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Sample records for airspace system performance

  1. Performance of an Automated System for Control of Traffic in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikoleris, Tasos; Erzberger, Heinz; Paielli, Russell A.; Chu, Yung-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of a system that performs automated conflict resolution and arrival scheduling for aircraft in the terminal airspace around major airports. Such a system has the potential to perform separation assurance and arrival sequencing tasks that are currently handled manually by human controllers. The performance of the system is tested against several simulated traffic scenarios that are characterized by the rate at which air traffic is metered into the terminal airspace. For each traffic scenario, the levels of performance that are examined include: number of conflicts predicted to occur, types of resolution maneuver used to resolve predicted conflicts, and the amount of delay for all flights. The simulation results indicate that the percentage of arrivals that required a maneuver that changes the flight's horizontal route ranged between 11% and 15% in all traffic scenarios. That finding has certain implications if this automated system were to be implemented simply as a decision support tool. It is also found that arrival delay due to purely wake vortex separation requirements on final approach constituted only between 29% and 35% of total arrival delay, while the remaining major portion of it is mainly due to delay back propagation effects.

  2. Characterization of Days Based On Analysis of National Airspace System Performance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.; Musaffar, Bassam; Meyn, Larry A.; Quon, Leighton K.

    2006-01-01

    Days of operations in the National Airspace System can be described in term of traffic demand, runway conditions, equipment outages, and surface and enroute weather conditions. These causes manifest themselves in terms of departure delays, arrival delays, enroute delays and traffic flow management delays, Traffic flow management initiatives such as, ground stops, ground delay programs, miles-in-trail restrictions, rerouting and airborne holding are imposed to balance the air traffic demand with respect to the available capacity, In order to maintain operational efficiency of the National Airspace System, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) maintains delay sad other statistics in the Air Traffic Operations Network (OPSNET) and the Aviation System Performance Metrics (ASPM) databases. OPSNET data includes reportable delays of fifteen minutes ox more experienced by Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) flights. Numbers of aircraft affected by departure delays, enroute delays, arrival delays and traffic flow delays are recorded in the OPSNET data. ASPM data consist of number of actual departures, number of canceled departures, percentage of on time departures, percentage of on time gate arrivals, taxi-out delays. taxi-in delays, gate delays, arrival delays and block delays. Surface conditions at the major U.S. airports are classified in terms of Instrument Meteorological Condition (IMC) and Visual Meteorological Condition (VMC) as a function of the time of the day in the ASPM data. The main objective of this paper is to use OPSNET and ASPM data to classify the days in the datasets into few distinct groups, where each group is separated from the other groups in terms of a distance metric. The motivations for classifying the days are two-fold, 1) to enable selection of days of traffic with particular operational characteristics for concept evaluation using system-wide simulation systems such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Airspace Concepts Evaluation

  3. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  4. Metrics for the NASA Airspace Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.

    2009-01-01

    This document defines an initial set of metrics for use by the NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP). ASP consists of the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. The work in each project is organized along multiple, discipline-level Research Focus Areas (RFAs). Each RFA is developing future concept elements in support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as defined by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO). In addition, a single, system-level RFA is responsible for integrating concept elements across RFAs in both projects and for assessing system-wide benefits. The primary purpose of this document is to define a common set of metrics for measuring National Airspace System (NAS) performance before and after the introduction of ASP-developed concepts for NextGen as the system handles increasing traffic. The metrics are directly traceable to NextGen goals and objectives as defined by the JPDO and hence will be used to measure the progress of ASP research toward reaching those goals. The scope of this document is focused on defining a common set of metrics for measuring NAS capacity, efficiency, robustness, and safety at the system-level and at the RFA-level. Use of common metrics will focus ASP research toward achieving system-level performance goals and objectives and enable the discipline-level RFAs to evaluate the impact of their concepts at the system level.

  5. Short Field Take-Off and Landing Performance as an Enabling Technology for a Greener, More Efficient Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2009-01-01

    The Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft and Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) are two examples of powered-lift aircraft concepts that are of interest to NASA. These concepts will be able to utilize the shorter unused or underutilized runways and corresponding airspace at the crowded hub airports and many unused airfields and airspace that currently exist in other expanding urban areas providing additional capacity to the airspace system and reductions in congestion and delays seen in the current system. By treating the use of CESTOL and CTR as critical components that supplement other green aircraft to be used in the overall airspace system, the efficiency and improvements gained by the entire system will offset the potential increased fuel usage and emissions that may be a result of providing short field capability to the powered-lift aircraft. My presentation will address how NASA and the aerospace industry may identify, analysis, and finally implement these powered-lift aircraft into the airspace system and improve the capacity and reduce delay, while obtaining an overall reduction in noise, fuel usage, and emissions.

  6. The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System Architecture and System Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Robert; Meyn, Larry; Manikonda, Vikram; Carlos, Patrick; Capozzi, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System is a simulation of the National Airspace System. It includes models of flights, airports, airspaces, air traffic controls, traffic flow managements, and airline operation centers operating throughout the United States. It is used to predict system delays in response to future capacity and demand scenarios and perform benefits assessments of current and future airspace technologies and operational concepts. Facilitation of these studies requires that the simulation architecture supports plug and play of different air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models and multi-fidelity modeling of flights, airports, and airspaces. The simulation is divided into two parts that are named, borrowing from classical control theory terminology, control and plant. The control consists of air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models, and the plant consists of flight, airport, and airspace models. The plant can run open loop, in the absence of the control. However, undesired affects, such as conflicts and over congestions in the airspaces and airports, can occur. Different controls are applied, "plug and played", to the plant. A particular control is evaluated by analyzing how well it managed conflicts and congestions. Furthermore, the terminal area plants consist of models of airports and terminal airspaces. Each model consists of a set of nodes and links which are connected by the user to form a network. Nodes model runways, fixes, taxi intersections, gates, and/or other points of interest, and links model taxiways, departure paths, and arrival paths. Metering, flow distribution, and sequencing functions can be applied at nodes. Different fidelity model of how a flight transits are can be used by links. The fidelity of the model can be adjusted by the user by either changing the complexity of the node/link network-or the way that the link models how the flights transit

  7. Algorithm of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Displacement in Airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugała, Tomasz

    Despite the fact Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have been used for more than 70 years and their uncommon development has taken place in the first decade of the 21st Century, there is still no elaboration of "Uniform Concept of the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Displacement in Airspace". The indispensable condition of the above mentioned concept has to be flight safety of all airspace users. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to work out the adequate procedures and regulations in the scope of airspace usage taking into consideration this upto- date means of air transport. Therefore, elaboration of the algorithm by the author, can be a reason of achievement for the above mentioned object in the near future. Under such circumstances, the author has taken the trial to perform this challenging task.

  8. Information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1988-01-01

    An informal overview is given of the work in progress and the planned work in the area of information transfer that specifically addresses human factors issues in National Airspace System (NAS). The issues of how weather information will be displayed on the flight deck, the development of appropriate decision making technology, and digital datalink transmission are also briefly discussed.

  9. Throughput analysis for the National Airspace System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sureshkumar, Chandrasekar

    The United States National Airspace System (NAS) network performance is currently measured using a variety of metrics based on delay. Developments in the fields of wireless communication, manufacturing and other modes of transportation like road, freight, etc. have explored various metrics that complement the delay metric. In this work, we develop a throughput concept for both the terminal and en-route phases of flight inspired by studies in the above areas and explore the applications of throughput metrics for the en-route airspace of the NAS. These metrics can be applied to the NAS performance at each hierarchical level—the sector, center, regional and national and will consist of multiple layers of networks with the bottom level comprising the traffic pattern modelled as a network of individual sectors acting as nodes. This hierarchical approach is especially suited for executive level decision making as it gives an overall picture of not just the inefficiencies but also the aspects where the NAS has performed well in a given situation from which specific information about the effects of a policy change on the NAS performance at each level can be determined. These metrics are further validated with real traffic data using the Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) for three en-route sectors and an Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). Further, this work proposes a framework to compute the minimum makespan and the capacity of a runway system in any configuration. Towards this, an algorithm for optimal arrival and departure flight sequencing is proposed. The proposed algorithm is based on a branch-and-bound technique and allows for the efficient computation of the best runway assignment and sequencing of arrival and departure operations that minimize the makespan at a given airport. The lower and upper bounds of the cost of each branch for the best first search in the branch-and-bound algorithm are computed based on the minimum

  10. Automatic construction of aerial corridor for navigation of unmanned aircraft systems in class G airspace using LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Dengchao; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2016-05-01

    According to the airspace classification by the Federal Aviation Agency, Class G airspace is the airspace at 1,200 feet or less to the ground, which is beneath class E airspace and between classes B-D cylinders around towered airstrips. However, the lack of flight supervision mechanism in this airspace, unmanned aerial system (UAS) missions pose many safety issues. Collision avoidance and route planning for UASs in class G airspace is critical for broad deployment of UASs in commercial and security applications. Yet, unlike road network, there is no stationary marker in airspace to identify corridors that are available and safe for UASs to navigate. In this paper, we present an automatic LiDAR-based airspace corridor construction method for navigation in class G airspace and a method for route planning to minimize collision and intrusion. Our idea is to combine LiDAR to automatically identify ground objects that pose navigation restrictions such as airports and high-rises. Digital terrain model (DTM) is derived from LiDAR point cloud to provide an altitude-based class G airspace description. Following the FAA Aeronautical Information Manual, the ground objects that define the restricted airspaces are used together with digital surface model derived from LiDAR data to construct the aerial corridor for navigation of UASs. Preliminary results demonstrate competitive performance and the construction of aerial corridor can be automated with much great efficiency.

  11. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  12. Environmental impact analysis with the airspace concept evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, Stephen; Capozzi, Brian; DiFelici, John; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Miraflor, Raymond M. C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center has developed the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), which is a fast-time simulation tool for evaluating Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems. This paper describes linking a capability to ACES which can analyze the environmental impact of proposed future ATM systems. This provides the ability to quickly evaluate metrics associated with environmental impacts of aviation for inclusion in multi-dimensional cost-benefit analysis of concepts for evolution of the National Airspace System (NAS) over the next several decades. The methodology used here may be summarized as follows: 1) Standard Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise and emissions-inventory models, the Noise Impact Routing System (NIRS) and the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS), respectively, are linked to ACES simulation outputs; 2) appropriate modifications are made to ACES outputs to incorporate all information needed by the environmental models (e.g., specific airframe and engine data); 3) noise and emissions calculations are performed for all traffic and airports in the study area for each of several scenarios, as simulated by ACES; and 4) impacts of future scenarios are compared to the current NAS baseline scenario. This paper also provides the results of initial end-to-end, proof-of-concept runs of the integrated ACES and environmental-modeling capability. These preliminary results demonstrate that if no growth is likely to be impeded by significant environmental impacts that could negatively affect communities throughout the nation.

  13. Identification and Analysis of National Airspace System Resource Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Marien, Ty V.; Viken, Jeffery K.; Neitzke, Kurt W.; Kwa, Tech-Seng; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hinze, Nicolas K.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis is the deliverable for the Airspace Systems Program, Systems Analysis Integration and Evaluation Project Milestone for the Systems and Portfolio Analysis (SPA) focus area SPA.4.06 Identification and Analysis of National Airspace System (NAS) Resource Constraints and Mitigation Strategies. "Identify choke points in the current and future NAS. Choke points refer to any areas in the en route, terminal, oceanic, airport, and surface operations that constrain actual demand in current and projected future operations. Use the Common Scenarios based on Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) projections of future demand developed under SPA.4.04 Tools, Methods and Scenarios Development. Analyze causes, including operational and physical constraints." The NASA analysis is complementary to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) "Development of Tools and Analysis to Evaluate Choke Points in the National Airspace System" Contract # NNA3AB95C awarded to Logistics Management Institute, Sept 2013.

  14. Securing the Global Airspace System Via Identity-Based Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Current telecommunications systems have very good security architectures that include authentication and authorization as well as accounting. These three features enable an edge system to obtain access into a radio communication network, request specific Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements and ensure proper billing for service. Furthermore, the links are secure. Widely used telecommunication technologies are Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) This paper provides a system-level view of network-centric operations for the global airspace system and the problems and issues with deploying new technologies into the system. The paper then focuses on applying the basic security architectures of commercial telecommunication systems and deployment of federated Authentication, Authorization and Accounting systems to provide a scalable, evolvable reliable and maintainable solution to enable a globally deployable identity-based secure airspace system.

  15. Development and Application of an Integrated Approach toward NASA Airspace Systems Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Fong, Robert K.; Abramson, Paul D.; Koenke, Ed

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Airspace Systems Program is contributing air traffic management research in support of the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Contributions support research and development needs provided by the interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO). These needs generally call for integrated technical solutions that improve system-level performance and work effectively across multiple domains and planning time horizons. In response, the Airspace Systems Program is pursuing an integrated research approach and has adapted systems engineering best practices for application in a research environment. Systems engineering methods aim to enable researchers to methodically compare different technical approaches, consider system-level performance, and develop compatible solutions. Systems engineering activities are performed iteratively as the research matures. Products of this approach include a demand and needs analysis, system-level descriptions focusing on NASA research contributions, system assessment and design studies, and common systemlevel metrics, scenarios, and assumptions. Results from the first systems engineering iteration include a preliminary demand and needs analysis; a functional modeling tool; and initial system-level metrics, scenario characteristics, and assumptions. Demand and needs analysis results suggest that several advanced concepts can mitigate demand/capacity imbalances for NextGen, but fall short of enabling three-times current-day capacity at the nation s busiest airports and airspace. Current activities are focusing on standardizing metrics, scenarios, and assumptions, conducting system-level performance assessments of integrated research solutions, and exploring key system design interfaces.

  16. Characterization of Tactical Departure Scheduling in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Alan; Engelland, Shawn A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses and analyzes current day utilization and performance of the tactical departure scheduling process in the National Airspace System (NAS) to understand the benefits in improving this process. The analysis used operational air traffic data from over 1,082,000 flights during the month of January, 2011. Specific metrics included the frequency of tactical departure scheduling, site specific variances in the technology's utilization, departure time prediction compliance used in the tactical scheduling process and the performance with which the current system can predict the airborne slot that aircraft are being scheduled into from the airport surface. Operational data analysis described in this paper indicates significant room for improvement exists in the current system primarily in the area of reduced departure time prediction uncertainty. Results indicate that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft did not meet their scheduled departure slot due to departure time uncertainty. In addition to missed slots, the operational data analysis identified increased controller workload associated with tactical departures which were subject to traffic management manual re-scheduling or controller swaps. An analysis of achievable levels of departure time prediction accuracy as obtained by a new integrated surface and tactical scheduling tool is provided to assess the benefit it may provide as a solution to the identified shortfalls. A list of NAS facilities which are likely to receive the greatest benefit from the integrated surface and tactical scheduling technology are provided.

  17. National Airspace System Delay Estimation Using Weather Weighted Traffic Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.; Sridhar, Banavar

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of National Airspace System performance, which is usually measured in terms of delays resulting from the application of traffic flow management initiatives in response to weather conditions, volume, equipment outages and runway conditions, is needed both for guiding flow control decisions during the day of operations and for post operations analysis. Comparison of the actual delay, resulting from the traffic flow management initiatives, with the expected delay, based on traffic demand and other conditions, provides the assessment of the National Airspace System performance. This paper provides a method for estimating delay using the expected traffic demand and weather. In order to identify the cause of delays, 517 days of National Airspace System delay data reported by the Federal Aviation Administration s Operations Network were analyzed. This analysis shows that weather is the most important causal factor for delays followed by equipment and runway delays. Guided by these results, the concept of weather weighted traffic counts as a measure of system delay is described. Examples are given to show the variation of these counts as a function of time of the day. The various datasets, consisting of aircraft position data, enroute severe weather data, surface wind speed and visibility data, reported delay data and number of aircraft handled by the Centers data, and their sources are described. The procedure for selecting reference days on which traffic was minimally impacted by weather is described. Different traffic demand on each reference day of the week, determined by analysis of 42 days of traffic and delay data, was used as the expected traffic demand for each day of the week. Next, the method for computing the weather weighted traffic counts using the expected traffic demand, derived from reference days, and the expanded regions around severe weather cells is discussed. It is shown via a numerical example that this approach improves the dynamic range

  18. Data link communications in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    In the near future, conventional radio communications, currently the primary medium for the transfer of information between aircraft and ground stations, will be replaced by digital data link. This paper briefly describes this technology and summarizes what are believed to be the principal human factor issues associated with data link implementation in the airspace system. Integration of data link communications with existing systems on the flight deck and in the Air Traffic Control system is discussed with regard for both near term implementation and longer term operational issues.

  19. Alternative Architectures for Distributed Work in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Billings, Charles E.; Chapman, Roger; Obradovich, Heintz; McCoy, C. Elaine; Orasanu, Judith

    2000-01-01

    The architecture for the National Airspace System (NAS) in the United States has evolved over time to rely heavily on the distribution of tasks and control authority in order to keep cognitive complexity manageable for any one individual. This paper characterizes a number of different subsystems that have been recently incorporated in the NAS. The goal of this discussion is to begin to identify the critical parameters defining the differences among alternative architectures in terms of the locus of control and in terms of access to relevant data and knowledge. At an abstract level, this analysis can be described as an effort to describe alternative "rules of the game" for the NAS.

  20. UAS Integration Into the NAS: An Examination of Baseline Compliance in the Current Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa; Kenny, Caitlin A.; Shively, Robert J.; Johnson, Walter

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are expected to be integrated into the National Airspace System (NAS) by 2015. Several human factors challenges need to be addressed before UAS can safely and routinely fly in the NAS with manned aircraft. Perhaps the most significant challenge is for the UAS to be non-disruptive to the air traffic management system. Another human factors challenge is how to provide UAS pilots with intuitive traffic information in order to support situation awareness (SA) of their airspace environment as well as a see-and-avoid capability comparable to manned aircraft so that a UAS pilot could safely maneuver the aircraft to maintain separation and collision avoidance if necessary. A simulation experiment was conducted to examine baseline compliance of UAS operations in the current airspace system. Researchers also examined the effects of introducing a Cockpit Situation Display (CSD) into a UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) on UAS pilot performance, workload and situation awareness while flying in a positively controlled sector. Pilots were tasked with conducting a highway patrol police mission with a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAS in L.A. Center airspace with two mission objectives: 1) to reroute the UAS when issued new instructions from their commander, and 2) to communicate with Air Traffic Control (ATC) to negotiate flight plan changes and respond to vectoring and altitude change instructions. Objective aircraft separation data, workload ratings, SA data, and subjective ratings regarding UAS operations in the NAS were collected. Results indicate that UAS pilots were able to comply appropriately with ATC instructions. In addition, the introduction of the CSD improved pilot SA and reduced workload associated with UAS and ATC interactions.

  1. Validating the Airspace Concept Evaluation System for Different Weather Days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Meyn, Larry

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the process for validating the Airspace Concept Evaluation System using real-world historical flight operational data. System inputs such as flight plans and airport en-route capacities, are generated and processed to create a realistic reproduction of a single day's operations within the National Airspace System. System outputs such as airport throughput, delays, and en-route sector loads are then compared to real world operational metrics and delay statistics for the reproduced day. The process is repeated for 4 historical days with high and low traffic volume and delay attributed to weather. These 4 days are simulated using default en-route capacities and variable en-route capacities used to emulate weather. The validation results show that default enroute capacity simulations are closer to real-world data for low weather days than high weather days. The use of reduced variable enroute capacities adds a large delay bias to ACES but delay trends between weather days are better represented.

  2. NASA Airspace Systems Environmentally Focused Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation focuses on how the Next Generation Air Space System can assist in reducing environmental pollution and reduced fuel consumption. By modifying some of the current aviation practices such as the dive and drive descent and making more efficient air traffic flow, the new system can assist in noise reduction, emissions reductions and reduce delays in routing and improve operational efficiency

  3. Dynamic Airspace Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In air traffic management systems, airspace is partitioned into regions in part to distribute the tasks associated with managing air traffic among different systems and people. These regions, as well as the systems and people allocated to each, are changed dynamically so that air traffic can be safely and efficiently managed. It is expected that new air traffic control systems will enable greater flexibility in how airspace is partitioned and how resources are allocated to airspace regions. In this talk, I will begin by providing an overview of some previous work and open questions in Dynamic Airspace Configuration research, which is concerned with how to partition airspace and assign resources to regions of airspace. For example, I will introduce airspace partitioning algorithms based on clustering, integer programming optimization, and computational geometry. I will conclude by discussing the development of a tablet-based tool that is intended to help air traffic controller supervisors configure airspace and controllers in current operations.

  4. Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Evaluation of Impacts on the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    2005-01-01

    This report is one of a series that describes an ongoing effort in high-fidelity modeling/simulation, evaluation and analysis of the benefits and performance metrics of the Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concept of Operations being developed as part of the Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) project. A previous study, determined the overall increases in runway arrival rates that could be achieved at 12 selected airports due to WakeVAS reduced aircraft spacing under Instrument Meteorological Conditions. This study builds on the previous work to evaluate the NAS wide impacts of equipping various numbers of airports with WakeVAS. A queuing network model of the National Airspace System, built by the Logistics Management Institute, Mclean, VA, for NASA (LMINET) was used to estimate the reduction in delay that could be achieved by using WakeVAS under non-visual meteorological conditions for the projected air traffic demand in 2010. The results from LMINET were used to estimate the total annual delay reduction that could be achieved and from this, an estimate of the air carrier variable operating cost saving was made.

  5. Validation Of The Airspace Concept Evaluation System Using Real World Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of performing a validation of the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) using real world historical flight operational data. ACES inputs are generated from select real world data and processed to create a realistic reproduction of a single day of operations within the National Airspace System (NAS). ACES outputs are then compared to real world operational metrics and delay statistics for the reproduced day. Preliminary results indicate that ACES produces delays and airport operational metrics similar to the real world with minor variations of delay by phase of flight. ACES is a nation-wide fast-time simulation tool developed at NASA Ames Research Center. ACES models and simulates the NAS using interacting agents representing center control, terminal flow management, airports, individual flights, and other NAS elements. These agents pass messages between one another similar to real world communications. This distributed agent based system is designed to emulate the highly unpredictable nature of the NAS, making it a suitable tool to evaluate current and envisioned airspace concepts. To ensure that ACES produces the most realistic results, the system must be validated. There is no way to validate future concepts scenarios using real world historical data, but current day scenario validations increase confidence in the validity of future scenario results. Each operational day has unique weather and traffic demand schedules. The more a simulation utilizes the unique characteristic of a specific day, the more realistic the results should be. ACES is able to simulate the full scale demand traffic necessary to perform a validation using real world data. Through direct comparison with the real world, models may continuee to be improved and unusual trends and biases may be filtered out of the system or used to normalize the results of future concept simulations.

  6. Serious Gaming for Test & Evaluation of Clean-Slate (Ab Initio) National Airspace System (NAS) Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, B. Danette; Alexandrov, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Incremental approaches to air transportation system development inherit current architectural constraints, which, in turn, place hard bounds on system capacity, efficiency of performance, and complexity. To enable airspace operations of the future, a clean-slate (ab initio) airspace design(s) must be considered. This ab initio National Airspace System (NAS) must be capable of accommodating increased traffic density, a broader diversity of aircraft, and on-demand mobility. System and subsystem designs should scale to accommodate the inevitable demand for airspace services that include large numbers of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and a paradigm shift in general aviation (e.g., personal air vehicles) in addition to more traditional aerial vehicles such as commercial jetliners and weather balloons. The complex and adaptive nature of ab initio designs for the future NAS requires new approaches to validation, adding a significant physical experimentation component to analytical and simulation tools. In addition to software modeling and simulation, the ability to exercise system solutions in a flight environment will be an essential aspect of validation. The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Autonomy Incubator seeks to develop a flight simulation infrastructure for ab initio modeling and simulation that assumes no specific NAS architecture and models vehicle-to-vehicle behavior to examine interactions and emergent behaviors among hundreds of intelligent aerial agents exhibiting collaborative, cooperative, coordinative, selfish, and malicious behaviors. The air transportation system of the future will be a complex adaptive system (CAS) characterized by complex and sometimes unpredictable (or unpredicted) behaviors that result from temporal and spatial interactions among large numbers of participants. A CAS not only evolves with a changing environment and adapts to it, it is closely coupled to all systems that constitute the environment. Thus, the ecosystem that

  7. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System, NextGen Systems Analysis, Integration and Evaluation Project. Version 1.0; Project Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quon, Leighton

    2010-01-01

    The key objectives of the NASA ASP are to: Improve mobility, capacity efficiency and access of the airspace system. Improve collaboration, predictability, and flexibility for the airspace users. Enable accurate modeling and simulation of air transportation systems. Accommodate operations of all classes of aircraft. Maintain system safety and environmental protection. In support of these program objectives, the major goal of the NextGen-SAIE Project is to enable the transition of key capacity and efficiency improvements to the NAS. Since many aspects of the NAS are unique to specific airport or airspace environments, demand on various parts of the NAS is not expected to increase equally as system demand grows. SAIE will provide systems level analysis of the NAS characteristics, constraints, and demands such that a suite of capacity-increasing concepts and technologies for system solutions are enabled and facilitated. The technical objectives in support of this goal are the following: Integration, evaluation, and transition of more mature concepts and technologies in an environment that faithfully emulates real-world complexities. Interoperability research and analysis of ASP technologies across ATM functions is performed to facilitate integration and take ASP concepts and technologies to higher Technology Readiness Level (TRL). Analyses are conducted on the program s concepts to identify the system benefits or impacts. System level analysis is conducted to increase understanding of the characteristics and constraints of airspace system and its domains.

  8. A Preliminary Evaluation of Supersonic Transport Category Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Guminsky, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Several public sector businesses and government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are currently working on solving key technological barriers that must be overcome in order to realize the vision of low-boom supersonic flights conducted over land. However, once these challenges are met, the manner in which this class of aircraft is integrated in the National Airspace System may become a potential constraint due to the significant environmental, efficiency, and economic repercussions that their integration may cause. Background research was performed on historic supersonic operations in the National Airspace System, including both flight deck procedures and air traffic controller procedures. Using this information, an experiment was created to test some of these historic procedures in a current-day, emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) environment and observe the interactions between commercial supersonic transport aircraft and modern-day air traffic. Data was gathered through batch simulations of supersonic commercial transport category aircraft operating in present-day traffic scenarios as a base-lining study to identify the magnitude of the integration problems and begin the exploration of new air traffic management technologies and architectures which will be needed to seamlessly integrate subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft operations. The data gathered include information about encounters between subsonic and supersonic aircraft that may occur when supersonic commercial transport aircraft are integrated into the National Airspace System, as well as flight time data. This initial investigation is being used to inform the creation and refinement of a preliminary Concept of Operations and for the subsequent development of technologies that will enable overland supersonic flight.

  9. Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2014-01-01

    UAS operations will be safer if a UTM system is available to support the functions associated with Airspace management and geo-fencing (reduce risk of accidents, impact to other operations, and community concerns); Weather and severe wind integration (avoid severe weather areas based on prediction); Predict and manage congestion (mission safety);Terrain and man-made objects database and avoidance; Maintain safe separation (mission safety and assurance of other assets); Allow only authenticated operations (avoid unauthorized airspace use).

  10. A systems approach for designing a radio station layout for the U.S. National Airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boci, Erton S.

