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Sample records for airspace klamath falls

  1. 75 FR 63706 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Klamath Falls, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Klamath Falls... amend Class D and Class E airspace at Klamath Falls, OR. Decommissioning of the Merrill ] Non-Directional Radio Beacon (NDB) at Klamath Falls Airport has made this action necessary for the safety...

  2. 75 FR 49866 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Klamath Falls, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Falls, OR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class D and Class E airspace at Klamath Falls, OR. Decommissioning of the Merrill Non-Directional Radio Beacon (NDB) at Klamath Falls Airport has made this...

  3. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Klamath Falls downtown development geothermal sidewalk snowmelt

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.

    1995-10-01

    The Klamuth Falls, Oregon, downtown has seen a period of decline over the past 20 years as businesses have moved to new suburban shopping centers. Downtown business owners and the Klamuth Falls Downtown Redevelopment Agency are working to reverse that trend with a Downtown Streetscape Project intended to make the downtown a more pleasant place to work and do business. The visible elements of the project include new crosswalks with brick pavers, wheelchair ramps at sidewalk corners, new concrete sidewalks with a consistent decorative grid pattern, sidewalk planters for trees and flowers, and antique-style park benches and lighting fixtures. A less visible, but equally valuable feature of the project is the plastic tubing installed under the sidewalks, wheelchair ramps and crosswalks, designed to keep them snow and ice free in the winter. A unique feature of the snowmelt system is the use of geothermal heated water on the return side of the Klamath Falls Geothermal District Heating System, made possible by the recent expansion of the district heating system.

  5. Damages from the 20 September earthquakes near Klamath Falls, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the damage resulting from the earthquakes was reported from Klamath Falls, approximately 20 km from the source region of earthquakes. As has commonly been the case with earthquakes in other parts of the United States, the degree of damage was highly uneven in Klamath Falls. Most of the town escaped with little damage to buildings or building contents. Losses were concentrated in the downtown area, but even there most of the buildings were not damaged. The unevenness of damage in earthquakes results primarily from large differences in the seismic resistance of individual buildings and differences in the seismic response due to different soil conditions and geology beneath buildings. 

  6. Conceptual model of the Klamath Falls, Oregon geothermal area

    SciTech Connect

    Prucha, R.H.; Benson, S.M.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last 50 years significant amounts of data have been obtained from the Klamath Falls geothermal resource. To date, the complexity of the system has stymied researchers, leading to the development of only very generalized hydrogeologic and geothermal models of the area. Recently, the large quantity of available temperature data have been re-evaluated, revealing new information on subsurface heat flow and locations of faults in the system. These inferences are supported by borehole, geochemical, geophysical, and hydrologic data. Based on re-evaluation of all available data, a detailed conceptual model for the Klamath Falls geothermal resource is proposed.

  7. Conceptual Model of the Klamath Falls, Oregon Geothermal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Prucha, R.H.; Benson, S.M.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1987-01-20

    Over the last 50 years significant amounts of data have been obtained from the Klamath Falls geothermal resource. To date, the complexity of the system has stymied researchers, leading to the development of only very generalized hydrogeologic and geothermal models of the area. Recently, the large quantity of available temperature data have been re-evaluated, revealing new information on subsurface heat flow and locations of faults in the system. These inferences are supported by borehole, geochemical, geophysical, and hydrologic data. Based on re-evaluation of all available data, a detailed conceptual model for the Klamath Falls geothermal resource is proposed. 1 tab., 8 figs., 21 refs.

  8. Geothermal greenhouse heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the nursing home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the nursing home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the nursing home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the nursing home.

  9. Geothermal greenhouse-heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the Nursing Home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource (approx. 190/sup 0/F) currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the Nursing Home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the Nursing Home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the Nursing Home.

  10. The Klamath Falls, Oregon, earthquakes on September 20, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantley, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    The mainshocks caused light moderate damage at Klamath Falls, a town of about 18,000 residents located only about 20 km east of the epicentral area. Damage included toppled chimneys, cracked masonry, and fallen parapets. Power outages occurred after the strongest shocks. In addition, strong shaking broke water mains, and landslides temporarily blocked highways. the earthquakes also caused two fatalities. A rockfall crushed an automobile, killing a motorist, and an elderly lady had a heart attack. the low population density in the epicentral area- less than five people per sq km- kept the toatl dollar loss to about 7.5 million dollars. 

  11. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the geothermal area near Klamath Falls, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sammel, E.A.; Peterson, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Geothermal phenomena observed in the vicinity of Klamath Falls include hot springs with temperatures that approach 204°F (96 o C) (the approximate boiling temperature for the altitude), steam and water wells with temperatures that exceed 212°F (100°C), and hundreds of warm-water wells with temperatures mostly ranging from 68° to 95°F (20° to 35°C). Although warm waters are encountered by wells throughout much of the 350 square miles (900 square kilometers) of the area studied, waters with temperatures exceeding 140°F (60°C) are confined to three relatively restricted areas, the northeast part of the City of Klamath Falls, Olene Gap, and the southwest flank of the Klamath Hills.The hot waters are located near, and are presumably related to, major fault and fracture zones of the Basin and Range type. The displaced crustal blocks are composed of basaltic flow rocks and pyroclastics of Miocene to Pleistocene age, and of sediments and basalt flows of the Yonna Formation of Pliocene age. Dip-slip movement along the high-angle faults may be as much as 6,000 feet (1,800 meters) at places.Shallow ground water of local meteoric origin moves through the upper 1,000 to 1,500 feet (300 to 450 meters) of sediments and volcanic rocks at relatively slow rates. A small amount of ground water, perhaps 100,000 acre feet (1.2 x 108 cubic meters) per year, leaves the area in flow toward the southwest, but much of the ground water is discharged as evapotranspiration within the basin. Average annual precipitation on 7,317 square miles (18,951 square kilometers) of land surface near Klamath Falls is estimated to be 18.16 inches (461 millimeters), of which between 12 and 14 inches (305 and 356 millimeters) is estimated to be lost through evapotranspiration.Within the older basaltic rocks of the area, hydraulic conductivities are greater than in the shallow sediments, and ground water may move relatively freely parallel to the northwest-southeast structural trend. Recharge to the

  12. Marketing the Klamath Falls Geothermal District Heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1993-06-01

    The new marketing strategy for the Klamath Falls system has concentrated on offering the customer an attractive and easy to understand rate structure, reduced retrofit cost and complexity for his building along with an attractive package of financing and tax credits. Initial retrofit costs and life-cycle cost analysis have been conducted on 22 buildings to date. For some, the retrofit costs are simply too high for the conversion to make sense at current geothermal rates. For many, however, the prospects are good. At this writing, two new customers are now connected and operating with 5 to 8 more buildings committed to connect this construction season after line extensions are completed. This represents nearly a 60% increase in the number of buildings connected to the system and a 40% increase in system revenue.

  13. Klamath Falls: High-Power Acoustic Well Stimulation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Brian

    2006-07-24

    Acoustic well stimulation (AWS) technology uses high-power sonic waves from specific frequency spectra in an attempt to stimulate production in a damaged or low-production wellbore. AWS technology is one of the most promising technologies in the oil and gas industry, but it has proven difficult for the industry to develop an effective downhole prototype. This collaboration between Klamath Falls Inc. and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) included a series of tests using high-power ultrasonic tools to stimulate oil and gas production. Phase I testing was designed and implemented to verify tool functionality, power requirements, and capacity of high-power AWS tools. The purpose of Phase II testing was to validate the production response of wells with marginal production rates to AWS stimulation and to capture and identify any changes in the downhole environment after tool deployment. This final report presents methodology and results.

  14. City of Klamath Falls, Oregon Geothermal Power Plant Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Brown, PE; Stephen Anderson, PE, Bety Riley

    2011-07-31

    The purpose of the Klamath Falls project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a combined thermal distribution system and power generation facility. The city of Klamath Falls operates a geothermal district heating system which would appear to be an attractive opportunity to install a power generation system. Since the two wells have operated reliably and consistently over many years, no new sources or resource exploration would be necessary. It appears that it will cost more to construct, operate, maintain and amortize a proposed geothermal facility than the long?term value of the power it would produce. The success of a future project will be determined by whether utility power production costs will remain low and whether costs of construction, operations, or financing may be reduced. There are areas that it would be possible to reduce construction cost. More detailed design could enable the city to obtain more precise quotes for components and construction, resulting in reduction in contingency projections. The current level of the contingency for uncertainty of costs is between $200,000 and $300,000. Another key issue with this project appears to be operation cost. While it is expected that only minimal routine monitoring and operating expenses will occur, the cost of water supply and waste water disposal represents nearly one quarter of the value of the power. If the cost of water alone could be reduced, the project could become viable. In addition, the projected cost of insurance may be lower than estimated under a city?wide policy. No provisions have been made for utilization of federal tax incentives. If a transaction with a third-party owner/taxpayer were to be negotiated, perhaps the net cost of ownership could be reduced. It is recommended that these options be investigated to determine if the costs and benefits could be brought together. The project has good potential, but like many alternative energy projects today, they only work economically if the

  15. National Uranium Resource Evaluation, Klamath Falls Quadrangle, Oregon and California

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, S.B.; Berry, M.R.; Robins, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    The Klamath Falls Quadrangle, Oregon, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits according to criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Surface radiometric reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were used for overall evaluation of the quadrangle. Detailed rock sampling, geologic mapping, and examinations of uranium mines and occurrences were performed in suspected favorable areas. Results of the work indicate good potential for shallow hydrothermal volcanogenic uranium deposits in the Lakeview favorable area, which comprises a northwest-trending belt of rhyolite intrusions in the eastern half of the quadrangle. The young age, peraluminous chemistry, and low thorium-to-uranium ratios of the rhyolite intrusions, as well as low uranium content of groundwater samples, indicate that uranium has not been leached from the intrusions by ground water. Therefore, supergene uranium deposits are not likely in the area. Scattered occurrences of ash-flow tuff in the east half of the quadrangle that contain high uranium and (or) thorium contents, and four occurrences of secondary uranium minerals in ash-flow tuff, indicate possible uranium deposits in ash flows in a poorly defined area that is partially coextensive with the Lakeview favorable area. Small granitic plutons with associated quartz-tourmaline breccia veins and base-metal occurrences may also be favorable for uranium deposits but were not examined during this study.

  16. 78 FR 25406 - Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Twin Falls, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Twin Falls, ID...: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Twin Falls Joslin Field-Magic Valley Regional Airport, Twin Falls, ID. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using the...

  17. 78 FR 40382 - Modification of Class D and E Airspace; Twin Falls, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class D and E Airspace; Twin Falls, ID... Class E airspace at Twin Falls Joslin Field-Magic Valley Regional Airport, Twin Falls, ID, to... areas, as well as corrects the airport name to Twin Falls Joslin Field-Magic Valley Regional...

  18. Pavement snow melting in Klamath Falls - rehabilitation of the ODOT Well

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, R.E.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    This paper discusses the use of geothermal energy in pavement de-icing in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Due to a change in traffic routing in 1948, U.S. Highway 97 was routed with a new bridge and roadway through downtown Klamath Falls with an adverse 8 percent grade. Problems with traffic in winter led to the incorporation of a geothermal experiment in de-icing into the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) construction project. The geothermal well was originally artesian, but the static water level has dropped over the years of usage, and the water temperatures at various depths have also dropped. Changes in city environmental regulations in 1985 have called for the elimination of all surface and sewer discharge from geothermal wells. Modifications to the existing pavement de-icing system which would bring it into compliance with the city ordinances are discussed in this paper.

  19. 76 FR 28306 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Idaho Falls, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Idaho Falls, ID... existing Class D and Class E airspace at Idaho Falls, ID, by changing the name of the airport to Idaho Falls Regional Airport, and adjusting the geographic coordinates of the airport. This action also...

  20. Heat and mass transfer in the Klamath Falls, Oregon, geothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Prucha, R.H.

    1987-05-01

    Over the last 50 years significant amounts of data have been obtained from the Klamath Falls geothermal resource. To date, the complexity of the system has perplexed researchers, leading to the development of only very generalized hydrogeologic and geothermal models of the area. Based on reevaluation of all available data, a detailed conceptual model for the Klamath Falls geothermal resource is proposed. A comprehensive 3-dimensional numerical model, based on the proposed conceptual model is also presented. This numerical model incorporates all of the main reservoir characteristics. Hot water recharge flows from depth, along a large normal fault, and flows into near surface permeable strata where it loses heat to surrounding beds and to mixing with cold regional groundwaters introduced from the north. By matching calculated and measured temperatures and pressures, hot and cold water recharge rates and the permeability distribution for the geothermal system are estimated. A semi-analytic solution and simple lumped parameter methods are also compared to the numerical analysis. Results suggest that the flow patterns within the geothermal system at Klamath Falls are complex and intimately associated with the permeability distribution and the pressures and temperatures at depth, within the faults.

  1. Data from pumping and injection tests and chemical sampling in the geothermal aquifer at Klamath Falls, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, S.M.; Janik, C.J.; Long, D.C.; Solbau, R.D.; Lienau, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    A seven-week pumping and injection tests in the geothermal aquifer at Klamath Falls, Oregon, in 1983 provided new information on hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The Open-File Data Report on the tests includes graphs of water levels measured in 50 wells, temperature measurement in 17 wells , daily air-temperatures in relation to discharge of thermal water from more than 70 pumped and artesian wells, tables of monthly mean air temperatures and estimates of discharges of thermal water during a normal year, and tables of chemical and isotopic analyses on samples from 12 wells. The water-level measurements reflect the effects of pumping, injection, and recovery over about 1.7 square miles of the hot-well area of Klamath Falls. The pumped well, City Well No 1, and the injection well at the Klamath County Museum are components of a proposed District Heating Plan. The study was funded principally under contracts from the U.S. Department of Energy to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Stanford University, and the Oregon Institute of Technology, with coordination and chemical sampling provided under the Geothermal Research Program, U.S. Geological Survey. Support was received from the City of Klamath Falls, Klamath County Chamber of Commerce, Citizens for Responsible Geothermal Development, and many citizen volunteers. (USGS)

  2. Tracer test analysis of the Klamath Falls geothermal resource: a comparison of models

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.E.

    1984-06-01

    Two tracer tests on doublet systems in a fractured geothermal system were carried out in Klamath Falls, Oregon. The purpose of the tests were to obtain data which would lead to information about the reservoir and to test the applicability of current tracer flow models. The results show rapid breakthrough times and indicate fracture flow with vigorous mixing of injector fluid before production of same. This leads to the idea that thermal breakthrough is not directly related to tracer breakthrough in the Klamath Union doublet system. There has been no long-term enthalpy loss from exploiting the resource for 40 years. In order to reduce the data, models were developed to analyze the results. Along with a porous media flow model two mathematical models developed to analyze fractured geothermal systems are used to help decipher the various tracer return curves. The flow of tracers in doublet systems was investigated. A mathematical description is used for tracer flow through fractures as a function of time and various nonlinear parameters which can be found using a curve fitting technique. This allows the reservoir to be qualitatively defined. These models fit the data well, but point to the fact that future improvement needs to be considered for a clearer and more quantitative understanding of fractured geothermal systems. 22 refs., 32 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. 76 FR 9266 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Idaho Falls, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Falls, ID AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend the Class D and Class E airspace areas at Idaho Falls, ID, by changing the name of the airport to Idaho Falls Regional Airport, and adjusting the...

  4. Physiological development and vulnerability to Ceratomyxa shasta of fall-run Chinook Salmon in the Upper Klamath River Watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, Alec G.; Vanderkooi, Scott P.; Hamilton, John B; Stocking , Richard; Bartholomew, Jerri

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated a stock for restoring runs of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Upper Klamath River basin by monitoring its development in Iron Gate Hatchery and in net-pens in the Williamson River and Upper Klamath Lake in Oregon. We transferred age-1 hatchery fall Chinook salmon to net-pens in October 2005 and age-0 fall Chinook salmon in May 2006. Indices of smolt development were assessed in the hatchery and after 3 and 14 d in net-pens. Based on gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity and plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration, age-1 Chinook salmon were not developing smolt characteristics in the hatchery during October. Fish transferred to the river or lake had increased plasma cortisol in response to stress and increased T4 accompanying the change in water, but they did not have altered development. Variables in the age-0 Chinook salmon indicated that the fish in the hatchery were smolting. The fish in the river net-pens lost mass and had gill ATPase activity similar to that of the fish in the hatchery, whereas the fish transferred to the lake gained mass and length, had reduced condition factor, and had higher gill ATPase than the fish in the river. These results, along with environmental variables, suggest that the conditions in the lake were more conducive to smoltification than those in the river and thus accelerated the development of Chinook salmon. No Chinook salmon in the hatchery or either net-pen became infected with the myxosporean parasite Ceratomyxa shasta (the presence of which in the river and lake was confirmed) during either trial or when held for 90 d after a 10-d exposure in net-pens (2006 group). We concluded that that there is little evidence of physiological impairment or significant upriver vulnerability to C. shasta among this stock of fall Chinook salmon that would preclude them from being reintroduced into the Upper Klamath River basin.

  5. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Point of Entry/Point of Use Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Oregon Institute of Technology at Klamath Falls, OR - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) at Klamath Falls, OR. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness...

  6. Pumice deposits of the Klamath Indian Reservation, Klamath County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George Walton

    1951-01-01

    A large volume of pumice is widely distributed over the Klamath Indian Reservation in 'flow' and 'fall' deposits. The flow material on the Reservation is restricted to the area west of Klamath Marsh, and the fall material is thickest immediately southeast of the Marsh. Tests of the chemical and physical properties of the pumice indicate that the pumice is suitable, with some limitations, for use as an aggregate and as a low-grade abrasive. Preliminary examination also indicates that with proper processing it may have a potential use as pozzuolana. The pumice is similar to material now being marketed for lightweight aggregate in Oregon, but processing of the pumice is necessary to obtain a suitable size distribution of the particles.

  7. Pilot study to access the role of Ceratomyxa shasta infection in mortality of fall-run Chinook smolts migrating through the lower Klamath River in 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foott, Scott; Stutzer, Greg; Fogerty, R.; Hansel, Hal; Juhnke, Steven; Beeman, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Apparent survival and migration rate of radio-tagged hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon released at Iron Gate Hatchery was monitored in the Klamath River to see if the timing of mortality coincided with observations of ceratomyxosis in re-captured coded wire tag cohorts. Despite rapid emigration, these relatively large (mean fork length 92 mm) smolts had a cumulative apparent survival to the estuary of 0.074 (SE 0.024) and standardized rates of survival per 100 km tended to decrease linearly with distance from the hatchery. The last fish detection occurred 26 days after release but median travel time between Iron Gate Hatchery (rkm 309) and the last receiver near the Klamath estuary (Blake’s Riffle rkm 13) was about 10 days. The majority of apparent mortality (8-10 d post-release) occurred before disease from Ceratomyxa shasta infection is expected after exposure to infectious waters. Despite numerous observations of ceratomyxosis in the Klamath R. during June, an obvious link between disease and apparent survival was not present in this study. Future studies should examine the acute (e.g., predator types and densities) and chronic (e.g., swimming performance impairment due to disease) mortality factors for juvenile Chinook salmon smolts in the Klamath River.

  8. Drought in the Klamath River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 100 years groups in the western United States have fought over water. During the 1880s, sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers argued over drinking water for their livestock on the high plains. In 1913, the city of Los Angeles began to draw water away from small agricultural communities in the Owen Valley, leaving a dusty dry lake bed. In the late 1950s, construction of the Glen Canyon Dam catalyzed the American environmental movement. Today, farmers are fighting fishermen, environmentalists, and Native American tribes over the water in the Upper Klamath River Basin. A below-average winter snowpack and low rainfall throughout the year have caused an extreme drought in the area along the California/Oregon border. In April 2001 a U.S. District Court stopped water deliveries to farms in the Klamath Irrigation District to preserve adequate water levels in Upper Klamath Lake to protect two endangered species of Mullet fish (called suckers). Water was also reserved for the threatened Coho Salmon which need enough water to swim downstream from their spawning grounds to the ocean. In addition, several Native American tribes have rights to Klamath River water. Further complicating the situation are a handful of wildlife refuges which usually receive enough irrigation wastewater to support upwards of a million migratory birds and 900 Bald Eagles. This year, however, several of the refuges may not have enough water for the birds which begin arriving in early fall. The severity of this year's drought is underscored by the town of Bonanza, Oregon. Famous for its natural springs, and entirely dependent on wells for drinking water, the town's water supply is now contaminated with pesticides, fertilizer, and manure. The water quality is so bad it's not even safe to bathe in, much less drink. The problem stems from a very low water table. The drop in underground water levels is caused directly by the drought, and indirectly from the increased irrigation from underground

  9. Drought in the Klamath River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 100 years groups in the western United States have fought over water. During the 1880s, sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers argued over drinking water for their livestock on the high plains. In 1913, the city of Los Angeles began to draw water away from small agricultural communities in the Owen Valley, leaving a dusty dry lake bed. In the late 1950s, construction of the Glen Canyon Dam catalyzed the American environmental movement. Today, farmers are fighting fishermen, environmentalists, and Native American tribes over the water in the Upper Klamath River Basin. A below-average winter snowpack and low rainfall throughout the year have caused an extreme drought in the area along the California/Oregon border. In April 2001 a U.S. District Court stopped water deliveries to farms in the Klamath Irrigation District to preserve adequate water levels in Upper Klamath Lake to protect two endangered species of Mullet fish (called suckers). Water was also reserved for the threatened Coho Salmon which need enough water to swim downstream from their spawning grounds to the ocean. In addition, several Native American tribes have rights to Klamath River water. Further complicating the situation are a handful of wildlife refuges which usually receive enough irrigation wastewater to support upwards of a million migratory birds and 900 Bald Eagles. This year, however, several of the refuges may not have enough water for the birds which begin arriving in early fall. The severity of this year's drought is underscored by the town of Bonanza, Oregon. Famous for its natural springs, and entirely dependent on wells for drinking water, the town's water supply is now contaminated with pesticides, fertilizer, and manure. The water quality is so bad it's not even safe to bathe in, much less drink. The problem stems from a very low water table. The drop in underground water levels is caused directly by the drought, and indirectly from the increased irrigation from underground

  10. Dam Effects on Sediment Transport and Channel Form in the Klamath River: Implications for Salmonid Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, M. R.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    By virtue of the historical importance of its salmonid fishery and recent controversies over agricultural water diversions and fish mortality, the Klamath River (California and Oregon) has attracted significant attention from the public and federal agencies, including reports by two committees of the National Research Council since 2000. One proposal under consideration to restore Klamath River salmonid fisheries is to remove four hydroelectric dams that influence hydrology, sediment transport, and fish passage. The Klamath River is unusual in many respects, including the fact that its upper reaches are low-gradient, lake and bedrock-sill-controlled, with small sediment yields but large influxes of natural and anthropogenic nutrients. The river’s gradient and sediment load increase downstream as it passes through the steep Klamath Mountains and Coast Range. Therefore, the impact of the four dams proposed for removal on downstream geomorphic conditions varies with location in the watershed. Thus, some expectations of downstream dam effects based on observations on other rivers may not be directly applicable to the Klamath dams. We conducted a two-year study of reservoir sedimentation, bed material size, bed mobility, sediment transport, and channel form between Klamath Falls, Oregon and Seiad Valley, California. Based on our results, we identified geomorphically distinct reaches, and quantified bed mobility and sensitivity to channel change, as a basis to evaluate dam effects on downstream channel morphology. Our findings could be used to inform future dam removal approaches for the Klamath River.

  11. Doublet Tracer Testing in Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, J.S.; Johnson, S.E.; Horne, R.N.; Jackson, P.B.; Culver, G.G.

    1983-12-15

    A tracer test was carried out in a geothermal doublet system to study the injection behavior of a developed reservoir known to be fractured. The doublet produces about 320 gpm of 160 F water that is used for space heating and then injected; the wells are spaced 250 ft apart. Tracer breakthrough was observed in 2 hours and 45 minutes in the production well, indicating fracture flow. However, the tracer concentrations were low and indicated porous media flow; the tracers mixed with a reservoir volume much larger than a fracture.

  12. 75 FR 22620 - Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National..., Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges) located in Klamath County..., Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake Refuges located in Klamath County, Oregon,...

  13. Airspace Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-02

    it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE 02 FEB 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4...each other; select the best course of action; and produce a joint operation plan or order (JP 1 - 02 ). A major element of the JOPP is campaign planning... 1 - 02 ). Airspace control should be integrated throughout the JOPP and campaign planning to ensure joint air operations support the JFC‘s plan.60

  14. Dynamic Airspace Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In air traffic management systems, airspace is partitioned into regions in part to distribute the tasks associated with managing air traffic among different systems and people. These regions, as well as the systems and people allocated to each, are changed dynamically so that air traffic can be safely and efficiently managed. It is expected that new air traffic control systems will enable greater flexibility in how airspace is partitioned and how resources are allocated to airspace regions. In this talk, I will begin by providing an overview of some previous work and open questions in Dynamic Airspace Configuration research, which is concerned with how to partition airspace and assign resources to regions of airspace. For example, I will introduce airspace partitioning algorithms based on clustering, integer programming optimization, and computational geometry. I will conclude by discussing the development of a tablet-based tool that is intended to help air traffic controller supervisors configure airspace and controllers in current operations.

  15. Tree-ring reconstructed hydroclimate of the Upper Klamath Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevich, S. B.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Meko, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents the first tree-ring reconstructions of the Upper Klamath basin hydroclimate, which extends through northern California and southern Oregon. The extended record provides a centuries-long perspective on the hydroclimatic variability in this region, which is in a transitional zone with respect to the western U.S. precipitation dipole. It also can provide a long-term hydroclimatic context to the political issues which have erupted in the basin in recent years. Reconstructions of water year precipitation for Klamath Falls (extending 1564 - 2004 and 1000 - 2010 CE) were developed to identify and compare past drought intensities with droughts of the instrumental record. The reconstructions suggest that variability exhibited during the instrumental period captures moderate-to-long duration (six-, ten-, and twenty-year average) droughts, but it is likely that short (one- and three-year average) and very long (fifty-year average) dry periods are more intense during the eleventh-through-thirteenth century. The late-sixteenth century "mega drought", noted throughout western North America, is also present in the Klamath basin, though with less strength than in the neighboring Sacramento River reconstruction. Cool-season storm tracks appear to be a direct driver of hydroclimatic variability, leading to instances of see-saw like transitions with neighboring regions, such as in the mid-fourteenth century. In contrast, the larger area of drought in the eleventh century is suggestive of a long-term northward shift in cool-season storm tracks.

  16. Tree-ring reconstructed hydroclimate of the Upper Klamath basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevich, Steven B.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Meko, David M.

