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Sample records for airspace hawthorne ca

  1. 77 FR 64889 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Hawthorne, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Hawthorne, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation... description for Class D and Class E airspace at Jack Northrop Field/Hawthorne Municipal Airport, Hawthorne, CA... Class D and E airspace at Jack Northrop Field/Hawthorne Municipal Airport, Hawthorne, CA. The...

  2. 77 FR 7525 - Revision of Class D and Class E Airspace; Hawthorne, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Class D and Class E airspace at Jack Northrop Field/Hawthorne Municipal Airport, Hawthorne, CA... Field/Hawthorne Municipal Airport airspace area that further enhances the safety and management of... designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Jack Northrop Field/Hawthorne Municipal...

  3. 76 FR 67103 - Proposed Revision of Class D and Class E Airspace; Hawthorne, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to revise Class D and E airspace at Jack Northrop Field/Hawthorne... with a study of the Jack Northrop Field/Hawthorne Municipal Airport airspace area that would further... D surface area at Jack Northrop Field/Hawthorne Municipal Airport, Hawthorne, CA,...

  4. 75 FR 41076 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA AGENCY... E airspace at Monterey, CA, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Required... the boundaries of the airspace area. Class E airspace designations are published in paragraph 6002...

  5. 76 FR 69608 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Blythe, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Modification of Class E Airspace; Blythe, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace at Blythe, CA, to accommodate aircraft using Area... the controlled airspace needed to be adjusted; this action makes that adjustment. Class E...

  6. 75 FR 41077 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace at...: History The FAA received a request from NACO to clarify the legal description of the existing Class...

  7. 76 FR 30532 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Palmdale, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Palmdale, CA... D Airspace and Class E Airspace at Palmdale, CA, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing.... No comments were received. Class D and Class E Airspace designations are published in paragraph...

  8. 78 FR 54561 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Santa Monica, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Santa Monica, CA AGENCY... airspace at Santa Monica Municipal Airport, Santa Monica, CA, to accommodate aircraft departing and... of the Santa Monica Municipal Airport airspace area, and on the results of a study conducted by...

  9. 76 FR 66662 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Santa Monica, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Santa Monica, CA...: This action proposes to modify Class D airspace at Santa Monica Municipal Airport, CA, to accommodate... to Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Part 71 by modifying Class D airspace at...

  10. 75 FR 17202 - Proposed Establishment of Long Beach, CA, Class C Airspace Area and Revision of Santa Ana (John...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Revision of Santa Ana (John Wayne), CA, Class C Airspace Area; Public Meetings AGENCY: Federal Aviation... establish Class C airspace at Long Beach, CA, and revise the Santa Ana (John Wayne) Class C airspace area... Santa Ana (John Wayne), CA, Class C airspace area will be accepted. (b) The meetings will be open to...

  11. 76 FR 52596 - Proposed Establishment of Class C Airspace for Long Beach, CA; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class C Airspace for Long Beach... airspace users and others, concerning a proposal to establish Class C airspace at Long Beach, CA. The... on or before December 12, 2011. ADDRESSES: The meetings will be held at the Holiday Inn Long...

  12. 78 FR 22416 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; St. Helena, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Class E airspace for St. Helena, CA. St. Helena Fire Department Heliport has been changed to Napa County... requested the change to the airport name of Napa County Fire Department Heliport, St. Helena, CA. The Class... Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at St. Helena, CA, to Napa County...

  13. 78 FR 28132 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; El Monte, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; El Monte, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class D airspace at El Monte Airport, El Monte, CA. This action, initiated by the FAA's biennial review of the El...

  14. 78 FR 38197 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; El Monte, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; El Monte, CA AGENCY... a final rule published in the Federal Register of May 14, 2013, that amends Class D airspace at El Monte Airport, El Monte, CA. In that rule, the legal description references the airport...

  15. 76 FR 70051 - Establishment of Class D and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ...; Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class D airspace at Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, CA. Controlled airspace is necessary to contain potential missed approaches at Los Angeles International Airport....

  16. 75 FR 30689 - Modification of Class C Airspace; Beale Air Force Base, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Modification of Class C Airspace; Beale Air Force Base, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies the legal description of the Beale Air Force Base (AFB), CA, Class C airspace area...

  17. 75 FR 19212 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Oxnard, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... accommodate aircraft flying in the Los Angeles Air Route Traffic Control Center's (ARTCC's) airspace area. The... vectoring of aircraft flying en route, in and out of the Los Angeles ARTCC's airspace area. This...

  18. 76 FR 35369 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Airspace; Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class D airspace at Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, CA. Controlled airspace is necessary to contain potential missed approaches at...

  19. 76 FR 28305 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Livermore, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... existing Class E airspace at Livermore, CA, to accommodate aircraft using new Instrument Landing System... description for Class D airspace. This improves the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR... rulemaking effort by submitting written comments on the proposal to the FAA. No comments were received....

  20. 78 FR 14031 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; El Monte, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; El Monte, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... El Monte Airport, El Monte, CA. This action, initiated by the biennial review of the El Monte... El Monte Airport. DATES: Comments must be received on or before April 18, 2013. ADDRESSES:...

  1. 78 FR 78296 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Needles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Needles VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC), Needles, CA, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Los Angeles Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations within the......

  2. 76 FR 28915 - Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Alturas, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... action must submit with those comments a self-addressed stamped postcard on which the following...

  3. 75 FR 226 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Riverside/Rubidoux Flabob Airport, Riverside, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...: History On October 14, 2009, the FAA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to... 6005 Class E airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the...

  4. 75 FR 61611 - Modification of Class E Airspace; San Clemente, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... airspace extending upward from the surface within 2.6 miles each side of the San Clemente Island TACAN 334 radial extending from the 4.3-mile radius of San Clemente Island NALF (Fredrick Sherman Field) to Control 1177L, and within 1.8 miles each side of the 064 bearing from San Clemente Island NALF (Fredrick...

  5. 75 FR 33681 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Victorville, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...) operations at Southern California Logistics Airport, allowing aircraft operations outside Class D airspace at Adelanto Airport. This will improve the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations...,500 feet MSL within a 6-mile radius of Southern California Logistics Airport, Victorville,...

  6. 75 FR 11476 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Victorville, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... airspace is needed for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at Southern California Logistics Airport... the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft utilizing both airports. This... be submitted in triplicate to the Docket Management System (see ADDRESSES section for address...

  7. 78 FR 57789 - Establishment and Modification of Class E Airspace; Oakland, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    .... The Director of the Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference action under 1 CFR Part..., 2013, which is incorporated by reference in 14 CFR Part 71.1. The Class E airspace designations listed... by removing the navigation aids from the regulatory text and replacing them with airport...

  8. Process Writing with Hawthorne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lita R.

    Teachers can use the process writing format for many assignments to teach and refine more skills than are often incorporated in older methods, and this is exemplified by a teaching unit comparing two short stories by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Peer conferences and peer editing in the revision stages, which are features of the process model, can lead to…

  9. 75 FR 42014 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; San Clemente, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Clemente Island Non- Directional Radio Beacon (NDB) at San Clemente Island NALF (Frederick Sherman Field... an extension to a Class D surface area, at San Clemente Island NALF (Fredrick Sherman Field), San... (Fredrick Sherman Field), CA (Lat. 33 01'22'' N., long. 118 35'19'' W.) San Clemente Island TACAN (Lat....

  10. What Caused the Hawthorne Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine

    1978-01-01

    Together, information feedback and differential reward could account for the gradually increasing productivity in the Hawthorne plant, especially in an explanatory framework of response shaping in operant conditioning. (Author/IRT)

  11. Airspace Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-02

    it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE 02 FEB 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4...each other; select the best course of action; and produce a joint operation plan or order (JP 1 - 02 ). A major element of the JOPP is campaign planning... 1 - 02 ). Airspace control should be integrated throughout the JOPP and campaign planning to ensure joint air operations support the JFC‘s plan.60

  12. Metal characterization of white hawthorn organs and infusions.

    PubMed

    Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Zeiner, Michaela; Konanov, Darija Mihajlov; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2015-02-18

    Hawthorn is one of the most commonly used European and North American phytopharmaceuticals. Because there is no information on metals in seeds, and only rare data for leaves and flowers, the aim of the present study was elemental analysis of the white hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after digestion in a microwave-assisted system. The limits of detection are below 2 μg/g for ICP-AES and 0.5 μg/g for ICP-MS. Hawthorn leaves and flowers contain essential elements at concentrations (mean values, RSD 2-8%) in mg/g of Ca, 1-4; K, 4-5; Mg, 1-2; and Na, <0.2); and at μg/g levels of Ba, 1-10; Co, <0.16; Cr, <1.4; Cu, 0.6-7; Fe, 1-37; Li, <0.5; Mn, 1-13; Mo, <0.17; Ni, <0.6; Sr, 0.2-2; and Zn, 1-31. Toxic elements were found in low quantities: As (<0.04), Cd (0.04-0.1), and Pb (0.1-2). Up to 10% of the metals is extracted into the infusions. The analyzed plant parts and infusions contain essential elements justifying its use as a medicinal plant, whereas the low quantities of harmful elements will not pose any risk to humans when consumed.

  13. Dynamic Airspace Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In air traffic management systems, airspace is partitioned into regions in part to distribute the tasks associated with managing air traffic among different systems and people. These regions, as well as the systems and people allocated to each, are changed dynamically so that air traffic can be safely and efficiently managed. It is expected that new air traffic control systems will enable greater flexibility in how airspace is partitioned and how resources are allocated to airspace regions. In this talk, I will begin by providing an overview of some previous work and open questions in Dynamic Airspace Configuration research, which is concerned with how to partition airspace and assign resources to regions of airspace. For example, I will introduce airspace partitioning algorithms based on clustering, integer programming optimization, and computational geometry. I will conclude by discussing the development of a tablet-based tool that is intended to help air traffic controller supervisors configure airspace and controllers in current operations.

  14. A "H--ll-Fired Story": Hawthorne's Rhetoric of Rumor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshbarger, Scott

    1994-01-01

    Considers Nathaniel Hawthorne's literary technique of providing various, often conflicting, accounts of a narrative scene or event. Analyzes Hawthorne's rhetoric of rumor as featured in "The Scarlet Letter." Shows how Hawthorne tried to translate the dynamics of interpersonal communication into print in this novel. (HB)

  15. The Hawthorne effect and energy awareness

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniel; Fischhoff, Baruch; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Sowell, Fallaw

    2013-01-01

    The feeling of being observed or merely participating in an experiment can affect individuals’ behavior. Referred to as the Hawthorne effect, this inconsistently observed phenomenon can both provide insight into individuals' behavior and confound the interpretation of experimental manipulations. Here, we pursue both topics in examining how the Hawthorne effect emerges in a large field experiment focused on residential consumers’ electricity use. These consumers received five postcards notifying, and then reminding, them of their participation in a study of household electricity use. We found evidence for a Hawthorne (study participation) effect, seen in a reduction of their electricity use—even though they received no information, instruction, or incentives to change. Responses to a follow-up survey suggested that the effect reflected heightened awareness of energy consumption. Consistent with that interpretation, the treatment effect vanished when the intervention ended. PMID:24003110

  16. The airspace is habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    A preconception concerning habitat persists and has gone unrecognized since use of the term first entered the lexicon of ecological and evolutionary biology many decades ago. Specifically, land and water are considered habitats, while the airspace is not. This might at first seem a reasonable, if unintended, demarcation, since years of education and personal experience as well as limits to perception predispose a traditional view of habitat. Nevertheless, the airspace satisfies the definition and functional role of a habitat, and its recognition as habitat may have implications for policy where expanding anthropogenic development of airspace could impact the conservation of species and subject parts of the airspace to formalized legal protection.

  17. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    PubMed

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X

    2015-12-07

    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  18. 75 FR 17406 - Hawthorn Oil Transportation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hawthorn Oil Transportation; Notice of Filing March 31, 2010. Take notice that on February 12, 2010, Hawthorn Oil Transportation submitted a request for the waiver of...

  19. Generic Airspace Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  20. [Determination of amygdalin in hawthorn by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Lü, Weifeng; Ding, Mingyu

    2005-09-01

    A suitable method for extraction of amygdalin from hawthorn has been established. At first, the lipophilic components were removed with petroleum ether by ultrasonic extraction. The amygdalin was then extracted by methanol in a Soxhlet's apparatus. For quantitation, a high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed by using a reversed-phase C18 column, mobile phase of methanol-water (15:85, v/v) and a detection wavelengh of 215 nm. It can be concluded that the content of amygdalin is higher in the seeds than that in the hawthorn powder without the seeds and the yield of amygdalin is higher in the hawthorn pieces than that in the hawthorn powder.

  1. The Hawthorne Effect: a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McCarney, Rob; Warner, James; Iliffe, Steve; van Haselen, Robbert; Griffin, Mark; Fisher, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background The 'Hawthorne Effect' may be an important factor affecting the generalisability of clinical research to routine practice, but has been little studied. Hawthorne Effects have been reported in previous clinical trials in dementia but to our knowledge, no attempt has been made to quantify them. Our aim was to compare minimal follow-up to intensive follow-up in participants in a placebo controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba for treating mild-moderate dementia. Methods Participants in a dementia trial were randomised to intensive follow-up (with comprehensive assessment visits at baseline and two, four and six months post randomisation) or minimal follow-up (with an abbreviated assessment at baseline and a full assessment at six months). Our primary outcomes were cognitive functioning (ADAS-Cog) and participant and carer-rated quality of life (QOL-AD). Results We recruited 176 participants, mainly through general practices. The main analysis was based on Intention to treat (ITT), with available data. In the ANCOVA model with baseline score as a co-variate, follow-up group had a significant effect on outcome at six months on the ADAS-Cog score (n = 140; mean difference = -2.018; 95%CI -3.914, -0.121; p = 0.037 favouring the intensive follow-up group), and on participant-rated quality of life score (n = 142; mean difference = -1.382; 95%CI -2.642, -0.122; p = 0.032 favouring minimal follow-up group). There was no significant difference on carer quality of life. Conclusion We found that more intensive follow-up of individuals in a placebo-controlled clinical trial of Ginkgo biloba for treating mild-moderate dementia resulted in a better outcome than minimal follow-up, as measured by their cognitive functioning. Trial registration Current controlled trials: ISRCTN45577048 PMID:17608932

  2. Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Tassell, Mary C; Kingston, Rosari; Gilroy, Deirdre; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose

    2010-01-01

    The medicinal properties of hawthorn (Crataegus spp., a genus comprising approximately 300 species) have been utilized by many cultures for a variety of therapeutic purposes for many centuries. In the Western world cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become one of the single most significant causes of premature death. Echoing this situation, more recent research into the therapeutic benefits of hawthorn preparations has focused primarily upon its cardiovascular effects. This review covers research into the various mechanisms of action proposed for Crataegus preparations, clinical trials involving Crataegus preparations, and the herb's safety profile.Clinical trials reviewed have been inconsistent in terms of criteria used (sample size, preparation, dosage, etc) but have been largely consistent with regard to positive outcomes. An investigation into data available to date regarding hawthorn preparations and herb/drug interactions reveals that theoretical adverse interactions have not been experienced in practice. Further, adverse reactions relating to the use of hawthorn preparations are infrequent and mild, even at higher dosage ranges. A recent retrospective study by Zick et al. has suggested a negative outcome for the long-term use of hawthorn in the prognosis of heart failure. These findings are examined in this paper.Although further research is needed in certain areas, current research to date suggests that hawthorn may potentially represent a safe, effective, nontoxic agent in the treatment of CVD and ischemic heart disease (IHD).

  3. 14 CFR 91.705 - Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace. 91.705 Section 91.705 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace. (a) Except as... airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications airspace unless— (1) The aircraft...

  4. Antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extracts from leaves of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) subjected to drought and cold stress.

    PubMed

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Seymour, Elisabeth; Kaufman, Peter B; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Chang, Soo Chul

    2003-07-02

    Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) were subjected to drought and cold stress treatments, and polyphenolic extracts from control and stress-treated plants were assayed for antioxidant capacities using a modified version of the Total Antioxidant Status Assay (Randox, San Francisco, CA). In addition, these plants were analyzed for levels of flavanol-type substance [(-)-epicatechin] and flavonoid (vitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, acetylvitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, and hyperoside) constituents that are important metabolites in hawthorn herbal preparations used to treat patients with heart disease. Drought and cold stress treatments caused increases in levels of (-)-epicatechin and hyperoside in both Crataegus species. Such treatments also enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The results from this study thus indicate that these kinds of stress treatments can enhance the levels of important secondary metabolites and their total antioxidant capacities in leaves of Crataegus.

  5. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  6. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M

    2009-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation.

  7. Nathaniel Hawthorne's Garden of Eden Story: "Rappaccini's Daughter."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meixner, Linda L.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a four-day lesson plan for secondary U.S. literature or Bible-and-literature classes, using the Garden of Eden story and Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Rappaccini's Daughter." Identifies objectives, materials, procedure, and evaluation measures. Develops students' ability to discover analogies and irony in literary texts. Lists teacher…

  8. Mozart, Hawthorne, and Mario Savio: Aesthetic Power and Political Complicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, T. Walter

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the false dichotomy pitting aesthetic power against political complicity in literary criticism. Considers the sexual politics of the household of Nathaniel Hawthorne in light of this opposition. Suggests how literary works keep warring voices and inner conflicts alive and at odds. (HB)

  9. Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville: A Research Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte for the study of the 19th-century American authors Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville. The guide details resources in Atkins library for biographical and critical material on the two authors. The guide is in four…

  10. Is the Hawthorne Effect in Educational Experiments a Chimera?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauernfeind, Robert H.; Olson, Carl J.

    1973-01-01

    Reports on an experimental study designed to investigate the relationship between two factors commonly regarded as components of the Hawthorne Effect on pupil performance and on intellectual task. These factors are (1) direct cue, or awareness of experimentation, as represented by an announcement that pupils were the subjects of an experiment; and…

  11. Energy Engineering Analysis Program, limited energy study of steam distribution systems, Hawthorne Army Ammunition Depot, Hawthorne, Nevada. Programming documents

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The project is a significant part of Hawthorne Army Ammunition Depot`s effort to achieve a 20-percent reduction in energy consumption by FY2000 versus FY1985 baseline levels. The project will also assure that heating services are provided to Industrial Area facilities on a continuing basis, supporting mission requirements.

  12. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuguang; Vermeer, Mario A; Trautwein, Elke A

    2011-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)) contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE) were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w) cholesterol (control) or the same diet supplemented with (i) 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii) 0.24% PSE, (iii) hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37%) plus PSE (0.24%) or (iv) OA/UA mixture (0.01%) for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL) cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA) enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  13. [Detection of Hawthorn Fruit Defects Using Hyperspectral Imaging].

    PubMed

    Liu, De-hua; Zhang, Shu-juan; Wang, Bin; Yu, Ke-qiang; Zhao, Yan-ru; He, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technology covered the range of 380-1000 nm was employed to detect defects (bruise and insect damage) of hawthorn fruit. A total of 134 samples were collected, which included damage fruit of 46, pest fruit of 30, injure and pest fruit of 10 and intact fruit of 48. Because calyx · s⁻¹ tem-end and bruise/insect damage regions offered a similar appearance characteristic in RGB images, which could produce easily confusion between them. Hence, five types of defects including bruise, insect damage, sound, calyx, and stem-end were collected from 230 hawthorn fruits. After acquiring hyperspectral images of hawthorn fruits, the spectral data were extracted from region of interest (ROI). Then, several pretreatment methods of standard normalized variate (SNV), savitzky golay (SG), median filter (MF) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were used and partial least squares method(PLS) model was carried out to obtain the better performance. Accordingly to their results, SNV pretreatment methods assessed by PLS was viewed as best pretreatment method. Lastly, SNV was chosen as the pretreatment method. Spectral features of five different regions were combined with Regression coefficients(RCs) of partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was used to identify the important wavelengths and ten wavebands at 483, 563, 645, 671, 686, 722, 777, 819, 837 and 942 nm were selected from all of the wavebands. Using Kennard-Stone algorithm, all kinds of samples were randomly divided into training set (173) and test set (57) according to the proportion of 3:1. And then, least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) discriminate model was established by using the selected wavebands. The results showed that the discriminate accuracy of the method was 91.23%. In the other hand, images at ten important wavebands were executed to Principal component analysis (PCA). Using "Sobel" operator and region growing algrorithm "Regiongrow", the edge and defect

  14. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS Class C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace. The Class C airspace areas listed in subpart C of FAA Order... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section...

  15. 14 CFR 71.31 - Class A airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS Class A Airspace § 71.31 Class A airspace. The airspace descriptions contained in § 71.33 and the...

  16. Natural Arsenic in the Miocene Hawthorn Group, Florida: Wide Ranging Implications for ASR, Phosphate Mining, Private Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazareva, O. V.; Pichler, T.