    Today's National Airspace System (NAS) is managed using an aging surveillance radar system. Current radar technology is not adequate to sustain the rapid growth of the commercial, civil, and federal aviation sectors and cannot be adapted to use emerging 21st century airspace surveillance technologies. With 87,000 flights to manage per day, America's ground based radar system has hit a growth ceiling. Consequently, the FAA has embarked on a broad-reaching effort called the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that seeks to transform today's aviation airspace management and ensure increased safety and capacity in our NAS. This dissertation presents a systems approach to Service Volume (SV) engineering, a relatively new field of engineering that has emerged in support of the FAA's Automatic Dependent Surveillance -- Broadcast (ADS-B) Air Traffic Modernization Program. SV Engineering is responsible for radio station layout design that would provide the required radio frequency (RF) coverage over a set of Service Volumes, each which represents a section of controlled airspace that is served by a particular air control facility or service. The radio station layout must be optimized to meet system performance, safety, and interference requirements while minimizing the number of radio station sites required to provide RF coverage of the entire airspace of the Unites States. The interference level requirements at the victim (of interference) receivers are the most important and stringent requirements imposed on the ADS-B radio station layout and configuration. In this dissertation, we show a novel and practical way to achieve this optimality by developing and employing several key techniques such as such as reverse radio line-of-site (RLOS) and complex entity-relationship modeling, to address the greater challenges of engineering this complex system. Given that numerous NAS radar facilities are clustered together in relative close proximity to each other, we

  11. Human Factors Guidelines for UAS in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan; Shively, R. Jay

    2013-01-01

    The ground control stations (GCS) of some UAS have been characterized by less-than-adequate human-system interfaces. In some cases this may reflect a failure to apply an existing regulation or human factors standard. In other cases, the problem may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material. NASA is leading a community effort to develop recommendations for human factors guidelines for GCS to support routine beyond-line-of-sight UAS operations in the national airspace system (NAS). In contrast to regulations, guidelines are not mandatory requirements. However, by encapsulating solutions to identified problems or areas of risk, guidelines can provide assistance to system developers, users and regulatory agencies. To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. By assuming that a pilot will be responsible for each UAS operating in the NAS, and that the aircraft will be required to operate in a manner comparable to conventionally piloted aircraft, it is possible to identify a generic set of pilot tasks and the information, control and communication requirements needed to support these tasks. Areas where guidelines will be useful can then be identified, utilizing information from simulations, operational experience and the human factors literature. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material will, at times, provide adequate coverage of an area. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  12. An Evaluation of Operational Airspace Sectorization Integrated System (OASIS) Advisory Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Buckley, Nathan; Evans, Mark; Gujral, Vimmy; Lee, Hwasoo; Peknik, Daniel; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, a human-in-the-loop evaluation of the Operational Airspace Sectorization Integrated System (OASIS) was conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory of the Human Systems Integration Division (Code TH) in conjunction with the Aviation Systems Division (Code AF). The development of OASIS is a major activity of the Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) research focus area within the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Airspace Systems Program. OASIS is an advisory tool to assist Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) En Route Area Supervisors in their planning of sector combinedecombine operations as well as opening closing of Data-side (D-side) control positions. These advisory solutions are tailored to the predicted traffic demand over the next few hours. During the experiment, eight retired FAA personnel served as participants for a part-task evaluation of OASIS functionality, covering the user interface as well as the underlying algorithm. Participants gave positive feedback on both the user interface and the algorithm solutions for airspace configuration, including an excellent average rating of 94 on the tool usability scales. They also suggested various enhancements to the OASIS tool, which will be incorporated into the next tool development cycle for the full-scale human-in-the-loop evaluation to be conducted later this year.

  13. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace by Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet). There is an urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  14. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations In Low-Altitude Airspace By Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet)There is urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  15. Advanced Airspace Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of the Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) is presented. The topics include: 1) Limitations of the existing system; 2) The Advanced Airspace Concept; 3) Candidate architecture for the AAC; 4) Separation assurance and conflict avoidance system (TSAFE); and 5) Ground-Air Interactions. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  16. Impacts of technology on the capacity needs of the US national airspace system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, Raymond A.; Simpson, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the U.S. air transportation system is undertaken, focusing on airspace and airport capacity. Causes of delay and congestion are investigated. Aircraft noise is identified as the fundamental hindrance to capacity improvement. Research areas for NASA are suggested to improve capacity through technology.

  17. 78 FR 59974 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Airspace Operations Challenge (AOC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Challenge (AOC) AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOTICE: (13-110). ACTION... Systems (UAS) Airspace Operations Challenge (AOC) is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may now... of interest and value to NASA and the nation. The 2014 UAS AOC is a prize competition designed...

  18. Real-Time Safety Monitoring and Prediction for the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    As new operational paradigms and additional aircraft are being introduced into the National Airspace System (NAS), maintaining safety in such a rapidly growing environment becomes more challenging. It is therefore desirable to have both an overview of the current safety of the airspace at different levels of granularity, as well an understanding of how the state of the safety will evolve into the future given the anticipated flight plans, weather forecasts, predicted health of assets in the airspace, and so on. To this end, we have developed a Real-Time Safety Monitoring (RTSM) that first, estimates the state of the NAS using the dynamic models. Then, given the state estimate and a probability distribution of future inputs to the NAS, the framework predicts the evolution of the NAS, i.e., the future state, and analyzes these future states to predict the occurrence of unsafe events. The entire probability distribution of airspace safety metrics is computed, not just point estimates, without significant assumptions regarding the distribution type and or parameters. We demonstrate our overall approach by predicting the occurrence of some unsafe events and show how these predictions evolve in time as flight operations progress.

  19. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Delegation of Separation in NextGen Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Caitlin A.; Shively, Robert J.; Jordan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) performing delegated separation in the national airspace system (NAS). Delegated separation is the transfer of responsibility for maintaining separation between aircraft or vehicles from air navigation service providers to the relevant pilot or flight operator. The effects of delegated separation and traffic display information level were collected through performance, workload, and situation awareness measures. The results of this study show benefits related to the use of conflict detection alerts being shown on the UAS operator's cockpit situation display (CSD), and to the use of full delegation. Overall, changing the level of separation responsibility and adding conflict detection alerts on the CSD was not found to have an adverse effect on performance as shown by the low amounts of losses of separation. The use of conflict detection alerts on the CSD and full delegation responsibilities given to the UAS operator were found to create significantly reduced workload, significantly increased situation awareness and significantly easier communications between the UAS operator and air traffic controller without significantly increasing the amount of losses of separation.

  20. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 91 - Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace C Appendix C to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 91 - Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace C Appendix C to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 91 - Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace C Appendix C to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND...

  3. On the Transition and Migration of Flight Functions in the Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Allan Terry; Young, Steve D.

    2012-01-01

    Since 400 BC, when man first replicated flying behavior with kites, up until the turn of the 20th century, when the Wright brothers performed the first successful powered human flight, flight functions have become available to man via significant support from man-made structures and devices. Over the past 100 years or so, technology has enabled several flight functions to migrate to automation and/or decision support systems. This migration continues with the United States NextGen and Europe s Single European Sky (a.k.a. SESAR) initiatives. These overhauls of the airspace system will be accomplished by accommodating the functional capabilities, benefits, and limitations of technology and automation together with the unique and sometimes overlapping functional capabilities, benefits, and limitations of humans. This paper will discuss how a safe and effective migration of any flight function must consider several interrelated issues, including, for example, shared situation awareness, and automation addiction, or over-reliance on automation. A long-term philosophical perspective is presented that considers all of these issues by primarily asking the following questions: How does one find an acceptable level of risk tolerance when allocating functions to automation versus humans? How does one measure or predict with confidence what the risks will be? These two questions and others will be considered from the two most-discussed paradigms involving the use of increasingly complex systems in the future: humans as operators and humans as monitors.

  4. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System-Part III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wichgersm Joel M.; Haynes, Brian; Roy, Aloke

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present progress made in the studies and describe the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified as part of the study. NASA's NextGen Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project integrates solutions for a safe, efficient and high-capacity airspace system through joint research efforts and partnerships with other government agencies. The CTD Project is one of two within NASA's Airspace Systems Program and is managed by the NASA Ames Research Center. Research within the CTD Project is in support the 2011 NASA Strategic Plan Sub-Goal 4.1: Develop innovative solutions and advanced technologies, through a balanced research portfolio, to improve current and future air transportation. The focus of CTD is on developing capabilities in traffic flow management, dynamic airspace configuration, separation assurance, super density operations and airport surface operations. Important to its research is the development of human/automation information requirements and decisionmaking guidelines for human-human and human-machine airportal decision-making. Airborne separation, oceanic intrail climb/descent and interval management applications depend on location and intent information of surrounding aircraft. ADS-B has been proposed to provide the information exchange, but other candidates such as satellite-based receivers, broadband or airborne internet, and cellular communications are possible candidate's.

  5. Waste tank 241-SY-101 dome airspace and ventilation system response to a flammable gas plume burn

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.J.

    1995-11-01

    A series of flammable gas plume burn and transient pressure analyses have been completed for a nuclear waste tank (241-SY-101) and associated tank farm ventilation system at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford facility. The subject analyses were performed to address issues concerning the effects of transient pressures resulting from igniting a small volume of concentrated flammable gas just released from the surface of the waste as a plume and before the flammable gas concentration could be reduced by mixing with the dome airspace by local convection and turbulent diffusion. Such a condition may exist as part of an in progress episode gas release (EGR) or gas plume event. The analysis goal was to determine the volume of flammable gas that if burned within the dome airspace would result in a differential pressure, after propagating through the ventilation system, greater than the current High Efficiency Particulate Filter (HEPA) limit of 2.49 KPa (10 inches of water or 0. 36 psi). Such a pressure wave could rupture the tank ventilation system inlet and outlet HEPA filters leading to a potential release of contaminants to the environment

  6. The Proposed Use of Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft for National Airspace System Integration Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III

    2011-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). This paper explores the use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft to serve as platforms for UAS systems research, development, and flight testing. These aircraft would be manned with safety pilots and researchers that would allow for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). With pilot override capability, these UAS Surrogate aircraft would be controlled from ground stations like true UAS s. It would be possible to file and fly these UAS Surrogate aircraft in the NAS with normal traffic and they would be better platforms for real world UAS research and development over existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. These UAS surrogate aircraft could be outfitted with research systems as required such as computers, state sensors, video recording, data acquisition, data link, telemetry, instrumentation, and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). These surrogate aircraft could also be linked to onboard or ground based simulation facilities to further extend UAS research capabilities. Potential areas for UAS Surrogate research include the development, flight test and evaluation of sensors to aide in the process of air traffic "see-and-avoid". These and other sensors could be evaluated in real-time and compared with onboard human evaluation pilots. This paper examines the feasibility of using UAS Surrogate research aircraft as test platforms for a variety of UAS related research.

  7. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  8. A System Concept for Facilitating User Preferences in En Route Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivona, R. A.; Ballin, M. G.; Green, S. M.; Bach, R. E.; McNally, B. D.

    1996-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is trying to make its air traffic management system more responsive to the needs of the aviation community by exploring the concept of 'free flight' for aircraft flying under instrument flight rules. A logical first step toward free flight could be made without significantly altering current air traffic control (ATC) procedures or requiring new airborne equipment by designing a ground-based system to be highly responsive to 'user preference' in en route airspace while providing for an orderly transition to the terminal area. To facilitate user preference in all en route environments, a system based on an extension of the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) is proposed in this document. The new system would consist of two integrated components. An airspace tool (AT) focuses on unconstrained en route aircraft (e.g., not transitioning to the terminal airspace), taking advantage of the relatively unconstrained nature of their flights and using long-range trajectory prediction to provide cost-effective conflict resolution advisories to sector controllers. A sector tool (ST) generates efficient advisories for all aircraft, with a focus on supporting controllers in analyzing and resolving complex, highly constrained traffic situations. When combined, the integrated AT/ST system supports user preference in any air route traffic control center sector. The system should also be useful in evaluating advanced free-flight concepts by serving as a test bed for future research. This document provides an overview of the design concept, explains its anticipated benefits, and recommends a development strategy that leads to a deployable system.

  9. Modeling Aircraft Position and Conservatively Calculating Airspace Violations for an Autonomous Collision Awareness System for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueunten, Kevin K.

    With the scheduled 30 September 2015 integration of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) into the national airspace, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is concerned with UAS capabilities to sense and avoid conflicts. Since the operator is outside the cockpit, the proposed collision awareness plugin (CAPlugin), based on probability and error propagation, conservatively predicts potential conflicts with other aircraft and airspaces, thus increasing the operator's situational awareness. The conflict predictions are calculated using a forward state estimator (FSE) and a conflict calculator. Predicting an aircraft's position, modeled as a mixed Gaussian distribution, is the FSE's responsibility. Furthermore, the FSE supports aircraft engaged in the following three flight modes: free flight, flight path following and orbits. The conflict calculator uses the FSE result to calculate the conflict probability between an aircraft and airspace or another aircraft. Finally, the CAPlugin determines the highest conflict probability and warns the operator. In addition to discussing the FSE free flight, FSE orbit and the airspace conflict calculator, this thesis describes how each algorithm is implemented and tested. Lastly two simulations demonstrates the CAPlugin's capabilities.

  10. Managing the integration and harmonization of national airspace for unmanned and manned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumm, Hans

    This dissertation examines the leadership challenge created by the requirement to integrate unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) into the national airspace system (NAS). The lack of UAV-related federal rules and regulations is a primary factor prolonging this integration. This effort focuses primarily on the leadership portion of the solution and not the technological requirements. The research explores an adaptation of the complexity theory that offers a potential leadership framework for the government, industry, and academia to use for achieving the full integration of UAVs into the NAS. Due to the large number of stakeholders and the multitude of interrelated issues, a complexity-theory-leadership methodology was created and examined as a potential way to help the FAA accelerate their rule-making efforts. This dissertation focuses on United States UAV issues. The United States is one of the leaders in the unmanned systems arena, to include the first significant use of recoverable autonomous weaponized systems in combat. Issues such as airspace, airworthiness, social issues, privacy issues, regulations, and the lack of policies, procedures, or governance are universal for all countries that are active in this technology area. This qualitative dissertation makes use of the grounded theory methodology as it combines a literature review and research along with interviews with subject matter experts, and information gained from attending UAV related gatherings/discussions. The investigation uncovered significant FAA process impediments as well as some possible break through concepts that could work well with the complexity-theory-leadership methodology. Keywords: Complexity theory, leadership, change management, UAV, unmanned aerial vehicle, National Airspace, NAS, FAA, Federal Aviation Administration.

  11. Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package: Automation Impacts of ROA's in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the impact of Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) operations on current and planned Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation systems in the En Route, Terminal, and Traffic Flow Management domains. The operational aspects of ROA flight, while similar, are not entirely identical to their manned counterparts and may not have been considered within the time-horizons of the automation tools. This analysis was performed to determine if flight characteristics of ROAs would be compatible with current and future NAS automation tools. Improvements to existing systems / processes are recommended that would give Air Traffic Controllers an indication that a particular aircraft is an ROA and modifications to IFR flight plan processing algorithms and / or designation of airspace where an ROA will be operating for long periods of time.

  12. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System - Part IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wichgers, Joel M.; Haynes, Brian; Roy, Aloke

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present the final results describing the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified as part of the study.

  13. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System-Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wichgers, Joel M.; Haynes, Brian; Roy, Aloke

    2013-01-01

    The National Aviation and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present progress made in the studies and describe the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified during the studies' first phase.

  14. Advanced Flow Control as a Management Tool in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wugalter, S.

    1974-01-01

    Advanced Flow Control is closely related to Air Traffic Control. Air Traffic Control is the business of the Federal Aviation Administration. To formulate an understanding of advanced flow control and its use as a management tool in the National Airspace System, it becomes necessary to speak somewhat of air traffic control, the role of FAA, and their relationship to advanced flow control. Also, this should dispell forever, any notion that advanced flow control is the inspirational master valve scheme to be used on the Alaskan Oil Pipeline.

  15. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System - Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Haynes, Brian; Wichgers, Joel M.; Roy, Aloke

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present progress made in the studies and describe the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified during the studies' first year.

  16. Development of a Portfolio Management Approach with Case Study of the NASA Airspace Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzke, Kurt W.; Hartman, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    A portfolio management approach was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Airspace Systems Program (ASP). The purpose was to help inform ASP leadership regarding future investment decisions related to its existing portfolio of advanced technology concepts and capabilities (C/Cs) currently under development and to potentially identify new opportunities. The portfolio management approach is general in form and is extensible to other advanced technology development programs. It focuses on individual C/Cs and consists of three parts: 1) concept of operations (con-ops) development, 2) safety impact assessment, and 3) benefit-cost-risk (B-C-R) assessment. The first two parts are recommendations to ASP leaders and will be discussed only briefly, while the B-C-R part relates to the development of an assessment capability and will be discussed in greater detail. The B-C-R assessment capability enables estimation of the relative value of each C/C as compared with all other C/Cs in the ASP portfolio. Value is expressed in terms of a composite weighted utility function (WUF) rating, based on estimated benefits, costs, and risks. Benefit utility is estimated relative to achieving key NAS performance objectives, which are outlined in the ASP Strategic Plan.1 Risk utility focuses on C/C development and implementation risk, while cost utility focuses on the development and implementation portions of overall C/C life-cycle costs. Initial composite ratings of the ASP C/Cs were successfully generated; however, the limited availability of B-C-R information, which is used as inputs to the WUF model, reduced the meaningfulness of these initial investment ratings. Development of this approach, however, defined specific information-generation requirements for ASP C/C developers that will increase the meaningfulness of future B-C-R ratings.

  17. Projected Demand and Potential Impacts to the National Airspace System of Autonomous, Electric, On-Demand Small Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hartman, Christopher L.; Kwa, Teck-Seng; Moore, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Electric propulsion and autonomy are technology frontiers that offer tremendous potential to achieve low operating costs for small-aircraft. Such technologies enable simple and safe to operate vehicles that could dramatically improve regional transportation accessibility and speed through point-to-point operations. This analysis develops an understanding of the potential traffic volume and National Airspace System (NAS) capacity for small on-demand aircraft operations. Future demand projections use the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), a tool suite developed by NASA and the Transportation Laboratory of Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Demand projections from TSAM contain the mode of travel, number of trips and geographic distribution of trips. For this study, the mode of travel can be commercial aircraft, automobile and on-demand aircraft. NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) is used to assess NAS impact. This simulation takes a schedule that includes all flights: commercial passenger and cargo; conventional General Aviation and on-demand small aircraft, and operates them in the simulated NAS. The results of this analysis projects very large trip numbers for an on-demand air transportation system competitive with automobiles in cost per passenger mile. The significance is this type of air transportation can enhance mobility for communities that currently lack access to commercial air transportation. Another significant finding is that the large numbers of operations can have an impact on the current NAS infrastructure used by commercial airlines and cargo operators, even if on-demand traffic does not use the 28 airports in the Continental U.S. designated as large hubs by the FAA. Some smaller airports will experience greater demand than their current capacity allows and will require upgrading. In addition, in future years as demand grows and vehicle performance improves other non-conventional facilities such as short runways incorporated into

  18. Research in Modeling and Simulation for Airspace Systems Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Kimmel, William M.; Welch, Sharon S.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of some of the applied research and simulation methodologies at the NASA Langley Research Center that support aerospace systems innovation. Risk assessment methodologies, complex systems design and analysis methodologies, and aer ospace operations simulations are described. Potential areas for future research and collaboration using interactive and distributed simula tions are also proposed.

  19. Sandia Airspace Recording System (SARS) software reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Tenney, J.L.

    1996-04-01

    SARS is a data acquisition system designed to gather and process radar data from aircraft flights. A database of flight trajectories has been developed for Albuquerque, NM, and Amarillo, TX. The data is used for safety analysis and risk assessment reports. To support this database effort, Sandia developed a collection of hardware and software tools to collect and post process the aircraft radar data. This document describes the data reduction tools which comprise the SARS, and maintenance procedures for the hardware and software system.

  20. Large Unmanned Aircraft System Operations in the National Airspace System - the NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Gregory P.; Howell, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Ikhana (ee-kah-nah) project executed the 2007 Western States Fire Missions over several of the western United States using an MQ-9 unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in partnership with the NASA Ames Research Center, the United States Forest Service, and the National Interagency Fire Center. The missions were intended to supply infrared imagery of wildfires to firefighters on the ground within 10 minutes of data acquisition. For each of the eight missions, the NASA DFRC notified the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of specific flight plans within three or fewer days of the flight. The FAA Certificate of Waiver or Authorization (commonly referred to as a COA ) process was used to obtain access to the United States National Airspace System. Significant time and resources were necessary to develop the COA application, perform mission planning, and define and approve emergency landing sites. Unique aspects of flying unmanned aircraft created challenges to mission operations. Close coordination with FAA headquarters and air traffic control resulted in safe and successful missions that assisted firefighters by providing near-real-time imagery of selected wildfires.

  1. 77 FR 19927 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Willcox, AZ, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Cochise, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ...This action modifies Class E airspace at Willcox, AZ, and removes Class E airspace at Cochise, AZ. The airspace designation listed as Cochise, AZ, is combined with Cochise County Airport, Willcox, AZ. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Cochise County Airport, Willcox,......

  2. Air-ground information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Lozito, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System incident data for a two-year period in order to identify the frequency of air-ground information transfer errors and the factors associated with their occurrence. Of the more than 14,000 primary reports received during the 1985 and 1986 reporting period, one out of four reports concerned problems of information transfer between aircraft and ATC. Approximately half of these errors were associated directly or indirectly with aircraft deviations from assigned heading or altitude. The majority of incidents cited some human-system problem such as workload, cockpit distractions, etc., as the primary contributing factor. Improvements in air-ground information transfer using existing and future (e.g., data link) technology are proposed centering on the development and application of user-centered information management principles.

  3. Toward a Concept of Operations for Aviation Weather Information Implementation in the Evolving National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAdaragh, Raymon M.

    2002-01-01

    The capacity of the National Airspace System is being stressed due to the limits of current technologies. Because of this, the FAA and NASA are working to develop new technologies to increase the system's capacity which enhancing safety. Adverse weather has been determined to be a major factor in aircraft accidents and fatalities and the FAA and NASA have developed programs to improve aviation weather information technologies and communications for system users The Aviation Weather Information Element of the Weather Accident Prevention Project of NASA's Aviation Safety Program is currently working to develop these technologies in coordination with the FAA and industry. This paper sets forth a theoretical approach to implement these new technologies while addressing the National Airspace System (NAS) as an evolving system with Weather Information as one of its subSystems. With this approach in place, system users will be able to acquire the type of weather information that is needed based upon the type of decision-making situation and condition that is encountered. The theoretical approach addressed in this paper takes the form of a model for weather information implementation. This model addresses the use of weather information in three decision-making situations, based upon the system user's operational perspective. The model also addresses two decision-making conditions, which are based upon the need for collaboration due to the level of support offered by the weather information provided by each new product or technology. The model is proposed for use in weather information implementation in order to provide a systems approach to the NAS. Enhancements to the NAS collaborative decision-making capabilities are also suggested.

  4. Safety and Performance Analysis of the Non-Radar Oceanic/Remote Airspace In-Trail Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2007-01-01

    This document presents a safety and performance analysis of the nominal case for the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) in a non-radar oceanic/remote airspace. The analysis estimates the risk of collision between the aircraft performing the ITP and a reference aircraft. The risk of collision is only estimated for the ITP maneuver and it is based on nominal operating conditions. The analysis does not consider human error, communication error conditions, or the normal risk of flight present in current operations. The hazards associated with human error and communication errors are evaluated in an Operational Hazards Analysis presented elsewhere.

  5. High Altitude Long Endurance Remotely Operated Aircraft - National Airspace System Integration - Simulation IPT: Detailed Airspace Operations Simulation Plan. Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The primary goal of Access 5 is to allow safe, reliable and routine operations of High Altitude-Long Endurance Remotely Operated Aircraft (HALE ROAs) within the National Airspace System (NAS). Step 1 of Access 5 addresses the policies, procedures, technologies and implementation issues of introducing such operations into the NAS above pressure altitude 40,000 ft (Flight Level 400 or FL400). Routine HALE ROA activity within the NAS represents a potentially significant change to the tasks and concerns of NAS users, service providers and other stakeholders. Due to the complexity of the NAS, and the importance of maintaining current high levels of safety in the NAS, any significant changes must be thoroughly evaluated prior to implementation. The Access 5 community has been tasked with performing this detailed evaluation of routine HALE-ROA activities in the NAS, and providing to key NAS stakeholders a set of recommended policies and procedures to achieve this goal. Extensive simulation, in concert with a directed flight demonstration program are intended to provide the required supporting evidence that these recommendations are based on sound methods and offer a clear roadmap to achieving safe, reliable and routine HALE ROA operations in the NAS. Through coordination with NAS service providers and policy makers, and with significant input from HALE-ROA manufacturers, operators and pilots, this document presents the detailed simulation plan for Step 1 of Access 5. A brief background of the Access 5 project will be presented with focus on Steps 1 and 2, concerning HALE-ROA operations above FL400 and FL180 respectively. An overview of project management structure follows with particular emphasis on the role of the Simulation IPT and its relationships to other project entities. This discussion will include a description of work packages assigned to the Simulation IPT, and present the specific goals to be achieved for each simulation work package, along with the associated

  6. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results. PMID:24385880

  7. Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results. PMID:24385880

  8. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace and UAS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Many civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been imagined ranging from remote to congested urban areas, including goods delivery, infrastructure surveillance, agricultural support, and medical services delivery. Further, these UAS will have different equipage and capabilities based on considerations such as affordability, and mission needs applications. Such heterogeneous UAS mix, along with operations such as general aviation, helicopters, gliders must be safely accommodated at lower altitudes. However, key infrastructure to enable and safely manage widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations therein does not exist. Therefore, NASA is exploring functional design, concept and technology development, and a prototype UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system. UTM will support safe and efficient UAS operations for the delivery of goods and services

  9. Supporting the Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems(UAS) for Global Science Observations in Civil and Segregated Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulac, B. L.; Reider. K/

    2010-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are growing more popular within the earth science community as a way to augment measurements currently made with manned aircraft. UAS arc uniquely suited for applications that require long dwell times and/or in locations that are generally too dangerous for manned aircraft. Environmental monitoring in areas like the Arctic or obtaining data within a hurricane are just a couple of examples of many applications to which UAS are ideally suited. However, UAS are not without their challenges. Most unmanned aircraft are unable to meet current airspace regulations that are in place for manned aircraft, and specific airspace standards and regulations for unmanned aircraft do not exist. As a result, gaining access to civil airspace for flights is very difficult around the world. Under Term of Reference 48 within the ISPRS Commission 1, WGI/I: Standardization of Aircraft Interfaces, efforts have been made to understand and quantify the current state of UAS airspace access on a global scale. The results of these efforts will be presented along with examples of successful science missions that have been conducted internationally during the past year.

  10. Modeling Air Traffic Management Technologies with a Queuing Network Model of the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Dou; Lee, David; Johnson, Jesse; Gaier, Eric; Kostiuk, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an integrated model of air traffic management (ATM) tools under development in two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs -Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) and Advanced Air Transport Technologies (AATT). The model is made by adjusting parameters of LMINET, a queuing network model of the National Airspace System (NAS), which the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) developed for NASA. Operating LMINET with models of various combinations of TAP and AATT will give quantitative information about the effects of the tools on operations of the NAS. The costs of delays under different scenarios are calculated. An extension of Air Carrier Investment Model (ACIM) under ASAC developed by the Institute for NASA maps the technologies' impacts on NASA operations into cross-comparable benefits estimates for technologies and sets of technologies.