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the first tree-ring reconstructions of hydroclimate for the Upper Klamath River basin, which stretches from northern California into southern Oregon. The extended record provides a centuries-long perspective on the region’s hydroclimatic variability and context for water-related political issues that have erupted in recent years. Reconstructions of water-year precipitation for Klamath Falls, Oregon (extending 1564-2004 and 1000-2010 CE) were developed to compare past drought severity with drought severity of the instrumental record (extending 1896-2011). The reconstructions suggest that variability exhibited during the instrumental period captures extremes of moderate-to-long-duration (6-, 10-, and 20-year) droughts, but not of short (single-year and 3-year) and very long (50-year) droughts, which were more severe during the 11th-13th centuries. The late-16th-century “mega drought” is present in the Klamath River basin, though with less strength than in the neighboring Sacramento River basin. Cool-season storm tracks appear to be a direct driver of hydroclimatic variability, leading to instances of see-saw like relationships with neighboring regions, such as in the mid-14th century. In contrast, the larger area of drought in the 12th century is suggestive of a long-term northward shift in cool-season storm tracks.

  17. Some Klamath-Sahaptian Grammatical Correspondences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Noel

    Evidence is presented that suggests a genetic relationship between the Klamath and Sahaptian languages. The current list of potential Klamath-Sahaptian cognates contains core lexical material sufficient to demonstrate the validity of a genetic relationship, although many details of sound correspondence have yet to be worked out. But it is not only…

  18. The airspace is habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    A preconception concerning habitat persists and has gone unrecognized since use of the term first entered the lexicon of ecological and evolutionary biology many decades ago. Specifically, land and water are considered habitats, while the airspace is not. This might at first seem a reasonable, if unintended, demarcation, since years of education and personal experience as well as limits to perception predispose a traditional view of habitat. Nevertheless, the airspace satisfies the definition and functional role of a habitat, and its recognition as habitat may have implications for policy where expanding anthropogenic development of airspace could impact the conservation of species and subject parts of the airspace to formalized legal protection.

  19. Predicting the thermal effects of dam removal on the Klamath River.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, John M; Campbell, Sharon G; Flug, Marshall

    2004-12-01

    The Klamath River once supported large runs of anadromous salmonids. Water temperature associated with multiple mainstem hydropower facilities might be one of many factors responsible for depressing Klamath salmon stocks. We combined a water quantity model and a water quality model to predict how removing the series of dams below Upper Klamath Lake might affect water temperatures, and ultimately fish survival, in the spawning and rearing portions of the mainstem Klamath. We calibrated the water quantity and quality models and applied them for the hydrometeorological conditions during a 40-year postdam period. Then, we hypothetically removed the dams and their impoundments from the models and reestimated the river's water temperatures. The principal thermal effect of dam and reservoir removal would be to restore the timing (phase) of the river's seasonal thermal signature by shifting it approximately 18 days earlier in the year, resulting in river temperatures that more rapidly track ambient air temperatures. Such a shift would likely cool thermal habitat conditions for adult fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during upstream migration and benefit mainstem spawning. By contrast, spring and early summer temperatures could be warmer without dams, potentially harming chinook rearing and outmigration in the mainstem. Dam removal might affect the river's thermal regime during certain conditions for over 200 km of the mainstem.

  20. 75 FR 75694 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... the Federal Register of October 22, 2010, concerning the Liquor Control Ordinance of the Klamath... publishes the Secretary's certification of the Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance. The first...

  1. Generic Airspace Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  2. Life history diversity in Klamath River steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodge, Brian W.; Wilzbach, Peggy; Duffy, Walter G. G.; Quinones, Rebecca M.; Hobbs, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Oncorhynchus mykiss exhibits a vast array of life histories, which increases its likelihood of persistence by spreading risk of extirpation among different pathways. The Klamath River basin (California–Oregon) provides a particularly interesting backdrop for the study of life history diversity in O. mykiss, in part because the river is slated for a historic and potentially influential dam removal and habitat recolonization project. We used scale and otolith strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analyses to characterize life history diversity in wildO. mykiss from the lower Klamath River basin. We also determined maternal origin (anadromous or nonanadromous) and migratory history (anadromous or nonanadromous) of O. mykiss and compared length and fecundity at age between anadromous (steelhead) and nonanadromous (Rainbow Trout) phenotypes of O. mykiss. We identified a total of 38 life history categories at maturity, which differed in duration of freshwater and ocean rearing, age at maturation, and incidence of repeat spawning. Approximately 10% of adult fish sampled were nonanadromous. Rainbow Trout generally grew faster in freshwater than juvenile steelhead; however, ocean growth afforded adult steelhead greater length and fecundity than adult Rainbow Trout. Although 75% of individuals followed the migratory path of their mother, steelhead produced nonanadromous progeny and Rainbow Trout produced anadromous progeny. Overall, we observed a highly diverse array of life histories among Klamath River O. mykiss. While this diversity should increase population resilience, recent declines in the abundance of Klamath River steelhead suggest that life history diversity alone is not sufficient to stabilize a population. Our finding that steelhead and Rainbow Trout give rise to progeny of the alternate form (1) suggests that dam removal might lead to a facultatively anadromous O. mykiss population in the upper basin and (2) raises the question of whether both forms of

  3. Effects of ambient water quality on the endangered Lost River sucker in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, B.A.; Saiki, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    Populations of the Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus have declined so precipitously in the Upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California that this fish was recently listed for federal protection as an endangered species. Although Upper Klamath Lake is a major refuge for this species, fish in the lake occasionally experience mass mortalities during summer and early fall. This field study was implemented to determine if fish mortalities resulted from degraded water quality conditions associated with seasonal blooms of phytoplankton, especially Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Our results indicated that fish mortality did not always increase as water temperature, pH, and un-ionized ammonia concentration increased in Upper Klamath Lake. Little or no mortality occurred when these water quality variables attained their maximum values. On the other hand, an inverse relation existed between fish mortality and dissolved oxygen concentration. High mortality (>90%) occurred whenever dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased to 1.05 mg/L, whereas mortality was usually low (< 10%) when dissolved oxygen concentrations equaled or exceeded 1.58 mg/L. Stepwise logistic regression also indicated that the minimum concentration of dissolved oxygen measured was the single most important determinant of fish mortality.

  4. Geothermal exploration assessment and interpretation, Upper Klamah Lake Area, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, M.; Goldstein, N.E.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1980-09-01

    Data from public and private sources on the Klamath Basin geothermal resource are reviewed, synthesized, and reinterpreted. In this, the second and final phase of the work, geological, remote sensing, geochemical, temperature gradient, gravity, aeromagnetic, and electrical resistivity data sets are examined. These data were derived from surveys concentrated on the east and west shores of Upper Klamath Lake. The geological, remote sensing, and potential field data suggest a few northeast-trending discontinuities, which cross the regional north-westerly strike. The near-surface distribution of warm water appears to be related to the intersections of these lineaments and northwest-trending faults. The groundwater geochemical data are reviewed and the various reservoir temperature estimates compared. Particular attention is given to specific electrical conductivities of waters as an interpretational aid to the subsurface resistivity results. A clear trend emerges in the Klamath Falls/Olene Gap area; hotter waters are associated with higher specific conductivities. In the Nuss Lake/Stukel Mountain area the opposite trend prevails, although the relationship is somewhat equivocal.

  5. Late Quaternary slip rate and seismic hazards of the West Klamath Lake fault zone near Crater Lake, Oregon Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Crater Lake caldera is at the north end of the Klamath graben, where this N10??W-trending major Basin and Range structure impinges upon the north-south-trending High Cascades volcanic arc. East-facing normal faults, typically 10-15 km long, form the West Klamath Lake fault zone, which bounds the graben on its west side. The fault zone terminates on the south near the epicentral area of the September 1993 Klamath Falls earthquakes. It continues north past Crater Lake as the Annie Spring fault, which is within ~1 km of the west caldera rim, and Red Cone Spring fault. We have determined a long-term vertical slip rate of 0.3 mm/yr for these two faults using high-precision K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age measurements on offset lava flows ranging in age from ca. 35 to 300 ka. Holocene offset reported by Hawkins et al. and epicenters of eight MW 2 earthquakes in 1994 and 1995 indicate that the West Klamath Lake fautl zone is active. Empirical relations between earthquake magnitudes and scarp heights or fault lengths suggest that the fault zone is capable of producing earthquakes as large as MW 7 1/4 . Earthquakes on these or other faults of the zone could trigger landslides and rockfalls from the walls of the caldera, possibly resulting in large waves on Crater Lake.

  6. Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Klamath Mountains constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  7. 14 CFR 91.705 - Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace. 91.705 Section 91.705 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace. (a) Except as... airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications airspace unless— (1) The aircraft...

  8. Application of a computer simulation model to migrating white-fronted geese in the Klamath Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, R.B.; Clark, W.R.; Takekawa, J.Y.; McCullough, D.R.; Barrett, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Pacific greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population has declined precipitously over the past 20 years. Loss of wetland habitat in California wintering areas has had a significant effect on the population, so recovery of the population may depend on innovative management of the few remaining wetlands. A computer simulation model, REFMOD, was applied to greater white-fronted geese in the Klamath Basin, northern California, to investigate the importance of food availability and hunting disturbance to migrating and wintering populations. Time spent flying and feeding was simulated during fall and early winter, and the resulting energy expenditure was compared with energy consumed to calculate an overall energy balance. This energy balance and the ease with which waterfowl acquired needed food affected emigration rate, and thus, the waterfowl population level was directly tied to availability and distribution of food. The model validly described distances moved by geese from their Tule Lake Refuge roosting site (core) to feeding sites within the surrounding Klamath Basin arena, and exhibited a capability to simulate observed time spent feeding. Based on 25 stochastic simulations, greater white-fronted goose population dynamics were validly simulated over the fall and early-winter (P>0.8). When food was removed from the Tule Lake Refuge, simulated geese had to fly farther (P0.05). The elimination did cause an increase in the distance traveled to feed (P0.05) on the distance traveled to feed or on goose numbers. A 10-fold increase in disturbance hastened emigration and reduced population levels (P<0.0001) during the season by about 30%; a 100-fold increase in disturbance reduced population levels (P<0.0001) by 85%. When goose immigration was increased to simulate an average peak population of approximately 500 000 geese, population levels remained high throughout the fall, indicating the Klamath Basin can sustain a population much larger than currently

  9. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  10. Invertebrate assemblages in the lower Klamath River, with reference to Manayunkia speciosa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malakauskas, David M.; Wilzbach, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa Leidy (Canalipalpata Sabellidae), is the intermediate host for two myxozoan pathogens (Ceratomyxa shasta and Parvicapsula minibicornis) that cause substantial mortalities of juvenile salmon in the Pacific Northwest, particularly in the Klamath River below Iron Gate Dam in California. Information on the distribution of M. speciosa in the Klamath River may facilitate targeted control of polychaete populations to disrupt the parasites that affect fish populations. We sampled invertebrate assemblages in the lower Klamath River in the summer and fall of 2005 and 2006 to estimate distribution patterns of M. speciosa and to characterize assemblage structure of invertebrates in reaches where the polychaete was both collected and not collected. The polychaete was most often found in a reach of river extending 100 km downstream from the Shasta River (river km 185-287). The reach in which it was found supported high taxonomic richness of invertebrates and a high abundance of filtering collectors including marine relicts such as sponges, unioinid mussels, and bryozoans. We suggest that the large, stable substrate on which these were found represents primary, optimal habitat for the polychaete, also a marine relict. Reaches above and below the zone where we collected polychaetes showed a general trend of reduced taxonomic richness as distance away from the polychaete zone increased, and also showed differing relative abundances of non-insect taxa and functional feeding groups. Differences in invertebrate assemblages between years were coincident with large differences in water flows. We suggest flows and food resources may play important roles in invertebrate distribution patterns.

  11. Application of the Systems Impact Assessment Model (SIAM) to Fishery Resource Issues in the Klamath River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Sharon G.; Bartholow, John M.; Heasley, John

    2010-01-01

    At the request of two offices of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) located in Yreka and Arcata, Calif., we applied the Systems Impact Assessment Model (SIAM) to analyze a variety of water management concerns associated with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing of the Klamath hydropower projects or with ongoing management of anadromous fish stocks in the mainstem Klamath River, Oregon and California. Requested SIAM analyses include predicted effects of reservoir withdrawal elevations, use of full active storage in Copco and Iron Gate Reservoirs to augment spring flows, and predicted spawning and juvenile outmigration timing of fall Chinook salmon. In an effort to further refine the analysis of spring flow effects on predicted fall Chinook production, additional SIAM analyses were performed for predicted response to spring flow release variability from Iron Gate Dam, high and low pulse flow releases, the predicted effects of operational constraints for both Upper Klamath Lake water surface elevations, and projected flow releases specified in the Klamath Project 2006 Operations Plan (April 10, 2006). Results of SIAM simulations to determine flow and water temperature relationships indicate that up to 4 degrees C of thermal variability can be attributed to flow variations, but the effect is seasonal. Much more of thermal variability can be attributed to air temperature variations, up to 6 degrees C. Reservoirs affect the annual thermal signature by delaying spring warming by about 3 weeks and fall cooling by about 2 weeks. Multi-level release outlets on Iron Gate Dam would have limited utility; however, if releases are small (700 cfs) and a near-surface and bottom-level outlet could be blended, then water temperature may be reduced by 2-4 degrees C for a 4-week period during September. Using the full active storage in Copco and Iron Gate Reservoir, although feasible, had undesirable ramifications such as earlier spring warming, loss of

  12. 75 FR 33634 - Klamath Hydroelectric Settlement Agreement, Including Secretarial Determination on Whether to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Whether to Remove Four Dams on the Klamath River in California and Oregon AGENCY: Department of the... the evaluation of whether to remove four dams on the Klamath River pursuant to the terms of the... protect weak Klamath River stocks. --In 2010, due to drought conditions, the project is forecasting...

  13. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS Class C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace. The Class C airspace areas listed in subpart C of FAA Order... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section...

  14. 14 CFR 71.31 - Class A airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS Class A Airspace § 71.31 Class A airspace. The airspace descriptions contained in § 71.33 and the...

  15. Upper Klamath Lake Basin nutrient-loading study; assessment of historic flows in the Williamson and Sprague rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John C.; Laenen, Antonius

    1999-01-01

    The Williamson River Basin, located in southcentral Oregon, has a drainage area of approximately 3,000 square miles. The Sprague River, which flows into the Williamson River Basin, has a drainage area of 1,580 square miles. Together, the Williamson and Sprague Rivers supply about one-half of the inflow to Upper Klamath Lake. Various statistical techniques, which included trend tests, double-mass curves, and two-sample tests, were used to detect significant changes in the precipitation-runoff relation for the Williamson and Sprague River Basins. Flows from these two rivers were compared with the precipitation and air temperature records collected at Klamath Falls to assess the effect of climate on flow variations. Most of the double-mass curves showed a major break in the slope of the curve occurring around 1950 and a smaller one near 1990. For the years 1930?50 and 1990?96, February through May flows were relatively lower in the Williamson River than in rivers in nearby basins, by an average of 25,000 acre-feet per year and 36,000 acre-feet per year, respectively, for the 4-month period. From 1950 through 1963, flows were generally higher in the Williamson River compared with the nearby rivers by an average of 38,000 acre-feet for the 4 months. In July through September of 1945?51, 1970?76, and 1992?96, flows were lower in the Williamson River than in the comparison rivers by an average of about 6,000 acre-feet for the 3-month period. Two-sample statistical tests of the annual flow data sets for the Williamson and Sprague Rivers showed a significant increase in the estimated population mean for the period 1951?96 compared to the estimated population mean for the period 1922?50. However, climate data, which included annual precipitation data from Klamath Falls, Crater Lake, and Medford, and annual air temperature data from Klamath Falls, all showed no significant difference between the two periods. During the past century, various human land-use activities, such as

  16. 77 FR 19076 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marion, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Airspace at Marion, AL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations within the National Airspace System. DATES:...

  17. 78 FR 72008 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Aliceville, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Airspace at Aliceville, AL, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... airspace required to accommodate the new RNAV (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed...

  18. 75 FR 11475 - Establishment of Class D Airspace, Modification of Class E Airspace; Columbus, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Class E airspace at Columbus Metropolitan Airport, Columbus, GA. A decrease in air traffic volume at the... existing Class E airspace at Columbus, GA. Due to a decrease in air traffic volume at Columbus Metropolitan... ] Columbus Metropolitan Airport, Columbus, GA. Lists of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 71 Airspace, Incorporation...

  19. 75 FR 8285 - Establishment of Class D Airspace, Modification of Class E Airspace; Columbus, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Airspace; Columbus, GA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... airspace at Columbus Metropolitan Airport, Columbus, GA. A decrease in air traffic volume at the airport... existing Class E airspace at Columbus, GA. Due to a decrease in air traffic volume at Columbus...

  20. 78 FR 26317 - Klamath National Forest, California, Jess Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ...: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Klamath National Forest will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) to document and publicly disclose the environmental..., 2013. The draft environmental impact statement is expected November 2013 and the final...

  1. Klamath-Siskiyou herpetofauna: Biogeographic patterns and conservation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bury, R.B.; Pearl, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Klamath-Siskiyou region of southwest Oregon and northwest California (USA) has some of the most complex landscape mosaics and plant communities in western North America, reflecting its marked diversity of precipitation and topography. With 38 native species of amphibians and reptiles, the Klamath-Siskiyou region has the most species-rich herpetofauna of any similarly sized mountain range in the Pacific Northwest. Although it is a biodiversity 'hot spot,' there are only two endemic species, both salamanders, in the Klamath-Siskiyou region. High diversity is due to the overlap of two major biogeographic groups: the Arcto- (= northern) and Madro- (= southern) Tertiary herpetofaunas. Many of the amphibians in the Klamath-Siskiyou region are restricted to specialized habitats. Much of our knowledge about the biology of the regional fauna is based on studies elsewhere. Distributional surveys and ecological research are needed to address how the herpetofauna responds to timber harvest and other human activities that may reduce populations and increase fragmentation of suitable habitats. Conservation of the region's diverse herpetofauna should emphasize strategies directed at habitat specialists and species at the latitudinal limits of their ranges.

  2. Correlation of the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.

    2003-01-01

    This report graphically portrays the broadly parallel tectonic development of the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada from early Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous time. It is dedicated to J.S. Diller of the U.S. Geological Survey who, during his pioneer field studies a century ago, recognized significant similarities between these two important provinces. The report is based mainly on the numerous published reports of the field and laboratory studies by various geologists and students during the last century, and to a lesser extent on my own field work which has been substantial in the Klamath Mountains but minimal in the Sierra Nevada. For brevity, required by the format of this report, little of the extensive literature pertaining to these two provinces is referenced. This report is preliminary in nature and was prepared as an aid to further study of the tectonic relations between the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada. This report consists of two sheets: Sheet 1, Map showing accreted terranes and plutons of the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada, and Sheet 2, Successive accretionary episodes of the Klamath mountains and northern part of Sierra Nevada, showing related plutonic, volcanic, and metamorphic events. The map on Sheet 1 was compiled and modified from two Open-File maps (Irwin and Wooden, 1999 and 2001) which had been compiled and modified mainly from Jennings (1977), Harwood (1992), Irwin (1994), Jayko (1988), Graymer and Jones (1994), Edelman and Sharp (1989), Schweickert and others (1999), Saucedo and Wagner(1992), Saleeby and Sharp (1980), Wagner and others (1981), and various other sources. For detailed lists of the sources for the isotopic age data used in Sheets 1 and 2, see Irwin and Wooden (1999 and 2001). On Sheet 2, the accretionary episodes are shown sequentially from left to right in two tiers of figures. Episodes for the Klamath Mountains are in the upper tier; correlative episodes of the Sierra Nevada are directly below in the lower tier

  3. Quantitative characterization of airspace enlargement in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Majumdar, Arnab; Ito, Satoru; Alencar, Adriano M; Suki, Béla

    2006-01-01

    The mean linear intercept (L(m)) can be used to estimate the surface area for gas exchange in the lung. However, in recent years, it is most commonly used as an index for characterizing the enlargement of airspaces in emphysema and the associated severity of structural destruction in the lung. Specifically, an increase in L(m) is thought to result from an increase in airspace sizes. In this paper, we examined how accurately L(m) measures the linear dimensions of airspaces from histological sections and a variety of computer-generated test images. To this end, we developed an automated method for measuring linear intercepts from digitized images of tissue sections and calculate L(m) as their mean. We examined how the shape of airspaces and the variability of their sizes influence L(m) as well as the distribution of linear intercepts. We found that, for a relatively homogeneous enlargement of airspaces, L(m) was a reliable index for detecting emphysema. However, in the presence of spatial heterogeneities with a large variability of airspace sizes, L(m) did not significantly increase and sometimes even decreased compared with its value in normal tissue. We also developed an automated method for measuring the area and computed an equivalent diameter of each individual airspace that is independent of shape. Finally, we introduced new indexes based on the moments of diameter that we found to be more reliable than L(m) to characterize airspace enlargement in the presence of heterogeneities.

  4. 75 FR 18403 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO AGENCY... E airspace at Rifle, CO. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Rifle,...

  5. 77 FR 4459 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greenfield, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greenfield, IA AGENCY... airspace for Greenfield, IA. Decommissioning of the Greenfield non-directional beacon (NDB) at Greenfield... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Greenfield, IA, reconfiguring controlled airspace...

  6. 77 FR 29874 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Freer, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Freer, TX AGENCY... airspace at Freer, TX. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Freer, TX,...

  7. 77 FR 29865 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Leesville, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Leesville, LA AGENCY... airspace at Leesville, LA. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to ] accommodate new Area Navigation... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Leesville,...

  8. 76 FR 44254 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Denton, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Denton, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class D airspace for... proposed rulemaking to amend Class D airspace for Denton, TX, creating additional controlled airspace...

  9. 75 FR 41076 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA AGENCY... E airspace at Monterey, CA, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Required... the boundaries of the airspace area. Class E airspace designations are published in paragraph 6002...

  10. 78 FR 6726 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Ontonagon, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Ontonagon, MI AGENCY... airspace at Ontonagon, MI. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Ontonagon, MI, area, creating...

  11. Timescales of orogeny: Jurassic construction of the Klamath Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Bradley R.; Donato, Mary M.; Barnes, Calvin G.; McWilliams, M. O.; Ernst, W. G.

    1995-06-01

    An electronic supplement of this material may be obtained on a diskette or Anonymous FTP from KOSMOS.AGU.ORG (LOGIN to AGU's FTP account using ANONYMOUS as the username and GUEST as the password. Go to the right directory by typing CD APEND. Type LS to see what files are available. Type GET and the name of the file to get it. Finally, type EXIT to leave the system.) (Paper 94YCJ2454, Timescales of orogeny: Jurassic construction of the Klamath Mountains, B.R. Hacker, M.M. Donato, C.G. Barnes, M.O. McWilliams, and W.G. Ernst). Diskette may be ordered from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009; $15.00. Payment must accompany order. Classical interpretations of orogeny were based on relatively imprecise biostratigraphic and isotopic age determinations that necessitated grouping apparently related features that may in reality have been greatly diachronous. Isotopic age techniques now have the precision required to resolve the timing of orogenic events on a scale much smaller than that of entire mountain belts. Forty-five new 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Klamath Mountains illuminate the deformation, metamorphism, magmatism, and sedimentation involved in the Jurassic construction of that orogen, leading to a new level of understanding regarding how preserved orogenic features relate to ancient plate tectonic processes. The new geochronologic relationships show that many Jurassic units of the Klamath Mountains had 200 Ma or older volcanoplutonic basement. Subsequent formation of a large ˜170 Ma arc was followed by contractional collapse of the arc. Collision with a spreading ridge may have led to large-scale NW-SE extension in the central and northern Klamaths from 167 to ˜155 Ma, coincident with the crystallization of voluminous plutonic and volcanic suites. Marked cooling of a large region of the central Klamath Mountains to below ˜350°C at ˜150 Ma may have occurred as the igneous belt was extinguished by subduction of colder

  12. Estimation of stream temperature in support of fish production modeling under future climates in the Klamath River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    Stream temperature estimates under future climatic conditions were needed in support of fish production modeling for evaluation of effects of dam removal in the Klamath River Basin. To allow for the persistence of the Klamath River salmon fishery, an upcoming Secretarial Determination in 2012 will review potential changes in water quality and stream temperature to assess alternative scenarios, including dam removal. Daily stream temperature models were developed by using a regression model approach with simulated net solar radiation, vapor density deficit calculated on the basis of air temperature, and mean daily air temperature. Models were calibrated for 6 streams in the Lower, and 18 streams in the Upper, Klamath Basin by using measured stream temperatures for 1999-2008. The standard error of the y-estimate for the estimation of stream temperature for the 24 streams ranged from 0.36 to 1.64°C, with an average error of 1.12°C for all streams. The regression models were then used with projected air temperatures to estimate future stream temperatures for 2010-99. Although the mean change from the baseline historical period of 1950-99 to the projected future period of 2070-99 is only 1.2°C, it ranges from 3.4°C for the Shasta River to no change for Fall Creek and Trout Creek. Variability is also evident in the future with a mean change in temperature for all streams from the baseline period to the projected period of 2070-99 of only 1°C, while the range in stream temperature change is from 0 to 2.1°C. The baseline period, 1950-99, to which the air temperature projections were corrected, established the starting point for the projected changes in air temperature. The average measured daily air temperature for the calibration period 1999-2008, however, was found to be as much as 2.3°C higher than baseline for some rivers, indicating that warming conditions have already occurred in many areas of the Klamath River Basin, and that the stream temperature

  13. Isotopic characterization of three groundwater recharge sources and inferences for selected aquifers in the upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, P.C.; Gannett, M.W.; Hinkle, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotope (??D and ??18O) signatures of three principal groundwater recharge areas in the 21,000-km2 upper Klamath Basin are used to infer recharge sources for aquifers in the interior parts of the basin. Two of the principal recharge areas, the Cascade Range on the western and southern margin of the basin and uplands along the eastern margin, are defined by mean annual precipitation that exceeds approximately 60 cm. A third recharge area coincides with the extensive irrigation canal system in the south central part of the basin. The stable isotope signature for Cascade Range groundwater falls near the global meteoric water line (GMWL). The stable isotope signature for the groundwater of the eastern basin uplands also falls near the GMWL, but is depleted in heavy isotopes relative to the Cascade Range groundwater. The stable isotope signature for water from the irrigation canal system deviates from the GMWL in a manner indicative of fractionation by evaporation. Groundwater provenance was previously unknown for two aquifers of interest: that supplying deep (225-792 m), large-capacity irrigation wells along the Oregon-California border, and that of the geothermal system near Klamath Falls. Groundwater produced by the deep irrigation wells along the Oregon-California border appears to be a mixture of eastern-basin groundwater and water with an evaporative isotopic signature. The component with an evaporative isotopic signature appears in some places to consist of infiltrated irrigation water. Chloride data suggest that much of the component with the evaporative isotopic signature may be coming from an adjacent subbasin. After accounting for the 18O shift common in geothermal waters, isotope data suggest that the geothermal groundwater in the upper Klamath Basin may emanate from the eastern basin uplands. Findings demonstrate that stable isotope and chloride data can illuminate certain details of a regional groundwater flow system in a complex geologic setting

