefore critical to help local governments, resource managers, and other groups make effective decisions, yet there is no single definition of drought, and because of the complex nature of drought there is no universal best drought indicator. Remote sensing applications in drought monitoring are advantageous due to the large spatial and temporal frequency of observations, leading to a better understanding of the spatial extent of drought and its duration, and in detecting the onset of drought and its intensity. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS)-era data have potential for monitoring and assessing drought and many are already used either directly or indirectly for drought monitoring. Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor are widely used for agricultural and environmental plant-stress monitoring via the USDM, the VegDRI project and FEWSNet. However there remain underutilized sources of information from NASA satellite observations that may have promise for characterizing and understanding meteorological drought. Once such sensor is NASA's Advanced Infra-Red Sounder (AIRS) aboard the Aqua satellite. AIRS and it's sister sensor the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) that together provide meteorological information of high relevance to meteorological drought, e.g., profiles of water vapor, surface air temperature, and precipitation. Recent work undertaken to develop simple indicators of drought based on temperature and relative humidity from the AIRS suite of instruments is promising. Although there are more sophisticated indicators developed through the application of a variety of

  17. The Relationship Between Surface Temperature Anomaly Time Series and those of OLR, Water Vapor, and Cloud Cover as Observed Using Nine Years of AIRS Version-5 Level-3 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Outline: (1) Comparison of AIRS and CERES anomaly time series of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and OLR(sub CLR), i.e. Clear Sky OLR (2) Explanation of recent decreases in global and tropical mean values of OLR (3) AIRS "Short-term" Longwave Cloud Radiative Feedback -- A new product

  18. Photodegradation of (CH3CH2)2S and CH3CH2SCH3 initiated by OH radicals at atmospheric pressure. Product yields and mechanism in NOx free air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksdath-Mansilla, Gabriela; Peñéñory, Alicia B.; Barnes, Ian; Wiesen, Peter; Teruel, Mariano A.

    2012-08-01

    The product distribution of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with diethyl sulfide (CH3CH2)2S and ethyl methyl sulfide, CH3CH2SCH3, determined in the absence of NOx, is presented. The experiments were performed in a 1080 L quartz-glass photoreactor and a 405 L borosilicate glass photoreactor in synthetic air at (298 ± 2) K using long path "in situ" FTIR spectroscopy for the analysis of the reactants and products. SO2 and CH3CHO were identified as major primary products for both title reactions together with HCHO as a co-product in the photodegradation of CH3CH2SCH3. Formation of CO and HCOOH was observed, however, the concentration-time behavior of these products show that they are secondary in origin and are produced from the further oxidation of major primary products. Traces of OCS were observed; its concentration-time behavior suggests that it is a minor primary product. The yields of the products obtained for the reaction of OH radicals with (CH3CH2)2S were the following: (50 ± 3)% and (91 ± 3)% for SO2 and CH3CHO, respectively. While, for the reaction of OH radicals with CH3CH2SCH3 yields of (51 ± 2)%, (57 ± 3)% and (46 ± 4)% were obtained for SO2, CH3CHO and HCHO, respectively. The present results are compared with previous results for the well studied reaction of dimethyl sulfide, CH3SCH3, with OH radicals and simple atmospheric degradation mechanisms are postulated to explain the formation of the observed products.

  19. Comparisons between cellulase production by Aspergillus fumigatus in agitated vessels and in an air-lift fermentor

    SciTech Connect

    Wase, D.A.J.; McManamey, W.J.; Raymahasay, S.; Vaid, A.K.

    1985-08-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured in disc-turbine-agitated vessels and in an air-lift fermentor. In the agitated vessels the yield of cellulase was reduced when the agitation rate was increased, although extracellular protein levels rose. The enzyme complex itself was shown to be exceptionally stable under conditions similar to those in the agitated vessels, so probably shear damage to the mycelium had occurred, liberating intracellular contents. These appeared to contain an inhibitor that could be removed by fabricated inorganic protein absorbents, such as kieselguhr and alumina. However, the inhibitor was not likely to be protease, since only relatively low levels could be detected and its identity has not been established. The use of an air-lift fermentor avoided the shear effects due to use of the disc turbine agitator in the conventional fermentors, and yields of enzyme were then found to increase by about 20%, maximum yields being obtained at maximum Kla values.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of animal-product violations incurred by air passengers at an international airport in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tai-Hwa; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Morley, Randall S

    2005-05-10

    Our aim was to evaluate the inspection of arriving passengers for the illegal transport of animal products through the international airport into Taiwan. Passenger-violation data were retrieved from the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (BAPHIQ) in Taiwan. Monte Carlo simulations with 5000 iterations were applied to estimate the predicted violation numbers considering factors such as passenger's nationality/ethnicity, sex, and monthly statistics of violations. The results showed that Chinese-related passengers and passengers from South East Asian countries have a relatively higher potential risk for incurring violations during the period from Christmas to Chinese Lunar New Year. Most monthly estimated violation risks are significantly higher than observed violation risks in 2001 and 2002, except April, July, and August. Due to the low sensitivity of the current detection system (reflected by the higher estimated violation risks and a two-fold detection increase after the implementation of an inspection service using detector dogs), we recommend additional preventive measures be taken.