  11. Development of a framework for the assessment of capacity and throughput technologies within the National Airspace System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Elena

    The demand for air travel is expanding beyond the capacity of the existing National Airspace System. Excess traffic results in delays and compromised safety. Thus, a number of initiatives to improve airspace capacity have been proposed. To assess the impact of these technologies on air traffic one must move beyond the vehicle to a system-of-systems point of view. This top-level perspective must include consideration of the aircraft, airports, air traffic control and airlines that make up the airspace system. In addition to these components and their interactions economics, safety and government regulations must also be considered. Furthermore, the air transportation system is inherently variable with changes in everything from fuel prices to the weather. The development of a modeling environment that enables a comprehensive probabilistic evaluation of technological impacts was the subject of this thesis. The final modeling environment developed used economics as the thread to tie the airspace components together. Airport capacities and delays were calculated explicitly with due consideration to the impacts of air traffic control. The delay costs were then calculated for an entire fleet, and an airline economic analysis, considering the impact of these costs, was carried out. Airline return on investment was considered the metric of choice since it brings together all costs and revenues, including the cost of delays, landing fees for airport use and aircraft financing costs. Safety was found to require a level of detail unsuitable for a system-of-systems approach and was relegated to future airspace studies. Environmental concerns were considered to be incorporated into airport regulations and procedures and were not explicitly modeled. A deterministic case study was developed to test this modeling environment. The Atlanta airport operations for the year 2000 were used for validation purposes. A 2005 baseline was used as a basis for comparing the four technologies

  12. Investigation of the Impact of User Gaming in the Next Generation National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, George C.; Gao, Huina

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, growth in the demand for air transportation has exceeded the growth in the national airspace system (NAS) capacity. Systems operating near capacity inevitably have delays and NAS d elays have increased in recent years. The desire to minimize delay costs has placed attention on the NAS air traffic management (ATM) syste m.One initiative that has helped to provide user representation in the ATM solution is the collaborative decision making (CDM) process. CDM addresses this issue by bringing users (referred to here as airline operation centers [AOCs]) and ATM providers together for information e xchange and cooperative planning. Such cooperative planning has been instituted, for instance, for the purpose of planning airport slot control strategies and rerouting strategies. While the CDM initiatives ha ve met with much success, they have also introduced the potential for AOCs to manipulate the system in unforeseen, unintended, and perhaps undesirable ways, from a system-wide, synoptic perspective. This type of manipulation is sometimes referred to as "gaming" the system. This study uses a high-fidelity simulation tool to investigate several models of user decision making behavior which could be considered to be gaming behavior and the emergent system dynamics and interactions between AOCs and traffic management.

  13. Application of Multiple Categories of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (uas) in Different Airspaces for Bushfire Monitoring and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homainejad, N.; Rizos, C.

    2015-08-01

    Demand and interest in Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for civilian applications, and advances in technology such as development of sense-and-avoid systems, will soon allow UAS to be flown alongside manned aircrafts in non-segregated airspace. An area that can benefit from the application of UAS is the bushfire services sector. Currently such services rely on watchtowers, fixed-wing manned aircrafts and satellite data for reliable information. UAS are a promising alternative to traditional methods of collecting bushfire data. There are several varieties of UAS and each category has certain limitations, hence a combination of multiple UAS with features appropriate for bushfire emergencies can be used simultaneously for collecting valuable data. This paper will describe the general UAS categories, some characteristics of Australian bushfires, and speculate on how a combination of several UAS operating in different airspaces can be of benefit for bushfire response personnel and firefighters.

  14. Preliminary Investigation of Civil Tiltrotor in NextGen Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Salvano, Dan; Wright, Ken; Chung, William; Young, Ray; Miller, David; Paris, Alfanso; Gao, Huina; Cheng, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Presentation intro: Tiltrotor aircraft have long been envisioned as being a potentially viable means of commercial aviation transport. Preliminary results from an ongoing study into the operational and technological considerations of Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) operation in the Next Generation airspace, circa the 2025 time-frame, are presented and discussed. In particular, a fleet of CTR aircraft has been conceptually designed. The performance characteristics of this CTR fleet was subsequently translated into BADA (Base of Aircraft DAta) models that could be used as input to emulate CTR aircraft operations in the ACES and AvTerminal airspace and terminal area simulation tools. A network of nine North-Eastern corridor airports is the focus of the airspace simulation effort; the results from this airport network viII then be extrapolated to provide insights into systemic impact of CTRs on the National Airspace System (NAS). Future work will also be detailed as to attempts to model the systemic effects of noise and emissions from this fleet of new aircraft as well as assess their leveraged impact on public service missions, in time of need, such as major regional/national disaster relief efforts. The ideal outcome of this study is a set of results whereby Next Gen airspace CONOPs can be refined to reflect potential CTR capabilities and, conversely, CTR technology development efforts can be better informed as to key performance requirement thresholds needed to be met in order to successfully introduce these aircraft into civilian aviation operation.

  15. Development of Complexity Science and Technology Tools for NextGen Airspace Research and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Sawhill, Bruce K.; Herriot, James; Seehart, Ken; Zellweger, Dres; Shay, Rick

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research by NextGen AeroSciences, LLC is twofold: 1) to deliver an initial "toolbox" of algorithms, agent-based structures, and method descriptions for introducing trajectory agency as a methodology for simulating and analyzing airspace states, including bulk properties of large numbers of heterogeneous 4D aircraft trajectories in a test airspace -- while maintaining or increasing system safety; and 2) to use these tools in a test airspace to identify possible phase transition structure to predict when an airspace will approach the limits of its capacity. These 4D trajectories continuously replan their paths in the presence of noise and uncertainty while optimizing performance measures and performing conflict detection and resolution. In this approach, trajectories are represented as extended objects endowed with pseudopotential, maintaining time and fuel-efficient paths by bending just enough to accommodate separation while remaining inside of performance envelopes. This trajectory-centric approach differs from previous aircraft-centric distributed approaches to deconfliction. The results of this project are the following: 1) we delivered a toolbox of algorithms, agent-based structures and method descriptions as pseudocode; and 2) we corroborated the existence of phase transition structure in simulation with the addition of "early warning" detected prior to "full" airspace. This research suggests that airspace "fullness" can be anticipated and remedied before the airspace becomes unsafe.

  16. Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration into the National Airspace System Visual-Line-of-Sight Human-in-the-Loop Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Mcadaragh, Raymon; Burdette, Daniel W.; Comstock, James R.; Hempley, Lucas E.; Fan, Hui

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) project, research on integrating small UAS (sUAS) into the NAS was underway by a human-systems integration (HSI) team at the NASA Langley Research Center. Minimal to no research has been conducted on the safe, effective, and efficient manner in which to integrate these aircraft into the NAS. sUAS are defined as aircraft weighing 55 pounds or less. The objective of this human system integration team was to build a UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) and to develop a research test-bed and database that provides data, proof of concept, and human factors guidelines for GCS operations in the NAS. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of flying sUAS in Class D and Class G airspace utilizing manual control inputs and voice radio communications between the pilot, mission control, and air traffic control. The design of the experiment included three sets of GCS display configurations, in addition to a hand-held control unit. The three different display configurations were VLOS, VLOS + Primary Flight Display (PFD), and VLOS + PFD + Moving Map (Map). Test subject pilots had better situation awareness of their vehicle position, altitude, airspeed, location over the ground, and mission track using the Map display configuration. This configuration allowed the pilots to complete the mission objectives with less workload, at the expense of having better situation awareness of other aircraft. The subjects were better able to see other aircraft when using the VLOS display configuration. However, their mission performance, as well as their ability to aviate and navigate, was reduced compared to runs that included the PFD and Map displays.

  17. A Cognitive System Model for Human/Automation Dynamics in Airspace Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Pisanich, Gregory; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA has initiated a significant thrust of research and development focused on providing the flight crew and air traffic managers automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area operations through the use of flexible, more fuel-efficient routing, while improving the level of safety in commercial carrier operations. In that system development, definition of cognitive requirements for integrated multi-operator dynamic aiding systems is fundamental. In order to support that cognitive function definition, we have extended the Man Machine Integrated Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) to include representation of multiple cognitive agents (both human operators and intelligent aiding systems) operating aircraft, airline operations centers and air traffic control centers in the evolving airspace. The demands of this application require representation of many intelligent agents sharing world-models, and coordinating action/intention with cooperative scheduling of goals and actions in a potentially unpredictable world of operations. The MIDAS operator models have undergone significant development in order to understand the requirements for operator aiding and the impact of that aiding in the complex nondeterminate system of national airspace operations. The operator model's structure has been modified to include attention functions, action priority, and situation assessment. The cognitive function model has been expanded to include working memory operations including retrieval from long-term store, interference, visual-motor and verbal articulatory loop functions, and time-based losses. The operator's activity structures have been developed to include prioritization and interruption of multiple parallel activities among multiple operators, to provide for anticipation (knowledge of the intention and action of remote operators), and to respond to failures of the system and other operators in the system in situation-specific paradigms. The model's internal

  18. Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The airspace operations demonstration (AOD) is intended to show that the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be met. The demonstration will occur in two phases. The initial on-range phase will be carried out in restricted airspace to demonstrate the cooperative collision avoidance (CCA) functional requirements and to provide risk-reduction for the AOD by allowing the test team to rehearse some elements of the demonstration mission. The CCA system to be used in these flights is based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) which is a commercially-available system by which airplanes constantly broadcast their current position and altitude to other aircraft and ground resources over a dedicated radio datalink. The final phase will occur in the national airspace (NAS) and will be the formal demonstration of the remainder of the proposed functional requirements. The general objectives of the AOD are as follows: (1) Demonstrate that the UAS can aviate in the NAS (2) Demonstrate that the UAS can navigate in the NAS (3) Demonstrate that the UAS can communicate with the NAS (4) Demonstrate that the UAS can perform selected collision avoidance functions in the NAS (5) Demonstrate that the UAS can evaluate and avoid weather conflicts in the NAS (6) Demonstrate that the UAS can provide adequate command and control in the NAS In addition to the stated objectives, there are a number of goals for the flight demonstration. The demo can be accomplished successfully without achieving these goals, but these goals are to be used as a guideline for preparing for the mission. The goals are: (1) Mission duration of at least 24 hours (2) Loiter over heavy traffic to evaluate the data block issue identified during the Access 5 Airspace Operations Simulations (3) Document the contingency management process and lessons learned (4) Document the coordination process for Ground Control Stations (GCS) handoff (5) Document lessons learned regarding the process of flying in

  19. Generic Airspace Concepts and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for reducing the training and memorization required to manage air traffic in mid-term, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. We contrasted the performance of controllers using a sector information display and NextGen automation tools while working with familiar and unfamiliar sectors. The airspace included five sectors from Oakland and Salt Lake City Centers configured as a "generic center" called "West High Center." The Controller Information Tool was used to present essential information for managing these sectors. The Multi Aircraft Control System air traffic control simulator provided data link and conflict detection and resolution. There were five experienced air traffic controller participants. Each was familiar with one or two of the five sectors, but not the others. The participants rotated through all five sectors during the ten data collection runs. The results addressing workload, traffic management, and safety, as well as controller and observer comments, supported the generic sector concept. The unfamiliar sectors were comparable to the familiar sectors on all relevant measures.

  20. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.; Jung, Jaewoo

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility where possible, and structure where necessary. Consider the needs of national security, safe airspace operations, economic opportunities, and emerging technologies. Risk-based approach based on population density, assets on the ground, density of operations, etc. Digital, virtual, dynamic, and as needed UTM services to manage operations.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John; Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility where possible, and structure where necessary. Consider the needs of national security, safe airspace operations, economic opportunities, and emerging technologies. Risk-based approach based on population density, assets on the ground, density of operations, etc. Digital, virtual, dynamic, and as needed UTM services to manage operations.

  2. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations: Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years Long-term Goal Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  3. 76 FR 55232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Copperhill, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Airspace at Copperhill, TN, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... the controlled airspace required to ] accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning... Class E airspace at Copperhill, TN (76 FR 35370) Docket No. FAA-2011-0402. Interested parties...

  4. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2016-01-01

    Just a year ago we laid out the UTM challenges and NASA's proposed solutions. During the past year NASA's goal continues to be to conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line-of-sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Significant progress has been made, and NASA is continuing to move forward.

  5. Considerations in the Integration of Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATSHVO) in the National Airspace System (NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Dan; Abbott, Terence; Baxley, Brian; Greco, Adam; Ridgway, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) concept holds the promise for increased efficiency and throughput at many of the nations under-used airports. This concept allows for concurrent operations at uncontrolled airports that under today s procedures are restricted to one arrival or one departure operation at a time, when current-day IFR separation standards are applied. To allow for concurrent operations, SATS HVO proposes several fundamental changes to today's system. These changes include: creation of dedicated airspace, development of new procedures and communications (phraseologies), and assignment of roles and responsibilities for pilots and controllers, among others. These changes would affect operations on the airborne side (pilot) as well as the groundside (controller and air traffic flow process). The focus of this paper is to discuss some of the issues and potential problems that have been considered in the development of the SATS HVO concept, in particular from the ground side perspective. Reasonable solutions to the issues raised here have been proposed by the SATS HVO team, and are discussed in this paper.

  6. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. The prototype radio will be used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current status of the design, development, and flight test planning for this prototype radio.

  7. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  8. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project Subcommittee Final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chuck; Griner, James H.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Shively, Robert J.; Consiglio, Maria; Muller, Eric; Murphy, James; Kim, Sam

    2012-01-01

    UAS Integration in the NAS Project overview with details from each of the subprojects. Subprojects include: Communications, Certification, Integrated Test and Evaluation, Human Systems Integration, and Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability.

  9. Alternative Architectures for Distributed Cooperative Problem-Solving in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip J.; Billings, Charles; McCoy, C. Elaine; Orasanu, Judith

    1999-01-01

    The air traffic management system in the United States is an example of a distributed problem solving system. It has elements of both cooperative and competitive problem-solving. This system includes complex organizations such as Airline Operations Centers (AOCs), the FAA Air Traffic Control Systems Command Center (ATCSCC), and traffic management units (TMUs) at enroute centers and TRACONs, all of which have a major focus on strategic decision-making. It also includes individuals concerned more with tactical decisions (such as air traffic controllers and pilots). The architecture for this system has evolved over time to rely heavily on the distribution of tasks and control authority in order to keep cognitive complexity manageable for any one individual operator, and to provide redundancy (both human and technological) to serve as a safety net to catch the slips or mistakes that any one person or entity might make. Currently, major changes are being considered for this architecture, especially with respect to the locus of control, in an effort to improve efficiency and safety. This paper uses a series of case studies to help evaluate some of these changes from the perspective of system complexity, and to point out possible alternative approaches that might be taken to improve system performance. The paper illustrates the need to maintain a clear understanding of what is required to assure a high level of performance when alternative system architectures and decompositions are developed.

  10. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  11. 76 FR 1999 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panguitch, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... E airspace at Panguitch, UT, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Panguitch Municipal Airport. This will... Panguitch, UT (75 FR 36585). The FAA agreed with a comment received to also expand controlled airspace...

  12. 78 FR 1750 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Princeton, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Airspace at Princeton, KY, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Class E airspace at Princeton, KY (77 FR 64919) Docket No. FAA-2011-1444. Subsequent to publication... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  13. 78 FR 25384 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Immokalee, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Class E Airspace at Immokalee, FL, to accommodate the Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... establish Class E airspace at Immokalee, FL (78 FR 6262) Docket No. FAA-2012-1051. Interested parties were... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  14. 76 FR 45177 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nephi, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... airspace at Nephi UT, to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Nephi, UT (76 FR 28382). Interested parties were... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  15. 77 FR 1012 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Inverness, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Airspace at Inverness, FL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... the controlled airspace required to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning..., FL (76 FR 66871) Docket No. FAA-2011-0540. Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  16. 76 FR 14800 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wolfeboro, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Airspace at Wolfeboro, NH, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Class E airspace at Wolfeboro, NH (75 FR 81518). Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  17. 77 FR 45240 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Arcadia, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Class E Airspace at Arcadia, FL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... establish Class E airspace at Oneonta, AL (77 FR 33685) Docket No. FAA-2012-0365. Interested parties were... rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does...

  18. 76 FR 64234 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Palmyra, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... airspace at Palmyra, PA, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard... (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Palmyra, PA (76 FR 49390). Interested... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  19. 76 FR 14802 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lancaster, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Airspace at Lancaster, NH, to accommodate a new Area Navigation Global Positioning System RNAV special... establish Class E airspace at Lancaster, NH (75 FR 81517). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  20. 75 FR 37294 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Kelso, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... airspace at Kelso, WA, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Kelso, WA (75 FR 20322... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  1. Identification and Characterization of Key Human Performance Issues and Research in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Sheridan, Tom; Poage, james L.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Jobe, Kimberly K.

    2010-01-01

    This report identifies key human-performance-related issues associated with Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) research in the NASA NextGen-Airspace Project. Four Research Focus Areas (RFAs) in the NextGen-Airspace Project - namely Separation Assurance (SA), Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO), Traffic Flow Management (TFM), and Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) - were examined closely. In the course of the research, it was determined that the identified human performance issues needed to be analyzed in the context of NextGen operations rather than through basic human factors research. The main gaps in human factors research in NextGen were found in the need for accurate identification of key human-systems related issues within the context of specific NextGen concepts and better design of the operational requirements for those concepts. By focusing on human-system related issues for individual concepts, key human performance issues for the four RFAs were identified and described in this report. In addition, mixed equipage airspace with components of two RFAs were characterized to illustrate potential human performance issues that arise from the integration of multiple concepts.

  2. A graph based algorithm for adaptable dynamic airspace configuration for NextGen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savai, Mehernaz P.

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is a complicated large-scale aviation network, consisting of many static sectors wherein each sector is controlled by one or more controllers. The main purpose of the NAS is to enable safe and prompt air travel in the U.S. However, such static configuration of sectors will not be able to handle the continued growth of air travel which is projected to be more than double the current traffic by 2025. Under the initiative of the Next Generation of Air Transportation system (NextGen), the main objective of Adaptable Dynamic Airspace Configuration (ADAC) is that the sectors should change to the changing traffic so as to reduce the controller workload variance with time while increasing the throughput. Change in the resectorization should be such that there is a minimal increase in exchange of air traffic among controllers. The benefit of a new design (improvement in workload balance, etc.) should sufficiently exceed the transition cost, in order to deserve a change. This leads to the analysis of the concept of transition workload which is the cost associated with a transition from one sectorization to another. Given two airspace configurations, a transition workload metric which considers the air traffic as well as the geometry of the airspace is proposed. A solution to reduce this transition workload is also discussed. The algorithm is specifically designed to be implemented for the Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) Algorithm. A graph model which accurately represents the air route structure and air traffic in the NAS is used to formulate the airspace configuration problem. In addition, a multilevel graph partitioning algorithm is developed for Dynamic Airspace Configuration which partitions the graph model of airspace with given user defined constraints and hence provides the user more flexibility and control over various partitions. In terms of air traffic management, vertices represent airports and waypoints. Some of the major

  3. National airspace data interchange network (NADIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falato, A. J.

    In order to implement the National Airspace Plan and meet future comunications requirements in the most cost-effective manner, it has become necessary to replace and modernize the existing data communications systems with the foundation of a totally integrated system. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will initiate cut-over of the National Airspace Data Interchange Network (NADIN) in late 1983. NADIN is not only an operational data communications system for all Air Traffic control facilities, but also an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) subsystem, and a growth plan for transportation telecommunications, using modular expansion techniques.

  4. Optimizing Integrated Terminal Airspace Operations Under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosson, Christabelle; Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    In the terminal airspace, integrated departures and arrivals have the potential to increase operations efficiency. Recent research has developed geneticalgorithm- based schedulers for integrated arrival and departure operations under uncertainty. This paper presents an alternate method using a machine jobshop scheduling formulation to model the integrated airspace operations. A multistage stochastic programming approach is chosen to formulate the problem and candidate solutions are obtained by solving sample average approximation problems with finite sample size. Because approximate solutions are computed, the proposed algorithm incorporates the computation of statistical bounds to estimate the optimality of the candidate solutions. A proof-ofconcept study is conducted on a baseline implementation of a simple problem considering a fleet mix of 14 aircraft evolving in a model of the Los Angeles terminal airspace. A more thorough statistical analysis is also performed to evaluate the impact of the number of scenarios considered in the sampled problem. To handle extensive sampling computations, a multithreading technique is introduced.

  5. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  6. Flexible Airspace Management (FAM) Research 2010 Human-in-the-Loop Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Brasil, Connie; Homola, Jeffrey; Kessell, Angela; Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    A human-in-the-Ioop (HITL) simulation was conducted to assess potential user and system benefits of Flexible Airspace Management (FAM) concept, as well as designing role definitions, procedures, and tools to support the FAM operations in the mid-term High Altitude Airspace (HAA) environment. The study evaluated the benefits and feasibility of flexible airspace reconfiguration in response to traffic overload caused by weather deviations, and compared them to those in a baseline condition without the airspace reconfiguration. The test airspace consisted of either four sectors in one Area of Specialization or seven sectors across two Areas. The test airspace was assumed to be at or above FL340 and fully equipped Vvith data communications (Data Comm). Other assumptions were consistent with those of the HAA concept. Overall, results showed that FAM operations with multiple Traffic Management Coordinators, Area Supervisors, and controllers worked remarkably well. The results showed both user and system benefits, some of which include the increased throughput, decreased flight distance, more manageable sector loads, and better utilized airspace. Also, the roles, procedures, airspace designs, and tools were all very well received. Airspace configuration options that resulted from a combination of algorithm-generated airspace configurations with manual modifications were well acceptec and posed little difficuIty and/or workload during airspace reconfiguration process. The results suggest a positive impact of FAM operations in HAA. Further investigation would be needed to evaluate if the benefits and feasibility would extend in either non-HAA or mixed equipage environment.

  7. Generic Airspace Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  8. 76 FR 32258 - Access to Aircraft Situation Display (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status Information (NASSI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ..., Aircraft Registration System; 65 FR 19,518 (Apr. 11, 2000). As stated in the System Notice, however, one of... Order 13563, Sec. 7(d), ``General Provisions,'' 76 FR 3,821 (Jan. 21, 2011), ``Improving Regulation and... ] harm against an individual, a recent history of violent terrorist activity in the geographic area...

  9. Development and benefit analysis of a sector design algorithm for terminal dynamic airspace configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciandra, Vincent

    performance of the algorithm generated sectors to the current sectors for a variety of configurations and scenarios, and comparing these results to those of the current sectors. The effect of dynamic airspace configurations will then be tested by observing the effects of update rate on the algorithm generated sector results. Finally, the algorithm will be used with simulated data, whose evaluation would show the ability of the sector design algorithm to meet the objectives of the NextGen system. Upon validation, the algorithm may be successfully incorporated into a larger Terminal Flow Algorithm, developed by our partners at Mosaic ATM, as the final step in the TDAC process.

  10. Rangeland remote sensing applications with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace: challenges and experiences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, civilian applications of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have increased considerably due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors, GPS, inertial measurement units, and other hardware. UAS are well suited for rangeland remote sensing applications, because of the...

  11. Overview of NASA airspace-related research and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickenmaier, Herbert

    1996-05-01

    NASA, and its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, have been conducting aeronautics research since 1915, helping make US aviation the multi-billion dollar industry it is today. But NASA is not alone, and is strongly committed to a thriving partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration is support of US aviation. NASA's Aeronautics program traditionally concentrated on improving a vehicle's efficiency and performance. However, a vehicle's ultimate performance is dictated by its ability to operate within an integrated aviation system. This must reflect the constraints of standards and regulations that ensure safety and a clean and quiet environment. It must also recognize a user's ability to operate productively in an airspace system that accommodates the users' need for flexibility within the system's capacity. Aeronautics' programs span all elements of this integrated aviation system. This paper will focus on those efforts to ensure user flexibility and system capacity, and provide an overview of NASA airspace operations and flight systems technology and its diverse customer base of technology products. The research and technology that we apply to today's garden of planned improvements for avionics and air traffic must be husbanded in the context of an integrated aviation system. In that way the aviation community will be able to harvest the next century's low-hanging fruit in real technologies and procedures. The operational concept called free flight is the keystone.

  12. Weather Information Communication Technologies for Increased Safety and Mobility in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilderman, Don R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Glenn Research Center Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) project was to develop advanced communications and information technologies to enable the high-quality and timely dissemination of strategic weather information between the flight deck and ground users as well as tactical turbulence hazard information between relevant aircraft and to the ground. This report will document and reference accomplishments on the dissemination of weather information during the en route phase of flight from ground-based weather information providers to the flight deck (ground-to-air), from airborne meteorological sensors to ground users (air-to-ground), and weather turbulence and icing hazard information between relevant aircraft (air-to-air). In addition, references in this report will demonstrate the architecture necessary to implement and perform successful transmission and reception of weather information to the cockpit, show that weather information flow does not impact "normal" traffic, demonstrate the feasibility of operational implementation, and lay foundation for future data link development.

  13. Problem Definition and Solution Concept for En Route Constrained Airspace Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven; Vivona, Robert

    2000-01-01

    NASA's AATT Program is investigating potential ground-based decision support tool (DST) development for en route controllers and managers. NASA's previous work in en route DST development has focused on Transition airspace, where aircraft are impacted by constraints associated with the transition of aircraft from en route to terminal airspace. This paper investigates the problems associated with aircraft in non-transitional en route airspace, termed Constrained Airspace. A literature search was performed to catalog previously identified constrained airspace problems. The results of this search were investigated with industry representatives to validate these problems were significant in constrained airspace. Three general problem areas were identified. The first problem area involves negative impacts caused by a loss of airspace (e.g., activation of Special Use Airspace (SUA), weather cell formation, and overloaded sectors). The second problem area is the lack of identifying and taking advantage of gained airspace (e.g., SUA deactivation, weather dissipation, and sector loading reductions). The third problem area is unforeseen negative impacts caused by the acceptance of user routing requests (e.g., a route change into an area of congestion that negated the users intended benefit). Based upon the problems identified, an operational concept was developed for a DST to help handle these problems efficiently. The goal is to strategically identify constrained airspace problems and to provide functionality to support ARTCC TMUs in resolving the identified impacts. The capability lends itself well to TMU and Airline Operations Center (AOC) collaboration.

  14. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project - Gen-4 and Gen-5 Radio Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. This prototype radio is being used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current plans for the prototype radio development.

  15. Tactical Conflict Detection in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.; Denery, Dallas G.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic systems have long relied on automated short-term conflict prediction algorithms to warn controllers of impending conflicts (losses of separation). The complexity of terminal airspace has proven difficult for such systems as it often leads to excessive false alerts. Thus, the legacy system, called Conflict Alert, which provides short-term alerts in both en-route and terminal airspace currently, is often inhibited or degraded in areas where frequent false alerts occur, even though the alerts are provided only when an aircraft is in dangerous proximity of other aircraft. This research investigates how a minimal level of flight intent information may be used to improve short-term conflict detection in terminal airspace such that it can be used by the controller to maintain legal aircraft separation. The flight intent information includes a site-specific nominal arrival route and inferred altitude clearances in addition to the flight plan that includes the RNAV (Area Navigation) departure route. A new tactical conflict detection algorithm is proposed, which uses a single analytic trajectory, determined by the flight intent and the current state information of the aircraft, and includes a complex set of current, dynamic separation standards for terminal airspace to define losses of separation. The new algorithm is compared with an algorithm that imitates a known en-route algorithm and another that imitates Conflict Alert by analysis of false-alert rate and alert lead time with recent real-world data of arrival and departure operations and a large set of operational error cases from Dallas/Fort Worth TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). The new algorithm yielded a false-alert rate of two per hour and an average alert lead time of 38 seconds.