  14. Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The airspace operations demonstration (AOD) is intended to show that the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be met. The demonstration will occur in two phases. The initial on-range phase will be carried out in restricted airspace to demonstrate the cooperative collision avoidance (CCA) functional requirements and to provide risk-reduction for the AOD by allowing the test team to rehearse some elements of the demonstration mission. The CCA system to be used in these flights is based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) which is a commercially-available system by which airplanes constantly broadcast their current position and altitude to other aircraft and ground resources over a dedicated radio datalink. The final phase will occur in the national airspace (NAS) and will be the formal demonstration of the remainder of the proposed functional requirements. The general objectives of the AOD are as follows: (1) Demonstrate that the UAS can aviate in the NAS (2) Demonstrate that the UAS can navigate in the NAS (3) Demonstrate that the UAS can communicate with the NAS (4) Demonstrate that the UAS can perform selected collision avoidance functions in the NAS (5) Demonstrate that the UAS can evaluate and avoid weather conflicts in the NAS (6) Demonstrate that the UAS can provide adequate command and control in the NAS In addition to the stated objectives, there are a number of goals for the flight demonstration. The demo can be accomplished successfully without achieving these goals, but these goals are to be used as a guideline for preparing for the mission. The goals are: (1) Mission duration of at least 24 hours (2) Loiter over heavy traffic to evaluate the data block issue identified during the Access 5 Airspace Operations Simulations (3) Document the contingency management process and lessons learned (4) Document the coordination process for Ground Control Stations (GCS) handoff (5) Document lessons learned regarding the process of flying in

  15. Macrophyte and pH buffering updates to the Klamath River water-quality model upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Asbill-Case, Jessica R.; Deas, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrodynamic, water temperature, and water-quality model of the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the upper Klamath River was updated to account for macrophytes and enhanced pH buffering from dissolved organic matter, ammonia, and orthophosphorus. Macrophytes had been observed in this reach by field personnel, so macrophyte field data were collected in summer and fall (June-October) 2011 to provide a dataset to guide the inclusion of macrophytes in the model. Three types of macrophytes were most common: pondweed (Potamogeton species), coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum), and common waterweed (Elodea canadensis). Pondweed was found throughout the Link River to Keno Dam reach in early summer with densities declining by mid-summer and fall. Coontail and common waterweed were more common in the lower reach near Keno Dam and were at highest density in summer. All species were most dense in shallow water (less than 2 meters deep) near shore. The highest estimated dry weight biomass for any sample during the study was 202 grams per square meter for coontail in August. Guided by field results, three macrophyte groups were incorporated into the CE-QUAL-W2 model for calendar years 2006-09. The CE-QUAL-W2 model code was adjusted to allow the user to initialize macrophyte populations spatially across the model grid. The default CE-QUAL-W2 model includes pH buffering by carbonates, but does not include pH buffering by organic matter, ammonia, or orthophosphorus. These three constituents, especially dissolved organic matter, are present in the upper Klamath River at concentrations that provide substantial pH buffering capacity. In this study, CE-QUAL-W2 was updated to include this enhanced buffering capacity in the simulation of pH. Acid dissociation constants for ammonium and phosphoric acid were taken from the literature. For dissolved organic matter, the number of organic acid groups and each group's acid dissociation constant (Ka) and site density (moles of sites per mole of

  16. Generic Airspace Concepts and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for reducing the training and memorization required to manage air traffic in mid-term, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. We contrasted the performance of controllers using a sector information display and NextGen automation tools while working with familiar and unfamiliar sectors. The airspace included five sectors from Oakland and Salt Lake City Centers configured as a "generic center" called "West High Center." The Controller Information Tool was used to present essential information for managing these sectors. The Multi Aircraft Control System air traffic control simulator provided data link and conflict detection and resolution. There were five experienced air traffic controller participants. Each was familiar with one or two of the five sectors, but not the others. The participants rotated through all five sectors during the ten data collection runs. The results addressing workload, traffic management, and safety, as well as controller and observer comments, supported the generic sector concept. The unfamiliar sectors were comparable to the familiar sectors on all relevant measures.

  17. Falling chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  18. Comparing Methods for Dynamic Airspace Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Lai, Chok Fung

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares airspace design solutions for dynamically reconfiguring airspace in response to nominal daily traffic volume fluctuation. Airspace designs from seven algorithmic methods and a representation of current day operations in Kansas City Center were simulated with two times today's demand traffic. A three-configuration scenario was used to represent current day operations. Algorithms used projected unimpeded flight tracks to design initial 24-hour plans to switch between three configurations at predetermined reconfiguration times. At each reconfiguration time, algorithms used updated projected flight tracks to update the subsequent planned configurations. Compared to the baseline, most airspace design methods reduced delay and increased reconfiguration complexity, with similar traffic pattern complexity results. Design updates enabled several methods to as much as half the delay from their original designs. Freeform design methods reduced delay and increased reconfiguration complexity the most.

  19. Common Methodology for Efficient Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar

    2012-01-01

    Topics include: a) Developing a common methodology to model and avoid disturbances affecting airspace. b) Integrated contrails and emission models to a national level airspace simulation. c) Developed capability to visualize, evaluate technology and alternate operational concepts and provide inputs for policy-analysis tools to reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. d) Collaborating with Volpe Research Center, NOAA and DLR to leverage expertise and tools in aircraft emissions and weather/climate modeling. Airspace operations is a trade-off balancing safety, capacity, efficiency and environmental considerations. Ideal flight: Unimpeded wind optimal route with optimal climb and descent. Operations degraded due to reduction in airport and airspace capacity caused by inefficient procedures and disturbances.

  20. Transition of Benthic Nutrient Sources after Engineered Levee Breaches Adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, J. S.; Topping, B. R.; Carter, J. L.; Parchaso, F.; Cameron, J. M.; Asbill, J. R.; Carlson, R. A.; Fend, S. V.; Engelstad, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    than SRP. Our results indicated that benthic flux of iron and manganese may serve as a significant source of these essential micronutrients to the lake water column. However, for other trace metals, including those that could retard algal growth (for example, dissolved copper and zinc), water-column and porewater concentrations were low and relatively constant across the sediment-water interface. The lake and wetland benthos substantively contribute to both macro- and micronutrients in the water column. It may therefore be prudent, in terms of developing long-term management strategies for water quality in the Upper Klamath Basin, to examine the dynamics of this transition toward seasonal function that is typical of established wetlands in the vicinity with regard to nutrient (both metal and ligand) fluxes. Funding support : U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Klamath Falls, Oregon; U.S.G.S. Toxic Substances Hydrology Program

  1. Geology and petrology of the Wooley Creek batholith, Klamath Mountains, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. G.

    The Wooley Creek batholith was intruded into metamorphic rocks of the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt (TrPz) of the Klamath Mountains 162 + or -2 my ago. The batholith crosscut a thrust fault between the lowest subunit of the TrPz, the Rattlesnake Creek terrane, and overlying Hayfork terrain metasediments. Contact metamorphic assemblages in the wall rocks show that the structurally deepest part of the pluton crystallized at about 7.5kb whereas the structurally shallowest part crystallized at about 3kb. The batholith and its host rocks were subsequently thrust over low-density rocks of the Galice Fm. and then tilted toward the southwest, presumably by regional doming. The Wooley Creek batholith is gradationally zoned from two-pyroxene gabbro in the deepest part to hornblende-biotite granite in the shallowest part. The plutonic rocks fall on two distinct chemical trends that correspond to rocks that contain pyroxene and rocks with only hornblende and biotite as mafic minerals. Pyroxene-bearing rocks are structurally lower and are enriched in Mg, Ca, Cr, Ni, Co, and Sc.

  2. 76 FR 80230 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntington, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... 14 CFR Part 71 [Docket No. FAA-2011-1057; Airspace Docket No. 11-AEA-21] Amendment of Class E... amend Class E airspace at Huntington, WV (76 FR 64295) Docket No. FAA-2011-1057. Interested parties...

  3. 75 FR 19212 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Oxnard, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... accommodate aircraft flying in the Los Angeles Air Route Traffic Control Center's (ARTCC's) airspace area. The... vectoring of aircraft flying en route, in and out of the Los Angeles ARTCC's airspace area. This...

  4. 76 FR 65944 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tatitlek, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... airspace at Tatitlek, AK, to accommodate the creation of one standard instrument approach procedure at the... airspace at the Tatitlek Airport, Tatitlek, AK, to accommodate the creation of a standard...

  5. Algal toxins in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: Linking water quality to juvenile sucker health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Burdick, S.M.; Echols, K.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Rosen, B.H.; Wood, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    As the lead science agency for the Department of Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey is actively involved in resource issues in the Klamath River basin. Activities include research projects on endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers, threatened coho salmon, groundwater resources, seasonal runoff forecasting, water quality in Upper Klamath Lake and the Klamath River, nutrient cycling in wetlands, and assessment of land idling programs to reduce water consumption. Many of these studies are collaborations with various partners including Department of Interior agencies, Indian Tribes, and State agencies.

  6. 75 FR 57848 - Revocation of Class E Airspace, Brunswick, ME; and Establishment of Class E Airspace, Wiscasset, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ...: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class E Airspace at Brunswick NAS, Brunswick, ME, as the..., Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 removes the Class E airspace at Brunswick NAS,...

  7. 78 FR 48298 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Commerce, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation...

  8. 75 FR 57376 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL... Chicago, IL, Class B airspace area by expanding the existing airspace area to ensure containment of... segregating IFR aircraft arriving/departing Chicago O'Hare International Airport (ORD) and Visual Flight...

  9. 76 FR 15825 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pueblo, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pueblo, CO AGENCY: Federal... airspace at Pueblo Memorial Airport, Pueblo, CO, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Pueblo, CO (76 FR 2609). Interested parties were...

  10. 77 FR 19929 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springfield, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springfield, CO AGENCY... airspace at Springfield Municipal Airport, Springfield, CO. Decommissioning of the Tobe Tactical Air... amend controlled airspace at Springfield, CO (77 FR 1429). Interested parties were invited...

  11. 75 FR 16333 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quitman, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... scope of that authority as it establishes Class E airspace at Quitman, GA. Lists of Subjects in 14 CFR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quitman, GA AGENCY... action establishes Class E Airspace at Quitman, GA, to accommodate Standard Instrument...

  12. 76 FR 67056 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bryan, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... airspace for Bryan, OH. Decommissioning of the Bryan non-directional beacon (NDB) at Williams County... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Bryan, OH, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Williams... Bryan NDB and cancellation of the NDB approach at Williams County Airport has made reconfiguration...

  13. 75 FR 31677 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Austin, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Austin, TX AGENCY... airspace for the Austin, TX area. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Austin Executive Airport, Austin, TX. The FAA is taking this...

  14. 77 FR 45238 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL AGENCY... amends Class E Airspace in the Montgomery, AL area, by recognizing the name change of Prattville-Grouby... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 amends Class E airspace for the Montgomery, AL, area at the...

  15. 76 FR 80232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Airspace; Oneonta, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E Airspace at Oneonta, AL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... establish Class E airspace at Oneonta, AL (76 FR 58728) Docket No. FAA-2011-0744. Interested parties...

  16. 76 FR 18041 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kahului, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kahului, HI AGENCY... E airspace at Kahului Airport, Kahului, HI, to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV... establish controlled airspace at Kahului, HI (76 FR 3571). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  17. 75 FR 63708 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kalaupapa, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kalaupapa, HI AGENCY... E airspace at Kalaupapa, HI, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish controlled airspace at Kalaupapa, HI (75...

  18. 76 FR 75449 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stuart, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stuart, IA AGENCY... airspace for Stuart, IA, to accommodate new COPTER area navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace for Stuart, IA,...

  19. 76 FR 75447 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Centerville, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Centerville, IA... E airspace for Centerville, IA. Decommissioning of the Centerville non-directional beacon (NDB) and... E airspace for the Centerville, IA, area. (76 FR 53358) Docket No. FAA-2011-0830. Interested...

  20. 75 FR 23581 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA AGENCY... airspace for Emmetsburg, IA, adding additional controlled airspace to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Emmetsburg Municipal Airport, Emmetsburg, IA. The FAA...

  1. 77 FR 32896 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY... airspace at Billings Logan International Airport, Billings, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to... procedures at Billings Logan International Airport. This action will also make a minor adjustment to...

  2. 76 FR 73501 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA AGENCY: Federal... Carroll, IA. Decommissioning of the Carroll non-directional beacon (NDB) at Arthur N. Neu Airport, Carroll... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Carroll, IA, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Arthur N....

  3. 78 FR 59622 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Akutan, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... submitting written comments on the proposal to the FAA. No comments were received. Class E airspace... September 15, 2013, which is incorporated by reference in 14 CFR 71.1. The Class E airspace designations...--DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS 0...

  4. 77 FR 4458 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rockingham, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    .... No comments were received. Class E airspace designations are published in paragraph 6005 of FAA Order... 14 CFR 71.1. The Class E airspace designations listed in this document will be published subsequently... safety and management of IFR operations within the National Airspace System. The airport formerly...

  5. 14 CFR 71.41 - Class B airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class B airspace. 71.41 Section 71.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS...

  6. 14 CFR 71.61 - Class D airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class D airspace. 71.61 Section 71.61 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS...

  7. 14 CFR 71.33 - Class A airspace areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class A airspace areas. 71.33 Section 71.33 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS...

  8. 14 CFR 71.9 - Overlapping airspace designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overlapping airspace designations. 71.9 Section 71.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES;...

  9. 76 FR 52230 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Forest, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Forest, VA AGENCY... Airspace at Forest, VA, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at...

  10. 75 FR 37291 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Osceola, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Osceola, AR AGENCY: Federal... Osceola, AR. Decommissioning of the Osceola non-directional beacon (NDB) at Osceola Municipal Airport has... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Osceola, AR, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Osceola...

  11. 76 FR 73505 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nashville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nashville, AR... Class E airspace for Nashville, AR, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Nashville, AR,...

  12. 78 FR 67297 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Curtis, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Curtis, NE AGENCY... airspace at Curtis, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Curtis Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance...

  13. 77 FR 29866 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springhill, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springhill, LA AGENCY... airspace for Springhill, LA. Decommissioning of the Springhill non-directional beacon (NDB) at Springhill... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Springhill,...

  14. 75 FR 17891 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Goldsboro, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Goldsboro, NC AGENCY... action proposes to amend the Class D airspace at Seymour Johnson AFB, Goldsboro, NC, to reflect the part... amendment to Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to amend Class D airspace at...

  15. 78 FR 48291 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Sparta, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Sparta, WI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class D airspace at... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class D airspace for Sparta/Fort McCoy Airport...

  16. 77 FR 38472 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Pontiac, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Pontiac, MI AGENCY: Federal... Class D airspace within the Pontiac, MI, area by changing the name of the airport from ] Oakland-Pontiac... International Airport and adjusting the geographic coordinates within Class D airspace to coincide with the...

  17. 75 FR 39145 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Flint, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Flint, MI... legal description of the Bishop International Airport, Flint, MI, Class C airspace area by amending the... affect the ARP location, which defines the Class C airspace area's center point. The Rule This...

  18. 77 FR 41259 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Plentywood, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... airspace at Plentywood Sher-Wood Airport, Plentywood, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate... procedures at Plentywood Sher-Wood Airport. This improves the safety and management of Instrument Flight... Plentywood Sher-Wood Airport, Plentywood, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate IFR...

  19. 77 FR 34210 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at... E airspace at Orlando, FL (77 FR 16783). Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  20. 76 FR 35967 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace at... geographic coordinates for the Class D and E airspace areas, and updates the airport name. DATES:...

  1. 75 FR 13667 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntingburg, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntingburg, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Huntingburg, IN... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Huntingburg Airport, Huntingburg, IN (74 FR 66592) Docket No....

  2. 77 FR 66067 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Boone, IA... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Boone, IA, area, creating...

  3. 75 FR 12162 - Class E Airspace; Manila, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Manila, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Manila, AR. Decommissioning of the Manila non-directional beacon (NDB) at Manila... amending Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface for standard instrument...

  4. 76 FR 53049 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace at... received. Class E airspace designations are published in paragraph 6005 of FAA Order 7400.9U dated...

  5. 78 FR 41289 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Ogallala, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Ogallala, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Ogallala, NE.,...

  6. 78 FR 41290 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Sanibel, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Sanibel, FL... June 10, 2013, the FAA published a final rule, in the Federal Register establishing Class E airspace at.... This action makes the corrections and is rewritten for clarity. The Class E airspace designations...

  7. 76 FR 47061 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lakeland, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lakeland, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Lakeland Linder Regional Airport, Lakeland, FL...

  8. 75 FR 59934 - Amendment to Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment to Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC AGENCY... amends Class E airspace at Johnston County Airport, Smithfield, NC, by correcting an omission of the... amendment of the Class E airspace published in the Federal Register on July 27, 2010 (75 FR 43817)....

  9. 78 FR 25384 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Immokalee, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Immokalee, FL... Class E Airspace at Immokalee, FL, to accommodate the Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... establish Class E airspace at Immokalee, FL (78 FR 6262) Docket No. FAA-2012-1051. Interested parties...

  10. 75 FR 12166 - Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Beatrice, NE. Decommissioning of the Shaw non-directional beacon (NDB) at Beatrice... amending Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface for standard instrument...

  11. 77 FR 46284 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lemmon, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lemmon, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Lemmon, SD, area, creating...

  12. 76 FR 9219 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Muncie, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Muncie, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Muncie, IN,...

  13. 78 FR 18800 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decorah, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decorah, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Decorah, IA,...

  14. 77 FR 45240 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Arcadia, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Arcadia, FL... Class E Airspace at Arcadia, FL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... establish Class E airspace at Oneonta, AL (77 FR 33685) Docket No. FAA-2012-0365. Interested parties...

  15. 78 FR 48295 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gruver, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gruver, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Gruver, TX,...

  16. 78 FR 48297 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bedford, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bedford, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Bedford County Airport, Bedford, PA. (78 FR...

  17. 76 FR 28887 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Ozark, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Ozark, MO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class E airspace at... Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Part 71 by removing Class E airspace in the Ozark, MO,...

  18. 78 FR 45849 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gustavus, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gustavus, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... the proposal to the FAA. No comments were received. Class E airspace designations are published...

  19. 78 FR 18799 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Superior, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Superior, WI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Superior, WI, area, creating...

  20. 75 FR 72939 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Portland, OR AGENCY... Class E airspace at Portland, OR, to accommodate aircraft using the Localizer/Distance Measuring... proposed in the NPRM. Class E airspace designations are published in paragraph 6005 of FAA Order...

  1. 77 FR 55690 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dillon, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dillon, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Dillon...

  2. 77 FR 56761 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kerrville, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kerrville, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Class E airspace for the Kerrville, TX, area, creating additional controlled airspace at...

  3. 75 FR 41075 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action will amend Class E airspace at... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Bozeman, MT (75 FR 20321). Interested parties were...

  4. 76 FR 39259 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME AGENCY... establishes Class E airspace at Brunswick Executive Airport, Brunswick, ME. DATES: The effective date is moved...), establishes Class E airspace at Brunswick Executive Airport, Brunswick, ME. This action will move up...

  5. 75 FR 12165 - Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E airspace at Batesville, AR. Decommissioning of the Independence County non... Regulations (14 CFR), part 71 by amending Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the...

  6. 77 FR 28247 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decatur, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decatur, IL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Decatur, IL, area, creating...

  7. 78 FR 22414 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Reno, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Reno, NV AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... were received. Class E airspace designations are published in paragraph 6003 of FAA Order 7400.9W...

  8. 76 FR 69608 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Blythe, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Modification of Class E Airspace; Blythe, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace at Blythe, CA, to accommodate aircraft using Area... the controlled airspace needed to be adjusted; this action makes that adjustment. Class E...

  9. 78 FR 14652 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gaylord, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gaylord, MI AGENCY: Federal... Gaylord, MI. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Gaylord, MI, area, creating...

  10. 77 FR 5170 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Jackson, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... County Airport-Reynolds Field, MI (Lat. 42 15'38'' N., long. 84 27'38'' W.) That airspace extending... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Jackson, MI AGENCY: Federal... Class D airspace within the Jackson, MI, area by changing the name of the airport from Jackson...

  11. 77 FR 5169 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Saginaw, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Saginaw, MI AGENCY: Federal... Class D airspace within the Saginaw, MI, area by changing the name of the airport from Tri-City... airspace at MBS International Airport, Saginaw, MI. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 71...

  12. 77 FR 40492 - Revocation of Class D Airspace; Andalusia, AL; and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class D Airspace; Andalusia, AL; and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class D Airspace at Andalusia, AL, as the Air Traffic...

  13. 77 FR 65255 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Reidsville, GA, and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Vidalia, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E Airspace at Reidsville, GA. Separation of existing Class..., Reidsville, GA, to accommodate the separation of existing Class E airspace surrounding Vidalia Regional... Municipal Airport, Vidalia, GA, to provide the controlled airspace required to accommodate the separation...

  14. 75 FR 61660 - Proposed Modification of Class D and E Airspace, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Flagstaff, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Airspace Docket No. 10-AWP-5) and be submitted in triplicate to the Docket Management System (see ADDRESSES... reference in 14 CFR Part 71.1. The Class D and E airspace designation listed in this document will be... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Docket No. FAA-2010-0784; Airspace Docket No....

  15. 78 FR 52424 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dayton, TN, Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland, TN, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ..., Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland, TN, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Bradley Memorial Hospital... Bradley Memorial Hospital is added to the Cleveland, TN, airspace description and removed from both the Dayton, TN, regulatory text as well as its listing as Bradley Memorial Hospital, Cleveland, TN,...

  16. Native Terranes of the Central Klamath Mountains, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Gary G.

    1986-12-01

    The Klamath Mountains of northern California and southern Oregon contain several good examples of terranes which have developed in situ. The term "native" is proposed for five of these terranes and all terranes whose development can be tied to an adjacent cratonal area. The Klamath terranes discussed herein include disrupted, stratigraphic, and metamorphic types. Three disrupted terranes, the Rattlesnake Creek, eastern Hayfork, and North Fork, contain fossiliferous blocks derived from both North American and exotic sources. The unique mixed faunal assemblage, stratigraphic ties to North America in the source terranes of the blocks, and paleomagnetic evidence indicate that the tectonic and sedimentary processes responsible for mixing these blocks occurred in proximity to North America, not distant from the terranes' present positions. Coeval blueschist metamorphism in a fourth, inboard terrane, the Stuart Fork, suggests that all four terranes developed during a Late Triassic to Early Jurassic subduction event. A fifth, stratigraphic terrane, the western Hayfork, was constructed upon the assembled disrupted and metamorphic terranes in the Middle Jurassic. Disrupted terranes with similar mixtures of North American and exotic faunas occur throughout the Cordillera from central California possibly as far north as British Columbia. Late Triassic deformation has been documented in several of these terranes, suggesting that (1) subduction operated along at least this portion of North America during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, and (2) many additional Cordilleran terranes should also be considered native.

  17. Organochlorine chemical residues in white pelicans and western grebes from the Klamath Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boellstorff, D.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Anderson, D.W.; O'Neill, E.J.; Keith, J.O.; Prouty, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Samples were analyzed for 12 organochlorine chemicals. Concentrations of DDT + DDD and dieldrin in American white pelican(Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) eggs collected at the Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges decreased from 1969 to 1981; DDE and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) residues did not significantly change. Differences between PCB residues in eggs collected from Lower Klamath and Clear Lake colonies in 1969 suggest different migration routes or wintering areas between populations nesting at these two locations. White pelican and western grebe(Aechmophorus occidentalis) PCB/DDE ratios were 0.13 and 1.58, respectively, suggesting different exposure patterns. White pelican eggshell thickness increased between 1969 and 1981, but remained significantly less than pre-1947 values. Western grebe shell thickness was not significantly different from pre-1947 values. Endrin caused some of the pelican mortalities in the Klamath Basin from 1975 to 1981. Pelicans may have acquired endrin in California, but possibly from areas outside of the Klamath Basin.

  18. 76 FR 69700 - Klamath National Forest; California; Pumice Vegetation Management Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Forest Service Klamath National Forest; California; Pumice Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest... the environmental effects of implementing the Pumice Vegetation Management project. The project is... Haupt, Pumice Vegetation Management Project Team Leader, Goosenest Ranger District, 37805 Highway...

  19. Optimizing Integrated Terminal Airspace Operations Under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosson, Christabelle; Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    In the terminal airspace, integrated departures and arrivals have the potential to increase operations efficiency. Recent research has developed geneticalgorithm- based schedulers for integrated arrival and departure operations under uncertainty. This paper presents an alternate method using a machine jobshop scheduling formulation to model the integrated airspace operations. A multistage stochastic programming approach is chosen to formulate the problem and candidate solutions are obtained by solving sample average approximation problems with finite sample size. Because approximate solutions are computed, the proposed algorithm incorporates the computation of statistical bounds to estimate the optimality of the candidate solutions. A proof-ofconcept study is conducted on a baseline implementation of a simple problem considering a fleet mix of 14 aircraft evolving in a model of the Los Angeles terminal airspace. A more thorough statistical analysis is also performed to evaluate the impact of the number of scenarios considered in the sampled problem. To handle extensive sampling computations, a multithreading technique is introduced.

  20. Analysis and interpretation of data obtained in tests of the geothermal aquifer at Klamath Falls, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sammel, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Water with temperatures to 130 C occurs in an extensive, heterogeneous aquifer at depths of a few hundred to nearly 2,000 feet. Chemical and isotopic analyses suggest that 190 C water mixes with cooler recharge water in a ratio of about 2 to 3 in zone within and beneath the aquifer. The water spreads from a fault zone and is tapped for space heating by more than 450 wells over a 2 square-mile area. Data obtained during a 50-day pumping and reinjection test in July and August, 1983, were fitted to theoretical double-porosity type curves. Predictions of water-level changes were made for two hypothetical pumping and reinjection schemes. It was determined that reinjection can generally offset declines due to pumping, although water levels will decline near pumped wells and will rise near injection wells. Tracer tests confirmed the double-porosity behavior of the aquifer. Discharge from thermal wells averages about 540 gallons per minute and heat discharge is about 18 x 10 to the 12th power British Thermal Units per year. Down-hole heat exchangers discharge about 13 x 10 to the 10th power British Thermal Units per year. Additional development probably is feasible. (USGS)

  1. CHEMISTRY OF LOW-TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL WATERS AT KLAMATH FALLS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janik, C.J.; Truesdell, A.H.; Sammel, E.A.; White, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses of well discharges indicate that in the aquifer mixing occurs between shallow cold groundwater containing 2. 0 TU tritium and a deeper tritium-free thermal groundwaer at 100 to 120 degree C. This deeper water apparently results from the mixing of old, tritium-free cold groundwater and deep thermal groundwater at about 190 degree C and 120 mg/kg Cl. The temperature and chlorinity of the deep thermal water are based on SO//4-isotope and silica geothermometers and chloride and silica mixing models.