  1. Photosynthesis, productivity, and yield of maize are not affected by open-air elevation of CO2 concentration in the absence of drought.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Uribelarrea, Martin; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Naidu, Shawna L; Rogers, Alistair; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2006-02-01

    While increasing temperatures and altered soil moisture arising from climate change in the next 50 years are projected to decrease yield of food crops, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is predicted to enhance yield and offset these detrimental factors. However, C4 photosynthesis is usually saturated at current [CO2] and theoretically should not be stimulated under elevated [CO2]. Nevertheless, some controlled environment studies have reported direct stimulation of C4 photosynthesis and productivity, as well as physiological acclimation, under elevated [CO2]. To test if these effects occur in the open air and within the Corn Belt, maize (Zea mays) was grown in ambient [CO2] (376 micromol mol(-1)) and elevated [CO2] (550 micromol mol(-1)) using Free-Air Concentration Enrichment technology. The 2004 season had ideal growing conditions in which the crop did not experience water stress. In the absence of water stress, growth at elevated [CO2] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Nor was there any CO2 effect on the activity of key photosynthetic enzymes, or metabolic markers of carbon and nitrogen status. Stomatal conductance was lower (-34%) and soil moisture was higher (up to 31%), consistent with reduced crop water use. The results provide unique field evidence that photosynthesis and production of maize may be unaffected by rising [CO2] in the absence of drought. This suggests that rising [CO2] may not provide the full dividend to North American maize production anticipated in projections of future global food supply. PMID:16407441

  2. Review of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's health effects and exposure assessment documents on nitrogen dioxide. Report of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-09

    At the request of the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee conducted a review on the potential health hazards associated with exposure to 0.1 to 1.0 ppm nitrogen dioxide generated by unvented indoor combustion sources. The committee concluded that: (1) repeated peak exposures at concentrations of 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide may cause health effects in some individuals; (2) the population groups that appear most sensitive to nitrogen dioxide exposure include children, chronic bronchitics, asthmatics, and individuals with emphysema; and (3) the most direct evidence regarding lung damage associated with nitrogen dioxide is obtained from animal studies.

  3. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  4. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  5. 67. COPY OF UNDATED OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING WEAPONS STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. COPY OF UNDATED OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING WEAPONS STORAGE AREA, FROM MASTER PLAN OF CARIBOU AFS. PHOTOGRAPH, PROBABLY TAKEN IN THE 1960'S LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  6. 10. COPY OF OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING ARCH HANGAR AT RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. COPY OF OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING ARCH HANGAR AT RIGHT, BUILDING 8200 (OBSERVATION TOWER) AT LEFT, AND B-52 AIRCRAFT PARKED ALONG APRON IN BACKGROUND, DATED OCTOBER 1967, PHOTOGRAPH FROM BASE MASTER PLAN LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Arch Hangar, East of Arizona Road near southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  7. 9. COPY OF PHOTOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT BOARD CREATED 19481949 SHOWING CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. COPY OF PHOTOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT BOARD CREATED 1948-1949 SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF ARCH HANGAR. BOARD LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Arch Hangar, East of Arizona Road near southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  8. [Evaluation of occupational exposure to cadmium based on analysis of air in the work area. II. Cadmium oxide levels in the air of work areas during cadmium production in a non-ferrous metal foundry].

    PubMed

    Rogaczewska, T; Matczak, W

    1985-01-01

    By stationary measurements the levels of cadmium oxide aerosols concentrations in air at particular workplaces related to cadmium production at non-ferrous metals mill have been determined. High concentrations of that compound have been found at such technological operations as unloading of cadmium-bearing raw materials, batching of cadmium sponge in the induction furnace and casting of fused cadmium into moulds. With the personal dosimetry technique, concentrations of that compound in the workers' breathing zone have been determined. Those were within 0.16-1.84 mg/m3, so--above the TLV values. However, those concentrations do not necessarily reflect the occupational exposure magnitude, as the workers had respirators.