  16. Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package, 2005: Composite Report on FAA Flight Plan and Operational Evaluation Plan. Version 7.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the findings that resulted from a high-level analysis and evaluation of the following documents: (1) The OEP (Operational Evolution Plan) Version 7 -- a 10-year plan for operational improvements to increase capacity and efficiency in U.S. air travel and transport and other use of domestic airspace. The OEP is the FAA commitment to operational improvements. It is outcome driven, with clear lines of accountability within FAA organizations. The OEP concentrates on operational solutions and integrates safety, certification, procedures, staffing, equipment, avionics and research; (2) The Draft Flight Plan 2006 through 2010 -- a multi-year strategic effort, setting a course for the FAA through 2001, to provide the safest and most efficient air transportation system in the world; (3) The NAS System Architecture Version 5 -- a blueprint for modernizing the NAS and improving NAS services and capabilities through the year 2015; and (4) The NAS-SR-1000 System Requirements Specification (NASSRS) -- a compilation of requirements which describe the operational capabilities for the NAS. The analysis is particularly focused on examining the documents for relevance to existing and/or planned future UAV operations. The evaluation specifically focuses on potential factors that could materially affect the development of a commercial ROA industry, such as: (1) Design limitations of the CNS/ATM system, (2) Human limitations, The information presented was taken from program specifications or program office lead personnel.

  17. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special use airspace. 73.3 Section 73.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.3 Special use airspace. (a) Special use airspace consists of airspace of defined dimensions identified by an...

  18. 77 FR 38226 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lewistown, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Lewistown Municipal Airport, Lewistown, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Lewistown Municipal Airport, Lewistown, MT. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations at......

  19. 75 FR 36586 - Proposed Revocation of Class E Airspace; Franklin, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... efficient use of airspace within the National Airspace System. DATES: Comments must be received on or before... invited on the overall regulatory, aeronautical, economic, environmental, and energy-related aspects of... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  20. 78 FR 6262 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Immokalee, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Immokalee, FL, to accommodate the Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Big Cypress Airfield. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the...

  1. 78 FR 65239 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brevig Mission, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Brevig Mission Airport, Brevig Mission, AK. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations at the...

  2. 76 FR 28382 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nephi, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Nephi Municipal Airport, Nephi, UT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Nephi Municipal Airport, Nephi, UT. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations at the......

  3. 78 FR 65237 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Central, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Central Airport, Central, AK. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations at Central Airport, Central,...

  4. 78 FR 30797 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Point Thomson, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...This action proposes to modify the airspace at Point Thomson, AK by establishing Class E Airspace at Point Thomson Airstrip Airport, Point Thomson, AK. This will accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft......

  5. 78 FR 65238 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eagle, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Eagle Airport, Eagle, AK. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures developed for the airport. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations at Eagle Airport, Eagle,...

  6. 76 FR 28888 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Gruver Cluck Ranch Airport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR Part... this action to ensure the efficient use of airspace within the National Airspace System....

  7. 78 FR 65208 - Modification of Class D and E Airspace; Kenai, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...This action modifies Class D and E airspace at Kenai Municipal Airport, Kenai, AK. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. A minor adjustment is made to the geographic coordinates of the airport. Additionally, language establishing dates and times of use......

  8. 77 FR 48476 - Proposed Amendment to Class B Airspace; Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...This action proposes to modify the Detroit, MI, Class B airspace area to contain aircraft conducting published instrument procedures at Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport (DTW), Detroit, MI, within Class B airspace. The FAA is taking this action to support all three existing Simultaneous Instrument Landing System (SILS) configurations today, runways 22/21, runways \\4/3\\ and runways......

  9. Abnormal/Emergency Situations. Impact of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Emergency and Abnormal Events on the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Access 5 analyzed the differences between UAS and manned aircraft operations under five categories of abnormal or emergency situations: Link Failure, Lost Communications, Onboard System Failures, Control Station Failures and Abnormal Weather. These analyses were made from the vantage point of the impact that these operations have on the US air traffic control system, with recommendations for new policies and procedures included where appropriate.

  10. Optimizing Airspace System Capacity Through a Small Aircraft Transportation System: An Analysis of Economic and Operational Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarry, Scott E.; Bowen, Brent D.

    2001-01-01

    America's air transport system is currently faced with two equally important dilemmas. First, congestion and delays associated with the overburdened hub and spoke system will continue to worsen unless dramatic changes are made in the way air transportation services are provided. Second, many communities and various regions of the country have not benefited from the air transport system, which tends to focus its attention on major population centers. An emerging solution to both problems is a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), which will utilize a new generation of advanced small aircraft to provide air transport services to those citizens who are poorly served by the hub and spoke system and those citizens who are not served at all. Using new innovations in navigation, communication, and propulsion technologies, these aircraft will enable users to safely and reliably access the over 5,000 general aviation landing facilities around the United States. A small aircraft transportation system holds the potential to revolutionize the way Americans travel and to greatly enhance the use of air transport as an economic development tool in rural and isolated communities across the nation.

  11. Performance Measurement Analysis System

    1989-06-01

    The PMAS4.0 (Performance Measurement Analysis System) is a user-oriented system designed to track the cost and schedule performance of Department of Energy (DOE) major projects (MPs) and major system acquisitions (MSAs) reporting under DOE Order 5700.4A, Project Management System. PMAS4.0 provides for the analysis of performance measurement data produced from management control systems complying with the Federal Government''s Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria.

  12. Meeting of Experts on NASA's Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace Systems (NAS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Jean; Bauer, Jeff; Bixby, C.J.; Lauderdale, Todd; Shively, Jay; Griner, James; Hayhurst, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) and UAS Integration in the NAS Project; UAS Integration into the NAS Project; Separation Assurance and Collision Avoidance; Pilot Aircraft Interface Objectives/Rationale; Communication; Certification; and Integrated Tests and Evaluations.

  13. Airspace Complexity and its Application in Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chatterji, Gano; Sheth, Kapil; Edwards, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The United States Air Traffic Management (ATM) system provides services to enable safe, orderly and efficient aircraft operations within the airspace over the continental United States and over large portions of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and the Gulf of Mexico. It consists of two components, Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Traffic Flow Management (TFM). The ATC function ensures that the aircraft within the airspace are separated at all times while the TFM function organizes the aircraft into a flow pattern to ensure their safe and efficient movement. In order to accomplish the ATC and TFM functions, the airspace over United States is organized into 22 Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs). The Center airspace is stratified into low-altitude, high-altitude and super-high altitude groups of Sectors. Each vertical layer is further partitioned into several horizontal Sectors. A typical ARTCC airspace is partitioned into 20 to 80 Sectors. These Sectors are the basic control units within the ATM system.

  14. Diagnostic throughput factor analysis for en-route airspace and optimal aircraft trajectory generation based on capacity prediction and controller workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sanghyun

    Today's National Airspace System (NAS) is approaching its limit to efficiently cope with the increasing air traffic demand. Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) with its ambitious goals aims to make the air travel more predictable with fewer delays, less time sitting on the ground and holding in the air to improve the performance of the NAS. However, currently the performance of the NAS is mostly measured using delay-based metrics which do not capture a whole range of important factors that determine the quality and level of utilization of the NAS. The factors affecting the performance of the NAS are themselves not well defined to begin with. To address these issues, motivated by the use of throughput-based metrics in many areas such as ground transportation, wireless communication and manufacturing, this thesis identifies the different factors which majorly affect the performance of the NAS as demand (split into flight cancellation and flight rerouting), safe separation (split into conflict and metering) and weather (studied as convective weather) through careful comparison with other applications and performing empirical sensitivity analysis. Additionally, the effects of different factors on the NAS's performance are quantitatively studied using real traffic data with the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) for various sectors and centers of the NAS on different days. In this thesis we propose a diagnostic tool which can analyze the factors that have greater responsibility for regions of poor and better performances of the NAS. Based on the throughput factor analysis for en-route airspace, it was found that weather and controller workload are the major factors that decrease the efficiency of the airspace. Also, since resources such as air traffic controllers, infrastructure and airspace are limited, it is becoming increasingly important to use the available resources efficiently. To alleviate the impact of the weather and controller

  15. Ariel Performance Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariel, Gideon B.; Penny, M. A.; Saar, Dany

    1990-08-01

    The Ariel Performance Analysis System is a computer-based system for the measurement, analysis and presentation of human performance. The system is based on a proprietary technique for processing multiple high-speed film and video recordings of a subject's performance. It is noninvasive, and does not require wires, sensors, markers or reflectors. In addition, it is portable and does not require modification of the performing environment. The scale and accuracy of measurement can be set to whatever levels are required by the activity being performed.

  16. 76 FR 67056 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Jacksonville, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Airspace at Jacksonville, NC, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for..., NC (76 FR 52291). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort...

  17. Pilot Convective Weather Decision Making in En Route Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Gooding, Cary L.; Shelley, Alexandra E.; Duong, Constance G.; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates characteristics exhibited in pilot convective weather decision making in en route airspace. In a part-task study, pilots performed weather avoidance under various encounter scenarios. Results showed that the margins of safety that pilots maintain from storms are as fluid as deviation decisions themselves.

  18. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section 71.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS Class C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace....

  19. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section 71.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS Class C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace....

  20. Piloted Well Clear Performance Evaluation of Detect and Avoid Systems with Suggestive Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Eric; Santiago, Confesor; Watza, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Regulations to establish operational and performance requirements for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are being developed by a consortium of government, industry and academic institutions (RTCA, 2013). Those requirements will apply to the new detect-and-avoid (DAA) systems and other equipment necessary to integrate UAS with the United States (U.S) National Airspace System (NAS) and will be determined according to their contribution to the overall safety case. That safety case requires demonstration that DAA-equipped UAS collectively operating in the NAS meet an airspace safety threshold (AST). Several key gaps must be closed in order to link equipment requirements to an airspace safety case. Foremost among these is calculation of the systems risk ratio, the degree to which a particular system mitigates violation of an aircraft separation standard (FAA, 2013). The risk ratio of a DAA system, in combination with risk ratios of other collision mitigation mechanisms, will determine the overall safety of the airspace measured in terms of the number of collisions per flight hour. It is not known what the effectiveness is of a pilot-in-the-loop DAA system or even what parameters of the DAA system most improve the pilots ability to maintain separation. The relationship between the DAA system design and the overall effectiveness of the DAA system that includes the pilot, expressed as a risk ratio, must be determined before DAA operational and performance requirements can be finalized. Much research has been devoted to integrating UAS into non-segregated airspace (Dalamagkidis, 2009, Ostwald, 2007, Gillian, 2012, Hesselink, 2011, Santiago, 2015, Rorie 2015 and 2016). Several traffic displays intended for use as part of a DAA system have gone through human-in-the-loop simulation and flight-testing. Most of these evaluations were part of development programs to produce a deployable system, so it is unclear how to generalize particular aspects of those designs to general

  1. 77 FR 12992 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Jacksonville, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2... coordinates of the airport to aid in the navigation of our National Airspace System. The airport...

  2. 77 FR 45240 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quakertown, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Airspace at Quakertown, PA, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Quakertown, PA (77 FR 30438) Docket No. FAA-2012-0386. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  3. 78 FR 22415 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Astoria, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Astoria Regional Airport, Astoria, OR, to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. This improves the safety and... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to modify controlled airspace at Astoria, OR (77 FR 61306). Interested...

  4. 77 FR 19076 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marion, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Airspace at Marion, AL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Marion, AL (77 FR 771) Docket No. FAA-2011-0590. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  5. 77 FR 16669 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bellefonte, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... airspace at Bellefonte, PA, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... surface at Bellefonte, PA (76 FR 79564). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) ] does not warrant preparation of...

  6. 76 FR 14801 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colebrook, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Airspace at Colebrook, NH, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS..., NH (75 FR 81516). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  7. 76 FR 45177 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kayenta, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Kayenta Airport... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish controlled airspace at Kayenta, AZ (76 FR... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26,...

  8. 78 FR 72010 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Magee, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Airspace at Magee, MS, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) special..., MS, (78 FR 48080) Docket No. FAA-2013-0430. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  9. 78 FR 34557 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Sanibel, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Airspace at Sanibel, FL, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Sanibel, FL (78 FR 14473). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  10. 76 FR 45180 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Alturas, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... controlled airspace at Alturas, CA (76 FR 28915). Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  11. 77 FR 41259 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Plentywood, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... modify controlled airspace at Plentywood, MT (77 FR 24159). Interested parties were invited to... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  12. 78 FR 32553 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Boothbay, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Airspace at Boothbay, ME, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Boothbay, ME (78 FR 18929). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  13. 78 FR 22417 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Lakeview, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... airspace at Lakeview, OR, to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... Lakeview, OR (78 FR 5155). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  14. 78 FR 67024 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Prineville, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... airspace at Prineville, OR, to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard... Prineville, OR (78 FR 52717). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  15. 76 FR 52230 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Forest, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Airspace at Forest, VA, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS..., VA (76 FR 34196) Docket No. FAA-2011-0378. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  16. 76 FR 45179 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E controlled airspace at Glasgow, MT (76 FR 30300). Interested parties...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February...

  17. Varying Levels of Automation on UAS Operator Responses to Traffic Resolution Advisories in Civil Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Caitlin; Fern, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Continuing demand for the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has put increasing pressure on operations in civil airspace. The need to fly UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS) in order to perform missions vital to national security and defense, emergency management, and science is increasing at a rapid pace. In order to ensure safe operations in the NAS, operators of unmanned aircraft, like those of manned aircraft, may be required to maintain separation assurance and avoid loss of separation with other aircraft while performing their mission tasks. This experiment investigated the effects of varying levels of automation on UAS operator performance and workload while responding to conflict resolution instructions provided by the Tactical Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II) during a UAS mission in high-density airspace. The purpose of this study was not to investigate the safety of using TCAS II on UAS, but rather to examine the effect of automation on the ability of operators to respond to traffic collision alerts. Six licensed pilots were recruited to act as UAS operators for this study. Operators were instructed to follow a specified mission flight path, while maintaining radio contact with Air Traffic Control and responding to TCAS II resolution advisories. Operators flew four, 45 minute, experimental missions with four different levels of automation: Manual, Knobs, Management by Exception, and Fully Automated. All missions included TCAS II Resolution Advisories (RAs) that required operator attention and rerouting. Operator compliance and reaction time to RAs was measured, and post-run NASA-TLX ratings were collected to measure workload. Results showed significantly higher compliance rates, faster responses to TCAS II alerts, as well as less preemptive operator actions when higher levels of automation are implemented. Physical and Temporal ratings of workload were significantly higher in the Manual condition than in the Management by Exception and

  18. How relational systems perform

    SciTech Connect

    Date, C.J.

    1984-02-13

    Contrary to popular belief, relational DBMS can perform at least as well as, and quite possibly better than, older hierarchical or network systems. Ignoring the interference effects introduced when multiple transactions are run in parallel, the author concentrates on the performance of some given database transaction considered in isolation. The two principal factors determining the performance of such a transaction are, of course, the number of I/O operations and the pathlength (amount of CPU processing).

  19. Shadow Mode Assessment Using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace (SMART NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Develop a simulation and modeling capability that includes: (a) Assessment of multiple parallel universes, (b) Accepts data feeds, (c) Allows for live virtual constructive distribute environment, (d) Enables integrated examinations of concepts, algorithms, technologies and National Airspace System (NAS) architectures.

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project, UAS Control and Non-Payload Communication System Phase-1 Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. This prototype radio is being used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current status of the prototype radio development, and results from phase 1 flight tests conducted during 2013.

  1. Photovoltaic System Performance

    1989-09-25

    PVFORM4.0 is used to design a photovoltaic (PV) system using a set of design parameters which optimize the system's economic potential for the proposed location and the expected operating conditions. PVFORM3.3 has been used to determine PV system size and optimum mounting configuration. The anticipated electrical load determines the system size and the weather and the mounting configuration affect the system output. PVFORM4.0 uses program-supplied default values or their user-supplied equivalents for each of amore » large number of parameters describing the system and time-series data describing the environment to perform a series of hourly calculations to simulate the physical (photovoltaic) performance of a PV system for a one-year period. These iterative calculations sample the performance of the PV system throughout a simulated 365-day year of system operation. Within any simulated day on which system performance is sampled, the calculations are done hourly. The number of days sampled and the interval between them is determined by an input parameter. The results of these calculations are summarized on a monthly basis in output tables and an optional plot file. The program is applicable to grid interactive or stand-alone flat-plate systems. The grid interactive system is assumed to use power purchased from a local utility to supply that portion of the load not met by the simulated PV array. If the array produces more energy than can be consumed by the load, the excess energy is assumed to be sold back to the utility at a constant energy sellback price. If a stand-alone system is being modeled, the program assumes that all energy produced by the simulated PV array is first applied to the external load, and any excess is then used to charge the battery bank. Energy not consumed by the load or the batteries is considered to be wasted.« less

  2. Photovoltaic lighting system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, S.R.; Hund, T.D.

    1996-06-01

    The performance of 21 PV-powered low pressure sodium lighting systems on a multi-use has been documented in this paper. Specific areas for evaluation include the vandal resistant PV modules, constant voltage and on/off PV charge controllers, flooded deep-cycle lead-antimony and valve regulated lead-acid (VLRA) gel batteries, and low pressure sodium ballasts and lights. The PV lighting system maintenance intervals and lessons learned have been documented over the past 2.5 years. The above performance data has shown that with careful hardware selection, installation, and maintenance intervals the PV lighting systems will operate reliably.

  3. Method and System for Dynamic Automated Corrections to Weather Avoidance Routes for Aircraft in En Route Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, B. David (Inventor); Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic weather route system automatically analyzes routes for in-flight aircraft flying in convective weather regions and attempts to find more time and fuel efficient reroutes around current and predicted weather cells. The dynamic weather route system continuously analyzes all flights and provides reroute advisories that are dynamically updated in real time while the aircraft are in flight. The dynamic weather route system includes a graphical user interface that allows users to visualize, evaluate, modify if necessary, and implement proposed reroutes.

  4. System Performance Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    van Dam, M A

    2004-05-26

    Characterizing an adaptive optics (AO) system refers to understanding its performance and limitations. The goal of an AO system is to correct wavefront aberrations. The uncorrected aberrations, called the residual errors and referred to in what follows simply as the errors, degrade the image quality in the science camera. Understanding the source of these errors is a great aid in designing an AO system and optimizing its performance. This chapter explains how to estimate the wavefront error terms and the relationship between the wavefront error and the degradation of the image. The analysis deals with the particular case of a HartmannShack wavefront sensor (WFS) and a continuous deformable mirror (DM), although the principles involved can be applied to any AO system.

  5. Multi-Scale Analysis of the European Airspace Using Network Community Detection

    PubMed Central

    Gurtner, Gérald; Vitali, Stefania; Cipolla, Marco; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario Nunzio; Miccichè, Salvatore; Pozzi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We show that the European airspace can be represented as a multi-scale traffic network whose nodes are airports, sectors, or navigation points and links are defined and weighted according to the traffic of flights between the nodes. By using a unique database of the air traffic in the European airspace, we investigate the architecture of these networks with a special emphasis on their community structure. We propose that unsupervised network community detection algorithms can be used to monitor the current use of the airspace and improve it by guiding the design of new ones. Specifically, we compare the performance of several community detection algorithms, both with fixed and variable resolution, and also by using a null model which takes into account the spatial distance between nodes, and we discuss their ability to find communities that could be used to define new control units of the airspace. PMID:24809991

  6. High performance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, M.B.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  7. Well Clear: General Aviation and Commercial Pilots' Perceptioin of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This research explored how different pilots perceived the concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and observed if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and the effects of other variables. Pilots' WCB perceptions were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Objectively, significant differences were found in WCB perception between two pilot types (general aviation [GA], and Airline Transport Pilots [ATPs]), and significant WCB differences were evident when comparing two intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). Differences were dependent on other manipulated variables (intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels). Subjectively, there were differences in WCB perception across pilot types; GA pilots trusted UAS aircraft higher than the more experienced ATPs. Conclusions indicate pilots' WCB mental models are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, and more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.

  8. Well clear: General aviation and commercial pilots' perception of unmanned aerial vehicles in the national airspace system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Joseph T.

    The purpose of this research was to determine how different pilot types perceived the subjective concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and to observe if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) as well as the effects of other variables. Pilots' perceptions of the WCB were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Together, these metrics provided quantitative and qualitative data about pilot WCB perception. The objective results of this study showed significant differences in WCB perception between two different pilot types, as well as WCB significant differences when comparing two different intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). These differences were dependent on other manipulated variables, including intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels. Subjectively, there were evident differences in WCB perception across pilot types; general aviation (GA) pilots appeared to trust UAS aircraft slightly more than did the more experienced Airline Transport Pilots (ATPs). Overall, it is concluded that pilots' mental models of the WCB are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, while being more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.

  9. Quantitative characterization of airspace enlargement in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Majumdar, Arnab; Ito, Satoru; Alencar, Adriano M; Suki, Béla

    2006-01-01

    The mean linear intercept (L(m)) can be used to estimate the surface area for gas exchange in the lung. However, in recent years, it is most commonly used as an index for characterizing the enlargement of airspaces in emphysema and the associated severity of structural destruction in the lung. Specifically, an increase in L(m) is thought to result from an increase in airspace sizes. In this paper, we examined how accurately L(m) measures the linear dimensions of airspaces from histological sections and a variety of computer-generated test images. To this end, we developed an automated method for measuring linear intercepts from digitized images of tissue sections and calculate L(m) as their mean. We examined how the shape of airspaces and the variability of their sizes influence L(m) as well as the distribution of linear intercepts. We found that, for a relatively homogeneous enlargement of airspaces, L(m) was a reliable index for detecting emphysema. However, in the presence of spatial heterogeneities with a large variability of airspace sizes, L(m) did not significantly increase and sometimes even decreased compared with its value in normal tissue. We also developed an automated method for measuring the area and computed an equivalent diameter of each individual airspace that is independent of shape. Finally, we introduced new indexes based on the moments of diameter that we found to be more reliable than L(m) to characterize airspace enlargement in the presence of heterogeneities. PMID:16166240

  10. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section 71.51... C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace. The Class C airspace areas listed in subpart C of FAA Order.... Each Class C airspace area designated for an airport in subpart C of FAA Order 7400.9V (incorporated...

  11. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section 71.51... C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace. The Class C airspace areas listed in subpart C of FAA Order.... Each Class C airspace area designated for an airport in subpart C of FAA Order 7400.9T (incorporated...

  12. Unmanned Aviation Systems Models of the Radio Communications Links: Study Results - Appendices Annex 2. Volume 1 and Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birr, Richard B.; Spencer, Roy; Murray, Jennifer; Lash, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the analysis of communications between the Control Station and an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). This work is based on the RTCA SC-203 Operational Services and Environment Description (OSED). The OSED document seeks to characterize the highly different attributes of all UAs navigating the airspace and define their relationship to airspace users, air traffic services, and operating environments of the NAS. One goal of this report is to lead to the development of Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards for Control and Communications. This report takes the nine scenarios found in the OSED and analyzes the communication links.

  13. System performance conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of reducing power levels and using antennas with diameters smaller than 1 Km were evaluated if rectenna costs and land usage requirements become major factors, operating at 5800 megahertz should be considered. Three sequences (random, incoherent phasing, and concentric rings - center to edge) provided satisfactory performance in that the resultant sidelobe levels during startup/ shutdown were lower than the steady-state levels present during normal operations. Grating lobe peaks and scattered power levels were used to determine the array/subarray mechanical alignment requirements. The antenna alignment requirement is 1 min or 3 min depending on phase control configuration. System error parameters were defined to minimize scattered microwave power.

  14. Human Performance Considerations for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay; Hobbs, Alan; Lyall, Beth; Rorie, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Successful integration of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) into civil airspace will not only require solutions to technical challenges, but will also require that the design and operation of RPAS take into account human limitations and capabilities. Human factors can affect overall system performance whenever the system relies on people to interact with another element of the system. Four types of broad interactions can be described. These are (1) interactions between people and hardware, such as controls and displays; (2) human use of procedures and documentation; (3) impact of the task environment, including lighting, noise and monotony; and lastly, (4) interactions between operational personnel, including communication and coordination. In addition to the human factors that have been identified for conventional aviation, RPAS operations introduce a set of unique human challenges. The purpose of document is to raise human factors issues for consideration by workgroups of the ICAO RPAS panel as they work to develop guidance material and additions to ICAO annexes. It is anticipated that the content of this document will be revised and updated as the work of the panel progresses.

  15. High Performance Work Systems and Firm Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    A review of 17 studies of high-performance work systems concludes that benefits of employee involvement, skill training, and other high-performance work practices tend to be greater when new methods are adopted as part of a consistent whole. (Author)

  16. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Concepts of Use, Systems Performance, Requirements, and Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Contractor Report summarizes and documents the work performed to develop concepts of use (ConUse) and high-level system requirements and architecture for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. This work was completed as a follow-on to the technology assessment conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center and ITT for the Future Communications Study (FCS). ITT assessed air-to-ground (A/G) communications concepts of use and operations presented in relevant NAS-level, international, and NAS-system-level documents to derive the appropriate ConUse relevant to potential A/G communications applications and services for domestic continental airspace. ITT also leveraged prior concepts of use developed during the earlier phases of the FCS. A middle-out functional architecture was adopted by merging the functional system requirements identified in the bottom-up assessment of existing requirements with those derived as a result of the top-down analysis of ConUse and higher level functional requirements. Initial end-to-end system performance requirements were derived to define system capabilities based on the functional requirements and on NAS-SR-1000 and the Operational Performance Assessment conducted as part of the COCR. A high-level notional architecture of the L-DACS supporting A/G communication was derived from the functional architecture and requirements.

  17. Measurement of urinary desmosine by isotope dilution and high performance liquid chromatography. Correlation between elastase-induced air-space enlargement in the hamster and elevation of urinary desmosine

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, P.J.; Bryan-Rhadfi, J.; Lucey, E.C.; Ciccolella, D.E.; Crombie, G.; Faris, B.; Snider, G.L.; Franzblau, C. )

    1991-08-01

    The accuracy of methods employed to measure the elastin-specific crosslinks, desmosine (DES) and isodesmosine (IDES), has been called into question because contaminants in the urine may cause elevated values. In the present study urine samples were spiked with a known amount of (14C)DES and refluxed in 6 N HCl. Sephadex G-15 chromatography of the hydrolyzed urine employed to remove contaminants. DES and IDES were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as well as by amino acid analysis. The amount of isotope recovered was used to determine losses during the overall procedure and the isotope dilution to calculate the amounts of endogenous DES and IDES originally present in the urine. Because similar values were obtained by both methods, the more rapid HPLC method was used for all succeeding analyses. In one experiment, the DES amounts in urine collected from hamsters for 3 days after intratracheal treatment with human neutrophil elastase (300 micrograms) or porcine pancreatic elastase (300 micrograms) were 0.212 {plus minus} 0.012 (mean {plus minus} SEM, two measurements on a single pool) and 0.816 {plus minus} 0.005 (two measurements) microgram per hamster per day, respectively. Urine from control hamsters had a mean value of 0.074 {plus minus} 0.008 (eight measurements) microgram per hamster per day. The HNE- and PPE-treated hamsters had mean linear intercept values of 119 and 159% of control values, respectively, giving a positive correlation between increase in airspace size and elevation of urinary DES.