    2004-12-01

    In order to understand the mineralogical association and distribution of arsenic (As) in the Hawthorn Group we examined in detail the chemical and mineralogical composition of 370 samples that were collected from 16 cores in central Florida. In our study area the Hawthorn group consists primarily of a basal carbonate unit (the Arcadia Formation) and an upper siliciclastic unit (The Peace River Formation). The Peace River Formation contains appreciable amounts of phosphate and is currently being exploited for phosphate ore. Samples were taken for each Formation at intervals of 25ft. In addition to the interval samples we also took samples that contained visible pyrite crystals, iron oxides, green clays, phosphatic and organic material. These additional samples were collected because of their potential of high As concentrations. Arsenic concentrations were determined by hydride generation - atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) after digestion with aqua regia (3:1 HCl and HNO3). The elements Fe, Na, Al, Si, Mg, Ca, S, P, and K were measured on the same solutions by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The identification of discrete minerals was aided by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical compositions were obtained by electron-probe microanalyses (EMPA). Our study indicates that the average As concentrations significantly change from 9.0 ppm in the Peace River Formation to 3.0 ppm in the Tampa Member of the Arcadia Formation. As concentrations for all Hawthorn samples vary from 0.07 to 68.98 ppm ( μ = 5.6, σ = 7.1). Our detailed mineralogical and geochemical study demonstrates that: (1) The As in the Hawthorn group varies from the formation to formation and is mostly concentrated in trace minerals, such as pyrite; (2) Concentrations of the As in pyrite crystals can vary drastically from a minimum of 0 ppm to a maximum of 8260 ppm; (3) Pyrite is an unevenly distributed throughout the Hawthorn Group; (4) Phosphate and

  17. Genetic relationships among some hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Yanar, Makbule; Ercisli, Sezai; Sahiner, Hatice; Taskin, Tuncer; Zengin, Yasar

    2010-10-01

    The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz (1), C. aronia var. aronia Browicz (4), and Crateagus x bornmuelleri Zabel (2). The 10 RAPD primers produced 72 polymorphic bands (88% polymorphism). A dendrogram based on Jaccard's index included four major groups and one outgroup according to taxa. The lowest genetic variability was observed within C. aronia var. aronia genotypes. The study demonstrated that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown hawthorns.

  18. Preparative isolation of oligomeric procyanidins from Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.).

    PubMed

    Zumdick, S; Petereit, F; Luftmann, H; Hensel, A

    2009-04-01

    The oligomeric procyanidins (OPC) from Hawthorn leaves and flowers (Crataegi folium cum flore) are considered to be in part responsible for the cardiotonic clinical activity of the herbal material. Effective methods for rapid isolation of these heterogenous oligomeric clusters with defined molecular weight as reference compounds are not published until now. Therefore the water soluble fraction of an acetone/water (7 + 3) extract of Hawthorn leaves and flowers was fractionated by a combination of MPLC on RP-18 material and preparative HPLC using a diol stationary phase. This procedure resulted in the effective isolation of procyanidins with a distinct degree of polymerization (DP) from dimers DP2 up to tridecamers DP13. Exact mass measurements with negative ESI-TOF/MS were employed to confirm the respective structures of the isolated procyanidins.

  19. Identification of host fruit volatiles from hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) attractive to hawthorn-origin Rhagoletis pomonella flies.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Satoshi; Linn, Charles; Morris, Bruce; Zhang, Aijun; Roelofs, Wendell

    2003-02-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) were used to identify volatile compounds from hawthorn fruit (Crataegus spp.) acting as behavioral attractants for hawthorn-infesting Rhagoletis pomonella flies. Consistent EAD activity was obtained for six chemicals: ethyl acetate (94.3%), 3-methylbutan-1-ol (4.0%), isoamyl acetate (1.5%), 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene (0.07%), butyl hexanoate (0.01%), and dihydro-beta-ionone (0.10%). In a flight-tunnel bioassay, there was a dose-related increase in the percentage of flies flying upwind to the six-component mixture. Hawthorn-origin flies also made equivalent levels of upwind flight with the synthetic blend and an adsorbent extract of volatiles collected from whole fruit, each containing the same amount of the 3-methylbutan-1-ol compound. Significantly lower levels of upwind flight occurred to a previously identified volatile blend of ester compounds that attracts R. pomonella flies infesting domestic apples, compared with the hawthorn volatile mix. Selected subtraction assays showed further that the four-component mixture of 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, butyl hexanoate, and dihydro-beta-ionone also elicited levels of upwind flight equivalent to the six-component mix. Removal of 3-methylbutan-1-ol from the four-component blend resulted in complete loss of upwind flight behavior. Removal of dihydro-beta-ionone, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, or butyl hexanoate from the four-component mixture resulted in significant decreases in the mean number of upwind flights compared to the four- or six-component mixtures.

  20. 77 FR 19076 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marion, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Airspace at Marion, AL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations within the National Airspace System. DATES:...

  1. 78 FR 72008 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Aliceville, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Airspace at Aliceville, AL, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... airspace required to accommodate the new RNAV (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed...

  2. 75 FR 11475 - Establishment of Class D Airspace, Modification of Class E Airspace; Columbus, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Class E airspace at Columbus Metropolitan Airport, Columbus, GA. A decrease in air traffic volume at the... existing Class E airspace at Columbus, GA. Due to a decrease in air traffic volume at Columbus Metropolitan... ] Columbus Metropolitan Airport, Columbus, GA. Lists of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 71 Airspace, Incorporation...

  3. 75 FR 8285 - Establishment of Class D Airspace, Modification of Class E Airspace; Columbus, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Airspace; Columbus, GA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... airspace at Columbus Metropolitan Airport, Columbus, GA. A decrease in air traffic volume at the airport... existing Class E airspace at Columbus, GA. Due to a decrease in air traffic volume at Columbus...

  4. 76 FR 25320 - Hawthorn Water LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hawthorn Water LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for..., Hawthorn Water LLC filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing...

  5. The 2011 Hawthorne, Nevada, Earthquake Sequence; Shallow Normal Faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. D.; Johnson, C.; Davies, J. A.; Agbaje, T.; Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Kent, G.

    2011-12-01

    An energetic sequence of shallow earthquakes that began in early March 2011 in western Nevada, near the community of Hawthorne, has slowly decreased in intensity through mid-2011. To date about 1300 reviewed earthquake locations have been compiled; we have computed moment tensors for the larger earthquakes and have developed a set of high-precision locations for all reviewed events. The sequence to date has included over 50 earthquakes ML 3 and larger with the largest at Mw 4.6. Three 6-channel portable stations configured with broadband sensors and accelerometers were installed by April 20. Data from the portable instruments is telemetered through NSL's microwave backbone to Reno where it is integrated with regional network data for real-time notifications, ShakeMaps, and routine event analysis. The data is provided in real-time to NEIC, CISN and the IRIS DMC. The sequence is located in a remote area about 15-20 km southwest of Hawthorne in the footwall block of the Wassuk Range fault system. An initial concern was that the sequence might be associated with volcanic processes due to the proximity of late Quaternary volcanic flows; there have been no volcanic signatures observed in near source seismograms. An additional concern, as the sequence has proceeded, was a clear progression eastward toward the Wassuk Range front fault. The east dipping range bounding fault is capable of M 7+ events, and poses a significant hazard to the community of Hawthorne and local military facilities. The Hawthorne Army Depot is an ordinance storage facility and the nation's storage site for surplus mercury. The sequence is within what has been termed the 'Mina Deflection' of the Central Walker Lane Belt. Faulting along the Whiskey Flat section of the Wassuk front fault would be primarily down-to-the-east, with an E-W extension direction; moment tensors for the 2011 earthquake show a range of extension directions from E-W to NW-SE, suggesting a possible dextral component to the Wassuk

  6. Quantitative characterization of airspace enlargement in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Majumdar, Arnab; Ito, Satoru; Alencar, Adriano M; Suki, Béla

    2006-01-01

    The mean linear intercept (L(m)) can be used to estimate the surface area for gas exchange in the lung. However, in recent years, it is most commonly used as an index for characterizing the enlargement of airspaces in emphysema and the associated severity of structural destruction in the lung. Specifically, an increase in L(m) is thought to result from an increase in airspace sizes. In this paper, we examined how accurately L(m) measures the linear dimensions of airspaces from histological sections and a variety of computer-generated test images. To this end, we developed an automated method for measuring linear intercepts from digitized images of tissue sections and calculate L(m) as their mean. We examined how the shape of airspaces and the variability of their sizes influence L(m) as well as the distribution of linear intercepts. We found that, for a relatively homogeneous enlargement of airspaces, L(m) was a reliable index for detecting emphysema. However, in the presence of spatial heterogeneities with a large variability of airspace sizes, L(m) did not significantly increase and sometimes even decreased compared with its value in normal tissue. We also developed an automated method for measuring the area and computed an equivalent diameter of each individual airspace that is independent of shape. Finally, we introduced new indexes based on the moments of diameter that we found to be more reliable than L(m) to characterize airspace enlargement in the presence of heterogeneities.

  7. 75 FR 18403 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO AGENCY... E airspace at Rifle, CO. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Rifle,...

  8. 77 FR 4459 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greenfield, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greenfield, IA AGENCY... airspace for Greenfield, IA. Decommissioning of the Greenfield non-directional beacon (NDB) at Greenfield... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Greenfield, IA, reconfiguring controlled airspace...

  9. 77 FR 29874 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Freer, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Freer, TX AGENCY... airspace at Freer, TX. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Freer, TX,...

  10. 77 FR 29865 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Leesville, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Leesville, LA AGENCY... airspace at Leesville, LA. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to ] accommodate new Area Navigation... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Leesville,...

  11. 76 FR 44254 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Denton, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Denton, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class D airspace for... proposed rulemaking to amend Class D airspace for Denton, TX, creating additional controlled airspace...

  12. 78 FR 6726 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Ontonagon, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Ontonagon, MI AGENCY... airspace at Ontonagon, MI. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Ontonagon, MI, area, creating...

  13. [Study on self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release drop pill of hawthorn leaves flavonoids].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Xuan; Huang, Hong-Zhang; Li, Ning; Gao, Chong-Kai

    2014-03-01

    To prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release coated drop pill, and to study its release rate in vitro and pharmacokinetics study in vivo. In order to improve the dissolution of hawthorn leaves flavonoids, self-microemulsifying technology was used to prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsion. Hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying drop pill was prepared with the PEG 6000. Studies were made on the in vitro release of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills and the in vivo pharmacokinetic in rats. The prescription of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying drop pills was 0.25 g of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves, 0.25 g of iodophenyl maleimide, 0.375 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 0.375 g of cremophor RH 40 and 2 g of polyethylene glycol 6000. The optimized prescription was 4 g of ethyl cellulose 20, 0.64 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 1.8 g of diethyl phthalate, and the weight of coating materials increased by 3.5%. Flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills complied with the design of sustained-release in 12 h in terms of in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters in rats, and its bioavailability was 2.47 times of quick-release drop pills. Slightly soluble flavonoids from hawthorn leaves could be made into sustained-release preparations by the self-micro-emulsifying and coating technology.

  14. Study on antibacterial effect of medlar and hawthorn compound extract in vitro.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yang; Nan, Yi; Yuan, Ling; Wang, Rong

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluated the antibacterial effect of medlar and hawthorn compound extract in vitro. Water extract method and ethanol extraction method was adopted to prepare the compound extracts, and disc diffusion method and improved test tube doubling dilution method were used to conduct the antibacterial test on the two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia, in vitro. The results showed that medlar and hawthorn compound extract was moderately sensitive to Staphylococcus aureus, while its inhibiting effect on Klebsiella pneumoniae was particularly significant, moreover, the antibacterial effect of ethanol extract was better than water extract. Medlar and hawthorn compounds had good antibacterial effect on the two pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The airspace operations demonstration (AOD) is intended to show that the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be met. The demonstration will occur in two phases. The initial on-range phase will be carried out in restricted airspace to demonstrate the cooperative collision avoidance (CCA) functional requirements and to provide risk-reduction for the AOD by allowing the test team to rehearse some elements of the demonstration mission. The CCA system to be used in these flights is based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) which is a commercially-available system by which airplanes constantly broadcast their current position and altitude to other aircraft and ground resources over a dedicated radio datalink. The final phase will occur in the national airspace (NAS) and will be the formal demonstration of the remainder of the proposed functional requirements. The general objectives of the AOD are as follows: (1) Demonstrate that the UAS can aviate in the NAS (2) Demonstrate that the UAS can navigate in the NAS (3) Demonstrate that the UAS can communicate with the NAS (4) Demonstrate that the UAS can perform selected collision avoidance functions in the NAS (5) Demonstrate that the UAS can evaluate and avoid weather conflicts in the NAS (6) Demonstrate that the UAS can provide adequate command and control in the NAS In addition to the stated objectives, there are a number of goals for the flight demonstration. The demo can be accomplished successfully without achieving these goals, but these goals are to be used as a guideline for preparing for the mission. The goals are: (1) Mission duration of at least 24 hours (2) Loiter over heavy traffic to evaluate the data block issue identified during the Access 5 Airspace Operations Simulations (3) Document the contingency management process and lessons learned (4) Document the coordination process for Ground Control Stations (GCS) handoff (5) Document lessons learned regarding the process of flying in

  16. The Hawthorne experiments and the introduction of Jean Piaget in American industrial psychology, 1929-1932.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yeh

    2002-05-01

    The Hawthorne interview program between 1929 and 1932 was one of the most significant industrial studies in the United States. The Hawthorne researchers applied Jean Piaget's clinical method in their extensive interviews with tens of thousands of workers. Chiefly responsible for the program's methodology was Elton Mayo, an Australian who saw interviewing as a means to promote social cooperation. Previous discussions of the Hawthorne experiments have ignored the influence of Piaget in the social sciences. This article provides an account of Mayo's and the Hawthorne researchers' efforts to fuse Piaget's innovation with burgeoning American industrial psychology. The endeavor was not an isolated event but rather drew on the theories and practice of Janet-Piaget psychology, on the support of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation, and on the discourse among social scientists about Piaget's work.

  17. Generic Airspace Concepts and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for reducing the training and memorization required to manage air traffic in mid-term, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. We contrasted the performance of controllers using a sector information display and NextGen automation tools while working with familiar and unfamiliar sectors. The airspace included five sectors from Oakland and Salt Lake City Centers configured as a "generic center" called "West High Center." The Controller Information Tool was used to present essential information for managing these sectors. The Multi Aircraft Control System air traffic control simulator provided data link and conflict detection and resolution. There were five experienced air traffic controller participants. Each was familiar with one or two of the five sectors, but not the others. The participants rotated through all five sectors during the ten data collection runs. The results addressing workload, traffic management, and safety, as well as controller and observer comments, supported the generic sector concept. The unfamiliar sectors were comparable to the familiar sectors on all relevant measures.

  18. Origin of dolomite in the phosphatic Hawthorne Group of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, J.S.; Hall, D.L.; Mallinson, D.J. . Dept. of Marine Science); Hodell, D.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-07-01

    In addition to large amounts of phosphorite, the Miocene Hawthorn Group of Florida contains abundant dolomite. Dolomite is present as disseminated silt-size rhombs, as friable dolosilt beds, and as pore-filling cement in dolostone beds and clasts. The dolomite formed during early burial diagenesis both in the sulfate-reduction zone, overlapping and extending below sediment depths of phosphorite formation, and in adjacent, nonphosphatic, shallow-water lagoonal environments. Much of the dolomite is closely associated with the fibrous, Mg-rich clay minerals palygorskite and sepiolite. The percent carbonate in the Hawthorn Group increases from north to south; the dominant carbonate mineral in north Florida is dolomite, whereas dolomite and calcite are both abundant in south Florida. The [delta][sup 13]C values of the dolomite, from +1.82 to [minus]6.21[per thousand] PDB, suggest that metastable biogenic carbonate (aragonite and high-Mg calcite) and seawater were the predominant sources of carbonate. However, negative [delta][sup 13]C values of dolomite from northeast Florida suggest that as much as 30--40% of the carbonate was derived from degradation of organic matter. Degradation of organic matter enhanced dolomitization by removing sulfate ion and increasing the carbonate alkalinity of the pore waters. The oxygen and strontium isotopic values along with moderate Na contents indicate a marine origin. Evaporation of seawater or mixing of seawater and meteoric water were apparently not major factors in dolomite formation. The presence of dolomite, along with phosphorite, in reworked sequences can indicate deposition of organic-rich sediments from which most of the organic matter has since been removed.

  19. Protective effect of hawthorn extract against genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Tanha, Mohammad; Mahmodzadeh, Aziz; Mohammadifar, Sohila

    2011-05-01

    The preventive effect of hawthorn (Crataegus microphylla) fruit extract against genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) has been investigated in human cultured blood lymphocytes. Peripheral blood samples were collected from human volunteers at 0 (10 minutes before), and at 1 and 2 hours after a single oral ingestion of 1 g hawthorn powder extract. At each time point, the whole blood was treated in vitro with MMS (200 µmol) at 24 hours after cell culture, and then the lymphocytes were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. The lymphocytes treated with hawthorn and MMS to exhibit a significant decreasing in the incidence of micronucleated binucleated cells, as compared with similarly MMS-treated lymphocytes from blood samples collected at 0 hour. The maximum protection and decreasing in frequency of micronuclei (36%) was observed at 1 hour after ingestion of hawthorn extract. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that hawthorn contained chlorogenic acid, epicatechin and hyperoside. It is obvious that hawthorn, particularly flavonoids constituents with antioxidative activity, reduced the oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by toxic compounds. This set of data may have an important application for the protection of human lymphocyte from the genetic damage and side effects induced by chemicals hazardous in people.

  20. Comparing Methods for Dynamic Airspace Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Lai, Chok Fung

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares airspace design solutions for dynamically reconfiguring airspace in response to nominal daily traffic volume fluctuation. Airspace designs from seven algorithmic methods and a representation of current day operations in Kansas City Center were simulated with two times today's demand traffic. A three-configuration scenario was used to represent current day operations. Algorithms used projected unimpeded flight tracks to design initial 24-hour plans to switch between three configurations at predetermined reconfiguration times. At each reconfiguration time, algorithms used updated projected flight tracks to update the subsequent planned configurations. Compared to the baseline, most airspace design methods reduced delay and increased reconfiguration complexity, with similar traffic pattern complexity results. Design updates enabled several methods to as much as half the delay from their original designs. Freeform design methods reduced delay and increased reconfiguration complexity the most.

  1. Common Methodology for Efficient Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar

    2012-01-01

    Topics include: a) Developing a common methodology to model and avoid disturbances affecting airspace. b) Integrated contrails and emission models to a national level airspace simulation. c) Developed capability to visualize, evaluate technology and alternate operational concepts and provide inputs for policy-analysis tools to reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. d) Collaborating with Volpe Research Center, NOAA and DLR to leverage expertise and tools in aircraft emissions and weather/climate modeling. Airspace operations is a trade-off balancing safety, capacity, efficiency and environmental considerations. Ideal flight: Unimpeded wind optimal route with optimal climb and descent. Operations degraded due to reduction in airport and airspace capacity caused by inefficient procedures and disturbances.

  2. 76 FR 80230 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntington, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... 14 CFR Part 71 [Docket No. FAA-2011-1057; Airspace Docket No. 11-AEA-21] Amendment of Class E... amend Class E airspace at Huntington, WV (76 FR 64295) Docket No. FAA-2011-1057. Interested parties...

  3. 76 FR 65944 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tatitlek, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... airspace at Tatitlek, AK, to accommodate the creation of one standard instrument approach procedure at the... airspace at the Tatitlek Airport, Tatitlek, AK, to accommodate the creation of a standard...

  4. Interaction study between digoxin and a preparation of hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha).

    PubMed

    Tankanow, Roberta; Tamer, Helen R; Streetman, Daniel S; Smith, Scott G; Welton, Janice L; Annesley, Thomas; Aaronson, Keith D; Bleske, Barry E

    2003-06-01

    Hawthorn, an herbal supplement, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of heart failure. The flavonoid components of hawthorn may be responsible for hawthorn's beneficial effects in the treatment of heart failure. However, these components may also affect P-glycoprotein function and cause interactions with drugs that are P-glycoprotein substrates, such as digoxin, which is also used to treat heart failure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hawthorn on digoxin pharmacokinetic parameters. A randomized, crossover trial with 8 healthy volunteers was performed evaluating digoxin 0.25 mg alone (D) for 10 days and digoxin 0.25 mg with Crataegus special extract WS 1442 (hawthorn leaves with flowers; Dr. Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals) 450 mg twice daily (D + H) for 21 days. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed for 72 hours. There were no statistically significant differences in any measured pharmacokinetic parameters. The AUC0-infinity, Cmax-Cmin, Cmin, and renal clearance for the D group were 79 +/- 26 mcg.h/L, 1.4 +/- 0.7 mcg/L, 0.84 +/- 0.2 mcg/L, and 74 +/- 10 mL/min versus 73 +/- 20 mcg.h/L, 1.1 +/- 0.1 mcg/L, 0.65 +/- 0.2 mcg/L, and 81 +/- 22 mL/min for the D + H group, respectively (p > 0.05). Following 3 weeks of concomitant therapy, hawthorn did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameters for digoxin. This suggests that both hawthorn and digoxin, in the doses and dosage form studied, may be coadministered safely.