  9. NANODEVICE: Novel Concepts, Methods, and Technologies for the Production of Portable, Easy-to-use Devices for the Measurement and Analysis of Airborne Engineered Nanoparticles in Workplace Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirviö, Sari; Savolainen, Kai

    2011-07-01

    NANODEVICE is a research project funded by the European Commission in the context of the 7th Framework Programme. The duration is 48 months starting 1st of April 2009. Due to their unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are now used for a myriad of novel applications, and have a great economic and technological importance. However, some of these properties, especially their surface reactivity, have raised health concerns due to their potential health effects. There is currently a shortage of field-worthy, cost-effective ways - especially in real time - for reliable assessment of exposure levels to ENP in workplace air. NANODEVICE will provide new information on the physico-chemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) and information about their toxicology. The main emphasis of the project is in the development of novel measuring devices to assess the exposure to ENP's from workplace air. The purpose of the project is also to promote the safe use of ENP through guidance, standards and education, implementing of safety objectives in ENP production and handling, and promotion of safety related collaborations through an international nanosafety forum. The main project goal is to develop innovative concepts and reliable methods for characterizing ENP in workplace air with novel, portable and easy-to-use devices suitable for workplaces.

  10. In silico docking of methyl isocyanate (MIC) and its hydrolytic product (1, 3-dimethylurea) shows significant interaction with DNA Methyltransferase 1 suggests cancer risk in Bhopal-Gas- Tragedy survivors.

    PubMed

    Khan, Inbesat; Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam; Upadhyay, Nisha; Singh, Hemant; Sachdeva, Meenu; Jatawa, Suresh Kumar; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is a relatively large protein family responsible for maintenance of normal methylation, cell growth and survival in mammals. Toxic industrial chemical exposure associated methylation misregulation has been shown to have epigenetic influence. Such misregulation could effectively contribute to cancer development and progression. Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is a noxious industrial chemical used extensively in the production of carbamate pesticides. We here applied an in silico molecular docking approach to study the interaction of MIC with diverse domains of DNMT1, to predict cancer risk in the Bhopal population exposed to MIC during 1984. For the first time, we investigated the interaction of MIC and its hydrolytic product (1,3-dimethylurea) with DNMT1 interacting (such as DMAP1, RFTS, and CXXC) and catalytic (SAM, SAH, and Sinefungin) domains using computer simulations. The results of the present study showed a potential interaction of MIC and 1,3-dimethylurea with these domains. Obviously, strong binding of MIC with DNMT1 interrupting normal methylation will lead to epigenetic alterations in the exposed humans. We suggest therefore that the MIC- exposed individuals surviving after 1984 disaster have excess risk of cancer, which can be attributed to alterations in their epigenome. Our findings will help in better understanding the underlying epigenetic mechanisms in humans exposed to MIC. PMID:26625778

  11. In silico docking of methyl isocyanate (MIC) and its hydrolytic product (1, 3-dimethylurea) shows significant interaction with DNA Methyltransferase 1 suggests cancer risk in Bhopal-Gas- Tragedy survivors.

    PubMed

    Khan, Inbesat; Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam; Upadhyay, Nisha; Singh, Hemant; Sachdeva, Meenu; Jatawa, Suresh Kumar; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is a relatively large protein family responsible for maintenance of normal methylation, cell growth and survival in mammals. Toxic industrial chemical exposure associated methylation misregulation has been shown to have epigenetic influence. Such misregulation could effectively contribute to cancer development and progression. Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is a noxious industrial chemical used extensively in the production of carbamate pesticides. We here applied an in silico molecular docking approach to study the interaction of MIC with diverse domains of DNMT1, to predict cancer risk in the Bhopal population exposed to MIC during 1984. For the first time, we investigated the interaction of MIC and its hydrolytic product (1,3-dimethylurea) with DNMT1 interacting (such as DMAP1, RFTS, and CXXC) and catalytic (SAM, SAH, and Sinefungin) domains using computer simulations. The results of the present study showed a potential interaction of MIC and 1,3-dimethylurea with these domains. Obviously, strong binding of MIC with DNMT1 interrupting normal methylation will lead to epigenetic alterations in the exposed humans. We suggest therefore that the MIC- exposed individuals surviving after 1984 disaster have excess risk of cancer, which can be attributed to alterations in their epigenome. Our findings will help in better understanding the underlying epigenetic mechanisms in humans exposed to MIC.