  18. Research and Development Data to Define the Thermal Performance of Reflective Materials Used to Conserve Energy in Building Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-04-09

    A comprehensive experimental laboratory study has been conducted on the thermal performance of reflective insulation systems. The goal of this study was to develop test and evaluation protocols and to obtain thermal performance data on a selected number of idealized and commercial systems containing reflective airspaces for use in analytical models. Steady-state thermal resistance has been measured on 17 different test panels using two guarded hot boxes. Additional instrumentation was installed to measure the temperature of critical locations inside the test panels. The test parameters which have been studied are heat flow direction (horizontal, up, and down), number of airspaces comprising the cavity, airspace effective emittance, airspace aspect ratio, airspace mean temperature and temperature difference, and the thermal resistance of the stud material. Tests have also been performed on similar constructions with mass insulation. Two one-dimensional calculation techniques (ASHRAE and proposed ASTM) have been employed to determine the cavity thermal resistance from the measured test panel results. The measured cavity thermal resistance is compared with literature data which is commonly employed to calculate the thermal resistance of reflective airspace assemblies. A consumer-oriented handbook pertaining to reflective insulation for building and commercial applications has also been prepared as part of this study.

  19. Common Methodology for Efficient Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar

    2012-01-01

    Topics include: a) Developing a common methodology to model and avoid disturbances affecting airspace. b) Integrated contrails and emission models to a national level airspace simulation. c) Developed capability to visualize, evaluate technology and alternate operational concepts and provide inputs for policy-analysis tools to reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. d) Collaborating with Volpe Research Center, NOAA and DLR to leverage expertise and tools in aircraft emissions and weather/climate modeling. Airspace operations is a trade-off balancing safety, capacity, efficiency and environmental considerations. Ideal flight: Unimpeded wind optimal route with optimal climb and descent. Operations degraded due to reduction in airport and airspace capacity caused by inefficient procedures and disturbances.

  20. Comparing Methods for Dynamic Airspace Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Lai, Chok Fung

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares airspace design solutions for dynamically reconfiguring airspace in response to nominal daily traffic volume fluctuation. Airspace designs from seven algorithmic methods and a representation of current day operations in Kansas City Center were simulated with two times today's demand traffic. A three-configuration scenario was used to represent current day operations. Algorithms used projected unimpeded flight tracks to design initial 24-hour plans to switch between three configurations at predetermined reconfiguration times. At each reconfiguration time, algorithms used updated projected flight tracks to update the subsequent planned configurations. Compared to the baseline, most airspace design methods reduced delay and increased reconfiguration complexity, with similar traffic pattern complexity results. Design updates enabled several methods to as much as half the delay from their original designs. Freeform design methods reduced delay and increased reconfiguration complexity the most.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of CTAS/FMS Integration in TRACON Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romahn, Stephen; Palmer, Everett; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    A CTAS/FMS integration project at Ames Research Center addresses extensions to the CTAS air traffic management concept, among them the introduction of arrival routes specially designed for the use with a Flight Management System. These FMS arrival routes shall allow for the use of the INS' lateral and vertical navigation capabilities throughout the arrival until final approach. For the use in this project CTAS controller support tools that compliment the concept have been created. These tools offer controllers access to CTAS' prediction and planning capabilities in terms of speed and route advisories. The objective is to allow for a more strategic way of controlling aircraft. Expected benefits are an increase in arrival rate and a reduction of average travel times through TRACER airspace. A real time simulation is being conducted at Ames to investigate how FMS arrivals and approach transitions - with and without the support of CTAS tools - effect the flow of arriving traffic within TRACER airspace and the controllers' task performance. Four conditions will be investigated and compared to today's technique of controlling traffic with tactical vectoring: 1. FMS arrivals and approach transitions are available for controllers to issue to equipped aircraft - traffic permitting; 2. Speed advisories that match CTAS' runway balancing and sequencing plan are displayed to Feeder controllers; 3. Approach transition advisories (e.g., location of the base turn point) are displayed to Final controllers for tactical clearances ("Turn base now"); and 4. Approach transition advisories (voice and data link) are generated by CTAS and displayed to final controllers for strategic voice clearances ("Turn base five miles after waypoint xyz") or prepared in terms of a trajectory description for strategic data link clearance. Scenarios used in the study will represent current traffic and vary in density of arriving traffic and the kind and mix of equipage of arriving aircraft. Data will be

  2. Share the Sky: Concepts and Technologies That Will Shape Future Airspace Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Cotton, William; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2011-01-01

    The airspace challenge for the United States is to protect national sovereignty and ensure the safety and security of those on the ground and in the air, while at the same time ensuring the efficiency of flight, reducing the costs involved, protecting the environment, and protecting the freedom of access to the airspace. Many visions of the future NAS hold a relatively near-term perspective, focusing on existing uses of the airspace and assuming that new uses will make up a small fraction of total use. In the longer term, the skies will be filled with diverse and amazing new air vehicles filling our societal needs. Anticipated new vehicles include autonomous air vehicles acting both independently and in coordinated groups, unpiloted cargo carriers, and large numbers of personal air vehicles and small-scale point-to-point transports. These vehicles will enable new capabilities that have the potential to increase societal mobility, transport freight at lower cost and with lower environmental impact, improve the study of the Earth s atmosphere and ecosystem, and increase societal safety and security by improving or drastically lowering the cost of critical services such as firefighting, emergency medical evacuation, search and rescue, border and neighborhood surveillance, and the inspection of our infrastructure. To ensure that uses of the airspace can continue to grow for the benefit of all, a new paradigm for operations is needed: equitably and safely sharing the airspace. This paper is an examination of such a vision, concentrating on the operations of all types of air vehicles and future uses of the National Airspace. Attributes of a long-term future airspace system are provided, emerging operations technologies are described, and initial steps in research and development are recommended.

  3. 78 FR 57545 - Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace and Class E Airspace; Laguna AAF, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace and Class E Airspace; Laguna AAF, AZ AGENCY: Federal...

  4. 76 FR 9965 - Amendment of Class E Airspace and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Easton, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... surface, and remove Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D airspace at Easton, MD (75 FR... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  5. 14 CFR 91.706 - Operations within airspace designed as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations within airspace designed as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace. 91.706 Section 91.706 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES...

  6. 14 CFR 91.706 - Operations within airspace designed as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operations within airspace designed as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace. 91.706 Section 91.706 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES...

  7. Mapping a Path to Autonomous Flight in the National Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lodding, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of autonomous flight, whether military, commercial, or civilian, into the National Airspace System (NAS) will present significant challenges. Minimizing the impact and preventing the changes from becoming disruptive, rather than an enhancing technology will not be without difficulty. From obstacle detection and avoidance to real-time verification and validation of system behavior, there are significant problems which must be solved prior to the general acceptance of autonomous systems. This paper examines some of the key challenges and the multi-disciplinary collaboration which must occur for autonomous systems to be accepted as equal partners in the NAS.

  8. 14 CFR 91.135 - Operations in Class A airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... communications with ATC while operating in Class A airspace. (c) Transponder requirement. Unless otherwise... facility having jurisdiction of the airspace concerned. In the case of an inoperative transponder, ATC...

  9. Announced Strategy Types in Multiagent RL for Conflict-Avoidance in the National Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebhuhn, Carrie; Knudson, Matthew D.; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace is of growing interest to the research community. Safety and scalability of control algorithms are key to the successful integration of autonomous system into a human-populated airspace. In order to ensure safety while still maintaining efficient paths of travel, these algorithms must also accommodate heterogeneity of path strategies of its neighbors. We show that, using multiagent RL, we can improve the speed with which conflicts are resolved in cases with up to 80 aircraft within a section of the airspace. In addition, we show that the introduction of abstract agent strategy types to partition the state space is helpful in resolving conflicts, particularly in high congestion.

  10. Visualizing Parallel Computer System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malony, Allen D.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    Parallel computer systems are among the most complex of man's creations, making satisfactory performance characterization difficult. Despite this complexity, there are strong, indeed, almost irresistible, incentives to quantify parallel system performance using a single metric. The fallacy lies in succumbing to such temptations. A complete performance characterization requires not only an analysis of the system's constituent levels, it also requires both static and dynamic characterizations. Static or average behavior analysis may mask transients that dramatically alter system performance. Although the human visual system is remarkedly adept at interpreting and identifying anomalies in false color data, the importance of dynamic, visual scientific data presentation has only recently been recognized Large, complex parallel system pose equally vexing performance interpretation problems. Data from hardware and software performance monitors must be presented in ways that emphasize important events while eluding irrelevant details. Design approaches and tools for performance visualization are the subject of this paper.

  11. 75 FR 26148 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Homestead, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Homestead General Aviation... airspace required to support the SIAPs for Homestead General Aviation Airport. Class E airspace extending... as it would establish Class E airspace Homestead General Aviation Airport, Homestead, FL. Lists...

  12. 75 FR 42 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Spencer, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... October 19, 2009 (74 FR 53407), Docket No. FAA- 2009-0602; Airspace Docket No. 09-AEA-13. The FAA uses the... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Spencer, WV AGENCY... that establishes Class E Airspace at Spencer, WV. This action enhances the safety and...

  13. 78 FR 67024 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... airspace at the Glasgow VOR/DME navigation aid, Glasgow, MT (78 FR 59807, September 30, 2013). The FAA... Federal Register of September 30, 2013 (78 FR 59807), Airspace Docket No. 13- ANM-17, FR Doc. 2013-23669... airspace at the Glasgow VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME)...

  14. 75 FR 4270 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC... Register September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Saluda County Airport, Saluda, SC. DATES... (74 FR 46894), Docket No. FAA-2009-0603; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-16. The FAA uses the direct...

  15. 75 FR 4269 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Clayton, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Clayton, GA AGENCY... September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Heaven's Landing Airport, Clayton, GA. DATES... (74 FR 46893), Docket No. FAA-2009-0605; Airspace Docket 09-ASO-19. The FAA uses the direct...

  16. 78 FR 33965 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Linton, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Linton, ND... Class E airspace at Linton, ND. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area...

  17. 78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... the establishment of Class E en route airspace. Class E airspace designations are published...

  18. 75 FR 4269 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hertford, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hertford, NC AGENCY... September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Harvey Point Defense Testing Activity, Hertford, NC... (74 FR 46892), Docket No. FAA-2009-0705; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-25. The FAA uses the direct...

  19. 75 FR 18403 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO AGENCY... E airspace at Rifle, CO. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft...) operations at the airport. This action also changes the airport name in the existing Class E...

  20. 78 FR 41838 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colt, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colt, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E airspace... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace for the Colt,...

  1. 75 FR 4270 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tompkinsville, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tompkinsville, KY AGENCY... September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Tompkinsville--Monroe County Airport, Tompkinsville... September 14, 2009 (74 FR 46890), Docket No. FAA-2009-0604; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-18. The FAA uses...

  2. 77 FR 10649 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Douglas, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Douglas, AZ AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace at Bisbee Douglas... typographical error in the legal description for the Class E 700 foot airspace. This improves the safety...

  3. 75 FR 4269 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lewisport, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lewisport, KY... Register September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Hancock Co.--Ron Lewis Field, Lewisport... September 14, 2009 (74 FR 46896), Docket No. FAA-2009-0706; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-26. The FAA uses...

  4. 76 FR 35967 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace at... geographic coordinates for the Class D and E airspace areas, and updates the airport name. DATES:...

  5. 78 FR 33015 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Waco, TX, and Establishment of Class D Airspace; Waco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ...This action proposes to amend Class D airspace at Waco, TX, by separating the Class D airspace at Waco Regional Airport from the Class D airspace at TSTC-Waco Airport. The FAA is taking this action to alleviate multiple air traffic controllers handling the same airspace and for the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for standard instrument approach procedures at......

  6. Microwave system performance summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Nalos, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the microwave system for the solar power satellite is described. Design modifications recommended include changes in phase control to the power module level, a reduction in allowable amplitude jitter, the use of metal matrix waveguides, and sequences for startup/shutdown procedures. Investigations into reshaping the beam pattern to improve overall rectenna collection efficiency and improve sidelobe control are surveyed.

  7. 76 FR 64233 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ..., published on August 25, 2011 (76 FR 53048), amends Class D airspace, Class E surface airspace, Class E..., the Class E airspace descriptions as published in the Federal Register of August 25, 2011 (76 FR 53048) (FR Doc. 2011-21663) for Natrona County International Airport, Casper, WY, is corrected under...

  8. Human Factors Issues in the Design of Super-Dense Operations Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P.J.; Spencer, A.L.; Evans, M.; Andre, A.D.; Krozel, J.

    2009-01-01

    A knowledge acquisition study was completed focusing on two questions: 1. What is a concept of operation for the design and use of Super-Dense Operations (SDO) airspace within the next 10 years? 2. What are the human factors issues that need to be addressed in order to enable this concept of operation? To address these questions, a series of structured interviews were conducted with four FAA specialists with significant experience as controllers, traffic managers and airspace designers and with one experienced commercial pilot. The operational concept developed based on the expertise of these individuals has similarities to proposals under the FAA's "Big Airspace" project, making heavy use of advanced Area navigation (RNAV) routes, but goes beyond the current state of that concept by making explicit a number of foundational assumptions, and by proposing a system design to deal with convective weather.

  9. Exploration of the Trade Space Between Unmanned Aircraft Systems Descent Maneuver Performance and Sense-and-Avoid System Performance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, Devin P.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    A need exists to safely integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the United States' National Airspace System. Replacing manned aircraft's see-and-avoid capability in the absence of an onboard pilot is one of the key challenges associated with safe integration. Sense-and-avoid (SAA) systems will have to achieve yet-to-be-determined required separation distances for a wide range of encounters. They will also need to account for the maneuver performance of the UAS they are paired with. The work described in this paper is aimed at developing an understanding of the trade space between UAS maneuver performance and SAA system performance requirements, focusing on a descent avoidance maneuver. An assessment of current manned and unmanned aircraft performance was used to establish potential UAS performance test matrix bounds. Then, near-term UAS integration work was used to narrow down the scope. A simulator was developed with sufficient fidelity to assess SAA system performance requirements. The simulator generates closest-point-of-approach (CPA) data from the wide range of UAS performance models maneuvering against a single intruder with various encounter geometries. Initial attempts to model the results made it clear that developing maneuver performance groups is required. Discussion of the performance groups developed and how to know in which group an aircraft belongs for a given flight condition and encounter is included. The groups are airplane, flight condition, and encounter specific, rather than airplane-only specific. Results and methodology for developing UAS maneuver performance requirements are presented for a descent avoidance maneuver. Results for the descent maneuver indicate that a minimum specific excess power magnitude can assure a minimum CPA for a given time-to-go prediction. However, smaller amounts of specific excess power may achieve or exceed the same CPA if the UAS has sufficient speed to trade for altitude. The results of this study will

  10. PV System Performance and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the status and accomplishments during fiscal year (FY) 2005 of the Photovoltaic (PV) System Performance and Standards Subtask, which is part of the PV Systems Engineering Project (a joint NREL-Sandia project).

  11. 78 FR 27872 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ..., UT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) and Instrument Landing System (ILS) or Localizer (LOC) standard instrument approach... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  12. Airborne Conflict Management within Confined Airspace in a Piloted Simulation of DAG-TM Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan; Johnson, Edward; Wing, David J.; Barhydt, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot s planned route. The available airspace was further varied by changing the separation standard for lateral separation between 3 nm and 5 nm. The pilot had to maneuver through the corridor between the SUA s, avoid other traffic and meet flow management constraints. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. This is a follow-up study to work presented at the 4th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar in December 2001. Nearly all of the pilots were able to meet their TFM constraints while maintaining adequate separation from other traffic. In only 3 out of 59 runs were the pilots unable to meet their required time of arrival. Two loss of separation cases are studied and it is found that the pilots need conflict prevention information presented in a clearer manner. No degradation of performance or safety was seen between the wide and narrow corridors. Although this was not a thorough study of the consequences of reducing the en route lateral separation, nothing was found that would refute the feasibility of reducing the separation requirement from 5 nm to 3 nm. The creation of additional, second-generation conflicts is also investigated. Two resolution methods were offered to the pilots: strategic and tactical. The strategic method is a closed-loop alteration to the Flight Management System (FMS) active route that considers other traffic as well as TFM constraints. The tactical resolutions are short-term resolutions that leave avoiding other traffic conflicts and meeting the TFM constraints to the pilot. Those that made use of the strategic tools avoided

  13. Development of Virtual Airspace Simulation Technology - Real-Time (VAST-RT) Capability 2 and Experimental Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmer, R.; Ingram, C.; Jovic, S.; Alderete, J.; Brown, D.; Carpenter, D.; LaForce, S.; Panda, R.; Walker, J.; Chaplin, P.; Ballinger, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Virtual Airspace Simulation Technology - Real-Time (VAST-RT) Project, an element cf NASA's Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) Project, has been developing a distributed simulation capability that supports an extensible and expandable real-time, human-in-the-loop airspace simulation environment. The VAST-RT system architecture is based on DoD High Level Architecture (HLA) and the VAST-RT HLA Toolbox, a common interface implementation that incorporates a number of novel design features. The scope of the initial VAST-RT integration activity (Capability 1) included the high-fidelity human-in-the-loop simulation facilities located at NASA/Ames Research Center and medium fidelity pseudo-piloted target generators, such as the Airspace Traffic Generator (ATG) being developed as part of VAST-RT, as well as other real-time tools. This capability has been demonstrated in a gate-to-gate simulation. VAST-RT's (Capability 2A) has been recently completed, and this paper will discuss the improved integration of the real-time assets into VAST-RT, including the development of tools to integrate data collected across the simulation environment into a single data set for the researcher. Current plans for the completion of the VAST-RT distributed simulation environment (Capability 2B) and its use to evaluate future airspace capacity enhancing concepts being developed by VAMS will be discussed. Additionally, the simulation environment's application to other airspace and airport research projects is addressed.

  14. Preliminary Airspace Operations Simulations Findings Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Provides preliminary findings of the initial series (normal operations and contingency management) of airspace operations simulations. The key elements of this report discuss feedback from controller subjects for UAS flight above FL430. Findings provide initial evaluation of routine UAS operations above dense ARTCC airspace (ZOB), and identify areas of further research, policy direction and procedural development. This document further serves as an addendum to the detailed AOS simulation plan (Deliverable SIM001), incorporating feedback from FAA air traffic personnel and Access 5 IPTs.

  15. 75 FR 34624 - Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Big Delta, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... airspace at Big Delta, AK (75 FR 17322). Controlled airspace serving Allen Army Airfield was revised in... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Big Delta, AK... Class D and E airspace at Big Delta, AK, to eliminate duplicated controlled airspace serving Allen...

  16. 75 FR 32119 - Proposed Amendment of the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas; California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...This action proposes to amend the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas by providing additional airspace in which domestic air traffic control procedures could be used to separate and manage aircraft operations in the currently uncontrolled airspace off the California coast. This proposed change would enhance the efficient utilization of that airspace within the National Airspace...

  17. Estimation of Reduction in Airspace Capacity Due to Convective Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Kapil; Sridhar, Banavar; Namjoshi, Leena

    2006-01-01

    Severe convective weather routinely disrupts normal flow of air traffic in the United States' National Airspace System (NAS). Over the last decade, severe weather has been the most significant cause, accounting for over 70% of air traffic delays in the NAS. Flights incur modification in their nominal routes due to the presence of severe weather, and hence, suffer increased delays. These delays contribute to increased burden on airlines due to extra fuel costs and missed schedules for connecting flights. In this paper, the reduction in air space capacity and the associated air traffic delays due to severe convective weather will be investigated.

  18. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 91 - Operations in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) Airspace

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Minimum (RVSM) Airspace G Appendix G to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Pt. 91, App. G Appendix G to Part 91—Operations in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM... the avionics error may not exceed 200 feet. (g) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 91 - Operations in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) Airspace

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Minimum (RVSM) Airspace G Appendix G to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Pt. 91, App. G Appendix G to Part 91—Operations in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM... the avionics error may not exceed 200 feet. (g) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System...

  20. 75 FR 61609 - Establishment and Modification of Class E Airspace; Deer Park, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... existing Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures... controlled airspace at Deer Park, WA (75 FR 41774). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not...

  1. 77 FR 65462 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; La Belle, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Airspace at La Belle, FL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Belle, FL (77 FR 39652) Docket No. FAA-2012-0586. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  2. 75 FR 39147 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Bryce Canyon Airport. This will... Bryce Canyon, UT (74 FR 59492). The comments received prompted the FAA on April 26, 2010, to publish in... airspace at Bryce Canyon, UT (75 FR 21532). Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  3. 78 FR 41335 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... and management of aircraft operations within the National Airspace System. DATES: Comments must...

  4. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal: Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years. Long-term Goal: Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  5. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal - Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years. Long-term Goal - Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  6. Analysis of Aircraft Clusters to Measure Sector-Independent Airspace Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Lee, Hilda Q.

    2005-01-01

    The Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept of operations* permits appropriately equipped aircraft to conduct Free Maneuvering operations. These independent aircraft have the freedom to optimize their trajectories in real time according to user preferences; however, they also take on the responsibility to separate themselves from other aircraft while conforming to any local Traffic Flow Management (TFM) constraints imposed by the air traffic service provider (ATSP). Examples of local-TFM constraints include temporal constraints such as a required time of arrival (RTA), as well as spatial constraints such as regions of convective weather, special use airspace, and congested airspace. Under current operations, congested airspace typically refers to a sector(s) that cannot accept additional aircraft due to controller workload limitations; hence Dynamic Density (a metric that is indicative of controller workload) can be used to quantify airspace congestion. However, for Free Maneuvering operations under DAG-TM, an additional metric is needed to quantify the airspace congestion problem from the perspective of independent aircraft. Such a metric would enable the ATSP to prevent independent aircraft from entering any local areas of congestion in which the flight deck based systems and procedures may not be able to ensure separation. This new metric, called Gaggle Density, offers the ATSP a mode of control to regulate normal operations and to ensure safety and stability during rare-normal or off-normal situations (e.g., system failures). It may be difficult to certify Free Maneuvering systems for unrestricted operations, but it may be easier to certify systems and procedures for specified levels of Gaggle Density that could be monitored by the ATSP, and maintained through relatively minor flow-rate (RTA type) restrictions. Since flight deck based separation assurance is airspace independent, the challenge is to measure congestion independent of sector

  7. Application of Epidemiology Model on Complex Networks in Propagation Dynamics of Airspace Congestion.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoxu; Hu, Minghua; Tian, Wen; Xie, Daoyi; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a propagation dynamics model for congestion propagation in complex networks of airspace. It investigates the application of an epidemiology model to complex networks by comparing the similarities and differences between congestion propagation and epidemic transmission. The model developed satisfies the constraints of actual motion in airspace, based on the epidemiology model. Exploiting the constraint that the evolution of congestion cluster in the airspace is always dynamic and heterogeneous, the SIR epidemiology model (one of the classical models in epidemic spreading) with logistic increase is applied to congestion propagation and shown to be more accurate in predicting the evolution of congestion peak than the model based on probability, which is common to predict the congestion propagation. Results from sample data show that the model not only predicts accurately the value and time of congestion peak, but also describes accurately the characteristics of congestion propagation. Then, a numerical study is performed in which it is demonstrated that the structure of the networks have different effects on congestion propagation in airspace. It is shown that in regions with severe congestion, the adjustment of dissipation rate is more significant than propagation rate in controlling the propagation of congestion. PMID:27336405

  8. Application of Epidemiology Model on Complex Networks in Propagation Dynamics of Airspace Congestion

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaoxu; Hu, Minghua; Tian, Wen; Xie, Daoyi; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a propagation dynamics model for congestion propagation in complex networks of airspace. It investigates the application of an epidemiology model to complex networks by comparing the similarities and differences between congestion propagation and epidemic transmission. The model developed satisfies the constraints of actual motion in airspace, based on the epidemiology model. Exploiting the constraint that the evolution of congestion cluster in the airspace is always dynamic and heterogeneous, the SIR epidemiology model (one of the classical models in epidemic spreading) with logistic increase is applied to congestion propagation and shown to be more accurate in predicting the evolution of congestion peak than the model based on probability, which is common to predict the congestion propagation. Results from sample data show that the model not only predicts accurately the value and time of congestion peak, but also describes accurately the characteristics of congestion propagation. Then, a numerical study is performed in which it is demonstrated that the structure of the networks have different effects on congestion propagation in airspace. It is shown that in regions with severe congestion, the adjustment of dissipation rate is more significant than propagation rate in controlling the propagation of congestion. PMID:27336405

  9. GIS and RDBMS Used with Offline FAA Airspace Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J.; Simmons, J.; Scofield, E.; Talbott, B.

    1994-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) and relational database management system (RDBMS) were used in a Macintosh environment to access, manipulate, and display off-line FAA databases of airport and navigational aid locations, airways, and airspace boundaries. This proof-of-concept effort used data available from the Adaptation Controlled Environment System (ACES) and Digital Aeronautical Chart Supplement (DACS) databases to allow FAA cartographers and others to create computer-assisted charts and overlays as reference material for air traffic controllers. These products were created on an engineering model of the future GRASP (GRaphics Adaptation Support Position) workstation that will be used to make graphics and text products for the Advanced Automation System (AAS), which will upgrade and replace the current air traffic control system. Techniques developed during the prototyping effort have shown the viability of using databases to create graphical products without the need for an intervening data entry step.

  10. 77 FR 50907 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...This action amends Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 relating to airspace designations to reflect the approval by the Director of the Federal Register of the incorporation by reference of FAA Order 7400.9W, Airspace Designations and Reporting Points. This action also explains the procedures the FAA will use to amend the listings of Class A, B, C, D, and E airspace areas;......

  11. Data management system performance modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiser, Larry M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical techniques that have been used to gain a better understanding of the Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is a complex, distributed, real-time computer system that has been redesigned numerous times. The implications of these redesigns have not been fully analyzed. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages for static analytical techniques such as Rate Monotonic Analysis (RMA) and also provides a rationale for dynamic modeling. Factors such as system architecture, processor utilization, bus architecture, queuing, etc. are well suited for analysis with a dynamic model. The significance of performance measures for a real-time system are discussed.

  12. High performance aerated lagoon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, L.

    1999-08-01

    At a time when less money is available for wastewater treatment facilities and there is increased competition for the local tax dollar, regulatory agencies are enforcing stricter effluent limits on treatment discharges. A solution for both municipalities and industry is to use aerated lagoon systems designed to meet these limits. This monograph, prepared by a recognized expert in the field, provides methods for the rational design of a wide variety of high-performance aerated lagoon systems. Such systems range from those that can be depended upon to meet secondary treatment standards alone to those that, with the inclusion of intermittent sand filters or elements of sequenced biological reactor (SBR) technology, can also provide for nitrification and nutrient removal. Considerable emphasis is placed on the use of appropriate performance parameters, and an entire chapter is devoted to diagnosing performance failures. Contents include: principles of microbiological processes, control of algae, benthal stabilization, design for CBOD removal, design for nitrification and denitrification in suspended-growth systems, design for nitrification in attached-growth systems, phosphorus removal, diagnosing performance.