  2. Feasibility study of the commercial production of densified biomass fuel at Klamath Falls, Oregon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The project began with assessments of local biomass resources which could serve as feedstock for a DBF plant, and the potential customer markets for DBF. Based on these analyses, a pilot densification plant was designed and installed for purposes of trial operations and evaluation. In addition, exploration for geothermal resources was conducted in order to confirm a suitable feedstock dehydration heat source. The results of this exploration, and of the pilot plant's trial operations, were then used to determine requirements for a commercial-scale DBF plant, and the feasibility of upgrading the pilot plant for commercial-scale operations.

  3. Tracer dye transport from a well fitted with a downhole heat exchanger, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Dunstall, M.G.

    1990-02-01

    Low or medium temperature geothermal resources are often used for space and domestic hot water heating. If the resource is located at reasonably shallow depths and adjacent to a major population centre large amounts of relatively cheap, clean heat can be provided. Geothermal fluid is often brought to the surface, either under natural artesian pressure or by pumping, to be used in surface heat exchangers (SHEs). This method generally requires a second well for disposal of the cooled fluid and a substantial capital outlay for pumps and heat exchangers. Large amounts of heat can be extracted from just one or two wells using surface heat exchangers and the method can prove very cost effective in areas with a high density of energy intensive users. For smaller heat loads surface heat exchangers can become expensive and in many instances a downhole heat exchanger (DHE) installed directly in the well bore is capable of supplying cheap heat to a smaller number of users. This report first describes the methods used to carry out the series of dye tests, from well selection to injection of the dye samples. It then discusses the results of these tests in terms of how much dye was recovered, where it was recovered from and how long it took to arrive. The results of the concurrent temperature monitoring work and DHE heat output performance are also presented. Some recommendations are made for any future testing. 13 refs., 42 figs.

  4. Kingsley Field, Klamath Falls, Oregon. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-16

    FIELD OR 68-70,73-79 APR ST -ATION 51ATION NAME YEARSMOT PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS RAIN FREEZI N...SNOW 1OF SMOKE BLOWING DUST OAS 08 TOTALMONTH Ls.) TUDRSADO RAI & i OR AND/OR HAIL 0ILS WITH FOG AND/OR SNOW AND/Olt IWIH ST NO. OF STRS DRIZZLE...1*59 .2’ 721 .8l, TRACE, .421 920; 1.34’ 1.68’ .70i 10.41, $4 2.8Z .47101. .2d .671 2.03 .34 TRACE’ .&as .1. ST 2.06 6.65 16.4$ -6- 1.a59; .07, .02- 1

  5. Petrogenetic and tectonic significance of xenocrystic Precambrian zircon in Lower Cambrian tonalite, eastern Klamath Mountains, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wallin, E.T. )

    1990-11-01

    U-Pb analyses of zircon from a Lower Cambrian tonalite in the Yreka terrane, Klamath Mountains, California, reveal an inherited Precambrian zircon component within rocks that have generally been believed to be part of the ophiolitic Trinity complex. The isotopic data indicate that Lower Cambrian plutonic rocks in the eastern Klamath Mountains are probably not ophiolitic in origin. These Lower Cambrian rocks may be either tectonic blocks within a lower Paleozoic accretionary complex or part of a disrupted Lower Cambrian volcanoplutonic terrane.

  6. [Accidental falls].

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Koichi

    2013-06-01

    Falls are common cause of injuries among elderly people, and fractures are the most serious consequence of falls. For seniors, hip fractures are the second major cause of bedridden. The feature and acute care of head injury, spinal cord injury, vertebrae fracture, and hip fracture are described. Just had fracture fixation, the patient can not go back to the original ADL. In order not to become bedridden, both medication and physical examination are important based on the new disease concept of locomotive syndrome. To do so, requires hospital and clinic cooperation. Sufficient cooperation is not currently possible, and spread of liaison service is essential.

  7. 75 FR 34624 - Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Big Delta, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Big Delta, AK... Class D and E airspace at Big Delta, AK, to eliminate duplicated controlled airspace serving Allen Army... airspace at Big Delta, AK (75 FR 17322). Controlled airspace serving Allen Army Airfield was revised...

  8. 76 FR 22011 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch... amends Class E airspace for the Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX, airspace area, to accommodate... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for the Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX, airspace...

  9. Preliminary Airspace Operations Simulations Findings Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Provides preliminary findings of the initial series (normal operations and contingency management) of airspace operations simulations. The key elements of this report discuss feedback from controller subjects for UAS flight above FL430. Findings provide initial evaluation of routine UAS operations above dense ARTCC airspace (ZOB), and identify areas of further research, policy direction and procedural development. This document further serves as an addendum to the detailed AOS simulation plan (Deliverable SIM001), incorporating feedback from FAA air traffic personnel and Access 5 IPTs.

  10. 78 FR 72006 - Establishment of Class D Airspace and Class E Airspace; Laguna AAF, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Ground), Yuma, AZ. The establishment of an air traffic control tower has made this action necessary for... control tower has made this action necessary and provides the required controlled airspace for the...

  11. Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Risley, John C.; Haynes, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) was developed by a diverse group of stakeholders, Federal and State resource management agencies, Tribal representatives, and interest groups to provide a comprehensive solution to ecological and water-supply issues in the Klamath Basin. The Off-Project Water Program (OPWP), one component of the KBRA, has as one of its purposes to permanently provide an additional 30,000 acre-feet of water per year on an average annual basis to Upper Klamath Lake through "voluntary retirement of water rights or water uses or other means as agreed to by the Klamath Tribes, to improve fisheries habitat and also provide for stability of irrigation water deliveries." The geographic area where the water rights could be retired encompasses approximately 1,900 square miles. The OPWP area is defined as including the Sprague River drainage, the Sycan River drainage downstream of Sycan Marsh, the Wood River drainage, and the Williamson River drainage from Kirk Reef at the southern end of Klamath Marsh downstream to the confluence with the Sprague River. Extensive, broad, flat, poorly drained uplands, valleys, and wetlands characterize much of the study area. Irrigation is almost entirely used for pasture. To assist parties involved with decisionmaking and implementation of the OPWP, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Klamath Tribes and other stakeholders, created five hydrological information products. These products include GIS digital maps and datasets containing spatial information on evapotranspiration, subirrigation indicators, water rights, subbasin streamflow statistics, and return-flow indicators. The evapotranspiration (ET) datasets were created under contract for this study by Evapotranspiration, Plus, LLC, of Twin Falls, Idaho. A high-resolution remote sensing technique known as Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC) was used to create estimates of the spatial

  12. Students fall for Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Kara

    2012-02-01

    From Boston to Beijing, thousands of students traveled to San Francisco for the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting. Of those who participated, 183 students were able to attend thanks to AGU's student travel grant program, which assists students with travel costs and seeks to enrich the meeting through ethnic and gender diversity. Students at Fall Meeting enjoyed a variety of programs and activities designed to help them better network with their peers, learn about new fields, and disseminate their research to the interested public. More than 800 students attended AGU's first annual student mixer, sharing drinks and ideas with fellow student members and future colleagues as well as forging new friendships and intellectual relationships.

  13. Information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1988-01-01

    An informal overview is given of the work in progress and the planned work in the area of information transfer that specifically addresses human factors issues in National Airspace System (NAS). The issues of how weather information will be displayed on the flight deck, the development of appropriate decision making technology, and digital datalink transmission are also briefly discussed.

  14. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal: Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years. Long-term Goal: Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  15. 77 FR 1429 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springfield, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springfield, CO...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Springfield Municipal Airport, Springfield, CO... Springfield Municipal Airport, Springfield, CO. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to...

  16. Development and Application of an Integrated Approach toward NASA Airspace Systems Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Fong, Robert K.; Abramson, Paul D.; Koenke, Ed

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Airspace Systems Program is contributing air traffic management research in support of the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Contributions support research and development needs provided by the interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO). These needs generally call for integrated technical solutions that improve system-level performance and work effectively across multiple domains and planning time horizons. In response, the Airspace Systems Program is pursuing an integrated research approach and has adapted systems engineering best practices for application in a research environment. Systems engineering methods aim to enable researchers to methodically compare different technical approaches, consider system-level performance, and develop compatible solutions. Systems engineering activities are performed iteratively as the research matures. Products of this approach include a demand and needs analysis, system-level descriptions focusing on NASA research contributions, system assessment and design studies, and common systemlevel metrics, scenarios, and assumptions. Results from the first systems engineering iteration include a preliminary demand and needs analysis; a functional modeling tool; and initial system-level metrics, scenario characteristics, and assumptions. Demand and needs analysis results suggest that several advanced concepts can mitigate demand/capacity imbalances for NextGen, but fall short of enabling three-times current-day capacity at the nation s busiest airports and airspace. Current activities are focusing on standardizing metrics, scenarios, and assumptions, conducting system-level performance assessments of integrated research solutions, and exploring key system design interfaces.

  17. Water-quality modeling of Klamath Straits Drain recirculation, a Klamath River wetland, and 2011 conditions for the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul; Deas, Michael L.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2014-01-01

    The upper Klamath River and adjacent Lost River are interconnected basins in south-central Oregon and northern California. Both basins have impaired water quality with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in progress or approved. In cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Watercourse Engineering, Inc., have conducted modeling and research to inform management of these basins for multiple purposes, including agriculture, endangered species protection, wildlife refuges, and adjacent and downstream water users. A water-quality and hydrodynamic model (CE-QUAL-W2) of the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River for 2006–09 is one of the tools used in this work. The model can simulate stage, flow, water velocity, ice cover, water temperature, specific conductance, suspended sediment, nutrients, organic matter in bed sediment and the water column, three algal groups, three macrophyte groups, dissolved oxygen, and pH. This report documents two model scenarios and a test of the existing model applied to year 2011, which had exceptional water quality. The first scenario examined the water-quality effects of recirculating Klamath Straits Drain flows into the Ady Canal, to conserve water and to decrease flows from the Klamath Straits Drain to the Klamath River. The second scenario explicitly incorporated a 2.73×106 m2 (675 acre) off-channel connected wetland into the CE-QUAL-W2 framework, with the wetland operating from May 1 through October 31. The wetland represented a managed treatment feature to decrease organic matter loads and process nutrients. Finally, the summer of 2011 showed substantially higher dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Link-Keno reach than in other recent years, so the Link-Keno model (originally developed for 2006–09) was run with 2011 data as a test of model parameters and rates and to develop insights regarding the reasons for the improved water-quality conditions.

  18. Water Quality Conditions in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoilman, Gene R.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2008-01-01

    During June-October 2005, water quality data were collected from Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes in Oregon, and meteorological data were collected around and within Upper Klamath Lake. Data recorded at two continuous water quality monitors in Agency Lake showed similar temperature patterns throughout the field season, but data recorded at the northern site showed more day-to-day variability for dissolved oxygen concentration and saturation after late June and more day-to-day variability for pH and specific conductance values after mid-July. Data recorded from the northern and southern parts of Agency Lake showed more comparable day-to-day variability in dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH from September through the end of the monitoring period. For Upper Klamath Lake, seasonal (late July through early August) lows of dissolved oxygen concentrations and saturation were coincident with a seasonal low of pH values and seasonal highs of ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations, specific conductance values, and water temperatures. Patterns in these parameters, excluding water temperature, were associated with bloom dynamics of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Aphanizomenon flos-aquae in Upper Klamath Lake. In Upper Klamath Lake, water temperature in excess of 28 degrees Celsius (a high stress threshold for Upper Klamath Lake suckers) was recorded only once at one site during the field season. Large areas of Upper Klamath Lake had periods of dissolved oxygen concentration of less than 4 milligrams per liter and pH value greater than 9.7, but these conditions were not persistent throughout days at most sites. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in Upper Klamath Lake on time scales of days and months appeared to be influenced, in part, by bathymetry and prevailing current flow patterns. Diel patterns of water column stratification were evident, even at the deepest sites. This diel pattern of stratification was attributable to diel wind speed patterns and the shallow

  19. Airspace Command and Control in the Contemporary Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-07

    article titled, “The Miracle of Operation Iraqi Freedom Airspace Management,” Wathen details the herculean effort airspace With multiple actors...the ability to predict airspace conflicts. 4 Colonel David Hume , an Air War College graduate, wrote a thesis on command and control and integration...of unmanned aircraft into the battlespace. Hume argues that the TAGS is not optimized to support the integration of unmanned aircraft operations

  20. Rotational and accretionary evolution of the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon, from Devonian to present time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.; Mankinen, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to show graphically how the Klamath Mountains grew from a relatively small nucleus in Early Devonian time to its present size while rotating clockwise approximately 110°. This growth occurred by the addition of large tectonic slices of oceanic lithosphere, volcanic arcs, and melange during a sequence of accretionary episodes. The Klamath Mountains province consists of eight lithotectonoic units called terranes, some of which are divided into subterranes. The Eastern Klamath terrane, which was the early Paleozoic nucleus of the province, is divided into the Yreka, Trinity, and Redding subterranes. Through tectonic plate motion, usually involving subduction, the other terranes joined the early Paleozoic nucleus during seven accretionary episodes ranging in age from Early Devonian to Late Jurassic. The active terrane suture is shown for each episode by a bold black line. Much of the western boundary of the Klamath Mountains is marked by the South Fork and correlative faults along which the Klamath terranes overrode the Coast Range rocks during an eighth accretionary episode, forming the South Fork Mountain Schist in Early Cretaceous time.

  1. Subsurface geometry of the Siletz-Klamath suture in southwest Oregon from mangnetotelluric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Box, S.; Bedrosian, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    Siletzia, a Paleocene to early Eocene basaltic seamount terrane, was sutured onto western North America in Eocene times and comprises the modern forearc basement throughout the Pacific Northwest. The suture zone is mostly obscured by the Cascades Arc. In southwest Oregon, however, it is preserved where previously accreted Mesozoic terranes in the Klamath Moutains overthrust Siletzia. The geometry of this suture at depth, however, is poorly constrained. In summer 2006, long-period (deep-crustal) and broadband (shallow-crustal) magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected along a 200-km profile stretching from the Pacific coast north of Coos Bay, OR to the California border south of Medford, OR, with an average site spacing of 4 km. South of the suture, the profile crosses Franciscan and Great Valley equivalents, arc lavas and sediments of the Western Klamath terrane, ophiolitic mélange of the Rattlesnake Creek terrane, and the Hayfork volcanic arc terrane, ending within the Condry Mountain Window. The data are in general agreement with the NW surface strike of the suture and the Klamath terranes. A smooth regularized two-dimensional inversion of the data resulted in a preliminary model extending to ~ 50 km depth which fits the data and is in accordance with observed surface geology. The imaged subsurface geometry of the Siletzia-Klamath suture is compared to previous potential-field modeling that suggested a thinning wedge of Silitzia has been thrust within the Klamath terranes.

  2. Concordant paleolatitudes for Neoproterozoic ophiolitic rocks of the Trinity Complex, Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, E.A.; Lindsley-Griffin, N.; Griffin, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    New paleomagnetic results from the eastern Klamath Mountains of northern California show that Neoproterozoic rocks of the Trinity ophiolitic complex and overlying Middle Devonian volcanic rocks are latitudinally concordant with cratonal North America. Combining paleomagnetic data with regional geologic and faunal evidence suggests that the Trinity Complex and related terranes of the eastern Klamath plate were linked in some fashion to the North American craton throughout that time, but that distance between them may have varied considerably. A possible model that is consistent with our paleomagnetic results and the geologic evidence is that the Trinity Complex formed and migrated parallel to paleolatitude in the basin between Laurasia and Australia-East Antarctica as the Rodinian supercontinent began to break up. It then continued to move parallel to paleolatitude at least through Middle Devonian time. Although the eastern Klamath plate served as a nucleus against which more western components of the Klamath Mountains province amalgamated, the Klamath superterrane was not accreted to North America until Early Cretaceous time.

  3. Evapotranspiration from marsh and open-water sites at Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2008--2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stannard, David I.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Polette, Danial J.; Cameron, Jason M.; Waibel, M. Scott; Spears, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    begins each growing season submerged, emerges from the dead litter mat around late May or early June, reaches a maximum height of about 2.2 meters (m) during summer, senesces in October, and subsequently lodges over, contributing to the dead litter mat from previous years. Hydroperiods last about 5 to 6 months, typically beginning in January or February and ending in July or August, and have a minor influence on the annual ET cycle. These hydroperiods result from lake levels that typically vary about 1.3 m, from around 0.6 to 0.9 m above the wetland surface, to around 0.4 to 0.7 m below the wetland surface. An estimate of 3-year annual wetland ET, made by substituting early- and late-season data measured during 2009 for the missing periods in early 2008 and late 2010, is 0.938 meter per year (m/yr). Daily values of alfalfa-based reference ET (ETr) were retrieved from the Bureau of Reclamation AgriMet Web site (http://www.usbr.gov/pn/agrimet/index.html) and are aggregated into biweekly, annual, and 3-year values (for consistency, the 3-year values are also computed using substitute data from 2009 for early 2008 and late 2010). These ETr values are computed from weather data measured at the nearby Agency Lake weather station (AGKO), and are based on the assumption that the alfalfa crop is green and vigorous year-round. The 3-year value of ETr is 1.145 m/yr, about 22 percent greater than wetland ET. A comparison of 2008–2010 alfalfa and pasture growing season actual ET with wetland ET is made using data from the more distant Klamath Falls AgriMet weather station (KFLO) because actual alfalfa and pasture ET are not computed for the AGKO site. During the 190-day average alfalfa growing season, wetland ET (0.779 m) is about 7 percent less than alfalfa ET (0.838 m). During the 195-day average pasture growing season, wetland ET (0.789 m) is about 18 percent greater than pasture ET (0.671 m). Assuming alfalfa and pasture ET are equal to wetland ET during the non-growing season

  4. 76 FR 41397 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Florence, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... airspace at Florence, OR, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Florence Municipal Airport. This improves...

  5. 75 FR 12974 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hailey, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... E airspace at Hailey, ID, to accommodate aircraft using the Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) at Friedman Memorial Airport. This...

  6. 75 FR 40719 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kemmerer, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... E airspace at Kemmerer, WY to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Kemmerer Municipal Airport....

  7. 76 FR 1999 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panguitch, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... E airspace at Panguitch, UT, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Panguitch Municipal Airport. This...

  8. UTM Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line of sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Use build-a-little-test-a-little strategy remote areas to urban areas Low density: No traffic management required but understanding of airspace constraints. Cooperative traffic management: Understanding of airspace constraints and other operations. Manned and unmanned traffic management: Scalable and heterogeneous operations. UTM construct consistent with FAAs risk-based strategy. UTM research platform is used for simulations and tests. UTM offers path towards scalability.

  9. Tactical Conflict Detection in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.; Denery, Dallas G.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic systems have long relied on automated short-term conflict prediction algorithms to warn controllers of impending conflicts (losses of separation). The complexity of terminal airspace has proven difficult for such systems as it often leads to excessive false alerts. Thus, the legacy system, called Conflict Alert, which provides short-term alerts in both en-route and terminal airspace currently, is often inhibited or degraded in areas where frequent false alerts occur, even though the alerts are provided only when an aircraft is in dangerous proximity of other aircraft. This research investigates how a minimal level of flight intent information may be used to improve short-term conflict detection in terminal airspace such that it can be used by the controller to maintain legal aircraft separation. The flight intent information includes a site-specific nominal arrival route and inferred altitude clearances in addition to the flight plan that includes the RNAV (Area Navigation) departure route. A new tactical conflict detection algorithm is proposed, which uses a single analytic trajectory, determined by the flight intent and the current state information of the aircraft, and includes a complex set of current, dynamic separation standards for terminal airspace to define losses of separation. The new algorithm is compared with an algorithm that imitates a known en-route algorithm and another that imitates Conflict Alert by analysis of false-alert rate and alert lead time with recent real-world data of arrival and departure operations and a large set of operational error cases from Dallas/Fort Worth TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). The new algorithm yielded a false-alert rate of two per hour and an average alert lead time of 38 seconds.

  10. Evaluating the potential for watershed restoration to reduce nutrient loading to Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Paul V.; Campbell, Sharon G.

    2007-01-01

    A literature review of best management practices to reduce nutrient loading was performed to provide information for resource managers in the Klamath Basin, Oregon. Although BMPs have already been implemented in the watershed, some sense of their effectiveness in reducing phosphorus loading and their cost for installation and maintenance is still lacking. This report discusses both causes of nutrient loading and a wide-variety of BMPs used to treat or reduce causal factors. We specifically focused on cattle grazing as the principal land-use and causal factor for nutrient loading in the Klamath Basin above Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Several BMP types, including stream corridor fencing, riparian buffer strips and constructed wetlands, seem to have potential for reducing phosphorus loading that may result from cattle grazing. However, no single BMP is likely to be the most effective in all locations or situations.

  11. Potential Factors Affecting Survival Differ by Run-Timing and Location: Linear Mixed-Effects Models of Pacific Salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Klamath River, California

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Rebecca M.; Holyoak, Marcel; Johnson, Michael L.; Moyle, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing survival of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) is essential to species conservation, because drivers of mortality can vary over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although recent studies have evaluated the effects of climate, habitat quality, or resource management (e.g., hatchery operations) on salmonid recruitment and survival, a failure to look at multiple factors simultaneously leaves open questions about the relative importance of different factors. We analyzed the relationship between ten factors and survival (1980–2007) of four populations of salmonids with distinct life histories from two adjacent watersheds (Salmon and Scott rivers) in the Klamath River basin, California. The factors were ocean abundance, ocean harvest, hatchery releases, hatchery returns, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation, snow depth, flow, and watershed disturbance. Permutation tests and linear mixed-effects models tested effects of factors on survival of each taxon. Potential factors affecting survival differed among taxa and between locations. Fall Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha survival trends appeared to be driven partially or entirely by hatchery practices. Trends in three taxa (Salmon River spring Chinook salmon, Scott River fall Chinook salmon; Salmon River summer steelhead trout O. mykiss) were also likely driven by factors subject to climatic forcing (ocean abundance, summer flow). Our findings underscore the importance of multiple factors in simultaneously driving population trends in widespread species such as anadromous salmonids. They also show that the suite of factors may differ among different taxa in the same location as well as among populations of the same taxa in different watersheds. In the Klamath basin, hatchery practices need to be reevaluated to protect wild salmonids. PMID:24866173

  12. Configuring Airspace Sectors with Approximate Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Gupta, Pramod

    2010-01-01

    In response to changing traffic and staffing conditions, supervisors dynamically configure airspace sectors by assigning them to control positions. A finite horizon airspace sector configuration problem models this supervisor decision. The problem is to select an airspace configuration at each time step while considering a workload cost, a reconfiguration cost, and a constraint on the number of control positions at each time step. Three algorithms for this problem are proposed and evaluated: a myopic heuristic, an exact dynamic programming algorithm, and a rollouts approximate dynamic programming algorithm. On problem instances from current operations with only dozens of possible configurations, an exact dynamic programming solution gives the optimal cost value. The rollouts algorithm achieves costs within 2% of optimal for these instances, on average. For larger problem instances that are representative of future operations and have thousands of possible configurations, excessive computation time prohibits the use of exact dynamic programming. On such problem instances, the rollouts algorithm reduces the cost achieved by the heuristic by more than 15% on average with an acceptable computation time.

  13. Metrics for the NASA Airspace Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.

    2009-01-01

    This document defines an initial set of metrics for use by the NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP). ASP consists of the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. The work in each project is organized along multiple, discipline-level Research Focus Areas (RFAs). Each RFA is developing future concept elements in support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as defined by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO). In addition, a single, system-level RFA is responsible for integrating concept elements across RFAs in both projects and for assessing system-wide benefits. The primary purpose of this document is to define a common set of metrics for measuring National Airspace System (NAS) performance before and after the introduction of ASP-developed concepts for NextGen as the system handles increasing traffic. The metrics are directly traceable to NextGen goals and objectives as defined by the JPDO and hence will be used to measure the progress of ASP research toward reaching those goals. The scope of this document is focused on defining a common set of metrics for measuring NAS capacity, efficiency, robustness, and safety at the system-level and at the RFA-level. Use of common metrics will focus ASP research toward achieving system-level performance goals and objectives and enable the discipline-level RFAs to evaluate the impact of their concepts at the system level.

  14. Overview of Endangered Suckers in the Klamath Basin: Does it Take One to Know One?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shively, R. S.; Vanderkooi, S.

    2005-12-01

    Severe water quality problems in the Klamath Basin of Oregon and California have led to critical fisheries concerns for the region. In the Upper Klamath Basin, two fish species, the Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were listed as federally endangered in 1988. These species are large, long-lived, lake-dwelling fishes endemic to the Upper Klamath Basin. Declining population trends for both species were noted as early as the mid 1960's, however, the severity of these declines were not evident until the mid 1980's. At the time of listing, population structures were dominated by older individuals with little evidence of recent significant recruitment into adult populations. In the early 1990s there was evidence of recruitment for Lost River suckers. Successive years of large fish kills in Upper Klamath Lake from 1995 to 1997, however, substantially reduced adult populations of both Lost River and shortnose suckers. Additionally, the 1995 and 1996 fish kills appeared to have been selective for larger-sized individuals and would have disproportionately affected females and resulted in an overall lower reproductive potential. Water quality and physical habitat limitations are considered to be the most limiting factors to species recovery. Life history patterns of Lost River and shortnose suckers in Upper Klamath Lake have been severely disrupted by recurrent periods of poor water quality that appear to be the root cause of fish kills and likely negatively influence the production of juvenile suckers. Habitat degradation around Upper Klamath Lake and in its tributaries likely contributes to water quality problems and also limits the physical habitat needed for successful adult sucker spawning as well as larval and juvenile rearing. Ultimately, a better understanding of the factors that influence water quality in Upper Klamath Lake as well as developing a sound strategy for habitat restoration is needed to promote recovery

  15. 75 FR 13669 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dumas, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Moore County Airport, Dumas, TX, and updates the airport's... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Dumas, TX, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Moore County Airport... surface to accommodate SIAPs at Moore County Airport, Dumas, TX. This action also updates the...

  16. 77 FR 19928 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hugo, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hugo, CO AGENCY: Federal... Hugo, CO. Decommissioning of the Hugo Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN) has made this action... ] controlled airspace at Hugo, CO (76 FR 78576). Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  17. 78 FR 34556 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tobe, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tobe, CO AGENCY: Federal... at the Tobe VHF Omni- Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME), Tobe, CO, to... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Tobe, CO (78 FR 18264). Interested...