  12. Using DOE-ARM and Space-Based Assets to Assess the Quality of Air Force Weather 3D Cloud Analysis and Forecast Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobis, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Air Force Weather (AFW) has documented requirements for global cloud analysis and forecasting to support DoD missions around the world. To meet these needs, AFW utilizes a number of cloud products. Cloud analyses are constructed using 17 different near real time satellite sources. Products include analysis of the individual satellite transmissions at native satellite resolution and an hourly global merge of all 17 sources on a 24km grid. AFW has also recently started creation of a time delayed global cloud reanalysis to produce a 'best possible' analysis for climatology and verification purposes. Forecasted cloud products include global short-range cloud forecasts created using advection techniques as well as statistically post processed cloud forecast products derived from various global and regional numerical weather forecast models. All of these cloud products cover different spatial and temporal resolutions and are produced on a number of different grid projections. The longer term vision of AFW is to consolidate these various approaches into uniform global numerical weather modeling (NWM) system using advanced cloudy-data assimilation processes to construct the analysis and a licensed version of UKMO's Unified Model to produce the various cloud forecast products. In preparation for this evolution in cloud modeling support, AFW has started to aggressively benchmark the performance of their current capabilities. Cloud information collected from so called 'active' sensors on the ground at the DOE-ARM sites and from space by such instruments as CloudSat, CALIPSO and CATS are being utilized to characterize the performance of AFW products derived largely by passive means. The goal is to understand the performance of the 3D cloud analysis and forecast products of today to help shape the requirements and standards for the future NWM driven system.This presentation will present selected results from these benchmarking efforts and highlight insights and observations

  13. Role of air in growth and production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus in experimental cotton and rayon tampons.

    PubMed

    Fischetti, V A; Chapman, F; Kakani, R; James, J; Grun, E; Zabriskie, J B

    1989-01-01

    Rayon and cotton fibers of the type used in the manufacture of tampons were extracted for 6 hours in isopropyl alcohol in a soxhlet apparatus to remove all finishes from the fiber surface. The fibers were used to produce experimental tampons of commercial design. Using a syringe method, the tampons were saturated with diluted staphylococci in brain-heart infusion medium and incubated at 37 degrees C. Spent medium was expressed from the tampons and analyzed for growth of staphylococci and production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). Results revealed no statistical difference in the production of TSST-1 by cells grown in rayon or cotton. However, a significant increase in TSST-1 production was observed in tampon cultures when compared with medium controls. When similar experiments were performed with tampons saturated with nitrogen, a significant decrease in TSST-1 production was observed when compared with air-saturated tampons. The results indicate that the oxygen normally present in tampons plays a significant role in modulating the production of TSST-1.

  14. Sea spray production by bag breakup mode of fragmentation of the air-water interface at strong and hurricane wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-04-01

    Sea sprays is a typical element of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) of large importance for marine meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and climate studies. They are considered as a crucial factor in the development of hurricanes and severe extratropical storms, since they can significantly enhance exchange of mass, heat and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere. This exchange is directly provided by spume droplets with the sizes from 10 microns to a few millimeters mechanically torn off the crests of a breaking waves and fall down to the ocean due to gravity. The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Experimental core of our work comprise laboratory experiments employing high-speed video-filming, which have made it possible to disclose how water surface looks like at extremely strong winds and how exactly droplets are torn off wave crests. We classified events responsible for spume droplet, including bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" or liquid filaments (Koa, 1981) and "bag breakup", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film, "bags". The process is similar to "bag-breakup" mode of fragmentation of liquid droplets and jets in gaseous flows. Basing on statistical analysis of results of these experiments we show that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism On the base of general principles

  15. Integration of kerma-area product and cumulative air kerma determination into a skin dose tracking system for fluoroscopic imaging procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayan, Sarath; Shankar, Alok; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2016-03-01

    The skin dose tracking system (DTS) that we developed provides a color-coded mapping of the cumulative skin dose distribution on a 3D graphic of the patient during fluoroscopic procedures in real time. The DTS has now been modified to also calculate the kerma area product (KAP) and cumulative air kerma (CAK) for fluoroscopic interventions using data obtained in real-time from the digital bus on a Toshiba Infinix system. KAP is the integral of air kerma over the beam area and is typically measured with a large-area transmission ionization chamber incorporated into the collimator assembly. In this software, KAP is automatically determined for each x-ray pulse as the product of the air kerma/ mAs from a calibration file for the given kVp and beam filtration times the mAs per pulse times the length and width of the beam times a field nonuniformity correction factor. Field nonuniformity is primarily the result of the heel effect and the correction factor was determined from the beam profile measured using radio-chromic film. Dividing the KAP by the beam area at the interventional reference point provides the area averaged CAK. The KAP and CAK per x-ray pulse are summed after each pulse to obtain the total procedure values in real-time. The calculated KAP and CAK were compared to the values displayed by the fluoroscopy machine with excellent agreement. The DTS now is able to automatically calculate both KAP and CAK without the need for measurement by an add-on transmission ionization chamber.