  13. The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS): An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Connor, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data, The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS offers to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software; a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality and data interchangeability among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs-of aircrews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as aircrews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but also through

  14. Operator Performance Support System (OPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, Marlen Z.

    1993-01-01

    In the complex and fast reaction world of military operations, present technologies, combined with tactical situations, have flooded the operator with assorted information that he is expected to process instantly. As technologies progress, this flow of data and information have both guided and overwhelmed the operator. However, the technologies that have confounded many operators today can be used to assist him -- thus the Operator Performance Support Team. In this paper we propose an operator support station that incorporates the elements of Video and Image Databases, productivity Software, Interactive Computer Based Training, Hypertext/Hypermedia Databases, Expert Programs, and Human Factors Engineering. The Operator Performance Support System will provide the operator with an integrating on-line information/knowledge system that will guide expert or novice to correct systems operations. Although the OPSS is being developed for the Navy, the performance of the workforce in today's competitive industry is of major concern. The concepts presented in this paper which address ASW systems software design issues are also directly applicable to industry. the OPSS will propose practical applications in how to more closely align the relationships between technical knowledge and equipment operator performance.

  15. Performance Confirmation Data Aquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Markman

    2000-10-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, Performance Confirmation Input Criteria (CRWMS M&O 1999c). (2) Identify and describe existing and potential new trends in data acquisition system software and hardware that would support the PC plan. The data acquisition software and hardware will support the field instruments and equipment that will be installed for the observation and perimeter drift borehole monitoring, and in-situ monitoring within the emplacement drifts. The exhaust air monitoring requirements will be supported by a data communication network interface with the ventilation monitoring system database. (3) Identify the concepts and features that a data acquisition system should have in order to support the PC process and its activities. (4) Based on PC monitoring needs and available technologies, further develop concepts of a potential data acquisition system network in support of the PC program and the Site Recommendation and License Application.

  16. Empirical and Analytic Studies Human/Automation Dynamics in Airspace Management for Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Planich, G.; Bunzo, M.; Labacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA and the FAA have initiated programs of research and development to provide flight crew, airline operations and air traffic managers with automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area to support the goals of free flight for safe, flexible, predictable, and efficient operations. To support the development of those aiding systems human performance in automated aiding has been examined in empirical and computationally analytic studies. This paper presents a set of those studies in full mission simulation and the development of a predictive computational model of human performance. We have found that the combination of methodologies provide a powerful design-aiding process. We will describe three research programs in support of Free Flight Operations from the perspective of human performance requirements. We have examined procedures and communications in the use of voice and data-link operation at the transition between unconstrained (enroute) and constrained (terminal) airspace operations. We have examined the timing and form of Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) advisories in descent. We have investigated the shape and dimensions of an 'alert zone' for air-based separation in unconstrained operations. Finally, we have examined the interaction of a ground-based conflict detection/resolution aiding system, as it interacts with a cockpit-based conflict alerting mechanism. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Configuring Airspace Sectors with Approximate Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Gupta, Pramod

    2010-01-01

    In response to changing traffic and staffing conditions, supervisors dynamically configure airspace sectors by assigning them to control positions. A finite horizon airspace sector configuration problem models this supervisor decision. The problem is to select an airspace configuration at each time step while considering a workload cost, a reconfiguration cost, and a constraint on the number of control positions at each time step. Three algorithms for this problem are proposed and evaluated: a myopic heuristic, an exact dynamic programming algorithm, and a rollouts approximate dynamic programming algorithm. On problem instances from current operations with only dozens of possible configurations, an exact dynamic programming solution gives the optimal cost value. The rollouts algorithm achieves costs within 2% of optimal for these instances, on average. For larger problem instances that are representative of future operations and have thousands of possible configurations, excessive computation time prohibits the use of exact dynamic programming. On such problem instances, the rollouts algorithm reduces the cost achieved by the heuristic by more than 15% on average with an acceptable computation time.

  18. Evaluation of the Trade Space Between UAS Maneuver Performance and SAA System Performance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, Devin P.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    A need exists to safely integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System. Replacing manned aircraft's see-and-avoid capability in the absence of an onboard pilot is one of the key challenges associated with safe integration. Sense-and-avoid (SAA) systems will have to achieve yet-to-be-determined required separation distances for a wide range of encounters. They will also need to account for the maneuver performance of the UAS they are paired with. The work described in this paper is aimed at developing an understanding of the trade space between UAS maneuver performance and SAA system performance requirements. An assessment of current manned and unmanned aircraft performance was used to establish potential UAS performance test matrix bounds. Then, nearterm UAS integration work was used to narrow down the scope. A simulator was developed with sufficient fidelity to assess SAA system performance requirements for a wide range of encounters. The simulator generates closest-point-of-approach (CPA) data from the wide range of UAS performance models maneuvering against a single intruder with various encounter geometries. The simulator is described herein and has both a graphical user interface and batch interface to support detailed analysis of individual UAS encounters and macro analysis of a very large set of UAS and encounter models, respectively. Results from the simulator using approximate performance data from a well-known manned aircraft is presented to provide insight into the problem and as verification and validation of the simulator. Analysis of climb, descent, and level turn maneuvers to avoid a collision is presented. Noting the diversity of backgrounds in the UAS community, a description of the UAS aerodynamic and propulsive design and performance parameters is included. Initial attempts to model the results made it clear that developing maneuver performance groups is required. Discussion of the performance groups developed and how

  19. Subsonic Performance of Ejector Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Samuel

    Combined cycle engines combining scramjets with turbo jets or rockets can provide efficient hypersonic flight. Ejectors have the potential to increase the thrust and efficiency of combined cycle engines near static conditions. A computer code was developed to support the design of a small-scale, turbine-based combined cycle demonstrator with an ejector, built around a commercially available turbojet engine. This code was used to analyze the performance of an ejector system built around a micro-turbojet. With the use of a simple ejector, net thrust increases as large as 20% over the base engine were predicted. Additionally the specific fuel consumption was lowered by 10%. Increasing the secondary to primary area ratio of the ejector lead to significant improvements in static thrust, specific fuel consumption (SFC), and propulsive efficiency. Further ejector performance improvements can be achieved by using a diffuser. Ejector performance drops off rapidly with increasing Mach number. The ejector has lower thrust and higher SFC than the turbojet core at Mach numbers above 0.2. When the nozzle chokes a significant drop in ejector performance is seen. When a diffuser is used, higher Mach numbers lead to choking in the mixer and a shock in the nozzle causing a significant decrease in ejector performance. Evaluation of different turbo jets shows that ejector performance depends significantly on the properties of the turbojet. Static thrust and SFC improvements can be achieved with increasing ejector area for all engines, but size of increase and change in performance at higher Mach numbers depend heavily on the turbojet. The use of an ejector in a turbine based combined cycle configuration also increases performance at static conditions with a thrust increase of 5% and SFC decrease of 5% for the tested configuration.

  20. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System

    1992-06-18

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  1. 78 FR 27025 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Philadelphia, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to modify the Philadelphia, PA, Class B airspace area (77 FR 45290, July 31, 2012...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... aircraft within Class B airspace, reduce controller workload, and reduce the potential for midair...

  2. 77 FR 6463 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwigillingok, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...-2011-0881 was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 6), amending controlled airspace at Kwigillingok... published in the Federal Register on January 3, 2012 (77 FR 6), (FR Doc. 2011-33566), is corrected as... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwigillingok, AK AGENCY: Federal...

  3. 75 FR 57376 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... segregating IFR aircraft arriving/departing Chicago O'Hare International Airport (ORD) and Visual Flight Rules... a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to modify the Chicago, IL, Class B airspace area (75 FR 27229... extension. The legal description of the airspace area includes a mixture of prominent visual...

  4. 78 FR 48298 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Commerce, TX, area, creating additional controlled airspace at Commerce Municipal Airport (78 FR 33019... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY:...

  5. 76 FR 60713 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bumpass, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Airspace at Bumpass, VA, to accommodate the new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures serving Lake Anna... establish Class E airspace at Bumpass, VA (76 FR 45479) Docket No. FAA-2011-0377. Interested parties were... for Lake Anna Airport. This action is necessary for the safety and management of IFR operations at...

  6. 78 FR 22413 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Omak, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... airspace extending upward from 4,500 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL). This improves the safety and management of... (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Omak, WA (78 FR 5151). Interested parties were invited to... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  7. 75 FR 16329 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Killeen, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... E airspace for Killeen, TX, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Skylark Field Airport (75 FR 3877... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  8. 75 FR 30295 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hoquiam, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ...This action will amend existing Class E airspace at Hoquiam, WA. Controlled Class E surface airspace will be continuous at Bowerman Airport, Hoquiam, WA. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations at the airport. This action also will correct the airport...

  9. 14 CFR 71.71 - Class E airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (2) The airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth. (b) The airspace areas designated... by reference, see § 71.1) which extend upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... been prescribed, or from 1,200 feet or more above the surface of the earth for the purpose...

  10. 14 CFR 71.71 - Class E airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (2) The airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth. (b) The airspace areas designated... by reference, see § 71.1) which extend upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... been prescribed, or from 1,200 feet or more above the surface of the earth for the purpose...

  11. 14 CFR 71.71 - Class E airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (2) The airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth. (b) The airspace areas designated... by reference, see § 71.1) which extend upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... been prescribed, or from 1,200 feet or more above the surface of the earth for the purpose...

  12. 14 CFR 71.71 - Class E airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (2) The airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth. (b) The airspace areas designated... by reference, see § 71.1) which extend upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... been prescribed, or from 1,200 feet or more above the surface of the earth for the purpose...

  13. 76 FR 53328 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... FAA processed all proposed changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9U in full text as... in full text as final rules in the Federal Register. This rule reflects the periodic integration of... changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9V in full text as proposed rule documents in...

  14. 78 FR 52847 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... FAA processed all proposed changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9W in full text as... in full text as final rules in the Federal Register. This rule reflects the periodic integration of... changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9X in full text as proposed rule documents in...

  15. 75 FR 20773 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Jackson, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on December 7, 2009 (74 FR 63973), Docket... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Jackson, AL AGENCY... December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Jackson Muni, Jackson, AL. DATES: Effective...

  16. 75 FR 43 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Beckley, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Memorial Airport, Beckley, WV, in the Federal Register on October 19, 2009 (74 FR 53408), Docket No. FAA... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Beckley, WV AGENCY... that modifies Class E airspace at Raleigh County Memorial Airport, Beckley, WV. This rule increases...

  17. 14 CFR 71.71 - Class E airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (2) The airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth. (b) The airspace areas designated... by reference, see § 71.1) which extend upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... been prescribed, or from 1,200 feet or more above the surface of the earth for the purpose...

  18. 77 FR 68681 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Anthony, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Anthony, KS AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace...

  19. 77 FR 46284 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lemmon, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lemmon, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace...

  20. 76 FR 43824 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Talkeetna, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... revise Class E airspace at Talkeetna, AK (76 FR 27619). Interested parties were invited to participate in... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Talkeetna, AK AGENCY:...

  1. 75 FR 12166 - Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    .... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Beatrice, NE. Decommissioning of the Shaw non-directional beacon (NDB) at...

  2. 75 FR 41075 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Bozeman, MT (75 FR 20321). Interested parties were invited..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT AGENCY:...

  3. 75 FR 41077 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace...

  4. 76 FR 43823 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Yakutat, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Yakutat, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace...

  5. 76 FR 28887 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Ozark, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Ozark, MO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class E airspace...

  6. 78 FR 38828 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Captiva, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Captiva, FL AGENCY...: History On June 6, 2013, the FAA published a final rule, in the Federal Register establishing Class E... aeronautical data charting service, thereby making this action necessary. The Class E airspace designations...

  7. 76 FR 40598 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Campbellton, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Campbellton, TX... Class E airspace for Campbellton, TX, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard...

  8. 76 FR 39259 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... with the date July 25, 2011. Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME AGENCY... establishes Class E airspace at Brunswick Executive Airport, Brunswick, ME. DATES: The effective date is...

  9. 75 FR 13667 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntingburg, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Huntingburg Airport, Huntingburg, IN (74 FR 66592) Docket No. FAA... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntingburg, IN AGENCY: Federal...

  10. 77 FR 60660 - Proposed Establishment Class E Airspace; Kasigluk, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment Class E Airspace; Kasigluk, AK...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Kasigluk Airport, Kasigluk, AK, to...

  11. 76 FR 53049 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace...

  12. 76 FR 55554 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rutherfordton, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Rutherfordton, NC (76 FR 31510) Docket No. FAA-2010-1330...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rutherfordton, NC...

  13. 77 FR 51464 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Augusta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... amend Class E airspace in the Augusta, GA area (77 FR 21506). Interested parties were invited to... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565; 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Augusta, GA AGENCY:...

  14. 76 FR 40597 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Madison, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Madison, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace...

  15. 76 FR 69608 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Blythe, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Modification of Class E Airspace; Blythe, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace at Blythe, CA, to accommodate aircraft using...

  16. 75 FR 12162 - Class E Airspace; Manila, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Manila, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Manila, AR. Decommissioning of the Manila non-directional beacon (NDB) at...

  17. 75 FR 12165 - Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E airspace at Batesville, AR. Decommissioning of the Independence County...

  18. 75 FR 65227 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Franklin, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... rulemaking to remove Class E airspace for Franklin, TX (75 FR 36586) Docket No. FAA-2010-0603. Interested... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Franklin, TX...

  19. 78 FR 57788 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Everett, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ..., 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Everett, WA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace...

  20. 76 FR 55555 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Shelby, NC (76 FR 35799) Docket No..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, NC AGENCY:...

  1. 76 FR 66854 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Nuiqsut, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register to revise Class E airspace at Nuiqsut, AK (76 FR 49386). Interested..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Nuiqsut, AK AGENCY:...

  2. 75 FR 4270 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Anniston, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Anniston, AL AGENCY... October 28, 2009 that modifies the Class E airspace at Anniston Metropolitan Airport, Anniston, AL. DATES... direct final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on October 28, 2009 (74 FR...

  3. 76 FR 8626 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Shungnak, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Shungnak, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace...

  4. 77 FR 32896 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E... received. Class E airspace designations are published in paragraph 6005, of FAA Order 7400.9V dated...

  5. 75 FR 72939 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Portland, OR AGENCY... Class E airspace at Portland, OR, to accommodate aircraft using the Localizer/Distance...

  6. 78 FR 26243 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Easton, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Easton, PA (78 FR..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Easton, PA AGENCY:...

  7. 75 FR 13670 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL AGENCY: Federal... December 29, 2009 that amends Class E airspace at Northeast Alabama Regional, Gadsden, AL. DATES: Effective... direct final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on December 29, 2009 (74 FR...

  8. 75 FR 13669 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dumas, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dumas, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace...

  9. 76 FR 8625 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Savoonga, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Register to amend Class E airspace at Savoonga, AK (75 FR 77574). Interested parties were invited... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Savoonga, AK AGENCY:...

  10. 76 FR 34576 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Waynesboro, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...) to amend Class E airspace at Eagle's Nest Airport, Waynesboro, VA (75 FR 14820) Docket No. FAA-2010..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Waynesboro, VA...

  11. 75 FR 41076 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA AGENCY... E airspace at Monterey, CA, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV)...

  12. 76 FR 9219 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Muncie, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Muncie, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace...

  13. 77 FR 68682 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace...

  14. 75 FR 65226 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC (75 FR 52654) Docket... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  15. 78 FR 27031 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kingston, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kingston, NY AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace...

  16. 76 FR 2800 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT AGENCY... establishes Class E en route domestic airspace for the Lucin VORTAC, Lucin, UT. DATES: Effective 0901...

  17. 76 FR 8624 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Barrow, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... revise Class E airspace at Barrow, Alaska (75 FR 71046). Interested parties were invited to participate..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Barrow, AK AGENCY:...

  18. 76 FR 8627 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Class E airspace at Platinum AK (75 FR 77572). Interested parties were invited to participate in this... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum, AK AGENCY:...

  19. 76 FR 8281 - Amendment to Class B Airspace; Cleveland, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to modify the Cleveland, OH, Class B airspace area (75 FR... announced in the Federal Register (73 FR 40446) on July 14, 2008, the FAA held Informal Airspace Meetings in... public. Finally, the NPRM was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 20528) on April 20, 2010, to...

  20. 75 FR 18047 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Hollywood, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... final rule published in the Federal Register July 23, 1997 (62 FR 39430) Airspace Docket 97-ASO-7, the..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Hollywood, FL AGENCY: Federal...

  1. 77 FR 4458 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... E airspace for Rugby, ND, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Rugby Municipal Airport (76 FR 66870... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  2. 14 CFR 105.25 - Parachute operations in designated airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parachute operations in designated airspace... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.25 Parachute operations in designated airspace. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no...

  3. 14 CFR 105.25 - Parachute operations in designated airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parachute operations in designated airspace... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.25 Parachute operations in designated airspace. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no...

  4. 14 CFR 105.25 - Parachute operations in designated airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parachute operations in designated airspace... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.25 Parachute operations in designated airspace. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no...

  5. 14 CFR 105.25 - Parachute operations in designated airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parachute operations in designated airspace... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.25 Parachute operations in designated airspace. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no...

  6. 14 CFR 105.25 - Parachute operations in designated airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parachute operations in designated airspace... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.25 Parachute operations in designated airspace. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no...

  7. High performance solar Stirling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, J. W.; Haglund, R.

    1981-01-01

    A full-scale Dish-Stirling system experiment, at a power level of 25 kWe, has been tested during 1981 on the Test Bed Concentrator No. 2 at the Parabolic Dish Test Site, Edwards, CA. Test components, designed and developed primarily by industrial contractors for the Department of Energy, include an advanced Stirling engine driving an induction alternator, a directly-coupled solar receiver with a natural gas combustor for hybrid operation and a breadboard control system based on a programmable controller and standard utility substation components. The experiment demonstrated practicality of the solar Stirling application and high system performance into a utility grid. This paper describes the design and its functions, and the test results obtained.

  8. L-Band System Engineering - Concepts of Use, Systems Performance Requirements, and Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, Stephen; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-band and L-band Communications Standard Development. Task 7 was motivated by the five year technology assessment performed for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) under the joint FAA-EUROCONTROL cooperative research Action Plan (AP-17), also known as the Future Communications Study (FCS). It was based on direction provided by the FAA project-level agreement (PLA FY09_G1M.02-02v1) for "New ATM Requirements-Future Communications." Task 7 was separated into two distinct subtasks, each aligned with specific work elements and deliverable items. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed development, and tests/demonstrations to establish operational capability for what is now referred to as the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2, which is the subject of this report, focused on preliminary systems engineering and support of joint FAA/EUROCONTROL development and evaluation of a future L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) air/ground (A/G) communication system known as the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS), which was defined during the FCS. The proposed L-DACS will be capable of providing ATM services in continental airspace in the 2020+ timeframe. Subtask 7-2 was performed in two phases. Phase I featured development of Concepts of Use, high level functional analyses, performance of initial L-band system safety and security risk assessments, and development of high level requirements and architectures. It also included the aforementioned support of joint L-DACS development and evaluation, including inputs to L-DACS design specifications. Phase II provided a refinement of the systems engineering activities performed during Phase I, along

  9. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  10. An Assessment of Civil Tiltrotor Concept of Operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W.; Salvano, Dan; Rinehart, David; Young, Ray; Cheng, Victor; Lindsey, James

    2012-01-01

    Based on a previous Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) National Airspace System (NAS) performance analysis study, CTR operations were evaluated over selected routes and terminal airspace configurations assuming noninterference operations (NIO) and runway-independent operations (RIO). This assessment aims to further identify issues associated with these concepts of operations (ConOps), and their dependency on the airspace configuration and interaction with conventional fixed-wing traffic. Safety analysis following a traditional Safety Management System (SMS) methodology was applied to CTR-unique departure and arrival failures in the selected airspace to identify any operational and certification issues. Additional CTR operational cases were then developed to get a broader understanding of issues and gaps that will need to be addressed in future CTR operational studies. Finally, needed enhancements to National Airspace System performance analysis tools were reviewed, and recommendations were made on improvements in these tools that are likely to be required to support future progress toward CTR fleet operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen).

  11. 78 FR 72006 - Establishment of Class D Airspace and Class E Airspace; Laguna AAF, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Laguna AAF, AZ (78 FR... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory evaluation... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  12. 78 FR 46497 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... airspace, and establish Class E airspace at Oceana Naval Air Station, (NAS), VA, (78 FR 21084). Interested... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  13. 78 FR 34552 - Modification of Class D and Class E Airspace and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pasco, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... establish Class E surface airspace and modify Class D and E airspace at Pasco, WA (78 FR 18259). Interested... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  14. Performance Comparison of CGM Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kirchsteiger, Harald; Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido; Lodwig, Volker; Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ongoing progress of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems results in an increasing interest in comparing their performance, in particular in terms of accuracy, that is, matching CGM readings with reference values measured at the same time. Most often accuracy is evaluated by the mean absolute relative difference (MARD). It is frequently overseen that MARD does not only reflect accuracy, but also the study protocol and evaluation procedure, making a cross-study comparison problematic. Methods: We evaluate the effect of several factors on the MARD statistical properties: number of paired reference and CGM values, distribution of the paired values, accuracy of the reference measurement device itself and the time delay between data pairs. All analysis is done using clinical data from 12 patients wearing 6 sensors each. Results: We have found that a few paired points can have a potentially high impact on MARD. Leaving out those points for evaluation thus reduces the MARD. Similarly, accuracy of the reference measurements greatly affects the MARD as numerical and graphical data show. Results also show that a log-normal distribution of the paired references provides a significantly different MARD than, for example, a uniform distribution. Conclusions: MARD is a reasonable parameter to characterize the performance of CGM systems when keeping its limitations in mind. To support clinicians and patients in selecting which CGM system to use in a clinical setting, care should be taken to make MARD more comparable by employing a standardized evaluation procedure. PMID:26330485

  15. The Processing of Airspace Concept Evaluations Using FASTE-CNS as a Pre- or Post-Simulation CNS Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainger, Steve

    2004-01-01

    As NASA speculates on and explores the future of aviation, the technological and physical aspects of our environment increasing become hurdles that must be overcome for success. Research into methods for overcoming some of these selected hurdles have been purposed by several NASA research partners as concepts. The task of establishing a common evaluation environment was placed on NASA's Virtual Airspace Simulation Technologies (VAST) project (sub-project of VAMS), and they responded with the development of the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). As one examines the ACES environment from a communication, navigation or surveillance (CNS) perspective, the simulation parameters are built with assumed perfection in the transactions associated with CNS. To truly evaluate these concepts in a realistic sense, the contributions/effects of CNS must be part of the ACES. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has supported the Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) project through the continued development of CNS models and analysis capabilities which supports the ACES environment. NASA GRC initiated the development a communications traffic loading analysis tool, called the Future Aeronautical Sub-network Traffic Emulator for Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (FASTE-CNS), as part of this support. This tool allows for forecasting of communications load with the understanding that, there is no single, common source for loading models used to evaluate the existing and planned communications channels; and that, consensus and accuracy in the traffic load models is a very important input to the decisions being made on the acceptability of communication techniques used to fulfill the aeronautical requirements. Leveraging off the existing capabilities of the FASTE-CNS tool, GRC has called for FASTE-CNS to have the functionality to pre- and post-process the simulation runs of ACES to report on instances when traffic density, frequency congestion or aircraft spacing

  16. NextGen Operations in a Simulated NY Area Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nancy M.; Parke, Bonny; Lee, Paul; Homola, Jeff; Brasil, Connie; Buckley, Nathan; Cabrall, Chris; Chevalley, Eric; Lin, Cindy; Morey, Susan; Omar, Faisal; Rein-Weston, Daphne; Yoo, Hyo-Sang

    2013-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at NASA Ames Research Center explored the feasibility of a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) solution to address airspace and airport capacity limitations in and around the New York metropolitan area. A week-long study explored the feasibility of a new Optimal Profile Descent (OPD) arrival into the airspace as well as a novel application of a Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing (TAPSS) enhancement to the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) arrival scheduling tool to coordinate high volume arrival traffic to intersecting runways. In the simulation, four en route sector controllers and four terminal radar approach control (TRACON) controllers managed traffic inbound to Newark International Airport's primary runway, 22L, and its intersecting overflow runway, 11. TAPSS was used to generate independent arrival schedules for each runway and a traffic management coordinator participant adjusted the arrival schedule for each runway 11 aircraft to follow one of the 22L aircraft. TAPSS also provided controller-managed spacing tools (slot markers with speed advisories and timelines) to assist the TRACON controllers in managing the arrivals that were descending on OPDs. Results showed that the tools significantly decreased the occurrence of runway violations (potential go-arounds) when compared with a Baseline condition with no tools. Further, the combined use of the tools with the new OPD produced a peak arrival rate of over 65 aircraft per hour using instrument flight rules (IFR), exceeding the current maximum arrival rate at Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) of 52 per hour under visual flight rules (VFR). Although the participants rated the workload as relatively low and acceptable both with and without the tools, they rated the tools as reducing their workload further. Safety and coordination were rated by most participants as acceptable in both

  17. Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package: Data Modeling and Sharing Perspective for Development of a Common Operating Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This report documents analyses that were performed in support of Task #3 of Work Package #3 (WP3), ROA Impact on the NAS. The purpose of the overall work package was to determine if there are any serious issues that would prevent or prohibit ROA's flying in the NAS on a routine basis, and if so, what actions should be taken to address them. The purpose of Task #3 was to look at this problem from the perspective of data modeling and sharing.

  18. 14 CFR 91.126 - Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class G airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airport in Class G airspace. 91.126 Section 91.126 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... or certification, the pilot in command of a civil turbojet-powered aircraft must use, as a final flap setting, the minimum certificated landing flap setting set forth in the approved performance...

  19. 14 CFR 91.126 - Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class G airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airport in Class G airspace. 91.126 Section 91.126 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... or certification, the pilot in command of a civil turbojet-powered aircraft must use, as a final flap setting, the minimum certificated landing flap setting set forth in the approved performance...

  20. 14 CFR 91.126 - Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class G airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airport in Class G airspace. 91.126 Section 91.126 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... or certification, the pilot in command of a civil turbojet-powered aircraft must use, as a final flap setting, the minimum certificated landing flap setting set forth in the approved performance...

  1. 14 CFR 91.126 - Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class G airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airport in Class G airspace. 91.126 Section 91.126 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... or certification, the pilot in command of a civil turbojet-powered aircraft must use, as a final flap setting, the minimum certificated landing flap setting set forth in the approved performance...