  18. 77 FR 19930 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tobe, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tobe, CO AGENCY: Federal... Tobe, CO. Decommissioning of the Tobe Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN) has made this action... a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Tobe, CO (77 FR 4708)....

  19. 77 FR 18102 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lamar, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lamar, CO AGENCY: Federal... Lamar Municipal Airport, Lamar, CO. Decommissioning of the Lamar Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Lamar, CO (76 FR...

  20. 77 FR 75836 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walsenburg, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walsenburg, CO AGENCY... airspace at Spanish Peaks Airfield, Walsenburg, CO, to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV... Airfield, Walsenburg, CO (77 FR 55776). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...

  1. 75 FR 18047 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Hollywood, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Hollywood, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Airport, Hollywood, FL. DATES: Effective Date: 0901 UTC. May 10, 2010. The Director of the Federal... airspace description for North Perry Airport, Hollywood, FL, incorrectly referenced the Miami, FL, Class...

  2. 76 FR 53328 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... FAA processed all proposed changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9U in full text as... in full text as final rules in the Federal Register. This rule reflects the periodic integration of... changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9V in full text as proposed rule documents in...

  3. 78 FR 52847 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... FAA processed all proposed changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9W in full text as... in full text as final rules in the Federal Register. This rule reflects the periodic integration of... changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9X in full text as proposed rule documents in...

  4. 75 FR 20320 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Johnston County Airport... Smithfield, NC to provide controlled airspace required to support the SIAPs for Johnston County Airport. The... within the scope of that authority as it would amend Class E airspace at Johnston County...

  5. 75 FR 65581 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colebrook, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Proposed Rulemaking, Airspace Docket No. 10-ANE-105, as published in the Federal Register on July 19, 2010... (NPRM); withdrawal. SUMMARY: This action withdraws the NPRM published in the Federal Register on July 19.... The NPRM is being withdrawn as a portion of the proposed airspace already exists. A new...

  6. 75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the Wilcox non-directional beacon (NDB) at Mountain View Wilcox Memorial Field Airport has made this action necessary for the...

  7. 76 FR 8281 - Amendment to Class B Airspace; Cleveland, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... International Airport (CLE) and non-participating Visual Flight Rules (VFR) aircraft operating in the vicinity... boundaries of Areas F and G to coincide with visual landmarks to prevent inadvertent Class B airspace... benefits of using visual landmarks for defining airspace boundaries and does so when possible....

  8. 78 FR 25382 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Griffin, GA, as the Griffin Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard... authority as it amends controlled airspace at Griffin-Spalding County Airport, Griffin, GA. Environmental... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA AGENCY:...

  9. 77 FR 68067 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Coaldale, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... airspace at Coaldale VHF Omni- Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC), Coaldale, NV to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Oakland Air Route... request of the Oakland ARTCC to aid with the navigation of aircraft within the ARTCC's airspace area...

  10. 75 FR 6095 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Hinesville, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Hinesville, GA AGENCY... November 25, 2009 (74 FR 61507), revokes Class E airspace at Liberty County Airport, Hinesville, GA....

  11. 77 FR 51464 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Augusta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Augusta, GA AGENCY: Federal... Augusta, GA. The Bushe Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) and the Burke County NDB have been decommissioned and... Field, Augusta, GA, and Burke County Airport, Waynesboro, GA, respectively. Airspace reconfiguration...

  12. 75 FR 32651 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quitman, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quitman, GA AGENCY... April 1, 2010 that establishes Class E Airspace at Quitman Brooks County Airport, Quitman, GA....

  13. 76 FR 64235 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nahunta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nahunta, GA AGENCY... Airspace at Nahunta, GA, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS..., GA (76 FR 45478) Docket No. FAA-2011-0727. Subsequent to publication, the FAA found a...

  14. 77 FR 44120 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... airspace at Roundup Airport, Roundup, MT, to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... action under 1 CFR part 51, subject to the annual revision of FAA Order 7400.9 and publication of... the TAAs. The airspace in question includes the following areas where Class E begins at 14,500...

  15. 76 FR 34576 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Waynesboro, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Airspace at Waynesboro, VA, to accommodate the additional airspace need for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for Eagle's Nest Airport. This action enhances the safety and management of... procedures developed at Eagle's Nest Airport, Waynesboro, VA. This action is necessary for the safety...

  16. 75 FR 13670 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL AGENCY: Federal... December 29, 2009 that amends Class E airspace at Northeast Alabama Regional, Gadsden, AL. DATES:...

  17. 76 FR 67054 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fayette, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fayette, AL AGENCY: Federal... Fayette, AL, as the Fayette Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Fayette,...

  18. 78 FR 72009 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC AGENCY: Federal... at Star, NC, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Star, NC (78 FR...

  19. 78 FR 59807 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... airspace at the Glasgow VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation... the surface, at the Glasgow VOR/DME navigation aid, Glasgow, MT, to accommodate IFR aircraft under... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at the Glasgow VOR/DME,...

  20. 78 FR 34555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Gillette, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... airspace at the Gillette VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME), Gillette... the surface, at the Gillette VOR/DME navigation aid, Gillette, WY, to accommodate IFR aircraft under... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at the Gillette...

  1. 78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... airspace at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation... the surface, at the Salmon VOR/DME navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to accommodate IFR aircraft under... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at the Salmon VOR/DME,...

  2. 75 FR 4270 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Anniston, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Anniston, AL AGENCY... October 28, 2009 that modifies the Class E airspace at Anniston Metropolitan Airport, Anniston, AL....

  3. 75 FR 81441 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Benton, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Benton, IL AGENCY... airspace at Benton, IL, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Benton Municipal Airport, Benton, IL. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety...

  4. 14 CFR 71.71 - Class E airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (2) The airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth. (b) The airspace areas designated... by reference, see § 71.1) which extend upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... been prescribed, or from 1,200 feet or more above the surface of the earth for the purpose...

  5. 14 CFR 91.130 - Operations in Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operations in Class C airspace. 91.130 Section 91.130 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... designated. A satellite airport is any other airport within the Class C airspace area. (b) Traffic...

  6. 77 FR 42427 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA AGENCY: Federal... Class E airspace at Grinnell Regional Airport, Grinnell, IA, by removing reference to the Grinnell NDB... Regional Airport, Grinnell, IA, and amends the geographic coordinates of the airport to coincide with...

  7. 75 FR 23580 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA AGENCY: Federal... Mapleton, IA, adding additional controlled airspace to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at James G. Whiting Memorial Field Airport, Mapleton, IA. The FAA...

  8. 77 FR 68682 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA AGENCY: Federal... Guthrie, IA. Decommissioning of the Guthrie Center non-directional radio beacon (NDB) at Guthrie County... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Guthrie, IA, area, creating...

  9. 78 FR 76053 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Chariton, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Chariton, IA AGENCY: Federal... Chariton, IA. Decommissioning of the Chariton non-directional beacon (NDB) at Chariton Municipal Airport... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Chariton, IA,...

  10. 78 FR 67024 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Prineville, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... incorporated by reference in 14 CFR 71.1. The Class E airspace designations listed in this document will be... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Prineville, OR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class...

  11. 76 FR 72838 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Luray, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations within the National Airspace System. This action also..., 2011, and effective September 15, 2011, which is incorporated by reference in 14 CFR 71.1. The Class E... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Luray, VA AGENCY:...

  12. 78 FR 48294 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mason, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mason, TX AGENCY: Federal... Mason, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Mason County Airport. This action enhances the safety...

  13. 75 FR 29655 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR AGENCY... airspace for Batesville, AR. Decommissioning of the Independence County non-directional beacon (NDB) at Batesville Regional Airport, Batesville, AR, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety...

  14. 75 FR 29657 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR AGENCY... airspace for Marianna, AR to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Marianna/Lee County Airport--Steve Edwards Field, Marianna, AR. The FAA is taking this...

  15. 75 FR 39148 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ..., UT, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) traffic from en route airspace to Salt Lake City, UT. This will improve the safety and management of IFR operations for the Salt Lake City, UT... operations by vectoring IFR aircraft from en route airspace to Salt Lake City, UT. This action enhances...

  16. 75 FR 81442 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Rawlins, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...) at Rawlins Municipal Airport/Harvey Field, has made this action necessary. This will improve the... CFR) part 71 by amending Class E surface airspace at Rawlins Municipal Airport/Harvey Field. The... within the scope of that authority as it amends controlled airspace at Rawlins Municipal...

  17. 75 FR 43814 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Goldsboro, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Goldsboro, NC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends the Class D... D airspace for Seymour Johnson AFB, Goldsboro, NC (75 FR 17891) Docket No. FAA-2010-0095....

  18. 78 FR 67296 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; Mesquite, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class D Airspace; Mesquite, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class D... establish Class D airspace for Mesquite Metro Airport, Mesquite, TX (78 FR 48842) Docket No. FAA-2012-...

  19. 75 FR 67910 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...: This action amends Class E Airspace at Charleston, SC, by removing the East Cooper Airport from the airspace description. The East Cooper Airport has been renamed Mt. Pleasant Regional Airport- Faison Field... Charleston AFB/International Airport, the Charleston Executive Airport, and the East Cooper Airport. The...

  20. 78 FR 33963 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Atwood, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Atwood, KS AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Atwood, KS. Decommissioning of the Atwood non-directional radio beacon (NDB) at Atwood--Rawlins County--City County...

  1. 76 FR 61258 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Allakaket, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Allakaket, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace at Allakaket, AK, to accommodate the amendment of one Standard Instrument Approach Procedure at the...

  2. 75 FR 33165 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Galena, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... revising Class E airspace at Edward G. Pitka Sr. Airport, AK, to accommodate three amended SIAPs and one... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Galena, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final Rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class...

  3. 76 FR 60714 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Northway, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Northway, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace at Northway, AK, to accommodate the amendment of one Standard Instrument Approach Procedure at the...

  4. 77 FR 45240 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quakertown, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quakertown, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace...

  5. 77 FR 34209 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tallahassee, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tallahassee, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace in...

  6. 77 FR 46282 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Sweetwater, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Sweetwater, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Sweetwater, TX,...

  7. 75 FR 65226 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC (75 FR 52654)...

  8. 77 FR 1012 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Inverness, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Inverness, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at...

  9. 76 FR 9220 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Martinsville, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Martinsville, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace for Martinsville,...

  10. 78 FR 18801 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Beeville, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Beeville, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace at Chase...

  11. 78 FR 61179 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Comanche, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Comanche, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... established for the airport in 2006, but the Class E airspace area to contain it was never...

  12. 76 FR 8624 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Barrow, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Barrow, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace at...) 271-2850; e- mail: Martha.ctr.Dunn@faa.gov . Internet address:...

  13. 77 FR 66069 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perry, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perry, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Perry, IA, area,...

  14. 76 FR 8626 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Shungnak, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Shungnak, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace at..., Box 14, Anchorage, AK 99513-7587; telephone number (907) 271-5898; fax: (907) 271-2850; e-...

  15. 75 FR 41077 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace at...: History The FAA received a request from NACO to clarify the legal description of the existing Class...

  16. 77 FR 16669 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bellefonte, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bellefonte, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace 700 feet above...

  17. 78 FR 48296 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Factoryville, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Factoryville, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at...

  18. 76 FR 16530 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace for Creighton, NE,...

  19. 78 FR 22413 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Omak, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Omak, WA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... necessary. This action also makes a minor change to the legal description in reference to the Class...

  20. 78 FR 48302 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wagner, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wagner, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace for the Wagner,...

  1. 75 FR 65224 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Williston, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Williston, ND AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Williston, ND,...

  2. 78 FR 48300 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mahnomen, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mahnomen, MN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace...

  3. 75 FR 65225 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Youngstown, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Youngstown, OH AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Youngstown, OH, creating...

  4. 75 FR 4270 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tompkinsville, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tompkinsville, KY AGENCY... September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Tompkinsville--Monroe County Airport,...

  5. 77 FR 28246 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tullahoma, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tullahoma, TN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... amend Class E airspace at Tullahoma, TN (77 FR 12759). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  6. 75 FR 13668 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Georgetown, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Georgetown, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Georgetown...

  7. 75 FR 65228 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Chilicothe, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Chilicothe, MO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class E... that the Class E surface area airspace at Chilicothe Municipal Airport is no longer necessary and...

  8. 75 FR 4269 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lewisport, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lewisport, KY... Register September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Hancock Co.--Ron Lewis Field,...

  9. 75 FR 4270 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC... Register September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Saluda County Airport, Saluda, SC....

  10. 75 FR 4269 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Clayton, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Clayton, GA AGENCY... September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Heaven's Landing Airport, Clayton, GA....

  11. 77 FR 45241 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Apopka, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Apopka, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace...

  12. 76 FR 8625 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Savoonga, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Savoonga, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace at...-5898; fax: (907) 271-2850; e-mail: martha.ctr.dunn@faa.gov . Internet address:...

  13. 75 FR 4269 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hertford, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hertford, NC AGENCY... September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Harvey Point Defense Testing Activity, Hertford,...

  14. 77 FR 66068 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Breckenridge, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Breckenridge, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Breckenridge, TX,...

  15. 78 FR 48301 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walker, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walker, MN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace for the Walker,...

  16. 78 FR 18802 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tecumseh, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tecumseh, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Tecumseh,...

  17. 75 FR 65227 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Franklin, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Franklin, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class E... rulemaking to remove Class E airspace for Franklin, TX (75 FR 36586) Docket No. FAA-2010-0603....

  18. Chronology of sediment deposition in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Bradbury, J.P.; McGeehin, J.P.; Holmes, C.W.; Edginton, D.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    A combination of tephrochronology and 14C, 210Pb, and 137Cs measurements provides a robust chronology for sedimentation in Upper Klamath Lake during the last 45 000 years. Mixing of surficial sediments and possible mobility of the radio-isotopes limit the usefulness of the 137Cs and 210Pb data, but 210Pb profiles provide reasonable average sediment accumulation rates for the last 100-150 years. Radiocarbon ages near the top of the core are somewhat erratic and are too old, probably as a result of detrital organic carbon, which may have become a more common component in recent times as surrounding marshes were drained. Below the tops of the cores, radiocarbon ages in the center of the basin appear to be about 400 years too old, while those on the margin appear to be accurate, based on comparisons with tephra layers of known age. Taken together, the data can be combined into reasonable age models for each site. Sediments have accumulated at site K1, near the center of the basin, about 2 times faster than at site CM2, on the margin of the lake. The rates are about 0.10 and 0.05 cm/yr, respectively. The chronological data also indicate that accumulation rates were slower during the early to middle Holocene than during the late Holocene, consistent with increasing wetness in the late Holocene.

  19. 78 FR 32084 - Modification of Class D and Class E Airspace; Pueblo, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class D and Class E Airspace; Pueblo, CO... Class D airspace and Class E airspace areas at Pueblo Memorial Airport, Pueblo, CO, to accommodate... airspace at Pueblo, CO (78 FR 11996). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...

  20. 77 FR 55776 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walsenburg, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...-ANM-20 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walsenburg, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation... establish Class E airspace at Spanish Peaks Airfield, Walsenburg, CO. Controlled airspace is necessary to... Airfield, Walsenburg, CO. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using the new RNAV...

  1. 78 FR 31839 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Beeville-Chase Field, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Beeville-Chase Field, TX... Register of March 28, 2013. The title and airspace designation are corrected to read Beeville-Chase Field... Register document FAA 2012-0821, Airspace Docket No. 12- ASW-8, establishes Class E Airspace at Chase...

  2. 78 FR 54413 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Star, NC, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV... establish Class E airspace at Star, NC, providing the controlled airspace required to support the new...

  3. 77 FR 68683 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Forest City, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Forest City, IA AGENCY... airspace at Forest City, IA. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Forest City,...

  4. 77 FR 4700 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Freer, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Freer, TX...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Freer, TX. Controlled airspace is necessary to... approach procedures at Seven C's Ranch Airport, Freer, TX. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety...

  5. 76 FR 38580 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB, FL...: This action proposes to amend Class D Airspace in the Eglin Air Force Base (AFB), FL airspace area. The... amendment to Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to amend Class D airspace in the...

  6. 78 FR 52422 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Wrightstown, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Wrightstown, NJ AGENCY... amends Class D and E Airspace at Wrightstown, NJ, by updating the geographic coordinates and changing the... (14 CFR) part 71 amends Class D airspace and E airspace designated as an extension to a Class...

  7. 76 FR 30532 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Palmdale, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Palmdale, CA... D Airspace and Class E Airspace at Palmdale, CA, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing.... No comments were received. Class D and Class E Airspace designations are published in paragraph...

  8. 77 FR 40488 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Lakehurst, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Lakehurst, NJ...: This action changes the name of the airport associated with the Class D and Class E airspace at... name of the airport associated with the Class D airspace and Class E airspace designated as...

  9. 77 FR 50417 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Lewiston, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... airspace, and Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface and 1,200 feet above the... airspace 1,200 feet above the surface area to enhance safety in the Lewiston-Nez Pearce County Airport... airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at Lewiston-Nez Perce County Airport,...

  10. 77 FR 19931 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Boyne City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Boyne City, MI AGENCY... airspace at Boyne City, MI. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Boyne City,...

  11. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  12. 78 FR 52109 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salisbury, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * AEA MD E5 Salisbury, MD Salisbury-Ocean..., and establish Class E airspace at Salisbury-Ocean City Wicomico Regional Airport, Salisbury, MD, due... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to amend Class D and Class E airspace at Salisbury-Ocean...

  13. 14 CFR 61.95 - Operations in Class B airspace and at airports located within Class B airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airports located within Class B airspace. 61.95 Section 61.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.95 Operations in Class B airspace and at airports located within... student pilot may not operate an aircraft on a solo flight to, from, or at an airport located within...

  14. 14 CFR 61.95 - Operations in Class B airspace and at airports located within Class B airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in Class B airspace and at airports located within Class B airspace. 61.95 Section 61.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots §...

  15. 77 FR 9839 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...This action modifies Class D and Class E airspace at Bozeman, Gallatin Field Airport, Bozeman, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer (LOC) standard instrument approach procedures at Bozeman, Gallatin Field Airport. This action also establishes Class E En Route Domestic airspace to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the......

  16. 78 FR 21084 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Traffic Control Tower at Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field) operating on a part time basis. This action...-0038; Airspace Docket No. 13-AEA-2, at the beginning of your comments. You may also submit and review...; Airspace Docket No. 13-AEA-2) and be submitted in triplicate to the Docket Management System (see...

  17. 75 FR 65250 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Easton, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the office of the Eastern Service... E airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface of the Earth within a 6.5-mile radius of...

  18. Waterfowl Migration on Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges 1953-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, David S.; Yee, Julie L.; Mauser, David M.; Hainline, James M.

    2004-01-01

    Waterfowl abundance, species composition, and distribution on Klamath Basin refuges have fluctuated over the decades and have been influenced by events such as productivity on breeding grounds and habitat conditions on wintering grounds that cause shifts in migration patterns. A major c

  19. 75 FR 54647 - Revision of Information Collection; Non-Use Valuation Survey, Klamath Basin; Correction and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ...), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), Pacific lamprey (Lampetra... to Klamath Basin tribes (e.g., salmon, sturgeon, lamprey, eulachon), and some are at low levels of abundance or Endangered Species Act-listed (e.g., spring Chinook, lamprey, coho, eulachon). Studies on...

  20. Ground-Water Hydrology of the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.; La Marche, Jonathan L.; Fisher, Bruce J.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    The upper Klamath Basin spans the California-Oregon border from the flank of the Cascade Range eastward to the Basin and Range Province, and encompasses the Klamath River drainage basin above Iron Gate Dam. Most of the basin is semiarid, but the Cascade Range and uplands in the interior and eastern parts of the basin receive on average more than 30 inches of precipitation per year. The basin has several perennial streams with mean annual discharges of hundreds of cubic feet per second, and the Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, which represents drainage from the entire upper basin, has a mean annual discharge of about 2,100 cubic feet per second. The basin once contained three large lakes: Upper and Lower Klamath Lakes and Tule Lake, each of which covered areas of 100 to 150 square miles, including extensive marginal wetlands. Lower Klamath Lake and Tule Lake have been mostly drained, and the former lake beds are now cultivated. Upper Klamath Lake remains, and is an important source of irrigation water. Much of the wetland surrounding Upper Klamath Lake has been diked and drained, although efforts are underway to restore large areas. Upper Klamath Lake and the remaining parts of Lower Klamath and Tule Lakes provide important wildlife habitat, and parts of each are included in the Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges Complex. The upper Klamath Basin has a substantial regional ground-water flow system. The late Tertiary to Quaternary volcanic rocks that underlie the region are generally permeable, with transmissivity estimates ranging from 1,000 to 100,000 feet squared per day, and compose a system of variously interconnected aquifers. Interbedded with the volcanic rocks are late Tertiary sedimentary rocks composed primarily of fine-grained lake sediments and basin-filling deposits. These sedimentary deposits have generally low permeability, are not good aquifers, and probably restrict ground-water movement in some areas. The regional ground-water system is underlain

  1. 75 FR 52964 - Revision of Information Collection; Non-Use Valuation Survey, Klamath Basin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... volitional fish passage (ladders and screens), which was being considered by the Federal Energy Regulatory... Species Act-listed (e.g., spring Chinook, lamprey, coho, eulachon). In addition to its importance as fish... Irrigation Project. Oversubscription of Klamath water has thwarted recovery of depressed fish stocks and...

  2. Hydroclimatic and landscape controls on phosphorus loads to hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Records, R.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Arabi, M.; Duffy, W. G.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated total phosphorus (P) loading into Upper Klamath Lake, southern Oregon, United States has caused hypereutrophic conditions impacting endangered lake fish species. Increases in P loading have been attributed to land use changes, such as timber harvest and wetland drainage. The contribution of P to Upper Klamath Lake has been estimated from each major tributary, yet little research has explored what land use or other variables have most influence on P loading within the tributaries. In addition, previous work has shown a range of potential hydroclimatic shifts by the 2040s, with potential to alter P loading mechanisms. In this study, we use statistical methods including principle component analysis and multiple linear regression to determine what hydroclimatic and landscape variables best explain flow-weighted P concentration in the Sprague River, one of three main tributaries to Upper Klamath Lake. Identification of key variables affecting P loading has direct implications for management decisions in the Upper Klamath River Basin. Increases in P loading related to sediment loading are due to bank and upslope erosion. The former is more prevalent in areas of historic channel alteration and cattle grazing, while the latter is more dominant in areas of heavy timber harvesting and more precipitation as rain.

  3. Obsidian hydration rate for the klamath basin of california and Oregon.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L

    1969-09-26

    A hydration rate for obsidian of 3.5(4) microns squared per 1000 radio-carbon years has been established at the Nightfire Island archeological site in northern California and provides a means to date other prehistoric Klamath Basin sites. The new rate follows the form of the hydration equation formulated by Friedman and helps to refute claims made for other hydration equations.

  4. Overview of Hydrologic Issues in the Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. D.

    2005-12-01

    The geologic setting of the upper Klamath Basin makes it a naturally arid landscape with eutrophic water bodies. Anthropogenic alterations of the land and hydrology over the past 100 years have put large demands on water supplies and further enriched water bodies with nutrients. Major changes to the upper basin include diking and draining lakes and wetlands for agricultural and grazing land, modifying lakes to increase the supply of summer irrigation water, clearing land and harvesting timber, and installing hydropower dams on the mainstem Klamath River that has blocked salmon passage above Iron Gate Dam. These alterations have contributed to diminished populations of endangered shortnose and Lost River suckers in the upper basin and threatened Coho salmon in the lower Klamath River. Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), with an average depth of 2.5 meters and a surface area of 310 square kilometers, is the primary water-supply reservoir for the Bureau of Reclamation's Klamath Project, which services about half (97,000 ha) of the irrigated agriculture in the upper Klamath Basin. The lake is also the primary habitat for the two endangered suckers. Because of the nutrient enrichment of UKL, the development of large summer blooms of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the periodic crash of these near monoculture blooms, the magnitude and frequency of large sucker die-offs from hypoxia have increased. The relation between management of the lake and surrounding wetlands and algal ecology is not well understood. It is clear, however, that runoff from drained wetlands upstream and around UKL have enriched the lake water and its bottom sediments with phosphorus for many decades. Internal loading from enriched bottom sediments triples the summer phosphorus concentration in UKL and fuels the problematic algal blooms from June through October. An ongoing pattern of below-average precipitation has increased demands from UKL and generated concern. Two recent Biological Opinions aimed at

  5. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  6. Klamath River Water Quality Data from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Butler, Kenna D.; Vaughn, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This report documents sampling and analytical methods and presents field data from a second year of an ongoing study on the Klamath River from Link River Dam to Keno Dam in south central Oregon; this dataset will form the basis of a hydrodynamic and water quality model. Water quality was sampled weekly at six mainstem and two tributary sites from early April through early November, 2008. Constituents reported herein include field-measured water-column parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, specific conductance); total nitrogen and phosphorus; particulate carbon and nitrogen; total iron; filtered orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, and iron; specific UV absorbance at 254 nanometers; chlorophyll a; phytoplankton and zooplankton enumeration and species identification; and bacterial abundance and morphological subgroups. Sampling program results indicated: *Most nutrient and carbon concentrations were lowest in spring, increased starting in mid-June, remained elevated in the summer, and decreased in fall. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate had a different seasonal cycle and was below detection or at low concentration in summer. *Although total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations did not show large differences from upstream to downstream, filtered ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations increased in the downstream direction and particulate carbon and particulate nitrogen generally decreased in the downstream direction. *Large bacterial cells made up most of the bacteria biovolume, though cocci were the most numerous bacteria type. Cocci, with diameters of 0.1 to 0.2 micrometers, were smaller than the filter pore sizes used to separate dissolved from particulate matter. *Phytoplankton biovolumes were dominated by diatoms in spring and by the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae after mid-June. Another blue-green, Anabaena flos-aquae, was noted in samples from late May to late June. Phytoplankton

  7. Benthic nutrient sources to hypereutrophic upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, James S; Topping, Brent R; Lynch, Dennis D; Carter, James L; Essaid, Hedeff I

    2009-03-01

    Three collecting trips were coordinated in April, May, and August 2006 to sample the water column and benthos of hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (OR, USA) through the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. A pore-water profiler was designed and fabricated to obtain the first high-resolution (centimeter-scale) estimates of the vertical concentration gradients of macro- and micronutrients for diffusive-flux determinations. A consistently positive benthic flux for soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was observed with solute release from the sediment, ranging between 0.4 and 6.1 mg/m(2)/d. The mass flux over an approximate 200-km(2) lake area was comparable in magnitude to riverine inputs. An additional concern related to fish toxicity was identified when dissolved ammonium also displayed consistently positive benthic fluxes of 4 to 134 mg/m(2)/d, again comparable to riverine inputs. Although phosphorus was a logical initial choice by water quality managers for the limiting nutrient when nitrogen-fixing cyanophytes dominate, initial trace-element results from the lake and major inflowing tributaries suggested that the role of iron limitation on primary productivity should be investigated. Dissolved iron became depleted in the lake water column during the course of the algal bloom, while dissolved ammonium and SRP increased. Elevated macroinvertebrate densities, at least of the order of 10(4) individuals/m(2), suggested that the diffusive-flux estimates may be significantly enhanced by bioturbation. In addition, heat-flux modeling indicated that groundwater advection of nutrients could also significantly contribute to internal nutrient loading. Accurate environmental assessments of lentic systems and reasonable expectations for point-source management require quantitative consideration of internal solute sources.