  5. 75 FR 57848 - Revocation of Class E Airspace, Brunswick, ME; and Establishment of Class E Airspace, Wiscasset, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ...: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class E Airspace at Brunswick NAS, Brunswick, ME, as the..., Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 removes the Class E airspace at Brunswick NAS,...

  6. 78 FR 48298 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Commerce, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation...

  7. 75 FR 57376 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL... Chicago, IL, Class B airspace area by expanding the existing airspace area to ensure containment of... segregating IFR aircraft arriving/departing Chicago O'Hare International Airport (ORD) and Visual Flight...

  8. 76 FR 15825 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pueblo, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pueblo, CO AGENCY: Federal... airspace at Pueblo Memorial Airport, Pueblo, CO, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Pueblo, CO (76 FR 2609). Interested parties were...

  9. 77 FR 19929 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springfield, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springfield, CO AGENCY... airspace at Springfield Municipal Airport, Springfield, CO. Decommissioning of the Tobe Tactical Air... amend controlled airspace at Springfield, CO (77 FR 1429). Interested parties were invited...

  10. 75 FR 16333 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quitman, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... scope of that authority as it establishes Class E airspace at Quitman, GA. Lists of Subjects in 14 CFR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quitman, GA AGENCY... action establishes Class E Airspace at Quitman, GA, to accommodate Standard Instrument...

  11. 76 FR 67056 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bryan, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... airspace for Bryan, OH. Decommissioning of the Bryan non-directional beacon (NDB) at Williams County... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Bryan, OH, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Williams... Bryan NDB and cancellation of the NDB approach at Williams County Airport has made reconfiguration...

  12. 75 FR 31677 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Austin, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Austin, TX AGENCY... airspace for the Austin, TX area. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Austin Executive Airport, Austin, TX. The FAA is taking this...

  13. 77 FR 45238 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL AGENCY... amends Class E Airspace in the Montgomery, AL area, by recognizing the name change of Prattville-Grouby... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 amends Class E airspace for the Montgomery, AL, area at the...

  14. 76 FR 80232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Airspace; Oneonta, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E Airspace at Oneonta, AL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... establish Class E airspace at Oneonta, AL (76 FR 58728) Docket No. FAA-2011-0744. Interested parties...

  15. 76 FR 18041 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kahului, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kahului, HI AGENCY... E airspace at Kahului Airport, Kahului, HI, to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV... establish controlled airspace at Kahului, HI (76 FR 3571). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  16. 75 FR 63708 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kalaupapa, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kalaupapa, HI AGENCY... E airspace at Kalaupapa, HI, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish controlled airspace at Kalaupapa, HI (75...

  17. 76 FR 75449 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stuart, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stuart, IA AGENCY... airspace for Stuart, IA, to accommodate new COPTER area navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace for Stuart, IA,...

  18. 76 FR 75447 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Centerville, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Centerville, IA... E airspace for Centerville, IA. Decommissioning of the Centerville non-directional beacon (NDB) and... E airspace for the Centerville, IA, area. (76 FR 53358) Docket No. FAA-2011-0830. Interested...

  19. 75 FR 23581 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA AGENCY... airspace for Emmetsburg, IA, adding additional controlled airspace to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Emmetsburg Municipal Airport, Emmetsburg, IA. The FAA...

  20. 77 FR 32896 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY... airspace at Billings Logan International Airport, Billings, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to... procedures at Billings Logan International Airport. This action will also make a minor adjustment to...

  1. 76 FR 73501 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA AGENCY: Federal... Carroll, IA. Decommissioning of the Carroll non-directional beacon (NDB) at Arthur N. Neu Airport, Carroll... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Carroll, IA, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Arthur N....

  2. 78 FR 59622 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Akutan, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... submitting written comments on the proposal to the FAA. No comments were received. Class E airspace... September 15, 2013, which is incorporated by reference in 14 CFR 71.1. The Class E airspace designations...--DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS 0...

  3. 77 FR 4458 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rockingham, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    .... No comments were received. Class E airspace designations are published in paragraph 6005 of FAA Order... 14 CFR 71.1. The Class E airspace designations listed in this document will be published subsequently... safety and management of IFR operations within the National Airspace System. The airport formerly...

  4. 14 CFR 71.41 - Class B airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class B airspace. 71.41 Section 71.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS...

  5. 14 CFR 71.61 - Class D airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class D airspace. 71.61 Section 71.61 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS...

  6. 14 CFR 71.33 - Class A airspace areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class A airspace areas. 71.33 Section 71.33 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS...

  7. 14 CFR 71.9 - Overlapping airspace designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overlapping airspace designations. 71.9 Section 71.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES;...

  8. 76 FR 52230 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Forest, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Forest, VA AGENCY... Airspace at Forest, VA, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at...

  9. 75 FR 37291 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Osceola, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Osceola, AR AGENCY: Federal... Osceola, AR. Decommissioning of the Osceola non-directional beacon (NDB) at Osceola Municipal Airport has... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Osceola, AR, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Osceola...

  10. 76 FR 73505 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nashville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nashville, AR... Class E airspace for Nashville, AR, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Nashville, AR,...

  11. 78 FR 67297 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Curtis, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Curtis, NE AGENCY... airspace at Curtis, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Curtis Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance...

  12. 77 FR 29866 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springhill, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springhill, LA AGENCY... airspace for Springhill, LA. Decommissioning of the Springhill non-directional beacon (NDB) at Springhill... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Springhill,...

  13. 75 FR 17891 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Goldsboro, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Goldsboro, NC AGENCY... action proposes to amend the Class D airspace at Seymour Johnson AFB, Goldsboro, NC, to reflect the part... amendment to Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to amend Class D airspace at...

  14. 78 FR 48291 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Sparta, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Sparta, WI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class D airspace at... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class D airspace for Sparta/Fort McCoy Airport...

  15. 77 FR 38472 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Pontiac, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Pontiac, MI AGENCY: Federal... Class D airspace within the Pontiac, MI, area by changing the name of the airport from ] Oakland-Pontiac... International Airport and adjusting the geographic coordinates within Class D airspace to coincide with the...

  16. 75 FR 39145 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Flint, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Flint, MI... legal description of the Bishop International Airport, Flint, MI, Class C airspace area by amending the... affect the ARP location, which defines the Class C airspace area's center point. The Rule This...

  17. 77 FR 41259 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Plentywood, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... airspace at Plentywood Sher-Wood Airport, Plentywood, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate... procedures at Plentywood Sher-Wood Airport. This improves the safety and management of Instrument Flight... Plentywood Sher-Wood Airport, Plentywood, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate IFR...

  18. 77 FR 34210 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at... E airspace at Orlando, FL (77 FR 16783). Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  19. 76 FR 35967 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace at... geographic coordinates for the Class D and E airspace areas, and updates the airport name. DATES:...

  20. 75 FR 13667 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntingburg, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntingburg, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Huntingburg, IN... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Huntingburg Airport, Huntingburg, IN (74 FR 66592) Docket No....

  1. 77 FR 66067 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Boone, IA... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Boone, IA, area, creating...

  2. 75 FR 12162 - Class E Airspace; Manila, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Manila, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Manila, AR. Decommissioning of the Manila non-directional beacon (NDB) at Manila... amending Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface for standard instrument...

  3. 76 FR 53049 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace at... received. Class E airspace designations are published in paragraph 6005 of FAA Order 7400.9U dated...

  4. 78 FR 41289 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Ogallala, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Ogallala, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Ogallala, NE.,...

  5. 78 FR 41290 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Sanibel, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Sanibel, FL... June 10, 2013, the FAA published a final rule, in the Federal Register establishing Class E airspace at.... This action makes the corrections and is rewritten for clarity. The Class E airspace designations...

  6. 76 FR 47061 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lakeland, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lakeland, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Lakeland Linder Regional Airport, Lakeland, FL...

  7. 75 FR 59934 - Amendment to Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment to Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC AGENCY... amends Class E airspace at Johnston County Airport, Smithfield, NC, by correcting an omission of the... amendment of the Class E airspace published in the Federal Register on July 27, 2010 (75 FR 43817)....

  8. 78 FR 25384 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Immokalee, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Immokalee, FL... Class E Airspace at Immokalee, FL, to accommodate the Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... establish Class E airspace at Immokalee, FL (78 FR 6262) Docket No. FAA-2012-1051. Interested parties...

  9. 75 FR 12166 - Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Beatrice, NE. Decommissioning of the Shaw non-directional beacon (NDB) at Beatrice... amending Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface for standard instrument...

  10. 77 FR 46284 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lemmon, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lemmon, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Lemmon, SD, area, creating...

  11. 76 FR 9219 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Muncie, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Muncie, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Muncie, IN,...

  12. 78 FR 18800 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decorah, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decorah, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Decorah, IA,...

  13. 77 FR 45240 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Arcadia, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Arcadia, FL... Class E Airspace at Arcadia, FL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... establish Class E airspace at Oneonta, AL (77 FR 33685) Docket No. FAA-2012-0365. Interested parties...

  14. 78 FR 48295 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gruver, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gruver, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Gruver, TX,...

  15. 78 FR 48297 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bedford, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bedford, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Bedford County Airport, Bedford, PA. (78 FR...

  16. 76 FR 28887 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Ozark, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Ozark, MO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class E airspace at... Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Part 71 by removing Class E airspace in the Ozark, MO,...

  17. 78 FR 45849 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gustavus, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gustavus, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... the proposal to the FAA. No comments were received. Class E airspace designations are published...

  18. 78 FR 18799 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Superior, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Superior, WI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Superior, WI, area, creating...

  19. 75 FR 72939 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Portland, OR AGENCY... Class E airspace at Portland, OR, to accommodate aircraft using the Localizer/Distance Measuring... proposed in the NPRM. Class E airspace designations are published in paragraph 6005 of FAA Order...

  20. 77 FR 55690 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dillon, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dillon, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Dillon...

  1. 77 FR 56761 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kerrville, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kerrville, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Class E airspace for the Kerrville, TX, area, creating additional controlled airspace at...

  2. 75 FR 41075 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action will amend Class E airspace at... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Bozeman, MT (75 FR 20321). Interested parties were...

  3. 76 FR 39259 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME AGENCY... establishes Class E airspace at Brunswick Executive Airport, Brunswick, ME. DATES: The effective date is moved...), establishes Class E airspace at Brunswick Executive Airport, Brunswick, ME. This action will move up...

  4. 75 FR 12165 - Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E airspace at Batesville, AR. Decommissioning of the Independence County non... Regulations (14 CFR), part 71 by amending Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the...

  5. 77 FR 28247 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decatur, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decatur, IL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Decatur, IL, area, creating...

  6. 78 FR 22414 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Reno, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Reno, NV AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... were received. Class E airspace designations are published in paragraph 6003 of FAA Order 7400.9W...

  7. 78 FR 14652 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gaylord, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gaylord, MI AGENCY: Federal... Gaylord, MI. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Gaylord, MI, area, creating...

  8. 77 FR 5170 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Jackson, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... County Airport-Reynolds Field, MI (Lat. 42 15'38'' N., long. 84 27'38'' W.) That airspace extending... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Jackson, MI AGENCY: Federal... Class D airspace within the Jackson, MI, area by changing the name of the airport from Jackson...

  9. 77 FR 5169 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Saginaw, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Saginaw, MI AGENCY: Federal... Class D airspace within the Saginaw, MI, area by changing the name of the airport from Tri-City... airspace at MBS International Airport, Saginaw, MI. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 71...

  10. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to R. pomonella flies from the western U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonel...

  11. Antitumoral, antioxidant, and antimelanogenesis potencies of Hawthorn, a potential natural agent in the treatment of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Nadia; Mokdad-Bzéouich, Imèn; Maatouk, Mouna; Ghedira, Kamel; Hennebelle, Thierry; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-06-01

    The lack of an efficient agent that does not have the disadvantage of low activity (kojic acid), high cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity (hydroquinone), poor skin penetration (arbutin), or low stability in formulation (glabridin) led us to continue our research on new antipigmentation/skin-lightening agents. Therefore, research of natural products that can modulate the metabolism of pigmentation is of great interest. Otherwise, malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer, with high metastatic potential, and currently, there is no effective chemotherapy against invasive melanoma. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new drugs with potent activity and weak side effects against melanoma. The in-vitro anticancer effect of hawthorn was analyzed against B16F10 melanoma cells using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The effect of isolated compounds from hawthorn on melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells was investigated by measuring the amounts of melanin and tyrosinase spectrophotometrically at 475 nm. Balb/c mice models inoculated with B16F10 mouse tumor cells were used to evaluate the in-vivo antitumoral potential of hawthorn by assessing its effect on the growth of transplanted tumors. The antioxidant potential of tested samples was evaluated in B16F10 and primary human keratinocyte cells using a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Hawthorn tested samples inhibited effectively the growth of melanoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, it appears that tested samples from hawthorn reduced melanogenesis by inhibiting the tyrosinase activity of B16F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In-vivo studies showed that hawthorn total oligomer flavonoids extract treatment at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight for 21 days in implanted tumor mice resulted in significant inhibition of the tumor growth volume and weight. In addition, tested samples showed significant cellular antioxidant capacity against the reactive oxygen species

  12. Composition and health effects of phenolic compounds in hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) of different origins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baoru; Liu, Pengzhan

    2012-06-01

    Epicatechin, aglycons and glycosides of B-type oligomeric procyanidins and flavonols, phenolic acids and C-glycosyl flavones are the major groups of phenolic compounds in hawthorn (Crataegus spp). The total content of phenolic compounds is higher in the leaves and flowers than in the fruits. Procyanidins dominate in the fruits, whereas flavonol glycosides and C-glycosyl flavones are most abundant in the leaves. Genotype and developmental/ripening stage have strong impacts. Procyanidin glycosides and C-glycosyl flavones may be chemotaxonomic markers differentiating species and varieties of hawthorn. Future research shall improve the separation, identification and quantification of procyanidins with degree of polymerisation (DP) ≥ 6, procyanidin glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and some flavonol glycosides. In vitro and animal studies have shown cardioprotective, hypolipidaemic, hypotensive, antioxidant, radical-scavenging and anti-inflammatory potentials of hawthorn extracts, suggesting different phenolic compounds as the major bioactive components. However, the varying and insufficiently defined composition of the extracts investigated, as a result of different raw materials and extraction methods, makes comparison of the studies very difficult. Clinical evidence indicates that some hawthorn extracts may increase the exercise tolerance of patients with congestive heart failure. More clinical studies are needed to establish the effects of hawthorn, especially in healthy humans.

  13. 77 FR 40492 - Revocation of Class D Airspace; Andalusia, AL; and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class D Airspace; Andalusia, AL; and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class D Airspace at Andalusia, AL, as the Air Traffic...

  14. 77 FR 65255 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Reidsville, GA, and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Vidalia, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E Airspace at Reidsville, GA. Separation of existing Class..., Reidsville, GA, to accommodate the separation of existing Class E airspace surrounding Vidalia Regional... Municipal Airport, Vidalia, GA, to provide the controlled airspace required to accommodate the separation...

  15. 75 FR 61660 - Proposed Modification of Class D and E Airspace, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Flagstaff, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Airspace Docket No. 10-AWP-5) and be submitted in triplicate to the Docket Management System (see ADDRESSES... reference in 14 CFR Part 71.1. The Class D and E airspace designation listed in this document will be... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Docket No. FAA-2010-0784; Airspace Docket No....

  16. 78 FR 52424 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dayton, TN, Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland, TN, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ..., Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland, TN, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Bradley Memorial Hospital... Bradley Memorial Hospital is added to the Cleveland, TN, airspace description and removed from both the Dayton, TN, regulatory text as well as its listing as Bradley Memorial Hospital, Cleveland, TN,...

  17. Abundances of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), has infested native black-fruited hawthorn (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington since at least 2003, but little is known about the fly’s ecology in hawthorns there. The main objective here was to determine adult and larval abu...

  18. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies from the western United States.

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong H; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Sim, Sheina B; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-03-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA as major hosts: the native black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and the introduced ornamental English hawthorn, C. monogyna. Apple and downy hawthorn-origin flies in the eastern USA use volatile blends emitted from the surface of their respective ripening fruit to find and discriminate among host trees. To test whether the same is true for western flies, we used coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and developed a 7-component apple fruit blend for western apple-origin flies, an 8-component black hawthorn fruit blend for flies infesting C. douglasii, and a 9-component ornamental hawthorn blend for flies from C. monogyna. Crataegus douglasii and C. monogyna-origin flies showed similar levels of upwind directed flight to their respective natal synthetic fruit blends in flight tunnel assays compared to whole fruit adsorbent extracts, indicating that the blends contain all the behaviorally relevant fruit volatiles to induce maximal response levels. The black and ornamental hawthorn blends shared four compounds in common including 3-methylbutan-1-ol, which appears to be a key volatile for R. pomonella populations in the eastern, southern, and western USA that show a preference for fruit from different Crataegus species. However, the blends also differed from one another and from domesticated apple in several respects that make it possible that western R. pomonella flies behaviorally discriminate among fruit volatiles and form ecologically differentiated host races, as is the case for eastern apple and hawthorn flies.

  19. Changes in physicochemical characteristics and free amino acids of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruits during maturation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2015-05-15

    In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits.

  20. Polyphenolic profile and biological activity of Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE) fruits.

    PubMed

    Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri; Rop, Otakar; Mlcek, Jiri; Balla, Stefan; Szekeres, Ladislav; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-12-06

    Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.) fruits are rich in polyphenols (e.g., epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B5, procyanidin C1, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and chlorogenic acid)--active compounds that exert beneficial effects. This review summarizes all information available on polyphenolic content and methods for their quantification in Chinese hawthorn berries and the relationships between individual polyphenolic compounds as well. The influence of species or cultivars, the locality of cultivation, the stage of maturity, and extract preparation conditions on the polyphenolic content were discussed as well. Currently, only fruits of C. pinnatifida and C. pinnatifida var. major are included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Recent trials have demonstrated the efficacy of Chinese hawthorn fruit in lowering blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The fruit has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities. This review deals mainly with the biological activity of the fruit related to its antioxidant properties.

  1. Optimizing Integrated Terminal Airspace Operations Under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosson, Christabelle; Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    In the terminal airspace, integrated departures and arrivals have the potential to increase operations efficiency. Recent research has developed geneticalgorithm- based schedulers for integrated arrival and departure operations under uncertainty. This paper presents an alternate method using a machine jobshop scheduling formulation to model the integrated airspace operations. A multistage stochastic programming approach is chosen to formulate the problem and candidate solutions are obtained by solving sample average approximation problems with finite sample size. Because approximate solutions are computed, the proposed algorithm incorporates the computation of statistical bounds to estimate the optimality of the candidate solutions. A proof-ofconcept study is conducted on a baseline implementation of a simple problem considering a fleet mix of 14 aircraft evolving in a model of the Los Angeles terminal airspace. A more thorough statistical analysis is also performed to evaluate the impact of the number of scenarios considered in the sampled problem. To handle extensive sampling computations, a multithreading technique is introduced.

  2. 75 FR 34624 - Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Big Delta, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Big Delta, AK... Class D and E airspace at Big Delta, AK, to eliminate duplicated controlled airspace serving Allen Army... airspace at Big Delta, AK (75 FR 17322). Controlled airspace serving Allen Army Airfield was revised...

  3. 76 FR 22011 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch... amends Class E airspace for the Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX, airspace area, to accommodate... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for the Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX, airspace...

  4. Preliminary Airspace Operations Simulations Findings Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Provides preliminary findings of the initial series (normal operations and contingency management) of airspace operations simulations. The key elements of this report discuss feedback from controller subjects for UAS flight above FL430. Findings provide initial evaluation of routine UAS operations above dense ARTCC airspace (ZOB), and identify areas of further research, policy direction and procedural development. This document further serves as an addendum to the detailed AOS simulation plan (Deliverable SIM001), incorporating feedback from FAA air traffic personnel and Access 5 IPTs.

  5. 78 FR 72006 - Establishment of Class D Airspace and Class E Airspace; Laguna AAF, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Ground), Yuma, AZ. The establishment of an air traffic control tower has made this action necessary for... control tower has made this action necessary and provides the required controlled airspace for the...

  6. Information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1988-01-01

    An informal overview is given of the work in progress and the planned work in the area of information transfer that specifically addresses human factors issues in National Airspace System (NAS). The issues of how weather information will be displayed on the flight deck, the development of appropriate decision making technology, and digital datalink transmission are also briefly discussed.

  7. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal: Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years. Long-term Goal: Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  8. 77 FR 1429 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springfield, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springfield, CO...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Springfield Municipal Airport, Springfield, CO... Springfield Municipal Airport, Springfield, CO. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to...

  9. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p < 0.05). The serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p < 0.05). The hepatic triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced in the hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p < 0.05). The protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and GPx were lower in the OVX group than the Sham group (p < 0.05). The oral administration of hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system. PMID:27187458

  10. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p < 0.05). The serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p < 0.05). The hepatic triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced in the hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p < 0.05). The protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and GPx were lower in the OVX group than the Sham group (p < 0.05). The oral administration of hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system.

  11. Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium spp.in Hatay province, Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...

  12. The Repressive Nature of the Past: Hawthorne's "House of the Seven Gables."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loges, Max L.

    "The House of the Seven Gables" describes the problems that emerge when a family allows itself to become so locked into the traditions and sins of the past that each new generation becomes a slightly degenerated facsimile of the previous generation. Nathaniel Hawthorne manages this task by comparing Clifford, a descendent of a long line…

  13. The investigation of some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna Jacq)

    PubMed Central

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra; Yilmaz, Ökkes; Turkoglu, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. The aim of this research is to determine some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers, and ripened fruits. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, antioxidant activities of extracts were assessed on DPPH•, ABTS•+, superoxide scavenging, reducing power and ferrous metal chelating activity assays and phenolic content of extracts was determined by Folin—Cioacalteu’s reagent. Results: The flavonoids including rutin, apigenin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin and kaempferol, were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography in the hawthorn extract. Conclusion: It was observed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna fruits showed the highest activity in reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. In addition, it was determined that the aqueous flower extract showed higher flavonoid content than aqueous leaves extract. The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. PMID:26401347

  14. Singing and Companionship in the Hawthorn University of the Third-Age Choir, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn; Southcott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The international University of the Third Age (U3A) embodies the principles of lifelong learning and personal fulfilment amongst members. The research reported in this article focused on the Choir of the U3A Hawthorn, Melbourne, Australia and the benefits perceived by members undertaking this active music engagement in non-competitive choral…

  15. 76 FR 45180 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Alturas, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... aircraft executing RNAV (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. This action...

  16. Assessment of phenolic acid content and in vitro antiradical characteristics of hawthorn.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Nilgün; Tunçel, Muzaffer

    2011-06-01

    The infusions and extracts obtained from leaves with flowers, fruit peel, and seed from hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Family Rosaceae) were subjected to evaluation as potential sources of antioxidant phytochemicals on the basis of their total content of phenolics, levels of phenolic acids, and in vitro antiradical activity. Total phenolic content of extracts was determined using the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidant activity was determined for phenolic extracts by a method involving the use of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Phenolic acids containing extracts and infusions from hawthorn leaves, fruit peel, and seeds were obtained using different polarity solvents and separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, which enabled improved separation by the use of a C(18) column, an acidic mobile phase, and gradient elusion. The highest total phenolic content (343.54 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g) and the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity as the inhibition percentage (60.36%) were obtained in ethyl acetate extract from hawthorn leaves with flower. Also, the highest phenolic acid content was measured in the extracts of hawthorn leaves with flowers: protocathechuic (108-128 mg/100 g), p-hydroxy benzoic (141-468 mg/100 g), caffeic (137-3,580 mg/100 g), chlorogenic (925-4,637 mg/100 g), ferulic (3,363-3,462 mg/100 g), vanillic (214 mg/100 g), and syringic (126 mg/100 g) acids. The results indicate that hawthorn is a promising plant because of its high antioxidant activity.

  17. Airspace Command and Control in the Contemporary Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-07

    article titled, “The Miracle of Operation Iraqi Freedom Airspace Management,” Wathen details the herculean effort airspace With multiple actors...the ability to predict airspace conflicts. 4 Colonel David Hume , an Air War College graduate, wrote a thesis on command and control and integration...of unmanned aircraft into the battlespace. Hume argues that the TAGS is not optimized to support the integration of unmanned aircraft operations

  18. 76 FR 41397 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Florence, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... airspace at Florence, OR, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Florence Municipal Airport. This improves...

  19. 75 FR 12974 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hailey, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... E airspace at Hailey, ID, to accommodate aircraft using the Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) at Friedman Memorial Airport. This...

  20. 75 FR 40719 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kemmerer, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... E airspace at Kemmerer, WY to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Kemmerer Municipal Airport....

  1. 76 FR 1999 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panguitch, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... E airspace at Panguitch, UT, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Panguitch Municipal Airport. This...

  2. UTM Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line of sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Use build-a-little-test-a-little strategy remote areas to urban areas Low density: No traffic management required but understanding of airspace constraints. Cooperative traffic management: Understanding of airspace constraints and other operations. Manned and unmanned traffic management: Scalable and heterogeneous operations. UTM construct consistent with FAAs risk-based strategy. UTM research platform is used for simulations and tests. UTM offers path towards scalability.

  3. Tactical Conflict Detection in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.; Denery, Dallas G.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic systems have long relied on automated short-term conflict prediction algorithms to warn controllers of impending conflicts (losses of separation). The complexity of terminal airspace has proven difficult for such systems as it often leads to excessive false alerts. Thus, the legacy system, called Conflict Alert, which provides short-term alerts in both en-route and terminal airspace currently, is often inhibited or degraded in areas where frequent false alerts occur, even though the alerts are provided only when an aircraft is in dangerous proximity of other aircraft. This research investigates how a minimal level of flight intent information may be used to improve short-term conflict detection in terminal airspace such that it can be used by the controller to maintain legal aircraft separation. The flight intent information includes a site-specific nominal arrival route and inferred altitude clearances in addition to the flight plan that includes the RNAV (Area Navigation) departure route. A new tactical conflict detection algorithm is proposed, which uses a single analytic trajectory, determined by the flight intent and the current state information of the aircraft, and includes a complex set of current, dynamic separation standards for terminal airspace to define losses of separation. The new algorithm is compared with an algorithm that imitates a known en-route algorithm and another that imitates Conflict Alert by analysis of false-alert rate and alert lead time with recent real-world data of arrival and departure operations and a large set of operational error cases from Dallas/Fort Worth TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). The new algorithm yielded a false-alert rate of two per hour and an average alert lead time of 38 seconds.

  4. Effect of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) crude extract and chromatographic fractions on multiple activities in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    PubMed

    Long, S R; Carey, R A; Crofoot, K M; Proteau, P J; Filtz, T M

    2006-11-01

    Extracts of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) have become popular herbal supplements for their well-recognized cardiotonic effects. Many commercial preparations have been used successfully in the treatment of congestive heart failure, although the active principles within these extracts have yet to be conclusively identified. Several hawthorn preparations were studied and found to have negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay using unpaced cells. As compared to conventional cardiac drugs (i.e., epinephrine, milrinone, ouabain, or propranolol), hawthorn extract has a unique activity profile. Hawthorn extract appears to be anti-arrhythmic and capable of inducing rhythmicity in quiescent cardiomyocytes. Hawthorn extract does not cause beta-adrenergic receptor blockade at concentrations which cause negative chronotropic effects. Commercial hawthorn preparations, extracts prepared from dried leaves and those made from dried berries have similar chronotropic activities. When crude extracts are separated using size-exclusion chromatography, several fractions retain multiple cardiac activities. Assays with chromatographic fractions reveal that multiple dissimilar cardioactive components may exist within the extract, making the identification of individual active constituents more challenging.

  5. Ammonium carbonate is more attractive than apple and hawthorn fruit volatile lures to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Nash, Meralee J; Goughnour, Robert B; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In the eastern United States where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonella. However, the opposite may be true in the western United States. Here, we determined whether newly identified western apple and western hawthorn fruit volatiles are more attractive than ammonium carbonate (AC) to R. pomonella in apple, black hawthorn, and ornamental hawthorn trees in western Washington State. In all three host trees, sticky red sphere or yellow panel traps baited with AC generally caught more flies than traps baited with lures containing the four newly developed fruit blends (modified eastern apple, western apple, western ornamental hawthorn, and western black hawthorn) or two older blends (eastern apple and eastern downy hawthorn). Fruit volatiles also displayed more variation among trapping studies conducted at different sites, in different host trees, and across years than AC. The results imply that traps baited with AC represent the best approach to monitoring R. pomonella in Washington State.

  6. Configuring Airspace Sectors with Approximate Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Gupta, Pramod

    2010-01-01

    In response to changing traffic and staffing conditions, supervisors dynamically configure airspace sectors by assigning them to control positions. A finite horizon airspace sector configuration problem models this supervisor decision. The problem is to select an airspace configuration at each time step while considering a workload cost, a reconfiguration cost, and a constraint on the number of control positions at each time step. Three algorithms for this problem are proposed and evaluated: a myopic heuristic, an exact dynamic programming algorithm, and a rollouts approximate dynamic programming algorithm. On problem instances from current operations with only dozens of possible configurations, an exact dynamic programming solution gives the optimal cost value. The rollouts algorithm achieves costs within 2% of optimal for these instances, on average. For larger problem instances that are representative of future operations and have thousands of possible configurations, excessive computation time prohibits the use of exact dynamic programming. On such problem instances, the rollouts algorithm reduces the cost achieved by the heuristic by more than 15% on average with an acceptable computation time.

  7. Metrics for the NASA Airspace Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.

    2009-01-01

    This document defines an initial set of metrics for use by the NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP). ASP consists of the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. The work in each project is organized along multiple, discipline-level Research Focus Areas (RFAs). Each RFA is developing future concept elements in support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as defined by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO). In addition, a single, system-level RFA is responsible for integrating concept elements across RFAs in both projects and for assessing system-wide benefits. The primary purpose of this document is to define a common set of metrics for measuring National Airspace System (NAS) performance before and after the introduction of ASP-developed concepts for NextGen as the system handles increasing traffic. The metrics are directly traceable to NextGen goals and objectives as defined by the JPDO and hence will be used to measure the progress of ASP research toward reaching those goals. The scope of this document is focused on defining a common set of metrics for measuring NAS capacity, efficiency, robustness, and safety at the system-level and at the RFA-level. Use of common metrics will focus ASP research toward achieving system-level performance goals and objectives and enable the discipline-level RFAs to evaluate the impact of their concepts at the system level.

  8. 75 FR 13669 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dumas, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Moore County Airport, Dumas, TX, and updates the airport's... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Dumas, TX, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Moore County Airport... surface to accommodate SIAPs at Moore County Airport, Dumas, TX. This action also updates the...

  9. 77 FR 19928 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hugo, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hugo, CO AGENCY: Federal... Hugo, CO. Decommissioning of the Hugo Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN) has made this action... ] controlled airspace at Hugo, CO (76 FR 78576). Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  10. 78 FR 34556 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tobe, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tobe, CO AGENCY: Federal... at the Tobe VHF Omni- Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME), Tobe, CO, to... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Tobe, CO (78 FR 18264). Interested...

  11. 77 FR 19930 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tobe, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tobe, CO AGENCY: Federal... Tobe, CO. Decommissioning of the Tobe Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN) has made this action... a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Tobe, CO (77 FR 4708)....

  12. 77 FR 18102 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lamar, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lamar, CO AGENCY: Federal... Lamar Municipal Airport, Lamar, CO. Decommissioning of the Lamar Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Lamar, CO (76 FR...

  13. 77 FR 75836 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walsenburg, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walsenburg, CO AGENCY... airspace at Spanish Peaks Airfield, Walsenburg, CO, to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV... Airfield, Walsenburg, CO (77 FR 55776). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...

  14. 75 FR 18047 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Hollywood, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Hollywood, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Airport, Hollywood, FL. DATES: Effective Date: 0901 UTC. May 10, 2010. The Director of the Federal... airspace description for North Perry Airport, Hollywood, FL, incorrectly referenced the Miami, FL, Class...

  15. 76 FR 53328 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... FAA processed all proposed changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9U in full text as... in full text as final rules in the Federal Register. This rule reflects the periodic integration of... changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9V in full text as proposed rule documents in...

  16. 78 FR 52847 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... FAA processed all proposed changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9W in full text as... in full text as final rules in the Federal Register. This rule reflects the periodic integration of... changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9X in full text as proposed rule documents in...

  17. 75 FR 20320 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Johnston County Airport... Smithfield, NC to provide controlled airspace required to support the SIAPs for Johnston County Airport. The... within the scope of that authority as it would amend Class E airspace at Johnston County...

  18. 75 FR 65581 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colebrook, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Proposed Rulemaking, Airspace Docket No. 10-ANE-105, as published in the Federal Register on July 19, 2010... (NPRM); withdrawal. SUMMARY: This action withdraws the NPRM published in the Federal Register on July 19.... The NPRM is being withdrawn as a portion of the proposed airspace already exists. A new...

  19. 75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the Wilcox non-directional beacon (NDB) at Mountain View Wilcox Memorial Field Airport has made this action necessary for the...

  20. 76 FR 8281 - Amendment to Class B Airspace; Cleveland, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... International Airport (CLE) and non-participating Visual Flight Rules (VFR) aircraft operating in the vicinity... boundaries of Areas F and G to coincide with visual landmarks to prevent inadvertent Class B airspace... benefits of using visual landmarks for defining airspace boundaries and does so when possible....

  1. 78 FR 25382 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Griffin, GA, as the Griffin Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard... authority as it amends controlled airspace at Griffin-Spalding County Airport, Griffin, GA. Environmental... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA AGENCY:...

  2. 77 FR 68067 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Coaldale, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... airspace at Coaldale VHF Omni- Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC), Coaldale, NV to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Oakland Air Route... request of the Oakland ARTCC to aid with the navigation of aircraft within the ARTCC's airspace area...

  3. 75 FR 6095 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Hinesville, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Hinesville, GA AGENCY... November 25, 2009 (74 FR 61507), revokes Class E airspace at Liberty County Airport, Hinesville, GA....

  4. 77 FR 51464 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Augusta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Augusta, GA AGENCY: Federal... Augusta, GA. The Bushe Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) and the Burke County NDB have been decommissioned and... Field, Augusta, GA, and Burke County Airport, Waynesboro, GA, respectively. Airspace reconfiguration...

  5. 75 FR 32651 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quitman, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quitman, GA AGENCY... April 1, 2010 that establishes Class E Airspace at Quitman Brooks County Airport, Quitman, GA....

  6. 76 FR 64235 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nahunta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nahunta, GA AGENCY... Airspace at Nahunta, GA, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS..., GA (76 FR 45478) Docket No. FAA-2011-0727. Subsequent to publication, the FAA found a...

  7. 77 FR 44120 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... airspace at Roundup Airport, Roundup, MT, to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... action under 1 CFR part 51, subject to the annual revision of FAA Order 7400.9 and publication of... the TAAs. The airspace in question includes the following areas where Class E begins at 14,500...

  8. 76 FR 34576 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Waynesboro, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Airspace at Waynesboro, VA, to accommodate the additional airspace need for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for Eagle's Nest Airport. This action enhances the safety and management of... procedures developed at Eagle's Nest Airport, Waynesboro, VA. This action is necessary for the safety...

  9. 75 FR 13670 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL AGENCY: Federal... December 29, 2009 that amends Class E airspace at Northeast Alabama Regional, Gadsden, AL. DATES:...

  10. 76 FR 67054 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fayette, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fayette, AL AGENCY: Federal... Fayette, AL, as the Fayette Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Fayette,...

  11. 78 FR 72009 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC AGENCY: Federal... at Star, NC, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Star, NC (78 FR...

  12. 78 FR 59807 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... airspace at the Glasgow VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation... the surface, at the Glasgow VOR/DME navigation aid, Glasgow, MT, to accommodate IFR aircraft under... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at the Glasgow VOR/DME,...

  13. 78 FR 34555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Gillette, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... airspace at the Gillette VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME), Gillette... the surface, at the Gillette VOR/DME navigation aid, Gillette, WY, to accommodate IFR aircraft under... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at the Gillette...

  14. 78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... airspace at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation... the surface, at the Salmon VOR/DME navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to accommodate IFR aircraft under... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at the Salmon VOR/DME,...

  15. 75 FR 4270 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Anniston, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Anniston, AL AGENCY... October 28, 2009 that modifies the Class E airspace at Anniston Metropolitan Airport, Anniston, AL....

  16. 75 FR 81441 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Benton, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Benton, IL AGENCY... airspace at Benton, IL, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Benton Municipal Airport, Benton, IL. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety...

  17. 14 CFR 71.71 - Class E airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (2) The airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth. (b) The airspace areas designated... by reference, see § 71.1) which extend upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... been prescribed, or from 1,200 feet or more above the surface of the earth for the purpose...

  18. 14 CFR 91.130 - Operations in Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operations in Class C airspace. 91.130 Section 91.130 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... designated. A satellite airport is any other airport within the Class C airspace area. (b) Traffic...

  19. 77 FR 42427 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA AGENCY: Federal... Class E airspace at Grinnell Regional Airport, Grinnell, IA, by removing reference to the Grinnell NDB... Regional Airport, Grinnell, IA, and amends the geographic coordinates of the airport to coincide with...

  20. 75 FR 23580 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA AGENCY: Federal... Mapleton, IA, adding additional controlled airspace to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at James G. Whiting Memorial Field Airport, Mapleton, IA. The FAA...

  1. 77 FR 68682 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA AGENCY: Federal... Guthrie, IA. Decommissioning of the Guthrie Center non-directional radio beacon (NDB) at Guthrie County... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Guthrie, IA, area, creating...

  2. 78 FR 76053 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Chariton, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Chariton, IA AGENCY: Federal... Chariton, IA. Decommissioning of the Chariton non-directional beacon (NDB) at Chariton Municipal Airport... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Chariton, IA,...

  3. 78 FR 67024 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Prineville, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... incorporated by reference in 14 CFR 71.1. The Class E airspace designations listed in this document will be... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Prineville, OR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class...

  4. 76 FR 72838 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Luray, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations within the National Airspace System. This action also..., 2011, and effective September 15, 2011, which is incorporated by reference in 14 CFR 71.1. The Class E... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Luray, VA AGENCY:...

  5. 78 FR 48294 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mason, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mason, TX AGENCY: Federal... Mason, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Mason County Airport. This action enhances the safety...

  6. 75 FR 29655 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR AGENCY... airspace for Batesville, AR. Decommissioning of the Independence County non-directional beacon (NDB) at Batesville Regional Airport, Batesville, AR, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety...

  7. 75 FR 29657 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR AGENCY... airspace for Marianna, AR to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Marianna/Lee County Airport--Steve Edwards Field, Marianna, AR. The FAA is taking this...

  8. 75 FR 39148 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ..., UT, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) traffic from en route airspace to Salt Lake City, UT. This will improve the safety and management of IFR operations for the Salt Lake City, UT... operations by vectoring IFR aircraft from en route airspace to Salt Lake City, UT. This action enhances...

  9. 75 FR 81442 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Rawlins, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...) at Rawlins Municipal Airport/Harvey Field, has made this action necessary. This will improve the... CFR) part 71 by amending Class E surface airspace at Rawlins Municipal Airport/Harvey Field. The... within the scope of that authority as it amends controlled airspace at Rawlins Municipal...

  10. 75 FR 43814 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Goldsboro, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Goldsboro, NC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends the Class D... D airspace for Seymour Johnson AFB, Goldsboro, NC (75 FR 17891) Docket No. FAA-2010-0095....

  11. 78 FR 67296 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; Mesquite, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class D Airspace; Mesquite, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class D... establish Class D airspace for Mesquite Metro Airport, Mesquite, TX (78 FR 48842) Docket No. FAA-2012-...

  12. 75 FR 67910 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...: This action amends Class E Airspace at Charleston, SC, by removing the East Cooper Airport from the airspace description. The East Cooper Airport has been renamed Mt. Pleasant Regional Airport- Faison Field... Charleston AFB/International Airport, the Charleston Executive Airport, and the East Cooper Airport. The...

  13. 78 FR 33963 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Atwood, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Atwood, KS AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Atwood, KS. Decommissioning of the Atwood non-directional radio beacon (NDB) at Atwood--Rawlins County--City County...

  14. 76 FR 61258 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Allakaket, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Allakaket, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace at Allakaket, AK, to accommodate the amendment of one Standard Instrument Approach Procedure at the...

  15. 75 FR 33165 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Galena, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... revising Class E airspace at Edward G. Pitka Sr. Airport, AK, to accommodate three amended SIAPs and one... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Galena, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final Rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class...

  16. 76 FR 60714 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Northway, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Northway, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace at Northway, AK, to accommodate the amendment of one Standard Instrument Approach Procedure at the...

  17. 77 FR 45240 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quakertown, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quakertown, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace...

  18. 77 FR 34209 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tallahassee, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tallahassee, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace in...

  19. 77 FR 46282 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Sweetwater, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Sweetwater, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Sweetwater, TX,...

  20. 75 FR 65226 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC (75 FR 52654)...

  1. 77 FR 1012 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Inverness, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Inverness, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at...

  2. 76 FR 9220 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Martinsville, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Martinsville, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace for Martinsville,...

  3. 78 FR 18801 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Beeville, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Beeville, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace at Chase...

  4. 78 FR 61179 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Comanche, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Comanche, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... established for the airport in 2006, but the Class E airspace area to contain it was never...

  5. 76 FR 8624 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Barrow, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Barrow, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace at...) 271-2850; e- mail: Martha.ctr.Dunn@faa.gov . Internet address:...

  6. 77 FR 66069 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perry, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perry, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Perry, IA, area,...

  7. 76 FR 8626 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Shungnak, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Shungnak, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace at..., Box 14, Anchorage, AK 99513-7587; telephone number (907) 271-5898; fax: (907) 271-2850; e-...

  8. 77 FR 16669 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bellefonte, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bellefonte, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace 700 feet above...

  9. 78 FR 48296 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Factoryville, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Factoryville, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at...

  10. 76 FR 16530 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace for Creighton, NE,...

  11. 78 FR 22413 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Omak, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Omak, WA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... necessary. This action also makes a minor change to the legal description in reference to the Class...

  12. 78 FR 48302 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wagner, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wagner, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace for the Wagner,...

  13. 75 FR 65224 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Williston, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Williston, ND AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Williston, ND,...

  14. 78 FR 48300 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mahnomen, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mahnomen, MN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace...

  15. 75 FR 65225 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Youngstown, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Youngstown, OH AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Youngstown, OH, creating...

  16. 75 FR 4270 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tompkinsville, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tompkinsville, KY AGENCY... September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Tompkinsville--Monroe County Airport,...

  17. 77 FR 28246 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tullahoma, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tullahoma, TN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... amend Class E airspace at Tullahoma, TN (77 FR 12759). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  18. 75 FR 13668 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Georgetown, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Georgetown, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Georgetown...

  19. 75 FR 65228 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Chilicothe, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Chilicothe, MO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class E... that the Class E surface area airspace at Chilicothe Municipal Airport is no longer necessary and...

  20. 75 FR 4269 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lewisport, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lewisport, KY... Register September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Hancock Co.--Ron Lewis Field,...

  1. 75 FR 4270 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC... Register September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Saluda County Airport, Saluda, SC....

  2. 75 FR 4269 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Clayton, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Clayton, GA AGENCY... September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Heaven's Landing Airport, Clayton, GA....

  3. 77 FR 45241 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Apopka, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Apopka, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace...

  4. 76 FR 8625 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Savoonga, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Savoonga, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace at...-5898; fax: (907) 271-2850; e-mail: martha.ctr.dunn@faa.gov . Internet address:...

  5. 75 FR 4269 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hertford, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hertford, NC AGENCY... September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Harvey Point Defense Testing Activity, Hertford,...

  6. 77 FR 66068 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Breckenridge, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Breckenridge, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Breckenridge, TX,...

  7. 78 FR 48301 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walker, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walker, MN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace for the Walker,...

  8. 78 FR 18802 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tecumseh, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tecumseh, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Tecumseh,...

  9. 75 FR 65227 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Franklin, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Franklin, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class E... rulemaking to remove Class E airspace for Franklin, TX (75 FR 36586) Docket No. FAA-2010-0603....

  10. 78 FR 32084 - Modification of Class D and Class E Airspace; Pueblo, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class D and Class E Airspace; Pueblo, CO... Class D airspace and Class E airspace areas at Pueblo Memorial Airport, Pueblo, CO, to accommodate... airspace at Pueblo, CO (78 FR 11996). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...

  11. 77 FR 55776 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walsenburg, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...-ANM-20 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walsenburg, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation... establish Class E airspace at Spanish Peaks Airfield, Walsenburg, CO. Controlled airspace is necessary to... Airfield, Walsenburg, CO. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using the new RNAV...

  12. 78 FR 31839 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Beeville-Chase Field, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Beeville-Chase Field, TX... Register of March 28, 2013. The title and airspace designation are corrected to read Beeville-Chase Field... Register document FAA 2012-0821, Airspace Docket No. 12- ASW-8, establishes Class E Airspace at Chase...

  13. 78 FR 54413 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Star, NC, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV... establish Class E airspace at Star, NC, providing the controlled airspace required to support the new...

  14. 77 FR 68683 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Forest City, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Forest City, IA AGENCY... airspace at Forest City, IA. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Forest City,...

  15. 77 FR 4700 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Freer, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Freer, TX...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Freer, TX. Controlled airspace is necessary to... approach procedures at Seven C's Ranch Airport, Freer, TX. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety...

  16. 76 FR 38580 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB, FL...: This action proposes to amend Class D Airspace in the Eglin Air Force Base (AFB), FL airspace area. The... amendment to Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to amend Class D airspace in the...

  17. 78 FR 52422 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Wrightstown, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Wrightstown, NJ AGENCY... amends Class D and E Airspace at Wrightstown, NJ, by updating the geographic coordinates and changing the... (14 CFR) part 71 amends Class D airspace and E airspace designated as an extension to a Class...

  18. 77 FR 40488 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Lakehurst, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Lakehurst, NJ...: This action changes the name of the airport associated with the Class D and Class E airspace at... name of the airport associated with the Class D airspace and Class E airspace designated as...

  19. 77 FR 50417 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Lewiston, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... airspace, and Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface and 1,200 feet above the... airspace 1,200 feet above the surface area to enhance safety in the Lewiston-Nez Pearce County Airport... airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at Lewiston-Nez Perce County Airport,...

  20. 77 FR 19931 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Boyne City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Boyne City, MI AGENCY... airspace at Boyne City, MI. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Boyne City,...

  1. B. F. Skinner and T. N. Whitehead: a brief encounter, research similarities, hawthorne revisited, what next?

    PubMed

    Claus, Calvin K

    2007-01-01

    B. F. Skinner and T. N. Whitehead recalled a personal interaction in 1934, with differing memories of the event. No evidence of other subsequent interactions or mutual citations has been found. Although they went their separate ways, three similarities in their research strategies have been found and are discussed. Elements of Whitehead's Hawthorne study and Skinner's concurrent, parallel work reveal that they both (a) introduced the cumulative curve to report data, (b) used a small number of subjects studied over time, and (c) used highly accurate recording devices. A few "afterwords" are offered on their lives and writings, and again, on the Hawthorne effect. A suggestion is made that a Skinner-Whitehead research approach might be useful in studying gambling behavior.

  2. Phenylpropanoid-substituted procyanidins and tentatively identified procyanidin glycosides from hawthorn (Crataegus spp.).

    PubMed

    Sendker, Jandirk; Petereit, Frank; Lautenschläger, Marcus; Hellenbrand, Nils; Hensel, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The rational use of hawthorn leafs and flowers from Crataegus spp. for declining cardiac performance is mainly due to flavon-C-glycosides and oligomeric procyanidins (OPC). From OPC-enriched extracts from different batches, a dimeric phenylpropanoid-substituted procyanidin (cinchonain II b, 1) was isolated and characterized by MS, CD, and NMR. Also the presence of higher oligomeric cinchonains (degree of polymerization 3 to 8) in hawthorn extracts was shown by a specific ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-ESI-qTOF-MS method. Interestingly, strong evidence for the occurrence of oligomeric procyanidin hexosides was found by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-ESI-qTOF-MS analysis which additionally revealed the presence of peaks indicative of dimeric procyanidin hexosides by their exact mass, which were clearly distinguishable from the cinchonain II type peaks.

  3. Tissue distribution comparison between healthy and fatty liver rats after oral administration of hawthorn leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jingjing; Qu, Jianguo; Zhang, Wenjie; Lu, Dongrui; Gao, Yucong; Ying, Xixiang; Kang, Tingguo

    2014-05-01

    Hawthorn leaves, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, have been widely used for treating cardiovascular and fatty liver diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic basis treating fatty liver disease by comparing the tissue distribution of six compounds of hawthorn leaf extract (HLE) in fatty liver rats and healthy rats after oral administration at first day, half month and one month, separately. Therefore, a sensitive and specific HPLC method with internal standard was developed and validated to determine chlorogenic acid, vitexin-4''-O-glucoside, vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin and hyperoside in the tissues including heart, liver, spleen, kidney, stomach and intestine. The results indicated that the six compounds in HLE presented some bioactivity in treating rat fatty liver as the concentrations of the six compounds varied significantly in inter- and intragroup comparisons (healthy and/or fatty liver group).

  4. B. F. Skinner and T. N. Whitehead: A Brief Encounter, Research Similarities, Hawthorne Revisited, What Next?

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Calvin K

    2007-01-01

    B. F. Skinner and T. N. Whitehead recalled a personal interaction in 1934, with differing memories of the event. No evidence of other subsequent interactions or mutual citations has been found. Although they went their separate ways, three similarities in their research strategies have been found and are discussed. Elements of Whitehead's Hawthorne study and Skinner's concurrent, parallel work reveal that they both (a) introduced the cumulative curve to report data, (b) used a small number of subjects studied over time, and (c) used highly accurate recording devices. A few “afterwords” are offered on their lives and writings, and again, on the Hawthorne effect. A suggestion is made that a Skinner–Whitehead research approach might be useful in studying gambling behavior. PMID:22478490

  5. Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) Project First Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Robert; Kille, Robert; Kirsten, Richard; Rigterink, Paul; Sielski, Henry; Gratteau, Melinda F. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A three-day NASA Virtual Airspace and Modeling Project (VAMS) Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) was held at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. on May 21 through May 23,2002. The purpose of this meeting was to share initial concept information sponsored by the VAMS Project. An overall goal of the VAMS Project is to develop validated, blended, robust and transition-able air transportation system concepts over the next five years that will achieve NASA's long-term Enterprise Aviation Capacity goals. This document describes the presentations at the TIM, their related questions and answers, and presents the TIM recommendations.

  6. Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Lü, Deguo; Zhou, Chuansheng; Ou, Shiyi; Yang, Baoru

    2010-01-27

    Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in the fruits of 22 cultivars/origins of three species of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Citric acid (2.0-8.4 g/100 g dry mass [DM]), quinic acid (0.5-5.6 g/100 g DM), malic acid (0.3-1.1 g/100 g DM), fructose (5.5-18.4 g/100 g DM), glucose (5.3-16.6 g/100 g DM), sorbitol (3.0-15.7 g/100 g DM), and myo-inositol (0.1-0.3 g/100 g DM) were found in all the samples. Sucrose was present only in C. scabrifolia and three cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major. C. scabrifolia differed from other species by its high content of quinic acid. The cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major and C. brettschneideri had a higher content of total sugars and a higher sugar/acid ratio than the natural origins of C. pinnatifida and C. scabrifolia (P < 0.05). The hawthorn samples analyzed fell into two groups rich in sugars and acids respectively. This is the first report of the profiles of sugars and sugar alcohols and the occurrence of quinic acid in hawthorn fruits.

  7. 78 FR 52109 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salisbury, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * AEA MD E5 Salisbury, MD Salisbury-Ocean..., and establish Class E airspace at Salisbury-Ocean City Wicomico Regional Airport, Salisbury, MD, due... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to amend Class D and Class E airspace at Salisbury-Ocean...

  8. 14 CFR 61.95 - Operations in Class B airspace and at airports located within Class B airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airports located within Class B airspace. 61.95 Section 61.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.95 Operations in Class B airspace and at airports located within... student pilot may not operate an aircraft on a solo flight to, from, or at an airport located within...

  9. 14 CFR 61.95 - Operations in Class B airspace and at airports located within Class B airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in Class B airspace and at airports located within Class B airspace. 61.95 Section 61.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots §...

  10. 77 FR 9839 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...This action modifies Class D and Class E airspace at Bozeman, Gallatin Field Airport, Bozeman, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer (LOC) standard instrument approach procedures at Bozeman, Gallatin Field Airport. This action also establishes Class E En Route Domestic airspace to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the......

  11. 78 FR 21084 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Traffic Control Tower at Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field) operating on a part time basis. This action...-0038; Airspace Docket No. 13-AEA-2, at the beginning of your comments. You may also submit and review...; Airspace Docket No. 13-AEA-2) and be submitted in triplicate to the Docket Management System (see...

  12. 75 FR 65250 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Easton, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the office of the Eastern Service... E airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface of the Earth within a 6.5-mile radius of...

  13. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  14. Interaction of Airspace Partitions and Traffic Flow Management Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palopo, Kee; Chatterji, Gano B.; Lee, Hak-Tae

    2010-01-01

    To ensure that air traffic demand does not exceed airport and airspace capacities, traffic management restrictions, such as delaying aircraft on the ground, assigning them different routes and metering them in the airspace, are implemented. To reduce the delays resulting from these restrictions, revising the partitioning of airspace has been proposed to distribute capacity to yield a more efficient airspace configuration. The capacity of an airspace partition, commonly referred to as a sector, is limited by the number of flights that an air traffic controller can safely manage within the sector. Where viable, re-partitioning of the airspace distributes the flights over more efficient sectors and reduces individual sector demand. This increases the overall airspace efficiency, but requires additional resources in some sectors in terms of controllers and equipment, which is undesirable. This study examines the tradeoff of the number of sectors designed for a specified amount of traffic in a clear-weather day and the delays needed for accommodating the traffic demand. Results show that most of the delays are caused by airport arrival and departure capacity constraints. Some delays caused by airspace capacity constraints can be eliminated by re-partitioning the airspace. Analyses show that about 360 high-altitude sectors, which are approximately today s operational number of sectors of 373, are adequate for delays to be driven solely by airport capacity constraints for the current daily air traffic demand. For a marginal increase of 15 seconds of average delay, the number of sectors can be reduced to 283. In addition, simulations of traffic growths of 15% and 20% with forecasted airport capacities in the years 2018 and 2025 show that delays will continue to be governed by airport capacities. In clear-weather days, for small increases in traffic demand, increasing sector capacities will have almost no effect on delays.

  15. Influence of extraction technique on the anti-oxidative potential of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) extracts in bovine muscle homogenates.

    PubMed

    Shortle, E; O'Grady, M N; Gilroy, D; Furey, A; Quinn, N; Kerry, J P

    2014-12-01

    Six extracts were prepared from hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves and flowers (HLF) and berries (HB) using solid-liquid [traditional (T) (HLFT, HBT), sonicated (S) (HLFS, HBS)] and supercritical fluid (C) extraction (HLFC, HBC) techniques. The antioxidant activities of HLF and HB extracts were characterised using in vitro antioxidant assays (TPC, DPPH, FRAP) and in 25% bovine muscle (longissimus lumborum) homogenates (lipid oxidation (TBARS), oxymyoglobin (% of total myoglobin)) after 24h storage at 4°C. Hawthorn extracts exhibited varying degrees of antioxidant potency. In vitro and muscle homogenate (TBARS) antioxidant activity followed the order: HLFS>HLFT and HBT>HBS. In supercritical fluid extracts, HLFC>HBC (in vitro antioxidant activity) and HLFC≈HBC (TBARS). All extracts (except HBS) reduced oxymyoglobin oxidation. The HLFS extract had the highest antioxidant activity in all test systems. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) exhibited potential as a technique for the manufacture of functional ingredients (antioxidants) from hawthorn for use in muscle foods.

  16. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  17. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  18. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  19. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  20. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  1. 75 FR 79294 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Henderson, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... airspace at Henderson, KY. The Geneva Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard... due to the decommissioning of the Geneva NDB and cancellation of the NDB approach, and for...

  2. 76 FR 28308 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Poplar, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... airspace at Poplar Municipal Airport, Poplar, MT. The airport was moved 1.5 Nautical Miles (NM) to the... Airport, Poplar, MT. The airport was moved 1.5 nautical miles to the northeast, and controlled...

  3. 76 FR 30821 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Duluth, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On March 23, 2011, the FAA published in the Federal Register a notice of... Airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * AGL MN...

  4. 78 FR 67298 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Ennis, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... INFORMATION: History On September 4, 2013, the FAA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed...: Paragraph 6005 Class E airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the...

  5. 75 FR 62458 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Tanana, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... INFORMATION: History On Tuesday, July 6, 2010, the FAA published a notice of proposed rulemaking in the...: * * * * * Paragraph 6005 Class E Airspace Extending Upward From 700 Feet or More Above the Surface of the...

  6. 78 FR 32085 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Eureka, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On December 21, 2012, the FAA published in the Federal Register a notice of...: Paragraph 6005 Class E airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the...

  7. 78 FR 34553 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bend, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ...., Renton, WA, 98057; telephone (425) 203-4537. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On March 1, 2013, the FAA... Class E airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the...

  8. 78 FR 36411 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tuskegee, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Tuskegee, AL, as the Tuskegee VOR/DME has been decommissioned and airspace reconfiguration is necessary for... reconfiguration is necessary due to the decommissioning of the Tuskegee VOR/DME and cancellation of the...

  9. 78 FR 1742 - Amendment to Class B Airspace; Atlanta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... to increase safety and aid pilots in gaining situational awareness within or around the Class B area... airspace. The FAA finds that the new 6,000-floor still provides sufficient space for safe operations...

  10. 78 FR 14651 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Goldsboro, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Mount Olive Municipal Airport. Airspace... Olive Municipal Airport and the Seymour Johnson TACAN, and recognizes the airport name change of... support the new RNAV (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures for Mount Olive Municipal Airport....

  11. 76 FR 55232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Copperhill, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures serving Martin Campbell Field Airport. This action enhances the... System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for Martin Campbell Field Airport. This... scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at Martin Campbell Field...

  12. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless... flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  13. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless... flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  14. 77 FR 39653 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Reidsville, GA, and Proposed Amendment of Class E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... establish Class E Airspace at Reidsville, GA. Separation of existing Class E airspace surrounding Swinton... (formerly Reidsville Airport), Reidsville, GA, to accommodate the separation of existing Class E...

  15. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Hawthorne, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-04

    Site characteristics pertinent to the geothermal development are described, including: physiography, demography, economy, and goals and objectives of the citizens as they relate to geothermal development. The geothermal reservoir is characterized on the basis of available information. The probable drilling depth to the reservoir, anticipated water production rates, water quality, and resource temperature are indicated. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the near future at Hawthorne are described. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed, including the financial, environmental, and legal and regulatory aspects. The various steps that are necessary to accomplish the construction of the geothermal district heating system are described.

  16. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Tadić, Vanja M; Dobrić, Silva; Marković, Goran M; Dordević, Sofija M; Arsić, Ivana A; Menković, Nebojsa R; Stević, Tanja

    2008-09-10

    Hawthorn [Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Crataegus oxyacantha L.; sin. Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) DC., Rosaceae] leaves, flowers, and berries are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and various digestive ailments, as well as geriatric and antiarteriosclerosis remedies. According to European Pharmacopoeia 6.0, hawthorn berries consist of the dried false fruits of these two species or their mixture. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. Phenolic compounds represented 3.54%, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Determination of total flavonoid aglycones content yielded 0.18%. The percentage of hyperoside, as the main flavonol component, was 0.14%. With respect to procyanidins content, the obtained value was 0.44%. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extract was concentration-dependent, with EC50 value of 52.04 microg/mL (calculation based on the total phenolic compounds content in the extract). Oral administration of investigated extract caused dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The obtained anti-inflammatory effect was 20.8, 23.0, and 36.3% for the extract doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to indomethacin, given in a dose producing 50% reduction of rat paw edema, the extract given in the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg) showed 72.4% of its activity. Gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats with ranitidine as a reference drug. Hawthorn extract produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity (3.8 +/- 2.1, 1.9 +/- 1.7, and 0.7 +/- 0.5 for doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively), with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug. Antimicrobial testing of the extract revealed its moderate bactericidal

  17. The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System Architecture and System Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Robert; Meyn, Larry; Manikonda, Vikram; Carlos, Patrick; Capozzi, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System is a simulation of the National Airspace System. It includes models of flights, airports, airspaces, air traffic controls, traffic flow managements, and airline operation centers operating throughout the United States. It is used to predict system delays in response to future capacity and demand scenarios and perform benefits assessments of current and future airspace technologies and operational concepts. Facilitation of these studies requires that the simulation architecture supports plug and play of different air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models and multi-fidelity modeling of flights, airports, and airspaces. The simulation is divided into two parts that are named, borrowing from classical control theory terminology, control and plant. The control consists of air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models, and the plant consists of flight, airport, and airspace models. The plant can run open loop, in the absence of the control. However, undesired affects, such as conflicts and over congestions in the airspaces and airports, can occur. Different controls are applied, "plug and played", to the plant. A particular control is evaluated by analyzing how well it managed conflicts and congestions. Furthermore, the terminal area plants consist of models of airports and terminal airspaces. Each model consists of a set of nodes and links which are connected by the user to form a network. Nodes model runways, fixes, taxi intersections, gates, and/or other points of interest, and links model taxiways, departure paths, and arrival paths. Metering, flow distribution, and sequencing functions can be applied at nodes. Different fidelity model of how a flight transits are can be used by links. The fidelity of the model can be adjusted by the user by either changing the complexity of the node/link network-or the way that the link models how the flights transit

  18. 77 FR 19927 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Willcox, AZ, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Cochise, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... conforming amendments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eldon Taylor, Federal Aviation Administration... northeast of the airport. That airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface bounded by a...

  19. 75 FR 47736 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, Establishment of Class E Airspace; Patuxent River, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... control tower and establish Class E airspace designated as surface areas to accommodate the additional... operations of the airport control tower, establishing in advance the dates and times by a Notice to...

  20. 76 FR 59306 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and E Airspace and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Punta Gorda, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... new air traffic control tower at Punta Gorda Airport. Controlled airspace is necessary for the safety... is necessary to support the operation of the new air traffic control tower, and would enhance...

  1. 77 FR 15297 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and E Airspace Amendment of Class E Airspace; East Hampton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... tower at East Hampton Airport. Controlled airspace is necessary for the safety and management of... the operation of the new air traffic control tower, and would enhance the safety and management of...

  2. 76 FR 53048 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... (Lat. 43 05'27'' N., long. 106 16'37'' W.) Casper ASR (Lat. 42 55'16'' N., long. 106 27'15'' W.) That airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface within a 23.5-mile radius of the Casper ASR; that airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface within the 37.5-mile radius of the Casper...

  3. 76 FR 36017 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...., long. 106 16'37'' W.) Casper ASR (Lat. 42 55'16'' N., long. 106 27'15'' W.) That airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface within a 23.5-mile radius of the Casper ASR; that airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface within the 37.5-mile radius of the Casper ASR, and...

  4. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of flavonoids in single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) ethanolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Urbonaviciūte, A; Jakstas, V; Kornysova, O; Janulis, V; Maruska, A

    2006-04-21

    Flavonoids are an important group of natural compounds, which can prevent coronary heart disease and have antioxidant properties. Hawthorn is a well known and widely used medicinal plant due to its cardiotonic activity. Previous studies refer mostly to the HPLC analysis of the flavonoids: vitexin, quercetin, hyperoside, oligomeric procyanidins, which appear to be primarily responsible for the cardiac action of the plant. Aqueous ethanolic extracts of single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., f.: Rosaceae Juss.) leaves and sprouts were analyzed by means of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Influence of vegetation period on the extract qualitative composition and flavonoids quantities was evaluated. Sample preparation by extraction using different concentration of aqueous ethanol (40-96%, v/v) and the influence of extractant composition on the recovery of flavonoids are discussed in detail. The results obtained using CZE are compared to the results of spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis of the extracts. The effect of storage conditions of extracts (solar irradiation, temperature and duration) on degradation of flavonoids was investigated.

  5. Metsulfuron spray drift reduces fruit yield of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna L.).

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Christian; Strandberg, Morten; Erlandsen, Mogens

    2006-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate whether spray drift of metsulfuron has a potential to negatively affect hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) hedgerows near agricultural fields. For this purpose four doses of metsulfuron ranging from 5% to 40% of the field dose (4 g metsulfuron per hectare) were sprayed on trees in seven different hawthorn hedgerows. The actual deposition on the leaves was measured by means of a tracer (glycine). Spraying was conducted both at the bud stage and at early flowering. Leaves, flowers, green berries and mature berries were harvested and the number and weight of each were measured. The spraying at the bud stage caused a highly significant reduction in number and dry weight of berries, whereas it had no effects on leaf and flower production. The berry reduction was close to 100% at actual depositions relevant for spray drift under normal conditions. Spraying at early flowering also significantly reduced berries although the effect was smaller than for the spraying at bud stage. The early flower stage spraying caused no reduction in number and size of leaves. The possible ecological consequence is that metsulfuron spray drift from agricultural fields has a potential to reduce the amount of berries available for frugivorous birds in nearby hedgerows. A potential need for regulatory measures to reduce herbicide spray drift to hedgerows situated near agricultural fields with herbicide use is also indicated.

  6. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Hawthorne, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-04

    The results of the analyses as well as a plan for the development of the geothermal resource are described. Site characteristics pertinent to the geothermal development are described. These characteristics include physiography, demography, economy, and goals and ojectives of the citizens as they would relate to geothermal development. The geothermal resource is described. The reservoir is characterized on the basis of available information. The probable drilling depth to the reservoir, anticipated water production rates, water quality, and resource temperatures ae indicated. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the near future at Hawthorne are described. The amounts and types of energy currently consumed by end users are estimated. Using this data base, conceptual engineering designs and cost estimates for three alternative district heating systems are presented. In addition, the results of a life cycle cost analysis for these alternatives are discussed. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development, including the financial, environmental, and legal and regulatory aspects are discussed. The various steps that are necessary to accomplish the construction of the geothermal district heating system at Hawthorne are described. A time-line chart shows the tasks, the time estimated to be required for each, and the interrelationships among the activities.

  7. 75 FR 66345 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taos, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Taos, NM. Decommissioning of the Ski non-directional beacon..., Taos, NM. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to the decommissioning of the Ski NDB and...

  8. 76 FR 54152 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace Galbraith Lake, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Galbraith Lake AK. The creation of two special... Class E5 airspace at the Galbraith Lake Airport in Galbraith Lake, AK, to accommodate the creation...

  9. 76 FR 49388 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tatitlek, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Tatitlek, AK. The creation of a standard... establishing Class E5 airspace at the Tatitlek Airport in Tatitlek, AK, to accommodate the creation of the...

  10. 77 FR 42430 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; West Memphis, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... Class E airspace at West Memphis, AR. Separation of existing Class E airspace surrounding West Memphis... extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at West Memphis, AR, to accommodate the separation...

  11. 77 FR 17363 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; West Memphis, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at West Memphis, AR. Separation of existing... West Memphis, AR, to accommodate the separation of existing Class E airspace surrounding West...

  12. 75 FR 22712 - Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... control tower has made controlled airspace necessary at San Marcos Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking... establishing Class D airspace at San Marcos Municipal Airport, San Marcos, TX. An air traffic control...

  13. 75 FR 78645 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kenton, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... identify the docket number FAA-2010-1054/Airspace Docket No. 10- AGL-23, at the beginning of your comments... No. FAA-2010-1054/Airspace Docket No. 10-AGL-23.'' The postcard will be date/time stamped...

  14. 75 FR 41983 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... airspace for San Marcos Municipal Airport, San Marcos, TX. Establishment of an air traffic control tower... establishing Class D airspace at San Marcos, TX. Establishment of an air traffic control tower at San...

  15. Transcript Assembly and Quantification by RNA-Seq Reveals Differentially Expressed Genes between Soft-Endocarp and Hard-Endocarp Hawthorns

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Zhongchi; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Wenran; Ma, Yue; Li, He; Liu, Yuexue; Zhang, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) is an important pome with a long history as a fruit, an ornamental, and a source of medicine. Fruits of hawthorn are marked by hard stony endocarps, but a hawthorn germplasm with soft and thin endocarp was found in Liaoning province of China. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the soft endocarp of hawthorn, we conducted a de novo assembly of the fruit transcriptome of Crataegus pinnatifida and compared gene expression profiles between the soft-endocarp and the hard-endocarp hawthorn varieties. De novo assembly yielded 52,673 putative unigenes, 20.4% of which are longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 35,979 (68.3%) had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 1,218 genes, represented 2.31% total putative unigenes, were differentially expressed between the soft-endocarp hawthorn and the hard-endocarp hawthorn. Among these differentially expressed genes, a number of lignin biosynthetic pathway genes were down-regulated while almost all the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes were strongly up-regulated, concomitant with the formation of soft endocarp. In addition, we have identified some MYB and NAC transcription factors that could potentially control lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis. The altered expression levels of the genes encoding lignin biosynthetic enzymes, MYB and NAC transcription factors were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This is the first transcriptome analysis of Crataegus genus. The high quality ESTs generated in this study will aid future gene cloning from hawthorn. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying soft endocarp formation in hawthorn. PMID:24039819

  16. Effects of pretreatments on anthocyanin composition, phenolics contents and antioxidant capacities during fermentation of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) drink.

    PubMed

    Liu, Suwen; Chang, Xuedong; Liu, Xiufeng; Shen, Zhanwei

    2016-12-01

    The effect of microwave and heat pretreatment on the content and composition of anthocyanins, phenolics, and the antioxidant capacity of hawthorn drink were studied. Nine anthocyanins were isolated by chromatographic separation from the Zirou hawthorn source and their structure identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis. Heat and microwave pretreatments had a significant impact on the relative contents of hawthorn anthocyanins, such as cyanidin-3-galactoside (82.9% and 76.9%, respectively) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (9.2% and 11.5%, respectively). Pretreatment had no significant effect on pH, total soluble solid or total acid. More anthocyanins remained after heat treatment than after microwaving (0.745mg/100mL), and were 52.4% higher than the control group after storage for 7days. The colour density of the heat treated group was higher than the control group (24.5%) after 12days of fermentation. The main antioxidant capacities of the hawthorn drinks came from total polyphenolics rather than total anthocyanins or total flavonoids.

  17. Considerations for Domestic Law Enforcement Implementation of a UAS Program in the Proposed FAA Regulatory Environment of Integration into the National Airspace System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Keith Andrew McMinn 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10...agencies can and should take advantage of the cost savings, technical capabilities, and mission performance offered by this technology

  18. 78 FR 33019 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Commerce, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Commerce Municipal Airport (AAF). The...

  19. 75 FR 27229 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL...: This action proposes to modify the Chicago, IL, Class B airspace area by expanding the existing... procedures within Class B airspace, and segregating IFR aircraft at Chicago O'Hare International Airport...

  20. 77 FR 48060 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fort Morgan, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fort Morgan, CO AGENCY... airspace at Fort Morgan, CO, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Fort Morgan, CO (77 FR...

  1. 78 FR 76781 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...; Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Lake City Class B airspace area by raising the floor of a small portion of Class B airspace between the Salt Lake City Class B surface area and the Hill Air Force Base (AFB) Class D airspace area....

  2. 75 FR 64971 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Central City, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Central City...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Central City, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Central City...

  3. 76 FR 72868 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Boyne City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Boyne City, MI...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Boyne City, MI. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Boyne City Municipal...

  4. 78 FR 49986 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Loup City, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Loup City, NE...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Loup City, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Loup City Municipal Airport....

  5. 77 FR 49399 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Forest City, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Forest City, IA...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Forest City, IA. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Forest City Municipal...

  6. 78 FR 48299 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF, Anchorage... establishes Class D airspace at Bryant Army Airfield (AAF), Anchorage AK. This action provides controlled... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class D airspace at Bryant...

  7. 78 FR 59806 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; White Mountain, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; White Mountain, AK... Class E airspace at White Mountain Airport, White Mountain, AK, to accommodate aircraft using new Area... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at White...

  8. 75 FR 48550 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA AGENCY... Airspace at Pine Mountain, GA, to accommodate the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Pine Mountain, GA (75 FR 28765) Docket No....

  9. 78 FR 19097 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Round Mountain, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Round Mountain, TX... Class E airspace at Round Mountain, TX. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area... the West Ranch Airport, Round Mountain, TX (77 FR 71367) Docket No. FAA-2012-0771. Interested...

  10. 76 FR 31510 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rutherfordton, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... airspace needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Rutherford County... airspace required to support new standard instrument approach procedures for Rutherford County Airport. The... of that authority as it would amend Class E airspace at Rutherford County Airport, Rutherfordton,...

  11. 78 FR 6261 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Griffin, GA, as the Griffin Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has... as it would amend Class E airspace at Griffin- Spalding County Airport, Griffin, GA. This proposal... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA...

  12. 78 FR 52114 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Macon, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Macon, GA, as the Bay Creek NDB has been decommissioned and... of that authority as it would amend Class E airspace in the Macon, GA, area. This proposal would be... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Macon, GA...

  13. 75 FR 28765 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... of that authority as it would amend Class E airspace at Harris County Airport, Pine Mountain, GA... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Pine Mountain, GA, to accommodate the additional...

  14. 75 FR 15360 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Austin, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Austin, TX AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace in the Austin, TX area. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Austin Executive...

  15. 76 FR 64236 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Market, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Market, VA AGENCY... Airspace at New Market, VA, to accommodate the new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures serving New Market Airport. This action enhances the safety and airspace management of Instrument Flight Rules...

  16. 76 FR 44288 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Market, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Market, VA AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at New Market, VA, to accommodate the additional airspace needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for New Market Airport. This...

  17. 76 FR 28888 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Gruver Cluck Ranch Airport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Gruver Cluck Ranch Airport... removes Class E airspace at Gruver, Cluck Ranch Airport, TX. The airport has been abandoned, thereby eliminating the need for controlled airspace in the Gruver, Cluck Ranch Airport, TX, area. The FAA is...

  18. 78 FR 76779 - Proposed Modification of the Philadelphia, PA, Class B Airspace Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...This action proposes to amend the description of Area G of the Philadelphia Class B airspace area to correct a design error that resulted in the Class B airspace being published 2.1 nautical miles (NM) larger on the southeast side of the area than intended. No other changes to the Philadelphia Class B airspace are being...

  19. 78 FR 74005 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Grand Forks, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... MSL within a 4.2-mile radius of Grand Forks International Airport. This Class D airspace area is... airspace extending upward from the surface to and including 3,400 feet MSL within a 4.9-mile radius of....9-mile radius to 5.6 miles south of the airport, excluding that airspace within the Grand...

  20. 77 FR 52218 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL, Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL, Correction... controlled airspace in the Montgomery, AL, area. The corrected coordinates for Maxwell AFB and Wetumpka..., technical amendment, in the Federal Register amending the Class E airspace area for Montgomery, AL,...

  1. 78 FR 25402 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Sparta, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ..., Sparta, WI. Changes to the airspace description are necessary due to the need to exclude active military restricted airspace. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight... R-6901A/B. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety and management of IFR operations at...

  2. 75 FR 51173 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Port Angeles, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Port Angeles, WA AGENCY... Class E airspace at Port Angeles, WA. The Ediz Hook Nondirectional Radio Beacon (NDB) has been... controlled airspace at Port Angeles, WA (75 FR 33556). Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  3. 78 FR 18931 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Bass Harbor, ME, to accommodate a new Area...) serving Bass Harbor Heliport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of...

  4. 77 FR 45237 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Airspace at Fort Rucker, AL, by updating the geographic coordinates of Cairns Army Air Field to aid in the... of instrument flight rules (IFR) operations within the Fort Rucker, AL airspace area....

  5. 76 FR 44285 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fayette, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Airspace; Fayette, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Fayette, AL, as the Fayette Non... at Richard Arthur Field, Fayette, AL. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to...

  6. 78 FR 14477 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pine Island, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pine Island, FL...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Pine Island, FL, to accommodate a new Area...) serving Pine Island Heliport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of...

  7. 76 FR 21826 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Drummond Island, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Drummond Island, MI...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Drummond Island, MI. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Drummond Island...

  8. 77 FR 68716 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Hot Springs, SD. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Hot Springs...

  9. 78 FR 14911 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD AGENCY... airspace at Hot Springs, SD. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Hot Springs Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking...

  10. 75 FR 49868 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kalaupapa, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kalaupapa, HI...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Kalaupapa, HI, to accommodate aircraft using a... airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at Kalaupapa Airport, Kalaupapa, HI....

  11. 76 FR 3571 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kahului, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kahului, HI...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Kahului Airport, Kahului, HI. Controlled airspace... approach procedures at Kahului Airport, Kahului, HI. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the...

  12. 75 FR 81442 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Lone Star, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Lone Star, TX AGENCY... airspace at Lone Star, TX. Abandonment of the former Lone Star Steel Company ] Airport and cancellation of... the Lone Star, TX, area. The FAA is taking this action to ensure the efficient use of airspace...

  13. 75 FR 64972 - Proposed Revocation of Class E Airspace; Lone Star, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Revocation of Class E Airspace; Lone Star, TX...: This action proposes to remove Class E airspace at Lone Star, TX. Abandonment of the former Lone Star... eliminated the need for controlled airspace in the Lone Star, TX, area. The FAA is taking this action...

  14. 77 FR 29916 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Sault Ste Marie, ON

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... is necessary to coincide with the Canadian control zone over Sault Ste Marie Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at... airspace to coincide with that portion of the control zone in Canadian airspace. Controlled airspace...

  15. 78 FR 18798 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Union, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Union, IA AGENCY... airspace at West Union, IA. Decommissioning of the West Union non-directional beacon (NDB) at George L... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the West Union,...

  16. 75 FR 6595 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mapleton, IA. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to..., Mapleton, IA. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  17. 75 FR 6592 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Emmetsburg, IA. Additional controlled airspace is..., Emmetsburg, IA. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  18. 75 FR 68558 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Hampton, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Hampton, IA...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at New Hampton, IA, to accommodate new Standard... Center Heliport, New Hampton, IA. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety and management of...

  19. 77 FR 50650 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Boone, IA. Decommissioning of the Boone non... instrument approach procedures at Boone Municipal Airport, Boone, IA. Airspace reconfiguration is...

  20. 75 FR 68555 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Richmond, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Richmond, IN AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Richmond, IN, to accommodate new Standard Instrument... Heliport, Richmond, IN. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety and management of IFR operations...

  1. 76 FR 78144 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Anaktuvuk Pass, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Anaktuvuk Pass, AK AGENCY... airspace at Anaktuvuk Pass Airport, Anaktuvuk Pass, AK. The creation of two standard instrument approach... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Anaktuvuk Pass,...

  2. 75 FR 68554 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lafayette, Purdue University Airport, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lafayette... proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Lafayette, IN, to...) SIAP at Clarian Arnett Heliport, Lafayette, IN. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety...

  3. 76 FR 31821 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY... amends Class D airspace within the Corpus Christi, TX, area by updating the geographic coordinates for... the geographic coordinates, within Class D airspace, of the Cabaniss NOLF, Corpus Christi, TX,...

  4. 77 FR 4713 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Red Cloud, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Red Cloud, NE...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Red Cloud, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Red Cloud Municipal Airport....

  5. 77 FR 29871 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Red Cloud, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Red Cloud, NE AGENCY... airspace at Red Cloud, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Red Cloud Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking this action...

  6. 75 FR 42 - Modification of Class D and E Airspace; Albemarle, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... [Docket No. FAA-2009-0203; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-12] Modification of Class D and E Airspace... published in the Federal Register May 6, 2009, that modifies Class D and Class E airspace at Stanly County Airport, Albemarle, NC. This action also corrects the True bearing used in the Class D...

  7. 75 FR 53876 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Berryville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Carroll County... SIAPs operations at Carroll County Airport, Berryville, AR. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety... would establish controlled airspace at Carroll County Airport, Berryville, AR. ] List of Subjects in...

  8. 77 FR 9840 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY... airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black... controlled airspace at Colorado Springs, CO (76 FR 70920). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  9. 77 FR 3185 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Grasonville, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... 71 [Docket No. FAA-2011-1340; Airspace Docket No. 11-AEA-22] Proposed Establishment of Class E... airspace management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations within the National Airspace System. DATES... triplicate to the Docket Management System (see ADDRESSES section for address and phone number). You may...

  10. 78 FR 60237 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Burnet, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ..., to request a copy of Advisory Circular No. 11-2A, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Distribution System... airspace is necessary for the safety and management of IFR operations at the airport. Class E airspace... 15, 2013, which is incorporated by reference in 14 CFR 71.1. The Class E airspace designation...

  11. 78 FR 31430 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wagner, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... 71 [Docket No. FAA-2013-0004; Airspace Docket No. 13-AGL-1] Proposed Establishment of Class E... identify the docket number FAA-2013-0004/Airspace Docket No. 13- AGL-1, at the beginning of your comments... No. FAA-2013-0004/ Airspace Docket No. 13-AGL-1.'' The postcard will be date/time stamped...

  12. 76 FR 73505 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Danville Airport, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Class E airspace at Danville, PA, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... reference in 14 CFR 71.1. The Class E airspace designations listed in this document will be published... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Danville Airport,...

  13. 78 FR 25229 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stockton, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stockton, KS...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Stockton, KS. Controlled airspace is necessary to... ] taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations...

  14. 76 FR 41147 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Chinle, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Airspace Docket No. 11-AWP-7) and be submitted in triplicate to the Docket Management System (see ADDRESSES....1. The Class E airspace designation listed in this document will be published subsequently in this... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Chinle,...

  15. 76 FR 44258 - Removal of Class D and E Airspace; Willow Grove, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Removal of Class D and E Airspace; Willow Grove, PA AGENCY... and Class E airspace areas at Willow Grove, PA. The Willow Grove Naval Air Station (NAS) has closed... Class D and E airspace at Willow Grove, PA. The closing of the Willow Grove NAS and cancellation of...

  16. 76 FR 41725 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Miles City, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Frank Wiley Field, Miles City... instrument approach procedures at Frank Wiley Field. Additionally, the geographic coordinates for Frank Wiley... airspace and Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at Frank Wiley Field,...

  17. 75 FR 71046 - Proposed Revision of Class E Airspace; Barrow, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to revise Class E airspace at Wiley Post/ Will Rogers...) part 71 by revising Class E airspace at Wiley Post/Will Rogers memorial Airport at Barrow, AK, to... operations at Wiley Post/Will Rogers Memorial Airport by ensuring that the Class E airspace is sufficient...

  18. 78 FR 38554 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Live Oak, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Live Oak, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the Live Oak, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been... management of instrument flight rules (IFR) operations within the Live Oak, FL, airspace area. This...

  19. 77 FR 50646 - Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF... (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class D airspace at Bryant Army Airfield (AAF... 71 by establishing Class D airspace extending upward from the surface at Bryant AAF, Anchorage...

  20. 78 FR 25406 - Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Twin Falls, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Twin Falls, ID...: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Twin Falls Joslin Field-Magic Valley Regional Airport, Twin Falls, ID. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using the...

  1. 76 FR 80230 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Baltimore, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... in the Federal Register of November 28, 2011, amending controlled airspace at Martin State Airport... E airspace at Martin State Airport, Baltimore, MD, and adjusting the geographic coordinates for the... airspace areas at Martin State Airport, Baltimore, MD, as published in the Federal Register of November...

  2. 77 FR 28244 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Baltimore, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... amends Class D and E airspace at Martin State Airport, Baltimore, MD. The geographic coordinates of the... airspace, for Martin State Airport, Baltimore, MD. This update brings the geographic coordinates in concert... amends controlled airspace at Martin State Airport, Baltimore, MD. Lists of Subjects in 14 CFR Part...

  3. 75 FR 65229 - Amendment and Establishment of Restricted Areas and Other Special Use Airspace, Razorback Range...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Restricted Areas and Other Special Use Airspace, Razorback Range Airspace Complex, AR AGENCY: Federal... Razorback Range Airspace Complex, AR (75 FR 44719). As a result of further review, the FAA's National... descriptions for R-2402A, R-2402B, and R-2402C, Fort Chaffee, AR, as published in the Federal Register on...

  4. 78 FR 48838 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Curtis, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Curtis, NE...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Curtis, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Curtis Municipal Airport. The FAA is...

  5. 75 FR 14383 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... (IFR) traffic from en route airspace to Salt Lake City, UT. This action would enhance the safety and management of IFR operations for the Salt Lake City, UT area. DATES: Comments must be received on or before... aircraft from en route airspace to Salt Lake City, UT. Class E airspace designations are published...

  6. 78 FR 72007 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; McConnellsburg, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; McConnellsburg, PA... Class E Airspace at McConnellsburg, PA, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace at McConnellsburg, PA, (78 FR 48081) Docket...

  7. 78 FR 58489 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; McMinnville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; McMinnville, TN...: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at McMinnville, TN, as the Warri Non-Directional Beacon... Warren County Memorial Airport, McMinnville, TN. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to...

  8. 78 FR 48081 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; McConnellsburg, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Airspace; McConnellsburg, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at McConnellsburg, PA, to... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to establish Class E airspace at McConnellsburg, PA, providing...

  9. 77 FR 34208 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Leesburg, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... airspace, and Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth.... This Class D airspace area is effective during the specific days and times established in advance by a Notice to Airmen. The effective days and times will thereafter be continuously published in the...

  10. 75 FR 81518 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wolfeboro, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... FAA-2010-1007; Airspace Docket No. 10-ANE-109, at the beginning of your comments. You may also submit... (FAA Docket No. FAA-2010-1007; Airspace Docket No. 10-ANE-109) and be submitted in triplicate to the... on which the following statement is made: ``Comments to Docket No. FAA-2010-1007; Airspace Docket...

  11. 77 FR 41939 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airspace at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate... procedures at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance...

  12. 77 FR 4702 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Leesville, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Leesville, LA...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Leesville, LA. Additional controlled airspace is... instrument approach procedures at Leesville Airport, Leesville, LA. Geographic coordinates would also...

  13. 76 FR 13505 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; La Porte, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; La Porte, IN AGENCY: Federal... amends Class E airspace in the La Porte, IN area. DATES: Effective date 0901 UTC May 5, 2011. FOR FURTHER... amending Class E airspace in the La Porte, IN area (76 FR 5471), Docket No. FAA-2010-1030. Subsequent...

  14. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been developed at Palm Beach County Park Airport. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary for the continued...

  15. 78 FR 6257 - Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace; Nashville International Airport, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace..., Class C airspace area by removing a cutout from the surface area that was put in place to accommodate... Class C airspace area to the standard configuration and enable more efficient operations at...

  16. 78 FR 74006 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Green Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Green Bay, WI AGENCY... amends Class E airspace within the Green Bay, WI, area by updating the geographic coordinates for Austin... coordinates, within Class E airspace, of Austin-Straubel International Airport, Green Bay, WI, to...

  17. 75 FR 63730 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panguitch, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... airspace to include a portion extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface at Panguitch Municipal... establish controlled airspace from 700 feet above the surface. The FAA has reassessed the proposal to include Class E airspace 700 feet and 1,200 feet above the surface to further the safety and management...

  18. 77 FR 5168 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Mount Clemens, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Mount Clemens, MI AGENCY... amends Class D airspace within the Mount Clemens, MI, area by updating the geographic coordinates of... Selfridge ANGB, Mount Clemens, MI. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 71 Airspace, Incorporation by...

  19. 76 FR 3011 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Port Clarence, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Port Clarence, AK AGENCY.... SUMMARY: This action changes the effective date for the establishment of Class E airspace at Port Clarence Coast Guard Station (CGS) Airport, Port Clarence, AK. The charting of this airspace has been...

  20. Preliminary Investigation of Civil Tiltrotor in NextGen Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Salvano, Dan; Wright, Ken; Chung, William; Young, Ray; Miller, David; Paris, Alfanso; Gao, Huina; Cheng, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Presentation intro: Tiltrotor aircraft have long been envisioned as being a potentially viable means of commercial aviation transport. Preliminary results from an ongoing study into the operational and technological considerations of Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) operation in the Next Generation airspace, circa the 2025 time-frame, are presented and discussed. In particular, a fleet of CTR aircraft has been conceptually designed. The performance characteristics of this CTR fleet was subsequently translated into BADA (Base of Aircraft DAta) models that could be used as input to emulate CTR aircraft operations in the ACES and AvTerminal airspace and terminal area simulation tools. A network of nine North-Eastern corridor airports is the focus of the airspace simulation effort; the results from this airport network viII then be extrapolated to provide insights into systemic impact of CTRs on the National Airspace System (NAS). Future work will also be detailed as to attempts to model the systemic effects of noise and emissions from this fleet of new aircraft as well as assess their leveraged impact on public service missions, in time of need, such as major regional/national disaster relief efforts. The ideal outcome of this study is a set of results whereby Next Gen airspace CONOPs can be refined to reflect potential CTR capabilities and, conversely, CTR technology development efforts can be better informed as to key performance requirement thresholds needed to be met in order to successfully introduce these aircraft into civilian aviation operation.

  1. Throughput analysis for the National Airspace System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sureshkumar, Chandrasekar

    The United States National Airspace System (NAS) network performance is currently measured using a variety of metrics based on delay. Developments in the fields of wireless communication, manufacturing and other modes of transportation like road, freight, etc. have explored various metrics that complement the delay metric. In this work, we develop a throughput concept for both the terminal and en-route phases of flight inspired by studies in the above areas and explore the applications of throughput metrics for the en-route airspace of the NAS. These metrics can be applied to the NAS performance at each hierarchical level—the sector, center, regional and national and will consist of multiple layers of networks with the bottom level comprising the traffic pattern modelled as a network of individual sectors acting as nodes. This hierarchical approach is especially suited for executive level decision making as it gives an overall picture of not just the inefficiencies but also the aspects where the NAS has performed well in a given situation from which specific information about the effects of a policy change on the NAS performance at each level can be determined. These metrics are further validated with real traffic data using the Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) for three en-route sectors and an Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). Further, this work proposes a framework to compute the minimum makespan and the capacity of a runway system in any configuration. Towards this, an algorithm for optimal arrival and departure flight sequencing is proposed. The proposed algorithm is based on a branch-and-bound technique and allows for the efficient computation of the best runway assignment and sequencing of arrival and departure operations that minimize the makespan at a given airport. The lower and upper bounds of the cost of each branch for the best first search in the branch-and-bound algorithm are computed based on the minimum

  2. Generic Airspace Research Phase 5 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William E.; Bridges, Wayne W.; Peknik, Dan N.; Gujral, Vimmy

    2014-01-01

    Human-in-the-loop testing was completed to assess the subjective preferences, usage, and operational benefits of Integrated and Separated Controller Information Tools (CITs) in support of Generic Airspace Research. Participants controlled traffic in in a busy, high altitude sector with the aid of the CITs. When the participants were asked which CIT that they preferred to use, they overwhelmingly chose the integrated version of the CIT. The primary reason for this seemed to be that it allowed participants to remain focused on the traffic situation, whereas the Standalone CIT required them to focus their attention for short periods away from the radar presentation. In contrast to their preference, there were little or no differences in the CIT usage and the operational differences. There were similar numbers of losses of separation and participants accessed each CIT equally. Although the information accessed was the similar for the two conditions, participants actively turned off the data on the Integrated CIT, presumably to reduce the clutter on the radar scope. Further work is needed to isolate which information can and should be available to controllers in the Integrated vs. Standalone format.

  3. Algorithm of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Displacement in Airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugała, Tomasz

    Despite the fact Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have been used for more than 70 years and their uncommon development has taken place in the first decade of the 21st Century, there is still no elaboration of "Uniform Concept of the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Displacement in Airspace". The indispensable condition of the above mentioned concept has to be flight safety of all airspace users. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to work out the adequate procedures and regulations in the scope of airspace usage taking into consideration this upto- date means of air transport. Therefore, elaboration of the algorithm by the author, can be a reason of achievement for the above mentioned object in the near future. Under such circumstances, the author has taken the trial to perform this challenging task.

  4. Identification and Analysis of National Airspace System Resource Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Marien, Ty V.; Viken, Jeffery K.; Neitzke, Kurt W.; Kwa, Tech-Seng; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hinze, Nicolas K.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis is the deliverable for the Airspace Systems Program, Systems Analysis Integration and Evaluation Project Milestone for the Systems and Portfolio Analysis (SPA) focus area SPA.4.06 Identification and Analysis of National Airspace System (NAS) Resource Constraints and Mitigation Strategies. "Identify choke points in the current and future NAS. Choke points refer to any areas in the en route, terminal, oceanic, airport, and surface operations that constrain actual demand in current and projected future operations. Use the Common Scenarios based on Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) projections of future demand developed under SPA.4.04 Tools, Methods and Scenarios Development. Analyze causes, including operational and physical constraints." The NASA analysis is complementary to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) "Development of Tools and Analysis to Evaluate Choke Points in the National Airspace System" Contract # NNA3AB95C awarded to Logistics Management Institute, Sept 2013.

  5. Flexible Airspace Management (FAM) Research 2010 Human-in-the-Loop Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Brasil, Connie; Homola, Jeffrey; Kessell, Angela; Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    A human-in-the-Ioop (HITL) simulation was conducted to assess potential user and system benefits of Flexible Airspace Management (FAM) concept, as well as designing role definitions, procedures, and tools to support the FAM operations in the mid-term High Altitude Airspace (HAA) environment. The study evaluated the benefits and feasibility of flexible airspace reconfiguration in response to traffic overload caused by weather deviations, and compared them to those in a baseline condition without the airspace reconfiguration. The test airspace consisted of either four sectors in one Area of Specialization or seven sectors across two Areas. The test airspace was assumed to be at or above FL340 and fully equipped Vvith data communications (Data Comm). Other assumptions were consistent with those of the HAA concept. Overall, results showed that FAM operations with multiple Traffic Management Coordinators, Area Supervisors, and controllers worked remarkably well. The results showed both user and system benefits, some of which include the increased throughput, decreased flight distance, more manageable sector loads, and better utilized airspace. Also, the roles, procedures, airspace designs, and tools were all very well received. Airspace configuration options that resulted from a combination of algorithm-generated airspace configurations with manual modifications were well acceptec and posed little difficuIty and/or workload during airspace reconfiguration process. The results suggest a positive impact of FAM operations in HAA. Further investigation would be needed to evaluate if the benefits and feasibility would extend in either non-HAA or mixed equipage environment.

  6. Isolation and quantification of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins in leaves and flowers of Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.).

    PubMed

    Hellenbrand, N; Sendker, J; Lechtenberg, M; Petereit, F; Hensel, A

    2015-07-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) constitute a class of polyphenols with flavan-3-ols as monomeric building blocks. These polyphenols are mostly quantified by colorimetric methods or by chromatographic determination of monomeric flavan-3-ols or low molecular oligomers as lead compounds. No reliable analytical methods are available for unambiguous identification of the homologues series of oligo- and polymeric PAs. For Hawthorn leaf and flower (Crataegi folium cum flore) from Crataegus spp. (Rosaceae) a protocol for preparative isolation of oligomeric and polymeric PAs from an acetone-water extract was developed, yielding procyanidin reference clusters with defined degree of polymerization (DP) from 2 to 10 besides a procyanidin-polymer. Identity and purity of these clusters were proven by HPLC, MS and in part NMR studies. For identification and quantification from Hawthorn an ICH-Q2 validated UHPLC method with fluorimetric detection and less than 10min runtime was developed. The method enabled quantification of procyanidin clusters with DP from 2 to 10 besides the polymer fraction. Batch analysis revealed procyanidin contents of about 20 to 45mg/g from a homologues series of oligomeric PAs and about 50% of polymer fraction. Monitoring of procyanidin distribution during seasonal growth of fresh plants of Crataegus monogyna showed more or less constant contents between 20 and 55mg/g dry weight of oligomeric procyanidins during the growing season in the different plant organs with strong accumulation in the flowers and fruits (55mg/g dry weight). From these data it can be speculated that procyanidins serve as part of the plants defense system in the reproductive organs of the plant.

  7. Impact of Airspace Charges on Transatlantic Aircraft Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Linke, Florian; Chen, Neil Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft flying over the airspace of different countries are subject to over-flight charges. These charges vary from country to country. Airspace charges, while necessary to support the communication, navigation and surveillance services, may lead to aircraft flying routes longer than wind-optimal routes and produce additional carbon dioxide and other gaseous emissions. This paper develops an optimal route between city pairs by modifying the cost function to include an airspace cost whenever an aircraft flies through a controlled airspace without landing or departing from that airspace. It is assumed that the aircraft will fly the trajectory at a constant cruise altitude and constant speed. The computationally efficient optimal trajectory is derived by solving a non-linear optimal control problem. The operational strategies investigated in this study for minimizing aircraft fuel burn and emissions include flying fuel-optimal routes and flying cost-optimal routes that may completely or partially reduce airspace charges en route. The results in this paper use traffic data for transatlantic flights during July 2012. The mean daily savings in over-flight charges, fuel cost and total operation cost during the period are 17.6 percent, 1.6 percent, and 2.4 percent respectively, along the cost- optimal trajectories. The transatlantic flights can potentially save $600,000 in fuel cost plus $360,000 in over-flight charges daily by flying the cost-optimal trajectories. In addition, the aircraft emissions can be potentially reduced by 2,070 metric tons each day. The airport pairs and airspace regions that have the highest potential impacts due to airspace charges are identified for possible reduction of fuel burn and aircraft emissions for the transatlantic flights. The results in the paper show that the impact of the variation in fuel price on the optimal routes is to reduce the difference between wind-optimal and cost-optimal routes as the fuel price increases. The

  8. A Virtual Laboratory for Aviation and Airspace Prognostics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan; Gorospe, George; Teubert, Christ; Quach, Cuong C.; Hogge, Edward; Darafsheh, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    Integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), autonomy, spacecraft, and other aviation technologies, in the airspace is becoming more and more complicated, and will continue to do so in the future. Inclusion of new technology and complexity into the airspace increases the importance and difficulty of safety assurance. Additionally, testing new technologies on complex aviation systems and systems of systems can be challenging, expensive, and at times unsafe when implementing real life scenarios. The application of prognostics to aviation and airspace management may produce new tools and insight into these problems. Prognostic methodology provides an estimate of the health and risks of a component, vehicle, or airspace and knowledge of how that will change over time. That measure is especially useful in safety determination, mission planning, and maintenance scheduling. In our research, we develop a live, distributed, hardware- in-the-loop Prognostics Virtual Laboratory testbed for aviation and airspace prognostics. The developed testbed will be used to validate prediction algorithms for the real-time safety monitoring of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the prediction of unsafe events. In our earlier work1 we discussed the initial Prognostics Virtual Laboratory testbed development work and related results for milestones 1 & 2. This paper describes the design, development, and testing of the integrated tested which are part of milestone 3, along with our next steps for validation of this work. Through a framework consisting of software/hardware modules and associated interface clients, the distributed testbed enables safe, accurate, and inexpensive experimentation and research into airspace and vehicle prognosis that would not have been possible otherwise. The testbed modules can be used cohesively to construct complex and relevant airspace scenarios for research. Four modules are key to this research: the virtual aircraft module which uses the X

  9. Structural analysis of proanthocyanidins isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn with potent antityrosinase and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Chen, Chih-Min; Gao, Yu-Sen; Feng, Hui-Ling; Ding, Yu-Mei; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Han-Tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-01-08

    Proanthocyanidins were isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.). Their structures were analyzed and elucidated by methods of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The results demonstrated that these compounds are complicated mixtures of homo- and heteropolymers consisting of procyanidin/procyanidin gallate and prodelphinidin. They possessed structural heterogeneity in monomer units, polymer length, and interflavan linkage (A-type and B-type). Their antityrosinase and antioxidant activity were then investigated. The results revealed that they can inhibit tyrosinase activities, including the monophenolase activity and the diphenolase activity. In addition, proanthocyanidins possessed potent antioxidant activity. Our studies revealed that proanthocyanidins isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn may be applied in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  10. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (p<0.05). The number of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the LO group was significantly higher than that of the NL and H groups (p< 0.05). The number of osteoblasts in the LO and H groups was significantly higher than that of the NL group (p<0.05). TOS and OSI levels were significantly reduced in H group compared to LO group (P <0.05) and TAS levels were similar in H and NL group (p< 0.05). Hawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically.

  11. Abundance of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Klaus, Michael W; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981-2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards.

  12. Abundance of Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, Across Different Areas in Central Washington, with Special Reference to Black-Fruited Hawthorns

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Wee L.; Klaus, Michael W.; Cha, Dong H.; Linn, Charles E.; Goughnour, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981–2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards. PMID:23451979

  13. 75 FR 55267 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation By Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9T in full text as proposed rule documents in the Federal Register. Likewise, all amendments of these listings were published in full text as final rules in the Federal... Order 7400.9U in full text as proposed rule documents in the Federal Register. Likewise, all...

  14. 77 FR 50907 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9V in full text as proposed rule documents in the Federal Register. Likewise, all amendments of these listings were published in full text as final rules in the Federal... Order 7400.9W in full text as proposed rule documents in the Federal Register. Likewise, all...

  15. 78 FR 38555 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Selmer, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... instrument approach procedures developed for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at Robert Sibley... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Robert Sibley Airport, Selmer... above the surface within a 6.7-mile radius of Robert Sibley Airport, Selmer, TN....

  16. 78 FR 41838 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colt, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Instrument Approach Procedures at Delta Regional Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety..., area, creating controlled airspace at Delta Regional Airport (78 FR 25231) Docket No. FAA-2012-1281... a 7.1-mile radius of Delta Regional Airport, Colt, AR, to ensure that required controlled...

  17. 75 FR 43817 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Johnston County Airport. DATES: Effective 0901 UTC, September 23... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Johnston County Airport... upward from 700 feet above the surface to accommodate SIAPs at Johnston County Airport, Smithfield,...

  18. 76 FR 75447 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmonak, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Emmonak, AK Emmonak Airport, AK (Lat. 62 47'10'' N., long. 164 29'27'' W.) Emmonak VOR/DME (Lat. 62 47'05... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmonak, AK AGENCY: Federal... Emmonak, AK. The revision of two standard instrument approach procedures at the Emmonak Airport has...

  19. Feasibility of Mixed Equipage Operations in the Same Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Smith, Nancy; Lee, Katharine K.; Aweiss, Arwa Salem; Lee, Paul U.; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeff; Mainini, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This study used a human-in-the-loop simulation to examine the feasibility of mixed equipage operations in an automated separation assurance environment under higher traffic densities. The study involved two aircraft equipage alternatives - with and without data link- and four traffic conditions. In all traffic conditions the unequipped traffic count was increased linearly throughout the scenario from approximately 5 to 20 aircraft. Condition One consisted solely of this unequipped traffic, while the remaining three conditions also included a constant number of equipped aircraft operating within the same airspace: 15 equipped aircraft in condition two, 30 in condition three, and 45 in condition four. If traffic load became excessive during any run, participants were instructed to refuse sector entry to inbound unequipped aircraft until sector load became manageable. Results showed a progressively higher number of unequipped aircraft turned away under the second, third, and fourth scenario conditions. Controller workload also increased progressively. Participants rated the mixed operations concept as acceptable, with some qualifications about procedures and information displays. These results showed that mixed operations might be feasible in the same airspace, if unequipped aircraft count is held to a workable level. This level will decrease with increasing complexity. The results imply that integrated airspace configuration is feasible to a limit. The results also indicate that the conflict detection and resolution automation, equipage, and traffic density are important factors that will need to be considered for airspace configuration.

  20. Feasibility of Mixed Equipage Operations in the Same Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Smith, Nancy; Lee, Katharine; Aweiss, Arwa; Lee, Paul U.; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeff; Mainini, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This study used a human-in-the-loop simulation to examine the feasibility of mixed equipage operations in an automated separation assurance environment under higher traffic densities. The study involved two aircraft equipage alternatives with and without data link and four traffic conditions. In all traffic conditions the unequipped traffic count was increased linearly throughout the scenario from approximately 5 to 20 aircraft. Condition One consisted solely of this unequipped traffic, while the remaining three conditions also included a constant number of equipped aircraft operating within the same airspace: 15 equipped aircraft in condition two, 30 in condition three, and 45 in condition four. If traffic load became excessive during any run, participants were instructed to refuse sector entry to inbound unequipped aircraft until sector load became manageable. Results showed a progressively higher number of unequipped aircraft turned away under the second, third, and fourth scenario conditions. Controller workload also increased progressively. Participants rated the mixed operations concept as acceptable, with some qualifications about procedures and information displays. These results showed that mixed operations might be feasible in the same airspace, if unequipped aircraft count is held to a workable level. This level will decrease with increasing complexity. The results imply that integrated airspace configuration is feasible to a limit. The results also indicate that the conflict detection and resolution automation, equipage, and traffic density are important factors that will need to be considered for airspace configuration.

  1. 76 FR 55554 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rutherfordton, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... airspace at Rutherfordton, NC. The Rutherford Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed for Rutherford County-Marchman Field. This... standard instrument approach procedures developed at Rutherford County-Marchman Field, Rutherfordton,...

  2. 76 FR 31822 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mosby, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mosby, MO AGENCY: Federal... Mosby, MO. Decommissioning of the Mosby non-directional beacon (NDB) at Midwest National Air Center Airport, Mosby, MO, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of...

  3. 76 FR 8627 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum, AK AGENCY: Federal... Platinum, AK, to accommodate the addition of a Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP), at the Platinum Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  4. 78 FR 58158 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wasatch, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E airspace at the Wasatch VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range... Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Salt Lake City Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC..., at the Wasatch VORTAC navigation aid, Wasatch, UT, to accommodate IFR aircraft under control of...

  5. 77 FR 10649 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Douglas, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance... International Airport, Douglas, AZ. Decommissioning of the Cochise VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC) has made this action necessary for the safety and management of aircraft...

  6. 77 FR 4460 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Portsmouth, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... anticipated impact is so minimal. Since this is a routine matter that will only affect air traffic procedures and air navigation, it is certified that this rule, when ] promulgated, will not have a significant... Subjects in 14 CFR Part 71 Airspace, Incorporation by reference, Navigation (air). Adoption of...

  7. 78 FR 67024 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT AGENCY... a final rule published in the Federal Register of September 30, 2013, that establishes Class E... aid, Glasgow, MT. A favorable comment from the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA)...

  8. Toward n-Ship Computation of Trajectories for Shared Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Daniel D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers an approach for modelling transport aircraft trajectories that can facilitate their rapid evaluation and modification, either en route or in terminal control areas, with the goal of efficiently making use of airspace and runways by a large population of vehicles without pairwise violation of separation criteria.

  9. 78 FR 63861 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Minneapolis, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... redesign goal of optimizing terminal and en route airspace areas to enhance safety, improving the flow of... regulations must undergo several economic analyses. First, Executive Order 12866 and Executive Order 13563... (adjusted for inflation with base year of 1995). This portion of the preamble summarizes the FAA's...

  10. 77 FR 12992 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Jacksonville, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... amends Class E airspace at Albert J. Ellis Airport, Jacksonville, NC, by updating the geographic... Navigation Services to update the geographic coordinates of Albert J. Ellis Airport, Jacksonville, NC. This... the surface, at Albert J. Ellis Airport, Jacksonville, NC. The geographic coordinates of the...

  11. 78 FR 27025 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Philadelphia, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... modifies the Philadelphia, PA, Class B airspace area to ensure the containment of large turbine-powered... in the Philadelphia terminal area. DATES: Effective Date: 0901 UTC, July 25, 2013. The Director of the Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference action under 1 CFR part 51, subject...

  12. 76 FR 44255 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Harrisonville, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Procedures at Lawrence Smith Memorial Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and... additional controlled airspace at Lawrence Smith Memorial Airport (76 FR 21830) Docket No. FAA-2011-0251... for new standard instrument approach procedures at Lawrence Smith Memorial Airport, Harrisonville,...

  13. 78 FR 59805 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cody, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... at the Cody VHF Omni- Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid... VOR/DME navigation aid, Cody, WY, to accommodate IFR aircraft under control of Salt Lake City ARTCC by... controlled airspace at the Cody VOR/DME, Cody WY. Environmental Review The FAA has determined that...

  14. 78 FR 65554 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... at the Rome VHF Omni- Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) ] navigation aid... the surface, at the Rome VOR/DME navigation aid, Rome, OR, to accommodate IFR aircraft under control... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at the Rome VOR/DME, Rome,...

  15. Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility where possible, and structure where necessary. Consider the needs of national security, safe airspace operations, economic opportunities, and emerging technologies. Risk-based approach based on population density, assets on the ground, density of operations, etc. Digital, virtual, dynamic, and as needed UTM services to manage operations.

  16. 75 FR 37292 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, IA AGENCY: Federal... Cherokee, IA. Decommissioning of the Pilot Rock non-directional beacon (NDB) at Cherokee County Regional Airport, Cherokee, IA has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of...

  17. 76 FR 5470 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Richmond, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Richmond, IN AGENCY: Federal... Richmond, IN, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Reid Hospital Heliport, Richmond, IN. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety...

  18. 14 CFR 91.135 - Operations in Class A airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in Class A airspace. 91.135... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General... rules (IFR) and in compliance with the following: (a) Clearance. Operations may be conducted only...

  19. 14 CFR 105.25 - Parachute operations in designated airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parachute operations in designated airspace... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.25... operation, and be submitted at least 15 days, but not more than 30 days, before the parachute...

  20. 75 FR 68416 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Berryville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Procedures (SIAP) at Carroll County Airport, Berryville, AR. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the..., creating controlled airspace at Carroll County Airport (75 FR 53876) Docket No. FAA-2010-0690. Interested... accommodate SIAPs at Carroll County Airport, Berryville, AR. This action is necessary for the safety...

  1. 14 CFR 91.130 - Operations in Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operating an aircraft in Class C airspace must meet the following two-way radio communications requirements: (1) Arrival or through flight. Each person must establish two-way radio communications with the ATC... airport with an operating control tower must establish and maintain two-way radio communications with...

  2. 76 FR 67596 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Spearfish, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Procedures at Black Hills Airport--Clyde Ice Field, and updates the geographic coordinates of the airport... additional controlled airspace at Black Hills Airport--Clyde Ice Field (76 FR 43610) Docket No. FAA-2011-0431... procedures at Black Hills Airport--Clyde Ice Field, Spearfish, SD. This action is necessary for the...

  3. 75 FR 29656 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR AGENCY: Federal... Magnolia, AR. Decommissioning of the Magnolia non-directional beacon (NDB) at Magnolia Municipal Airport, Magnolia, AR has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  4. 75 FR 66300 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Searcy, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Searcy, AR AGENCY: Federal... Searcy, AR. Decommissioning of the Searcy non-directional beacon (NDB) at Searcy Municipal Airport, Searcy, AR, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  5. 75 FR 12161 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR AGENCY..., Marianna, AR, to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Marianna/Lee County... surface for SIAPs operations at Marianna/Lee County Airport-Steve Edwards Field, Marianna, AR....

  6. 75 FR 29654 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Manila, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Manila, AR AGENCY: Federal... Manila, AR. Decommissioning of the Manila non-directional beacon (NDB) at Manila Municipal Airport, Manila, AR has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  7. 75 FR 8484 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Langdon, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... (SIAPs) at Robertson Field Airport, Langdon, ND. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and... controlled airspace at Robertson Field Airport (74 FR 63684) Docket No. FAA-2009-0535. Interested parties... Robertson Field Airport, Langdon, ND. This action is necessary for the safety and management of...

  8. 76 FR 75446 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV AGENCY: Federal... Mercury, Desert Rock Airport, Mercury, NV. Decommissioning of the Mercury Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) at Mercury, Desert Rock Airport has made this action necessary for the safety and management of...

  9. 14 CFR 91.130 - Operations in Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airport with an operating control tower must establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in the Class C airspace area; or (ii) From a satellite airport without an operating control tower, must establish and maintain two-way...

  10. 14 CFR 91.130 - Operations in Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airport with an operating control tower must establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in the Class C airspace area; or (ii) From a satellite airport without an operating control tower, must establish and maintain two-way...

  11. 14 CFR 91.130 - Operations in Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airport with an operating control tower must establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in the Class C airspace area; or (ii) From a satellite airport without an operating control tower, must establish and maintain two-way...

  12. 78 FR 52085 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stockton, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Rooks County Regional Airport. The FAA is taking this... the Stockton, KS, area, creating controlled airspace at Rooks County Regional Airport (78 FR 25229... feet above the surface within a 7-mile radius of Rooks County Regional Airport, Stockton, KS, with...

  13. Preliminary Uncorrelated Encounter Model of the National Airspace System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-26

    Finally, the authors would also like to thank Vito D. Cavallo., Ann C. Drumm, Robert D. Grappel, J. Daniel Griffith, Garrett S. Harris , Jessica E...this ordering of the nodes is already topologically sorted: the first nod(e (airspace ( lass ) is connected to all other nodes. The second node

  14. 76 FR 22012 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kokomo, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Kokomo Municipal Airport and Regional Health System Heliport, Kokomo, IN. The FAA is taking this action... to expand Class E airspace to include Regional Health System Heliport, as well as amending existing... accommodate COPTER RNAV standard instrument approach procedures at Regional Health System Heliport, Kokomo,...

  15. 76 FR 67056 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Jacksonville, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    .... This Class E airspace area is effective during the specific days and times established in advance by a Notice to Airmen. The effective days and times will thereafter be continuously published in the Airport... surface of the earth. * * * * * ASO NC E5 Jacksonville, NC Jacksonville, New River MCAS, NC (Lat. 34...

  16. Pilot Convective Weather Decision Making in En Route Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Gooding, Cary L.; Shelley, Alexandra E.; Duong, Constance G.; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates characteristics exhibited in pilot convective weather decision making in en route airspace. In a part-task study, pilots performed weather avoidance under various encounter scenarios. Results showed that the margins of safety that pilots maintain from storms are as fluid as deviation decisions themselves.

  17. 76 FR 18378 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taylor, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taylor, AZ AGENCY: Federal... Taylor Airport, Taylor, AZ, to accommodate aircraft using the CAMBO One Departure, and the Area Navigation (RNAV) standard instrument approach procedures at Taylor Airport. This will improve the safety...

  18. 75 FR 50694 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Astoria, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... 09 29 N., long. 123 52 43 W.) Camp Rilea Heliport (Lat. 46 06 59 N., long. 123 55 54 W.) Within a 4...., long. 123 52 43 W.) Seaside Municipal Airport (Lat. 46 00 54 N., long. 123 54 28 W.) That airspace...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not...

  19. 75 FR 12972 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rawlins, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ...) Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) at Rawlins Municipal/Harvey Field. This will improve the...) approach procedure at Rawlins Municipal/Harvey Field, Rawlins, WY. This action is necessary for the safety... authority as it establishes additional controlled airspace at Rawlins Municipal/Harvey Field, Rawlins,...

  20. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless otherwise specified, the word “to” (an altitude or flight level) means “to and including” (that altitude or flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  1. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless otherwise specified, the word “to” (an altitude or flight level) means “to and including” (that altitude or flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  2. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless otherwise specified, the word “to” (an altitude or flight level) means “to and including” (that altitude or flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  3. 75 FR 57383 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Willcox, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Class E airspace at Willcox, AZ, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Cochise County Airport. This will... County Airport, to accommodate IFR aircraft executing new RNAV (GPS) SIAPs at the airport. This action...

  4. 75 FR 57374 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fillmore, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... E airspace at Fillmore, UT, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) at Fillmore Municipal Airport. This..., at Fillmore Municipal Airport, to accommodate IFR aircraft executing new RNAV GPS SIAP at the...

  5. 78 FR 22417 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Lakeview, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Lakeview, OR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E... submitting written comments on the proposal to the FAA. No comments were received. Class E...

  6. 78 FR 50323 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lexington, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lexington, OK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... conversion of the Class E surface area to a Class E transition area. This action enhances the safety...

  7. 76 FR 22015 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Raton, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Municipal Airport/Crews Field, Raton, NM. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management... additional controlled airspace at Raton Municipal Airport/ Crews Field (76 FR 5305) Docket No. FAA-2010-1239... accommodate new RNAV standard instrument approach procedures at Raton Municipal Airport/Crews Field, Raton,...

  8. Screening low fire blight susceptible Crataegus species for host suitability to hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.).

    PubMed

    Bribosia, E; Bylemans, D; Van Impe, G; Migon, M

    2002-01-01

    The group of hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.) hosted by the common hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq. may play an important role in the biological control of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), by increasing reproduction opportunities for the indigenous hymenopteran parasitoid Ephedrus persicae Froggatt. Unfortunately, most fruitgrowers hesitate to introduce the common hawthorn in their orchards because they fear fire blight infections which may be transmitted by this highly susceptible hawthron species. This potential hazard led us to investigate the suitability to leaf-curling aphids of alternative Crataegus species. As representative for these closely-related aphids, the species Dysaphis apiifolia petroselini (Börner) was used in the trials. Ten Crataegus species characterized by their very low susceptibility to fire blight were examined from two angles. Firstly, aphid sexuals were introduced in autumn onto the different species to verify whether egg laying could take place. Secondly, the development of fundatrices and gall formation were followed the next spring. Although eggs and mature fundatrices could be obtained on almost all species, no fundatrice-hosting galls were recorded in spring. The possible causes of these negative results with respect to the geographical origin of the particular Crataegus species involved in this work are discussed.

  9. Convective drying of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus spp.): Effect of experimental parameters on drying kinetics, color, shrinkage, and rehydration capacity.

    PubMed

    Aral, Serdar; Beşe, Ayşe Vildan

    2016-11-01

    Thin layer drying characteristics and physicochemical properties of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus spp.) were investigated using a convective dryer at air temperatures 50, 60 and 70°C and air velocities of 0.5, 0.9 and 1.3m/s. The drying process of hawthorn took place in the falling rate period, and the drying time decreased with increasing air temperature and velocity. The experimental data obtained during the drying process were fitted to eleven different mathematical models. The Midilli et al.'s model was found to be the best appropriate model for explaining the drying behavior of hawthorn fruit. Effective moisture diffusion coefficients (Deff) were calculated by Fick's diffusion model and their values varied from 2.34×10(-10)m(2)/s to 2.09×10(-9)m(2)/s. An Arrhenius-type equation was applied to determine the activation energies. While the shrinkage decreased, the rehydration ratio increased with increasing air temperature and air velocity.

  10. Identification of fruit volatiles from green hawthorn (Crataegus viridis) and blueberry hawthorn (Crataegus brachyacantha) host plants attractive to different phenotypes of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. In a companion paper, we showed that R. pomonella flies infesting two different mayhaw species (Crataegus opaca and C. aestivalis) can discriminate between volatile blends developed for each host fruit, and that these blends are different from previously constructed blends for northern fly populations that infest domestic apple (Malus domestica), downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis), and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Here, we show by using coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays, that two additional southern hawthorn fly populations infesting C. viridis (green hawthorn) and C. brachyacantha (blueberry hawthorn) also can discriminate between volatile blends for each host fruit type. A 9-component blend was developed for C. viridis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [5%], butyl butanoate [19.5%], propyl hexanoate [1.5%], butyl hexanoate [24%], hexyl butanoate [24%], pentyl hexanoate [2.5%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.5%], pentyl butanoate [2.5%], and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) [20.5%]) and an 8-component blend for C. brachyacantha (3-methylbutan-1-ol [0.6%], butyl acetate [50%], pentyl acetate [3.5%], butyl butanoate [9%], butyl hexanoate [16.8%], hexyl butanoate [16.8%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.3%], and pentyl butanoate [3%]). Crataegus viridis and C. brachyacantha-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind oriented flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the alternate, non-natal blend and previously developed northern host plant blends. The presence of DMNT in C. viridis and butyl acetate in C. brachyacantha appeared to be largely responsible for driving the differential response. This sharp behavioral distinction underscores the diversity of odor response phenotypes in the southern USA, points to possible host race formation in these

  11. 75 FR 27670 - Proposed Revocation of Class C Airspace, Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace, and Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    .... The FAA's authority to issue rules regarding aviation safety is found in Title 49 of the United States...-27672] [FR Doc No: 2010-11851] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part... Airspace; Columbus, GA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  12. 75 FR 4268 - Establishment of Class D and E Airspace and Modification of Class E Airspace; State College, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... airspace at State College, PA, to accommodate a new air traffic control tower at University Park Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of instrument Flight Rules (IFR... air traffic control tower at University Park Airport was established. Interested parties were...

  13. 77 FR 37569 - Establishment of Class D Airspace and Amendment of Class E Airspace; East Hampton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... accommodate the new mobile airport traffic control tower (ATCT) at East Hampton Airport. Controlled airspace... Hampton, NY, to accommodate a new air traffic control tower at East Hampton Airport (77 FR 15297... one purpose of establishing a tower at East Hampton Airport is for helicopter noise...

  14. 78 FR 46497 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Tower at Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field) now operating on a part time basis. This action enhances the... also updates the geographic coordinates of Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field) and NALF Fentress. DATES... surface airspace at Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field), VA, as the air traffic control tower...

  15. 75 FR 3984 - Establishment of Class D and Class E Airspace, Modification of Class E Airspace; Ocala, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... E airspace at Ocala International Airport-Jim Taylor Field, Ocala, FL. This action also makes a... for Ocala International Airport--Jim Taylor Field, Ocala, FL, published in the Federal Register June... Taylor Field was stated incorrectly. This action corrects that error. Confirmation of Effective Date...

  16. Transcriptome Analysis and Ultrastructure Observation Reveal that Hawthorn Fruit Softening Is due to Cellulose/Hemicellulose Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiayu; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Lijie; Hou, Yali; Dong, Wenxuan

    2016-01-01

    Softening, a common phenomenon in many fruits, is a well coordinated and genetically determined process. However, the process of flesh softening during ripening has rarely been described in hawthorn. In this study, we found that ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits became softer during ripening, whereas ‘Qiu JinXing’ fruits remained hard. At late developmental stages, the firmness of ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits rapidly declined, and that of ‘Qiu JinXing’ fruits remained essentially unchanged. According to transmission electron microscopy, the middle lamella of ‘Qiu JinXing’ and ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruit flesh was largely degraded as the fruits matured. Microfilaments in ‘Qiu JinXing’ flesh were arranged close together and were deep in color, whereas those in ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruit flesh were arranged loosely, partially degraded and light in color. RNA-Seq analysis yielded approximately 46.72 Gb of clean data and 72,837 unigenes. Galactose metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions are involved in cell wall metabolism, play an important role in hawthorn texture. We identified 85 unigenes related to the cell wall between hard- and soft-fleshed hawthorn fruits. Based on data analysis and real-time PCR, we suggest that β-GAL and PE4 have important functions in early fruit softening. The genes Ffase, Gns,α-GAL, PE63, XTH, and CWP, which are involved in cell wall degradation, are responsible for the different textures of hawthorn fruits. Thus, we hypothesize that the different textures of ‘Qiu JinXing’ and ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits at maturity mainly result from cellulose/hemicelluloses degradation rather than from lamella degradation. Overall, we propose that different types of hydrolytic enzymes in cells interact to degrade the cell wall, resulting in ultramicroscopic Structure changes in the cell wall and, consequently, fruit softening. These results provide fundamental insight

  17. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  18. Hypolipidemic and cardioprotective benefits of a novel fireberry hawthorn fruit extract in the JCR:LA-cp rodent model of dyslipidemia and cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Borthwick, Faye; Wu, Sheng; Lee, Jeanette; Brown, Paula N; Dickinson, Timothy A; Croft, Kevin D; Vine, Donna F; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-09-14

    Hawthorn is a widely used herbal alternative medicine for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. However, the attributed health benefits, purported to be due to the presence of phenolic compounds, may depend on both the specific species and plant part. Studies to date investigating effects of hawthorn on heart disease(s) have used well-described European and/or Asian species, while little is known regarding the bioactivity of species native to North America. Six weeks of supplementation of both fireberry hawthorn berry (native Crataegus chrysocarpa) and English hawthorn leaf (C. monogyna, naturalized in North America) in the JCR:LA-cp rat, resulted in a significant reduction in heart weight, fasting LDL-C and improved heart function (p < 0.05). Fasting triglyceride and myocardial fibrosis were also reduced, but only by the berry extract. We demonstrate that both of the Canadian-sourced hawthorn extracts (introduced leaf and native berry) have cardioprotective benefits, likely via increased availability of nitric oxide.

  19. 76 FR 75448 - Establishment of Class D and E Airspace; Frederick, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Class D and E airspace at Frederick, MD, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Frederick Municipal Airport. This...

  20. 75 FR 13049 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Charlotte, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ...; Charlotte, NC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... the Federal Register of March 3, 2010, regarding the modification of Class B airspace, Charlotte,...