  16. INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Co-location of air capture, sub-ocean CO2 storage and energy production on the Kerguelen plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, D.; Han, P.; Lackner, K.; Wang, T.

    2011-12-01

    How can carbon capture and storage activities be sustained from an energy perspective while keeping the entire activity out of sight and away from material risk and social refrain near populated areas? In light of reducing the atmospheric CO2 level to mitigate its effect on climate change, the combination of new air-capture technologies and large offshore storage reservoirs, supplemented by carbon neutral renewable energy, could address both of these engineering and public policy concerns. Because CO2 mixes rapidly in the atmosphere, air capture scrubbers could be located anywhere in the world. Although the power requirements for this technology may reduce net efficiencies, the local availability of carbon-neutral renewable energy for this purpose would eliminate some net energy loss. Certain locations where wind speeds are high and steady, such as those observed at high latitude and across the open ocean, appeal as carbon-neutral energy sources in close proximity to immense and secure reservoirs for geological sequestration of captured CO2. In particular, sub-ocean basalt flows are vast and carry minimal risks of leakage and damages compared to on-land sites. Such implementation of a localized renewable energy source coupled with carbon capture and storage infrastructure could result in a global impact of lowered CO2 levels. We consider an extreme location on the Kerguelen plateau in the southern Indian Ocean, where high wind speeds and basalt storage reservoirs are both plentiful. Though endowed with these advantages, this mid-ocean location incurs clear material and economic challenges due to its remoteness and technological challenges for CO2 capture due to constant high humidity. We study the wind energy-air capture power balance and consider related factors in the feasibility of this location for carbon capture and storage. Other remote oceanic sites where steady winds blow and near large geological reservoirs may be viable as well, although all would require

  18. Regulation of human autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene translation by miR-220b.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tomohito; Noguchi, Yukiko; Shindo, Mieko; Morita, Yoshifumi; Oda, Yoshie; Yoshida, Eiko; Hamada, Hiroko; Harada, Mine; Shiokawa, Yuichi; Nishida, Takahiro; Tominaga, Ryuji; Kikushige, Yoshikane; Akashi, Koichi; Kudoh, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Yuka; Umemura, Tsukuru; Taniguchi, Taketoshi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Takashi; Mitsuyama, Masao; Kurisaki, Hironori; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Nagafuchi, Seiho

    2013-11-01

    Although mutations of autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene are responsible for autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), presenting a wide spectrum of many characteristic and non-characteristic clinical features, some patients lack AIRE gene mutations. Therefore, something other than a mutation, such as dysregulation of AIRE gene, may be a causal factor for APECED or its related diseases. However, regulatory mechanisms for AIRE gene expression and/or translation have still remained elusive. We found that IL-2-stimulated CD4(+) T (IL-2T) cells showed a high expression of AIRE gene, but very low AIRE protein production, while Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B (EBV-B) cells express both AIRE gene and AIRE protein. By using microarray analysis, we could identify miR-220b as a possible regulatory mechanism for AIRE gene translation in IL-2T cells. Here we report that miR-220b significantly reduced the expression of AIRE protein in AIRE gene with 3'UTR region transfected 293T cells, whereas no alteration of AIRE protein production was observed in the open reading frame of AIRE gene alone transfected cells. In addition, anti-miR-220b reversed the inhibitory function of miR-220b for the expression of AIRE protein in AIRE gene with 3'UTR region transfected cells. Moreover, when AIRE gene transfected cells with mutated 3'UTR were transfected with miR-220b, no reduction of AIRE protein production was observed. Taken together, it was concluded that miR-220b inhibited the AIRE gene translation through the 3'UTR region of AIRE gene, indicating that miR-220b could serve as a regulator for human AIRE gene translation.

  19. Enhancement of electricity production in a mediatorless air-cathode microbial fuel cell using Klebsiella sp. IR21.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Yeong; Kim, Tae Gwan; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-06-01

    A novel dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria, Klebsiella sp. IR21, was isolated from the anode biofilm of an MFC reactor. Klebsiella sp. IR21 reduced 27.8 % of ferric iron to ferrous iron demonstrating that Klebsiella sp. IR21 has electron transfer ability. Additionally, Klebsiella sp. IR21 generated electricity forming a biofilm on the anode surface. When a pure culture of Klebsiella sp. IR21 was supplied into a single chamber, air-cathode MFC fed with a mixture of glucose and acetate (500 mg L(-1) COD), 40-60 mV of voltage (17-26 mA m(-2) of current density) was produced. Klebsiella sp. IR21 was also utilized as a biocatalyst to improve the electrical performance of a conventional MFC reactor. A single chamber, air-cathode MFC was fed with reject wastewater (10,000 mg L(-1) COD) from a H2 fermentation reactor. The average voltage, current density, and power density were 142.9 ± 25.74 mV, 60.5 ± 11.61 mA m(-2), and 8.9 ± 3.65 mW m(-2), respectively, in the MFC without inoculation of Klebsiella sp. IR21. However, these electrical performances of the MFC were significantly increased to 204.7 ± 40.24 mV, 87.5 ± 17.20 mA m(-2), and 18.6 ± 7.23 mW m(-2), respectively, with inoculation of Klebsiella sp. IR21. The results indicate that Klebsiella sp. IR21 can be utilized as a biocatalyst for enhancement of electrical performance in MFC systems.

  20. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  1. Estimates of radioxenon released from Southern Hemisphere medical isotope production facilities using measured air concentrations and atmospheric transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Paul W; Friese, Judah I; Lowrey, Justin D; McIntyre, Justin I; Miley, Harry S; Schrom, Brian T

    2014-09-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and (133)Xe data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of (133)Xe from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8 × 10(14) Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 2.2 × 10(16) to 2.4 × 10(16) Bq, estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 9.2 × 10(13) to 3.7 × 10(14) Bq and estimates for the facility in Argentina range from 4.5 × 10(12) to 9.5 × 10(12) Bq. PMID:24811887

  2. Heat production in Littorina saxatilis Olivi and Littorina neritoides L. (gastropoda: Prosobranchia) during an experimental exposure to air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Inge

    1990-06-01

    The adaptation of littorinid molluscs to prolonged aerial exposure was investigated by the determination of heat production. Littorina saxatilis, inhabiting the upper eulittoral, reached a maximum metabolic activity during submersion (heat production: 3.26×10-3J s-1 (gadw)-1. On the first three days of desiccation, the heat production was continuously reduced to 40% of the submersed value. A prolonged aerial exposure was lethal for this species. In the supralittoral L. neritoides, three stages of energy metabolism could be observed: An intermediate heat production during submersion (1.97×10-3Js-1 (gadw)-1), an increased metabolism during the first hour of aerial exposure (heat production 204% of submersed value), and a minimal metabolism (39% of the submersed value and 19% of maximum value) during the following days and weeks of desiccation. Recovery depended on water salinity; L. saxatilis proved to be less euryhaline than L. neritoides. Thus, the metabolic adaptations correlate with the level of littoral habitat; inactivity combined with a drastically reduced energy consumption is a metabolically economic way to survive in periodically dry environments.

  3. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  4. A High-Spatial-Resolution, Localized MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Product for Use in Air Quality Exposure Assessment During Large Wildfire Smoke Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Raffuse, S. M.; DeWinter, J. L.; Craig, K. J.; Jumbam, L. K.; Fruin, S.; Lurmann, F.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has potential use for determining the intra-urban variability of airborne particulate matter exposure during wildfire events; however, the standard Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD products have limitations for this application. Specifically, the 10x10 km resolution is too coarse for intra-urban population exposure assessments, the assumed aerosol optical properties are not representative of biomass burning aerosol, and the cloud masking algorithm misinterprets heavy smoke as clouds. We developed a localized MODIS AOD product at 1.5 and 2.5 km resolutions and tested the performance in northern California during the 2008 wildfires. The localized product's algorithm uses local biomass burning aerosol optical properties, local surface reflectance data, and a relaxed cloud filter. During the 2008 season, persistent heavy smoke was produced over northern California and the San Joaquin Valley for over two months. As California is both highly populated and covered with a relatively dense network of ground-based aerosol monitoring stations, this event provided an excellent opportunity to develop the AOD product and test its ability to predict aerosol concentrations on the ground to assess population exposure. We will present our methodology and discuss its potential for air quality and public health applications.

  5. Indoor transient SOA formation from ozone + α-pinene reactions: Impacts of air exchange and initial product concentrations, and comparison to limonene ozonolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssefi, Somayeh; Waring, Michael S.