  8. Benthic nutrient sources to hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Topping, B.R.; Lynch, D.D.; Carter, J.L.; Essaid, H.I.

    2009-01-01

    Three collecting trips were coordinated in April, May, and August 2006 to sample the water column and benthos of hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (OR, USA) through the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. A porewater profiler was designed and fabricated to obtain the first high-resolution (centimeter-scale) estimates of the vertical, concentration gradients of macro- and micronutrients for diffusive-flux determinations. A consistently positive benthic flux for soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was observed with solute release from the sediment, ranging between 0.4 and 6.1 mg/m2/d. The mass flux over an approximate 200-km2 lake area was comparable in magnitude to riverine inputs. An additional concern, related to fish toxicity was identified when dissolved ammonium also displayed consistently positive benthic fluxes of 4 to 134 mg/m2/d, again, comparable to riverine inputs. Although phosphorus was a logical initial choice by water quality managers for the limiting nutrient when nitrogen-fixing cyanophytes dominate, initial trace-element results from the lake and major inflowing tributaries suggested that the role of iron limitation on primary productivity should be investigated. Dissolved iron became depleted in the lake water column during the course of the algal bloom, while dissolved ammonium and SRP increased. Elevated macroinvertebrate densities, at least of the order of 104 individuals/m2, suggested, that the diffusive-flux estimates may be significantly enhanced, by bioturbation. In addition, heat-flux modeling indicated that groundwater advection of nutrients could also significantly contribute to internal nutrient loading. Accurate environmental assessments of lentic systems and reasonable expectations for point-source management require quantitative consideration of internal solute sources ?? 2009 SETAC.

  9. Interaction of Airspace Partitions and Traffic Flow Management Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palopo, Kee; Chatterji, Gano B.; Lee, Hak-Tae

    2010-01-01

    To ensure that air traffic demand does not exceed airport and airspace capacities, traffic management restrictions, such as delaying aircraft on the ground, assigning them different routes and metering them in the airspace, are implemented. To reduce the delays resulting from these restrictions, revising the partitioning of airspace has been proposed to distribute capacity to yield a more efficient airspace configuration. The capacity of an airspace partition, commonly referred to as a sector, is limited by the number of flights that an air traffic controller can safely manage within the sector. Where viable, re-partitioning of the airspace distributes the flights over more efficient sectors and reduces individual sector demand. This increases the overall airspace efficiency, but requires additional resources in some sectors in terms of controllers and equipment, which is undesirable. This study examines the tradeoff of the number of sectors designed for a specified amount of traffic in a clear-weather day and the delays needed for accommodating the traffic demand. Results show that most of the delays are caused by airport arrival and departure capacity constraints. Some delays caused by airspace capacity constraints can be eliminated by re-partitioning the airspace. Analyses show that about 360 high-altitude sectors, which are approximately today s operational number of sectors of 373, are adequate for delays to be driven solely by airport capacity constraints for the current daily air traffic demand. For a marginal increase of 15 seconds of average delay, the number of sectors can be reduced to 283. In addition, simulations of traffic growths of 15% and 20% with forecasted airport capacities in the years 2018 and 2025 show that delays will continue to be governed by airport capacities. In clear-weather days, for small increases in traffic demand, increasing sector capacities will have almost no effect on delays.

  10. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  11. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  12. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  13. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  14. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  15. 75 FR 79294 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Henderson, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... airspace at Henderson, KY. The Geneva Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard... due to the decommissioning of the Geneva NDB and cancellation of the NDB approach, and for...

  16. 76 FR 28308 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Poplar, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... airspace at Poplar Municipal Airport, Poplar, MT. The airport was moved 1.5 Nautical Miles (NM) to the... Airport, Poplar, MT. The airport was moved 1.5 nautical miles to the northeast, and controlled...

  17. 76 FR 30821 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Duluth, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On March 23, 2011, the FAA published in the Federal Register a notice of... Airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * AGL MN...

  18. 78 FR 67298 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Ennis, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... INFORMATION: History On September 4, 2013, the FAA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed...: Paragraph 6005 Class E airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the...

  19. 75 FR 62458 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Tanana, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... INFORMATION: History On Tuesday, July 6, 2010, the FAA published a notice of proposed rulemaking in the...: * * * * * Paragraph 6005 Class E Airspace Extending Upward From 700 Feet or More Above the Surface of the...

  20. 78 FR 32085 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Eureka, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On December 21, 2012, the FAA published in the Federal Register a notice of...: Paragraph 6005 Class E airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the...

  1. 78 FR 34553 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bend, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ...., Renton, WA, 98057; telephone (425) 203-4537. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On March 1, 2013, the FAA... Class E airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the...

  2. 78 FR 36411 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tuskegee, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Tuskegee, AL, as the Tuskegee VOR/DME has been decommissioned and airspace reconfiguration is necessary for... reconfiguration is necessary due to the decommissioning of the Tuskegee VOR/DME and cancellation of the...

  3. 78 FR 1742 - Amendment to Class B Airspace; Atlanta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... to increase safety and aid pilots in gaining situational awareness within or around the Class B area... airspace. The FAA finds that the new 6,000-floor still provides sufficient space for safe operations...

  4. 78 FR 14651 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Goldsboro, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Mount Olive Municipal Airport. Airspace... Olive Municipal Airport and the Seymour Johnson TACAN, and recognizes the airport name change of... support the new RNAV (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures for Mount Olive Municipal Airport....

  5. 76 FR 55232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Copperhill, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures serving Martin Campbell Field Airport. This action enhances the... System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for Martin Campbell Field Airport. This... scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at Martin Campbell Field...

  6. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless... flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  7. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless... flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  8. Empirical models of wind conditions on Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2010-01-01

    Upper Klamath Lake is a large (230 square kilometers), shallow (mean depth 2.8 meters at full pool) lake in southern Oregon. Lake circulation patterns are driven largely by wind, and the resulting currents affect the water quality and ecology of the lake. To support hydrodynamic modeling of the lake and statistical investigations of the relation between wind and lake water-quality measurements, the U.S. Geological Survey has monitored wind conditions along the lakeshore and at floating raft sites in the middle of the lake since 2005. In order to make the existing wind archive more useful, this report summarizes the development of empirical wind models that serve two purposes: (1) to fill short (on the order of hours or days) wind data gaps at raft sites in the middle of the lake, and (2) to reconstruct, on a daily basis, over periods of months to years, historical wind conditions at U.S. Geological Survey sites prior to 2005. Empirical wind models based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multivariate-Adaptive Regressive Splines (MARS) algorithms were compared. ANNs were better suited to simulating the 10-minute wind data that are the dependent variables of the gap-filling models, but the simpler MARS algorithm may be adequate to accurately simulate the daily wind data that are the dependent variables of the historical wind models. To further test the accuracy of the gap-filling models, the resulting simulated winds were used to force the hydrodynamic model of the lake, and the resulting simulated currents were compared to measurements from an acoustic Doppler current profiler. The error statistics indicated that the simulation of currents was degraded as compared to when the model was forced with observed winds, but probably is adequate for short gaps in the data of a few days or less. Transport seems to be less affected by the use of the simulated winds in place of observed winds. The simulated tracer concentration was similar between model results when

  9. 77 FR 39653 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Reidsville, GA, and Proposed Amendment of Class E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... establish Class E Airspace at Reidsville, GA. Separation of existing Class E airspace surrounding Swinton... (formerly Reidsville Airport), Reidsville, GA, to accommodate the separation of existing Class E...

  10. Emplacement mode of a composite post-collisonal pluton in the Klamath Mountains (California, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machek, M.; Zavada, P.; Spicak, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Klamath Mountains represent an accreationary complex on the northwest California and southwestern Oregon. It consists of four arcuate belts representing terranes of former island archipelago environments that span in age from Paleozoic to Jurrasic and are divided by eastward dipping thrust faults (Snoke and Barnes, 2006). During and after the accretion, the entire thrust sheet was penetrated by numerous plutonic bodies. The Castle Crags pluton was selected for detailed internal fabrics to understand the emplacement mode of post-collisional plutons. Castle Crags pluton that intruded the Eastern Klamath terrane and in particular ultramafic Trinity Complex subterrane is an elliptical NW-SE elongated pluton with 12 km and 7 km in its long and short dimension, respectively. It is a well exposed composite plutonic body with about 1 km vertical crossfall. The pluton is affected by prominent NW-SE trending vertical joints and another less well developed vertical set perpendicular to the first one. The pluton is zoned and consists of three following igneous varieties: 1) marginal fine-grained granodioritic facies with abundant subsolidus shear zones, 2) coarse-grained granodiorite and 3) central, circular in plan-form and about 2 km in diameter, domain of trondhjemite. Numerous miarolitic cavities with macroscopically measurable trends mark the transition between the central trondhjemite and surrounding granodiorite (Vennum, 1980 a,b). Macroscopic foliations, jointing and sampling on the Castle Crags was carried out along the main crest of the pluton and numerous sideway crests and valleys gaining about 70 samples. The internal magmatic foliations and magnetic foliations show a concentric pattern of margin-parallel vertical foliations. The magnetic lineations reveal plunge trends parallel to the margins of the pluton and continuously increasing plunge angles from the margin to the core of the pluton. The zonality and fabric pattern of the pluton can reflect either

  11. The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System Architecture and System Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Robert; Meyn, Larry; Manikonda, Vikram; Carlos, Patrick; Capozzi, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System is a simulation of the National Airspace System. It includes models of flights, airports, airspaces, air traffic controls, traffic flow managements, and airline operation centers operating throughout the United States. It is used to predict system delays in response to future capacity and demand scenarios and perform benefits assessments of current and future airspace technologies and operational concepts. Facilitation of these studies requires that the simulation architecture supports plug and play of different air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models and multi-fidelity modeling of flights, airports, and airspaces. The simulation is divided into two parts that are named, borrowing from classical control theory terminology, control and plant. The control consists of air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models, and the plant consists of flight, airport, and airspace models. The plant can run open loop, in the absence of the control. However, undesired affects, such as conflicts and over congestions in the airspaces and airports, can occur. Different controls are applied, "plug and played", to the plant. A particular control is evaluated by analyzing how well it managed conflicts and congestions. Furthermore, the terminal area plants consist of models of airports and terminal airspaces. Each model consists of a set of nodes and links which are connected by the user to form a network. Nodes model runways, fixes, taxi intersections, gates, and/or other points of interest, and links model taxiways, departure paths, and arrival paths. Metering, flow distribution, and sequencing functions can be applied at nodes. Different fidelity model of how a flight transits are can be used by links. The fidelity of the model can be adjusted by the user by either changing the complexity of the node/link network-or the way that the link models how the flights transit

  12. Fall Enrollment Report. 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Each year, Iowa's 15 community colleges submit data on enrollment on the 10th business day of the fall semester. Some highlights from this report include: (1) Fall 2014 enrollment was 93,772 students--a decline of 0.49 percent from last fall; (2) Enrollment continues…

  13. 77 FR 19927 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Willcox, AZ, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Cochise, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... conforming amendments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eldon Taylor, Federal Aviation Administration... northeast of the airport. That airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface bounded by a...

  14. 75 FR 47736 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, Establishment of Class E Airspace; Patuxent River, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... control tower and establish Class E airspace designated as surface areas to accommodate the additional... operations of the airport control tower, establishing in advance the dates and times by a Notice to...

  15. 76 FR 59306 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and E Airspace and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Punta Gorda, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... new air traffic control tower at Punta Gorda Airport. Controlled airspace is necessary for the safety... is necessary to support the operation of the new air traffic control tower, and would enhance...

  16. 77 FR 15297 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and E Airspace Amendment of Class E Airspace; East Hampton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... tower at East Hampton Airport. Controlled airspace is necessary for the safety and management of... the operation of the new air traffic control tower, and would enhance the safety and management of...

  17. 76 FR 53048 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... (Lat. 43 05'27'' N., long. 106 16'37'' W.) Casper ASR (Lat. 42 55'16'' N., long. 106 27'15'' W.) That airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface within a 23.5-mile radius of the Casper ASR; that airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface within the 37.5-mile radius of the Casper...

  18. 76 FR 36017 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...., long. 106 16'37'' W.) Casper ASR (Lat. 42 55'16'' N., long. 106 27'15'' W.) That airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface within a 23.5-mile radius of the Casper ASR; that airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface within the 37.5-mile radius of the Casper ASR, and...

  19. The Fall and Fall of Gary Hart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Robert C.

    The fall of Gary Hart, brought about because of his indiscretions during the 1988 presidential campaign, should not be treated exclusively as a consequence of Hart's moral failings. Rather, the fall of Hart can be traced to a complex of factors including bad judgment, the near total control that the press exercises over the political agenda, and…

  20. 75 FR 66345 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taos, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Taos, NM. Decommissioning of the Ski non-directional beacon..., Taos, NM. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to the decommissioning of the Ski NDB and...

  1. 76 FR 54152 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace Galbraith Lake, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Galbraith Lake AK. The creation of two special... Class E5 airspace at the Galbraith Lake Airport in Galbraith Lake, AK, to accommodate the creation...

  2. 76 FR 49388 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tatitlek, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Tatitlek, AK. The creation of a standard... establishing Class E5 airspace at the Tatitlek Airport in Tatitlek, AK, to accommodate the creation of the...

  3. 77 FR 42430 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; West Memphis, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... Class E airspace at West Memphis, AR. Separation of existing Class E airspace surrounding West Memphis... extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at West Memphis, AR, to accommodate the separation...

  4. 77 FR 17363 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; West Memphis, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at West Memphis, AR. Separation of existing... West Memphis, AR, to accommodate the separation of existing Class E airspace surrounding West...

  5. 75 FR 22712 - Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... control tower has made controlled airspace necessary at San Marcos Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking... establishing Class D airspace at San Marcos Municipal Airport, San Marcos, TX. An air traffic control...

  6. 75 FR 78645 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kenton, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... identify the docket number FAA-2010-1054/Airspace Docket No. 10- AGL-23, at the beginning of your comments... No. FAA-2010-1054/Airspace Docket No. 10-AGL-23.'' The postcard will be date/time stamped...

  7. 75 FR 41983 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... airspace for San Marcos Municipal Airport, San Marcos, TX. Establishment of an air traffic control tower... establishing Class D airspace at San Marcos, TX. Establishment of an air traffic control tower at San...

  8. Proceedings of the Klamath Basin Science Conference, Medford, Oregon, February 1-5, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman; VanderKooi, Scott; Duffy, Walter

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Klamath Basin Science Conference (February 2010). A primary purpose of the meeting was to inform and update Klamath Basin stakeholders about areas of scientific progress and accomplishment during the last 5 years. Secondary conference objectives focused on the identification of outstanding information needs and science priorities as they relate to whole watershed management, restoration ecology, and possible reintroduction of Pacific salmon associated with the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA). Information presented in plenary, technical, breakout, and poster sessions has been assembled into chapters that reflect the organization, major themes, and content of the conference. Chapter 1 reviews the major environmental issues and resource management and other stakeholder needs of the basin. Importantly, this assessment of information needs included the possibility of large-scale restoration projects in the future and lessons learned from a case study in South Florida. Other chapters (2-6) summarize information about key components of the Klamath Basin, support conceptual modeling of the aquatic ecosystem (Chapter 7), and synthesize our impressions of the most pressing science priorities for management and restoration. A wealth of information was presented at the conference and this has been captured in chapters addressing environmental setting and human development of the basin, hydrology, watershed processes, fishery resources, and potential effects from climate change. The final chapter (8) culminates in a discussion of many specific research priorities that relate to and bookend the broader management needs and restoration goals identified in Chapter 1. In many instances, the conferees emphasized long-term and process-oriented approaches to watershed science in the basin as planning moves forward.

  9. Modeling and management of water in the Klamath River Basin: overcoming politics and conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flug, Marshall; Scott, John F.; Abt, Steven R.; Young-Pezeshk, Jayne; Watson, Chester C.

    1998-01-01

    The network flow model MODSIM, which was designed as a water quantity mass balance model for evaluating and selecting water management alternatives, has been applied to the Klamath River basin. A background of conflicting issues in the basin is presented. The complexity of water quantity model development, while satisfying the many stakeholders and involved special interest groups is discussed, as well as the efforts taken to have the technical model accepted and used, and overcome stakeholder criticism, skepticism, and mistrust of the government.

  10. Water banks and environmental water demands: Case of the Klamath Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Susan M.; Adams, Richard M.; Wallender, Wesley W.

    2004-09-01

    Demand for water for environmental uses, such as to provide critical habitat for endangered species, has increased competition for agricultural water supplies. In the western United States, a significant portion of these water demands is to increase in-stream flows. Given that Endangered Species Act (ESA) requirements supersede prior appropriation rights, ESA water demands have the potential to reduce agricultural diversions, particularly in times of drought. This situation occurred in 2001 in the Klamath Basin of southern Oregon and northern California: an ESA-related judicial ruling on the needs of several endangered fish species resulted in a major reduction in water diversions to the Klamath Reclamation Project. Using the Klamath Basin as an empirical backdrop, this study examines the potential benefits and challenges of water banks to mitigate damages to appropriative water rights holders and to provide water for environmental purposes. Results from this case study indicate that water banks are a potentially cost effective way to meet environmental needs. This study, however, illustrated several of the challenges of implementing a water bank given that modifications to the proposed bank are needed to achieve cost efficiency. Specifically, expanded trading is needed, both intraproject and interproject, to achieve the objectives of providing environmental water at minimum cost to society.

  11. 78 FR 33019 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Commerce, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Commerce Municipal Airport (AAF). The...

  12. 75 FR 27229 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL...: This action proposes to modify the Chicago, IL, Class B airspace area by expanding the existing... procedures within Class B airspace, and segregating IFR aircraft at Chicago O'Hare International Airport...

  13. 77 FR 48060 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fort Morgan, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fort Morgan, CO AGENCY... airspace at Fort Morgan, CO, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Fort Morgan, CO (77 FR...

  14. 78 FR 76781 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...; Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Lake City Class B airspace area by raising the floor of a small portion of Class B airspace between the Salt Lake City Class B surface area and the Hill Air Force Base (AFB) Class D airspace area....

  15. 75 FR 64971 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Central City, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Central City...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Central City, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Central City...

  16. 76 FR 72868 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Boyne City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Boyne City, MI...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Boyne City, MI. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Boyne City Municipal...

  17. 78 FR 49986 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Loup City, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Loup City, NE...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Loup City, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Loup City Municipal Airport....

  18. 77 FR 49399 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Forest City, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Forest City, IA...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Forest City, IA. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Forest City Municipal...

  19. 78 FR 48299 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF, Anchorage... establishes Class D airspace at Bryant Army Airfield (AAF), Anchorage AK. This action provides controlled... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class D airspace at Bryant...

  20. 78 FR 59806 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; White Mountain, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; White Mountain, AK... Class E airspace at White Mountain Airport, White Mountain, AK, to accommodate aircraft using new Area... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at White...

  1. 75 FR 48550 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA AGENCY... Airspace at Pine Mountain, GA, to accommodate the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Pine Mountain, GA (75 FR 28765) Docket No....

  2. 78 FR 19097 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Round Mountain, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Round Mountain, TX... Class E airspace at Round Mountain, TX. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area... the West Ranch Airport, Round Mountain, TX (77 FR 71367) Docket No. FAA-2012-0771. Interested...

  3. 76 FR 52596 - Proposed Establishment of Class C Airspace for Long Beach, CA; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class C Airspace for Long Beach... airspace users and others, concerning a proposal to establish Class C airspace at Long Beach, CA. The... on or before December 12, 2011. ADDRESSES: The meetings will be held at the Holiday Inn Long...

  4. 76 FR 31510 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rutherfordton, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... airspace needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Rutherford County... airspace required to support new standard instrument approach procedures for Rutherford County Airport. The... of that authority as it would amend Class E airspace at Rutherford County Airport, Rutherfordton,...

  5. 78 FR 6261 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Griffin, GA, as the Griffin Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has... as it would amend Class E airspace at Griffin- Spalding County Airport, Griffin, GA. This proposal... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA...

  6. 78 FR 52114 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Macon, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Macon, GA, as the Bay Creek NDB has been decommissioned and... of that authority as it would amend Class E airspace in the Macon, GA, area. This proposal would be... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Macon, GA...

  7. 75 FR 28765 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... of that authority as it would amend Class E airspace at Harris County Airport, Pine Mountain, GA... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Pine Mountain, GA, to accommodate the additional...

  8. 75 FR 15360 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Austin, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Austin, TX AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace in the Austin, TX area. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Austin Executive...

  9. 76 FR 64236 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Market, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Market, VA AGENCY... Airspace at New Market, VA, to accommodate the new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures serving New Market Airport. This action enhances the safety and airspace management of Instrument Flight Rules...

  10. 76 FR 44288 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Market, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Market, VA AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at New Market, VA, to accommodate the additional airspace needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for New Market Airport. This...

  11. 76 FR 28888 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Gruver Cluck Ranch Airport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Gruver Cluck Ranch Airport... removes Class E airspace at Gruver, Cluck Ranch Airport, TX. The airport has been abandoned, thereby eliminating the need for controlled airspace in the Gruver, Cluck Ranch Airport, TX, area. The FAA is...

  12. 78 FR 76779 - Proposed Modification of the Philadelphia, PA, Class B Airspace Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...This action proposes to amend the description of Area G of the Philadelphia Class B airspace area to correct a design error that resulted in the Class B airspace being published 2.1 nautical miles (NM) larger on the southeast side of the area than intended. No other changes to the Philadelphia Class B airspace are being...

  13. 78 FR 74005 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Grand Forks, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... MSL within a 4.2-mile radius of Grand Forks International Airport. This Class D airspace area is... airspace extending upward from the surface to and including 3,400 feet MSL within a 4.9-mile radius of....9-mile radius to 5.6 miles south of the airport, excluding that airspace within the Grand...

  14. 77 FR 52218 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL, Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL, Correction... controlled airspace in the Montgomery, AL, area. The corrected coordinates for Maxwell AFB and Wetumpka..., technical amendment, in the Federal Register amending the Class E airspace area for Montgomery, AL,...

  15. 78 FR 25402 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Sparta, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ..., Sparta, WI. Changes to the airspace description are necessary due to the need to exclude active military restricted airspace. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight... R-6901A/B. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety and management of IFR operations at...

  16. 75 FR 51173 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Port Angeles, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Port Angeles, WA AGENCY... Class E airspace at Port Angeles, WA. The Ediz Hook Nondirectional Radio Beacon (NDB) has been... controlled airspace at Port Angeles, WA (75 FR 33556). Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  17. 78 FR 18931 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Bass Harbor, ME, to accommodate a new Area...) serving Bass Harbor Heliport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of...

  18. 77 FR 45237 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Airspace at Fort Rucker, AL, by updating the geographic coordinates of Cairns Army Air Field to aid in the... of instrument flight rules (IFR) operations within the Fort Rucker, AL airspace area....

  19. 76 FR 44285 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fayette, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Airspace; Fayette, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Fayette, AL, as the Fayette Non... at Richard Arthur Field, Fayette, AL. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to...

  20. 78 FR 14477 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pine Island, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pine Island, FL...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Pine Island, FL, to accommodate a new Area...) serving Pine Island Heliport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of...

  1. 76 FR 21826 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Drummond Island, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Drummond Island, MI...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Drummond Island, MI. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Drummond Island...

  2. 77 FR 68716 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Hot Springs, SD. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Hot Springs...

  3. 78 FR 14911 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD AGENCY... airspace at Hot Springs, SD. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Hot Springs Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking...

  4. 75 FR 49868 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kalaupapa, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kalaupapa, HI...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Kalaupapa, HI, to accommodate aircraft using a... airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at Kalaupapa Airport, Kalaupapa, HI....

  5. 76 FR 3571 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kahului, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kahului, HI...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Kahului Airport, Kahului, HI. Controlled airspace... approach procedures at Kahului Airport, Kahului, HI. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the...

  6. 75 FR 81442 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Lone Star, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Lone Star, TX AGENCY... airspace at Lone Star, TX. Abandonment of the former Lone Star Steel Company ] Airport and cancellation of... the Lone Star, TX, area. The FAA is taking this action to ensure the efficient use of airspace...

  7. 75 FR 64972 - Proposed Revocation of Class E Airspace; Lone Star, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Revocation of Class E Airspace; Lone Star, TX...: This action proposes to remove Class E airspace at Lone Star, TX. Abandonment of the former Lone Star... eliminated the need for controlled airspace in the Lone Star, TX, area. The FAA is taking this action...

  8. 77 FR 29916 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Sault Ste Marie, ON

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... is necessary to coincide with the Canadian control zone over Sault Ste Marie Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at... airspace to coincide with that portion of the control zone in Canadian airspace. Controlled airspace...

  9. 78 FR 18798 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Union, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Union, IA AGENCY... airspace at West Union, IA. Decommissioning of the West Union non-directional beacon (NDB) at George L... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the West Union,...

  10. 75 FR 6595 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mapleton, IA. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to..., Mapleton, IA. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  11. 75 FR 6592 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Emmetsburg, IA. Additional controlled airspace is..., Emmetsburg, IA. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  12. 75 FR 68558 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Hampton, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Hampton, IA...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at New Hampton, IA, to accommodate new Standard... Center Heliport, New Hampton, IA. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety and management of...

  13. 77 FR 50650 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Boone, IA. Decommissioning of the Boone non... instrument approach procedures at Boone Municipal Airport, Boone, IA. Airspace reconfiguration is...

  14. 75 FR 68555 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Richmond, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Richmond, IN AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Richmond, IN, to accommodate new Standard Instrument... Heliport, Richmond, IN. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety and management of IFR operations...

  15. 76 FR 78144 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Anaktuvuk Pass, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Anaktuvuk Pass, AK AGENCY... airspace at Anaktuvuk Pass Airport, Anaktuvuk Pass, AK. The creation of two standard instrument approach... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Anaktuvuk Pass,...

  16. 78 FR 54561 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Santa Monica, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Santa Monica, CA AGENCY... airspace at Santa Monica Municipal Airport, Santa Monica, CA, to accommodate aircraft departing and... of the Santa Monica Municipal Airport airspace area, and on the results of a study conducted by...