  2. Metrics for Operator Situation Awareness, Workload, and Performance in Automated Separation Assurance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strybel, Thomas Z.; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Battiste, Vernol; Dao, Arik-Quang; Dwyer, John P.; Landry, Steven; Johnson, Walter; Ho, Nhut

    2011-01-01

    A research consortium of scientists and engineers from California State University Long Beach (CSULB), San Jose State University Foundation (SJSUF), California State University Northridge (CSUN), Purdue University, and The Boeing Company was assembled to evaluate the impact of changes in roles and responsibilities and new automated technologies, being introduced in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), on operator situation awareness (SA) and workload. To meet these goals, consortium members performed systems analyses of NextGen concepts and airspace scenarios, and concurrently evaluated SA, workload, and performance measures to assess their appropriateness for evaluations of NextGen concepts and tools. The following activities and accomplishments were supported by the NRA: a distributed simulation, metric development, systems analysis, part-task simulations, and large-scale simulations. As a result of this NRA, we have gained a greater understanding of situation awareness and its measurement, and have shared our knowledge with the scientific community. This network provides a mechanism for consortium members, colleagues, and students to pursue research on other topics in air traffic management and aviation, thus enabling them to make greater contributions to the field

  3. Interaction of Airspace Partitions and Traffic Flow Management Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palopo, Kee; Chatterji, Gano B.; Lee, Hak-Tae

    2010-01-01

    To ensure that air traffic demand does not exceed airport and airspace capacities, traffic management restrictions, such as delaying aircraft on the ground, assigning them different routes and metering them in the airspace, are implemented. To reduce the delays resulting from these restrictions, revising the partitioning of airspace has been proposed to distribute capacity to yield a more efficient airspace configuration. The capacity of an airspace partition, commonly referred to as a sector, is limited by the number of flights that an air traffic controller can safely manage within the sector. Where viable, re-partitioning of the airspace distributes the flights over more efficient sectors and reduces individual sector demand. This increases the overall airspace efficiency, but requires additional resources in some sectors in terms of controllers and equipment, which is undesirable. This study examines the tradeoff of the number of sectors designed for a specified amount of traffic in a clear-weather day and the delays needed for accommodating the traffic demand. Results show that most of the delays are caused by airport arrival and departure capacity constraints. Some delays caused by airspace capacity constraints can be eliminated by re-partitioning the airspace. Analyses show that about 360 high-altitude sectors, which are approximately today s operational number of sectors of 373, are adequate for delays to be driven solely by airport capacity constraints for the current daily air traffic demand. For a marginal increase of 15 seconds of average delay, the number of sectors can be reduced to 283. In addition, simulations of traffic growths of 15% and 20% with forecasted airport capacities in the years 2018 and 2025 show that delays will continue to be governed by airport capacities. In clear-weather days, for small increases in traffic demand, increasing sector capacities will have almost no effect on delays.

  4. AMiBA: System Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kai-Yang; Li, Chao-Te; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Koch, Patrick M.; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Kestevan, Michael; Birkinshaw, Mark; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Ibañez-Roman, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Kubo, Derek Y.; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick; Chen, Ke-Jung; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2009-04-01

    The Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy started scientific operation in early 2007. This work describes the optimization of the system performance for the measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect for six massive galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.09-0.32. We achieved a point-source sensitivity of 63 ± 7 mJy with the seven 0.6 m dishes in 1 hr of on-source integration in two-patch differencing observations. We measured and compensated for the delays between the antennas of our platform-mounted interferometer. Beam switching was used to cancel instrumental instabilities and ground pick up. Total power and phase stability were good on timescales of hours, and the system was shown to integrate down on equivalent timescales of 300 hr per baseline/correlation, or about 10 hr for the entire array. While the broadband correlator leads to good sensitivity, the small number of lags in the correlator resulted in poorly measured bandpass response. We corrected for this by using external calibrators (Jupiter and Saturn). Using Jupiter as the flux standard, we measured the disk brightness temperature of Saturn to be 149+5 -12 K.

  5. Analysis of Different Cost Functions in the Geosect Airspace Partitioning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    A new cost function representing air traffic controller workload is implemented in the Geosect airspace partitioning tool. Geosect currently uses a combination of aircraft count and dwell time to select optimal airspace partitions that balance controller workload. This is referred to as the aircraft count/dwell time hybrid cost function. The new cost function is based on Simplified Dynamic Density, a measure of different aspects of air traffic controller workload. Three sectorizations are compared. These are the current sectorization, Geosect's sectorization based on the aircraft count/dwell time hybrid cost function, and Geosect s sectorization based on the Simplified Dynamic Density cost function. Each sectorization is evaluated for maximum and average workload along with workload balance using the Simplified Dynamic Density as the workload measure. In addition, the Airspace Concept Evaluation System, a nationwide air traffic simulator, is used to determine the capacity and delay incurred by each sectorization. The sectorization resulting from the Simplified Dynamic Density cost function had a lower maximum workload measure than the other sectorizations, and the sectorization based on the combination of aircraft count and dwell time did a better job of balancing workload and balancing capacity. However, the current sectorization had the lowest average workload, highest sector capacity, and the least system delay.

  6. Performance confirmation data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    McAffee, D.A.; Raczka, N.T.

    1997-12-31

    As part of the Viability Assessment (VA) work, this QAP-3-9 document presents and evaluates a comprehensive set of viable concepts for collecting Performance Confirmation (PC) related data. The concepts include: monitoring subsurface repository air temperatures, humidity levels and gaseous emissions via the subsurface ventilation systems, and monitoring the repository geo-technical parameters and rock mass from bore-holes located along the perimeter main drifts and throughout a series of human-rated Observation Drifts to be located in a plane 25 meters above the plane of the emplacement drifts. A key element of this document is the development and analysis of a purposed multi-purpose Remote Inspection Gantry that would provide direct, real-time visual, thermal, and radiological monitoring of conditions inside operational emplacement drifts and close-up observations of in-situ Waste Packages. Preliminary finite-element analyses are presented that indicate the technological feasibility of operating an inspection gantry inside the operational emplacement drifts for short inspection missions lasting 2--3 hours. Overall reliability, availability, and maintainability of the PC data collection concepts are discussed. Preliminary concepts for PC data collection network are also provided.

  7. ACCESS Sub-system Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew J.; Aldoroty, Lauren Nicole; Godon, David; Pelton, Russell; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Kurucz, Robert L.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Kimble, Randy A.; Wright, Edward L.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Feldman, Paul D.; Moos, H. Warren; Riess, Adam G.; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana E.; Dixon, William Van Dyke; Sahnow, David J.; Lampton, Michael; Perlmutter, Saul

    2016-01-01

    ACCESS: Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to leverage significant technological advances in detectors, instruments, and the precision of the fundamental laboratory standards used to calibrate these instruments to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of laboratory absolute detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass.A cross wavelength calibration of the astrophysical flux scale to this level of precision over this broad a bandpass is relevant for the data used to probe fundamental astrophysical problems such as the SNeIa photometry based measurements used to constrain dark energy theories.We will describe the strategy for achieving this level of precision, the payload and calibration configuration, present sub-system test data, and the status and preliminary performance of the integration and test of the spectrograph and telescope. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX14AH48G supports this work.

  8. 76 FR 77939 - Proposed Provision of Navigation Services for the Next Generation Air Transportation System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ...The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) seeks comments on a proposed transition of the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) navigation infrastructure to enable performance-based navigation (PBN) as part of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The FAA plans to transition from defining airways, routes and procedures using VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR) and other legacy......

  9. 75 FR 43 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Sarasota, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... FR 46898), Docket No. FAA-2009-0652; Airspace Docket 09-ASO-21. The FAA uses the direct final... College Park, Georgia, on December 17, 2009. Barry A. Knight, Acting Manager, Operations Support...

  10. 14 CFR 71.33 - Class A airspace areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 71.33, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... of the earth and the Alaska Peninsula west of longitude 160°00′00″ West. (c) The airspace...

  11. 14 CFR 71.33 - Class A airspace areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 71.33, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... of the earth and the Alaska Peninsula west of longitude 160°00′00″ West. (c) The airspace...

  12. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  13. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  14. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  15. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Review. Airspace and range proposals require review by HQ USAF/XOO prior to public announcement and... attachment to the proposal sent to HQ USAF/XOO. (b) Federal Aviation Administration. The DoD and the...

  16. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Review. Airspace and range proposals require review by HQ USAF/XOO prior to public announcement and... attachment to the proposal sent to HQ USAF/XOO. (b) Federal Aviation Administration. The DoD and the...

  17. Statistical assessment of speech system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moshier, Stephen L.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for the normalization of performance tests results of speech recognition systems are presented. Technological accomplishments in speech recognition systems, as well as planned research activities are described.

  18. Improving File System Performance by Striping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Terance L.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This document discusses the performance and advantages of striped file systems on the SGI AD workstations. Performance of several striped file system configurations are compared and guidelines for optimal striping are recommended.

  19. System Performance of an Integrated Airborne Spacing Algorithm with Ground Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Wilson, Sara R.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to facilitate the transition of mature ATM technologies from the laboratory to operational use. The technologies selected for demonstration are the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM), which provides precise time-based scheduling in the Terminal airspace; Controller Managed Spacing (CMS), which provides controllers with decision support tools to enable precise schedule conformance; and Interval Management (IM), which consists of flight deck automation that enables aircraft to achieve or maintain precise spacing behind another aircraft. Recent simulations and IM algorithm development at NASA have focused on trajectory-based IM operations where aircraft equipped with IM avionics are expected to achieve a spacing goal, assigned by air traffic controllers, at the final approach fix. The recently published IM Minimum Operational Performance Standards describe five types of IM operations. This paper discusses the results and conclusions of a human-in-the-loop simulation that investigated three of those IM operations. The results presented in this paper focus on system performance and integration metrics. Overall, the IM operations conducted in this simulation integrated well with ground-based decisions support tools and certain types of IM operational were able to provide improved spacing precision at the final approach fix; however, some issues were identified that should be addressed prior to implementing IM procedures into real-world operations.

  20. Performance of code division multiple access systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Huth, G. K.; Batson, B. H.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of code division multiple-access (CDMA) systems is determined using direct sequence spectral spreading. Under relatively ideal conditions, the degradation in system performance as a function of the number of users is shown to have a threshold effect. This basic limitation in the number of users of the system is further limited if the powers are unequal. For two users, system performance as a function of their power ratio also has a threshold effect. System performance as a function of the amount of spectral spreading is determined. The performance of both coded and uncoded systems is predicted.

  1. Performance related issues in distributed database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    The key elements of research performed during the year long effort of this project are: Investigate the effects of heterogeneity in distributed real time systems; Study the requirements to TRAC towards building a heterogeneous database system; Study the effects of performance modeling on distributed database performance; and Experiment with an ORACLE based heterogeneous system.

  2. Performance evaluation of ground based radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Stanley E.

    1994-06-01

    Ground based radar systems are a critical resource to the command, control, and communications system. This thesis provides the tools and methods to better understand the actual performance of an operational ground based radar system. This thesis defines two measurable performance standards: (1) the baseline performance, which is based on the sensor's internal characteristics, and (2) the theoretical performance, which considers not only the sensor's internal characteristics, but also the effects of the surrounding terrain and atmosphere on the sensor's performance. The baseline radar system performance, often used by operators, contractors, and radar modeling software to determine the expected system performance, is a simplistic and unrealistic means to predict actual radar system performance. The theoretical radar system performance is more complex; but, the results are much more indicative of the actual performance of an operational radar system. The AN/UPS-1 at the Naval Postgraduate School was used as the system under test to illustrate the baseline and theoretical radar system performance. The terrain effects are shown by performing a multipath study and producing coverage diagrams. The key variables used to construct the multipath study and coverage diagrams are discussed in detail. The atmospheric effects are illustrated by using the Integrated Refractive Effects Prediction System (IREPS) and the Engineer's Refractive Effects Prediction System (EREPS) software tools to produce propagations conditions summaries and coverage displays.

  3. Shared performance monitor in a multiprocessor system

    DOEpatents

    Chiu, George; Gara, Alan G; Salapura, Valentina

    2014-12-02

    A performance monitoring unit (PMU) and method for monitoring performance of events occurring in a multiprocessor system. The multiprocessor system comprises a plurality of processor devices units, each processor device for generating signals representing occurrences of events in the processor device, and, a single shared counter resource for performance monitoring. The performance monitor unit is shared by all processor cores in the multiprocessor system. The PMU is further programmed to monitor event signals issued from non-processor devices.

  4. 75 FR 43816 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mount Airy, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...This action amends Class E Airspace at Mount Airy, NC, to accommodate the additional airspace needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Mount Airy-Surry County...

  5. Ultrasonic spectroscopy for the inspection of airspace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2004-07-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of airspace structures can be performed using ultrasonic spectroscopy utilizing the information in the frequency domain obtained due to the constructive and destructive interference of elastic waves. The application field of ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy (URS) is likely to increase rapidly with the growing application of layered structures in modern aircraft. The aim of this paper is to enlighten the potential and the limitations of the URS techniques. We start from explaining principles of URS applied to multi-layered structures and then we present a theoretical model that enables predicting the modal shapes and resonance frequencies of the thickness mode resonances occurring in multi-layered structures. The model also includes the piezoelectric transducer used for sensing the structure resonances. Presentation of the narrowband URS technique is illustrated with results of measurements performed using specially designed resonance transducers in carefully selected narrow frequency bands. We also present a novel method for sensing transducer's resonance based on the use of a phase locked loop (PLL).

  6. Mass Storage Performance Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop a data warehouse to enable system administrators and their managers to gather information by querying the data logs of the MDSDS. Currently detailed logs capture the activity of the MDSDS internal to the different systems. The elements to be included in the data warehouse are requirements analysis, data cleansing, database design, database population, hardware/software acquisition, data transformation, query and report generation, and data mining.

  7. Telerobotic system performance measurement - Motivation and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.

    1992-01-01

    A systems performance-based strategy for modeling and conducting experiments relevant to the design and performance characterization of telerobotic systems is described. A developmental testbed consisting of a distributed telerobotics network and initial efforts to implement the strategy described is presented. Consideration is given to the general systems performance theory (GSPT) to tackle human performance problems as a basis for: measurement of overall telerobotic system (TRS) performance; task decomposition; development of a generic TRS model; and the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT employs a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented within the framework of a distributed telerobotics network as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data is described.

  8. Performance Of Perfluoropolyalkylether Lubricant System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K.; Masuda, S.; Lin, Wen-Huey; Bierschenk, T.; Kawa, H.; Juhlke, T.; Lagow, R.

    1995-01-01

    Perfluoro-polyalkylethers (PFPAE) constitute class of fluids having characteristics of high thermal oxidative stability, good vicosity-temperature characteristics, good elastohydrodynamic film-forming capabilities, low volatility, and non-flammability. One unfortunate drawback PFPAE causes severe metal corrosion and fluid degradation when used in oxidizing atmosphere. Reports of interest deal with synthesis of PFPAE-type liquids and development of additive to reduce oxidizing atmosphere degradation. Properties and molecular structures reported in detail. Also lubricant performance over range of conditions.

  9. MPD arcjet system performance test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Shimizu, Yukio; Morimoto, Shinji; Kuwahara, Keiichi; Kisaragi, Takayasu; Uematsu, Kazuo; Enya, Shintaro; Sasao, Yoshio

    A new MPD (magnetoplasmadynamic) arcjet system was developed and tested to demonstrate its technological readiness for flight model design. The MPD arcjet, of quasisteady type, was repetitively operated. In the endurance test, more than 10 5 shots were cleared in continuous operation. Some components cleared more than 10 6 shots. Cathode erosion was markedly reduced through the use of newly developed material. Thermal data were obtained which define the thermal interface between the spacecraft and the MPD arcjet system. Waste heat from the electrodes was found to be 20-30% of the input power and to vary with repetition frequency. No technological difficulties are foreseen for further continuation of repetitive operation.

  10. Measured performance of the GTA rf systems

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, P.M.; Jachim, S.P.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes the performance of the RF systems on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The RF system architecture is briefly described. Among the RF performance results presented are RF field flatness and stability, amplitude and phase control resolution, and control system bandwidth and stability. The rejection by the RF systems of beam-induced disturbances, such as transients and noise, are analyzed. The observed responses are also compared to computer-based simulations of the RF systems for validation.

  11. Measured performance of the GTA rf systems

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, P.M.; Jachim, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of the RF systems on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The RF system architecture is briefly described. Among the RF performance results presented are RF field flatness and stability, amplitude and phase control resolution, and control system bandwidth and stability. The rejection by the RF systems of beam-induced disturbances, such as transients and noise, are analyzed. The observed responses are also compared to computer-based simulations of the RF systems for validation.

  12. Evaluating Performances of Solar-Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    CONC11 computer program calculates performances of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. Solar thermal power system consists of one or more collectors, power-conversion subsystems, and powerprocessing subsystems. CONC11 intended to aid system designer in comparing performance of various design alternatives. Written in Athena FORTRAN and Assembler.

  13. 78 FR 11996 - Proposed Modification of Class D and Class E Airspace; Pueblo, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...This action proposes to modify Class D airspace and the Class E airspace areas at Pueblo Memorial Airport, Pueblo, CO. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using VHF Omni- Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) standard instrument approach procedures at Pueblo Memorial Airport. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of......

  14. 76 FR 52596 - Proposed Establishment of Class C Airspace for Long Beach, CA; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class C Airspace for Long Beach... airspace users and others, concerning a proposal to establish Class C airspace at Long Beach, CA. The... on or before December 12, 2011. ADDRESSES: The meetings will be held at the Holiday Inn Long...

  15. 75 FR 14381 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mount Airy, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Mount Airy, NC, to accommodate the additional airspace needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Mount Airy-Surry County Airport. This action enhances the safety and airspace management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the...

  16. 76 FR 31510 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rutherfordton, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Rutherfordton, NC, to accommodate the additional airspace needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Rutherford County Airport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the...

  17. 78 FR 33019 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Commerce, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary...

  18. 75 FR 17322 - Proposed Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Big Delta, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ...This action proposes to revoke Class D and E airspace at Big Delta, AK. This airspace duplicates the controlled airspace for Delta Junction, Alaska, which serves Allen Army Airfield. The duplication makes this action necessary to eliminate possible confusion, and enhance safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)...

  19. 75 FR 20774 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... FR 63976), Docket No. FAA-2009-0061; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-10. The FAA uses the direct final... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN AGENCY... December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Johnson County Airport, Mountain City, TN....

  20. 75 FR 27229 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ...This action proposes to modify the Chicago, IL, Class B airspace area by expanding the existing airspace to ensure containment of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft conducting instrument approach procedures within Class B airspace, and segregating IFR aircraft at Chicago O'Hare International Airport (ORD) and Visual Flight Rules (VFR) aircraft operating in the vicinity of Chicago Class B......

  1. 78 FR 76779 - Proposed Modification of the Philadelphia, PA, Class B Airspace Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...This action proposes to amend the description of Area G of the Philadelphia Class B airspace area to correct a design error that resulted in the Class B airspace being published 2.1 nautical miles (NM) larger on the southeast side of the area than intended. No other changes to the Philadelphia Class B airspace are being...

  2. STOL terminal area operating systems (aircraft and onboard avionics, ATC, navigation aids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrous, C.; Erzberger, H.; Johnson, N.; Neuman, F.

    1974-01-01

    Operational procedures and systems onboard the STOL aircraft which are required to enable the aircraft to perform acceptably in restricted airspace in all types of atmospheric conditions and weather are discussed. Results of simulation and flight investigations to establish operational criteria are presented.

  3. INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON RA; MEEUWSEN WE

    2009-03-12

    This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance.

  4. User Centered, Application Independent Visualization of National Airspace Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.; Hinton, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an application independent software tool, IV4D, built to visualize animated and still 3D National Airspace System (NAS) data specifically for aeronautics engineers who research aggregate, as well as single, flight efficiencies and behavior. IV4D was origin ally developed in a joint effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (A FRL) to support the visualization of air traffic data from the Airspa ce Concept Evaluation System (ACES) simulation program. The three mai n challenges tackled by IV4D developers were: 1) determining how to d istill multiple NASA data formats into a few minimal dataset types; 2 ) creating an environment, consisting of a user interface, heuristic algorithms, and retained metadata, that facilitates easy setup and fa st visualization; and 3) maximizing the user?s ability to utilize the extended range of visualization available with AFRL?s existing 3D te chnologies. IV4D is currently being used by air traffic management re searchers at NASA?s Ames and Langley Research Centers to support data visualizations.

  5. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  6. Inspecting multilayered airspace structures using ultrasonic narrowband spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz; Jonsson, Marcus

    2005-05-01

    Recently, an increased need for effective NDE tools for layered structures has been observed with the increased use of bonded structures (e.g. GLARE) and carbon fiber reinforced panels (CFRP) in modern aircraft constructions. NDE of multilayered airspace structures can be performed using ultrasonic spectroscopy which makes use of the information in the frequency domain generated due to the constructive and destructive interference of elastic waves. The paper presents a novel narrowband ultrasonic spectroscopy (NBS) technique which utilizes specially designed resonance transducers with carefully selected narrow frequency bands. The NBS is based on sensing electrical impedance of the piezoelectric transducer in the vicinity of its resonance. The theoretical model which enables predicting the resonance frequencies and modal shapes of the thickness mode resonances occurring in multi-layered structures is presented in the first part of the paper. The model includes the KLM equivalent circuit of a piezoelectric transducer used for sensing the resonances. Theoretical and experimental results are presented showing the relation of the impedance plane indications to the parameters of adhesive in aluminum sandwich structures. Results of the mechanized inspection CFRP specimens are presented in the second part of the paper.

  7. 77 FR 71734 - Proposed Modification of the Miami, FL, Class B Airspace Area; and the Ft Lauderdale, FL, Class C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...This notice announces three fact-finding informal airspace meetings to solicit information from airspace users and others, concerning a proposal to revise the Class B airspace at Miami, FL, and the Class C airspace at Ft Lauderdale, FL. The purpose of these meetings is to provide interested parties an opportunity to present views, recommendations, and comments on the proposal. All comments......

  8. 75 FR 17202 - Proposed Establishment of Long Beach, CA, Class C Airspace Area and Revision of Santa Ana (John...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Revision of Santa Ana (John Wayne), CA, Class C Airspace Area; Public Meetings AGENCY: Federal Aviation... establish Class C airspace at Long Beach, CA, and revise the Santa Ana (John Wayne) Class C airspace area... Santa Ana (John Wayne), CA, Class C airspace area will be accepted. (b) The meetings will be open to...

  9. Generic Airspace Research Phase 5 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William E.; Bridges, Wayne W.; Peknik, Dan N.; Gujral, Vimmy

    2014-01-01

    Human-in-the-loop testing was completed to assess the subjective preferences, usage, and operational benefits of Integrated and Separated Controller Information Tools (CITs) in support of Generic Airspace Research. Participants controlled traffic in in a busy, high altitude sector with the aid of the CITs. When the participants were asked which CIT that they preferred to use, they overwhelmingly chose the integrated version of the CIT. The primary reason for this seemed to be that it allowed participants to remain focused on the traffic situation, whereas the Standalone CIT required them to focus their attention for short periods away from the radar presentation. In contrast to their preference, there were little or no differences in the CIT usage and the operational differences. There were similar numbers of losses of separation and participants accessed each CIT equally. Although the information accessed was the similar for the two conditions, participants actively turned off the data on the Integrated CIT, presumably to reduce the clutter on the radar scope. Further work is needed to isolate which information can and should be available to controllers in the Integrated vs. Standalone format.

  10. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  11. RHIC sextant test: Accelerator systems and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, F.; Trbojevic, D.; Ahrens, L.

    1997-08-01

    One sextant of the RHIC Collider was commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the performance of the accelerator systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. We also describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems performance and their impact on the planning for RHIC installation and commissioning.

  12. Cost and Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Smith, J. H.; Davisson, M. C.; Reiter, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lifetime cost and performance (LCP) model assists in assessment of design options for photovoltaic systems. LCP is simulation of performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with photovoltaic power systems connected to electric-utility grid. LCP provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of application.

  13. Cost and Performance of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Davisson, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Lifetime Cost and Performance (LCP) model assists in design of Photovoltaic (PV) systems. LCP simulation of performance, cost and revenue streams associated with distributed PV power systems. Provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of PV application.

  14. Performance evaluation of video colonoscope systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picciano, Lawrence D.; Keller, James P.

    1994-05-01

    A comparative engineering performance evaluation was performed on video colonoscope systems from all three of the current U.S. suppliers: Fujinon, Olympus, and Pentax. Video system test methods, results, and conclusions based on their clinical significance are the focus of this paper.

  15. 14 CFR 91.705 - Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil... provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry...

  16. 14 CFR 91.705 - Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil... provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry...

  17. 14 CFR 91.705 - Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil... provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry...

  18. 14 CFR 91.705 - Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil... provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry...

  19. 14 CFR 91.705 - Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil... provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry...

  20. Beyond Instructional Systems: A Performance Technology Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruckdeschel, Clare; Yarter, Michael; Riveccio, Mary Ann; Cortes, Ivan; Cookson, Mark S.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of performance technology, the application of knowledge for optimizing performance. Discusses the influence of ISD (instructional systems design), tactical interventions, business, and industry; its use in business, industry, military, and government; and academic backgrounds of performance designers. Outlines a…

  1. Business School's Performance Management System Standards Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azis, Anton Mulyono; Simatupang, Togar M.; Wibisono, Dermawan; Basri, Mursyid Hasan

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to compare various Performance Management Systems (PMS) for business school in order to find the strengths of each standard as inputs to design new model of PMS. There are many critical aspects and gaps notified for new model to improve performance and even recognized that self evaluation performance management is not well…

  2. Desiccant cooling system performance: A simple approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, M.; Grolmes, M. A.

    1982-10-01

    The wave nature of heat and mass transfer in fixed desiccant bed adsorption is explained. A simple algebraic model of wave motion under single low desiccant bed operation is developed and applied to the prediction of the performance potential of the overall desiccant cooling system. The model is used to explain the increase in cooling system performance that is realized through the use of mixed inert desiccant material adsorption beds. The response of cooling system performance to changes in external process conditions is examined and conclusions are drawn relative to optimization of system characteristics.

  3. Performance measurement for information systems: Industry perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Yoes, Cissy; Hamilton, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Performance measurement has become a focal topic for information systems (IS) organizations. Historically, IS performance measures have dealt with the efficiency of the data processing function. Today, the function of most IS organizations goes beyond simple data processing. To understand how IS organizations have developed meaningful performance measures that reflect their objectives and activities, industry perspectives on IS performance measurement was studied. The objectives of the study were to understand the state of the practice in IS performance techniques for IS performance measurement; to gather approaches and measures of actual performance measures used in industry; and to report patterns, trends, and lessons learned about performance measurement to NASA/JSC. Examples of how some of the most forward looking companies are shaping their IS processes through measurement is provided. Thoughts on the presence of a life-cycle to performance measures development and a suggested taxonomy for performance measurements are included in the appendices.

  4. Performance Evaluation of a Data Validation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Edmond (Technical Monitor); Sowers, T. Shane; Santi, L. Michael; Bickford, Randall L.

    2005-01-01

    Online data validation is a performance-enhancing component of modern control and health management systems. It is essential that performance of the data validation system be verified prior to its use in a control and health management system. A new Data Qualification and Validation (DQV) Test-bed application was developed to provide a systematic test environment for this performance verification. The DQV Test-bed was used to evaluate a model-based data validation package known as the Data Quality Validation Studio (DQVS). DQVS was employed as the primary data validation component of a rocket engine health management (EHM) system developed under NASA's NGLT (Next Generation Launch Technology) program. In this paper, the DQVS and DQV Test-bed software applications are described, and the DQV Test-bed verification procedure for this EHM system application is presented. Test-bed results are summarized and implications for EHM system performance improvements are discussed.

  5. Management system, organizational climate and performance relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, B. D.

    1979-01-01

    Seven aerospace firms were investigated to determine if a relationship existed among management systems, organizational climate, and organization performance. Positive relationships were found between each of these variables, but a statistically significant relationship existed only between the management system and organizational climate. The direction and amount of communication and the degree of decentralized decision-making, elements of the management system, also had a statistically significant realtionship with organization performance.