    2015-07-01

    The ozonolysis of reactive organic gases (ROG), e.g. terpenes, generates secondary organic aerosol (SOA) indoors. The SOA formation strength of such reactions is parameterized by the aerosol mass fraction (AMF), a.k.a. SOA yield, which is the mass ratio of generated SOA to oxidized ROG. AMFs vary in magnitude both among and for individual ROGs. Here, we quantified dynamic SOA formation from the ozonolysis of α-pinene with 'transient AMFs,' which describe SOA formation due to pulse emission of a ROG in an indoor space with air exchange, as is common when consumer products are intermittently used in ventilated buildings. We performed 19 experiments at low, moderate, and high (0.30, 0.52, and 0.94 h-1, respectively) air exchange rates (AER) at varying concentrations of initial reactants. Transient AMFs as a function of peak SOA concentrations ranged from 0.071 to 0.25, and they tended to increase as the AER and product of the initial reactant concentrations increased. Compared to our similar research on limonene ozonolysis (Youssefi and Waring, 2014), for which formation strength was driven by secondary ozone reactions, the AER impact for α-pinene was opposite in direction and weaker, while the initial reactant product impact was in the same direction but stronger for α-pinene than for limonene. Linear fits of AMFs for α-pinene ozonolysis as a function of the AER and initial reactant concentrations are provided so that future indoor models can predict SOA formation strength.

  6. Air Traffic Forecasting at the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    Procedures for conducting air traffic forecasts with specific application to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey are discussed. The procedure relates air travel growth to detailed socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the U.S. population rather than to aggregate economic data such as Gross National Product, personal income, and industrial production. Charts are presented to show the relationship between various selected characteristics and the use of air transportation facilities.

  7. 75 FR 56538 - Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders to Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Products and Chemicals, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders to Aid Public... practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the... period of thirty (30) days. The following Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes the terms of...

  8. A Direct Measurement Study of Air Emissions from Oil & Natural Gas Production Pads in the DJ Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and industry cooperators conducted a one-week emission measurement study of 23 oil and natural gas well pads in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in July, 2011. The purpose of the study was to characterize emissions from individual production components and to evaluate the performa...

  9. A Direct Measurement Study of Air Emissions from Oil & Natural Gas Production Pads in the Denver-Julesburg Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and industry cooperators conducted a one-week emission measurement study of 23 oil and natural gas well pads in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in July, 2011. The purpose of the study was to characterize emissions from individual production components and to evaluate the performa...

  10. High-time resolved measurements of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol precursors and products in urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Rosa M.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2016-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are present in the atmosphere entirely in the gas phase are directly emitted by biogenic (~1089 Tg yr-1) and anthropogenic sources (~185 Tg yr-1). However, the sources and molecular speciation of intermediate VOCs (IVOCs), which are for the most part also present almost entirely in the gas phase, are not well characterized. The VOCs and IVOCs participate in reactions that form ozone and semivolatile OC (SVOC) that partition into the aerosol phase. Formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are part of a complex dynamic process that depends on the molecular speciation and concentration of VOCs, IVOCs, primary organic aerosol (POA), and the level of oxidants (NO3, OH, O3). The current lack of understanding of OA properties and their impact on radiative forcing, ecosystems, and human health is partly due to limitations of models to predict SOA production on local, regional, and global scales. More accurate forecasting of SOA production requires high-temporal resolution measurement and molecular characterization of SOA precursors and products. For the subject study, the IVOCs and aerosol-phase organic matter were collected using the high-volume sampling technique and were analyzed by multidimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The IVOCs included terpenes, terpenoids, n-alkanes, branched alkanes, isoprenoids, alkylbenzenes, cycloalkylbenzenes, PAH, alkyl PAH, and an unresolved complex mixture (UCM). Diurnal variations of OA species containing multiple oxygenated functionalities and selected SOA tracers of isorprene, α-pinene, toluene, cyclohexene, and n-dodecane oxidation were also quantified. The data for SOA precursor and oxidation products presented here will be useful for evaluating the ability of molecular-specific SOA models to forecast SOA production in and downwind of urban areas.

  11. Model estimating the effect of marginal ice zone processes on the phytoplankton primary production and air-sea flux of CO2 in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, Anton; Sein, Dmitry; Ryabchenko, Vladimir; Gorchakov, Victor; Martjyanov, Stanislav

    2016-04-01

    This study is aimed to assess the impact of sea ice on the primary production of phytoplankton (PPP) and air-sea CO2 flux in the Barents Sea. To get the estimations, we apply a three-dimensional eco-hydrodynamic model based on the Princeton Ocean Model which includes: 1) a module of sea ice with 7 categories, and 2) the 11-component module of marine pelagic ecosystem developed in the St. Petersburg Branch, Institute of Oceanology. The model is driven by atmospheric forcing, prescribed from the reanalysis NCEP / NCAR, and conditions on the open sea boundary, prescribed from the regional model of the atmosphere-ocean-sea ice-ocean biogeochemistry, developed at Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg. Comparison of the model results for the period 1998-2007 with satellite data showed that the model reproduces the main features of the evolution of the sea surface temperature, seasonal changes in the ice extent, surface chlorophyll "a" concentration and PPP in the Barents Sea. Model estimates of the annual PPP for whole sea, APPmod, appeared in 1.5-2.3 times more than similar estimates, APPdata, from satellite data. The main reasons for this discrepancy are: 1) APPdata refers to the open water, while APPmod, to the whole sea area (under the pack ice and marginal ice zone (MIZ) was produced 16 - 38% of PPP); and 2) values of APPdata are underestimated because of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum. During the period 1998-2007, the modelled maximal (in the seasonal cycle) sea ice area has decreased by 15%. This reduction was accompanied by an increase in annual PPP of the sea at 54 and 63%, based, respectively, on satellite data and the model for the open water. According to model calculations for the whole sea area, the increase is only 19%. Using a simple 7-component model of oceanic carbon cycle incorporated into the above hydrodynamic model, the CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and sea has been estimated in different conditions. In the absence of biological

  12. Microbiological spoilage and volatiles production of gutted European sea bass stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere package at 2 °C.

    PubMed

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Nychas, George-John E; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2015-09-01

    Microbiological, sensory, TVB-N and TMA-N changes and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) detection using the SPME/GC-MS technique, were performed to evaluate potential chemical spoilage indices (CSI) of gutted sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored at 2 °C under air and in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP CO2: 60%, O2: 10%, N2: 30%). Shelf-life, determined by sensory evaluation, of gutted sea bass stored at 2 °C under air and MAP was 9 and 13 d respectively. Pseudomonas and H2S producing bacteria were among the dominant spoilage microorganisms under both storage conditions, while Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix thermosphacta were co-dominant with Pseudomonas and H2S producing bacteria under MAP. The traditional CSIs such as TVB-N and TMA-N were increased substantially only at the late stages of storage or after rejection of the products, making them unsuitable for freshness/spoilage monitoring throughout storage. A substantial number of VOCs attributed to microbiological action or chemical activity, were detected including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, organic acids and esters. The level of microbial origin VOCs such as ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal and some ethyl esters increased during storage, suggesting their potential as CSIs. PMID:25998814

  13. Microbiological spoilage and volatiles production of gutted European sea bass stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere package at 2 °C.

    PubMed

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Nychas, George-John E; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2015-09-01

    Microbiological, sensory, TVB-N and TMA-N changes and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) detection using the SPME/GC-MS technique, were performed to evaluate potential chemical spoilage indices (CSI) of gutted sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored at 2 °C under air and in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP CO2: 60%, O2: 10%, N2: 30%). Shelf-life, determined by sensory evaluation, of gutted sea bass stored at 2 °C under air and MAP was 9 and 13 d respectively. Pseudomonas and H2S producing bacteria were among the dominant spoilage microorganisms under both storage conditions, while Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix thermosphacta were co-dominant with Pseudomonas and H2S producing bacteria under MAP. The traditional CSIs such as TVB-N and TMA-N were increased substantially only at the late stages of storage or after rejection of the products, making them unsuitable for freshness/spoilage monitoring throughout storage. A substantial number of VOCs attributed to microbiological action or chemical activity, were detected including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, organic acids and esters. The level of microbial origin VOCs such as ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal and some ethyl esters increased during storage, suggesting their potential as CSIs.

  14. Advanced computer technology - An aspect of the Terminal Configured Vehicle program. [air transportation capacity, productivity, all-weather reliability and noise reduction improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.

  15. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Lisandra Akemi; Rossi, Cláudio Lúcio

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49) and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46) and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12) and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85) and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60) and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  16. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  17. Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing End Framing, Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Lower Stringers, End Elevation - Covered Bridge, Spanning Contoocook River, Hopkinton, Merrimack County, NH

  18. Production of atmospheric pressure diffuse nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge using the array needles-plate electrode in air

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Dezheng; Wang Wenchun; Jia Li; Nie Dongxia; Shi Hengchao

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a bidirectional high pulse voltage with 20 ns rising time is employed to generate an atmospheric pressure diffuse dielectric barrier discharge using the array needles-plate electrode configuration. Both double needle and multiple needle electrode configurations nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharges are investigated. It is found that a diffuse discharge plasma with low gas temperature can be obtained, and the plasma volume increases with the increase of the pulse peak voltage, but remains almost constant with the increase of the pulse repetition rate. In addition to showing the potential application on a topographically nonuniform surface treatment of the discharge, the multiple needle-plate electrode configuration with different needle-plate electrode gaps are also employed to generate diffuse discharge plasma.

  19. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  20. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.