  17. 75 FR 68554 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lafayette, Purdue University Airport, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lafayette... proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Lafayette, IN, to...) SIAP at Clarian Arnett Heliport, Lafayette, IN. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety...

  18. 76 FR 31821 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY... amends Class D airspace within the Corpus Christi, TX, area by updating the geographic coordinates for... the geographic coordinates, within Class D airspace, of the Cabaniss NOLF, Corpus Christi, TX,...

  19. 77 FR 4713 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Red Cloud, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Red Cloud, NE...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Red Cloud, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Red Cloud Municipal Airport....

  20. 77 FR 29871 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Red Cloud, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Red Cloud, NE AGENCY... airspace at Red Cloud, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Red Cloud Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking this action...

  1. 75 FR 42 - Modification of Class D and E Airspace; Albemarle, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... [Docket No. FAA-2009-0203; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-12] Modification of Class D and E Airspace... published in the Federal Register May 6, 2009, that modifies Class D and Class E airspace at Stanly County Airport, Albemarle, NC. This action also corrects the True bearing used in the Class D...

  2. 75 FR 53876 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Berryville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Carroll County... SIAPs operations at Carroll County Airport, Berryville, AR. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety... would establish controlled airspace at Carroll County Airport, Berryville, AR. ] List of Subjects in...

  3. 77 FR 9840 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY... airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black... controlled airspace at Colorado Springs, CO (76 FR 70920). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  4. 77 FR 3185 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Grasonville, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... 71 [Docket No. FAA-2011-1340; Airspace Docket No. 11-AEA-22] Proposed Establishment of Class E... airspace management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations within the National Airspace System. DATES... triplicate to the Docket Management System (see ADDRESSES section for address and phone number). You may...

  5. 78 FR 60237 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Burnet, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ..., to request a copy of Advisory Circular No. 11-2A, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Distribution System... airspace is necessary for the safety and management of IFR operations at the airport. Class E airspace... 15, 2013, which is incorporated by reference in 14 CFR 71.1. The Class E airspace designation...

  6. 78 FR 31430 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wagner, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... 71 [Docket No. FAA-2013-0004; Airspace Docket No. 13-AGL-1] Proposed Establishment of Class E... identify the docket number FAA-2013-0004/Airspace Docket No. 13- AGL-1, at the beginning of your comments... No. FAA-2013-0004/ Airspace Docket No. 13-AGL-1.'' The postcard will be date/time stamped...

  7. 76 FR 73505 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Danville Airport, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Class E airspace at Danville, PA, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... reference in 14 CFR 71.1. The Class E airspace designations listed in this document will be published... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Danville Airport,...

  8. 78 FR 25229 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stockton, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stockton, KS...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Stockton, KS. Controlled airspace is necessary to... ] taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations...

  9. 76 FR 41147 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Chinle, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Airspace Docket No. 11-AWP-7) and be submitted in triplicate to the Docket Management System (see ADDRESSES....1. The Class E airspace designation listed in this document will be published subsequently in this... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Chinle,...

  10. 76 FR 44258 - Removal of Class D and E Airspace; Willow Grove, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Removal of Class D and E Airspace; Willow Grove, PA AGENCY... and Class E airspace areas at Willow Grove, PA. The Willow Grove Naval Air Station (NAS) has closed... Class D and E airspace at Willow Grove, PA. The closing of the Willow Grove NAS and cancellation of...

  11. 76 FR 41725 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Miles City, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Frank Wiley Field, Miles City... instrument approach procedures at Frank Wiley Field. Additionally, the geographic coordinates for Frank Wiley... airspace and Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at Frank Wiley Field,...

  12. 75 FR 71046 - Proposed Revision of Class E Airspace; Barrow, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to revise Class E airspace at Wiley Post/ Will Rogers...) part 71 by revising Class E airspace at Wiley Post/Will Rogers memorial Airport at Barrow, AK, to... operations at Wiley Post/Will Rogers Memorial Airport by ensuring that the Class E airspace is sufficient...

  13. 78 FR 38554 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Live Oak, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Live Oak, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the Live Oak, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been... management of instrument flight rules (IFR) operations within the Live Oak, FL, airspace area. This...

  14. 77 FR 50646 - Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF... (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class D airspace at Bryant Army Airfield (AAF... 71 by establishing Class D airspace extending upward from the surface at Bryant AAF, Anchorage...

  15. 76 FR 80230 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Baltimore, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... in the Federal Register of November 28, 2011, amending controlled airspace at Martin State Airport... E airspace at Martin State Airport, Baltimore, MD, and adjusting the geographic coordinates for the... airspace areas at Martin State Airport, Baltimore, MD, as published in the Federal Register of November...

  16. 77 FR 28244 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Baltimore, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... amends Class D and E airspace at Martin State Airport, Baltimore, MD. The geographic coordinates of the... airspace, for Martin State Airport, Baltimore, MD. This update brings the geographic coordinates in concert... amends controlled airspace at Martin State Airport, Baltimore, MD. Lists of Subjects in 14 CFR Part...

  17. 75 FR 65229 - Amendment and Establishment of Restricted Areas and Other Special Use Airspace, Razorback Range...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Restricted Areas and Other Special Use Airspace, Razorback Range Airspace Complex, AR AGENCY: Federal... Razorback Range Airspace Complex, AR (75 FR 44719). As a result of further review, the FAA's National... descriptions for R-2402A, R-2402B, and R-2402C, Fort Chaffee, AR, as published in the Federal Register on...

  18. 78 FR 48838 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Curtis, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Curtis, NE...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Curtis, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Curtis Municipal Airport. The FAA is...

  19. 75 FR 14383 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... (IFR) traffic from en route airspace to Salt Lake City, UT. This action would enhance the safety and management of IFR operations for the Salt Lake City, UT area. DATES: Comments must be received on or before... aircraft from en route airspace to Salt Lake City, UT. Class E airspace designations are published...

  20. 78 FR 72007 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; McConnellsburg, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; McConnellsburg, PA... Class E Airspace at McConnellsburg, PA, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace at McConnellsburg, PA, (78 FR 48081) Docket...

  1. 78 FR 58489 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; McMinnville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; McMinnville, TN...: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at McMinnville, TN, as the Warri Non-Directional Beacon... Warren County Memorial Airport, McMinnville, TN. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to...

  2. 78 FR 48081 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; McConnellsburg, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Airspace; McConnellsburg, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at McConnellsburg, PA, to... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to establish Class E airspace at McConnellsburg, PA, providing...

  3. 77 FR 34208 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Leesburg, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... airspace, and Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth.... This Class D airspace area is effective during the specific days and times established in advance by a Notice to Airmen. The effective days and times will thereafter be continuously published in the...

  4. 75 FR 81518 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wolfeboro, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... FAA-2010-1007; Airspace Docket No. 10-ANE-109, at the beginning of your comments. You may also submit... (FAA Docket No. FAA-2010-1007; Airspace Docket No. 10-ANE-109) and be submitted in triplicate to the... on which the following statement is made: ``Comments to Docket No. FAA-2010-1007; Airspace Docket...

  5. 77 FR 41939 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airspace at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate... procedures at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance...

  6. 77 FR 4702 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Leesville, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Leesville, LA...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Leesville, LA. Additional controlled airspace is... instrument approach procedures at Leesville Airport, Leesville, LA. Geographic coordinates would also...

  7. 76 FR 13505 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; La Porte, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; La Porte, IN AGENCY: Federal... amends Class E airspace in the La Porte, IN area. DATES: Effective date 0901 UTC May 5, 2011. FOR FURTHER... amending Class E airspace in the La Porte, IN area (76 FR 5471), Docket No. FAA-2010-1030. Subsequent...

  8. 77 FR 64889 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Hawthorne, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Hawthorne, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation... description for Class D and Class E airspace at Jack Northrop Field/Hawthorne Municipal Airport, Hawthorne, CA... Class D and E airspace at Jack Northrop Field/Hawthorne Municipal Airport, Hawthorne, CA. The...

  9. 76 FR 66662 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Santa Monica, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Santa Monica, CA...: This action proposes to modify Class D airspace at Santa Monica Municipal Airport, CA, to accommodate... to Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Part 71 by modifying Class D airspace at...

  10. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been developed at Palm Beach County Park Airport. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary for the continued...

  11. 78 FR 6257 - Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace; Nashville International Airport, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace..., Class C airspace area by removing a cutout from the surface area that was put in place to accommodate... Class C airspace area to the standard configuration and enable more efficient operations at...

  12. 78 FR 74006 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Green Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Green Bay, WI AGENCY... amends Class E airspace within the Green Bay, WI, area by updating the geographic coordinates for Austin... coordinates, within Class E airspace, of Austin-Straubel International Airport, Green Bay, WI, to...

  13. 75 FR 63730 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panguitch, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... airspace to include a portion extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface at Panguitch Municipal... establish controlled airspace from 700 feet above the surface. The FAA has reassessed the proposal to include Class E airspace 700 feet and 1,200 feet above the surface to further the safety and management...

  14. 77 FR 5168 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Mount Clemens, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Mount Clemens, MI AGENCY... amends Class D airspace within the Mount Clemens, MI, area by updating the geographic coordinates of... Selfridge ANGB, Mount Clemens, MI. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 71 Airspace, Incorporation by...

  15. 76 FR 3011 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Port Clarence, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Port Clarence, AK AGENCY.... SUMMARY: This action changes the effective date for the establishment of Class E airspace at Port Clarence Coast Guard Station (CGS) Airport, Port Clarence, AK. The charting of this airspace has been...

  16. Groundwater levels, trends, and relations to pumping in the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Breen, Katherine H.

    2015-07-28

    The use of groundwater to supplement surface-water supplies for the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project in the upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California markedly increased between 2000 and 2014. Pre-2001 groundwater pumping in the area where most of this increase occurred is estimated to have been about 28,600 acre-feet per year. Subsequent supplemental pumping rates have been as high as 128,740 acre-feet per year. During this period of increased pumping, groundwater levels in and around the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project have declined by about 20-25 feet. Water-level declines are largely due to the increased supplemental pumping, but other factors include increased pumping adjacent to the Klamath Project and drying climate conditions. This report summarizes the distribution and magnitude of supplemental groundwater pumping and groundwater-level declines, and characterizes the relation between the stress and response in subareas of the Klamath Project to aid decision makers in developing groundwater-management strategies.

  17. Water quality modeling in the systems impact assessment model for the Klamath River basin - Keno, Oregon to Seiad Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, R. Blair; Campbell, Sharon G.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the water quality model developed for the Klamath River System Impact Assessment Model (SIAM). The Klamath River SIAM is a decision support system developed by the authors and other US Geological Survey (USGS), Midcontinent Ecological Science Center staff to study the effects of basin-wide water management decisions on anadromous fish in the Klamath River. The Army Corps of Engineersa?? HEC5Q water quality modeling software was used to simulate water temperature, dissolved oxygen and conductivity in 100 miles of the Klamath River Basin in Oregon and California. The water quality model simulated three reservoirs and the mainstem Klamath River influenced by the Shasta and Scott River tributaries. Model development, calibration and two validation exercises are described as well as the integration of the water quality model into the SIAM decision support system software. Within SIAM, data are exchanged between the water quantity model (MODSIM), the water quality model (HEC5Q), the salmon population model (SALMOD) and methods for evaluating ecosystem health. The overall predictive ability of the water quality model is described in the context of calibration and validation error statistics. Applications of SIAM and the water quality model are described.

  18. Meteorite Falls in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.

    2016-08-01

    The number of meteorite falls reported in Morocco since 2000 is highest than any other place compared to the other countries in the world, that call into question the efficiency of the randomly meteorite falls on Earth.

  19. Colonial waterbird predation on Lost River and Shortnose suckers in the Upper Klamath Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Allen F.; Hewitt, David A.; Payton, Quinn; Cramer, Bradley M.; Collis, Ken; Roby, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated predation on Lost River Suckers Deltistes luxatus and Shortnose Suckers Chasmistes brevirostris by American white pelicans Pelecanus erythrorhynchos and double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus nesting at mixed-species colonies in the Upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California during 2009–2014. Predation was evaluated by recovering (detecting) PIT tags from tagged fish on bird colonies and calculating minimum predation rates, as the percentage of available suckers consumed, adjusted for PIT tag detection probabilities but not deposition probabilities (i.e., probability an egested tag was deposited on- or off-colony). Results indicate that impacts of avian predation varied by sucker species, age-class (adult, juvenile), bird colony location, and year, demonstrating dynamic predator–prey interactions. Tagged suckers ranging in size from 72 to 730 mm were susceptible to cormorant or pelican predation; all but the largest Lost River Suckers were susceptible to bird predation. Minimum predation rate estimates ranged annually from <0.1% to 4.6% of the available PIT-tagged Lost River Suckers and from <0.1% to 4.2% of the available Shortnose Suckers, and predation rates were consistently higher on suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, than on suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. There was evidence that bird predation on juvenile suckers (species unknown) in Upper Klamath Lake was higher than on adult suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, where minimum predation rates ranged annually from 5.7% to 8.4% of available juveniles. Results suggest that avian predation is a factor limiting the recovery of populations of Lost River and Shortnose suckers, particularly juvenile suckers in Upper Klamath Lake and adult suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir. Additional research is needed to measure predator-specific PIT tag deposition probabilities (which, based on other published studies, could increase predation rates presented herein by a factor of roughly 2

  20. Statistical analysis of the water-quality monitoring program, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and optimization of the program for 2013 and beyond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldridge, Sara L. Caldwell; Wherry, Susan A.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2014-01-01

    Upper Klamath Lake in south-central Oregon has become increasingly eutrophic over the past century and now experiences seasonal cyanobacteria-dominated and potentially toxic phytoplankton blooms. Growth and decline of these blooms create poor water-quality conditions that can be detrimental to fish, including two resident endangered sucker species. Upper Klamath Lake is the primary water supply to agricultural areas within the upper Klamath Basin. Water from the lake is also used to generate power and to enhance and sustain downstream flows in the Klamath River. Water quality in Upper Klamath Lake has been monitored by the Klamath Tribes since the early 1990s and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 2002. Management agencies and other stakeholders have determined that a re-evaluation of the goals for water-quality monitoring is warranted to assess whether current data-collection activities will continue to adequately provide data for researchers to address questions of interest and to facilitate future natural resource management decisions. The purpose of this study was to (1) compile an updated list of the goals and objectives for long-term water-quality monitoring in Upper Klamath Lake with input from upper Klamath Basin stakeholders, (2) assess the current water-quality monitoring programs in Upper Klamath Lake to determine whether existing data-collection strategies can fulfill the updated goals and objectives for monitoring, and (3) identify potential modifications to future monitoring plans in accordance with the updated monitoring objectives and improve stakeholder cooperation and data-collection efficiency. Data collected by the Klamath Tribes and the USGS were evaluated to determine whether consistent long-term trends in water-quality variables can be described by the dataset and whether the number and distribution of currently monitored sites captures the full range of environmental conditions and the multi-scale variability of water

  1. 75 FR 17202 - Proposed Establishment of Long Beach, CA, Class C Airspace Area and Revision of Santa Ana (John...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Revision of Santa Ana (John Wayne), CA, Class C Airspace Area; Public Meetings AGENCY: Federal Aviation... establish Class C airspace at Long Beach, CA, and revise the Santa Ana (John Wayne) Class C airspace area... Santa Ana (John Wayne), CA, Class C airspace area will be accepted. (b) The meetings will be open to...

  2. Falls risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gallacher, Rose

    2017-02-22

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article outlined the causes and consequences of falls for older patients. It discussed the falls risk assessment tools, and falls prevention measures.

  3. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  4. Preliminary Investigation of Civil Tiltrotor in NextGen Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Salvano, Dan; Wright, Ken; Chung, William; Young, Ray; Miller, David; Paris, Alfanso; Gao, Huina; Cheng, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Presentation intro: Tiltrotor aircraft have long been envisioned as being a potentially viable means of commercial aviation transport. Preliminary results from an ongoing study into the operational and technological considerations of Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) operation in the Next Generation airspace, circa the 2025 time-frame, are presented and discussed. In particular, a fleet of CTR aircraft has been conceptually designed. The performance characteristics of this CTR fleet was subsequently translated into BADA (Base of Aircraft DAta) models that could be used as input to emulate CTR aircraft operations in the ACES and AvTerminal airspace and terminal area simulation tools. A network of nine North-Eastern corridor airports is the focus of the airspace simulation effort; the results from this airport network viII then be extrapolated to provide insights into systemic impact of CTRs on the National Airspace System (NAS). Future work will also be detailed as to attempts to model the systemic effects of noise and emissions from this fleet of new aircraft as well as assess their leveraged impact on public service missions, in time of need, such as major regional/national disaster relief efforts. The ideal outcome of this study is a set of results whereby Next Gen airspace CONOPs can be refined to reflect potential CTR capabilities and, conversely, CTR technology development efforts can be better informed as to key performance requirement thresholds needed to be met in order to successfully introduce these aircraft into civilian aviation operation.

  5. Throughput analysis for the National Airspace System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sureshkumar, Chandrasekar

    The United States National Airspace System (NAS) network performance is currently measured using a variety of metrics based on delay. Developments in the fields of wireless communication, manufacturing and other modes of transportation like road, freight, etc. have explored various metrics that complement the delay metric. In this work, we develop a throughput concept for both the terminal and en-route phases of flight inspired by studies in the above areas and explore the applications of throughput metrics for the en-route airspace of the NAS. These metrics can be applied to the NAS performance at each hierarchical level—the sector, center, regional and national and will consist of multiple layers of networks with the bottom level comprising the traffic pattern modelled as a network of individual sectors acting as nodes. This hierarchical approach is especially suited for executive level decision making as it gives an overall picture of not just the inefficiencies but also the aspects where the NAS has performed well in a given situation from which specific information about the effects of a policy change on the NAS performance at each level can be determined. These metrics are further validated with real traffic data using the Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) for three en-route sectors and an Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). Further, this work proposes a framework to compute the minimum makespan and the capacity of a runway system in any configuration. Towards this, an algorithm for optimal arrival and departure flight sequencing is proposed. The proposed algorithm is based on a branch-and-bound technique and allows for the efficient computation of the best runway assignment and sequencing of arrival and departure operations that minimize the makespan at a given airport. The lower and upper bounds of the cost of each branch for the best first search in the branch-and-bound algorithm are computed based on the minimum

  6. Water Quality Conditions in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindenberg, Mary K.; Hoilman, Gene; Wood, Tamara M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Klamath Lake water quality monitoring program gathered information from multiparameter continuous water quality monitors, physical water samples, dissolved oxygen production and consumption experiments, and meteorological stations during the June-October 2006 field season. The 2006 study area included Agency Lake and all of Upper Klamath Lake. Seasonal patterns in water quality were similar to those observed in 2005, the first year of the monitoring program, and were closely related to bloom dynamics of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) in the two lakes. High dissolved oxygen and pH conditions in both lakes before the bloom declined in July, which coincided with seasonal high temperatures and resulted in seasonal lows in dissolved oxygen and decreased pH. Dissolved oxygen and pH in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes increased again after the bloom recovered. Seasonal low dissolved oxygen and decreased pH coincided with seasonal highs in ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations. Seasonal maximum daily average temperatures were higher and minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations were lower in 2006 than in 2005. Conditions potentially harmful to fish were influenced by seasonal patterns in bloom dynamics and bathymetry. Potentially harmful low dissolved oxygen and high un-ionized ammonia concentrations occurred mostly at the deepest sites in the Upper Klamath Lake during late July, coincident with a bloom decline. Potentially harmful pH conditions occurred mostly at sites outside the deepest parts of the lake in July and September, coincident with a heavy bloom. Instances of possible gas bubble formation, inferred from dissolved oxygen data, were estimated to occur frequently in shallow areas of Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes simultaneously with potentially harmful pH conditions. Comparison of the data from monitors in nearshore areas and monitors near the surface of the water column in the open waters of

  7. Evapotranspiration from Upper Klamath Lake: Reducing Uncertainty in the Water Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannard, D. I.; Gannett, M. W.; Polette, D.; Cameron, J. M.; Spears, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Klamath River basin is a large (~40,600 km2) watershed that straddles the border between southern Oregon and northern California, USA, and drains into the Pacific Ocean. A wide variety of interests has led to intense competition over water allocation in the upper, semi-arid parts of the basin in recent decades. Myriad water impoundments and diversions, wetland drainage, and recent wetland restoration, have complicated the development of resource-management and restoration strategies. An overarching question is how to provide enough water for irrigated agriculture and still preserve adequate stream-flow and wetland habitat for threatened (e.g. coho salmon) and endangered (e.g. Lost River and shortnose suckers) species. In the Upper Klamath Lake region, this hotly debated topic has raised questions about evaporative losses from Upper Klamath Lake, and its wetland marshes. Currently, surface-water outflow from the lake is gauged, but not all of the surface-water inflows are gauged, and net ground-water inflow is estimated. Lake-level management is based on a simplified water budget: NETin - SWout = ΔS, where NETin = SWin + GWnet - ET (called “net inflow”), SWout is measured surface-water outflow, ΔS is measured change in lake storage, SWin is surface-water inflow, GWnet is net ground-water inflow, and ET is evapotranspiration from the lake. Partitioning of NETin is not done routinely, so little is known about magnitudes of the un-gauged inflows, or ET (GWnet is a small term). To help partition NETin into its components, ET has been measured at three locations in Upper Klamath Lake since April, 2008. Two eddy covariance (EC) sites are located in Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, an extensive wetland marsh in the northwest corner of the lake, and one Bowen-ratio energy-balance site is in open water. One EC station is situated in bulrush and the other is in a mixed bulrush, wocus, cattail community. Wetland marsh area is about 1/3 that of open water. The

  8. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... fall-prevention plan. High heels, floppy slippers and shoes with slick soles can make you slip, stumble ... your stocking feet. Instead, wear properly fitting, sturdy shoes with nonskid soles. Sensible shoes may also reduce ...

  9. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  10. Immobility and falls.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J E

    1998-11-01

    Immobility is a common problem for hospitalized older adults. Excessive bed rest results in multiple adverse physiologic consequences and may contribute to functional decline and increased risk for falls in the hospital setting. About 2% of hospitalized older adults fall during hospitalization. Risk factors for in-hospital falls includes cognitive impairment, mobility impairment, specific diagnoses, multiple comorbidities, and psychotropic medications. Appropriate actions to prevent immobility and falls include increasing exercise and activity levels, improving the hospital environment, and decreasing the use of psychotropic medications. Bed alarms and increased supervision for high-risk patients also may help prevent falls.

  11. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF EPA-CERTIFIED PHASE 2 WOODSTOVES, KLAMATH FALLS AND PORTLAND, OREGON: 1998/1999

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the condition and air emissions from old, phase-2-certified wood heaters installed in homes and used regularly for hoe heating since the 1992/1993 heating season or earlier. (NOTE: Wood stoves have been identified as a major source of ...

  12. Generic Airspace Research Phase 5 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William E.; Bridges, Wayne W.; Peknik, Dan N.; Gujral, Vimmy

    2014-01-01

    Human-in-the-loop testing was completed to assess the subjective preferences, usage, and operational benefits of Integrated and Separated Controller Information Tools (CITs) in support of Generic Airspace Research. Participants controlled traffic in in a busy, high altitude sector with the aid of the CITs. When the participants were asked which CIT that they preferred to use, they overwhelmingly chose the integrated version of the CIT. The primary reason for this seemed to be that it allowed participants to remain focused on the traffic situation, whereas the Standalone CIT required them to focus their attention for short periods away from the radar presentation. In contrast to their preference, there were little or no differences in the CIT usage and the operational differences. There were similar numbers of losses of separation and participants accessed each CIT equally. Although the information accessed was the similar for the two conditions, participants actively turned off the data on the Integrated CIT, presumably to reduce the clutter on the radar scope. Further work is needed to isolate which information can and should be available to controllers in the Integrated vs. Standalone format.

  13. Algorithm of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Displacement in Airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugała, Tomasz

    Despite the fact Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have been used for more than 70 years and their uncommon development has taken place in the first decade of the 21st Century, there is still no elaboration of "Uniform Concept of the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Displacement in Airspace". The indispensable condition of the above mentioned concept has to be flight safety of all airspace users. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to work out the adequate procedures and regulations in the scope of airspace usage taking into consideration this upto- date means of air transport. Therefore, elaboration of the algorithm by the author, can be a reason of achievement for the above mentioned object in the near future. Under such circumstances, the author has taken the trial to perform this challenging task.

  14. Identification and Analysis of National Airspace System Resource Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Marien, Ty V.; Viken, Jeffery K.; Neitzke, Kurt W.; Kwa, Tech-Seng; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hinze, Nicolas K.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis is the deliverable for the Airspace Systems Program, Systems Analysis Integration and Evaluation Project Milestone for the Systems and Portfolio Analysis (SPA) focus area SPA.4.06 Identification and Analysis of National Airspace System (NAS) Resource Constraints and Mitigation Strategies. "Identify choke points in the current and future NAS. Choke points refer to any areas in the en route, terminal, oceanic, airport, and surface operations that constrain actual demand in current and projected future operations. Use the Common Scenarios based on Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) projections of future demand developed under SPA.4.04 Tools, Methods and Scenarios Development. Analyze causes, including operational and physical constraints." The NASA analysis is complementary to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) "Development of Tools and Analysis to Evaluate Choke Points in the National Airspace System" Contract # NNA3AB95C awarded to Logistics Management Institute, Sept 2013.

  15. Flexible Airspace Management (FAM) Research 2010 Human-in-the-Loop Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Brasil, Connie; Homola, Jeffrey; Kessell, Angela; Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    A human-in-the-Ioop (HITL) simulation was conducted to assess potential user and system benefits of Flexible Airspace Management (FAM) concept, as well as designing role definitions, procedures, and tools to support the FAM operations in the mid-term High Altitude Airspace (HAA) environment. The study evaluated the benefits and feasibility of flexible airspace reconfiguration in response to traffic overload caused by weather deviations, and compared them to those in a baseline condition without the airspace reconfiguration. The test airspace consisted of either four sectors in one Area of Specialization or seven sectors across two Areas. The test airspace was assumed to be at or above FL340 and fully equipped Vvith data communications (Data Comm). Other assumptions were consistent with those of the HAA concept. Overall, results showed that FAM operations with multiple Traffic Management Coordinators, Area Supervisors, and controllers worked remarkably well. The results showed both user and system benefits, some of which include the increased throughput, decreased flight distance, more manageable sector loads, and better utilized airspace. Also, the roles, procedures, airspace designs, and tools were all very well received. Airspace configuration options that resulted from a combination of algorithm-generated airspace configurations with manual modifications were well acceptec and posed little difficuIty and/or workload during airspace reconfiguration process. The results suggest a positive impact of FAM operations in HAA. Further investigation would be needed to evaluate if the benefits and feasibility would extend in either non-HAA or mixed equipage environment.