  6. Impact of Airspace Charges on Transatlantic Aircraft Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Linke, Florian; Chen, Neil Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft flying over the airspace of different countries are subject to over-flight charges. These charges vary from country to country. Airspace charges, while necessary to support the communication, navigation and surveillance services, may lead to aircraft flying routes longer than wind-optimal routes and produce additional carbon dioxide and other gaseous emissions. This paper develops an optimal route between city pairs by modifying the cost function to include an airspace cost whenever an aircraft flies through a controlled airspace without landing or departing from that airspace. It is assumed that the aircraft will fly the trajectory at a constant cruise altitude and constant speed. The computationally efficient optimal trajectory is derived by solving a non-linear optimal control problem. The operational strategies investigated in this study for minimizing aircraft fuel burn and emissions include flying fuel-optimal routes and flying cost-optimal routes that may completely or partially reduce airspace charges en route. The results in this paper use traffic data for transatlantic flights during July 2012. The mean daily savings in over-flight charges, fuel cost and total operation cost during the period are 17.6 percent, 1.6 percent, and 2.4 percent respectively, along the cost- optimal trajectories. The transatlantic flights can potentially save $600,000 in fuel cost plus $360,000 in over-flight charges daily by flying the cost-optimal trajectories. In addition, the aircraft emissions can be potentially reduced by 2,070 metric tons each day. The airport pairs and airspace regions that have the highest potential impacts due to airspace charges are identified for possible reduction of fuel burn and aircraft emissions for the transatlantic flights. The results in the paper show that the impact of the variation in fuel price on the optimal routes is to reduce the difference between wind-optimal and cost-optimal routes as the fuel price increases. The

  7. Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) Project First Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Robert; Kille, Robert; Kirsten, Richard; Rigterink, Paul; Sielski, Henry; Gratteau, Melinda F. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A three-day NASA Virtual Airspace and Modeling Project (VAMS) Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) was held at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. on May 21 through May 23,2002. The purpose of this meeting was to share initial concept information sponsored by the VAMS Project. An overall goal of the VAMS Project is to develop validated, blended, robust and transition-able air transportation system concepts over the next five years that will achieve NASA's long-term Enterprise Aviation Capacity goals. This document describes the presentations at the TIM, their related questions and answers, and presents the TIM recommendations.

  8. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  9. Performance of image intensifiers in radiographic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Electronic charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras equipped with image intensifiers are increasingly being used for radiographic applications. These systems may be used to replace film recording for static imaging, or at other times CCDs coupled with electro-optical shutters may be used for static or dynamic (explosive) radiography. Image intensifiers provide precise shuttering and signal gain. The authors have developed a set of performance measures to calibrate systems, compare one system to another, and to predict experimental performance. The performance measures discussed in this paper are concerned with image quality parameters that relate to resolution and signal-to-noise ratio.

  10. Transitioning from Free-Flight to TRACON Airspace: The Ground Perspective of User-Preferred Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy; Palmer, Everett; Null, Cynthia (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Free-flight is considered to play a major role in the future air traffic environment. Studies are underway addressing different concepts for free-flight and self separation in enroute airspace. One common opinion throughout the different concepts is that the airspace surrounding major airports, the Terminal Radar Approach CONtrol (TRACON) will not be a free flight area. This means that aircraft in this area are completely controlled by air traffic controllers, who may be supported by decision support system like the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). How the transition from the free-flight area (enroute airspace) to the terminal area will take place is currently unclear, This paper describes a study at NASA Ames Research Center addressing the perspective of air traffic controllers handling user-preferred (FMS-optimized) descent trajectories during this transition phase. Two major issues in enabling user preferred descents from the controllers' point of view are predictability and controllability. In an environment in which the air traffic services are highly responsive to user preferences controllers need to know, where and when aircraft will change their trajectory and they need to have appropriate means and procedures at hand to control the aircraft according to the overall traffic situation. Predictability shall be enhanced by: 1) Indicating airspace corridors for descending aircraft; 2) Modify the controller interface; 3) Using a ground based conflict probe; 4) Making use of downlinked intent information from the aircraft FMS; and 5) Requiring to fly pilots on user preferred trajectories coupled to the FMS in the lateral and vertical axis. Additional controllability shall be achieved by supporting the controllers with CTAS center tools: 1) Traffic Management Advisor (TMA); 2) Conflict Probing and Trial Planning (CP/TP); and 3) Enroute Descent Advisor (E/DA). The paper describes the general concept and the modifications to current systems required to enable

  11. Performance Monitoring of Distributed Data Processing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojha, Anand K.

    2000-01-01

    Test and checkout systems are essential components in ensuring safety and reliability of aircraft and related systems for space missions. A variety of systems, developed over several years, are in use at the NASA/KSC. Many of these systems are configured as distributed data processing systems with the functionality spread over several multiprocessor nodes interconnected through networks. To be cost-effective, a system should take the least amount of resource and perform a given testing task in the least amount of time. There are two aspects of performance evaluation: monitoring and benchmarking. While monitoring is valuable to system administrators in operating and maintaining, benchmarking is important in designing and upgrading computer-based systems. These two aspects of performance evaluation are the foci of this project. This paper first discusses various issues related to software, hardware, and hybrid performance monitoring as applicable to distributed systems, and specifically to the TCMS (Test Control and Monitoring System). Next, a comparison of several probing instructions are made to show that the hybrid monitoring technique developed by the NIST (National Institutes for Standards and Technology) is the least intrusive and takes only one-fourth of the time taken by software monitoring probes. In the rest of the paper, issues related to benchmarking a distributed system have been discussed and finally a prescription for developing a micro-benchmark for the TCMS has been provided.

  12. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  13. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Lee H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (VR) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  14. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane and engine performance deficiencies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system.

  15. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking of Intelligent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavan, Raj; Messina, Elena; Tunstel, Edward

    2009-09-01

    To design and develop capable, dependable, and affordable intelligent systems, their performance must be measurable. Scientific methodologies for standardization and benchmarking are crucial for quantitatively evaluating the performance of emerging robotic and intelligent systems technologies. There is currently no accepted standard for quantitatively measuring the performance of these systems against user-defined requirements; and furthermore, there is no consensus on what objective evaluation procedures need to be followed to understand the performance of these systems. The lack of reproducible and repeatable test methods has precluded researchers working towards a common goal from exchanging and communicating results, inter-comparing system performance, and leveraging previous work that could otherwise avoid duplication and expedite technology transfer. Currently, this lack of cohesion in the community hinders progress in many domains, such as manufacturing, service, healthcare, and security. By providing the research community with access to standardized tools, reference data sets, and open source libraries of solutions, researchers and consumers will be able to evaluate the cost and benefits associated with intelligent systems and associated technologies. In this vein, the edited book volume addresses performance evaluation and metrics for intelligent systems, in general, while emphasizing the need and solutions for standardized methods. To the knowledge of the editors, there is not a single book on the market that is solely dedicated to the subject of performance evaluation and benchmarking of intelligent systems. Even books that address this topic do so only marginally or are out of date. The research work presented in this volume fills this void by drawing from the experiences and insights of experts gained both through theoretical development and practical implementation of intelligent systems in a variety of diverse application domains. The book presents

  16. SARDA HITL Simulations: System Performance Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the 2012 SARDA human-in-the-loop simulation, and presents a summary of system performance results from the simulation, including delay, throughput and fuel consumption

  17. Capacity Takes Flight: A Vehicle-Centered Approach to Sustainable Airspace Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Barmore, Bryan E.

    2005-01-01

    The National Airspace System (NAS) faces a significant challenge. With the nation's economy growing stronger, and passengers returning to the skies, the demand for air transportation is steadily rising once again. The capacity of the current airspace system will struggle to keep pace in the near term, and with demand expected to double within a decade, air traffic delays are likely to escalate, soon becoming intolerable for aviation businesses. Recognition in the aviation community is forming that retaining a growing, thriving air transportation system for the benefit of the traveling public and the world economy will likely require implementing transformational ideas in air traffic management. This video illustrates an approach NASA is pursuing to this end: the notion that a major untapped resource available to air traffic management can be leveraged, the aircraft itself. The thesis presented is that implementation of vehicle-centric air traffic management capabilities into the NAS could have a profound, positive, and sustainable impact on system capacity, individual aircraft operators, and the economy through its dependency on air.

  18. Forecasting the Performance of Agroforestry Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeling, E.; Shepherd, K.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry has received considerable attention from scientists and development practitioners in recent years. It is recognized as a cornerstone of many traditional agricultural systems, as well as a new option for sustainable land management in currently treeless agricultural landscapes. Agroforestry systems are diverse, but most manifestations supply substantial ecosystem services, including marketable tree products, soil fertility, water cycle regulation, wildlife habitat and carbon sequestration. While these benefits have been well documented for many existing systems, projecting the outcomes of introducing new agroforestry systems, or forecasting system performance under changing environmental or climatic conditions, remains a substantial challenge. Due to the various interactions between system components, the multiple benefits produced by trees and crops, and the host of environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors that shape agroforestry systems, mechanistic models of such systems quickly become very complex. They then require a lot of data for site-specific calibration, which presents a challenge for their use in new environmental and climatic domains, especially in data-scarce environments. For supporting decisions on the scaling up of agroforestry technologies, new projection methods are needed that can capture system complexity to an adequate degree, while taking full account of the fact that data on many system variables will virtually always be highly uncertain. This paper explores what projection methods are needed for supplying decision-makers with useful information on the performance of agroforestry in new places or new climates. Existing methods are discussed in light of these methodological needs. Finally, a participatory approach to performance projection is proposed that captures system dynamics in a holistic manner and makes probabilistic projections about expected system performance. This approach avoids the temptation to take

  19. Selecting umbilicals for control system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kovit, S.

    1995-12-01

    This paper provides qualitative discussions and quantitative performance estimates to define the relationship between the size, material and length of umbilical lines and the performance of common types of subsea production control systems. Since performance is also a function of other parameters such as control fluid characteristics, platform and field geometries and the characteristics of the controlled functions; these are also considered in order to provide a more complete overview.

  20. A Behavior-Based Employee Performance System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy, William B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses human performance technology models for describing and understanding factors involved in day-to-day functioning of employees and then to develop specific remedial interventions as needed, and contrasts it to an organizational performance system perspective used to design an organization before employees are even hired to prevent bad…

  1. The engineered barrier system: Performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pigford, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    The engineered barrier system (EBS) for geologic disposal of high-level waste may typically consist of the waste solid, a container, and a porous backfill. Whether the surrounding rock is part of the EBS is arguable, but the properties of the surrounding rock strongly affect the EBS performance. The EBS functions and performance issue are addressed.

  2. The NERSC Sustained System Performance (SSP) Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Strohmaier, Erich

    2005-09-18

    Most plans and reports recently discuss only one of four distinct purposes benchmarks are used. The obvious purpose is selection of a system from among its competitors, something that is the main focus of this paper. This purpose is well discussed in many workshops and reports. The second use of benchmarks is validating the selected system actually works the way expected once it arrives. This purpose may be more important than the first reason. The second purpose is particularly key when systems are specified and selected based on performance projections rather than actual runs on the actual hardware. The third use of benchmarks, seldom mentioned, is to assure the system performs as expected throughout its lifetime1, (e.g. after upgrades, changes, and regular use.) Finally, benchmarks are used to guide system designs, something covered in detail in a companion paper from Berkeley's Institute for Performance Studies (BIPS).

  3. Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.

    1997-05-01

    This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process.

  4. Toward n-Ship Computation of Trajectories for Shared Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Daniel D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers an approach for modelling transport aircraft trajectories that can facilitate their rapid evaluation and modification, either en route or in terminal control areas, with the goal of efficiently making use of airspace and runways by a large population of vehicles without pairwise violation of separation criteria.

  5. 78 FR 67292 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carlsbad, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ..., area, creating additional controlled airspace at Cavern City Air Terminal (78 FR 48839) Docket No. FAA... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  6. 78 FR 67293 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kankakee, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... airspace at Greater Kankakee Airport (78 FR 48841) Docket No. FAA-2013-0176. Interested parties were... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  7. 78 FR 52084 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Harlingen, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... controlled airspace at Valley International Airport (77 FR 25226) Docket No. FAA-2012-1140. Interested...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  8. 78 FR 52085 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stockton, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... the Stockton, KS, area, creating controlled airspace at Rooks County Regional Airport (78 FR 25229... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  9. 78 FR 67297 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Curtis, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...., area, creating additional controlled airspace at Curtis Municipal Airport (78 FR 48838) Docket No. FAA...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  10. 75 FR 59934 - Amendment to Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... amendment of the Class E airspace published in the Federal Register on July 27, 2010 (75 FR 43817). This... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  11. 75 FR 4683 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Graford, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... controlled airspace at Possum Kingdom Airport (74 FR 57620) Docket No. FAA-2009-0927. Interested parties were... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  12. 77 FR 5 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kipnuk, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Kipnuk, AK (76 FR... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  13. 77 FR 18102 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lamar, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Lamar, CO (76 FR 78864... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  14. 76 FR 60714 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Northway, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register to revise Class E airspace at Northway, AK (76 FR 45475...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034;...

  15. 78 FR 58158 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wasatch, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Wasatch, UT (78 FR... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  16. 77 FR 38474 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Livingston, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Livingston, MT (77 FR 19953). Interested parties were... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory...

  17. 77 FR 28247 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decatur, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... controlled airspace at Decatur Airport (76 FR 77450) Docket No. FAA-2011-1105. Interested parties were... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  18. 77 FR 18103 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Piseco, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Piseco, NY (76 FR 77451.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  19. 78 FR 14651 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Goldsboro, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace in the Goldsboro, NC area (77 FR... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0...

  20. 14 CFR 91.131 - Operations in Class B airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... area. (b) Pilot requirements. (1) No person may take off or land a civil aircraft at an airport within...)(1)(ii), (b)(1)(iii) and (b)(1)(iv) of this section, no person may take off or land a civil aircraft... turbine engine-powered airplane to or from a primary airport for which a Class B airspace area...

  1. 14 CFR 91.131 - Operations in Class B airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... area. (b) Pilot requirements. (1) No person may take off or land a civil aircraft at an airport within...)(1)(ii), (b)(1)(iii) and (b)(1)(iv) of this section, no person may take off or land a civil aircraft... turbine engine-powered airplane to or from a primary airport for which a Class B airspace area...

  2. 77 FR 55688 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boise, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... FR 6026). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by submitting... E airspace designated as an extension at Boise Air Terminal, Boise, ID (77 FR 38552). Interested... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  3. Feasibility of Mixed Equipage Operations in the Same Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Smith, Nancy; Lee, Katharine; Aweiss, Arwa; Lee, Paul U.; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeff; Mainini, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This study used a human-in-the-loop simulation to examine the feasibility of mixed equipage operations in an automated separation assurance environment under higher traffic densities. The study involved two aircraft equipage alternatives with and without data link and four traffic conditions. In all traffic conditions the unequipped traffic count was increased linearly throughout the scenario from approximately 5 to 20 aircraft. Condition One consisted solely of this unequipped traffic, while the remaining three conditions also included a constant number of equipped aircraft operating within the same airspace: 15 equipped aircraft in condition two, 30 in condition three, and 45 in condition four. If traffic load became excessive during any run, participants were instructed to refuse sector entry to inbound unequipped aircraft until sector load became manageable. Results showed a progressively higher number of unequipped aircraft turned away under the second, third, and fourth scenario conditions. Controller workload also increased progressively. Participants rated the mixed operations concept as acceptable, with some qualifications about procedures and information displays. These results showed that mixed operations might be feasible in the same airspace, if unequipped aircraft count is held to a workable level. This level will decrease with increasing complexity. The results imply that integrated airspace configuration is feasible to a limit. The results also indicate that the conflict detection and resolution automation, equipage, and traffic density are important factors that will need to be considered for airspace configuration.

  4. 76 FR 28308 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Poplar, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... proposed rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Poplar, MT (76 FR 8921). Interested... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  5. 75 FR 20320 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February... to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC...

  6. 75 FR 81438 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Columbus, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... additional controlled airspace at Port Columbus International Airport (75 FR 64966) Docket No. FAA-2010-0770... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  7. 78 FR 5128 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Savoonga, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... modify controlled airspace at Savoonga, AK (77 FR 61304). Interested parties were invited to participate... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  8. 77 FR 52219 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lewistown, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...) to modify controlled airspace at Lewistown, MT (77 FR 38226). Interested parties were invited to... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  9. 77 FR 40489 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... amend Class E airspace at Memphis, TN (77 FR 17360). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  10. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless otherwise specified, the word “to” (an altitude or flight level) means “to and including” (that altitude or flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  11. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless otherwise specified, the word “to” (an altitude or flight level) means “to and including” (that altitude or flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  12. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless otherwise specified, the word “to” (an altitude or flight level) means “to and including” (that altitude or flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  13. 75 FR 12974 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hailey, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Hailey, ID (74 FR... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  14. 78 FR 48300 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mahnomen, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... the Mahnomen, MN, area, creating controlled airspace at Mahnomen County Airport (78 FR 25233) Docket...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  15. 75 FR 51172 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perham, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... airspace at Perham Municipal Airport (75 FR 27496) Docket No. FAA-2010-0402. Interested parties were... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  16. 78 FR 48297 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bedford, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Bedford County Airport, Bedford, PA. (78 FR 32213...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  17. 75 FR 12972 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rawlins, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Rawlins, WY (74 FR 57621). Interested parties were... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory...

  18. 75 FR 51175 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Perryville, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... additional controlled airspace at Perryville Municipal Airport (75 FR 23636) Docket No. FAA-2010-0403... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  19. 75 FR 17852 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Altus, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... published in the Federal Register a final rule amending Class E airspace in the Altus, OK area (74 FR 68666... September 15, 2009, which is incorporated by reference in 14 CFR part 71.1. In rule FR Doc. E9-30283 published on December 29, 2009, (74 FR 68666) make the following correction: On page 68667, in the...

  20. 78 FR 48302 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wagner, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ..., area, creating controlled airspace at Wagner Municipal Airport (78 FR 31430) Docket No. FAA-2013-0004... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  1. 78 FR 41289 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Ogallala, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ..., creating additional controlled airspace at Searle Field Airport (78 FR 18262) Docket No. FAA-2012-1138...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  2. 77 FR 66068 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Breckenridge, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ..., 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation..., creating additional controlled airspace at Stephens County Airport (77 FR 50648) Docket No. FAA-2012-0653... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  3. 75 FR 68416 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Berryville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71..., creating controlled airspace at Carroll County Airport (75 FR 53876) Docket No. FAA-2010-0690. Interested... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  4. 78 FR 18799 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Superior, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... controlled airspace at Richard I. Bong Airport (77 FR 71363) Docket No. FAA-2012-0656. Interested parties... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and...

  5. 78 FR 48301 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walker, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ..., area, creating controlled airspace at Walker Municipal Airport (78 FR 25234) Docket No. FAA-2013-0266... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  6. 78 FR 18802 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tecumseh, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ..., area, creating additional controlled airspace at Tecumseh Municipal Airport (77 FR 71368) Docket No... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  7. 75 FR 67911 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Jeannette, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Jeannette, PA...

  8. 75 FR 40719 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kemmerer, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Kemmerer, WY (75 FR 11477... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  9. 78 FR 48295 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gruver, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ..., creating additional controlled airspace at Gruver Municipal Airport (78 FR 18261) Docket No. FAA-2011-1111...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  10. 78 FR 48294 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mason, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... additional controlled airspace at Mason County Airport (78 FR 31429) Docket No. FAA-2012-1141. Interested... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  11. 75 FR 12161 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR...

  12. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless otherwise specified, the word “to” (an altitude or flight level) means “to and including” (that altitude or flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  13. 75 FR 19212 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Oxnard, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... additional controlled airspace at Point Mugu NAS, Oxnard, CA (74 FR 68748). Interested parties were invited... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  14. 78 FR 31397 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Cherokee, WY (78 FR 14032). Interested...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  15. 78 FR 22414 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Reno, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Reno, NV (78 FR 5153). Interested parties were invited to... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  16. 76 FR 9967 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Henderson, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... 20, 2010 (75 FR 79294), amends Class E airspace at Henderson City-County Airport, Henderson, KY. A typographical error was made in the regulatory text concerning the degree radial used; reference to the Pocket... Airport to 8.2 miles northwest of the airport. Issued in College Park, Georgia, on February 11, 2011....

  17. 75 FR 32269 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Wainwright, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... rulemaking in the Federal Register to revise Class E airspace at Wainwright, AK (75 FR 11480). Interested...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  18. 77 FR 29865 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Leesville, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389..., area, creating additional controlled airspace at Leesville Airport (77 FR 4702) Docket No. FAA-2011... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  19. 76 FR 59503 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lebanon, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Lebanon, PA (76 FR 39038... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  20. 76 FR 65944 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tatitlek, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... to establish Class E airspace at Tatitlek, AK (76 FR 49388). Interested parties were invited to... not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  1. 77 FR 4458 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rockingham, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... E airspace at Rockingham, NC, (76 FR 66867) Docket No. FAA-2011-1146. Interested parties were... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0...

  2. 76 FR 73503 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Winters, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... controlled airspace at Winters Municipal Airport (76 FR 53354) Docket No. FAA-2011-0608. Interested parties...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  3. 76 FR 75446 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... controlled airspace at Mercury, NV (76 FR 56127). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  4. 75 FR 55267 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation By Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9T in full text as proposed rule documents in the Federal Register. Likewise, all amendments of these listings were published in full text as final rules in the Federal... Order 7400.9U in full text as proposed rule documents in the Federal Register. Likewise, all...

  5. 78 FR 72009 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Star, NC (78 FR 54413... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  6. 78 FR 63861 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Minneapolis, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Class B airspace area (78 FR 10564). This action proposed to expand the lateral boundaries and lower... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... the Flying Cloud VOR/ DME navigation aid (FCM) 270 radial and the 20 NM to 30 NM arcs from the...

  7. 75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY:...

  8. 76 FR 67596 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Spearfish, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... additional controlled airspace at Black Hills Airport--Clyde Ice Field (76 FR 43610) Docket No. FAA-2011-0431... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  9. 76 FR 15825 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pueblo, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Pueblo, CO (76 FR 2609). Interested parties were invited... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  10. 75 FR 51172 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Litchfield, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... additional controlled airspace at Litchfield Municipal Airport (75 FR 27495) Docket No. FAA-2010-0401... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  11. 77 FR 42427 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA AGENCY:...

  12. 76 FR 75449 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stuart, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... controlled airspace at the City of Stuart Helistop (76 FR 53360) Docket No. FAA-2011-0831. Interested parties... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  13. 75 FR 23581 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., IA, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Emmetsburg Municipal Airport (75 FR 6592) Docket No. FAA... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  14. 75 FR 23580 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., reconfiguring controlled airspace at James G. Whiting Memorial Field Airport (75 FR 6595) Docket No. FAA-2009...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  15. 76 FR 65945 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... airspace area (76 FR 35363). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by.... 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p.389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... ensure the containment of large turbine-powered aircraft operating to and from the...

  16. 75 FR 61610 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Arco, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...This action will amend Class E airspace at Arco, ID. Decommissioning of the Arco-Butte County Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) at Arco-Butte County Airport has made this action necessary for the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the airport. This action also would adjust the geographic coordinates of the...

  17. 77 FR 45238 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL...

  18. 75 FR 57846 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Brewton, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR 71.1... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Brewton, AL AGENCY:...

  19. 76 FR 22015 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Raton, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... additional controlled airspace at Raton Municipal Airport/ Crews Field (76 FR 5305) Docket No. FAA-2010-1239... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 ] FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  20. 77 FR 6 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwigillingok, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... controlled airspace at Kwigillingok, AK (76 FR 54151). Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  1. 75 FR 41984 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Paynesville, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... controlled airspace at Paynesville Municipal Airport (75 FR 22044) Docket No. FAA-2010-0399. Interested... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  2. 75 FR 26150 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Williamson, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...: ] Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Williamson,...

  3. 76 FR 42471 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... rule FR Doc 2011-16783, on page 39259 in the Federal Register of July 6, 2011 (76 FR 39259), make the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME...

  4. 76 FR 30534 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kenbridge, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Kenbridge, VA (75 FR 14823...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  5. Feasibility of Mixed Equipage Operations in the Same Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Smith, Nancy; Lee, Katharine K.; Aweiss, Arwa Salem; Lee, Paul U.; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeff; Mainini, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This study used a human-in-the-loop simulation to examine the feasibility of mixed equipage operations in an automated separation assurance environment under higher traffic densities. The study involved two aircraft equipage alternatives - with and without data link- and four traffic conditions. In all traffic conditions the unequipped traffic count was increased linearly throughout the scenario from approximately 5 to 20 aircraft. Condition One consisted solely of this unequipped traffic, while the remaining three conditions also included a constant number of equipped aircraft operating within the same airspace: 15 equipped aircraft in condition two, 30 in condition three, and 45 in condition four. If traffic load became excessive during any run, participants were instructed to refuse sector entry to inbound unequipped aircraft until sector load became manageable. Results showed a progressively higher number of unequipped aircraft turned away under the second, third, and fourth scenario conditions. Controller workload also increased progressively. Participants rated the mixed operations concept as acceptable, with some qualifications about procedures and information displays. These results showed that mixed operations might be feasible in the same airspace, if unequipped aircraft count is held to a workable level. This level will decrease with increasing complexity. The results imply that integrated airspace configuration is feasible to a limit. The results also indicate that the conflict detection and resolution automation, equipage, and traffic density are important factors that will need to be considered for airspace configuration.

  6. 75 FR 8481 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Stamford, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3..., reconfiguring controlled airspace at Arledge Field Airport (74 FR 61289) Docket No. FAA-2009-0876. Interested... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  7. 76 FR 5469 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greensburg, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3..., IN, creating additional controlled airspace at Decatur County Memorial Hospital Heliport (75 FR 68551... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  8. 76 FR 75447 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmonak, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Emmonak, AK (76 FR... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  9. 77 FR 28245 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Omaha, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71..., creating additional controlled airspace at Eppley Airfield (76 FR 77448) Docket No. FAA-2011-1126... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  10. 76 FR 5470 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Richmond, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... controlled airspace at Reid Hospital Heliport (75 FR 68555) Docket No. FAA-2010-1033. Interested parties were... ``significant rule'' under DOT ] Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and...

  11. 75 FR 79295 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Crewe, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Crewe, VA (75 FR 57215...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  12. 76 FR 67057 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Evansville, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... controlled airspace at Evansville Regional Airport (76 FR 43615) Docket No. FAA-2011-0429. Interested parties... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  13. 75 FR 8484 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Langdon, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... controlled airspace at Robertson Field Airport (74 FR 63684) Docket No. FAA-2009-0535. Interested parties... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  14. 76 FR 75447 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Centerville, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... E airspace for the Centerville, IA, area. (76 FR 53358) Docket No. FAA-2011-0830. Interested parties... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  15. 75 FR 33165 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Galena, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR 71.1... airspace at Galena, AK (75 FR 17892). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory...

  16. 76 FR 58715 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Wrightstown, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation.... This action also updates the airspace descriptions to be in concert with the FAAs aeronautical...

  17. 75 FR 8482 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lima, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Lima Allen County Airport, Lima, OH (74 FR 57618) Docket... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  18. 76 FR 56967 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Glendive, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Glendive, MT (76 FR 41145). Interested parties were invited to... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  19. 78 FR 17084 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wilbur, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Wilbur, WA (77 FR 75597). Interested parties... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 ] FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation...

  20. 77 FR 38476 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eureka, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... notice of proposed rulemaking to establish controlled airspace at Eureka, NV (77 FR 21509). Interested... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...