  16. Klamath River Basin Hydrologic Conditions Prior to the September 2002 Die-Off of Salmon and Steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Dennis D.; Risley, John C.

    2003-05-27

    This report characterizes streamflow and water temperature conditions during the period leading up to the die-off and compares them to historical conditions in the Klamath River. This report is not an exploration of the causative mechanism of the die-off; rather, it is intended to provide detailed documentation of these conditions to be used by those examining the cause(s) of the die-off and to provide information that can contribute to decisions about future water management in the Klamath Basin.

  17. Water quality and nutrient loading in the Klamath River between Keno, Oregon and Seiad Valley, CA from 1996-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Sharon G.

    2001-01-01

    Implementing management strategies for reservoir operations to improve water quality and reduce nutrient concentration or loading in the Klamath River study area to benefit anadromous fisheries may be difficult and expensive. However, improving the thermal regime in spring to benefit YOY salmonids may be possible as is short-term relief in late summer for oversummering species. Decreases in nutrient concentration or loading accomplished through best management practices in the water shed may allow general protection of water resources in the Klamath Basin for future needs.

  18. Impact of Airspace Charges on Transatlantic Aircraft Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Linke, Florian; Chen, Neil Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft flying over the airspace of different countries are subject to over-flight charges. These charges vary from country to country. Airspace charges, while necessary to support the communication, navigation and surveillance services, may lead to aircraft flying routes longer than wind-optimal routes and produce additional carbon dioxide and other gaseous emissions. This paper develops an optimal route between city pairs by modifying the cost function to include an airspace cost whenever an aircraft flies through a controlled airspace without landing or departing from that airspace. It is assumed that the aircraft will fly the trajectory at a constant cruise altitude and constant speed. The computationally efficient optimal trajectory is derived by solving a non-linear optimal control problem. The operational strategies investigated in this study for minimizing aircraft fuel burn and emissions include flying fuel-optimal routes and flying cost-optimal routes that may completely or partially reduce airspace charges en route. The results in this paper use traffic data for transatlantic flights during July 2012. The mean daily savings in over-flight charges, fuel cost and total operation cost during the period are 17.6 percent, 1.6 percent, and 2.4 percent respectively, along the cost- optimal trajectories. The transatlantic flights can potentially save $600,000 in fuel cost plus $360,000 in over-flight charges daily by flying the cost-optimal trajectories. In addition, the aircraft emissions can be potentially reduced by 2,070 metric tons each day. The airport pairs and airspace regions that have the highest potential impacts due to airspace charges are identified for possible reduction of fuel burn and aircraft emissions for the transatlantic flights. The results in the paper show that the impact of the variation in fuel price on the optimal routes is to reduce the difference between wind-optimal and cost-optimal routes as the fuel price increases. The

  19. A Virtual Laboratory for Aviation and Airspace Prognostics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan; Gorospe, George; Teubert, Christ; Quach, Cuong C.; Hogge, Edward; Darafsheh, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    Integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), autonomy, spacecraft, and other aviation technologies, in the airspace is becoming more and more complicated, and will continue to do so in the future. Inclusion of new technology and complexity into the airspace increases the importance and difficulty of safety assurance. Additionally, testing new technologies on complex aviation systems and systems of systems can be challenging, expensive, and at times unsafe when implementing real life scenarios. The application of prognostics to aviation and airspace management may produce new tools and insight into these problems. Prognostic methodology provides an estimate of the health and risks of a component, vehicle, or airspace and knowledge of how that will change over time. That measure is especially useful in safety determination, mission planning, and maintenance scheduling. In our research, we develop a live, distributed, hardware- in-the-loop Prognostics Virtual Laboratory testbed for aviation and airspace prognostics. The developed testbed will be used to validate prediction algorithms for the real-time safety monitoring of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the prediction of unsafe events. In our earlier work1 we discussed the initial Prognostics Virtual Laboratory testbed development work and related results for milestones 1 & 2. This paper describes the design, development, and testing of the integrated tested which are part of milestone 3, along with our next steps for validation of this work. Through a framework consisting of software/hardware modules and associated interface clients, the distributed testbed enables safe, accurate, and inexpensive experimentation and research into airspace and vehicle prognosis that would not have been possible otherwise. The testbed modules can be used cohesively to construct complex and relevant airspace scenarios for research. Four modules are key to this research: the virtual aircraft module which uses the X

  20. Limnological and climatic environments at Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon during the past 45 000 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J.P.; Colman, Steven M.; Dean, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    Upper Klamath Lake, in south-central Oregon, contains long sediment records with well-preserved diatoms and lithological variations that reflect climate-induced limnological changes. These sediment archives complement and extend high resolution terrestrial records along a north-south transect that includes areas influenced by the Aleutian Low and Subtropical High, which control both marine and continental climates in the western United States. The longest and oldest core collected in this study came from the southwest margin of the lake at Caledonia Marsh, and was dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology to an age of about 45 ka. Paleolimnological interpretations of this core, based upon geochemical and diatom analyses, have been augmented by data from a short core collected from open water environments at nearby Howards Bay and from a 9-m core extending to 15 ka raised from the center of the northwestern part of Upper Klamath Lake. Pre- and full-glacial intervals of the Caledonia Marsh core are characterized and dominated by lithic detrital material. Planktic diatom taxa characteristic of cold-water habitats (Aulacoseira subarctica and A. islandica) alternate with warm-water planktic diatoms (A. ambigua) between 45 and 23 ka, documenting climate changes at millennial scales during oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 3. The full-glacial interval contains mostly cold-water planktic, benthic, and reworked Pliocene lacustrine diatoms (from the surrounding Yonna Formation) that document shallow water conditions in a cold, windy environment. After 15 ka, diatom productivity increased. Organic carbon and biogenic silica became significant sediment components and diatoms that live in the lake today, indicative of warm, eutrophic water, became prominent. Lake levels fell during the mid-Holocene and marsh environments extended over the core site. This interval is characterized by high levels of organic carbon from emergent aquatic vegetation (Scirpus) and by the Mazama ash (7.55 ka

  1. Geomorphic and Land Management Effects on Channel Altering Events in the Klamath Mountain, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, A.; Mikulovsky, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    Channel altering events have many impacts on stream channels and can be the result of debris flows, hyper-concentrated flows or severe flooding. They play a major role in coarse woody debris delivery to fish bearing streams and provide a mix of sediment to the higher order streams. Channel altering events can reduce or even temporarily eliminate riparian vegetation along the stream channel and create changes in the stream bed such as aggradation and degradation. These processes are a natural part of steep, rugged landscapes such as that of the Klamath Mountains and have long-term benefits to the stream systems. The process can be accelerated however, by land management activities or severe wildfire events. Previous investigations have focused on the impacts to landsliding rates as a result of timber harvest, wildfire and forest roads. These studies are limited in spatial extent and have not combined timber harvest, wildfire, forest roads, storm intensity and geomorphic characteristics in the same investigation. In addition, previous studies have not included areas where landslides did not occur for comparison. This study investigates the relationships between landform, timber harvest, forest roads, wildfire, and storm intensity over the Klamath Mountains in Northern California. The study investigates the initiation points of channel altering events that occurred in the flood of December 1996/January 1997. Channel altering event initiation points are the uppermost point of an altered channel segment (highest elevation) as apparent on aerial photos. The initiation points are compared to stratified random points in and near channels where no channel altering event occurred. The initiation points and random points were attributed with information such as aspect, hillslope gradient, elevation, bedrock type, landform, storm intensity and land management practices. A logistic regression analysis will determine if there is a suite of characteristics that separated the

  2. Post-Mazama (7 KA) faulting beneath Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Reynolds, R.L.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles (3.5 kHz) show that a distinctive, widespread reflection occurs in the sediments beneath Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Coring reveals that this reflection is formed by Mazama tephra (MT), about 7 ka in age. The MT horizon is faulted in many places and locally displaced by as much as 3.1 m. Differential displacement of multiple horizons indicates recurrent fault movement, perhaps three episodes since deposition of the Mazama. The pattern of faulting indicates northeast-southwest extension beneath the lake basin.

  3. Preliminary report on the ground-water resources of the Klamath River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, Reuben Clair; Hart, D.H.

    1958-01-01

    The Klamath River basin, including the adjacent Lost River basin, includes about 5,500 square miles of plateaus, mountain-slopes and valley plains in south-central Oregon. The valley plains range in altitude from about 4,100 feet in the south to more than 4,500 feet at the northern end; the mountain and plateau lands rise to an average altitude of 6,000 feet at the drainage divide, some peaks rising above 9,000 feet. The western quarter of the basin is on the eastern slope of the Cascade Range and the remainder consists of plateaus, mountains, and valleys of the basin-and-range type. The rocks of the Klamath River basin range in age from Recent to Mesozoic. At the southwest side of the basin in Oregon, pre-Tertiary metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks, which form extensive areas farther west, are overlain by sedimentary rocks of Eocene age and volcanic rocks of Eocene and Oligocene age. These early Tertiary rocks dip east toward the central part of the Klamath River basin. The complex volcanic rocks of high Cascades include three units: the lowest unit consists of a sequence of basaltic lava flows about 800 feet thick; the medial unit is composed of volcanic-sedimentary and sedimentary rocksthe Yonna formation200 to 2,000 feet thick; the uppermost unit is a sequence of basaltic lava flows commonly about 200 feet thick. These rocks dip east from the Cascade Range and are the main bedrock formations beneath most of the basin. Extensive pumice deposits, which emanated from ancestral Mount Mazama, cover large areas in the northwestern part of the basin. The basin has an overall synclinal structure open to the south at the California boundary where it continues as the Klamath Lake basin in California. The older rocks dip into the basin in monoclinal fashion from the adjoining drainage basins. The rocks are broken along rudely rectangular nets of closely spaced normal faults, the most prominent set of which trends northwest. The network of fault displacements

  4. Map showing sampled radiolarian localities in the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt, Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.; Jones, David L.; Blome, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    The western Paleozoic and Triassic belt, the largest of several major subdivisions of the Klamath Mountains geologic province, extends 300 km northward from the south end of the province in California to the north end of the province in Oregon (see inset map). The rocks of the belt are mainly sedimentary and volcanic, including tuff, cherty tuff, chert, argillite, limestone, and volcanic flows and breccia. They are of oceanic and island arc facies and are highly disarranged tectonically. The southern part of the belt is subdivided into three tectonostratigraphic terranes --- the North Fork, Hayfork, and Rattlesnake Creek terranes. The central and northern parts of the belt are undevided. 

  5. Water-Quality Data from Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannarr, Kristofor E.; Tanner, Dwight Q.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2010-01-01

    Significant Findings The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Klamath Lake water-quality monitoring program collected data from multiparameter continuous water-quality monitors, weekly water-quality samples, and meteorological stations during May-November 2007 and 2008. The results of these measurements and sample analyses are presented in this report for 29 stations on Upper Klamath Lake and 2 stations on Agency Lake, as well as quality-assurance data for the water-quality samples. Some of the significant findings from 2007 and 2008 are listed below. In 2007-08, ammonia concentrations were at or near the detection limit at all stations during the second week in June, after which they began to increase, with peak concentrations occurring from July through November. The concentration of un-ionized ammonia, which can be toxic to aquatic life, first began to increase in mid-June and peaked in July or August at most sites. Concentrations of un-ionized ammonia measured in the Upper Klamath Lake in 2007-08 did not reach concentrations that would have been potentially lethal to suckers. Samples collected for the analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) late in the 2007 season showed no evidence of an increase in DOC subsequent to the breaching of the Williamson River Delta levees on October 30. In 2007-08, the lakewide daily median of dissolved oxygen concentration began to increase in early June, and peaked in mid- to late June. The lakewide daily median pH began to increase from early June and peaked in late June (2007) or early July (2008). Lakewide daily median pH slowly decreased during the rest of both seasons. The 2007 lakewide daily median specific conductance values first peaked on July 1, coincident with a peak in dissolved oxygen concentration and pH, followed by a decrease through mid-July. Specific conductance then remained relatively stable until mid-October when a sharp increase began that continued until the end of the season. Lakewide specific conductance

  6. The plumbotectonics of the West Shasta mining district, eastern Klamath Mountains, California ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doe, B.R.; Delevaux, M.H.; Albers, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The tectonic setting comprising the West Shasta mining district has often been compared with that of primitive island arcs. Concentrations of U, Th, and Pb and Pb isotope compositions were determined for Devonian ores and rocks of the West Shasta district, E Klamath Mountains, California, to help evaluate the tectonic classification. The lead isotope pattern is found to be complex. From comparison of the data with those on younger ores and rocks in the region and with those isotopic patterns found in modern tectonic terranes, however, a number of conclusions are described in detail. -after Authors

  7. Plutons and accretionary episodes of the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1999-01-01

    The Klamath Mountains consist of various accreted terranes and include many plutons that range in composition from gabbro to granodiorite. Some of the plutons (preaccretionary plutons) were parts of terranes before the terranes accreted; others (accretionary plutons) intruded during or after the accretion of their host terrane(s). This report attempts to (1) graphically illustrate how the Klamath Mountains grew by the accretion of allochthonous oceanic terranes during early Paleozoic to Cretaceous times, (2) identify the plutons as either preaccretionary or accretionary, and (3) genetically relate the plutonic intrusions to specific accretionary episodes. The eight accretionary episodes portrayed in this report are similar to those shown by Irwin and Mankinen (1998) who briefly described the basis for the timing of the episodes and who illustrated the ~110 degrees of clockwise rotation of the Klamath Mountains since Early Devonian time. Each episode is named for the accreting terrane. In all episodes (Figs. 1-8), the heavy black line represents a fault that separates the accreting oceanic rocks on the left from earlier accreted terranes on the right. The preaccretionary plutons are shown within the accreting oceanic crustal rocks to the left of the heavy black line, and the accretionary plutons in most instances are shown intruding previously accreted terranes to the right. Episodes earlier than the Central Metamorphic episode (Fig. 1), and that may have been important in the formation of the early Paleozoic nucleous of the province (the Eastern Klamath terrane), are not known. The 'Present Time' distribution of the accreted terranes and plutons is shown at a large scale in Figure 9. The schematic vertical section (Fig. 10) depicts the terranes as a stack of horizontal slabs that include or are intruded by vertical plutons. Note that at their base the ~170 Ma preaccretionary plutons of the Western Hayfork subterrane are truncated by the ~164 Ma Salt Creek

  8. Health and condition of endangered juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers relative to water quality and fish assemblages in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Clear Lake Reservoir, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Conway, Carla M.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Hoy, Marshal S.; Feltz, Kevin P.; Echols, Kathy R.

    2015-11-25

    Differences in sucker health and condition between lakes were considered the most promising clues to the causes of differential juvenile sucker morality between lakes. A low prevalence of petechial hemorrhaging of the skin (16 percent) and deformed opercula (8 percent) in Upper Klamath Lake suckers may indicate exposure to a toxin other than microcystin. Suckers grew slower in their first year of life, but had similar or greater triglyceride and glycogen levels in Upper Klamath Lake compared to Clear Lake Reservoir. These findings do not suggest a lack of prey quantity but may indicate lower prey quality in Upper Klamath Lake.

  9. Physical habitat predictors of Manayunkia speciosa distribution in the Klamath River and implications for management of Ceratomyxa shasta, a parasite with a complex life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, M. S.; Alexander, J. D.; Grant, G. E.; Bartholomew, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Management strategies for parasites with complex life cycles may target not the parasite itself, but one of the alternate hosts. One approach is to decrease habitat for the alternate host, and in river systems flow manipulations may be employed. Two-dimensional hydraulic models can be powerful tools for predicting the relationship between flow alterations and changes in physical habit, however they require a rigorous definition of physical habitat for the organism of interest. We present habitat characterization data for the case of the alternate host of a salmonid parasite and introduce how it will be used in conjunction with a 2-dimensional hydraulic model. Ceratomyxa shasta is a myxozoan parasite of salmonids that requires a freshwater polychaete Manayunkia speciosa to complete its life cycle. Manayunkia speciosa is a small (3mm) benthic filter-feeding worm that attaches itself perpendicularly to substrate through construction of a flexible tube. In the Klamath River, CA/OR, C. shasta causes significant juvenile salmon mortality, imposing social and economic losses on commercial, sport and tribal fisheries. An interest in manipulating habitat for the polychaete host to decrease the abundance of C. shasta has therefore developed. Unfortunately, there are limited data on the habitat requirements of M. speciosa or the influence of streamflow regime and hydraulics on population dynamics and infection prevalence. This work aims to address these data needs by identifying physical habitat variables that influence the distribution of M. speciosa and determining the relationship between those variables, M. speciosa population density, and C. shasta infection prevalence. Biological samples were collected from nine sites representing three river features (runs, pools, and eddies) within the Klamath River during the summer and fall of 2010 and 2011. Environmental data including depth, velocity, and substrate, were collected at each polychaete sampling location. We tested

  10. 75 FR 55267 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation By Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9T in full text as proposed rule documents in the Federal Register. Likewise, all amendments of these listings were published in full text as final rules in the Federal... Order 7400.9U in full text as proposed rule documents in the Federal Register. Likewise, all...

  11. 77 FR 50907 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9V in full text as proposed rule documents in the Federal Register. Likewise, all amendments of these listings were published in full text as final rules in the Federal... Order 7400.9W in full text as proposed rule documents in the Federal Register. Likewise, all...

  12. 78 FR 38555 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Selmer, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... instrument approach procedures developed for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at Robert Sibley... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Robert Sibley Airport, Selmer... above the surface within a 6.7-mile radius of Robert Sibley Airport, Selmer, TN....

  13. 78 FR 41838 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colt, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Instrument Approach Procedures at Delta Regional Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety..., area, creating controlled airspace at Delta Regional Airport (78 FR 25231) Docket No. FAA-2012-1281... a 7.1-mile radius of Delta Regional Airport, Colt, AR, to ensure that required controlled...

  14. 75 FR 43817 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Johnston County Airport. DATES: Effective 0901 UTC, September 23... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Johnston County Airport... upward from 700 feet above the surface to accommodate SIAPs at Johnston County Airport, Smithfield,...

  15. 76 FR 75447 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmonak, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Emmonak, AK Emmonak Airport, AK (Lat. 62 47'10'' N., long. 164 29'27'' W.) Emmonak VOR/DME (Lat. 62 47'05... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmonak, AK AGENCY: Federal... Emmonak, AK. The revision of two standard instrument approach procedures at the Emmonak Airport has...

  16. Feasibility of Mixed Equipage Operations in the Same Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Smith, Nancy; Lee, Katharine K.; Aweiss, Arwa Salem; Lee, Paul U.; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeff; Mainini, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This study used a human-in-the-loop simulation to examine the feasibility of mixed equipage operations in an automated separation assurance environment under higher traffic densities. The study involved two aircraft equipage alternatives - with and without data link- and four traffic conditions. In all traffic conditions the unequipped traffic count was increased linearly throughout the scenario from approximately 5 to 20 aircraft. Condition One consisted solely of this unequipped traffic, while the remaining three conditions also included a constant number of equipped aircraft operating within the same airspace: 15 equipped aircraft in condition two, 30 in condition three, and 45 in condition four. If traffic load became excessive during any run, participants were instructed to refuse sector entry to inbound unequipped aircraft until sector load became manageable. Results showed a progressively higher number of unequipped aircraft turned away under the second, third, and fourth scenario conditions. Controller workload also increased progressively. Participants rated the mixed operations concept as acceptable, with some qualifications about procedures and information displays. These results showed that mixed operations might be feasible in the same airspace, if unequipped aircraft count is held to a workable level. This level will decrease with increasing complexity. The results imply that integrated airspace configuration is feasible to a limit. The results also indicate that the conflict detection and resolution automation, equipage, and traffic density are important factors that will need to be considered for airspace configuration.

  17. Feasibility of Mixed Equipage Operations in the Same Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Smith, Nancy; Lee, Katharine; Aweiss, Arwa; Lee, Paul U.; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeff; Mainini, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This study used a human-in-the-loop simulation to examine the feasibility of mixed equipage operations in an automated separation assurance environment under higher traffic densities. The study involved two aircraft equipage alternatives with and without data link and four traffic conditions. In all traffic conditions the unequipped traffic count was increased linearly throughout the scenario from approximately 5 to 20 aircraft. Condition One consisted solely of this unequipped traffic, while the remaining three conditions also included a constant number of equipped aircraft operating within the same airspace: 15 equipped aircraft in condition two, 30 in condition three, and 45 in condition four. If traffic load became excessive during any run, participants were instructed to refuse sector entry to inbound unequipped aircraft until sector load became manageable. Results showed a progressively higher number of unequipped aircraft turned away under the second, third, and fourth scenario conditions. Controller workload also increased progressively. Participants rated the mixed operations concept as acceptable, with some qualifications about procedures and information displays. These results showed that mixed operations might be feasible in the same airspace, if unequipped aircraft count is held to a workable level. This level will decrease with increasing complexity. The results imply that integrated airspace configuration is feasible to a limit. The results also indicate that the conflict detection and resolution automation, equipage, and traffic density are important factors that will need to be considered for airspace configuration.

  18. 76 FR 55554 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rutherfordton, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... airspace at Rutherfordton, NC. The Rutherford Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed for Rutherford County-Marchman Field. This... standard instrument approach procedures developed at Rutherford County-Marchman Field, Rutherfordton,...

  19. 76 FR 31822 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mosby, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mosby, MO AGENCY: Federal... Mosby, MO. Decommissioning of the Mosby non-directional beacon (NDB) at Midwest National Air Center Airport, Mosby, MO, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of...

  20. 76 FR 8627 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum, AK AGENCY: Federal... Platinum, AK, to accommodate the addition of a Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP), at the Platinum Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  1. 78 FR 58158 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wasatch, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E airspace at the Wasatch VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range... Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Salt Lake City Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC..., at the Wasatch VORTAC navigation aid, Wasatch, UT, to accommodate IFR aircraft under control of...

  2. 77 FR 10649 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Douglas, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance... International Airport, Douglas, AZ. Decommissioning of the Cochise VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC) has made this action necessary for the safety and management of aircraft...

  3. 77 FR 4460 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Portsmouth, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... anticipated impact is so minimal. Since this is a routine matter that will only affect air traffic procedures and air navigation, it is certified that this rule, when ] promulgated, will not have a significant... Subjects in 14 CFR Part 71 Airspace, Incorporation by reference, Navigation (air). Adoption of...

  4. 78 FR 67024 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT AGENCY... a final rule published in the Federal Register of September 30, 2013, that establishes Class E... aid, Glasgow, MT. A favorable comment from the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA)...

  5. Toward n-Ship Computation of Trajectories for Shared Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Daniel D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers an approach for modelling transport aircraft trajectories that can facilitate their rapid evaluation and modification, either en route or in terminal control areas, with the goal of efficiently making use of airspace and runways by a large population of vehicles without pairwise violation of separation criteria.

  6. 78 FR 63861 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Minneapolis, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... redesign goal of optimizing terminal and en route airspace areas to enhance safety, improving the flow of... regulations must undergo several economic analyses. First, Executive Order 12866 and Executive Order 13563... (adjusted for inflation with base year of 1995). This portion of the preamble summarizes the FAA's...

  7. 77 FR 12992 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Jacksonville, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... amends Class E airspace at Albert J. Ellis Airport, Jacksonville, NC, by updating the geographic... Navigation Services to update the geographic coordinates of Albert J. Ellis Airport, Jacksonville, NC. This... the surface, at Albert J. Ellis Airport, Jacksonville, NC. The geographic coordinates of the...

  8. 78 FR 27025 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Philadelphia, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... modifies the Philadelphia, PA, Class B airspace area to ensure the containment of large turbine-powered... in the Philadelphia terminal area. DATES: Effective Date: 0901 UTC, July 25, 2013. The Director of the Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference action under 1 CFR part 51, subject...

  9. 76 FR 44255 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Harrisonville, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Procedures at Lawrence Smith Memorial Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and... additional controlled airspace at Lawrence Smith Memorial Airport (76 FR 21830) Docket No. FAA-2011-0251... for new standard instrument approach procedures at Lawrence Smith Memorial Airport, Harrisonville,...

  10. 78 FR 59805 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cody, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... at the Cody VHF Omni- Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid... VOR/DME navigation aid, Cody, WY, to accommodate IFR aircraft under control of Salt Lake City ARTCC by... controlled airspace at the Cody VOR/DME, Cody WY. Environmental Review The FAA has determined that...

  11. 78 FR 65554 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... at the Rome VHF Omni- Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) ] navigation aid... the surface, at the Rome VOR/DME navigation aid, Rome, OR, to accommodate IFR aircraft under control... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at the Rome VOR/DME, Rome,...

  12. Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility where possible, and structure where necessary. Consider the needs of national security, safe airspace operations, economic opportunities, and emerging technologies. Risk-based approach based on population density, assets on the ground, density of operations, etc. Digital, virtual, dynamic, and as needed UTM services to manage operations.

  13. 75 FR 37292 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, IA AGENCY: Federal... Cherokee, IA. Decommissioning of the Pilot Rock non-directional beacon (NDB) at Cherokee County Regional Airport, Cherokee, IA has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of...

  14. 76 FR 5470 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Richmond, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Richmond, IN AGENCY: Federal... Richmond, IN, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Reid Hospital Heliport, Richmond, IN. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety...

  15. 14 CFR 91.135 - Operations in Class A airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in Class A airspace. 91.135... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General... rules (IFR) and in compliance with the following: (a) Clearance. Operations may be conducted only...

  16. 14 CFR 105.25 - Parachute operations in designated airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parachute operations in designated airspace... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.25... operation, and be submitted at least 15 days, but not more than 30 days, before the parachute...

  17. 75 FR 68416 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Berryville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Procedures (SIAP) at Carroll County Airport, Berryville, AR. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the..., creating controlled airspace at Carroll County Airport (75 FR 53876) Docket No. FAA-2010-0690. Interested... accommodate SIAPs at Carroll County Airport, Berryville, AR. This action is necessary for the safety...

  18. 14 CFR 91.130 - Operations in Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operating an aircraft in Class C airspace must meet the following two-way radio communications requirements: (1) Arrival or through flight. Each person must establish two-way radio communications with the ATC... airport with an operating control tower must establish and maintain two-way radio communications with...

  19. 76 FR 67596 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Spearfish, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Procedures at Black Hills Airport--Clyde Ice Field, and updates the geographic coordinates of the airport... additional controlled airspace at Black Hills Airport--Clyde Ice Field (76 FR 43610) Docket No. FAA-2011-0431... procedures at Black Hills Airport--Clyde Ice Field, Spearfish, SD. This action is necessary for the...

  20. 75 FR 29656 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR AGENCY: Federal... Magnolia, AR. Decommissioning of the Magnolia non-directional beacon (NDB) at Magnolia Municipal Airport, Magnolia, AR has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight...