Science.gov

Sample records for airspace west yellowstone

  1. 76 FR 18040 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at West Yellowstone, MT (76 FR 3569... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  2. 75 FR 30295 - Modification of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Register a Notice of proposed rulemaking to modify controlled airspace at West Yellowstone, MT (74 FR 67836... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  3. 76 FR 3569 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... 71 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West...

  4. 77 FR 17363 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; West Memphis, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at West Memphis, AR. Separation of...

  5. 78 FR 6258 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach,...

  6. 75 FR 13671 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; West Bend, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... additional controlled airspace at West Bend Municipal Airport (74 FR 68746) Docket No. FAA-2009-1149... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  7. 78 FR 18798 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Union, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ..., area, creating additional controlled airspace at George L. Scott Municipal Airport (77 FR 71361) Docket... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  8. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Beach County Park Airport, West Palm Beach, FL (78 FR 6258). Interested parties were invited to... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  9. Yellowstone Hotspot Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. B.; Farrell, J.; Massin, F.; Chang, W.; Puskas, C. M.; Steinberger, B. M.; Husen, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Yellowstone hotspot results from the interaction of a mantle plume with the overriding N. America plate producing a ~300-m high topographic swell centered on the Late Quaternary Yellowstone volcanic field. The Yellowstone area is dominated by earthquake swarms including a deadly M7.3 earthquake, extraordinary high heat flow up to ~40,000 mWm-2, and unprecedented episodes of crustal deformation. Seismic tomography and gravity data reveal a crustal magma reservoir, 6 to 15 km deep beneath the Yellowstone caldera but extending laterally ~20 km NE of the caldera and is ~30% larger than previously hypothesized. Kinematically, deformation of Yellowstone is dominated by regional crustal extension at up to ~0.4 cm/yr but with superimposed decadal-scale uplift and subsidence episodes, averaging ~2 cm/yr from 1923. From 2004 to 2009 Yellowstone experienced an accelerated uplift episode of up to 7 cm/yr whose source is modeled as magmatic recharge of a sill at the top of the crustal magma reservoir at 8-10-km depth. New mantle tomography suggest that Yellowstone volcanism is fed by an upper-mantle plume-shaped low velocity body that is composed of melt "blobs", extending from 80 km to 650 km in depth, tilting 60° NW, but then reversing tilt to ~60° SE to a depth of ~1500 km. Moreover, images of upper mantle conductivity from inversion of MT data reveal a high conductivity annulus around the north side of the plume in the upper mantle to resolved depths of ~300 km. On a larger scale, upper mantle flow beneath the western U.S. is characterized by eastward flow beneath Yellowstone at 5 cm/yr that deflects the plume to the west, and is underlain by a deeper zone of westerly return flow in the lower mantle reversing the deflection of the plume body to the SE. Dynamic modeling of the Yellowstone plume including a +15 m geoid anomaly reveals low excess plume temperatures, up to 150°K, consistent with a weak buoyancy flux of ~0.25 Mg/s. Integrated kinematic modeling of GPS

  10. Generic Airspace Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  11. Yellowstone Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen years after devastating forest fires burned over 1.6 million acres in Yellowstone National Park, the scars are still evident. In this simulated natural color ASTER image, burned areas appear gray, in contrast to the dark green of unburned forests. The image covers an area of 60 x 63 km. This image was acquired on July 2, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  12. YELLOWSTONE RIVER WATCH (YRW)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yellowstone River Watch seeks to expand its monitoring and education efforts throughout the Yellowstone River Basin by actively recruiting and training new teacher members. Yellowstone River Watch also seeks to advance existing school programs by offering quality assurance/quali...

  13. 14 CFR 71.33 - Class A airspace areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 71.33, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... of the earth and the Alaska Peninsula west of longitude 160°00′00″ West. (c) The airspace...

  14. 14 CFR 71.33 - Class A airspace areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 71.33, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... of the earth and the Alaska Peninsula west of longitude 160°00′00″ West. (c) The airspace...

  15. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo.

  16. Hydrothermal vents of Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplinski, M.A.; Morgan, P. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems within Yellowstone Lake are located within the Yellowstone caldera in the northeastern and West Thumb sections of the lake. The vent systems lie within areas of extremely high geothermal gradients (< 1,000 C/km) in the lake sediments and occur as clusters of individual vents that expel both hydrothermal fluids and gas. Regions surrounding the vents are colonized by unique, chemotropic biologic communities and suggest that hydrothermal input plays an important role in the nutrient dynamics of the lake's ecosystem. The main concentration of hydrothermal activity occurs in the northeast region of the main lake body in a number of locations including: (1) along the shoreline from the southern edge of Sedge Bay to the inlet of Pelican Creek; (2) the central portion of the partially submerged Mary Bay phreatic explosion crater, within deep (30--50 m) fissures; (3) along the top of a 3 km long, steep-sided ridge that extends from the southern border of Mary Bay, south-southeast into the main lake basin; and (4) east of Stevenson Island along the lower portion of the slope (50--107 m) into the lake basin, within an anastomosing series of north to northwest trending, narrow troughs or fissures. Hydrothermal vents were also located within, and surrounding the West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake, with the main concentration occurring the offshore of the West Thumb and Potts Geyser Basin. Hydrothermal vents in Yellowstone Lake occur along fractures that have penetrated the lake sediments or along the tops of ridges and near shore areas. Underneath the lake, rising hydrothermal fluids encounter a semi-permeable cap of lake sediments. Upwardly convecting hydrothermal fluid flow may be diverted by the impermeable lake sediments along the buried, pre-existing topography. These fluids may continue to rise along topography until fractures are encountered, or the lake sediment cover is thinned sufficiently to allow egress of the fluids.

  17. Let's Explore Yellowstone!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This presents several classroom activities that have been adapted from the Expedition Yellowstone program activities for fourth, fifth and sixth graders. Language arts, science, math, and social studies activities are presented. Expedition Yellowstone activities focus on the geology, ecology, animal life, and history of Yellowstone Park. (IAH)

  18. Dynamic Airspace Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In air traffic management systems, airspace is partitioned into regions in part to distribute the tasks associated with managing air traffic among different systems and people. These regions, as well as the systems and people allocated to each, are changed dynamically so that air traffic can be safely and efficiently managed. It is expected that new air traffic control systems will enable greater flexibility in how airspace is partitioned and how resources are allocated to airspace regions. In this talk, I will begin by providing an overview of some previous work and open questions in Dynamic Airspace Configuration research, which is concerned with how to partition airspace and assign resources to regions of airspace. For example, I will introduce airspace partitioning algorithms based on clustering, integer programming optimization, and computational geometry. I will conclude by discussing the development of a tablet-based tool that is intended to help air traffic controller supervisors configure airspace and controllers in current operations.

  19. 77 FR 38227 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Class D and Class E airspace at Bozeman Yellowstone...

  20. Bathymetry and Geology of the Floor of Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Lee, G.K.; Webring, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution, multi-beam sonar mapping of Yellowstone Lake was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in conjunction with the National Park Service from 1999 to 2002. Yellowstone Lake is the largest high-altitude lake in North America, at an altitude of 2,357 m with a surface area of 341 km2. More than 140 rivers and streams flow into Yellowstone Lake. The Yellowstone River, which enters at the southern end of the lake into the Southeast Arm, dominates the inflow of water and sediment (Shanks and others, 2005). The only outlet from the lake is at Fishing Bridge where the Yellowstone River flows northward discharging 375 to 4,600 cubic feet per second. The multi-beam sonar mapping occurred over a four-year period beginning in 1999 with mapping of the northern basin, continued in 2000 in West Thumb basin, in 2001 in the central basin, and in 2002 in the southern part of the lake including the Flat Mountain, South, and Southeast Arms.

  1. Advanced Airspace Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of the Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) is presented. The topics include: 1) Limitations of the existing system; 2) The Advanced Airspace Concept; 3) Candidate architecture for the AAC; 4) Separation assurance and conflict avoidance system (TSAFE); and 5) Ground-Air Interactions. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  2. Generic Airspace Concepts and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for reducing the training and memorization required to manage air traffic in mid-term, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. We contrasted the performance of controllers using a sector information display and NextGen automation tools while working with familiar and unfamiliar sectors. The airspace included five sectors from Oakland and Salt Lake City Centers configured as a "generic center" called "West High Center." The Controller Information Tool was used to present essential information for managing these sectors. The Multi Aircraft Control System air traffic control simulator provided data link and conflict detection and resolution. There were five experienced air traffic controller participants. Each was familiar with one or two of the five sectors, but not the others. The participants rotated through all five sectors during the ten data collection runs. The results addressing workload, traffic management, and safety, as well as controller and observer comments, supported the generic sector concept. The unfamiliar sectors were comparable to the familiar sectors on all relevant measures.

  3. Hot Spot at Yellowstone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dress, Abby

    2005-01-01

    Within this huge national park (over two million acres spread across Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho) are steaming geysers, hot springs, bubbling mudpots, and fumaroles, or steam vents. Drives on the main roads of Yellowstone take tourists through the major hot attractions, which also include Norris Geyser Basin, Upper and Lower Geyser Basin, West…

  4. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  5. Yellowstone hotspot-continental lithosphere interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Marlon M.; Hanan, Barry B.; Shervais, John W.

    2014-03-01

    The Snake River Plain represents 17 m.y. of volcanic activity that took place as the North American continent migrated over a relatively fixed magma source, or hotspot. We present new Pb, Sr, and Nd data for a suite of 25 basalts collected from Western and Central Snake River Plain (SRP). The new isotope data, combined with previously published data from the SRP, provide a traverse of the Wyoming craton margin, from the 87Sr/86Sr = 0.706 line boundary of western SRP with Phanerozoic accreted terranes, east through the central and eastern SRP, to the Yellowstone Plateau. Low-K basalts from the western SRP, overlain by high-K basalts, provide a temporal record of regional source variation from ∼16.8 to 0.2 Ma. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the new and previously published SRP basalt Pb isotopes reveals that >97% of the total variability is accounted for by mixing between three end-members and is consistent with a sublithospheric Yellowstone hotspot mantle source with a radiogenic isotope composition similar to the mantle source of the early Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) and two continental lithosphere end-members, heterogeneous in age and composition. We use the SRP Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope data to model the Yellowstone Hotspot-continental lithosphere interaction by three component mixing between two continental lithospheric components, Archean lithosphere (CL1) that represents older lithosphere underlying the Yellowstone Plateau in the east, and Paleoproterozoic lithosphere (CL2) representing the younger lithosphere underlying the SRP in the west near the craton margin, and a sublithospheric end-member, representing the Yellowstone hotspot (PL). The results suggest a continuous flow of PL material westward as the NA continental lithosphere migrated over the upwelling hotspot along a shoaling gradient in the sub-continental mantle lithosphere. The model shows a decrease in Total Lithosphere end-members (CL1 + CL2) and the Lithosphere Ratio (CL1/CL2

  6. Geothermal Systems of the Yellowstone Caldera Field Trip Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Duncan; Neilson, Dennis L.; Nichols, Clayton R.

    1980-09-08

    Geothermal studies are proceedings on two fronts in the West Yellowstone area. High-temperature resources for the generation of electricity are being sought in the Island Park area, and lower temperatures resources for direct applications, primarily space heating, are being explored for near the town of West Yellowstone. Potential electric geothermal development in the Island Park area has been the subject of widespread publicity over fears of damage to thermal features in Yellowstone Park. At the time of writing this guide, companies have applied for geothermal leases in the Island Park area, but these leases have not yet been granted by the US Forest Service. The Senate is now discussing a bill that would regulate geothermal development in Island Park; outcome of this debate will determine the course of action on the lease applications. The Island Park area was the site of two cycles of caldera activity, with major eruptions at 2.0 and 1.2 million years ago. The US Geological Survey estimates that 16,850 x 10{sup 18} joules of energy may remain in the system. Geothermal resources suitable for direct applications are being sought in the West Yellowstone vicinity by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, under funding from the US Department of Energy. West Yellowstone has a mean annual temperature of 1-2 C. Research thus far suggests that basement rocks in the vicinity are at a depth of about 600 m and are probably similar to the rocks exposed north of Hebgen Lake, where Precambrian, Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks have been mapped. A few sites with anomalously warm water have been identified near the town. Work is continuing on this project.

  7. The 1988 Fires in Yellowstone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dress, Abby

    2008-01-01

    The 1988 fires at Yellowstone National Park burned 1.4 million acres in the tri-state areas of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho--encompassing the greater Yellowstone area--and burned some 800,000 acres within the park itself (Franke 2000). This article discusses this extraordinary fire event and contains helpful resources for bringing the science of…

  8. Yellowstone--A Natural Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemery, Laura

    1992-01-01

    Describes the rationale and purpose of the Yellowstone Institute, an educational facility that offers short field courses to professional adults about the greater Yellowstone area as one of the last remaining intact wilderness ecosystems in the world. Contact information concerning the course catalog is provided. (JJK)

  9. 75 FR 73983 - Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B... information from airspace users and others concerning a proposal to revise the Class B airspace area at Salt... Terminal, 397 North 2370 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116. (3) The meeting on Thursday, February 3,...

  10. Post-200-ka Pyroclastic Eruptions of the Yellowstone Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. A.; Shanks, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Pyroclastic deposits intercalated in post-Yellowstone-caldera rhyolitic lava flows form a minor component of the total volume of high-silica rhyolites erupted between 200 and 70 ka. Such events produced significant volumes of ash, fast-moving pyroclastic flows, and volcanic gases during young eruptions on the Plateau. Thus, while these were less common events, it is important to know the details of these deposits, including the number and frequency of eruptions, their sources, and possible associations or relations to other volcanic or tectonic events. The tuff of Bluff Point is the largest of these <640-ka pyroclastic flows and is mapped within the Central Plateau Member above the Yellowstone Caldera. Eruption of the tuff of Bluff Point, around 170-200 ka, is estimated from current maps to be ~50 km3 and resulted in collapse of the 10-km-wide West Thumb caldera, centered in the western-most basin of Yellowstone Lake. Large amounts of water derived from an ancestral Yellowstone Lake may have been involved in the eruption, suggested by large blocks of glass and abundant smaller fragments of obsidian incorporated into the ignimbrite. The oval-shaped West Thumb caldera occurs within the much larger and older Yellowstone Caldera and has dimensions comparable to Crater Lake (Oregon). New mapping, variable 40Ar/39Ar ages, and differences in mineralogy, grain size, and component data between key exposures all suggest that the tuff of Bluff Point, as mapped, represents as many as three pyroclastic eruptions. These eruptions may have occurred over a 20- to 40-k.y. interval, which may explain enigmatic age discrepancies. Stratigraphic, mineralogical, geochemical, radiometric, granulometric, and component analyses are being employed to unravel the details and origins of these pyroclastic deposits, which are rich in glass, pumice, ash, crystal, and lithic fragments. Several pumice morphologies are present in each deposit. Pyroclastic fallout, sinter, and volcaniclastic

  11. Archaea in Yellowstone Lake

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (∼51 000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ∼69–84% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (96–97% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages. PMID:21544103

  12. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    PubMed Central

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E.; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P.; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations. PMID:24062731

  13. Prospects for Yellowstone grizzlies

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1985-12-01

    Recent analyses of data on the grizzly population of Yellowstone National Park and its environs suggest the likelihood of a continuing decline in numbers, if losses of fully adult females are not reduced. Current size of the population is not known, but a simple projection model has been used to identify some inconsistencies in the index data. Population dynamics calculations, based on Lotka's equation or a stochastic model, indicate a continuing decrease in numbers. The margin between stabilization of the population and a continued decrease appears to be roughly the loss of one fully adult female bear per year. At present, the risk of extirpation over the next 30 years appears to be small. Continued monitoring of survivorship will be needed, particularly since ''recovery'' of the population may be mainly characterized by a shift in the pattern of mortality, and not necessarily in absolute number of losses. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  15. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special use airspace. 73.3 Section 73.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.3 Special use airspace. (a) Special use airspace consists of airspace of defined dimensions identified by an...

  16. Testing Magnetotelluric Constraints on the Physical State of the Yellowstone Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B. S.; Egbert, G. D.; Humphreys, E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent inversions of long-period magnetotelluric (MT) datasets (Kelbert et al., 2012; Meqbel et al., 2014) have suggested that the mantle lithosphere directly beneath the modern Yellowstone caldera is electrically resistive. This observation implies that the uppermost mantle does not contain significant quantities of melt and therefore seems to contradict seismic tomography studies that find a major low-velocity plume-like feature directly beneath Yellowstone. Our ongoing investigation of the long-period Earthscope MT data suggests that these data are relatively insensitive to the conductivity structure in the upper mantle due to screening of deeper features by the modern electrically conductive magma chamber(s). Hence, at present we cannot conclude that the uppermost mantle directly beneath Yellowstone is electrically resistive. However, we do resolve a major electrically conductive anomaly that dips generally to the west at approximately 30 degrees from the vicinity of the seismically imaged magma reservoir(s) beneath the Yellowstone. The MT data therefore may indicate that the flow of melt is at least partially influenced by structures to the west of the modern caldera, specifically ancient (Paleoproterozoic) structures at the edge of the Wyoming Craton. While the geochemistry of Yellowstone eruptive products remains ambiguous with regards to source, radiogenic isotope model ages could be interpreted as supporting this possibility.

  17. Seismic Energy From Waterfalls in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, E. J.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, R.; Lin, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    We surveyed continuous seismic data recorded at two seismic stations in Yellowstone National Park that are located near to Yellowstone National Park's Upper and Lower Falls. Lower Falls is the largest waterfall in Yellowstone, with an estimated flow rate of 70 cubic meters per second, falling an estimated 94 meters, while the Upper Falls has a flow of 70 cubic meters per second, jetting over a 21 meter gap downward 33 meters. A study based on a deployment of seismometers in Yellowstone in September and October of 1972 had found a predominant 2 Hz signal associated with the Lower Falls, with the signal remaining above background noise within 6 km of the falls in every direction but the south. Station YUF is a three-component, broadband seismometer operated by the University of Utah Seismograph Stations that is located approximately 1.5 km southwest of the Lower Falls, while station B206 is a three-component, short-period, borehole seismometer operated by the Plate Boundary Observatory, located roughly 1.2 km west of the Lower Falls. We computed power spectral densities (PSD) for all available hour-long segments of continuous data from the vertical components of YUF and B206 beginning September 22, 2006 and July 10, 2008, respectively. Yearly spectrograms were used to visualize the PSDs. Both stations showed spectral peaks in the double-frequency microseismic band, with stronger amplitudes in winter than in summer, presumably generated mainly by storms in the North Pacific. Both also showed strong peaks near a period of 1 s, but with the opposite seasonal dependence. This 1 s peak signal broadens in frequency during the summer, from 1 to 5 Hz, as well as uniformly increasing in power across this band. This short-period noise was compared to discharge measurements of the Yellowstone River made at the Yellowstone Lake outlet, about 18.5 km upstream from the Upper Falls. For periods of 0.5-2.0 s the correlation coefficient between the seismic energy and the river

  18. 77 FR 49712 - Amendment to Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    .... The FAA is taking this action to improve the flow of air traffic, enhance safety, and reduce the..., Class B airspace area (76 FR 52905). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking..., and southwest, there is only one traffic pattern west of SLC, regardless of traffic flow....

  19. Myrmecophagy by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    I used data collected during a study of radio-marked grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Yellowstone region from 1977 to 1992 to investigate myrmecophagy by this population. Although generally not an important source of energy for the bears (averaging 8 mm long) nested in logs over small ants (6 mm long) nested under stones. Optimal conditions for consumption of ants occurred on the warmest sites with ample substrate suitable for ant nests. For ants in mounds, this occurred at low elevations at non-forested sites. For ants in logs, this occurred at low elevations or on southerly aspects where there was abundant, large-diameter, well-decomposed woody debris under an open forest canopy. Grizzly bears selected moderately decomposed logs 4a??5 dm in diameter at midpoint. Ants will likely become a more important food for Yellowstone's grizzly bears as currently important foods decline, owing to disease and warming of the regional climate.

  20. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section 71.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS Class C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace....

  1. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section 71.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS Class C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace....

  2. Expedition: Yellowstone! A Cooperative School Outreach Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Golia, Jack; And Others

    Designed to help upper elementary school teachers prepare for a class expedition to Yellowstone National Park, this workbook presents environmental learning activities that are also useful in schools too distant for an actual visit. Either way, the workbook aims to develop student appreciation of Yellowstone, the life in it, and the park's value…

  3. Protecting the geyser basins of Yellowstone National Park: toward a new national policy for a vulnerable environmental resource.

    PubMed

    Barrick, Kenneth A

    2010-01-01

    Geyser basins provide high value recreation, scientific, economic and national heritage benefits. Geysers are globally rare, in part, because development activities have quenched about 260 of the natural endowment. Today, more than half of the world's remaining geysers are located in Yellowstone National Park, northwest Wyoming, USA. However, the hydrothermal reservoirs that supply Yellowstone's geysers extend well beyond the Park borders, and onto two "Known Geothermal Resource Areas"-Island Park to the west and Corwin Springs on the north. Geysers are sensitive geologic features that are easily quenched by nearby geothermal wells. Therefore, the potential for geothermal energy development adjacent to Yellowstone poses a threat to the sustainability of about 500 geysers and 10,000 hydrothermal features. The purpose here is to propose that Yellowstone be protected by a "Geyser Protection Area" (GPA) extending in a 120-km radius from Old Faithful Geyser. The GPA concept would prohibit geothermal and large-scale groundwater wells, and thereby protect the water and heat supply of the hydrothermal reservoirs that support Yellowstone's geyser basins and important hot springs. Proactive federal leadership, including buyouts of private groundwater development rights, can assist in navigating the GPA through the greater Yellowstone area's "wicked" public policy environment. Moreover, the potential impacts on geyser basins from intrusive research sampling techniques are considered in order to facilitate the updating of national park research regulations to a precautionary standard. The GPA model can provide the basis for protecting the world's few remaining geyser basins. PMID:19841971

  4. Seismicity and earthquake hazard analysis of the Teton-Yellowstone region, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Bonnie J. Pickering; Smith, Robert B.; Husen, Stephan; Farrell, Jamie M.; Wong, Ivan

    2009-11-01

    Earthquakes of the Teton-Yellowstone region represent a high level of seismicity in the Intermountain west (U.S.A.) that is associated with intraplate extension associated with the Yellowstone hotspot including the nearby Teton and Hebgen Lake faults. The seismicity and the occurrence of high slip-rate late Quaternary faults in this region leads to a high level of seismic hazard that was evaluated using new earthquake catalogues determined from three-dimensional (3-D) seismic velocity models, followed by the estimation of the probabilistic seismic hazard incorporating fault slip and background earthquake occurrence rates. The 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the Teton region was determined using local earthquake data from the Jackson Lake seismic network that operated from 1986-2002. An earthquake catalog was then developed for 1986-2002 for the Teton region using relocated hypocenters. The resulting data revealed a seismically quiescent Teton fault, at M L, local magnitude > 3, with diffuse seismicity in the southern Jackson Hole Valley area but notable seismicity eastward into the Gros Ventre Range. Relocated Yellowstone earthquakes determined by the same methods highlight a dominant E-W zone of seismicity that extends from the aftershock area of the 1959 (M S surface wave magnitude) 7.5 Hebgen Lake, Montana, earthquake along the north side of the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera. Earthquakes are less frequent and shallow beneath the Yellowstone caldera and notably occur along northward trending zones of activity sub-parallel to the post-caldera volcanic vents. Stress-field orientations derived from inversion of focal mechanism data reveal dominant E-W extension across the Teton fault with a NE-SW extension along the northern Teton fault area and southern Yellowstone. The minimum stress axes directions then rotate to E-W extension across the Yellowstone caldera to N-S extension northwest of the caldera and along the Hebgen Lake fault zone. The combination of accurate

  5. High-resolution aeromagnetic mapping of volcanic terrain, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol A.; Morgan, Lisa A.

    2002-06-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic data acquired over Yellowstone National Park (YNP) show contrasting patterns reflecting differences in rock composition, types and degree of alteration, and crustal structures that mirror the variable geology of the Yellowstone Plateau. The older, Eocene, Absaroka Volcanic Supergroup, a series of mostly altered, andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks partially exposed in mountains on the eastern margin of YNP, produces high-amplitude, positive magnetic anomalies, strongly contrasting with the less magnetic, younger, latest Cenozoic, Yellowstone Plateau Group, primarily a series of fresh and variably altered rhyolitic rocks covering most of YNP. The Yellowstone caldera is the centerpiece of the Yellowstone Plateau; part of its boundary can be identified on the aeromagnetic map as a series of discontinuous, negative magnetic anomalies that reflect faults or zones along which extensive hydrothermal alteration is localized. The large-volume rhyolitic ignimbrite deposits of the 0.63-Ma Lava Creek Tuff and the 2.1-Ma Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, which are prominent lithologies peripheral to the Yellowstone caldera, produce insignificant magnetic signatures. A zone of moderate amplitude positive anomalies coincides with the mapped extent of several post-caldera rhyolitic lavas. Linear magnetic anomalies reflect the rectilinear fault systems characteristic of resurgent domes in the center of the caldera. Peripheral to the caldera, the high-resolution aeromagnetic map clearly delineates flow unit boundaries of pre- and post-caldera basalt flows, which occur stratigraphically below the post-caldera rhyolitic lavas and are not exposed extensively at the surface. All of the hot spring and geyser basins, such as Norris, Upper and Lower Geyser Basins, West Thumb, and Gibbon, are associated with negative magnetic anomalies, reflecting hydrothermal alteration that has destroyed the magnetic susceptibility of minerals in the volcanic rocks. Within

  6. High-resolution aeromagnetic mapping of volcanic terrain, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, C.A.; Morgan, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic data acquired over Yellowstone National Park (YNP) show contrasting patterns reflecting differences in rock composition, types and degree of alteration, and crustal structures that mirror the variable geology of the Yellowstone Plateau. The older, Eocene, Absaroka Volcanic Supergroup, a series of mostly altered, andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks partially exposed in mountains on the eastern margin of YNP, produces high-amplitude, positive magnetic anomalies, strongly contrasting with the less magnetic, younger, latest Cenozoic, Yellowstone Plateau Group, primarily a series of fresh and variably altered rhyolitic rocks covering most of YNP. The Yellowstone caldera is the centerpiece of the Yellowstone Plateau; part of its boundary can be identified on the aeromagnetic map as a series of discontinuous, negative magnetic anomalies that reflect faults or zones along which extensive hydrothermal alteration is localized. The large-volume rhyolitic ignimbrite deposits of the 0.63-Ma Lava Creek Tuff and the 2.1-Ma Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, which are prominent lithologies peripheral to the Yellowstone caldera, produce insignificant magnetic signatures. A zone of moderate amplitude positive anomalies coincides with the mapped extent of several post-caldera rhyolitic lavas. Linear magnetic anomalies reflect the rectilinear fault systems characteristic of resurgent domes in the center of the caldera. Peripheral to the caldera, the high-resolution aeromagnetic map clearly delineates flow unit boundaries of pre- and post-caldera basalt flows, which occur stratigraphically below the post-caldera rhyolitic lavas and are not exposed extensively at the surface. All of the hot spring and geyser basins, such as Norris, Upper and Lower Geyser Basins, West Thumb, and Gibbon, are associated with negative magnetic anomalies, reflecting hydrothermal alteration that has destroyed the magnetic susceptibility of minerals in the volcanic rocks. Within

  7. Earthquake swarm and b-value characterization of the Yellowstone volcano-tectonic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Jamie; Husen, Stephan; Smith, Robert B.

    2009-11-01

    The Yellowstone volcanic field, Yellowstone National Park, is one of the most seismically active areas of the western U.S., experiencing the deadly 1959 M7.5 Hebgen Lake, MT, earthquake adjacent to the 0.64-Ma caldera, as well as more than 30,000 earthquakes from 1973 to 2007. This well-recorded seismic activity offers the opportunity to study the temporal and spatial occurrence of earthquakes and extensive earthquake swarms and how they relate to active volcanic and tectonic processes. We characterize the distribution of earthquakes by analyzing the rate of occurrence characterized by the b-value. To accurately determine b-values, the earthquake catalog was filtered to identify statistically time- and spatially-dependent related events, defined as swarms, from independent single main and aftershocks. An algorithm was employed that identified 69 swarms for 1984-2006 based on inter-event times and spatial clustering. The swarms varied in duration from 1 to 46 days with the number of events varying from 30 to 722 with magnitudes of - 1.2 to 4.8. All of the swarm events as well as the 597 events triggered by the 2002 Denali fault, AK, earthquake were removed from the catalog for analysis. The catalog data were then filtered for a magnitude of completeness ( MCOMP) of 1.5 and the b-value distribution for the Yellowstone region was determined with the de-swarmed data. b-values ranged from 0.6 ± 0.1 to 1.5 ± 0.05 with the highest values associated with the youthful 150,000-year old Mallard Lake resurgent dome. These variations are interpreted to be related to variations in stresses accompanying the migration of magmatic and hydrothermal fluids. An area of high b-values (up to 1.3 ± 0.1) associated with the Hebgen Lake fault zone west of the Yellowstone caldera could be related to the transport of magmatic fluids out of the Yellowstone volcanic system or could be indicative of a relative low stress regime resulting from the stress release by the Hebgen Lake earthquake

  8. Magma Beneath Yellowstone National park.

    PubMed

    Eaton, G P; Christiansen, R L; Iyer, H M; Pitt, A D; Mabey, D R; Blank, H R; Zietz, I; Gettings, M E

    1975-05-23

    The Yellowstone plateau volcanic field is less than 2 million years old, lies in a region of intense tectonic and hydrothermal activity, and probably has the potential for further volcanic activity. The youngest of three volcanic cycles in the field climaxed 600,000 years ago with a voluminous ashflow eruption and the collapse of two contiguous cauldron blocks. Doming 150,000 years ago, followed by voluminous rhyolitic extrusions as recently as 70,000 years ago, and high convective heat flow at present indicate that the latest phase of volcanism may represent a new magmatic insurgence. These observations, coupled with (i) localized postglacial arcuate faulting beyond the northeast margin of the Yellowstone caldera, (ii) a major gravity low with steep bounding gradients and an amplitude regionally atypical for the elevation of the plateau, (iii) an aeromagnetic low reflecting extensive hydrothermal alteration and possibly indicating the presence of shallow material above its Curie temperature, (iv) only minor shallow seismicity within the caldera (in contrast to a high level of activity in some areas immediately outside), (v) attenuation and change of character of seismic waves crossing the caldera area, and (vi) a strong azimuthal pattern of teleseismic P-wave delays, strongly suggest that a body composed at least partly of magma underlies the region of the rhyolite plateau, including the Tertiary volcanics immediately to its northeast. The Yellowstone field represents the active end of a system of similar volcanic foci that has migrated progressively northeastward for 15 million years along the trace of the eastern Snake River Plain (8). Regional aeromagnetic patterns suggest that this course was guided by the structure of the Precambrian basement. If, as suggested by several investigators (24), the Yellowstone magma body marks a contemporary deep mantle plume, this plume, in its motion relative to the North American plate, would appear to be "navigating" along a

  9. Digital geologic map of Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Robert L.; Wahl, Ronald R.

    1999-01-01

    The geology coverage was developed from the 1972 USGS Geologic Map of Yellowstone National Park. It contains polygons of bedrock formations, dikes, and faults. Errors in the 1972 map were corrected and an area outside the Park boundary on the west and south was added. Attributes attached to each polygon include a formation code, formation name, formation age, and a generalized unit name. Line attributes include water, contacts, and faults. Updated information includes a break down of Tertiary, and Quaternary volcanic rock units.

  10. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two radar images show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color radar images obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at the left was obtained using the L-band radar channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the image (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow

  11. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two radar images show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color radar images obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at the left was obtained using the L-band radar channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the image (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow

  12. The Yellowstone hotspot, Greater Yellowstone ecosystem, and human geography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Despain, D.G.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Good, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Modern and Pleistocene climate and associated vegetation patterns strongly relate to the topography created by the hotspot and its track along the eastern Snake River Plain. Winter air masses from the moist northern Pacific Ocean traverse the topographic low of the Snake River Plain to where orographic rise onto the Yellowstone Plateau and adjacent mountains produces deep snow. A winter precipitation shadow forms on the lee (eastern) sides of the GYE. During Pleistocene glacial times, this moisture conduit provided by the hotspot-track-produced ice-age glaciers that covered the core of the present GYE. These glaciers sculpted bedrock and produced glacial moraines that are both forested and unforested, sand and gravel of ice-marginal streams and outwash gravels that are commonly covered with sagebrush-grassland, and silty lake sediments that are commonly covered by lush grassland

  13. Quantitative characterization of airspace enlargement in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Majumdar, Arnab; Ito, Satoru; Alencar, Adriano M; Suki, Béla

    2006-01-01

    The mean linear intercept (L(m)) can be used to estimate the surface area for gas exchange in the lung. However, in recent years, it is most commonly used as an index for characterizing the enlargement of airspaces in emphysema and the associated severity of structural destruction in the lung. Specifically, an increase in L(m) is thought to result from an increase in airspace sizes. In this paper, we examined how accurately L(m) measures the linear dimensions of airspaces from histological sections and a variety of computer-generated test images. To this end, we developed an automated method for measuring linear intercepts from digitized images of tissue sections and calculate L(m) as their mean. We examined how the shape of airspaces and the variability of their sizes influence L(m) as well as the distribution of linear intercepts. We found that, for a relatively homogeneous enlargement of airspaces, L(m) was a reliable index for detecting emphysema. However, in the presence of spatial heterogeneities with a large variability of airspace sizes, L(m) did not significantly increase and sometimes even decreased compared with its value in normal tissue. We also developed an automated method for measuring the area and computed an equivalent diameter of each individual airspace that is independent of shape. Finally, we introduced new indexes based on the moments of diameter that we found to be more reliable than L(m) to characterize airspace enlargement in the presence of heterogeneities. PMID:16166240

  14. Conservation of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in Yellowstone National Park: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael B.; Murphy, Brian R.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2009-01-01

    The Yellowstone cutthroat trout (YCT; "Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri") has become a species of special concern for Yellowstone National Park (YNP) fisheries biologists. Although this subspecies formerly occupied a greater area than any other inland cutthroat trout, the current distribution of YCT is now limited to several watersheds within the…

  15. 77 FR 19927 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Willcox, AZ, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Cochise, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ...This action modifies Class E airspace at Willcox, AZ, and removes Class E airspace at Cochise, AZ. The airspace designation listed as Cochise, AZ, is combined with Cochise County Airport, Willcox, AZ. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Cochise County Airport, Willcox,......

  16. The Yellowstone Hotspot: Effects on Intraplate Stress and Deformation of the Western U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskas, C. M.; Smith, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    The Yellowstone hotspot and its modeled upper mantle plume is responsible for a topographic swell with 300 m excess elevation over a 700-km wide area and a large geoid anomaly of 12 m above background levels, which in turn dynamically affect the regional stress and deformation field. Time-progressive, silicic volcanism along the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) has contributed to the local stress and deformation fields by altering crustal structure through magmatic underplating, intrusion, and eruption. We have modeled the horizontal deviatoric stress field from variations in lithospheric structure, constrained by the regional velocity field from 2500 GPS observations and Late Quaternary fault slip rates. Receiver functions provided additional information on crustal thickness, allowing lithospheric structure to be interpolated to a 0.5-degree grid. The modeling results showed that the Yellowstone hotspot was responsible for regional tension and extension in the western U.S. interior over a 600-km wide area, with a rotation in the direction of maximum horizontal tensional stress from approximately north-south to east-west centered on the Yellowstone Plateau. Hotspot-related volcanism locally reduced the gravitational potential energy and stress magnitudes along the YSRP by systematic subsidence of topography along the YSRP track and increasing crustal thickness. Other implications from the stress modeling are that much of the high topography in the western U.S. interior is supported by low-density upper mantle (a consequence of assumed Pratt isostasy), and that plate boundary interactions between the North America and Pacific plates contribute to a change in stress tensor orientations from northeast-southwest to east-west in the Basin and Range of Nevada and Utah, and to a change from tension to compression in the northern Rocky Mountains of the Pacific Northwest. Together, the dynamic topography of the Yellowstone hotspot and Basin-Range, along with North

  17. Does Yellowstone need large fires

    SciTech Connect

    Romme, W.H. ); Turner, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; Hargrove, W.W. )

    1994-06-01

    This paper synthesizes several studies initiated after the 1988 Yellowstone fires, to address the question whether the ecological effects of large fires differ qualitatively as well as quantitatively from small fires. Large burn patches had greater dominance and contagion of burn severity classes, and a higher proportion of crown fire. Burned aspen stands resprouted vigorously over an extensive area, but heavy ungulate browsing prevented establishment of new tree-sized stems. A burst of sexual reproduction occurred in forest herbs that usually reproduce vegetatively, and new aspen clones became established from seed - a rare event in this region. We conclude that the effects of large fires are qualitatively different, but less dramatically so than expected.

  18. Geophagy by yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Green, G.I.; Swalley, R.

    1999-01-01

    We documented 12 sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem where grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) had purposefully consumed soil (an activity known as geophagy). We also documented soil in numerous grizzly bear feces. Geophagy primarily occurred at sites barren of vegetation where surficial geology had been modified by geothermal activity. There was no evidence of ungulate use at most sites. Purposeful consumption of soil by bears peaked first from March to May and again from August to October, synchronous with peaks in consumption of ungulate meat and mushrooms. Geophageous soils were distinguished from ungulate mineral licks and soils in general by exceptionally high concentrations of potassium (K) and high concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S). Our results do not support the hypotheses that bears were consuming soil to detoxify secondary compounds in grazed foliage, as postulated for primates, or to supplement dietary sodium, as known for ungulates. Our results suggest that grizzly bears could have been consuming soil as an anti-diarrheal.

  19. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section 71.51... C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace. The Class C airspace areas listed in subpart C of FAA Order.... Each Class C airspace area designated for an airport in subpart C of FAA Order 7400.9V (incorporated...

  20. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section 71.51... C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace. The Class C airspace areas listed in subpart C of FAA Order.... Each Class C airspace area designated for an airport in subpart C of FAA Order 7400.9T (incorporated...

  1. Geodetic and Seismic Monitoring of Yellowstone: A Living, Breathing, Shaking Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J.; Smith, R. B.; Chang, W.; Puskas, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Yellowstone volcano has shown a remarkable modern history of ground deformation since measurement began ~80 years ago. When the Yellowstone National Park road system was first built in 1923, leveling benchmarks were installed and surveyed at the same time. Precise leveling surveys by the University of Utah and USGS in the mid ‘70s and ‘80s re-measured the benchmarks revealing ~1 m of net uplift centered along the NE-SW axis of the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera. Subsequent GPS surveys initiated in 1987 by the University of Utah recorded multiple uplift and subsidence episodes at decadal scales both in the caldera as well as near the Norris Geyser Basin, north of the caldera. Most recently, campaign and permanent GPS measurements, as well as InSAR, have recorded an episode of accelerated caldera uplift at rates up to ~7 cm/yr starting in mid-2004 and continuing today at lower rates of up to ~3.7 cm/yr. This most recent uplift episode has been numerically modeled as the surface manifestation of an inflating volcanic sill at ~10 km depth beneath the caldera. In addition to ground deformation monitoring, the USGS and the University of Utah have been recording seismicity in Yellowstone since 1973. More than 34,000 earthquakes have been located in the Yellowstone area of 0>MC>6.0 from 1973 to August 2009. The largest historic earthquake in the Intermountain West, the 1959 Hebgen Lake, MT MW7.3 event occurred just west of the Yellowstone caldera. Forty percent of earthquakes in Yellowstone occur in definitive earthquake swarms. The swarms last from 1 day to many months and contain tens to thousands of earthquakes. The unusual 2008-2009 Yellowstone Lake swarm was the second largest swarm recorded at Yellowstone and contained >1,000 earthquakes in a ten-day period. The swarm produced 21 earthquakes of MC≥3, including one MW4.0 event. In comparison, only 5 events had magnitudes of 3 or greater prior to the swarm in 2008. Moreover, hypocenters of the swarm migrated

  2. The Teton-Yellowstone Tornado of 21 July 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. Theodore

    1989-01-01

    The Teton-Yellowstone Tornado, rated F4, crossed the Continental Divide at 3070 m, leaving behind a damage swath 39.2-km long and 2.5-km wide. A detailed damage analysis by using stereo-pair and color photos revealed the existence of four spinup swirl marks and 72 microburst outflows inside the damage area. The tornado was spawned by a mesocyclone that formed at the intersection of a mesohigh boundary and a warm front. The parent cloud of the tornado, tracked on eight infrared-temperature maps from GOES East and West, moved at 25 m s-1 and the number of cold temperature pixels below -60 C reached a distinct peak during the tornado time. Identified and tracked also are two warm spots enclosed inside the cold anvil cloud. On the basis of their identity and movement, an attempt was made to explain the cause of these spots as being the stratospheric cirrus clouds.

  3. Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The airspace operations demonstration (AOD) is intended to show that the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be met. The demonstration will occur in two phases. The initial on-range phase will be carried out in restricted airspace to demonstrate the cooperative collision avoidance (CCA) functional requirements and to provide risk-reduction for the AOD by allowing the test team to rehearse some elements of the demonstration mission. The CCA system to be used in these flights is based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) which is a commercially-available system by which airplanes constantly broadcast their current position and altitude to other aircraft and ground resources over a dedicated radio datalink. The final phase will occur in the national airspace (NAS) and will be the formal demonstration of the remainder of the proposed functional requirements. The general objectives of the AOD are as follows: (1) Demonstrate that the UAS can aviate in the NAS (2) Demonstrate that the UAS can navigate in the NAS (3) Demonstrate that the UAS can communicate with the NAS (4) Demonstrate that the UAS can perform selected collision avoidance functions in the NAS (5) Demonstrate that the UAS can evaluate and avoid weather conflicts in the NAS (6) Demonstrate that the UAS can provide adequate command and control in the NAS In addition to the stated objectives, there are a number of goals for the flight demonstration. The demo can be accomplished successfully without achieving these goals, but these goals are to be used as a guideline for preparing for the mission. The goals are: (1) Mission duration of at least 24 hours (2) Loiter over heavy traffic to evaluate the data block issue identified during the Access 5 Airspace Operations Simulations (3) Document the contingency management process and lessons learned (4) Document the coordination process for Ground Control Stations (GCS) handoff (5) Document lessons learned regarding the process of flying in

  4. Three Short Videos by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wessells, Stephen; Lowenstern, Jake; Venezky, Dina

    2009-01-01

    This is a collection of videos of unscripted interviews with Jake Lowenstern, who is the Scientist in Charge of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). YVO was created as a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and University of Utah to strengthen the long-term monitoring of volcanic and earthquake unrest in the Yellowstone National Park region. Yellowstone is the site of the largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features in the world and the first National Park. YVO is one of the five USGS Volcano Observatories that monitor volcanoes within the United States for science and public safety. These video presentations give insights about many topics of interest about this area. Title: Yes! Yellowstone is a Volcano An unscripted interview, January 2009, 7:00 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions to explain volcanic features at Yellowstone: 'How do we know Yellowstone is a volcano?', 'What is a Supervolcano?', 'What is a Caldera?','Why are there geysers at Yellowstone?', and 'What are the other geologic hazards in Yellowstone?' Title: Yellowstone Volcano Observatory An unscripted interview, January 2009, 7:15 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions about the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory: 'What is YVO?', 'How do you monitor volcanic activity at Yellowstone?', 'How are satellites used to study deformation?', 'Do you monitor geysers or any other aspect of the Park?', 'Are earthquakes and ground deformation common at Yellowstone?', 'Why is YVO a relatively small group?', and 'Where can I get more information?' Title: Yellowstone Eruptions An unscripted interview, January 2009, 6.45 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions to explain volcanic

  5. Older Hydrothermal Activity along the Northern Yellowstone Caldera Margin at Sulphur Creek, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manion, J. L.; Larson, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Tuff of Sulphur Creek (480 ka) is well exposed in the Seven Mile Hole area of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The rhyolitic tuff erupted after the collapse of the Yellowstone Caldera (640 ka) and hosts more than 350 vertical meters of hydrothermal alteration. Two epithermal alteration assemblages with different mineral associations have been identified in the area: an illite-silica-pyrite phase and a kaolinite-alunite-silica-pyrite phase. Kaolinite and opal occur along the canyon rim, montmorillonite and other smectites are found at intermediate depths, and illite and sulfides (pyrite) are found deepest in the section. Our work on the north side of the Sevenmile Hole altered area has found a complex system of veining. The veins are concentrated in the eastern portion of the canyon and are less frequent to the west. Brecciated cross-cutting veins ranging from 2 to 30cm wide are found at the base of the canyon. Moving vertically up the canyons walls, the veining style becomes less complex. These veins are about 1 to 1.5cm wide and are not brecciated, occurring less frequently than the brecciated veins. The canyon walls and the canyon rim mainly contain millimeter-scale cross-cutting silica veinlets. These stockwork-like veinlets are the most abundant fracture filling that we find throughout the canyon walls. Veins at the base of the system, found in the stream bed, contain abundant sulfides (mainly pyrite). Sulfides are present in three forms: disseminated in a silica matrix, as massive pyrite in healed fractures, and encrusting clays and silica. The latter is the least common. Disseminated and massive sulfides are typically associated with the matrix in the brecciated veins. Breccias include angular clasts of altered tuff with argillized feldspar phenocrysts and fragments of earlier vein-filling opal. Sulfides are most abundant in the bottom of the canyon and in the western part of the field area. Hydrothermal

  6. Numerical Modeling of the Last Glacial Maximum Yellowstone Ice Cap Captures Asymmetry in Moraine Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. S.; Wickert, A. D.; Colgan, W. T.; Anderson, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Yellowstone Ice Cap was the largest continuous ice body in the US Rocky Mountains. Terminal moraine ages derived from cosmogenic radionuclide dating (e.g., Licciardi and Pierce, 2008) constrain the timing of maximum Ice Cap extent. Importantly, the moraine ages vary by several thousand years around the Ice Cap; ages on the eastern outlet glaciers are significantly younger than their western counterparts. In order to interpret these observations within the context of LGM climate in North America, we perform two numerical glacier modeling experiments: 1) We model the initiation and growth of the Ice Cap to steady state; and 2) We estimate the range of LGM climate states which led to the formation of the Ice Cap. We use an efficient semi-implicit 2-D glacier model coupled to a fully implicit solution for flexural isostasy, allowing for transient links between climatic forcing, ice thickness, and earth surface deflection. Independent of parameter selection, the Ice Cap initiates in the Absaroka and Beartooth mountains and then advances across the Yellowstone plateau to the west. The Ice Cap advances to its maximum extent first to the older eastern moraines and last to the younger western and northwestern moraines. This suggests that the moraine ages may reflect the timescale required for the Ice Cap to advance across the high elevation Yellowstone plateau rather than the timing of local LGM climate. With no change in annual precipitation from the present, a mean summer temperature drop of 8-9° C is required to form the Ice Cap. Further parameter searches provide the full range of LGM paleoclimate states that led to the Yellowstone Ice Cap. Using our preferred parameter set, we find that the timescale for the growth of the complete Ice Cap is roughly 10,000 years. Isostatic subsidence helps explain the long timescale of Ice Cap growth. The Yellowstone Ice Cap caused a maximum surface deflection of 300 m (using a constant effective elastic

  7. Yellowstone Attenuation Tomography from Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doungkaew, N.; Seats, K.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to create a tomographic attenuation image for the Yellowstone region by analyzing ambient seismic noise. An attenuation image generated from ambient noise should provide more information about the structure and properties beneath Yellowstone, especially the caldera, which is known to be active. I applied the method of Lawrence & Prieto [2011] to examine lateral variations in the attenuation structure of Yellowstone. Ambient noise data were collected from broadband seismic stations located around Yellowstone National Park from 1999-2013. Noise correlation functions derived from cross correlations of the ambient noise at two stations were used to calculate a distance dependent decay (an attenuation coefficient) at each period and distance. An inversion was then performed to isolate and localize the spatial attenuation coefficients within the study area. I observe high amplitude decay of the ambient noise at the Yellowstone caldera, most likely due to elevated temperature and crustal melts caused by volcanism, geothermal heat flow, and hydrothermal activity such as geysers.

  8. Cosmogenic exposure-age chronologies of Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations in greater Yellowstone and the Teton Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Licciardi, J.M.; Pierce, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained 69 new cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages from boulders on moraines deposited by glaciers of the greater Yellowstone glacial system and Teton Range during the middle and late Pleistocene. These new data, combined with 43 previously obtained 3He and 10Be ages from deposits of the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier, establish a high-resolution chronology for the Yellowstone-Teton mountain glacier complexes. Boulders deposited at the southern limit of the penultimate ice advance of the Yellowstone glacial system yield a mean age of 136??13 10Be ka and oldest ages of ???151-157 10Be ka. These ages support a correlation with the Bull Lake of West Yellowstone, with the type Bull Lake of the Wind River Range, and with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. End moraines marking the maximum Pinedale positions of outlet glaciers around the periphery of the Yellowstone glacial system range in age from 18.8??0.9 to 16.5??1.4 10Be ka, and possibly as young as 14.6??0.7 10Be ka, suggesting differences in response times of the various ice-cap source regions. Moreover, all dated Pinedale terminal moraines in the greater Yellowstone glacial system post-date the Pinedale maximum in the Wind River Range by ???4-6 kyr, indicating a significant phase relationship between glacial maxima in these adjacent ranges. Boulders on the outermost set and an inner set of Pinedale end moraines enclosing Jenny Lake on the eastern Teton front yield mean ages of 14.6??0.7 and 13.5??1.1 10Be ka, respectively. The outer Jenny Lake moraines are partially buried by outwash from ice on the Yellowstone Plateau, hence their age indicates a major standstill of an expanded valley glacier in the Teton Range prior to the Younger Dryas, followed closely by deglaciation of the Yellowstone Plateau. These new glacial chronologies are indicative of spatially variable regional climate forcing and temporally complex patterns of glacier responses in this region of the Rocky Mountains during the Pleistocene

  9. Crustal deformation of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcano-tectonic system-Campaign and continuous GPS observations, 1987-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puskas, C.M.; Smith, R.B.; Meertens, Charles M.; Chang, W. L.

    2007-01-01

    The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain tectonomagmatic province resulted from Late Tertiary volcanism in western North America, producing three large, caldera-forming eruptions at the Yellowstone Plateau in the last 2 Myr. To understand the kinematics and geodynamics of this volcanic system, the University of Utah conducted seven GPS campaigns at 140 sites between 1987 and 2003 and installed a network of 15 permanent stations. GPS deployments focused on the Yellowstone caldera, the Hebgen Lake and Teton faults, and the eastern Snake River Plain. The GPS data revealed periods of uplift and subsidence of the Yellowstone caldera at rates up to 15 mm/yr. From 1987 to 1995, the caldera subsided and contracted, implying volume loss. From 1995 to 2000, deformation shifted to inflation and extension northwest of the caldera. From 2000 to 2003, uplift continued to the northwest while caldera subsidence was renewed. The GPS observations also revealed extension across the Hebgen Lake fault and fault-normal contraction across the Teton fault. Deformation rates of the Yellowstone caldera and Hebgen Lake fault were converted to equivalent total moment rates, which exceeded historic seismic moment release and late Quaternary fault slip-derived moment release by an order of magnitude. The Yellowstone caldera deformation trends were superimposed on regional southwest extension of the Yellowstone Plateau at up to 4.3 ± 0.2 mm/yr, while the eastern Snake River Plain moved southwest as a slower rate at 2.1 ± 0.2 mm/yr. This southwest extension of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain system merged into east-west extension of the Basin-Range province. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Geomicrobiology of sublacustrine thermal vents in Yellowstone Lake: geochemical controls on microbial community structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Inskeep, William P.; Jay, Zackary J.; Macur, Richard E.; Clingenpeel, Scott; Tenney, Aaron; Lovalvo, David; Beam, Jacob P.; Kozubal, Mark A.; Shanks, W. C.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Kan, Jinjun; Gorby, Yuri; Yooseph, Shibu; Nealson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Yellowstone Lake (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) is a large high-altitude (2200 m), fresh-water lake, which straddles an extensive caldera and is the center of significant geothermal activity. The primary goal of this interdisciplinary study was to evaluate the microbial populations inhabiting thermal vent communities in Yellowstone Lake using 16S rRNA gene and random metagenome sequencing, and to determine how geochemical attributes of vent waters influence the distribution of specific microorganisms and their metabolic potential. Thermal vent waters and associated microbial biomass were sampled during two field seasons (2007–2008) using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Sublacustrine thermal vent waters (circa 50–90°C) contained elevated concentrations of numerous constituents associated with geothermal activity including dissolved hydrogen, sulfide, methane and carbon dioxide. Microorganisms associated with sulfur-rich filamentous “streamer” communities of Inflated Plain and West Thumb (pH range 5–6) were dominated by bacteria from the Aquificales, but also contained thermophilic archaea from the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Novel groups of methanogens and members of the Korarchaeota were observed in vents from West Thumb and Elliot's Crater (pH 5–6). Conversely, metagenome sequence from Mary Bay vent sediments did not yield large assemblies, and contained diverse thermophilic and nonthermophilic bacterial relatives. Analysis of functional genes associated with the major vent populations indicated a direct linkage to high concentrations of carbon dioxide, reduced sulfur (sulfide and/or elemental S), hydrogen and methane in the deep thermal ecosystems. Our observations show that sublacustrine thermal vents in Yellowstone Lake support novel thermophilic communities, which contain microorganisms with functional attributes not found to date in terrestrial geothermal systems of YNP. PMID:26579074

  11. Geomicrobiology of sublacustrine thermal vents in Yellowstone Lake: geochemical controls on microbial community structure and function.

    PubMed

    Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Macur, Richard E; Clingenpeel, Scott; Tenney, Aaron; Lovalvo, David; Beam, Jacob P; Kozubal, Mark A; Shanks, W C; Morgan, Lisa A; Kan, Jinjun; Gorby, Yuri; Yooseph, Shibu; Nealson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Yellowstone Lake (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) is a large high-altitude (2200 m), fresh-water lake, which straddles an extensive caldera and is the center of significant geothermal activity. The primary goal of this interdisciplinary study was to evaluate the microbial populations inhabiting thermal vent communities in Yellowstone Lake using 16S rRNA gene and random metagenome sequencing, and to determine how geochemical attributes of vent waters influence the distribution of specific microorganisms and their metabolic potential. Thermal vent waters and associated microbial biomass were sampled during two field seasons (2007-2008) using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Sublacustrine thermal vent waters (circa 50-90°C) contained elevated concentrations of numerous constituents associated with geothermal activity including dissolved hydrogen, sulfide, methane and carbon dioxide. Microorganisms associated with sulfur-rich filamentous "streamer" communities of Inflated Plain and West Thumb (pH range 5-6) were dominated by bacteria from the Aquificales, but also contained thermophilic archaea from the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Novel groups of methanogens and members of the Korarchaeota were observed in vents from West Thumb and Elliot's Crater (pH 5-6). Conversely, metagenome sequence from Mary Bay vent sediments did not yield large assemblies, and contained diverse thermophilic and nonthermophilic bacterial relatives. Analysis of functional genes associated with the major vent populations indicated a direct linkage to high concentrations of carbon dioxide, reduced sulfur (sulfide and/or elemental S), hydrogen and methane in the deep thermal ecosystems. Our observations show that sublacustrine thermal vents in Yellowstone Lake support novel thermophilic communities, which contain microorganisms with functional attributes not found to date in terrestrial geothermal systems of YNP. PMID:26579074

  12. Common Methodology for Efficient Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar

    2012-01-01

    Topics include: a) Developing a common methodology to model and avoid disturbances affecting airspace. b) Integrated contrails and emission models to a national level airspace simulation. c) Developed capability to visualize, evaluate technology and alternate operational concepts and provide inputs for policy-analysis tools to reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. d) Collaborating with Volpe Research Center, NOAA and DLR to leverage expertise and tools in aircraft emissions and weather/climate modeling. Airspace operations is a trade-off balancing safety, capacity, efficiency and environmental considerations. Ideal flight: Unimpeded wind optimal route with optimal climb and descent. Operations degraded due to reduction in airport and airspace capacity caused by inefficient procedures and disturbances.

  13. Comparing Methods for Dynamic Airspace Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Lai, Chok Fung

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares airspace design solutions for dynamically reconfiguring airspace in response to nominal daily traffic volume fluctuation. Airspace designs from seven algorithmic methods and a representation of current day operations in Kansas City Center were simulated with two times today's demand traffic. A three-configuration scenario was used to represent current day operations. Algorithms used projected unimpeded flight tracks to design initial 24-hour plans to switch between three configurations at predetermined reconfiguration times. At each reconfiguration time, algorithms used updated projected flight tracks to update the subsequent planned configurations. Compared to the baseline, most airspace design methods reduced delay and increased reconfiguration complexity, with similar traffic pattern complexity results. Design updates enabled several methods to as much as half the delay from their original designs. Freeform design methods reduced delay and increased reconfiguration complexity the most.

  14. Prospects for Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, R.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent analyses of data on the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) population of Yellowstone National Park and its environs suggest the likelihood of a continuing decline in numbers if losses of fully adult females are not reduced. The size of the population is not known, and a simple projection model has been used to identify some inconsistencies in the available index data. Population dynamics calculations, based on Lotka's equation or a stochastic model, indicate a continuing decrease in numbers, although continued observations through radio-telemetry are needed to verify these trends. The margin between stabilizing the population and a continued decrease appears to be roughly the loss of 2 fully adult female bears per year. At present, the risk of extirpation of this population over the next 30 years appears to be small. Continued monitoring of survivorship will be needed, particularly because "recovery" of the population may be mainly characterized by a shift in the pattern of mortality, from adults to subadults, and not necessarily a reduction in absolute number of losses.

  15. Willbros relocates lines across the Yellowstone

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that Willbros Butler has successfully completed the relocation of five petroleum pipelines crossing the Yellowstone River near Billings, Mont. Willbros Butler was the prime contractor for the East Bridge Highway 87 Pipeline Relocation Project for Conoco, CENEX, Exxon and Montana-Dakota Utilities. The work was made necessary by the planned replacement of the Highway 87 Bridge over the Yellowstone River. The scope of the work included engineering, survey, right-of-way acquisition, material procurement, permitting, pipeline construction and inspection.

  16. Biologists add fuel to Yellowstone fire

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.K.

    1990-06-01

    Two scientists associated with the National Park Service have completed a 10 year study of forest fires in Yellowstone National Park. They traced back 200 years by studying trees and the park records of rainfall and fires. They state that the park policy of not fighting fires started by lightning has no effect on the forest ecology. Critics of the policy cite the massive destruction of the forest in the 1988 summer fires in Yellowstone as evidence that the policy is misguided. The researchers state that their findings show that their reconstruction of the forest ecology show fighting the fires has no effect on the overall succession.

  17. 78 FR 57545 - Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace and Class E Airspace; Laguna AAF, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace and Class E Airspace; Laguna AAF, AZ AGENCY: Federal...

  18. 76 FR 9965 - Amendment of Class E Airspace and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Easton, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... surface, and remove Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D airspace at Easton, MD (75 FR... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  19. 14 CFR 91.706 - Operations within airspace designed as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations within airspace designed as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace. 91.706 Section 91.706 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES...

  20. 14 CFR 91.706 - Operations within airspace designed as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operations within airspace designed as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace. 91.706 Section 91.706 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES...

  1. Values associated with management of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gresswell, Robert E.; Liss, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    Recent emphasis on a holistic view of natural systems and their management is associated with a growing appreciation of the role of human values in these systems. In the past, resource management has been perceived as a dichotomy between extraction (harvest) and nonconsumptive use, but this appears to be an oversimplified view of natural-cultural systems. The recreational fishery for Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri) in Yellowstone National Park is an example of the effects of management on a natural-cultural system. Although angler harvest has been drastically reduced or prohibited, the recreational value of Yellowstone cutthroat trout estimated by angling factors (such as landing rate or size) ranks above that of all other sport species in Yellowstone National Park. To maintain an indigenous fishery resource of this quality with hatchery propagation is not economically or technically feasible. Nonconsumptive uses of the Yellowstone cutthroat trout including fish-watching and intangible values, such as existence demand, provide additional support for protection of wild Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations. A management strategy that reduces resource extraction has provided a means to sustain a quality recreational fishery while enhancing values associated with the protection of natural systems.

  2. 14 CFR 91.135 - Operations in Class A airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... communications with ATC while operating in Class A airspace. (c) Transponder requirement. Unless otherwise... facility having jurisdiction of the airspace concerned. In the case of an inoperative transponder, ATC...

  3. 77 FR 6581 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National... prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park... 168, Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190, (307) 344-2035. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In January...

  4. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Daniel R.; Friedman, Irving

    1985-12-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 × 10 10 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park.

  5. Spatial population structure of Yellowstone bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olexa, E.M.; Gogan, P.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in Yellowstone National Park, USA, bison (Bison bison) numbers and shifts in seasonal distribution have resulted in more frequent movements of bison beyond park boundaries and development of an interagency management plan for the Yellowstone bison population. Implementation of the plan under the adaptive management paradigm requires an understanding of the spatial and temporal structure of the population. We used polythetic agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis of radiolocations obtained from free-ranging bison to investigate seasonal movements and aggregations. We classified radiolocations into 4 periods: annual, peak rut (15 Jul-15 Sep), extended rut (1 Jun-31 Oct), and winter (1 Nov-31 May). We documented spatial separation of Yellowstone bison into 2 segments, the northern and central herds, during all periods. The estimated year-round exchange rate (4.85-5.83%) of instrumented bison varied with the fusion strategy employed. We did not observe exchange between the 2 segments during the peak rut and it varied during the extended rut (2.15-3.23%). We estimated a winter exchange of 4.85-7.77%. The outcome and effectiveness of management actions directed at Yellowstone bison may be affected by spatial segregation and herd affinity within the population. Reductions based on total population size, but not applied to the entire population, may adversely affect one herd while having little effect on the other. Similarly, management actions targeting a segment of the population may benefit from the spatial segregation exhibited.

  6. Yellowstone County Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Yellowstone County area of Montana, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…

  7. Nutritional condition of Northern Yellowstone Elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, R.C.; Cook, J.G.; Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonography and body condition scoring was used to estimate nutritional condition of northern Yellowstone elk in late winter. Probability of pregnancy was related to body fat, and lactating cows had 50% less fat than non-lactating cows. For mild to normal winters, most of the elk were in good condition.

  8. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  9. Evolution of Seismic Geyser, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marler, G. D.; White, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Among the thousands of thermal springs in Yellowstone Park, Seismic Geyser is one of the few that it totally recent in origin. It is not quiescent or dormant spring that was reactivated; rather it is one that had its genesis as a direct result of the earthquake on August 17, 1959/ 

  10. Interpretation of Heat Flow and Seismic Data from Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negraru, P. T.; Blackwell, D. D.

    2004-12-01

    The heat flow map of Yellowstone Lake shows a complex thermal regime with variations of more than two orders of magnitude. The major geothermal systems mapped are within the caldera boundary, in the northern part of the lake and in West Thumb. In the northern part of the lake two areas of extremely high heat flow are identified: an area east of Stevenson Island (heat flow more than 10000 mW/m2), not previously known to have high heat flow and Mary Bay-Sedge Bay geothermal system (up to 40000 mW/m2). These are separated by an area with background heat flow of 1500 to 2000 mW/m2 which correlates with large sediment thickness. Therefore the whole area from east of Stevenson Island to the Mary Bay is interpreted as a single geothermal system variably attenuated by the conductive effects of the sediments. Seismic data show that the western boundary of this high heat area is the complex graben which extends from the Lake Hotel in an approximately north-south direction east of Stevenson Island. We present evidence (heat flow, seismic and geologic features observed from underwater video) that the Hotel Fault, one of the graben faults, extends on the east side of the Stevenson's Island, not on the west. West of the graben the heat flow could be as low as 150 mW/m2. Although several topographic notches similar to the hydrothermal vents east of Stevenson Island were identified west of the graben structure, the nearby heat flow values are low, suggesting the presence of cold, not hot springs. The decrease of the gradients to the south is more gradual and is not associated with major faulting or with the caldera boundary. The other important geothermal system is West Thumb, but no extremely high heat flow values were found. The areas east of Stevenson Island and Mary Bay - Sedge Bay are identified as potential geothermal hazards. However, in Mary Bay, at the hottest point located in the lake, the boiling point temperatures are reached at more than 5 m below the bottom of the

  11. 75 FR 26148 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Homestead, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Homestead General Aviation... airspace required to support the SIAPs for Homestead General Aviation Airport. Class E airspace extending... as it would establish Class E airspace Homestead General Aviation Airport, Homestead, FL. Lists...

  12. 75 FR 42 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Spencer, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... October 19, 2009 (74 FR 53407), Docket No. FAA- 2009-0602; Airspace Docket No. 09-AEA-13. The FAA uses the... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Spencer, WV AGENCY... that establishes Class E Airspace at Spencer, WV. This action enhances the safety and...

  13. 78 FR 67024 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... airspace at the Glasgow VOR/DME navigation aid, Glasgow, MT (78 FR 59807, September 30, 2013). The FAA... Federal Register of September 30, 2013 (78 FR 59807), Airspace Docket No. 13- ANM-17, FR Doc. 2013-23669... airspace at the Glasgow VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME)...

  14. 75 FR 4270 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC... Register September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Saluda County Airport, Saluda, SC. DATES... (74 FR 46894), Docket No. FAA-2009-0603; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-16. The FAA uses the direct...

  15. 75 FR 4269 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Clayton, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Clayton, GA AGENCY... September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Heaven's Landing Airport, Clayton, GA. DATES... (74 FR 46893), Docket No. FAA-2009-0605; Airspace Docket 09-ASO-19. The FAA uses the direct...

  16. 78 FR 33965 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Linton, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Linton, ND... Class E airspace at Linton, ND. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area...

  17. 78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... the establishment of Class E en route airspace. Class E airspace designations are published...

  18. 75 FR 4269 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hertford, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hertford, NC AGENCY... September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Harvey Point Defense Testing Activity, Hertford, NC... (74 FR 46892), Docket No. FAA-2009-0705; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-25. The FAA uses the direct...

  19. 75 FR 18403 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO AGENCY... E airspace at Rifle, CO. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft...) operations at the airport. This action also changes the airport name in the existing Class E...

  20. 78 FR 41838 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colt, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colt, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E airspace... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace for the Colt,...

  1. 75 FR 4270 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tompkinsville, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tompkinsville, KY AGENCY... September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Tompkinsville--Monroe County Airport, Tompkinsville... September 14, 2009 (74 FR 46890), Docket No. FAA-2009-0604; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-18. The FAA uses...

  2. 77 FR 10649 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Douglas, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Douglas, AZ AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace at Bisbee Douglas... typographical error in the legal description for the Class E 700 foot airspace. This improves the safety...

  3. 75 FR 4269 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lewisport, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lewisport, KY... Register September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Hancock Co.--Ron Lewis Field, Lewisport... September 14, 2009 (74 FR 46896), Docket No. FAA-2009-0706; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-26. The FAA uses...

  4. 76 FR 35967 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace at... geographic coordinates for the Class D and E airspace areas, and updates the airport name. DATES:...

  5. 76 FR 55232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Copperhill, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Airspace at Copperhill, TN, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... the controlled airspace required to ] accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning... Class E airspace at Copperhill, TN (76 FR 35370) Docket No. FAA-2011-0402. Interested parties...

  6. 78 FR 33015 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Waco, TX, and Establishment of Class D Airspace; Waco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ...This action proposes to amend Class D airspace at Waco, TX, by separating the Class D airspace at Waco Regional Airport from the Class D airspace at TSTC-Waco Airport. The FAA is taking this action to alleviate multiple air traffic controllers handling the same airspace and for the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for standard instrument approach procedures at......

  7. Exploration and discovery in Yellowstone Lake: Results from high-resolution sonar imaging, seismic reflection profiling, and submersible studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Lovalvo, D.A.; Johnson, S.Y.; Stephenson, W.J.; Pierce, K.L.; Harlan, S.S.; Finn, C.A.; Lee, G.; Webring, M.; Schulze, B.; Duhn, J.; Sweeney, R.; Balistrieri, L.

    2003-01-01

    Discoveries from multi-beam sonar mapping and seismic reflection surveys of the northern, central, and West Thumb basins of Yellowstone Lake provide new insight into the extent of post-collapse volcanism and active hydrothermal processes occurring in a large lake environment above a large magma chamber. Yellowstone Lake has an irregular bottom covered with dozens of features directly related to hydrothermal, tectonic, volcanic, and sedimentary processes. Detailed bathymetric, seismic reflection, and magnetic evidence reveals that rhyolitic lava flows underlie much of Yellowstone Lake and exert fundamental control on lake bathymetry and localization of hydrothermal activity. Many previously unknown features have been identified and include over 250 hydrothermal vents, several very large (>500 m diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters, many small hydrothermal vent craters (???1-200 m diameter), domed lacustrine sediments related to hydrothermal activity, elongate fissures cutting post-glacial sediments, siliceous hydrothermal spire structures, sublacustrine landslide deposits, submerged former shorelines, and a recently active graben. Sampling and observations with a submersible remotely operated vehicle confirm and extend our understanding of the identified features. Faults, fissures, hydrothermally inflated domal structures, hydrothermal explosion craters, and sublacustrine landslides constitute potentially significant geologic hazards. Toxic elements derived from hydrothermal processes also may significantly affect the Yellowstone ecosystem. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Exploration and discovery in Yellowstone Lake: results from high-resolution sonar imaging, seismic reflection profiling, and submersible studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. A.; Shanks, W. C.; Lovalvo, D. A.; Johnson, S. Y.; Stephenson, W. J.; Pierce, K. L.; Harlan, S. S.; Finn, C. A.; Lee, G.; Webring, M.; Schulze, B.; Dühn, J.; Sweeney, R.; Balistrieri, L.

    2003-04-01

    'No portion of the American continent is perhaps so rich in wonders as the Yellow Stone' (F.V. Hayden, September 2, 1874) Discoveries from multi-beam sonar mapping and seismic reflection surveys of the northern, central, and West Thumb basins of Yellowstone Lake provide new insight into the extent of post-collapse volcanism and active hydrothermal processes occurring in a large lake environment above a large magma chamber. Yellowstone Lake has an irregular bottom covered with dozens of features directly related to hydrothermal, tectonic, volcanic, and sedimentary processes. Detailed bathymetric, seismic reflection, and magnetic evidence reveals that rhyolitic lava flows underlie much of Yellowstone Lake and exert fundamental control on lake bathymetry and localization of hydrothermal activity. Many previously unknown features have been identified and include over 250 hydrothermal vents, several very large (>500 m diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters, many small hydrothermal vent craters (˜1-200 m diameter), domed lacustrine sediments related to hydrothermal activity, elongate fissures cutting post-glacial sediments, siliceous hydrothermal spire structures, sublacustrine landslide deposits, submerged former shorelines, and a recently active graben. Sampling and observations with a submersible remotely operated vehicle confirm and extend our understanding of the identified features. Faults, fissures, hydrothermally inflated domal structures, hydrothermal explosion craters, and sublacustrine landslides constitute potentially significant geologic hazards. Toxic elements derived from hydrothermal processes also may significantly affect the Yellowstone ecosystem.

  9. 76 FR 64233 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ..., published on August 25, 2011 (76 FR 53048), amends Class D airspace, Class E surface airspace, Class E..., the Class E airspace descriptions as published in the Federal Register of August 25, 2011 (76 FR 53048) (FR Doc. 2011-21663) for Natrona County International Airport, Casper, WY, is corrected under...

  10. Imaging the Yellowstone Magmatic System Using Multi-Component Ambient Noise Cross-Correlation and Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J.; Lin, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new S-wave velocity model for the Yellowstone magmatic system derived from the inversion of Rayleigh- and Love-wave phase velocity measurements from periods from 6 to 35 s. All available data from 2007-2014 within and near the Yellowstone region was downloaded for the USArray TA network (TA), the Yellowstone Seismic Network (WY), the NOISY array (Z2), the USGS Intermountain West network (IW), the Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Seismic Network (PB), and the USGS National Seismic Network (US). For each station, we perform daily noise pre-processing (temporal normalization and spectrum whitening) simultaneously for all three components before multi-component noise cross-correlations are calculated. Results for both Rayleigh- and Love-wave phase velocity inversions clearly show the low velocity anomaly associated with the upper-crustal magma reservoir seen previously using body wave tomography. In addition, low-velocity anomalies associated with sediment-filled basins are visible in Wyoming. Short period low Love-wave velocities are seen along the Snake River Plain, the track of the Yellowstone hotspot likely related to the shallow sediment layer. Based on the surface wave phase velocity maps, we invert for a 3D S-wave crustal model. The resulting model will be compared to previous, but spatially limited, body wave S-wave models as well as recent body wave P-wave velocity models to better constrain Vp/Vs ratios as well as the melt fraction of the magma chamber. Preliminary results using amplitude information of noise cross-correlations to calculate Rayleigh-wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh-wave H/V (horizontal to vertical) amplitude ratios to better constrain the shallow velocity structure will also be discussed.

  11. The Yellowstone 'hot spot' track results from migrating Basin Range extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulger, G. R.; Christiansen, R. L.; Anderson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Whether Columbia River Basalts, eastern Snake River Plain and Yellowstone volcanism is related to a mantle plume or plate tectonic processes is a long-standing controversy. There are numerous geological mismatches with the plume model, and logical flaws, including the use of arguments for a deep-mantle origin to support upper-mantle plume models. The sweeping of the USArray seismic network across the continent has recently yielded abundant new seismological results but despite this, the most sophisticated seismic experiment ever staged having targeted the Yellowstone region, seismic analyses have still not resolved the disparity of opinion. This suggests that seismology is fundamentally unable to resolve the plume question for Yellowstone and likely elsewhere. USArray data, have, however, inspired many new models that relate western USA volcanism to shallow mantle convection associated with evolution of the subduction zone to the west. These models assume, however, that all that is required for surface volcanism is melt in the mantle and that the lithosphere is essentially passive. We propose a pure Plate model in which melt is commonplace in the mantle, and its tendency to rise is not the cause of surface eruptions. Instead, it is extension of the lithosphere that permits melt to rise. Eruptions occur where there is extension and not simply where there is melt. The time-progressive chain of rhyolitic calderas in the eastern Snake River Plain-Yellowstone zone formed in response to systematic eastward migration of the axis of most intense Basin Range extension since the province formed at ~ 16 Ma. Rhyolitic volcanism followed migration of the locus of most rapid extension, not vice versa. This model does not depend on seismology to test it, but can be investigated using surface geological observations.

  12. Geomicrobiology of Hydrothermal Vents in Yellowstone Lake: Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis suggest Importance of Geochemistry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inskeep, W. P.; Macur, R.; Jay, Z.; Clingenpeel, S.; Tenney, A.; Lavalvo, D.; Shanks, W. C.; McDermott, T.; Kan, J.; Gorby, Y.; Morgan, L. A.; Yooseph, S.; Varley, J.; Nealson, K.

    2010-12-01

    Yellowstone Lake (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) is a large, high-altitude, fresh-water lake that straddles the most recent Yellowstone caldera, and is situated on top of significant hydrothermal activity. An interdisciplinary study is underway to evaluate the geochemical and geomicrobiological characteristics of several hydrothermal vent environments sampled using a remotely operated vehicle, and to determine the degree to which these vents may influence the biology of this young freshwater ecosystem. Approximately six different vent systems (locations) were sampled during 2007 and 2008, and included water obtained directly from the hydrothermal vents as well as biomass and sediment associated with these high-temperature environments. Thorough geochemical analysis of these hydrothermal environments reveals variation in pH, sulfide, hydrogen and other potential electron donors that may drive primary productivity. The concentrations of dissolved hydrogen and sulfide were extremely high in numerous vents sampled, especially the deeper (30-50 m) vents located in the Inflated Plain, West Thumb, and Mary Bay. Significant dilution of hydrothermal fluids occurs due to mixing with surrounding lake water. Despite this, the temperatures observed in many of these hydrothermal vents range from 50-90 C, and elevated concentrations of constituents typically associated with geothermal activity in Yellowstone are observed in waters sampled directly from vent discharge. Microorganisms associated with elemental sulfur mats and filamentous ‘streamer’ communities of Inflated Plain and West Thumb (pH range 5-6) were dominated by members of the deeply-rooted bacterial Order Aquificales, but also contain thermophilic members of the domain Archaea. Assembly of metagenome sequence from the Inflated Plain vent biomass and to a lesser extent, West Thumb vent biomass reveal the importance of Sulfurihydrogenibium-like organisms, also important in numerous terrestrial geothermal

  13. Optimizing Integrated Terminal Airspace Operations Under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosson, Christabelle; Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    In the terminal airspace, integrated departures and arrivals have the potential to increase operations efficiency. Recent research has developed geneticalgorithm- based schedulers for integrated arrival and departure operations under uncertainty. This paper presents an alternate method using a machine jobshop scheduling formulation to model the integrated airspace operations. A multistage stochastic programming approach is chosen to formulate the problem and candidate solutions are obtained by solving sample average approximation problems with finite sample size. Because approximate solutions are computed, the proposed algorithm incorporates the computation of statistical bounds to estimate the optimality of the candidate solutions. A proof-ofconcept study is conducted on a baseline implementation of a simple problem considering a fleet mix of 14 aircraft evolving in a model of the Los Angeles terminal airspace. A more thorough statistical analysis is also performed to evaluate the impact of the number of scenarios considered in the sampled problem. To handle extensive sampling computations, a multithreading technique is introduced.

  14. New challenges for grizzly bear management in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Manen, Frank T.; Gunther, Kerry A.

    2016-01-01

    A key factor contributing to the success of grizzly bear Ursus arctos conservation in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem has been the existence of a large protected area, Yellowstone National Park. We provide an overview of recovery efforts, how demographic parameters changed as the population increased, and how the bear management program in Yellowstone National Park has evolved to address new management challenges over time. Finally, using the management experiences in Yellowstone National Park, we present comparisons and perspectives regarding brown bear management in Shiretoko National Park.

  15. Investigating Late Cenozoic Mantle Dynamics beneath Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Q.; Liu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Recent tomography models (Sigloch, 2011; Schmandt & Lin, 2014) reveal unprecedented details of the mantle structure beneath the United States (U.S.). Prominent slow seismic anomalies below Yellowstone, traditionally interpreted as due to a mantle plume, are restricted to depths either shallower than 200 km or between 500 and 1000 km, but a continuation to greater depth is missing. Compared to fast seismic anomalies, which are usually interpreted as slabs or delaminated lithosphere, origin of deep slow seismic anomalies, especially those in the vicinity of subduction zones, is more enigmatic. As a consequence, both the dynamics and evolution of these slow anomalies remain poorly understood. To investigate the origin and evolution of the Yellowstone slow anomaly during the past 20 Myr, we construct a 4D inverse mantle convection model with a hybrid data assimilation scheme. On the one hand, we use the adjoint method to recover the past evolution of mantle seismic structures beyond the subduction zones. On the other hand, we use a high-resolution forward model to simulate the subduction of the oceanic (i.e., Farallon) plate. During the adjoint iterations, features from these two approaches are blended together at a depth of ~200 km below the subduction zone. In practice, we convert fast and slow seismic anomalies to effective positive and negative density heterogeneities. Our preliminary results indicate that at 20 Ma, the present-day shallow slow anomalies beneath the western U.S. were located inside the oceanic asthenosphere, which subsequently entered the mantle wedge, through the segmented Farallon slab. The eastward encroachment of the slow anomaly largely followed the Yellowstone hotspot track migration. The present deep mantle Yellowstone slow anomaly originated at shallower depths (i.e. transition zone), and was then translated down to the lower mantle accompanying the sinking fast anomalies. The temporal evolution of the slow anomalies suggests that the deep

  16. Origins of geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, William C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Gas emissions at the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) reflect open-system mixing of gas species originating from diverse rock types, magmas, and crustal fluids, all combined in varying proportions at different thermal areas. Gases are not necessarily in chemical equilibrium with the waters through which they vent, especially in acid sulfate terrain where bubbles stream through stagnant acid water. Gases in adjacent thermal areas often can be differentiated by isotopic and gas ratios, and cannot be tied to one another solely by shallow processes such as boiling-induced fractionation of a parent liquid. Instead, they inherit unique gas ratios (e.g., CH4/He) from the dominant rock reservoirs where they originate, some of which underlie the Quaternary volcanic rocks. Steam/gas ratios (essentially H2O/CO2) of Yellowstone fumaroles correlate with Ar/He and N2/CO2, strongly suggesting that H2O/CO2 is controlled by addition of steam boiled from water rich in atmospheric gases. Moreover, H2O/CO2 varies systematically with geographic location, such that boiling is more enhanced in some areas than others. The δ13C and 3He/CO2 of gases reflect a dominant mantle origin for CO2 in Yellowstone gas. The mantle signature is most evident at Mud Volcano, which hosts gases with the lowest H2O/CO2, lowest CH4 concentrations and highest He isotope ratios (~16Ra), consistent with either a young subsurface intrusion or less input of crustal and meteoric gas than any other location at Yellowstone. Across the YPVF, He isotope ratios (3He/4He) inversely vary with He concentrations, and reflect varied amounts of long- stored, radiogenic He added to the magmatic endmember within the crust. Similarly, addition of CH4 from organic-rich sediments is common in the eastern thermal areas at Yellowstone. Overall, Yellowstone gases reflect addition of deep, high-temperature magmatic gas (CO2-rich), lower-temperatures crustal gases (4He- and CH4-bearing), and those gases (N2, Ne, Ar) added

  17. Origins of geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-09-01

    Gas emissions at the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) reflect open-system mixing of gas species originating from diverse rock types, magmas, and crustal fluids, all combined in varying proportions at different thermal areas. Gases are not necessarily in chemical equilibrium with the waters through which they vent, especially in acid sulfate terrain where bubbles stream through stagnant acid water. Gases in adjacent thermal areas often can be differentiated by isotopic and gas ratios, and cannot be tied to one another solely by shallow processes such as boiling-induced fractionation of a parent liquid. Instead, they inherit unique gas ratios (e.g., CH4/He) from the dominant rock reservoirs where they originate, some of which underlie the Quaternary volcanic rocks. Steam/gas ratios (essentially H2O/CO2) of Yellowstone fumaroles correlate with Ar/He and N2/CO2, strongly suggesting that H2O/CO2 is controlled by addition of steam boiled from water rich in atmospheric gases. Moreover, H2O/CO2 varies systematically with geographic location, such that boiling is more enhanced in some areas than others. The δ13C and 3He/CO2 of gases reflect a dominant mantle origin for CO2 in Yellowstone gas. The mantle signature is most evident at Mud Volcano, which hosts gases with the lowest H2O/CO2, lowest CH4 concentrations and highest He isotope ratios (~ 16Ra), consistent with either a young subsurface intrusion or less input of crustal and meteoric gas than any other location at Yellowstone. Across the YPVF, He isotope ratios (3He/4He) inversely vary with He concentrations, and reflect varied amounts of long-stored, radiogenic He added to the magmatic endmember within the crust. Similarly, addition of CH4 from organic-rich sediments is common in the eastern thermal areas at Yellowstone. Overall, Yellowstone gases reflect addition of deep, high-temperature magmatic gas (CO2-rich), lower-temperatures crustal gases (4He- and CH4-bearing), and those gases (N2, Ne, Ar) added

  18. National airspace data interchange network (NADIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falato, A. J.

    In order to implement the National Airspace Plan and meet future comunications requirements in the most cost-effective manner, it has become necessary to replace and modernize the existing data communications systems with the foundation of a totally integrated system. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will initiate cut-over of the National Airspace Data Interchange Network (NADIN) in late 1983. NADIN is not only an operational data communications system for all Air Traffic control facilities, but also an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) subsystem, and a growth plan for transportation telecommunications, using modular expansion techniques.

  19. Preliminary Airspace Operations Simulations Findings Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Provides preliminary findings of the initial series (normal operations and contingency management) of airspace operations simulations. The key elements of this report discuss feedback from controller subjects for UAS flight above FL430. Findings provide initial evaluation of routine UAS operations above dense ARTCC airspace (ZOB), and identify areas of further research, policy direction and procedural development. This document further serves as an addendum to the detailed AOS simulation plan (Deliverable SIM001), incorporating feedback from FAA air traffic personnel and Access 5 IPTs.

  20. 75 FR 34624 - Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Big Delta, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... airspace at Big Delta, AK (75 FR 17322). Controlled airspace serving Allen Army Airfield was revised in... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Big Delta, AK... Class D and E airspace at Big Delta, AK, to eliminate duplicated controlled airspace serving Allen...

  1. 75 FR 32119 - Proposed Amendment of the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas; California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...This action proposes to amend the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas by providing additional airspace in which domestic air traffic control procedures could be used to separate and manage aircraft operations in the currently uncontrolled airspace off the California coast. This proposed change would enhance the efficient utilization of that airspace within the National Airspace...

  2. Conservation of the Yellowstone grizzly bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Reid, Matthew M.

    1991-01-01

    We review literature relevant to the conservation of Yellowstone's grizzly bear population and appraise the bear's long-term viability. We conclude that the population is isolated and vulnerable to epidemic perturbation and that the carrying capacity of the habitat is likely to shift downward under conditions of climate change. Viability analyses based on the assumption that future habitats will closely resemble those existing at present have limited applicability; more information is needed on the autecology of important bear foods and on the implications of landscape-scale changes for bear population dynamics. Optimism over prospects of long-term persistence for Yellowstone's grizzly bears does not seem to be warranted and management of this population should be conservative and not unduly swayed on short-term positive trends.

  3. Infectious diseases of wolves in Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Hudson, Peter J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    The summer of 2005 began with such promise for wolves in Yellowstone.  The population had been at an all-time high the last few years, and the wolves appeared to be in good condition.  Several packs had been particularly busy during the breeding season, and early summer pup counts suggested another healthy crop of new wolves rising through the ranks.

  4. Pregnancy rates in central Yellowstone bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Russell, Robin E.; Olexa, Edward M.; Podruzny, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Plains bison (Bison b. bison) centered on Yellowstone National Park are chronically infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and culled along the park boundaries to reduce the probability of disease transmission to domestic livestock. We evaluated the relationship between pregnancy rates and age, dressed carcass weight, and serological status for brucellosis among bison culled from the central Yellowstone subpopulation during the winters of 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003. A model with only dressed carcass weight was the best predictor of pregnancy status for all ages with the odds of pregnancy increasing by 1.03 (95% CI = 1.02–1.04) for every 1-kg increase in weight. We found no effect of age or the serological status for brucellosis on pregnancy rates across age classes; however, we did find a positive association between age and pregnancy rates for bison ≥2 years old. Bison ≥2 years old had an overall pregnancy rate of 65% with markedly different rates in alternate ages for animals between 3 and 7 years old. Pregnancy rates were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.31–0.69) for brucellosis positive and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.34–0.78) for brucellosis negative 2- and 3-year-olds and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60–0.85) in brucellosis positive and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.49–0.85) in brucellosis negative bison ≥4 years old. Only 1 of 21 bison <2 years old was pregnant. Our findings are important to accurately predict the effects of brucellosis on Yellowstone bison population dynamics. We review our results relative to other studies of Yellowstone bison that concluded serological status for brucellosis influences pregnancy rates.

  5. Incisor wear and age in Yellowstone bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christianson, D.A.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Podruzny, K.M.; Olexa, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biologists commonly use tooth eruption and wear patterns or cementum annuli techniques to estimate age of ungulates. However, in some situations the accuracy or sampling procedures of either approach are undesirable. We investigated the progression of several quantitative measures of wear with age, using permanent first incisors from Yellowstone bison (Bison bison), and tested for differences between sexes and herds. We further investigated the relationship of wear and age to explore an age-estimation method. Labial-lingual width (LLW) correlated best with assigned age (r2=0.66, males; r2=0.76 females). Labial-lingual width differed between sexes, with females showing ∼0.2 mm more wear than males. Additionally, differences in rate of wear existed between bison of the northern and central Yellowstone herds (1.2 and 0.9 mm/year, respectively). We developed a regression formula to test the power of LLW as an estimator of Yellowstone bison age. Our method provided estimated ages within 1 year of the assigned age 73% and 82% of the time for female and male bison, respectively.

  6. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2014-09-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  7. Linking Yellowstone Research to Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Yellowstone's hydrothermal features and their associated communities of thermophiles are studied by scientists who are searching for evidence of life on other planets. The connection is extreme environments. If life originated in the extreme conditions thought to have been widespread on ancient Earth, it may well have developed on other planets and it might still exist today. The chemosynthetic microbes that thrive in some of Yellowstone s hot springs do so by metabolizing inorganic chemicals, a source of energy that does not require sunlight. Such chemical energy sources provide the most likely habitable niches for life on Mars or on the moons of Jupiter-Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto-where uninhabitable surface conditions preclude photosynthesis. Chemical energy sources, along with extensive groundwater systems (such as on Mars) or oceans beneath icy crusts (such as Jupiter's moons) could provide habitats for life. The study of stromatolites on Earth may also be applied to the search for life on other planets. If stromatolites are eventually found in the rocks of Mars or on other planets, we will have proven that life once existed elsewhere in the universe. Yellowstone National Park will continue to be an important site for studies at the physical and chemical limits of survival. These studies will give scientists a better understanding of the conditions that give rise to and support life, and they will learn how to recognize signatures of life in ancient rocks and on distant planets.

  8. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  9. Forecasts of 21st Century Snowpack and Implications for Snowmobile and Snowcoach Use in Yellowstone National Park

    PubMed Central

    Tercek, Michael; Rodman, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Climate models project a general decline in western US snowpack throughout the 21st century, but long-term, spatially fine-grained, management-relevant projections of snowpack are not available for Yellowstone National Park. We focus on the implications that future snow declines may have for oversnow vehicle (snowmobile and snowcoach) use because oversnow tourism is critical to the local economy and has been a contentious issue in the park for more than 30 years. Using temperature-indexed snow melt and accumulation equations with temperature and precipitation data from downscaled global climate models, we forecast the number of days that will be suitable for oversnow travel on each Yellowstone road segment during the mid- and late-21st century. The west entrance road was forecast to be the least suitable for oversnow use in the future while the south entrance road was forecast to remain at near historical levels of driveability. The greatest snow losses were forecast for the west entrance road where as little as 29% of the December–March oversnow season was forecast to be driveable by late century. The climatic conditions that allow oversnow vehicle use in Yellowstone are forecast by our methods to deteriorate significantly in the future. At some point it may be prudent to consider plowing the roads that experience the greatest snow losses. PMID:27467778

  10. Forecasts of 21st Century Snowpack and Implications for Snowmobile and Snowcoach Use in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Tercek, Michael; Rodman, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Climate models project a general decline in western US snowpack throughout the 21st century, but long-term, spatially fine-grained, management-relevant projections of snowpack are not available for Yellowstone National Park. We focus on the implications that future snow declines may have for oversnow vehicle (snowmobile and snowcoach) use because oversnow tourism is critical to the local economy and has been a contentious issue in the park for more than 30 years. Using temperature-indexed snow melt and accumulation equations with temperature and precipitation data from downscaled global climate models, we forecast the number of days that will be suitable for oversnow travel on each Yellowstone road segment during the mid- and late-21st century. The west entrance road was forecast to be the least suitable for oversnow use in the future while the south entrance road was forecast to remain at near historical levels of driveability. The greatest snow losses were forecast for the west entrance road where as little as 29% of the December-March oversnow season was forecast to be driveable by late century. The climatic conditions that allow oversnow vehicle use in Yellowstone are forecast by our methods to deteriorate significantly in the future. At some point it may be prudent to consider plowing the roads that experience the greatest snow losses. PMID:27467778

  11. 76 FR 27087 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... National Park Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National... Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located..., Yellowstone National Park, P.O. Box 168, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming 82190. If......

  12. Information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1988-01-01

    An informal overview is given of the work in progress and the planned work in the area of information transfer that specifically addresses human factors issues in National Airspace System (NAS). The issues of how weather information will be displayed on the flight deck, the development of appropriate decision making technology, and digital datalink transmission are also briefly discussed.

  13. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal: Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years. Long-term Goal: Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  14. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal - Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years. Long-term Goal - Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  15. Lessons from geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.; Hurwitz, S.

    2015-12-01

    The magma-hydrothermal system of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field encompasses over ten thousand individual springs, seeps, and fumaroles spread out over >9000 square kilometers, and produces a range of acid, neutral and alkaline waters. A prominent model (Fournier, 1989 and related papers) concludes that many neutral and alkaline fluids found in hot springs and geysers are derived from a uniform, high-enthalpy parent fluid through processes such as deep boiling and mixing with dilute meteoric groundwater. Acid waters are generally condensates of gas-bearing steam that boils off of subsurface geothermal waters. Our recent studies of gases at Yellowstone (Lowenstern et al., 2015 and references therein) are compatible with such a model, but also reveal that gases are largely decoupled from thermal waters due to open-system addition of abundant deep gas to (comparatively) shallow circulating thermal waters. Fumarole emissions at Yellowstone range from gas-rich (up to 15 mol%) composed of deeply derived CO2, He and CH4, to steam-rich emissions (<0.01% gas) dominated by N2 and Ar. The clear implication is that deep gas is diluted with atmospheric gas boiled off of geothermal liquids. The general trend is antithetical to that predicted by progressive boiling of a parent fluid (Rayleigh or batch degassing), where decreasing gas content should correlate with increasing proportions of soluble gas (i.e., CO2). Deep gas at Yellowstone fits into two general categories: 1) mantle-derived CO2 with a hotspot He isotope signature (>16 RA) and low CH4 and He concentrations and 2) mantle-derived CO2 with much higher CH4 and/or He concentrations and abundant radiogenic He picked up from crustal degassing. Individual thermal areas have distinct CH4/He. It remains unclear whether some gas ratios mainly reflect subsurface geothermal temperatures. Instead, they may simply reflect signatures imparted by local rock types and mixing on timescales too fast for reequilibration. Overall

  16. Recent crustal subsidence at Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, D.; Savage, J.C.; Fournier, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    Following a period of net uplift at an average rate of 15??1 mm/year from 1923 to 1984, the east-central floor of Yellowstone Caldera stopped rising during 1984-1985 and then subsided 25??7 mm during 1985-1986 and an additional 35??7 mm during 1986-1987. The average horizontal strain rates in the northeast part of the caldera for the period from 1984 to 1987 were: {Mathematical expression}1 = 0.10 ?? 0.09 ??strain/year oriented N33?? E??9?? and {Mathematical expression}2 = 0.20 ?? 0.09 ??strain/year oriented N57?? W??9?? (extension reckoned positive). A best-fit elastic model of the 1985-1987 vertical and horizontal displacements in the eastern part of the caldera suggests deflation of a horizontal tabular body located 10??5 km beneath Le Hardys Rapids, i.e., within a deep hydrothermal system or within an underlying body of partly molten rhyolite. Two end-member models each explain most aspects of historical unrest at Yellowstone, including the recent reversal from uplift to subsidence. Both involve crystallization of an amount of rhyolitic magma that is compatible with the thermal energy requirements of Yellowstone's vigorous hydrothermal system. In the first model, injection of basalt near the base of the rhyolitic system is the primary cause of uplift. Higher in the magmatic system, rhyolite crystallizes and releases all of its magmatic volatiles into the shallow hydrothermal system. Uplift stops and subsidence starts whenever the supply rate of basalt is less than the subsidence rate produced by crystallization of rhyolite and associated fluid loss. In the second model, uplift is caused primarily by pressurization of the deep hydrothermal system by magmatic gas and brine that are released during crystallization of rhyolite and them trapped at lithostatic pressure beneath an impermeable self-sealed zone. Subsidence occurs during episodic hydrofracturing and injection of pore fluid from the deep lithostatic-pressure zone into a shallow hydrostatic-pressure zone

  17. Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Lisa A., (Edited By)

    2007-01-01

    Yellowstone National Park, rimmed by a crescent of older mountainous terrain, has at its core the Quaternary Yellowstone Plateau, an undulating landscape shaped by forces of volcanism, tectonism, and later glaciation. Its spectacular hydrothermal systems cap this landscape. From 1997 through 2003, the United States Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program conducted a multidisciplinary project of Yellowstone National Park entitled Integrated Geoscience Studies of the Greater Yellowstone Area, building on a 130-year foundation of extensive field studies (including the Hayden survey of 1871, the Hague surveys of the 1880s through 1896, the studies of Iddings, Allen, and Day during the 1920s, and NASA-supported studies starting in the 1970s - now summarized in USGS Professional Paper 729 A through G) in this geologically dynamic terrain. The project applied a broad range of scientific disciplines and state-of-the-art technologies targeted to improve stewardship of the unique natural resources of Yellowstone and enable the National Park Service to effectively manage resources, protect park visitors from geologic hazards, and better educate the public on geologic processes and resources. This project combined a variety of data sets in characterizing the surficial and subsurface chemistry, mineralogy, geology, geophysics, and hydrothermal systems in various parts of the park. The sixteen chapters presented herein in USGS Professional Paper 1717, Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem, can be divided into four major topical areas: (1) geologic studies, (2) Yellowstone Lake studies, (3) geochemical studies, and (4) geophysical studies. The geologic studies include a paper by Ken Pierce and others on the influence of the Yellowstone hotspot on landscape formation, the ecological effects of the hotspot, and the human experience and human geography of the greater

  18. The Yellowstone Hotspot and Related Plume: Volcano-Tectonics, Tomography, Kinematics, Dynamics and Mantle Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, M.; Smith, R. B.; Puskas, C.; Farrell, J.; Waite, G.

    2005-12-01

    Earth's violent forces have produced the renowned scenery and the world's largest display of geysers at Yellowstone National Park. The energy responsible for these features is related to the Yellowstone hotspot, a coupled crust-mantle magmatic system that has had a profound influence on a much larger area of the western US: the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain-Newberry volcanic field (YSRPN). The volcanic system has produced a 16 Ma track of NE-trending, time progressive, silicic-basaltic volcanism from the Snake River Plain (SNR) to Yellowstone with a mirror image of NW-trending magmatism across the high lava plains to the Newberry caldera, OR. The origin of this magmatic-tectono system has been variously ascribed to plume-plate interaction, lithosphere extension, return mantle flow, decompression melting, etc. We interpret and integrate results from modeling of data from a prototype EarthScope experiment in 1999-2002. These include crust-mantle tomography, geoid and gravity modeling, kinematics from GPS, and geodynamic models. We present a comprehensive model for the mechanism behind YSRPN that is in accordance with our observations and models, e.g. from GPS and seismology. Geodetic data show high rates of deformation at the Yellowstone Plateau, with periods of pronounced uplift and subsidence as well as significant EW extension. Seismic tomography reveals a pronounced mid-crustal P- and S-wave low velocity body of > 8% melt extending from ~6 km to 15 km beneath the caldera. This system is fed by an upper-mantle low velocity plume-like body of up to 1.5% melt in the upper 200 km. The body further extends down to the the base of the transition zone at 650 km depth, notably tilting WNW. At this depth, we estimate the excess temperature between 85 K and 120 K, depending on the water content. Using the inclined plume-geometry and the 650-km source depth we extrapolate the mantle source southwestward as a plume-head in oceanic-type lithosphere beneath the Columbia

  19. Steam explosions, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions -- what's in Yellowstone's future?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Smith, Robert B.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Heasler, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Yellowstone, one of the world?s largest active volcanic systems, has produced several giant volcanic eruptions in the past few million years, as well as many smaller eruptions and steam explosions. Although no eruptions of lava or volcanic ash have occurred for many thousands of years, future eruptions are likely. In the next few hundred years, hazards will most probably be limited to ongoing geyser and hot-spring activity, occasional steam explosions, and moderate to large earthquakes. To better understand Yellowstone?s volcano and earthquake hazards and to help protect the public, the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Utah, and Yellowstone National Park formed the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, which continuously monitors activity in the region.

  20. Grizzly bear nutrition and ecology studies in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Charles T.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Servheen, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    T HE CHANCE TO SEE a wild grizzly bear is often the first or second reason people give for visiting Yellow - stone National Park. Public interest in bears is closely coupled with a desire to perpetuate this wild symbol of the American West. Grizzly bears have long been described as a wilderness species requiring large tracts of undisturbed habitat. However, in today’s world, most grizzly bears live in close proximity to humans (Schwartz et al. 2003). Even in Yellowstone National Park, the impacts of humans can affect the long-term survival of bears (Gunther et al. 2002). As a consequence, the park has long supported grizzly bear research in an effort to understand these impacts. Most people are familiar with what happened when the park and the State of Montana closed open-pit garbage dumps in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when at least 229 bears died as a direct result of conflict with humans. However, many may not be as familiar with the ongoing changes in the park’s plant and animal communities that have the potential to further alter the park’s ability to support grizzly bears.

  1. 77 FR 50907 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...This action amends Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 relating to airspace designations to reflect the approval by the Director of the Federal Register of the incorporation by reference of FAA Order 7400.9W, Airspace Designations and Reporting Points. This action also explains the procedures the FAA will use to amend the listings of Class A, B, C, D, and E airspace areas;......

  2. Population dynamics of Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Richard R.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the population of grizzly bears in the environs of Yellowstone National Park suggest that the population has not recovered from the reductions following closure of garbage dumps in 1970 and 1971, and may continue to decline. A computer simulation model indicates that the risk of extirpation over the next 30 yr is small, if the present population parameters continue to prevail. A review and further analysis of the available data brings out the importance of enhancing adult female survival if the population is to recover, and assesses various research needs. In particular, a reliable index of population trend is needed to augment available data on the population.

  3. Thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Sellman, A. N.; Smedes, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    An uncontrolled aerial thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park was assembled from the videotape record of 13 individual thermographs obtained with linescan radiometers. Post mission processing of the videotape record rectified the nadir line to a topographic map base, corrected for v/h variations in adjacent flight lanes, corrected for yaw and pitch distortions, and distortions produced by nonlinearity of the side-wise scan. One of the purposes of the thermographic study was to delineate the areas of thermal emission (hot springs, geysers, etc.) throughout the Park, a study which could have great value in reconnaissance surveys of geothermal areas in remote regions or regions of high relief.

  4. Terrain classification maps of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Roller, N. E. G.

    1973-01-01

    A cooperative ERTS-1 investigation involving U. S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and Environmental Research Institure of Michigan (ERIM) personnel has as its goal the preparation of terrain classification maps for the entire Yellowstone National Park. Excellent coverage of the park was obtained on 6 August 1972 (frame 1015-17404). Preliminary terrain classification maps have been prepared at ERIM by applying multispectral pattern recognition techniques to ERTS-MSS digital taped data. The color coded terrain maps are presented and discussed. The discussion includes qualitative and quantitative accuracy estimates and discussion of processing techniques.

  5. Tactical Conflict Detection in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.; Denery, Dallas G.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic systems have long relied on automated short-term conflict prediction algorithms to warn controllers of impending conflicts (losses of separation). The complexity of terminal airspace has proven difficult for such systems as it often leads to excessive false alerts. Thus, the legacy system, called Conflict Alert, which provides short-term alerts in both en-route and terminal airspace currently, is often inhibited or degraded in areas where frequent false alerts occur, even though the alerts are provided only when an aircraft is in dangerous proximity of other aircraft. This research investigates how a minimal level of flight intent information may be used to improve short-term conflict detection in terminal airspace such that it can be used by the controller to maintain legal aircraft separation. The flight intent information includes a site-specific nominal arrival route and inferred altitude clearances in addition to the flight plan that includes the RNAV (Area Navigation) departure route. A new tactical conflict detection algorithm is proposed, which uses a single analytic trajectory, determined by the flight intent and the current state information of the aircraft, and includes a complex set of current, dynamic separation standards for terminal airspace to define losses of separation. The new algorithm is compared with an algorithm that imitates a known en-route algorithm and another that imitates Conflict Alert by analysis of false-alert rate and alert lead time with recent real-world data of arrival and departure operations and a large set of operational error cases from Dallas/Fort Worth TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). The new algorithm yielded a false-alert rate of two per hour and an average alert lead time of 38 seconds.

  6. Metrics for the NASA Airspace Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.

    2009-01-01

    This document defines an initial set of metrics for use by the NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP). ASP consists of the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. The work in each project is organized along multiple, discipline-level Research Focus Areas (RFAs). Each RFA is developing future concept elements in support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as defined by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO). In addition, a single, system-level RFA is responsible for integrating concept elements across RFAs in both projects and for assessing system-wide benefits. The primary purpose of this document is to define a common set of metrics for measuring National Airspace System (NAS) performance before and after the introduction of ASP-developed concepts for NextGen as the system handles increasing traffic. The metrics are directly traceable to NextGen goals and objectives as defined by the JPDO and hence will be used to measure the progress of ASP research toward reaching those goals. The scope of this document is focused on defining a common set of metrics for measuring NAS capacity, efficiency, robustness, and safety at the system-level and at the RFA-level. Use of common metrics will focus ASP research toward achieving system-level performance goals and objectives and enable the discipline-level RFAs to evaluate the impact of their concepts at the system level.

  7. Configuring Airspace Sectors with Approximate Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Gupta, Pramod

    2010-01-01

    In response to changing traffic and staffing conditions, supervisors dynamically configure airspace sectors by assigning them to control positions. A finite horizon airspace sector configuration problem models this supervisor decision. The problem is to select an airspace configuration at each time step while considering a workload cost, a reconfiguration cost, and a constraint on the number of control positions at each time step. Three algorithms for this problem are proposed and evaluated: a myopic heuristic, an exact dynamic programming algorithm, and a rollouts approximate dynamic programming algorithm. On problem instances from current operations with only dozens of possible configurations, an exact dynamic programming solution gives the optimal cost value. The rollouts algorithm achieves costs within 2% of optimal for these instances, on average. For larger problem instances that are representative of future operations and have thousands of possible configurations, excessive computation time prohibits the use of exact dynamic programming. On such problem instances, the rollouts algorithm reduces the cost achieved by the heuristic by more than 15% on average with an acceptable computation time.

  8. Thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Hasell, Philip G., Jr.; Sellman, Albert N.; Smedes, Harry W.

    1976-01-01

    An uncontrolled thermographic mosaic, which covers most of the area of Yellowstone National Park, has been compiled. The recording of aerial thermographic data on videotape is established as one of the prerequisites for the preparation of more accurate mosaics. Post-mission processing of the videotape record can rectify the nadir line to a topographic map base, correct for v/h variations in adjacent flight lines, correct for yaw distortions, rectify distortions caused by pitch, and rectify distortions produced by non-linearity of the side-wise scan. Installation of a thermal infrared scanning radiometer in a gyrostabilized mount and post-mission processing of the videotape record (principally rectification of side-wise scan distortion) would yield a controlled, photogrammetrically accurate thermographic mosaic. However, the techniques used in the preparation of the uncontrolled thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park can be immediately applied to the preparation of regional thermographic mosaics, important to geologists and other scientists and engineers in studies of geothermal and volcanic areas, and to other types of environmental investigations such as pollution studies of large water bodies (e.g., harbors, estuaries, lakes, etc.), where a precise planimetric image is not critical.

  9. Demography of the Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pease, C.M.; Mattson, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    We undertook a demographic analysis of the Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) to identify critical environmental factors controlling grizzly bear vital rates, and thereby to help evaluate the effectiveness of past management and to identify future conservation issues. We concluded that, within the limits of uncertainty implied by the available data and our methods of data analysis, the size of the Yellowstone grizzly bear population changed little from 1975 to 1995. We found that grizzly bear mortality rates are about double in years when the whitebark pine crop fails than in mast years, and that the population probably declines when the crop fails and increases in mast years. Our model suggests that natural variation in whitebark pine crop size over the last two decades explains more of the perceived fluctuations in Yellowstone grizzly population size than do other variables. Our analysis used demographic data from 202 radio-telemetered bears followed between 1975 and 1992 and accounted for whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) crop failures during 1993-1995. We used a maximum likelihood method to estimate demographic parameters and used the Akaike Information Criteria to judge the significance of various independent variables. We identified no independent variables correlated with grizzly bear fecundity. In order of importance, we found that grizzly bear mortality rates are correlated with season, whitebark pine crop size (mast vs. nonmast year), sex, management-trapping status (never management-trapped vs. management-trapped once or more), and age. The mortality rate of bears that were management-trapped at least once was almost double that of bears that were never management-trapped, implying a source/sink (i.e., never management-trapped/management-trapped) structure. The rate at which bears move between the source and sink, estimated as the management-trapping rate (h), is critical to estimating the finite rate of increase, I>I?. We quantified h by

  10. Arsenic and fluoride in the upper madison river system: Firehole and gibbon rivers and their tributaries, yellowstone national park, wyoming, and southeast montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analyses of 21 water samples from the Firehole and Gibbon Rivers, which combine to form the Madison River, gave arsenic and fluoride values above the Environmental Protection Agency Interim Primary Drinking Water maximum contaminant levels (0.05 mg/l arsenic and 2.0 mg/l fluoride). On 18 October, 1975, during a period of moderate flow (16,600 l/s), the Madison River at West Yellowstone contained 0.23 mg/l arsenic and 6.2 mg/l fluoride. Below Hebgen Lake the Madison River during periods of high flow (56,000 liter/s at West Yellowstone and 708,000 liter/s below Hebgen Lake) would contain 0.05 mg/l arsenic at both stations and 1.5 and 4.0 mg/l fluoride at West Yellowstone and below Hebgen Lake, respectively. The strong correlations of arsenic and fluoride with other chemical constituents of the river water at the sampling sites demonstrate the conservative nature of each element after it reaches the Madison River system. Calculations indicate that water from three sampling sites is above saturation with respect to fluorite. ?? 1979 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  11. Ground Water at Grant Village Site, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Ellis D.; McCullough, Richard A.; Weeks, Edwin P.

    1961-01-01

    On behalf of the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey during the summer of 1959 made a study of ground-water conditions in the area of the Grant Village site, along the shore of the West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake, 1 to 2 miles south of the present facilities at West Thumb. The water supply for the present development at West Thumb is obtained from Duck Lake, but the quantity of water available from this source probably will be inadequate for the planned development at Grant Village. During the investigation, 11 auger holes were bored and 6 test wells were drilled. Aquifer tests by pumping and bailing methods were made at two of the test wells. All material penetrated in the auger holes and test wells is of Quaternary age except the welded tuff of possible Pliocene age that was penetrated in the lower part of test well 4. Small to moderate quantities of water were obtained from the test wells in the area. Test well 2 yielded 35 gpm (gallons per minute) at a temperature of nearly 100 deg F. Test well 6 yielded about 15 gpm at a temperature of 48 deg F. The yield of this well might be increased by perforation of additional sections of casing, followed by further development of the well. Water from the other four test wells was of inadequate quantity, too highly mineralized, or too warm to be effectively utilized. Most of the ground water sampled had high concentrations of silica and iron, and part of the water was excessively high in fluoride content. Otherwise, the ground water was of generally suitable quality for most uses. The most favorable area for obtaining water supplies from wells is near the lakeshore, where a large part of the water pumped would be ground-water flow diverted from its normal discharge into the lake. Moderate quantities of relatively cool water of fairly good quality may be available near the lakeshore between test wells 5 and 6 and immediately east of test well 6.

  12. 78 FR 27025 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Philadelphia, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to modify the Philadelphia, PA, Class B airspace area (77 FR 45290, July 31, 2012...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... aircraft within Class B airspace, reduce controller workload, and reduce the potential for midair...

  13. 77 FR 6463 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwigillingok, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...-2011-0881 was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 6), amending controlled airspace at Kwigillingok... published in the Federal Register on January 3, 2012 (77 FR 6), (FR Doc. 2011-33566), is corrected as... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwigillingok, AK AGENCY: Federal...

  14. 75 FR 57376 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... segregating IFR aircraft arriving/departing Chicago O'Hare International Airport (ORD) and Visual Flight Rules... a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to modify the Chicago, IL, Class B airspace area (75 FR 27229... extension. The legal description of the airspace area includes a mixture of prominent visual...

  15. 78 FR 48298 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Commerce, TX, area, creating additional controlled airspace at Commerce Municipal Airport (78 FR 33019... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY:...

  16. 76 FR 60713 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bumpass, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Airspace at Bumpass, VA, to accommodate the new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures serving Lake Anna... establish Class E airspace at Bumpass, VA (76 FR 45479) Docket No. FAA-2011-0377. Interested parties were... for Lake Anna Airport. This action is necessary for the safety and management of IFR operations at...

  17. 78 FR 22413 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Omak, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... airspace extending upward from 4,500 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL). This improves the safety and management of... (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Omak, WA (78 FR 5151). Interested parties were invited to... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  18. 75 FR 16329 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Killeen, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... E airspace for Killeen, TX, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Skylark Field Airport (75 FR 3877... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  19. 75 FR 30295 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hoquiam, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ...This action will amend existing Class E airspace at Hoquiam, WA. Controlled Class E surface airspace will be continuous at Bowerman Airport, Hoquiam, WA. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations at the airport. This action also will correct the airport...

  20. 14 CFR 71.71 - Class E airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (2) The airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth. (b) The airspace areas designated... by reference, see § 71.1) which extend upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... been prescribed, or from 1,200 feet or more above the surface of the earth for the purpose...

  1. 14 CFR 71.71 - Class E airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (2) The airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth. (b) The airspace areas designated... by reference, see § 71.1) which extend upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... been prescribed, or from 1,200 feet or more above the surface of the earth for the purpose...

  2. 14 CFR 71.71 - Class E airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (2) The airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth. (b) The airspace areas designated... by reference, see § 71.1) which extend upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... been prescribed, or from 1,200 feet or more above the surface of the earth for the purpose...

  3. 14 CFR 71.71 - Class E airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (2) The airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth. (b) The airspace areas designated... by reference, see § 71.1) which extend upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... been prescribed, or from 1,200 feet or more above the surface of the earth for the purpose...

  4. 76 FR 53328 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... FAA processed all proposed changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9U in full text as... in full text as final rules in the Federal Register. This rule reflects the periodic integration of... changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9V in full text as proposed rule documents in...

  5. 78 FR 52847 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... FAA processed all proposed changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9W in full text as... in full text as final rules in the Federal Register. This rule reflects the periodic integration of... changes of the airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9X in full text as proposed rule documents in...

  6. 75 FR 20773 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Jackson, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on December 7, 2009 (74 FR 63973), Docket... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Jackson, AL AGENCY... December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Jackson Muni, Jackson, AL. DATES: Effective...

  7. 75 FR 43 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Beckley, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Memorial Airport, Beckley, WV, in the Federal Register on October 19, 2009 (74 FR 53408), Docket No. FAA... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Beckley, WV AGENCY... that modifies Class E airspace at Raleigh County Memorial Airport, Beckley, WV. This rule increases...

  8. 14 CFR 71.71 - Class E airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (2) The airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth. (b) The airspace areas designated... by reference, see § 71.1) which extend upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth... been prescribed, or from 1,200 feet or more above the surface of the earth for the purpose...

  9. 77 FR 68681 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Anthony, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Anthony, KS AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace...

  10. 77 FR 46284 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lemmon, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lemmon, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace...

  11. 76 FR 43824 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Talkeetna, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... revise Class E airspace at Talkeetna, AK (76 FR 27619). Interested parties were invited to participate in... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Talkeetna, AK AGENCY:...

  12. 75 FR 12166 - Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    .... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Beatrice, NE. Decommissioning of the Shaw non-directional beacon (NDB) at...

  13. 75 FR 41075 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Bozeman, MT (75 FR 20321). Interested parties were invited..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT AGENCY:...

  14. 75 FR 41077 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace...

  15. 76 FR 43823 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Yakutat, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Yakutat, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace...

  16. 76 FR 28887 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Ozark, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Ozark, MO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class E airspace...

  17. 78 FR 38828 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Captiva, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Captiva, FL AGENCY...: History On June 6, 2013, the FAA published a final rule, in the Federal Register establishing Class E... aeronautical data charting service, thereby making this action necessary. The Class E airspace designations...

  18. 76 FR 40598 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Campbellton, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Campbellton, TX... Class E airspace for Campbellton, TX, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard...

  19. 76 FR 39259 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... with the date July 25, 2011. Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME AGENCY... establishes Class E airspace at Brunswick Executive Airport, Brunswick, ME. DATES: The effective date is...

  20. 75 FR 13667 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntingburg, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Huntingburg Airport, Huntingburg, IN (74 FR 66592) Docket No. FAA... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntingburg, IN AGENCY: Federal...

  1. 77 FR 60660 - Proposed Establishment Class E Airspace; Kasigluk, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment Class E Airspace; Kasigluk, AK...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Kasigluk Airport, Kasigluk, AK, to...

  2. 76 FR 53049 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace...

  3. 76 FR 55554 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rutherfordton, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Rutherfordton, NC (76 FR 31510) Docket No. FAA-2010-1330...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rutherfordton, NC...

  4. 77 FR 51464 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Augusta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... amend Class E airspace in the Augusta, GA area (77 FR 21506). Interested parties were invited to... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565; 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Augusta, GA AGENCY:...

  5. 76 FR 40597 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Madison, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Madison, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace...

  6. 76 FR 69608 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Blythe, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Modification of Class E Airspace; Blythe, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace at Blythe, CA, to accommodate aircraft using...

  7. 75 FR 12162 - Class E Airspace; Manila, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Manila, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Manila, AR. Decommissioning of the Manila non-directional beacon (NDB) at...

  8. 75 FR 12165 - Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E airspace at Batesville, AR. Decommissioning of the Independence County...

  9. 75 FR 65227 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Franklin, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... rulemaking to remove Class E airspace for Franklin, TX (75 FR 36586) Docket No. FAA-2010-0603. Interested... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Franklin, TX...

  10. 78 FR 57788 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Everett, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ..., 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Everett, WA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace...

  11. 76 FR 55555 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Shelby, NC (76 FR 35799) Docket No..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, NC AGENCY:...

  12. 76 FR 66854 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Nuiqsut, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register to revise Class E airspace at Nuiqsut, AK (76 FR 49386). Interested..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Nuiqsut, AK AGENCY:...

  13. 75 FR 4270 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Anniston, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Anniston, AL AGENCY... October 28, 2009 that modifies the Class E airspace at Anniston Metropolitan Airport, Anniston, AL. DATES... direct final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on October 28, 2009 (74 FR...

  14. 76 FR 8626 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Shungnak, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Shungnak, AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace...

  15. 77 FR 32896 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E... received. Class E airspace designations are published in paragraph 6005, of FAA Order 7400.9V dated...

  16. 75 FR 72939 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Portland, OR AGENCY... Class E airspace at Portland, OR, to accommodate aircraft using the Localizer/Distance...

  17. 78 FR 26243 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Easton, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Easton, PA (78 FR..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Easton, PA AGENCY:...

  18. 75 FR 13670 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL AGENCY: Federal... December 29, 2009 that amends Class E airspace at Northeast Alabama Regional, Gadsden, AL. DATES: Effective... direct final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on December 29, 2009 (74 FR...

  19. 75 FR 13669 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dumas, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dumas, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace...

  20. 76 FR 8625 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Savoonga, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Register to amend Class E airspace at Savoonga, AK (75 FR 77574). Interested parties were invited... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Savoonga, AK AGENCY:...

  1. 76 FR 34576 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Waynesboro, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...) to amend Class E airspace at Eagle's Nest Airport, Waynesboro, VA (75 FR 14820) Docket No. FAA-2010..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Waynesboro, VA...

  2. 75 FR 41076 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Monterey, CA AGENCY... E airspace at Monterey, CA, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV)...

  3. 76 FR 9219 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Muncie, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Muncie, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace...

  4. 77 FR 68682 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace...

  5. 75 FR 65226 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC (75 FR 52654) Docket... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  6. 78 FR 27031 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kingston, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kingston, NY AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace...

  7. 76 FR 2800 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT AGENCY... establishes Class E en route domestic airspace for the Lucin VORTAC, Lucin, UT. DATES: Effective 0901...

  8. 76 FR 8624 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Barrow, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... revise Class E airspace at Barrow, Alaska (75 FR 71046). Interested parties were invited to participate..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Barrow, AK AGENCY:...

  9. 76 FR 8627 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Class E airspace at Platinum AK (75 FR 77572). Interested parties were invited to participate in this... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum, AK AGENCY:...

  10. 76 FR 8281 - Amendment to Class B Airspace; Cleveland, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to modify the Cleveland, OH, Class B airspace area (75 FR... announced in the Federal Register (73 FR 40446) on July 14, 2008, the FAA held Informal Airspace Meetings in... public. Finally, the NPRM was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 20528) on April 20, 2010, to...

  11. 75 FR 18047 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Hollywood, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... final rule published in the Federal Register July 23, 1997 (62 FR 39430) Airspace Docket 97-ASO-7, the..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Hollywood, FL AGENCY: Federal...

  12. 76 FR 1999 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panguitch, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... E airspace at Panguitch, UT, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Panguitch Municipal Airport. This will... Panguitch, UT (75 FR 36585). The FAA agreed with a comment received to also expand controlled airspace...

  13. 78 FR 1750 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Princeton, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Airspace at Princeton, KY, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Class E airspace at Princeton, KY (77 FR 64919) Docket No. FAA-2011-1444. Subsequent to publication... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  14. 78 FR 25384 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Immokalee, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Class E Airspace at Immokalee, FL, to accommodate the Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... establish Class E airspace at Immokalee, FL (78 FR 6262) Docket No. FAA-2012-1051. Interested parties were... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  15. 76 FR 45177 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nephi, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... airspace at Nephi UT, to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Nephi, UT (76 FR 28382). Interested parties were... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  16. 77 FR 1012 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Inverness, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Airspace at Inverness, FL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... the controlled airspace required to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning..., FL (76 FR 66871) Docket No. FAA-2011-0540. Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  17. 76 FR 14800 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wolfeboro, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Airspace at Wolfeboro, NH, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Class E airspace at Wolfeboro, NH (75 FR 81518). Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  18. 77 FR 45240 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Arcadia, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Class E Airspace at Arcadia, FL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... establish Class E airspace at Oneonta, AL (77 FR 33685) Docket No. FAA-2012-0365. Interested parties were... rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does...

  19. 76 FR 64234 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Palmyra, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... airspace at Palmyra, PA, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard... (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Palmyra, PA (76 FR 49390). Interested... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  20. 76 FR 14802 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lancaster, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Airspace at Lancaster, NH, to accommodate a new Area Navigation Global Positioning System RNAV special... establish Class E airspace at Lancaster, NH (75 FR 81517). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  1. 75 FR 37294 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Kelso, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... airspace at Kelso, WA, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Kelso, WA (75 FR 20322... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  2. 77 FR 4458 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... E airspace for Rugby, ND, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Rugby Municipal Airport (76 FR 66870... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  3. 14 CFR 105.25 - Parachute operations in designated airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parachute operations in designated airspace... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.25 Parachute operations in designated airspace. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no...

  4. 14 CFR 105.25 - Parachute operations in designated airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parachute operations in designated airspace... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.25 Parachute operations in designated airspace. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no...

  5. 14 CFR 105.25 - Parachute operations in designated airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parachute operations in designated airspace... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.25 Parachute operations in designated airspace. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no...

  6. 14 CFR 105.25 - Parachute operations in designated airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parachute operations in designated airspace... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.25 Parachute operations in designated airspace. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no...

  7. 14 CFR 105.25 - Parachute operations in designated airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parachute operations in designated airspace... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.25 Parachute operations in designated airspace. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no...

  8. Changing numbers of spawning cutthroat trout in tributary streams of Yellowstone Lake and estimates of grizzly bears visiting streams from DNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.A.; Reinhart, D.P.; Podruzny, S.R.; Cegelski, C.; Waits, L.; Wyman, T.C.; Smith, J.

    2005-01-01

    Spawning Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) provide a source of highly digestible energy for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) that visit tributary streams to Yellowstone Lake during the spring and early summer. During 1985–87, research documented grizzly bears fishing on 61% of the 124 tributary streams to the lake. Using track measurements, it was estimated that a minimum of 44 grizzly bears fished those streams annually. During 1994, non-native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were discovered in Yellowstone Lake. Lake trout are efficient predators and have the potential to reduce the native cutthroat population and negatively impact terrestrial predators that use cutthroat trout as a food resource. In 1997, we began sampling a subset of streams (n = 25) from areas of Yellowstone Lake surveyed during the previous study to determine if changes in spawner numbers or bear use had occurred. Comparisons of peak numbers and duration suggested a considerable decline between study periods in streams in the West Thumb area of the lake. The apparent decline may be due to predation by lake trout. Indices of bear use also declined on West Thumb area streams. We used DNA from hair collected near spawning streams to estimate the minimum number of bears visiting the vicinity of spawning streams. Seventy-four individual bears were identified from 429 hair samples. The annual number of individuals detected ranged from 15 in 1997 to 33 in 2000. Seventy percent of genotypes identified were represented by more than 1 sample, but only 31% of bears were documented more than 1 year of the study. Sixty-two (84%) bears were only documented in 1 segment of the lake, whereas 12 (16%) were found in 2–3 lake segments. Twenty-seven bears were identified from hair collected at multiple streams. One bear was identified on 6 streams in 2 segments of the lake and during 3 years of the study. We used encounter histories derived from DNA and the Jolly-Seber procedure in Program MARK

  9. The Yellowstone magma reservoir is 50% larger than previously imaged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J.; Smith, R. B.; Husen, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier tomographic studies of the Yellowstone crustal magma system have revealed a low P-wave crustal anomaly beneath the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera that has been interpreted to be the magma reservoir of partial melt that provides the thermal energy for Yellowstone's youthful volcanic and hydrothermal systems. The Yellowstone seismic network has evolved over the last decade into a modern real-time volcano monitoring system that consists of 36 short-period, broadband, and borehole seismometers that cover the entire Yellowstone volcanic field and surrounding tectonic areas. Until recently, limited seismograph coverage did not provide for adequate resolution of the velocity structure northeast of the caldera, an area of the largest negative Bouguer gravity field of -60 mGal whose 3D density model reveals a shallow, low density body that extends ~20 km northeast of the caldera. Recent upgrades to the Yellowstone Seismic Network (YSN), including the addition of nine 3-component and broadband seismic stations providing much better ray coverage of the entire Yellowstone area with greater bandwidth data. This allows much-expanded and improved resolution coverage of the Yellowstone crustal velocity structure. We have compiled waveforms for the Yellowstone earthquake catalog from 1984-2011 with 45,643 earthquakes and 1,159,724 waveforms to analyze P-wave arrival times with an automatic picker based on an adaptive high-fidelity human mimicking algorithm. Our analysis reduced the data to the 4,520 best-located earthquakes with 48,622 P-wave arrival times to invert for the velocity structure. The resulting 3D P-wave model reveals a low Vp body (up to -7% ΔVp) that is interpreted to be the Yellowstone crustal magma reservoir and is ~50% larger than previously imaged. It extends as an oblong shaped anomalous body ~90 km NE-SW, ~20 km NE of the 0.64 Ma caldera, and up to 30 km wide and markedly shallowing from 15 km depth beneath the caldera to less than ~2 km deep northeast of

  10. Distributions of small nongame fishes in the lower Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, Michael B.; Bramblett, Robert G.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is the longest unimpounded river in the conterminous United States. It has a relatively natural flow regime, which helps maintain diverse habitats and fish assemblages uncommon in large rivers elsewhere. The lower Yellowstone River was thought to support a diverse nongame fish assemblage including several species of special concern. However, comprehensive data on the small nongame fish assemblage of the lower Yellowstone River is lacking. Therefore, we sampled the Yellowstone River downstream of its confluence with the Clark’s Fork using fyke nets and otter trawls to assess distributions and abundances of small nongame fishes. We captured 42 species (24 native and 18 nonnative) in the lower Yellowstone River with fyke nets. Native species constituted over 99% of the catch. Emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides, western silvery minnows Hybognathus argyritis, flathead chubs Platygobio gracilis, sand shiners Notropis stramineus, and longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae composed nearly 94% of fyke net catch and were caught in every segment of the study area. We captured 24 species by otter trawling downstream of the Tongue River. Sturgeon chubs Macrhybopsis gelida, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, flathead chubs, stonecats Noturus flavus, and sicklefin chubs Macrhybopsis meeki composed 89% of the otter trawl catch. The upstream distributional limit of sturgeon chubs in the Yellowstone River was the Tongue River; few sicklefin chubs were captured above Intake Diversion Dam. This study not only provides biologists with baseline data for future monitoring efforts on the Yellowstone River but serves as a benchmark for management and conservation efforts in large rivers elsewhere as the Yellowstone River represents one of the best references for a naturally functioning Great Plains river.

  11. 78 FR 72006 - Establishment of Class D Airspace and Class E Airspace; Laguna AAF, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Laguna AAF, AZ (78 FR... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory evaluation... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  12. 78 FR 46497 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... airspace, and establish Class E airspace at Oceana Naval Air Station, (NAS), VA, (78 FR 21084). Interested... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  13. 78 FR 34552 - Modification of Class D and Class E Airspace and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pasco, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... establish Class E surface airspace and modify Class D and E airspace at Pasco, WA (78 FR 18259). Interested... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  14. Effects of exotic species on Yellowstone's grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinhart, D.P.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Mattson, D.J.; Gunther, Kerry A.

    2001-01-01

    Humans have affected grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by direct mortality, competition for space and resources, and introduction of exotic species. Exotic organisms that have affected grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Area include common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), nonnative clovers (Trifolium spp.), domesticated livestock, bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Some bears consume substantial amounts of dandelion and clover. However, these exotic foods provide little digested energy compared to higher-quality bear foods. Domestic livestock are of greater energetic value, but use of this food by bears often leads to conflicts with humans and subsequent increases in bear mortality. Lake trout, blister rust, and brucellosis diminish grizzly bears foods. Lake trout prey on native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) in Yellowstone Lake; white pine blister rust has the potential to destroy native whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) stands; and management response to bovine brucellosis, a disease found in the Yellowstone bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus), could reduce populations of these 2 species. Exotic species will likely cause more harm than good for Yellowstone grizzly bears. Managers have few options to mitigate or contain the impacts of exotics on Yellowstones grizzly bears. Moreover, their potential negative impacts have only begun to unfold. Exotic species may lead to the loss of substantial highquality grizzly bear foods, including much of the bison, trout, and pine seeds that Yellowstone grizzly bears currently depend upon.

  15. 1978 Yellowstone-eastern Snake River Plain seismic profiling experiment: Data and upper crustal structure of the Yellowstone region

    SciTech Connect

    Schilly, M.M.; Smith, R.B.; Braile, L.W.; Ansorge, J.

    1982-04-10

    Eleven in-line refraction profiles, recorded to distances of 300 km, and one azimuthal fan plot were constructed from data recorded with a 150-station array in the Yellowstone National Park area during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic experiment. Interpretations of the data suggest that the crustal P wave velocity model for the Yellowstone region is characterized by (1) an averaged 10-km-thick upper crustal layer, V/sub p/ = 6.0 km/s, (2) an average crustal velocity of 6.3 km/s, and (3) a total crustal thickness of 44 km. Velocity models are presented for profiles that emphasize the upper crust and show (1) a decrease in the depth to the top of the upper crustal crystalline basement from 5 km in southwestern Yellowstone near Island Park to 1 km at the northeast side of the Yellowstone Plateau that is interpreted as a progressive thinning of the silicic surface volcanic layer to the northeast and (2) evidence for a large lateral inhomogeneity interpreted to be a low-velocity body, with a decrease of at least 10% in P wave velocity, located beneath the northeast corner of the Yellowstone Plateau. The low-velocity zone coincides with a local -30-mgal residual gravity anomaly and is located beneath part of the Sour Creek resurgent dome and part of the Hot Springs Basin, the largest hydrothermal system in Yellowstone. The low-velocity body has a maximum depth to the top of 3 km and a minimum depth to the bottom of 9 km and may represent a zone of partial melt. In comparison to the thermally undisturbed upper crust of the surrounding Rocky Mountains the upper crust of the northeastern Yellowstone plateau appears laterally inhomogeneous in velocity and layer thickness, suggesting effects of thermal and magma intrusion, whereas the lower crust appears relatively homogeneous.

  16. Seismic and GPS constraints on the dynamics and kinematics of the Yellowstone volcanic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. B.; Farrell, J.; Jordan, M.; Puskas, C.; Waite, G. P.

    2007-12-01

    structure, discontinuity structure reveals an upper-mantle low P and S velocity body extends from 80 km to ~250 km directly beneath Yellowstone and then continues to 650 km with unexpected westward tilt to the west at ~60° with a 1% to 2% melt. This geometry is consistent with the ascent of the buoyant magma entrained in eastward return-flow of the upper mantle. Some remaining issues to be discussed are: 1) the interaction dynamics and magma path from the tilted plume to the lithosphere, 2) the transfer mechanism of mantle magma through the lithosphere into the upper crust, 3) how the high potential energy of the large 12 m+ geoid high drives the dominant extensional strain and concomitant crustal magma emplacement, 4) how the crustal magma interacts with the surface hydrothermal features, and 5) how stress interaction of faults and volcanic features behave at short- to decadal time scales.

  17. Travel Times, Streamflow Velocities, and Dispersion Rates in the Yellowstone River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is a vital natural resource to the residents of southeastern Montana and is a primary source of water for irrigation and recreation and the primary source of municipal water for several cities. The Yellowstone River valley is the primary east-west transportation corridor through southern Montana. This complex of infrastructure makes the Yellowstone River especially vulnerable to accidental spills from various sources such as tanker cars and trucks. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, initiated a dye-tracer study to determine instream travel times, streamflow velocities, and dispersion rates for the Yellowstone River from Lockwood to Glendive, Montana. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of this study and summarize data collected at each of the measurement sites between Lockwood and Glendive. This report also compares the results of this study to estimated travel times from a transport model developed by the USGS for a previous study. For this study, Rhodamine WT dye was injected at four locations in late September and early October 2008 during reasonably steady streamflow conditions. Streamflows ranged from 3,490 to 3,770 cubic feet per second upstream from the confluence of the Bighorn River and ranged from 6,520 to 7,570 cubic feet per second downstream from the confluence of the Bighorn River. Mean velocities were calculated for each subreach between measurement sites for the leading edge, peak concentration, centroid, and trailing edge at 10 percent of the peak concentration. Calculated velocities for the centroid of the dye plume for subreaches that were completely laterally mixed ranged from 1.83 to 3.18 ft/s within the study reach from Lockwood Bridge to Glendive Bridge. The mean of the completely mixed centroid velocity for the entire study reach, excluding the subreach between Forsyth Bridge and Cartersville Dam, was 2.80 ft/s. Longitudinal

  18. Population dynamics of Yellowstone grizzly bears

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1985-04-01

    Data on the population of grizzly bears in the environs of Yellowstone National Park suggest that the population has not recovered from the reductions following closure of garbage dumps in 1970 and 1971, and may continue to decline. A computer simulation model indicates that the risk of extirpation over the next 30 yr is small, if the present population parameters continue to prevail. A review an further analysis of the available data brings out the importance of enhancing adult female survival if the population is to recover, and assesses various research needs. In particular, a reliable index of population trend is needed to augment available data on the population. 12 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Research Spotlight: Extraordinary uplift of Yellowstone caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-02-01

    In Yellowstone National Park, located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho, the Yellow­stone caldera, which extends about 40 kilometers by 60 kilometers, began in 2004 a period of accelerated uplift, with rates of uplift as high as 7 centimeters per year. From 2006 to 2009 the uplift rate slowed. Global Positioning System (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) ground deformation measurements described by Chang et al. show that in the northern caldera, uplift decreased from 7 centimeters per year in 2006 to 5 in 2008 and 2 in 2009. In the southwestern portion of the caldera, uplift decreased from 4 centimeters per year in 2006 to 2 in 2008 and 0.5 in 2009, demonstrating a spatial pattern of ground motion decrease from southwest to northeast along the caldera. (”Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL045451, 2010)

  20. Geochemical dynamics in selected Yellowstone hydrothermal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druschel, G.; Kamyshny, A.; Findlay, A.; Nuzzio, D.

    2010-12-01

    Yellowstone National Park has a wide diversity of thermal features, and includes springs with a range of pH conditions that significantly impact sulfur speciation. We have utilized a combination of voltammetric and spectroscopic techniques to characterize the intermediate sulfur chemistry of Cinder Pool, Evening Primrose, Ojo Caliente, Frying Pan, Azure, and Dragon thermal springs. These measurements additionally have demonstrated the geochemical dynamics inherent in these systems; significant variability in chemical speciation occur in many of these thermal features due to changes in gas supply rates, fluid discharge rates, and thermal differences that occur on second time scales. The dynamics of the geochemical settings shown may significantly impact how microorganisms interact with the sulfur forms in these systems.

  1. The Geologic Story of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, William Richard

    1971-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Civil War, the United States expanded the exploration of her western frontiers to gain a measure of the vast lands and natural resources in the region now occupied by our Rocky Mountain States. As part of this effort, the Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories was organized within the Department of the Interior, and staffed by a group of hardy, pioneering scientists under the leadership of geologist F. V. Hayden. During the summer of 1871, these men, accompanied by photographer William H. Jackson and artist Thomas Moran, made a reconnaissance geological study of the legendary and mysterious 'Yellowstone Wonderland' in remote northwestern Wyoming Territory. The scientific reports and illustrations prepared by Hayden and his colleagues, supplementing the startling accounts that had been published by members of the famous Washburn-Doane Expedition a year earlier, erased all doubts that this unique land was eminently worthy of being set aside 'for the benefit and enjoyment of the people.' By Act of Congress on March 1, 1872, our first National Park was established. During the past century, 50 million people have toured Yellowstone National Park, marveling at its never-ending display of natural wonders. No doubt many have paused to wonder about the origin of these unusual and complex geological features - a question, needless to say, that has intrigued and challenged scientists from the very first days of the Hayden Survey. During the past decade a group of U. S. Geological Survey scientists, in cooperation with the National Park Service and aided by the interest of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in remote sensing of the geologic phenomena, has been probing the depths and farthest corners of the Park seeking more of the answers. Some of the results of this work, and those of earlier studies, are described in this book to provide a better understanding and enjoyment of this great National Park.

  2. 75 FR 27579 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Ecology and Management Office, Yellowstone National Park, P.O. Box 168, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming... by any one of several methods. You may mail comments to the Bison Ecology and Management...

  3. Extension of the Yellowstone plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Owyhee plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, D.W.; Hackett, W.R.; Ore, H.T. )

    1990-11-01

    Formation of the late Cenozoic volcanic province comprising the Owyhee plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone plateau has been accompanied by east-northeast-directed crustal extension. A new vector of 45 mm/yr, N56{degree}E for the migration of silicic volcanism across the volcanic province is calculated. If migration of volcanism reflects west-southwest continental drift over a mantle plume, a zone of crustal extension must separate the volcanic province from the more slowly moving North American craton. Space-time relations of basin fill in the adjacent Basin and Range province provide evidence for a zone of extension, about 125 km wide, coincident with and east of coeval silicic volcanism. Since 16 Ma, the zone of extension has migrated along with silicic volcanism, maintaining its position between the province and the unextended craton.

  4. Interaction of Airspace Partitions and Traffic Flow Management Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palopo, Kee; Chatterji, Gano B.; Lee, Hak-Tae

    2010-01-01

    To ensure that air traffic demand does not exceed airport and airspace capacities, traffic management restrictions, such as delaying aircraft on the ground, assigning them different routes and metering them in the airspace, are implemented. To reduce the delays resulting from these restrictions, revising the partitioning of airspace has been proposed to distribute capacity to yield a more efficient airspace configuration. The capacity of an airspace partition, commonly referred to as a sector, is limited by the number of flights that an air traffic controller can safely manage within the sector. Where viable, re-partitioning of the airspace distributes the flights over more efficient sectors and reduces individual sector demand. This increases the overall airspace efficiency, but requires additional resources in some sectors in terms of controllers and equipment, which is undesirable. This study examines the tradeoff of the number of sectors designed for a specified amount of traffic in a clear-weather day and the delays needed for accommodating the traffic demand. Results show that most of the delays are caused by airport arrival and departure capacity constraints. Some delays caused by airspace capacity constraints can be eliminated by re-partitioning the airspace. Analyses show that about 360 high-altitude sectors, which are approximately today s operational number of sectors of 373, are adequate for delays to be driven solely by airport capacity constraints for the current daily air traffic demand. For a marginal increase of 15 seconds of average delay, the number of sectors can be reduced to 283. In addition, simulations of traffic growths of 15% and 20% with forecasted airport capacities in the years 2018 and 2025 show that delays will continue to be governed by airport capacities. In clear-weather days, for small increases in traffic demand, increasing sector capacities will have almost no effect on delays.

  5. River Chemistry and Solute Flux in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Eagan, Sean; Heasler, Henry; Mahony, Dan; Huebner, Mark A.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) was established to 'To strengthen the long-term monitoring of volcanic and earthquake unrest in the Yellowstone National Park region'. Yellowstone National Park is underlain by a voluminous magmatic system overlain by the most active hydrothermal system on Earth. Tracking changes in water and gas chemistry is of great importance because anomalous fluxes might signal one of the earliest warnings of volcanic unrest. Because of the tremendous number, chemical diversity, and large aerial coverage of Yellowstone's thermal features, it remains daunting to monitor individual features that might serve as proxies for anomalous activity in the hydrothermal system. Sampling rivers provides some advantages, because they integrate chemical fluxes over a very large area and therefore, river fluxes may reveal large-scale spatial patterns (Hurwitz et al., 2007). In addition, based on the application of the chloride-enthalpy method (Fournier, 1979), quantifying chloride flux in rivers provides an estimate of the total heat discharge from the Yellowstone volcanic system (Norton and Friedman 1985; Fournier, 1989; Friedman and Norton, in press). Intermittent sampling of the large rivers draining Yellowstone National Park began in the 1960's (Fournier et al., 1976) and continuous sampling has been carried out since water year (1 October - 30 September) 1983 excluding water years 1995 and 1996 (Norton and Friedman, 1985, 1991; Friedman and Norton, 1990, 2000, 2007). Between 1983 and 2001 only Cl concentrations and fluxes were determined. Starting in water year 2002, the concentrations and fluxes of other anions of possible magmatic origin (F-, Br-, HCO3- , and SO42-) were also determined, and several new sampling sites were established (Hurwitz et al., 2007). The ongoing sampling and analysis of river solute flux is a key component in the current monitoring program of YVO, and it is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey

  6. Contemporary vertical surface displacements in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, J. R.; Smith, R. B.

    1982-04-01

    Relative vertical displacements and average relative vertical velocities have been determined for bench marks located throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP) by comparing geodetic leveling measurements made in 1923 (second order), 1936 (third order), 1941 (third order), 1955 (third order), 1960 (first order), and 1975-1977 (first order). The 1923-1975 data indicate uplift greater than 400 mm (7.7 mm/yr) of an area approximately 15-20 km wide and at least 40 km long which is centered along the northeast trending axis of the 600,000-year-old Yellowstone caldera; the maximum 1923-1975 vertical displacement in this area is 726 mm (14.0 mm/yr). The existence of a well-defined and untilted Yellowstone Lake terrace implies that the 1923-1975 average vertical velocities cannot have been maintained for more than a few hundred years. The 1955-1977 data from central YNP indicate that the northeastern caldera half has risen relative to the southwestern half at an average velocity of about 8 mm/yr; a similar bias is present in the 1923-1975 data but it is less pronounced. The 1923-1960 and 1960-1975 data from northwestern YNP, and a 200 mm depression in the 1923-1975 data near Norris Junction, may be interpreted in terms of deformation associated with the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake and the 1975 Yellowstone Park earthquake. A composite profile of the 1936-1977 and 1941-1977 average vertical velocity data which skirts the edge of the Yellowstone caldera in northeastern YNP is most easily explained as the result of random leveling error and/or bench mark instabilities. The apparent youth of the 1923-1975 Yellowstone uplift and its close association with the Yellowstone caldera suggest that the most likely cause of the uplift is a recent (not more than 500 years ago) influx of molten material into the upper crust beneath the caldera.

  7. 77 FR 73310 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Bozeman Yellowstone International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Airports: Addition of Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport, Belgrade, MT AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... user fee airports to reflect the recent user fee airport designation for Bozeman Yellowstone... approving the designation of user fee status for Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport was signed...

  8. 77 FR 38824 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY...) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming. DATES:...

  9. 77 FR 74027 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Amended Record of Decision, Yellowstone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ..., Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Sec. 102(2)(C) of the National... availability of the Amended Record of Decision for the Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National......

  10. 76 FR 77249 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, Yellowstone National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, Yellowstone..., Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Sec. 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of... announces the availability of the Record of Decision for the Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National......

  11. 77 FR 53908 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone... (Draft SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming... 2012 Supplemental Winter Use Plan EIS), and at Yellowstone National Park headquarters, Mammoth...

  12. 75 FR 4842 - Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY... Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone ] National Park, located......

  13. Seismic Evidence for Dilatational Source Deformation of the Yellowstone Accelerated Uplift Episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, T.; Smith, R. B.; Chang, W.

    2008-12-01

    Dominant dilatational deformations associated with earthquakes in the area of the 2004-2008 Yellowstone accelerated uplift episode were identified through detailed analysis of moment tensor inversions of two unusual M3+ earthquakes characterized by notable coseismic volumetric changes. Highly pressurized hydrothermal fluids are suggested to be associated with the source processes of these events, which is consistent with the mechanism of the GPS-InSAR derived deformation signal of the above uplift modeled as intrusion of a near horizontal magmatic sill at ~10 km depth beneath the Yellowstone caldera. One of the unusual earthquakes, the 5 November 2007 Mw 3.3 event, occurred near the West Thumb Geyser Basin and was located at the southeast side of the deforming area of the uplift. This unusual event occurred in a volume of expected crustal expansion above the inflating magmatic sill. A notable 60% explosive isotropic source component was determined for this West Thumb event with a 2.2 cm opening across an area of 0.06 km squared. We propose that the inflation of the magmatic sill activates a high-pressurized fluid migration upward that triggers a dilatational deformation inducing the unusual earthquake. The other earthquake with a dilatational deformation, the 9 January 2008 Mw 3.8 event, occurred on the northern rim of the caldera. The moment tensor solution for this event shows that the source mechanism had a 30% of tensile dislocation corresponding to a 1.2-cm opening crack over an area of 0.5 km squared. The source region of this event appears to be composed of dense micro fractures, inferred from tomographically imaged seismic velocity structure. We also suggest that stress changes produced by a collocated Mw 3.4 earthquake, occurring one week before the unusual event, may have increased the fracture permeability promoting fluid migration and thus encouraging the dilatational (tensile) dislocation. The dilatational deformations that we detected are very

  14. Yellowstone bison fetal development and phenology of parturition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, P.J.P.; Podruzny, K.M.; Olexa, E.M.; Pac, H.I.; Frey, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of Yellowstone bison (Bison bison) parturition patterns allows managers to refine risk assessments and manage to reduce the potential for transmission of brucellosis between bison and cattle. We used historical (1941) and contemporary (1989–2002) weights and morphometric measurements of Yellowstone bison fetuses to describe fetal growth and to predict timing and synchrony of parturition. Our method was supported by agreement between our predicted parturition pattern and observed birth dates for bison that were taken in to captivity while pregnant. The distribution of parturition dates in Yellowstone bison is generally right-skewed with a majority of births in April and May and few births in the following months. Predicted timing of parturition was consistently earlier for bison of Yellowstone's northern herd than central herd. The predicted median parturition date for northern herd bison in the historical period was 3 to 12 days earlier than for 2 years in the contemporary period, respectively. Median predicted birth dates and birthing synchrony differed within herds and years in the contemporary period. For a single year of paired data, the predicted median birth date for northern herd bison was 14 days earlier than for central herd bison. This difference is coincident with an earlier onset of spring plant growth on the northern range. Our findings permit refinement of the timing of separation between Yellowstone bison and cattle intended to reduce the probability of transmission of brucellosis from bison to cattle.

  15. Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Charles W; Thatcher, Wayne; Dzurisin, Daniel; Svarc, Jerry

    2006-03-01

    The Yellowstone caldera, in the western United States, formed approximately 640,000 years ago when an explosive eruption ejected approximately 1,000 km3 of material. It is the youngest of a series of large calderas that formed during sequential cataclysmic eruptions that began approximately 16 million years ago in eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. The Yellowstone caldera was largely buried by rhyolite lava flows during eruptions that occurred from approximately 150,000 to approximately 70,000 years ago. Since the last eruption, Yellowstone has remained restless, with high seismicity, continuing uplift/subsidence episodes with movements of approximately 70 cm historically to several metres since the Pleistocene epoch, and intense hydrothermal activity. Here we present observations of a new mode of surface deformation in Yellowstone, based on radar interferometry observations from the European Space Agency ERS-2 satellite. We infer that the observed pattern of uplift and subsidence results from variations in the movement of molten basalt into and out of the Yellowstone volcanic system. PMID:16511491

  16. Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicks, C.W.; Thatcher, W.; Dzurisin, D.; Svarc, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Yellowstone caldera, in the western United States, formed ???640,000 years ago when an explosive eruption ejected ???1,000 km3 of material. It is the youngest of a series of large calderas that formed during sequential cataclysmic eruptions that began ???16 million years ago in eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. The Yellowstone caldera was largely buried by rhyolite lava flows during eruptions that occurred from ???150,000 to ???70,000 years ago. Since the last eruption, Yellowstone has remained restless, with high seismicity, continuing uplift/subsidence episodes with movements of ???70 cm historically to several metres since the Pleistocene epoch, and intense hydrothermal activity. Here we present observations of a new mode of surface deformation in Yellowstone, based on radar interferometry observations from the European Space Agency ERS-2 satellite. We infer that the observed pattern of uplift and subsidence results from variations in the movement of molten basalt into and out of the Yellowstone volcanic system. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. 75 FR 43 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Sarasota, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... FR 46898), Docket No. FAA-2009-0652; Airspace Docket 09-ASO-21. The FAA uses the direct final... College Park, Georgia, on December 17, 2009. Barry A. Knight, Acting Manager, Operations Support...

  18. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  19. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  20. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initiated by the FAA affect military use, the roles are reversed. The proponent's action officers (civil engineering and local airspace management) must ensure that the FAA is fully integrated into the...

  1. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Review. Airspace and range proposals require review by HQ USAF/XOO prior to public announcement and... attachment to the proposal sent to HQ USAF/XOO. (b) Federal Aviation Administration. The DoD and the...

  2. 32 CFR 989.28 - Airspace and range proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Review. Airspace and range proposals require review by HQ USAF/XOO prior to public announcement and... attachment to the proposal sent to HQ USAF/XOO. (b) Federal Aviation Administration. The DoD and the...

  3. The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System Architecture and System Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Robert; Meyn, Larry; Manikonda, Vikram; Carlos, Patrick; Capozzi, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System is a simulation of the National Airspace System. It includes models of flights, airports, airspaces, air traffic controls, traffic flow managements, and airline operation centers operating throughout the United States. It is used to predict system delays in response to future capacity and demand scenarios and perform benefits assessments of current and future airspace technologies and operational concepts. Facilitation of these studies requires that the simulation architecture supports plug and play of different air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models and multi-fidelity modeling of flights, airports, and airspaces. The simulation is divided into two parts that are named, borrowing from classical control theory terminology, control and plant. The control consists of air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models, and the plant consists of flight, airport, and airspace models. The plant can run open loop, in the absence of the control. However, undesired affects, such as conflicts and over congestions in the airspaces and airports, can occur. Different controls are applied, "plug and played", to the plant. A particular control is evaluated by analyzing how well it managed conflicts and congestions. Furthermore, the terminal area plants consist of models of airports and terminal airspaces. Each model consists of a set of nodes and links which are connected by the user to form a network. Nodes model runways, fixes, taxi intersections, gates, and/or other points of interest, and links model taxiways, departure paths, and arrival paths. Metering, flow distribution, and sequencing functions can be applied at nodes. Different fidelity model of how a flight transits are can be used by links. The fidelity of the model can be adjusted by the user by either changing the complexity of the node/link network-or the way that the link models how the flights transit

  4. Life-history organization of Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri) in Yellowstone Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gresswell, Robert E.; Liss, W.J.; Larson, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Life-history organization of the cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) may be viewed at various levels, including species, subspecies, metapopulation, population, or individual. Each level varies in spatial scale and temporal persistence, and components at each level continually change with changes in environment. Cutthroat trout are widely distributed throughout the western United States, occurring in such diverse environments as coastal rivers of the Pacific Northwest and interior streams of the Great Basin. During its evolution the species has organized into 14 subspecies with many different life-history characteristics and habitat requirements. Within subspecies, organization is equally complex. For example, life-history traits, such as average size and age, migration strategy, and migration timing, vary among individual spawning populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri) in tributary streams of Yellowstone Lake. Understanding the effects of human perturbations on life-history organization is critical for management of the cutthroat trout and other polytypic salmonid species. Loss of diversity at any hierarchical level jeopardizes the long-term ability of the species to adapt to changing environments, and it may also lead to increased fluctuations in abundance and yield and increase the risk of extinction.

  5. The objectives for deep scientific drilling in Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The western area of the United Stated contains three young silicic calderas, all of which contain attractive targets for scientific drilling. Of the three, the Yellowstone caldera complex is the largest, has the most intense geothermal anomalies, and is the most seismically active. On the basis of scientific objectives alone. it is easily the first choice for investigating active hydrothermal processes. This report briefly reviews what is known about the geology of Yellowstone National Park and highlights unique information that could be acquired by research drilling only in Yellowstone. However, it is not the purpose of this report to recommend specific drill sites or to put forth a specific drilling proposal. 175 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Origin and deformation of Holocene shoreline terraces, Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.A.; Locke, W.W.

    1986-08-01

    Geodetic surveys within the Yellowstone caldera have documented active uplift that is most likely caused by magmatic processes in the upper crust. Along the northeast shore of Yellowstone Lake, maximum relative uplift rates are 10 mm/yr for the period 1923-1975. However, information on deformation prior to historic instrumental records has been lacking. In this study, closely spaced data on elevations of postglacial shoreline terraces around the north end of Yellowstone Lake reveal complex tilting. Though most Holocene deformation is probably magma related, the pattern of shoreline tilting deviates significantly from the historic pattern of roughly symmetric inflation of the caldera. Along the northeast shore, where tilt directions of historic and shoreline deformation are similar, differential uplift of a > 2500-yr-old terrace is roughly 10 m; this gives a maximum uplift rate of 4 mm/yr. These unique Holocene terraces may exist due to episodic deformation because vertical movements affecting the lake outlet directly control lake level.

  7. Feeding ecology of native and nonnative salmonids during the expansion of a nonnative apex predator in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syslo, John M.; Guy, Christopher S.; Koel, Todd M.

    2016-01-01

    The illegal introduction of Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush into Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, preceded the collapse of the native population of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri, producing a four-level trophic cascade. The Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout population’s collapse and the coinciding increase in Lake Trout abundance provided a rare opportunity to evaluate the feeding ecology of a native prey species and a nonnative piscivore species after the restructuring of a large lentic ecosystem. We assessed diets, stable isotope signatures, and depth-related CPUE patterns for Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout and Lake Trout during 2011–2013 to evaluate trophic overlap. To evaluate diet shifts related to density, we also compared 2011–2013 diets to those from studies conducted during previous periods with contrasting Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout and Lake Trout CPUEs. We illustrate the complex interactions between predator and prey in a simple assemblage and demonstrate how a nonnative apex predator can alter competitive interactions. The diets of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout were dominated by zooplankton during a period when the Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout CPUE was high and were dominated by amphipods when the CPUE was reduced. Lake Trout shifted from a diet that was dominated by Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout during the early stages of the invasion to a diet that was dominated by amphipods after Lake Trout abundance had increased and after Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout prey had declined. The shifts in Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout and Lake Trout diets resulted in increased trophic similarity of these species through time due to their shared reliance on benthic amphipods. Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout not only face the threat posed by Lake Trout predation but also face the potential threat of competition with Lake Trout if amphipods are limiting. Our results demonstrate the importance of studying the long-term feeding ecology of fishes in

  8. Cyanidiales diversity in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Skorupa, D J; Reeb, V; Castenholz, R W; Bhattacharya, D; McDermott, T R

    2013-11-01

    The Cyanidiales are unicellular red algae that are unique among phototrophs. They thrive in acidic, moderately high-temperature habitats typically associated with geothermally active regions, although much remains to be learned about their distribution and diversity within such extreme environments. We focused on Yellowstone National Park (YNP), using culture-dependent efforts in combination with a park-wide environmental polymerase chain reaction (PCR) survey to examine Cyanidiales diversity and distribution in aqueous (i.e. submerged), soil and endolithic environments. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Cyanidiales biodiversity demonstrated the presence of Cyanidioschyzon and Galdieria lineages exhibiting distinct habitat preferences. Cyanidioschyzon was the only phylotype detected in aqueous environments, but was also prominent in moist soil and endolithic habitats, environments where this genus was thought to be scarce. Galdieria was found in soil and endolithic samples, but absent in aqueous habitats. Interestingly, Cyanidium could not be found in the surveys, suggesting this genus may be absent or rare in YNP. Direct microscopic counts and viable counts from soil samples collected along a moisture gradient were positively correlated with moisture content, providing the first in situ evidence that gravimetric moisture is an important environmental parameter controlling distribution of these algae. PMID:23865641

  9. Yellowstone bison genetics: let us move forward

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halbert, Natalie D.; Gogan, Peter J.P.; Hedrick, Philip W.; Wahl, Jacquelyn M.; Derr, James N.

    2012-01-01

    White and Wallen (2012) disagree with the conclusions and suggestions made in our recent assessment of population structure among Yellowstone National Park (YNP) bison based on 46 autosomal microsatellite loci in 661 animals (Halbert et al. 2012). First, they suggest that "the existing genetic substructure (that we observed) was artificially created." Specifically, they suggest that the substructure observed between the northern and central populations is the result of human activities, both historical and recent. In fact, the genetic composition of all known existing bison herds was created by, or has been influenced by, anthropogenic activities, although this obviously does not reduce the value of these herds for genetic conservation (Dratch and Gogan 2010). As perspective, many, if not most, species of conservation concern have been influenced by human actions and as a result currently exist as isolated populations. However, it is quite difficult to distinguish between genetic differences caused by human actions and important ancestral variation contained in separate populations without data from early time periods. Therefore, to not lose genetic variation that may be significant or indicative of important genetic variation, the generally acceptable management approach is to attempt to retain this variation based on the observed population genetic subdivision (Hedrick et al. 1986).

  10. Anomalous delays of teleseismic P waves in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iyer, H.M.

    1975-01-01

    TELESEISMIC P waves recorded by a short-period seismic network, comprising 12 stations, in Yellowstone National Park, show anomalous delays of 1-2 s in their travel times in the central region of the park relative to the surrounding area. To explain this phenomenon, I propose that a substantial body of low velocity material is present beneath the park, with horizontal dimensions of several tens of kilometres; it may be the magma chamber associated with the volcanism of Yellowstone (ref. 1, and G. P. Eaton et al., unpublished). ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. 75 FR 43816 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mount Airy, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...This action amends Class E Airspace at Mount Airy, NC, to accommodate the additional airspace needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Mount Airy-Surry County...

  12. The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald Edward; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Norris Geyser Basin, normally shortened to Norris Basin, is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone caldera at the common intersection of the caldera rim and the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, a zone of faults, volcanic vents, and thermal activity that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. An east-west fault zone terminates the Gallatin Range at its southern end and extends from Hebgen Lake, west of the park, to Norris Basin. No local evidence exists at the surface in Norris Basin for the two oldest Yellowstone volcanic caldera cycles (~2.0 and 1.3 m.y.B.P.). The third and youngest cycle formed the Yellowstone caldera, which erupted the 600,000-year-old Lava Creek Tuff. No evidence is preserved of hydrothermal activity near Norris Basin during the first 300,000.years after the caldera collapse. Glaciation probably removed most of the early evidence, but erratics of hot-spring sinter that had been converted diagenetically to extremely hard, resistant chalcedonic sinter are present as cobbles in and on some moraines and till from the last two glacial stages, here correlated with the early and late stages of the Pinedale glaciation <150,000 years B.P.). Indirect evidence for the oldest hydrothermal system at Norris Basin indicates an age probably older than both stages of Pinedale glaciation. Stream deposits consisting mainly of rounded quartz phenocrysts of the Lava Creek Tuff were subaerial, perhaps in part windblown and redeposited by streams. A few small rounded pebbles are interpreted as chalcedonic sinter of a still older cycle. None of these are precisely dated but are unlikely to be more than 150,000 to 200,000 years old. ...Most studies of active hydrothermal areas have noted chemical differences in fluids and alteration products but have given little attention to differences and models to explain evolution in types. This report, in contrast, emphasizes the kinds of changes in vents and their changing chemical types of waters and then

  13. Hydrothermal disturbances at the Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park (USA) in 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Heasler, H.; Smith, R. B.

    2003-12-01

    The Norris Geyser Basin in north-central Yellowstone National Park (YNP) experienced a series of notable changes during 2003, including formation of new hot springs and fumaroles, renewed activity of dormant geysers and elevated ground temperatures. This abstract provides a short synopsis of the new hydrothermal activity. In 2000, Yellowstone's tallest geyser, Steamboat, erupted after a dormant period of nearly 9 years. It erupted twice in 2002 and then again on 26 March and 27 April 2003. Surges in flux of thermal water preceding the eruptions (preplay) were recorded by a couplet of temperature data loggers placed in the outlet stream. The data indicated pulses of water flow with 1 and ~3 day intervals. On 10 July 2003, a new thermal feature was reported just west of Nymph Lake, ~ 3.5 km northwest of the Norris Museum. A linear series of vigorous fumaroles, about 75 m long had formed in a forested area, ~ 200 m up a hill on the lake's west shore. Fine particles of rock and mineral fragments coated nearby vegetation. Fumarole temperatures were around the local boiling temperature of water (92° C). After two months, somewhat reduced steam emission was accompanied by discharge of ~ 3-10 gallons per minute of near-neutral thermal water. Trees within 4 meters of the lineament were dead and were being slowly combusted. Porkchop Geyser in Norris' Back Basin had been dormant since it exploded in 1989, littering the nearby area with boulders up to over 1 m in diameter. Since that time, its water had remained well below the boiling temperature of water. From 1 April through 1 July `03, the temperature of waters in Porkchop's vent increased continuously from 67° to 88° C. Each Summer, Norris' Back Basin experiences an "annual disturbance" where individual hot springs and geysers typically show anomalous boiling, and have measurable increases in turbidity, acidity and SO4/Cl ratios. The disturbance has been linked to depressurization of the hydrothermal system as the

  14. Atmospheric mercury speciation in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, B.D.; Olson, M.L.; Rutter, A.P.; Frontiera, R.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Gross, D.S.; Yuen, M.; Rudolph, T.M.; Schauer, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Hg (pHg) concentrations were measured in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), U.S.A. using high resolution, real time atmospheric mercury analyzers (Tekran 2537A, 1130, and 1135). A survey of Hg0 concentrations at various locations within YNP showed that concentrations generally reflect global background concentrations of 1.5-2.0 ng m- 3, but a few specific locations associated with concentrated geothermal activity showed distinctly elevated Hg0 concentrations (about 9.0 ng m- 3). At the site of intensive study located centrally in YNP (Canyon Village), Hg0 concentrations did not exceed 2.5 ng m- 3; concentrations of RGM were generally below detection limits of 0.88 pg m- 3 and never exceeded 5 pg m- 3. Concentrations of pHg ranged from below detection limits to close to 30 pg m-3. RGM and pHg concentrations were not correlated with any criteria gases (SO2, NOx, O3); however pHg was weakly correlated with the concentration of atmospheric particles. We investigated three likely sources of Hg at the intensive monitoring site: numerous geothermal features scattered throughout YNP, re-suspended soils, and wildfires near or in YNP. We examined relationships between the chemical properties of aerosols (as measured using real time, single particle mass spectrometry; aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer; ATOFMS) and concentrations of atmospheric pHg. Based on the presence of particles with distinct chemical signatures of the wildfires, and the absence of signatures associated with the other sources, we concluded that wildfires in the park were the main source of aerosols and associated pHg to our sampling site. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Infrasound characterization of some Yellowstone geysers' eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quezada-Reyes, A.; Johnson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Geysers are springs that intermittently erupt hot water and steam. As with volcanoes, infrasonic airwaves produced by different geysers provide information about the processes that occur near the nozzle, such as the amount of fluid released during eruptive episodes. The aim of this study was to investigate acoustic sources from different geyser behaviors observed at Lone Star, Sawmill and Great Fountain geysers, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Acoustic signal were measured by arrays of microphones deployed around Lone Star and Great Fountain geysers between August 9th to 14th, 2011, and during one hour on August 16th, 2011 at Sawmill Geyser. Infrasound was analyzed with coincident video recordings to quantify and compare the pressure fields generated during explosive phases at the three geysers. We propose that the periodic infrasound recorded at Sawmill, and dominated by energy at 1 to 40 Hz, is generated by: 1) steam-filled bubble oscillations, and 2) subsequent bursting at the free surface resulting in a violent steam and water discharge. At Lone Star geyser, where ~18 m/s eruption jets endure for about 30 minutes, sound is dominated by higher frequency infrasound and audio-band signal evolving from 20 - 60 Hz to 40 - 85 Hz. We suggest that the infrasound tremor amplitudes are related to the transition of the erupted two-phase mixture from mostly water (low acoustic radiation) to steam (high acoustic radiation). At Great Fountain we observed three explosive bursts of water and steam during the last stage on the August 11 eruption with bi-modal infrasound pulses of up to 0.7 Pa-m. We model these pulses as volumetric sound sources and infer up to 32 m3 of fluid ejection. The variety of recordings reflect the variety of eruption mechanisms at the different geyser systems. Better understanding of the mechanisms of geyser infrasound radiation may help us to understand infrasound analogues at erupting silicic volcanoes, which are considerably more difficult to

  16. The Yellowstone Fires as Observed by SIR-C SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Despain, Don; Holecz, Francesco

    1996-01-01

    Covers SIR-C (Spaceborne Imaging Radar C) SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imaging of the 1988 Yellowstone National Forest fires. Discusses some of the images and data collected, and some conclusions drawn from them about both the fires, and SIR-C SAR imaging capabilities.

  17. The Glaciation of the Yellowstone Valley North of the Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weed, Walter Harvey

    1893-01-01

    The local glaciers of Quaternary times, of which evidences abound throughout the highest portions of the Rocky mountain cordillera, attained an unusually extensive development in that broad elevated region known as the Yellowstone Park. It was indeed the center of a considerable ice sheet whose glaciers spread out and down the valleys leading from this mountain region in all directions. In the northern part of the park two streams of ice found an outlet for their united flow northward down the valley of the Yellowstone, and they have left impressive memorials of the power and size of this stream that at once attract the attention of the observant traveler on the way to the famous geyser basins of the park. The number and size of the erratic bowlders scattered so abundantly over the valley floor and perched high up on the mountain slopes, can not fail to impress the beholder, while the second canyon of the Yellowstone, known as Yankee Jim canyon, through which the river has cut its way to the broad mountain encircled lower valley, is a grand and perfect piece of ice sculpture that affords striking proof of the power and magnitude of the glacier which once filled the valley. While studying and mapping the geology of a portion of the country north of the Yellowstone Park, under the direction of Mr. Arnold Hague, and for the United States Geological Survey, I found a long desired opportunity to study the glaciation of this interesting region.

  18. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT AGENCY: Federal... notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a proposed... an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to construct a connection between Interstate...

  19. YELLOWSTONE MAGMATIC-HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM, U. S. A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Pitt, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    At Yellowstone National Park, the deep permeability and fluid circulation are probably controlled and maintained by repeated brittle fracture of rocks in response to local and regional stress. Focal depths of earthquakes beneath the Yellowstone caldera suggest that the transition from brittle fracture to quasi-plastic flow takes place at about 3 to 4 km. The maximum temperature likely to be attained by the hydrothermal system is 350 to 450 degree C, the convective thermal output is about 5. 5 multiplied by 10**9 watts, and the minimum average thermal flux is about 1800 mW/m**2 throughout 2,500 km**2. The average thermal gradient between the heat source and the convecting hydrothermal system must be at least 700 to 1000 degree C/km. Crystallization and partial cooling of about 0. 082 km**3 of basalt or 0. 10 km**3 of rhyolite annually could furnish the heat discharged in the hot-spring system. The Yellowstone magmatic-hydrothermal system as a whole appears to be cooling down, in spite of a relatively large rate of inflation of the Yellowstone caldera.

  20. Measuring Variable Scales of Surface Deformation in and around the Yellowstone Caldera with TerraSAR-X Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicks, C. W., Jr.; Dzurisin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Utilizing three years of TerraSAR-X (TSX) Stripmap data covering the Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming, we identify several examples showing the benefits of the high spatial and temporal resolution TSX data. Although the Stripmap footprints are small, compared to those of past SAR satellites, we are nonetheless able to track subsidence/uplift cycles of the ~50 x 80 km Yellowstone caldera using multiple strips. The Stripmap data are also useful for measuring deformation associated with the area of the North Rim anomaly, an area of repeated uplift and subsidence, ~30 km in diameter near the intersection of the north caldera rim, north-trending Mammoth-Norris Corridor, and west-northwest trending seismic belt east of Hebgen Lake. We measured ~45 mm of uplift associated with an episode that occurred mostly during the winter of 2013-2014 (as verified by GPS), and ~15 mm of subsequent subsidence in the early summer of 2014. The TSX Stripmap data have also proven effective at measuring small-scale deformation features. Because of the high-resolution of the TSX Stripmap data, we have also been able to measure many small-scale deforming features in Yellowstone National Park that are associated with apparent aquifer discharge/recharge cycles, unstable slope movement, geyser basin deformation, and deformation related to other hydrothermal features. We present an example of ~3 cm of seasonal deformation likely resulting from water movement in and out of an aquifer along the southwest caldera rim. We also document subsidence of ~1 cm/yr in a circular area nearly 0.5 km across near the vent from the Pitchstone Plateau, a thick rhyolite flow that erupted nearly 70 ka. TSX data are instrumental in identifying the seasonal variation found in some of these features, and in measuring the small spatial areas of deformation associated with other features.

  1. 78 FR 11996 - Proposed Modification of Class D and Class E Airspace; Pueblo, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...This action proposes to modify Class D airspace and the Class E airspace areas at Pueblo Memorial Airport, Pueblo, CO. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using VHF Omni- Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) standard instrument approach procedures at Pueblo Memorial Airport. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of......

  2. 76 FR 52596 - Proposed Establishment of Class C Airspace for Long Beach, CA; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class C Airspace for Long Beach... airspace users and others, concerning a proposal to establish Class C airspace at Long Beach, CA. The... on or before December 12, 2011. ADDRESSES: The meetings will be held at the Holiday Inn Long...

  3. 75 FR 14381 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mount Airy, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Mount Airy, NC, to accommodate the additional airspace needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Mount Airy-Surry County Airport. This action enhances the safety and airspace management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the...

  4. 76 FR 31510 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rutherfordton, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Rutherfordton, NC, to accommodate the additional airspace needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed for Rutherford County Airport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the...

  5. 78 FR 33019 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Commerce, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary...

  6. 75 FR 17322 - Proposed Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Big Delta, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ...This action proposes to revoke Class D and E airspace at Big Delta, AK. This airspace duplicates the controlled airspace for Delta Junction, Alaska, which serves Allen Army Airfield. The duplication makes this action necessary to eliminate possible confusion, and enhance safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)...

  7. 75 FR 20774 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... FR 63976), Docket No. FAA-2009-0061; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-10. The FAA uses the direct final... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN AGENCY... December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Johnson County Airport, Mountain City, TN....

  8. 75 FR 27229 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ...This action proposes to modify the Chicago, IL, Class B airspace area by expanding the existing airspace to ensure containment of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft conducting instrument approach procedures within Class B airspace, and segregating IFR aircraft at Chicago O'Hare International Airport (ORD) and Visual Flight Rules (VFR) aircraft operating in the vicinity of Chicago Class B......

  9. 78 FR 76779 - Proposed Modification of the Philadelphia, PA, Class B Airspace Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...This action proposes to amend the description of Area G of the Philadelphia Class B airspace area to correct a design error that resulted in the Class B airspace being published 2.1 nautical miles (NM) larger on the southeast side of the area than intended. No other changes to the Philadelphia Class B airspace are being...

  10. Grizzly bear management in Yellowstone National Park: The heart of recovery in the Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Gunther, K.

    2006-01-01

    Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) management in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) in the past quarter century has resulted in more than doubling of the population from around 200 to more than 500, expansion of range back into habitats where the bear has extirpated more than a century ago, and a move toward removal from the U.S. Endangered Species list. At the center of this success story are the management programs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Regulations that restrict human activity, camping, and food storage, elimination of human food and garbage as attractants, and ranger attendance of roadside bears have all resulted in the population of grizzlies in YNP approaching carrying capacity. Recent studies suggest, however, that YNP alone is too small to support the current population, making management beyond the park boundary important and necessary to the demographics of the population as a whole. Demographic analyses suggest a source-sink dynamic exists within the GYE, with YNP and lands outside the park within the Grizzly Bear Recovery Zone (RZ) representing source habitats, whereas lands beyond the RZ constitute sinks. The source-sink demography in the GYE is indicative of carnivore conservation issues worldwide where many national parks or preserves designed to protect out natural resources are inadequate in size or shape to provide all necessary life history requirements for these wide-ranging species. Additionally, wide-ranging behavior and long-distance dispersal seem inherent to large carnivores, so mortality around the edges is virtually inevitable, and conservation in the GYE is inextricably linked to management regimes not only within YNP, but within the GYE as a whole. We discuss those needs here.

  11. Three Novel Virophage Genomes Discovered from Yellowstone Lake Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jinglie; Sun, Dawei; Childers, Alyson; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Virophages are a unique group of circular double-stranded DNA viruses that are considered parasites of giant DNA viruses, which in turn are known to infect eukaryotic hosts. In this study, the genomes of three novel Yellowstone Lake virophages (YSLVs)—YSLV5, YSLV6, and YSLV7—were identified from Yellowstone Lake through metagenomic analyses. The relative abundance of these three novel virophages and previously identified Yellowstone Lake virophages YSLV1 to -4 were determined in different locations of the lake, revealing that most of the sampled locations in the lake, including both mesophilic and thermophilic habitats, had multiple virophage genotypes. This likely reflects the diverse habitats or diversity of the eukaryotic hosts and their associated giant viruses that serve as putative hosts for these virophages. YSLV5 has a 29,767-bp genome with 32 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), YSLV6 has a 24,837-bp genome with 29 predicted ORFs, and YSLV7 has a 23,193-bp genome with 26 predicted ORFs. Based on multilocus phylogenetic analysis, YSLV6 shows a close evolutionary relationship with YSLV1 to -4, whereas YSLV5 and YSLV7 are distantly related to the others, and YSLV7 represents the fourth novel virophage lineage. In addition, the genome of YSLV5 has a G+C content of 51.1% that is much higher than all other known virophages, indicating a unique host range for YSLV5. These results suggest that virophages are abundant and have diverse genotypes that likely mirror diverse giant viral and eukaryotic hosts within the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem. IMPORTANCE This study discovered novel virophages present within the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem using a conserved major capsid protein as a phylogenetic anchor for assembly of sequence reads from Yellowstone Lake metagenomic samples. The three novel virophage genomes (YSLV5 to -7) were completed by identifying specific environmental samples containing these respective virophages, and closing gaps by targeted PCR

  12. Throughput analysis for the National Airspace System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sureshkumar, Chandrasekar

    The United States National Airspace System (NAS) network performance is currently measured using a variety of metrics based on delay. Developments in the fields of wireless communication, manufacturing and other modes of transportation like road, freight, etc. have explored various metrics that complement the delay metric. In this work, we develop a throughput concept for both the terminal and en-route phases of flight inspired by studies in the above areas and explore the applications of throughput metrics for the en-route airspace of the NAS. These metrics can be applied to the NAS performance at each hierarchical level—the sector, center, regional and national and will consist of multiple layers of networks with the bottom level comprising the traffic pattern modelled as a network of individual sectors acting as nodes. This hierarchical approach is especially suited for executive level decision making as it gives an overall picture of not just the inefficiencies but also the aspects where the NAS has performed well in a given situation from which specific information about the effects of a policy change on the NAS performance at each level can be determined. These metrics are further validated with real traffic data using the Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) for three en-route sectors and an Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). Further, this work proposes a framework to compute the minimum makespan and the capacity of a runway system in any configuration. Towards this, an algorithm for optimal arrival and departure flight sequencing is proposed. The proposed algorithm is based on a branch-and-bound technique and allows for the efficient computation of the best runway assignment and sequencing of arrival and departure operations that minimize the makespan at a given airport. The lower and upper bounds of the cost of each branch for the best first search in the branch-and-bound algorithm are computed based on the minimum

  13. Airspace Complexity and its Application in Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chatterji, Gano; Sheth, Kapil; Edwards, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The United States Air Traffic Management (ATM) system provides services to enable safe, orderly and efficient aircraft operations within the airspace over the continental United States and over large portions of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and the Gulf of Mexico. It consists of two components, Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Traffic Flow Management (TFM). The ATC function ensures that the aircraft within the airspace are separated at all times while the TFM function organizes the aircraft into a flow pattern to ensure their safe and efficient movement. In order to accomplish the ATC and TFM functions, the airspace over United States is organized into 22 Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs). The Center airspace is stratified into low-altitude, high-altitude and super-high altitude groups of Sectors. Each vertical layer is further partitioned into several horizontal Sectors. A typical ARTCC airspace is partitioned into 20 to 80 Sectors. These Sectors are the basic control units within the ATM system.

  14. Preliminary Investigation of Civil Tiltrotor in NextGen Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Salvano, Dan; Wright, Ken; Chung, William; Young, Ray; Miller, David; Paris, Alfanso; Gao, Huina; Cheng, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Presentation intro: Tiltrotor aircraft have long been envisioned as being a potentially viable means of commercial aviation transport. Preliminary results from an ongoing study into the operational and technological considerations of Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) operation in the Next Generation airspace, circa the 2025 time-frame, are presented and discussed. In particular, a fleet of CTR aircraft has been conceptually designed. The performance characteristics of this CTR fleet was subsequently translated into BADA (Base of Aircraft DAta) models that could be used as input to emulate CTR aircraft operations in the ACES and AvTerminal airspace and terminal area simulation tools. A network of nine North-Eastern corridor airports is the focus of the airspace simulation effort; the results from this airport network viII then be extrapolated to provide insights into systemic impact of CTRs on the National Airspace System (NAS). Future work will also be detailed as to attempts to model the systemic effects of noise and emissions from this fleet of new aircraft as well as assess their leveraged impact on public service missions, in time of need, such as major regional/national disaster relief efforts. The ideal outcome of this study is a set of results whereby Next Gen airspace CONOPs can be refined to reflect potential CTR capabilities and, conversely, CTR technology development efforts can be better informed as to key performance requirement thresholds needed to be met in order to successfully introduce these aircraft into civilian aviation operation.

  15. 77 FR 71734 - Proposed Modification of the Miami, FL, Class B Airspace Area; and the Ft Lauderdale, FL, Class C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...This notice announces three fact-finding informal airspace meetings to solicit information from airspace users and others, concerning a proposal to revise the Class B airspace at Miami, FL, and the Class C airspace at Ft Lauderdale, FL. The purpose of these meetings is to provide interested parties an opportunity to present views, recommendations, and comments on the proposal. All comments......

  16. 75 FR 17202 - Proposed Establishment of Long Beach, CA, Class C Airspace Area and Revision of Santa Ana (John...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Revision of Santa Ana (John Wayne), CA, Class C Airspace Area; Public Meetings AGENCY: Federal Aviation... establish Class C airspace at Long Beach, CA, and revise the Santa Ana (John Wayne) Class C airspace area... Santa Ana (John Wayne), CA, Class C airspace area will be accepted. (b) The meetings will be open to...

  17. Generic Airspace Research Phase 5 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William E.; Bridges, Wayne W.; Peknik, Dan N.; Gujral, Vimmy

    2014-01-01

    Human-in-the-loop testing was completed to assess the subjective preferences, usage, and operational benefits of Integrated and Separated Controller Information Tools (CITs) in support of Generic Airspace Research. Participants controlled traffic in in a busy, high altitude sector with the aid of the CITs. When the participants were asked which CIT that they preferred to use, they overwhelmingly chose the integrated version of the CIT. The primary reason for this seemed to be that it allowed participants to remain focused on the traffic situation, whereas the Standalone CIT required them to focus their attention for short periods away from the radar presentation. In contrast to their preference, there were little or no differences in the CIT usage and the operational differences. There were similar numbers of losses of separation and participants accessed each CIT equally. Although the information accessed was the similar for the two conditions, participants actively turned off the data on the Integrated CIT, presumably to reduce the clutter on the radar scope. Further work is needed to isolate which information can and should be available to controllers in the Integrated vs. Standalone format.

  18. Mapping changes in Yellowstone's geothermal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Shannon Lea

    Yellowstone National Park (YNP) contains the world's largest concentration of geothermal features, and is legally mandated to protect and monitor these natural features. Remote sensing is a component of the current geothermal monitoring plan. Landsat satellite data have a substantial historical archive and will be collected into the future, making it the only available thermal imagery for historical analysis and long-term monitoring of geothermal areas in the entirety of YNP. Landsat imagery from Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors was explored as a tool for mapping geothermal heat flux and geothermally active areas within YNP and to develop a change analysis technique for scientists to utilize with additional Landsat data available from 1978 through the foreseeable future. Terrestrial emittance and estimates of geothermal heat flux were calculated for the entirety of YNP with two Landsat images from 2007 (TM) and 2002 (ETM+). Terrestrial emittance for fourteen summer dates from 1986 to 2007 was calculated for defined geothermal areas and utilized in a change analysis. Spatial and temporal change trajectories of terrestrial emittance were examined. Trajectories of locations with known change events were also examined. Relationships between the temporal clusters and spatial groupings and several change vectors (distance to geologic faults, distance to large water bodies, and distance to earthquake swarms) were explored. Finally, TM data from 2007 were used to classify geothermally active areas inside the defined geothermal areas as well as throughout YNP and a 30-km buffer around YNP. Estimations of geothermal heat flux were inaccurate due to inherent limitations of Landsat data combined with complexities arising from the effects of solar radiation and spatial and temporal variation of vegetation, microbes, steam outflows, and other features at each geothermal area. Terrestrial emittance, however, was estimated with acceptable

  19. A preliminary study of older hot spring alteration in Sevenmile Hole, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, P.B.; Phillips, A.; John, D.; Cosca, M.; Pritchard, C.; Andersen, A.; Manion, J.

    2009-01-01

    Erosion in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera (640??ka), Wyoming, has exposed a cross section of older hydrothermal alteration in the canyon walls. The altered outcrops of the post-collapse tuff of Sulphur Creek (480??ka) extend from the canyon rim to more than 300??m beneath it. The hydrothermal minerals are zoned, with an advanced argillic alteration consisting of an association of quartz (opal) + kaolinite ?? alunite ?? dickite, and an argillic or potassic alteration association with quartz + illite ?? adularia. Disseminated fine-grained pyrite or marcasite is ubiquitous in both alteration types. These alteration associations are characteristic products of shallow volcanic epithermal environments. The contact between the two alteration types is about 100??m beneath the rim. By analogy to other active geothermal systems including active hydrothermal springs in the Yellowstone Caldera, the transition from kaolinite to illite occurred at temperatures in the range 150 to 170????C. An 40Ar/39Ar age on alunite of 154,000 ?? 16,000??years suggests that hydrothermal activity has been ongoing since at least that time. A northwest-trending linear array of extinct and active hot spring centers in the Sevenmile Hole area implies a deeper structural control for the upflowing hydrothermal fluids. We interpret this deeper structure to be the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault that is covered by the younger tuff of Sulphur Creek. The Sevenmile Hole altered area lies at the eastern end of a band of hydrothermal centers that may mark the buried extension of the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault across the northern part of the Caldera. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  20. A preliminary study of older hot spring alteration in Sevenmile Hole, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Peter B.; Phillips, Allison; John, David; Cosca, Michael; Pritchard, Chad; Andersen, Allen; Manion, Jennifer

    2009-11-01

    Erosion in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera (640 ka), Wyoming, has exposed a cross section of older hydrothermal alteration in the canyon walls. The altered outcrops of the post-collapse tuff of Sulphur Creek (480 ka) extend from the canyon rim to more than 300 m beneath it. The hydrothermal minerals are zoned, with an advanced argillic alteration consisting of an association of quartz (opal) + kaolinite ± alunite ± dickite, and an argillic or potassic alteration association with quartz + illite ± adularia. Disseminated fine-grained pyrite or marcasite is ubiquitous in both alteration types. These alteration associations are characteristic products of shallow volcanic epithermal environments. The contact between the two alteration types is about 100 m beneath the rim. By analogy to other active geothermal systems including active hydrothermal springs in the Yellowstone Caldera, the transition from kaolinite to illite occurred at temperatures in the range 150 to 170 °C. An 40Ar/ 39Ar age on alunite of 154,000 ± 16,000 years suggests that hydrothermal activity has been ongoing since at least that time. A northwest-trending linear array of extinct and active hot spring centers in the Sevenmile Hole area implies a deeper structural control for the upflowing hydrothermal fluids. We interpret this deeper structure to be the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault that is covered by the younger tuff of Sulphur Creek. The Sevenmile Hole altered area lies at the eastern end of a band of hydrothermal centers that may mark the buried extension of the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault across the northern part of the Caldera.

  1. Is the track of the Yellowstone hotspot driven by a deep mantle plume? -- Review of volcanism, faulting, and uplift in light of new data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Morgan, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Bands of late Cenozoic faulting extend south and west from Yellowstone. These bands are subdivided into belts based both on recency of offset and range-front height. Fault history within these belts suggests the following pattern: Belt I — starting activity but little accumulated offset; Belt II — peak activity with high total offset and activity younger than 14 ka; Belt III — waning activity with large offset and activity younger than 140 ka; and Belt IV — apparently dead on substantial range fronts (south side of the eastern Snake River Plain only

  2. Identification and Analysis of National Airspace System Resource Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Marien, Ty V.; Viken, Jeffery K.; Neitzke, Kurt W.; Kwa, Tech-Seng; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hinze, Nicolas K.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis is the deliverable for the Airspace Systems Program, Systems Analysis Integration and Evaluation Project Milestone for the Systems and Portfolio Analysis (SPA) focus area SPA.4.06 Identification and Analysis of National Airspace System (NAS) Resource Constraints and Mitigation Strategies. "Identify choke points in the current and future NAS. Choke points refer to any areas in the en route, terminal, oceanic, airport, and surface operations that constrain actual demand in current and projected future operations. Use the Common Scenarios based on Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) projections of future demand developed under SPA.4.04 Tools, Methods and Scenarios Development. Analyze causes, including operational and physical constraints." The NASA analysis is complementary to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) "Development of Tools and Analysis to Evaluate Choke Points in the National Airspace System" Contract # NNA3AB95C awarded to Logistics Management Institute, Sept 2013.

  3. Algorithm of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Displacement in Airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugała, Tomasz

    Despite the fact Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have been used for more than 70 years and their uncommon development has taken place in the first decade of the 21st Century, there is still no elaboration of "Uniform Concept of the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Displacement in Airspace". The indispensable condition of the above mentioned concept has to be flight safety of all airspace users. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to work out the adequate procedures and regulations in the scope of airspace usage taking into consideration this upto- date means of air transport. Therefore, elaboration of the algorithm by the author, can be a reason of achievement for the above mentioned object in the near future. Under such circumstances, the author has taken the trial to perform this challenging task.

  4. Yellowstone and Long Valley - A Comparison of Two Restless Calderas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. P.; Smith, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    Three large, silicic calderas in the conterminous United States have explosively erupted volumes > 300 km3 within in the last 2 million years -- Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming) Long Valley caldera (California) and the Vallez caldera (New Mexico) all located in extensional tectonic environments. All have shown varying levels of historic unrest. Pronounced unrest episodes at Yellowstone and Long Valley calderas over the past three decades stimulated extensive research on these two closely monitored calderas, and we explore some emerging similarities and differences. Yellowstone caldera is underlain by a long-lived (> 17 my) upper-mantle hot-spot that has fed a series of caldera-forming, extending to the southwest across southern Idaho to central Oregon including three caldera-forming eruptions from the Yellowstone caldera system in the last 2 my, the most recent at 600,000 ybp. It is marked by relatively low density and low seismic velocities extending to depths of at least 400 km and a regional topographic swell with elevations exceeding 2000 m. The extensive Yellowstone hydrothermal system has a thermal output of 5 GW. The most recent magmatic eruption dated at 70,000 ybp. By comparison, Long Valley caldera is underlain by a relatively modest "hot-spot", the locus of which appears to be influenced by a dilatational jog between the dextral Eastern California Shear Zone and the Walker Lane and westward delamination of the dense lithospheric root of the adjacent Sierra Nevada. The Long Valley system has fed multiple eruptions of over the past 4 my and a single caldera-forming eruption at 760,000 ybp. It is marked by a limited topographic swell but with the elevation of the caldera floor and adjacent basins comparable to the 2000-plus m elevation of the Yellowstone swell. Long Valley caldera hydrothermal system has a thermal output of 0.3 GW (including a 40 MW geothermal power plant). The most recent eruptions from the Long Valley Caldera- Mono Domes volcanic field

  5. Flexible Airspace Management (FAM) Research 2010 Human-in-the-Loop Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Brasil, Connie; Homola, Jeffrey; Kessell, Angela; Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    A human-in-the-Ioop (HITL) simulation was conducted to assess potential user and system benefits of Flexible Airspace Management (FAM) concept, as well as designing role definitions, procedures, and tools to support the FAM operations in the mid-term High Altitude Airspace (HAA) environment. The study evaluated the benefits and feasibility of flexible airspace reconfiguration in response to traffic overload caused by weather deviations, and compared them to those in a baseline condition without the airspace reconfiguration. The test airspace consisted of either four sectors in one Area of Specialization or seven sectors across two Areas. The test airspace was assumed to be at or above FL340 and fully equipped Vvith data communications (Data Comm). Other assumptions were consistent with those of the HAA concept. Overall, results showed that FAM operations with multiple Traffic Management Coordinators, Area Supervisors, and controllers worked remarkably well. The results showed both user and system benefits, some of which include the increased throughput, decreased flight distance, more manageable sector loads, and better utilized airspace. Also, the roles, procedures, airspace designs, and tools were all very well received. Airspace configuration options that resulted from a combination of algorithm-generated airspace configurations with manual modifications were well acceptec and posed little difficuIty and/or workload during airspace reconfiguration process. The results suggest a positive impact of FAM operations in HAA. Further investigation would be needed to evaluate if the benefits and feasibility would extend in either non-HAA or mixed equipage environment.

  6. Impact of Airspace Charges on Transatlantic Aircraft Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Linke, Florian; Chen, Neil Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft flying over the airspace of different countries are subject to over-flight charges. These charges vary from country to country. Airspace charges, while necessary to support the communication, navigation and surveillance services, may lead to aircraft flying routes longer than wind-optimal routes and produce additional carbon dioxide and other gaseous emissions. This paper develops an optimal route between city pairs by modifying the cost function to include an airspace cost whenever an aircraft flies through a controlled airspace without landing or departing from that airspace. It is assumed that the aircraft will fly the trajectory at a constant cruise altitude and constant speed. The computationally efficient optimal trajectory is derived by solving a non-linear optimal control problem. The operational strategies investigated in this study for minimizing aircraft fuel burn and emissions include flying fuel-optimal routes and flying cost-optimal routes that may completely or partially reduce airspace charges en route. The results in this paper use traffic data for transatlantic flights during July 2012. The mean daily savings in over-flight charges, fuel cost and total operation cost during the period are 17.6 percent, 1.6 percent, and 2.4 percent respectively, along the cost- optimal trajectories. The transatlantic flights can potentially save $600,000 in fuel cost plus $360,000 in over-flight charges daily by flying the cost-optimal trajectories. In addition, the aircraft emissions can be potentially reduced by 2,070 metric tons each day. The airport pairs and airspace regions that have the highest potential impacts due to airspace charges are identified for possible reduction of fuel burn and aircraft emissions for the transatlantic flights. The results in the paper show that the impact of the variation in fuel price on the optimal routes is to reduce the difference between wind-optimal and cost-optimal routes as the fuel price increases. The

  7. Hydrothermal and tectonic activity in northern Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.Y.; Stephenson, W.J.; Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Pierce, K.L.

    2003-01-01

    Yellowstone National Park is the site of one of the world's largest calderas. The abundance of geothermal and tectonic activity in and around the caldera, including historic uplift and subsidence, makes it necessary to understand active geologic processes and their associated hazards. To that end, we here use an extensive grid of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles (???450 km) to document hydrothermal and tectonic features and deposits in northern Yellowstone Lake. Sublacustrine geothermal features in northern Yellowstone Lake include two of the largest known hydrothermal explosion craters, Mary Bay and Elliott's. Mary Bay explosion breccia is distributed uniformly around the crater, whereas Elliott's crater breccia has an asymmetric distribution and forms a distinctive, ???2-km-long, hummocky lobe on the lake floor. Hydrothermal vents and low-relief domes are abundant on the lake floor; their greatest abundance is in and near explosion craters and along linear fissures. Domed areas on the lake floor that are relatively unbreached (by vents) are considered the most likely sites of future large hydrothermal explosions. Four submerged shoreline terraces along the margins of northern Yellowstone Lake add to the Holocene record or postglacial lake-level fluctuations attributed to "heavy breathing" of the Yellowstone magma reservoir and associated geothermal system. The Lake Hotel fault cuts through northwestern Yellowstone Lake and represents part of a 25-km-long distributed extensional deformation zone. Three postglacial ruptures indicate a slip rate of ???0.27 to 0.34 mm/yr. The largest (3.0 m slip) and most recent event occurred in the past ???2100 yr. Although high heat flow in the crust limits the rupture area of this fault zone, future earthquakes of magnitude ???5.3 to 6.5 are possible. Earthquakes and hydrothermal explosions have probably triggered landslides, common features around the lake margins. Few high-resolution seismic reflection surveys have

  8. Geodynamic models of a Yellowstone plume and its interaction with subduction and large-scale mantle circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Yellowstone is a site of intra-plate volcanism, with many traits of a classical "hotspot" (chain of age-progressive volcanics with active volcanism on one end; associated with flood basalt), yet it is atypical, as it is located near an area of Cenozoic subduction zones. Tomographic images show a tilted plume conduit in the upper mantle beneath Yellowstone; a similar tilt is predicted by simple geodynamic models: In these models, an initially (at the time when the corresponding Large Igneous Province erupted, ~15 Myr ago) vertical conduit gets tilted while it is advected in and buoyantly rising through large-scale flow: Generally eastward flow in the upper mantle in these models yields a predicted eastward tilt (i.e., the conduit is coming up from the west). In these models, mantle flow is derived from density anomalies, which are either inferred from seismic tomography or from subduction history. One drawback of these models is, that the initial plume location is chosen "ad hoc" such that the present-day position of Yellowstone is matched. Therefore, in another set of models, we study how subducted slabs (inferred from 300 Myr of subduction history) shape a basal chemically distinct layer into thermo-chemical piles, and create plumes along its margins. Our results show the formation of a Pacific pile. As subduction approaches this pile, the models frequently show part of the pile being separated off, with a plume rising above this part. This could be an analog to the formation and dynamics of the Yellowstone plume, yet there is a mismatch in location of about 30 degrees. It is therefore a goal to devise a model that combines the advantages of both models, i.e. a fully dynamic plume model, that matches the present-day position of Yellowstone. This will probably require "seeding" a plume through a thermal anomaly at the core-mantle boundary and possibly other modifications. Also, for a realistic model, the present-day density anomaly derived from subduction should

  9. Large-scale Crustal Features, Epithermal Gold Deposits, and the Yellowstone Hotspot, Western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, D. A.; Glen, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    Aeromagnetic and filtered magnetic maps of the western U.S. reveal at least 3 and up to 6 narrow, arcuate anomalies that form a radial pattern, the geometry of which suggests a unifying process. The most notable of these anomalies is the northern Nevada rift (NNRe), first identified as a high-amplitude, linear aeromagnetic anomaly extending from the Nevada-Oregon boarder for several hundred kilometers to the south-southeast. The NNRe anomaly is associated with a mid-Miocene mafic dike swarm, presumably emplaced along a narrow rift corridor and represents the mid-Miocene stress direction (Zoback, 1978; Zoback and others, 1994). Other similar, though less prominent geophysical anomalies occur to the west of the NNRe. With the aid of filtering and gradient analysis these anomalies, along with the NNRe appear to extend northward into Oregon and verge towards a common point. Numerous other geologic lineations, when extrapolated intersect at virtually the same location, suggesting that all these features radiate from a single point located along the Idaho-Oregon boarder at lat 44 oN (Glen and Ponce, 2000). A possible explanation for this pattern is a point stress at the base of the lithosphere related to the impact of the Yellowstone hotspot. Because the northern Nevada rift has been shown to correlate with mid-Miocene epithermal gold deposits along its trend (John and Wallace, 2000; John and others, 2000), we investigate the association of epithermal gold deposits to other similar arcuate features in northern Nevada. Mid-Miocene and younger epithermal gold-silver deposits also occur along two prominent aeromagnetic anomalies west of the northern Nevada rift and to three less prominent arcuate magnetic features. We speculate that mid-Miocene epithermal deposits formed along deep fractures associated with mid-Miocene rift-related magmatism, ultimately related to the inception of the Yellowstone hotspot, and that younger deposits preferentially followed these pre

  10. Yellowstone Wolves and the Forces That Structure Natural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Andy P.

    2014-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1995 and 1996, wolves have had effects on Yellowstone that ripple across the entire structure of the food web that defines biodiversity in the Northern Rockies ecosystem. Ecological interpretations of the wolves have generated a significant amount of debate about the relative strength of top-down versus bottom-up forces in determining herbivore and vegetation abundance in Yellowstone. Debates such as this are central to the resolution of broader debates about the role of natural enemies and climate as forces that structure food webs and modify ecosystem function. Ecologists need to significantly raise the profile of these discussions; understanding the forces that structure food webs and determine species abundance and the supply of ecosystem services is one of the central scientific questions for this century; its complexity will require new minds, new mathematics, and significant, consistent funding. PMID:25535737

  11. Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum in Acidic Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park▿

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Ricardo; Fernandes, João; Fernandes, Nuno; Oliveira, Fernanda; Cadete, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum was found in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, in a system composed of two acidic (pH 3.0) springs with temperatures between 56°C at the source and 40°C at the confluence of both springs. Growth and survival assays at 56°C for 60 days were performed, confirming the origin of the strain. PMID:17557859

  12. Biology, status, and management of the yellowstone cutthroat trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gresswell, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri were historically distributed in the Yellowstone River drainage (Montana and Wyoming) and the Snake River drainage (Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, Nevada, and probably Washington). Individual populations evolved distinct life history characteristics in response to the diverse environments in which they were isolated after the last glaciation. Anthropogenic activities have resulted in a substantial decline (42% of the historical range is currently occupied; 28% is occupied by core [genetically unaltered] populations), but the number of extant populations, especially in headwater streams, has precluded listing of this taxon under the Endangered Species Act. Primary threats to persistence of Yellowstone cutthroat trout include (1) invasive species, resulting in hybridization, predation, disease, and interspecific competition; (2) habitat degradation from human activities such as agricultural practices, water diversions, grazing, dam construction, mineral extraction, grazing, timber harvest, and road construction; and (3) climate change, including an escalating risk of drought, wildfire, winter flooding, and rising temperatures. Extirpation of individual populations or assemblages has led to increasing isolation and fragmentation of remaining groups, which in turn raises susceptibility to the demographic influences of disturbance (both human and stochastic) and genetic factors. Primary conservation strategies include (1) preventing risks associated with invasive species by isolating populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and (2) connecting occupied habitats (where possible) to preserve metapopulation function and the expression of multiple life histories. Because persistence of isolated populations may be greater in the short term, current management is focused on isolating individual populations and restoring habitats; however, this approach implies that humans will act as dispersal agents if a population is

  13. Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum in acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ricardo; Fernandes, João; Fernandes, Nuno; Oliveira, Fernanda; Cadete, Manuela

    2007-08-01

    Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum was found in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, in a system composed of two acidic (pH 3.0) springs with temperatures between 56 degrees C at the source and 40 degrees C at the confluence of both springs. Growth and survival assays at 56 degrees C for 60 days were performed, confirming the origin of the strain. PMID:17557859

  14. Coefficients of Productivity for Yellowstone's Grizzly Bear Habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David John; Barber, Kim; Maw, Ralene; Renkin, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This report describes methods for calculating coefficients used to depict habitat productivity for grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Calculations based on these coefficients are used in the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Cumulative Effects Model to map the distribution of habitat productivity and account for the impacts of human facilities. The coefficients of habitat productivity incorporate detailed information that was collected over a 20-year period (1977-96) on the foraging behavior of Yellowstone's bears and include records of what bears were feeding on, when and where they fed, the extent of that feeding activity, and relative measures of the quantity consumed. The coefficients also incorporate information, collected primarily from 1986 to 1992, on the nutrient content of foods that were consumed, their digestibility, characteristic bite sizes, and the energy required to extract and handle each food. Coefficients were calculated for different time periods and different habitat types, specific to different parts of the Yellowstone ecosystem. Stratifications included four seasons of bear activity (spring, estrus, early hyperphagia, late hyperphagia), years when ungulate carrion and whitebark pine seed crops were abundant versus not, areas adjacent to (<100 m) or far away from forest/nonforest edges, and areas inside or outside of ungulate winter ranges. Densities of bear activity in each region, habitat type, and time period were incorporated into calculations, controlling for the effects of proximity to human facilities. The coefficients described in this report and associated estimates of grizzly bear habitat productivity are unique among many efforts to model the conditions of bear habitat because calculations include information on energetics derived from the observed behavior of radio-marked bears.

  15. Food habits of Yellowstone grizzly bears, 1977-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Blanchard, Bonnie M.; Knight, Richard R.

    1990-01-01

    Food habits of grizzly bears were studied for 11 years in the Yellowstone area of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho by analyzing scats. Ungulate remains constituted a major portion of early-season scats, graminoids of May and June scats, and whitebark pine seeds of late-season scats. Berries composed a minor portion of scats during all months. The diet varied most among years during May, September, and October, and was most diverse during August. Defecation rates peaked in July and were low in April through June. Among-years differences in scat content were substantial; estimates of average scat composition took 4-6 years to stabilize. Major trends in diet were evident and reflected long-term variation. We suggest that long-term studies are necessary to adequately document bears' food habits in variable environments; the Yellowstone grizzly bears' diet varied with seasonal and yearly availability of high-quality foods, lack of berries and large fluctuations in the size of pine seed crops were major factors limiting bear density in the Yellowstone area, and the availability of edible human refuse buffered the limitations imposed by inadequate berry and pine seed crops prior to the 1970s.

  16. Hydrogen and bioenergetics in the Yellowstone geothermal ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Spear, John R.; Walker, Jeffrey J.; McCollom, Thomas M.; Pace, Norman R.

    2005-01-01

    The geochemical energy budgets for high-temperature microbial ecosystems such as occur at Yellowstone National Park have been unclear. To address the relative contributions of different geochemistries to the energy demands of these ecosystems, we draw together three lines of inference. We studied the phylogenetic compositions of high-temperature (>70°C) communities in Yellowstone hot springs with distinct chemistries, conducted parallel chemical analyses, and carried out thermodynamic modeling. Results of extensive molecular analyses, taken with previous results, show that most microbial biomass in these systems, as reflected by rRNA gene abundance, is comprised of organisms of the kinds that derive energy for primary productivity from the oxidation of molecular hydrogen, H2. The apparent dominance by H2-metabolizing organisms indicates that H2 is the main source of energy for primary production in the Yellowstone high-temperature ecosystem. Hydrogen concentrations in the hot springs were measured and found to range up to >300 nM, consistent with this hypothesis. Thermodynamic modeling with environmental concentrations of potential energy sources also is consistent with the proposed microaerophilic, hydrogen-based energy economy for this geothermal ecosystem, even in the presence of high concentrations of sulfide. PMID:15671178

  17. Four novel algal virus genomes discovered from Yellowstone Lake metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weijia; Zhou, Jinglie; Liu, Taigang; Yu, Yongxin; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Phycodnaviruses are algae-infecting large dsDNA viruses that are widely distributed in aquatic environments. Here, partial genomic sequences of four novel algal viruses were assembled from a Yellowstone Lake metagenomic data set. Genomic analyses revealed that three Yellowstone Lake phycodnaviruses (YSLPVs) had genome lengths of 178,262 bp, 171,045 bp, and 171,454 bp, respectively, and were phylogenetically closely related to prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae). The fourth (YSLGV), with a genome length of 73,689 bp, was related to group III in the extended family Mimiviridae comprising Organic Lake phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus 16 T (OLPG). A pair of inverted terminal repeats was detected in YSLPV1, suggesting that its genome is nearly complete. Interestingly, these four putative YSL giant viruses also bear some genetic similarities to Yellowstone Lake virophages (YSLVs). For example, they share nine non-redundant homologous genes, including ribonucleotide reductase small subunit (a gene conserved in nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses) and Organic Lake virophage OLV2 (conserved in the majority of YSLVs). Additionally, putative multidrug resistance genes (emrE) were found in YSLPV1 and YSLPV2 but not in other viruses. Phylogenetic trees of emrE grouped YSLPVs with algae, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer occurred between giant viruses and their potential algal hosts. PMID:26459929

  18. Four novel algal virus genomes discovered from Yellowstone Lake metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijia; Zhou, Jinglie; Liu, Taigang; Yu, Yongxin; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Phycodnaviruses are algae-infecting large dsDNA viruses that are widely distributed in aquatic environments. Here, partial genomic sequences of four novel algal viruses were assembled from a Yellowstone Lake metagenomic data set. Genomic analyses revealed that three Yellowstone Lake phycodnaviruses (YSLPVs) had genome lengths of 178,262 bp, 171,045 bp, and 171,454 bp, respectively, and were phylogenetically closely related to prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae). The fourth (YSLGV), with a genome length of 73,689 bp, was related to group III in the extended family Mimiviridae comprising Organic Lake phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus 16 T (OLPG). A pair of inverted terminal repeats was detected in YSLPV1, suggesting that its genome is nearly complete. Interestingly, these four putative YSL giant viruses also bear some genetic similarities to Yellowstone Lake virophages (YSLVs). For example, they share nine non-redundant homologous genes, including ribonucleotide reductase small subunit (a gene conserved in nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses) and Organic Lake virophage OLV2 (conserved in the majority of YSLVs). Additionally, putative multidrug resistance genes (emrE) were found in YSLPV1 and YSLPV2 but not in other viruses. Phylogenetic trees of emrE grouped YSLPVs with algae, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer occurred between giant viruses and their potential algal hosts. PMID:26459929

  19. Volcanic calderas delineate biogeographic provinces among Yellowstone thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; Mitchell, Kendra; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    2008-07-01

    It has been suggested that the distribution of microorganisms should be cosmopolitan because of their enormous capacity for dispersal. However, recent studies have revealed that geographically isolated microbial populations do exist. Geographic distance as a barrier to dispersal is most often invoked to explain these distributions. Here we show that unique and diverse sequences of the bacterial genus Sulfurihydrogenibium exist in Yellowstone thermal springs, indicating that these sites are geographically isolated. Although there was no correlation with geographic distance or the associated geochemistry of the springs, there was a strong historical signal. We found that the Yellowstone calderas, remnants of prehistoric volcanic eruptions, delineate biogeographical provinces for the Sulfurihydrogenibium within Yellowstone (chi(2): 9.7, P = 0.002). The pattern of distribution that we have detected suggests that major geological events in the past 2 million years explain more of the variation in sequence diversity in this system than do contemporary factors such as habitat or geographic distance. These findings highlight the importance of historical legacies in determining contemporary microbial distributions and suggest that the same factors that determine the biogeography of macroorganisms are also evident among bacteria. PMID:18363714

  20. Use of lodgepole pine cover types by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are a large and dynamic part of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) habitat in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Research in other areas suggests that grizzly bears select for young open forest stands, especially for grazing and feeding on berries. Management guidelines accordingly recommend timber harvest as a technique for improving habitat in areas potentially dominated by lodgepole pine. In this paper I examine grizzly bear use of lodgepole pine forests in the Yellowstone area, and test several hypotheses with relevance to a new generation of management guidelines. Differences in grizzly bear selection of lodgepole pine cover types (defined on the basis of stand age and structure) were not pronounced. Selection furthermore varied among years, areas, and individuals. Positive selection for any lodgepole pine type was uncommon. Estimates of selection took 5-11 years or 4-12 adult females to stabilize, depending upon the cover type. The variances of selection estimates tended to stabilize after 3-5 sample years, and were more-or-less stable to slightly increasing with progressively increased sample area. There was no conclusive evidence that Yellowstone's grizzlies favored young (<40 yr) stands in general or for their infrequent use of berries. On the other hand, these results corroborated previous observations that grizzlies favored open and/or young stands on wet and fertile sites for grazing. These results also supported the proposition that temporally and spatially robust inferences require extensive, long-duration studies, especially for wide-ranging vertebrates like grizzly bears.

  1. Toward n-Ship Computation of Trajectories for Shared Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Daniel D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers an approach for modelling transport aircraft trajectories that can facilitate their rapid evaluation and modification, either en route or in terminal control areas, with the goal of efficiently making use of airspace and runways by a large population of vehicles without pairwise violation of separation criteria.

  2. 78 FR 67292 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carlsbad, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ..., area, creating additional controlled airspace at Cavern City Air Terminal (78 FR 48839) Docket No. FAA... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  3. 78 FR 67293 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kankakee, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... airspace at Greater Kankakee Airport (78 FR 48841) Docket No. FAA-2013-0176. Interested parties were... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  4. 78 FR 52084 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Harlingen, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... controlled airspace at Valley International Airport (77 FR 25226) Docket No. FAA-2012-1140. Interested...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  5. 78 FR 52085 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stockton, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... the Stockton, KS, area, creating controlled airspace at Rooks County Regional Airport (78 FR 25229... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  6. 78 FR 67297 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Curtis, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...., area, creating additional controlled airspace at Curtis Municipal Airport (78 FR 48838) Docket No. FAA...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  7. 75 FR 59934 - Amendment to Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... amendment of the Class E airspace published in the Federal Register on July 27, 2010 (75 FR 43817). This... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  8. 77 FR 12992 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Jacksonville, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2... coordinates of the airport to aid in the navigation of our National Airspace System. The airport...

  9. 75 FR 4683 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Graford, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... controlled airspace at Possum Kingdom Airport (74 FR 57620) Docket No. FAA-2009-0927. Interested parties were... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  10. Pilot Convective Weather Decision Making in En Route Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Gooding, Cary L.; Shelley, Alexandra E.; Duong, Constance G.; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates characteristics exhibited in pilot convective weather decision making in en route airspace. In a part-task study, pilots performed weather avoidance under various encounter scenarios. Results showed that the margins of safety that pilots maintain from storms are as fluid as deviation decisions themselves.

  11. 77 FR 5 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kipnuk, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Kipnuk, AK (76 FR... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  12. 77 FR 18102 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lamar, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Lamar, CO (76 FR 78864... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  13. 76 FR 60714 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Northway, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register to revise Class E airspace at Northway, AK (76 FR 45475...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034;...

  14. 78 FR 58158 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wasatch, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Wasatch, UT (78 FR... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  15. 77 FR 38474 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Livingston, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Livingston, MT (77 FR 19953). Interested parties were... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory...

  16. 77 FR 28247 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decatur, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... controlled airspace at Decatur Airport (76 FR 77450) Docket No. FAA-2011-1105. Interested parties were... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  17. 77 FR 18103 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Piseco, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Piseco, NY (76 FR 77451.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  18. 78 FR 14651 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Goldsboro, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace in the Goldsboro, NC area (77 FR... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0...

  19. 14 CFR 91.131 - Operations in Class B airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... area. (b) Pilot requirements. (1) No person may take off or land a civil aircraft at an airport within...)(1)(ii), (b)(1)(iii) and (b)(1)(iv) of this section, no person may take off or land a civil aircraft... turbine engine-powered airplane to or from a primary airport for which a Class B airspace area...

  20. 14 CFR 91.131 - Operations in Class B airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... area. (b) Pilot requirements. (1) No person may take off or land a civil aircraft at an airport within...)(1)(ii), (b)(1)(iii) and (b)(1)(iv) of this section, no person may take off or land a civil aircraft... turbine engine-powered airplane to or from a primary airport for which a Class B airspace area...

  1. 77 FR 55688 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boise, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... FR 6026). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by submitting... E airspace designated as an extension at Boise Air Terminal, Boise, ID (77 FR 38552). Interested... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  2. Feasibility of Mixed Equipage Operations in the Same Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Smith, Nancy; Lee, Katharine; Aweiss, Arwa; Lee, Paul U.; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeff; Mainini, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This study used a human-in-the-loop simulation to examine the feasibility of mixed equipage operations in an automated separation assurance environment under higher traffic densities. The study involved two aircraft equipage alternatives with and without data link and four traffic conditions. In all traffic conditions the unequipped traffic count was increased linearly throughout the scenario from approximately 5 to 20 aircraft. Condition One consisted solely of this unequipped traffic, while the remaining three conditions also included a constant number of equipped aircraft operating within the same airspace: 15 equipped aircraft in condition two, 30 in condition three, and 45 in condition four. If traffic load became excessive during any run, participants were instructed to refuse sector entry to inbound unequipped aircraft until sector load became manageable. Results showed a progressively higher number of unequipped aircraft turned away under the second, third, and fourth scenario conditions. Controller workload also increased progressively. Participants rated the mixed operations concept as acceptable, with some qualifications about procedures and information displays. These results showed that mixed operations might be feasible in the same airspace, if unequipped aircraft count is held to a workable level. This level will decrease with increasing complexity. The results imply that integrated airspace configuration is feasible to a limit. The results also indicate that the conflict detection and resolution automation, equipage, and traffic density are important factors that will need to be considered for airspace configuration.

  3. 76 FR 28308 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Poplar, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... proposed rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Poplar, MT (76 FR 8921). Interested... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  4. 75 FR 20320 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February... to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC...

  5. 75 FR 81438 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Columbus, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... additional controlled airspace at Port Columbus International Airport (75 FR 64966) Docket No. FAA-2010-0770... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  6. 78 FR 5128 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Savoonga, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... modify controlled airspace at Savoonga, AK (77 FR 61304). Interested parties were invited to participate... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  7. 77 FR 52219 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lewistown, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...) to modify controlled airspace at Lewistown, MT (77 FR 38226). Interested parties were invited to... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  8. 77 FR 40489 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... amend Class E airspace at Memphis, TN (77 FR 17360). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  9. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless otherwise specified, the word “to” (an altitude or flight level) means “to and including” (that altitude or flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  10. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless otherwise specified, the word “to” (an altitude or flight level) means “to and including” (that altitude or flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  11. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless otherwise specified, the word “to” (an altitude or flight level) means “to and including” (that altitude or flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  12. 75 FR 12974 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hailey, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Hailey, ID (74 FR... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  13. 78 FR 48300 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mahnomen, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... the Mahnomen, MN, area, creating controlled airspace at Mahnomen County Airport (78 FR 25233) Docket...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  14. 75 FR 51172 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perham, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... airspace at Perham Municipal Airport (75 FR 27496) Docket No. FAA-2010-0402. Interested parties were... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  15. 78 FR 48297 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bedford, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Bedford County Airport, Bedford, PA. (78 FR 32213...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  16. 75 FR 12972 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rawlins, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Rawlins, WY (74 FR 57621). Interested parties were... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory...

  17. 75 FR 51175 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Perryville, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... additional controlled airspace at Perryville Municipal Airport (75 FR 23636) Docket No. FAA-2010-0403... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  18. 75 FR 17852 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Altus, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... published in the Federal Register a final rule amending Class E airspace in the Altus, OK area (74 FR 68666... September 15, 2009, which is incorporated by reference in 14 CFR part 71.1. In rule FR Doc. E9-30283 published on December 29, 2009, (74 FR 68666) make the following correction: On page 68667, in the...

  19. 78 FR 48302 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wagner, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ..., area, creating controlled airspace at Wagner Municipal Airport (78 FR 31430) Docket No. FAA-2013-0004... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  20. 78 FR 41289 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Ogallala, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ..., creating additional controlled airspace at Searle Field Airport (78 FR 18262) Docket No. FAA-2012-1138...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  1. 77 FR 66068 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Breckenridge, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ..., 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation..., creating additional controlled airspace at Stephens County Airport (77 FR 50648) Docket No. FAA-2012-0653... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  2. 75 FR 68416 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Berryville, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71..., creating controlled airspace at Carroll County Airport (75 FR 53876) Docket No. FAA-2010-0690. Interested... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  3. 78 FR 18799 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Superior, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... controlled airspace at Richard I. Bong Airport (77 FR 71363) Docket No. FAA-2012-0656. Interested parties... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and...

  4. 78 FR 48301 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walker, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ..., area, creating controlled airspace at Walker Municipal Airport (78 FR 25234) Docket No. FAA-2013-0266... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  5. 78 FR 18802 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tecumseh, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ..., area, creating additional controlled airspace at Tecumseh Municipal Airport (77 FR 71368) Docket No... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  6. 75 FR 67911 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Jeannette, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Jeannette, PA...

  7. 75 FR 40719 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kemmerer, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Kemmerer, WY (75 FR 11477... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  8. 78 FR 48295 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gruver, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ..., creating additional controlled airspace at Gruver Municipal Airport (78 FR 18261) Docket No. FAA-2011-1111...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  9. 78 FR 48294 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mason, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... additional controlled airspace at Mason County Airport (78 FR 31429) Docket No. FAA-2012-1141. Interested... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  10. 75 FR 12161 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR...

  11. 14 CFR 73.3 - Special use airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above mean sea level. Unless otherwise specified, the word “to” (an altitude or flight level) means “to and including” (that altitude or flight level). (c) The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described...

  12. 75 FR 19212 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Oxnard, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... additional controlled airspace at Point Mugu NAS, Oxnard, CA (74 FR 68748). Interested parties were invited... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  13. 78 FR 31397 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Cherokee, WY (78 FR 14032). Interested...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  14. 78 FR 22414 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Reno, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Reno, NV (78 FR 5153). Interested parties were invited to... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  15. 76 FR 9967 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Henderson, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... 20, 2010 (75 FR 79294), amends Class E airspace at Henderson City-County Airport, Henderson, KY. A typographical error was made in the regulatory text concerning the degree radial used; reference to the Pocket... Airport to 8.2 miles northwest of the airport. Issued in College Park, Georgia, on February 11, 2011....

  16. 75 FR 32269 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Wainwright, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... rulemaking in the Federal Register to revise Class E airspace at Wainwright, AK (75 FR 11480). Interested...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  17. 77 FR 29865 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Leesville, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389..., area, creating additional controlled airspace at Leesville Airport (77 FR 4702) Docket No. FAA-2011... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  18. 76 FR 59503 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lebanon, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Lebanon, PA (76 FR 39038... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  19. 76 FR 65944 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tatitlek, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... to establish Class E airspace at Tatitlek, AK (76 FR 49388). Interested parties were invited to... not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  20. 77 FR 4458 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rockingham, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... E airspace at Rockingham, NC, (76 FR 66867) Docket No. FAA-2011-1146. Interested parties were... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0...

  1. 76 FR 73503 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Winters, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... controlled airspace at Winters Municipal Airport (76 FR 53354) Docket No. FAA-2011-0608. Interested parties...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  2. 76 FR 75446 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... controlled airspace at Mercury, NV (76 FR 56127). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  3. 75 FR 55267 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation By Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... airspace listings in FAA Order 7400.9T in full text as proposed rule documents in the Federal Register. Likewise, all amendments of these listings were published in full text as final rules in the Federal... Order 7400.9U in full text as proposed rule documents in the Federal Register. Likewise, all...

  4. 78 FR 72009 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Star, NC (78 FR 54413... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  5. 78 FR 63861 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Minneapolis, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Class B airspace area (78 FR 10564). This action proposed to expand the lateral boundaries and lower... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... the Flying Cloud VOR/ DME navigation aid (FCM) 270 radial and the 20 NM to 30 NM arcs from the...

  6. 75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY:...

  7. 76 FR 67596 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Spearfish, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... additional controlled airspace at Black Hills Airport--Clyde Ice Field (76 FR 43610) Docket No. FAA-2011-0431... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  8. 76 FR 15825 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pueblo, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Pueblo, CO (76 FR 2609). Interested parties were invited... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  9. 75 FR 51172 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Litchfield, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... additional controlled airspace at Litchfield Municipal Airport (75 FR 27495) Docket No. FAA-2010-0401... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  10. 77 FR 42427 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA AGENCY:...

  11. 76 FR 75449 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stuart, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... controlled airspace at the City of Stuart Helistop (76 FR 53360) Docket No. FAA-2011-0831. Interested parties... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  12. 75 FR 23581 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., IA, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Emmetsburg Municipal Airport (75 FR 6592) Docket No. FAA... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  13. 75 FR 23580 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., reconfiguring controlled airspace at James G. Whiting Memorial Field Airport (75 FR 6595) Docket No. FAA-2009...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  14. 76 FR 65945 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... airspace area (76 FR 35363). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by.... 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p.389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... ensure the containment of large turbine-powered aircraft operating to and from the...

  15. 75 FR 61610 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Arco, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...This action will amend Class E airspace at Arco, ID. Decommissioning of the Arco-Butte County Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) at Arco-Butte County Airport has made this action necessary for the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the airport. This action also would adjust the geographic coordinates of the...

  16. 77 FR 45238 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL...

  17. 75 FR 57846 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Brewton, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR 71.1... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Brewton, AL AGENCY:...

  18. 76 FR 22015 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Raton, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... additional controlled airspace at Raton Municipal Airport/ Crews Field (76 FR 5305) Docket No. FAA-2010-1239... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 ] FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  19. 77 FR 6 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwigillingok, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... controlled airspace at Kwigillingok, AK (76 FR 54151). Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  20. 75 FR 41984 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Paynesville, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... controlled airspace at Paynesville Municipal Airport (75 FR 22044) Docket No. FAA-2010-0399. Interested... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  1. 75 FR 26150 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Williamson, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...: ] Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Williamson,...

  2. 76 FR 42471 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... rule FR Doc 2011-16783, on page 39259 in the Federal Register of July 6, 2011 (76 FR 39259), make the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME...

  3. 76 FR 30534 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kenbridge, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Kenbridge, VA (75 FR 14823...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  4. Feasibility of Mixed Equipage Operations in the Same Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Smith, Nancy; Lee, Katharine K.; Aweiss, Arwa Salem; Lee, Paul U.; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeff; Mainini, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This study used a human-in-the-loop simulation to examine the feasibility of mixed equipage operations in an automated separation assurance environment under higher traffic densities. The study involved two aircraft equipage alternatives - with and without data link- and four traffic conditions. In all traffic conditions the unequipped traffic count was increased linearly throughout the scenario from approximately 5 to 20 aircraft. Condition One consisted solely of this unequipped traffic, while the remaining three conditions also included a constant number of equipped aircraft operating within the same airspace: 15 equipped aircraft in condition two, 30 in condition three, and 45 in condition four. If traffic load became excessive during any run, participants were instructed to refuse sector entry to inbound unequipped aircraft until sector load became manageable. Results showed a progressively higher number of unequipped aircraft turned away under the second, third, and fourth scenario conditions. Controller workload also increased progressively. Participants rated the mixed operations concept as acceptable, with some qualifications about procedures and information displays. These results showed that mixed operations might be feasible in the same airspace, if unequipped aircraft count is held to a workable level. This level will decrease with increasing complexity. The results imply that integrated airspace configuration is feasible to a limit. The results also indicate that the conflict detection and resolution automation, equipage, and traffic density are important factors that will need to be considered for airspace configuration.

  5. 75 FR 8481 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Stamford, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3..., reconfiguring controlled airspace at Arledge Field Airport (74 FR 61289) Docket No. FAA-2009-0876. Interested... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  6. 76 FR 5469 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greensburg, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3..., IN, creating additional controlled airspace at Decatur County Memorial Hospital Heliport (75 FR 68551... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  7. 76 FR 75447 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmonak, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Emmonak, AK (76 FR... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  8. 77 FR 28245 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Omaha, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71..., creating additional controlled airspace at Eppley Airfield (76 FR 77448) Docket No. FAA-2011-1126... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  9. 76 FR 5470 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Richmond, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... controlled airspace at Reid Hospital Heliport (75 FR 68555) Docket No. FAA-2010-1033. Interested parties were... ``significant rule'' under DOT ] Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and...

  10. 75 FR 79295 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Crewe, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Crewe, VA (75 FR 57215...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  11. 76 FR 67057 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Evansville, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... controlled airspace at Evansville Regional Airport (76 FR 43615) Docket No. FAA-2011-0429. Interested parties... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  12. 75 FR 8484 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Langdon, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... controlled airspace at Robertson Field Airport (74 FR 63684) Docket No. FAA-2009-0535. Interested parties... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  13. 76 FR 75447 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Centerville, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... E airspace for the Centerville, IA, area. (76 FR 53358) Docket No. FAA-2011-0830. Interested parties... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  14. 75 FR 33165 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Galena, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR 71.1... airspace at Galena, AK (75 FR 17892). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory...

  15. 76 FR 58715 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Wrightstown, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation.... This action also updates the airspace descriptions to be in concert with the FAAs aeronautical...

  16. 75 FR 8482 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lima, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Lima Allen County Airport, Lima, OH (74 FR 57618) Docket... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  17. 76 FR 56967 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Glendive, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Glendive, MT (76 FR 41145). Interested parties were invited to... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  18. 78 FR 17084 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wilbur, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Wilbur, WA (77 FR 75597). Interested parties... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 ] FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation...

  19. 77 FR 38476 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eureka, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... notice of proposed rulemaking to establish controlled airspace at Eureka, NV (77 FR 21509). Interested... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  20. Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility where possible, and structure where necessary. Consider the needs of national security, safe airspace operations, economic opportunities, and emerging technologies. Risk-based approach based on population density, assets on the ground, density of operations, etc. Digital, virtual, dynamic, and as needed UTM services to manage operations.

  1. 78 FR 6726 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Ontonagon, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... controlled airspace at Ontonagon County--Schuster Field Airport (77 FR 45984) Docket No. FAA- 2011-1404... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  2. 78 FR 14652 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gaylord, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... controlled airspace at Gaylord Regional Airport (77 FR 56586) Docket No. FAA-2011-1401. Interested parties... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  3. 78 FR 8962 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kasigluk, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... rulemaking to modify controlled airspace at Kasigluk, AK (77 FR 60660). Interested parties were invited to... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034..., 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  4. 75 FR 63708 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kalaupapa, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish controlled airspace at Kalaupapa, HI (75 FR... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  5. 76 FR 18041 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kahului, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... establish controlled airspace at Kahului, HI (76 FR 3571). Interested parties were invited to participate in... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  6. 78 FR 67298 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Ennis, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Ennis, MT (78 FR 54415). Interested parties were... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  7. 75 FR 41985 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Syracuse, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... controlled airspace at Syracuse-Hamilton County Municipal Airport (75 FR 22045) Docket No. FAA-2010-0400... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  8. 75 FR 37293 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... additional controlled airspace at Hamilton Municipal Airport (75 FR 20794) Docket No. FAA-2009-0190... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  9. 76 FR 41397 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Florence, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish controlled airspace at Florence, OR (76 FR 21269... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  10. 76 FR 22011 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bedford, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... additional controlled airspace at Bedford Medical Center Heliport (76 FR 5301) Docket No. FAA-2010-1026... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  11. 75 FR 62459 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Unalakleet, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Federal Register to revise Class E airspace at Unalakleet, AK (75 FR 32865). Interested parties were...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by reference in 14...

  12. 78 FR 59805 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cody, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ...) to establish controlled airspace at Cody, WY (78 FR 40078). Interested parties were invited to... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034..., 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  13. 77 FR 38475 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Woodland, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... amend controlled airspace at Woodland, CA (77 FR 23172). Interested parties were invited to participate... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  14. 78 FR 59807 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Glasgow, MT (78 FR 41337). Interested...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  15. 76 FR 75445 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Olathe, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... airspace at Johnson County Executive Airport (76 FR 53361) Docket No. FAA-2011-0748. Interested parties... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  16. 78 FR 34556 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tobe, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Tobe, CO (78 FR 18264). Interested parties... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  17. 77 FR 19928 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hugo, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... ] controlled airspace at Hugo, CO (76 FR 78576). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  18. 78 FR 34555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Gillette, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Gillette, WY (78 FR 18266). Interested...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  19. 77 FR 19930 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tobe, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Tobe, CO (77 FR 4708). Interested...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  20. 76 FR 59013 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Burlington, VT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E ] airspace at Burlington, VT (76 FR 38584) Docket No. FAA-2011-0243... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  1. 77 FR 38473 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fairfield, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Fairfield, CA (77 FR 23171). Interested parties were...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  2. 77 FR 44120 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  3. 77 FR 68068 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Pullman, WA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class...

  4. 76 FR 16530 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  5. 77 FR 46282 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Sweetwater, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Sweetwater, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class...

  6. 78 FR 41685 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Worthington, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Worthington, MN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class...

  7. 78 FR 33967 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Captiva, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Captiva, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  8. 75 FR 13668 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Georgetown, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Georgetown, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class...

  9. 75 FR 65224 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Williston, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Williston, ND AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class...

  10. 78 FR 41839 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Presidio, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ..., 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Presidio, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  11. 75 FR 50694 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Astoria, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Astoria, OR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action will amend Class...

  12. 75 FR 65228 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Chilicothe, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Chilicothe, MO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class...

  13. 78 FR 65554 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E...

  14. 76 FR 43822 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hearne, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hearne, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  15. 76 FR 70865 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Driggs, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Driggs, ID AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class...

  16. 78 FR 50323 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lexington, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lexington, OK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class...

  17. 76 FR 9220 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Martinsville, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Martinsville, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  18. 78 FR 41837 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Parkston, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Parkston, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  19. 77 FR 68067 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Coaldale, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Coaldale, NV AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  20. 78 FR 11980 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Casper, WY AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E...

  1. 76 FR 80232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  2. 77 FR 56761 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kerrville, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kerrville, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class...

  3. 76 FR 43821 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Ranger, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Ranger, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  4. 75 FR 65225 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Youngstown, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Youngstown, OH AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class...

  5. 14 CFR 91.130 - Operations in Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operating an aircraft in Class C airspace must meet the following two-way radio communications requirements: (1) Arrival or through flight. Each person must establish two-way radio communications with the ATC... airport with an operating control tower must establish and maintain two-way radio communications with...

  6. 78 FR 1742 - Amendment to Class B Airspace; Atlanta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ..., Class B airspace area (77 FR 5429). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking.... 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2... will not save airline fuel. Since airlines favor longer, idle power descents and uninterrupted...

  7. 76 FR 18378 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taylor, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... amend controlled airspace at Taylor, AZ (76 FR 3570). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  8. 77 FR 34210 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... E airspace at Orlando, FL (77 FR 16783). Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  9. 75 FR 69864 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Charlotte, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to modify the Charlotte, NC Class B airspace area (75 FR 9538). This action proposed to... that was inadvertently omitted from notice (75 FR 13049; March 18, 2010). Interested parties were.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  10. 75 FR 39145 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Flint, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR 71.1... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Flint,...

  11. 77 FR 5170 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Jackson, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Jackson, MI AGENCY:...

  12. 77 FR 38472 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Pontiac, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Pontiac, MI AGENCY:...

  13. 75 FR 43814 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Goldsboro, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... D airspace for Seymour Johnson AFB, Goldsboro, NC (75 FR 17891) Docket No. FAA-2010-0095. Interested... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  14. 77 FR 28247 - Operations in Class D Airspace

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 RIN 2120-AK10 Operations in Class D Airspace AGENCY....C. 553(d) to make this rule effective upon publication. The changes to this section align the...

  15. 75 FR 17891 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Goldsboro, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Goldsboro, NC...

  16. 78 FR 67296 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; Mesquite, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... establish Class D airspace for Mesquite Metro Airport, Mesquite, TX (78 FR 48842) Docket No. FAA-2012- 0580...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  17. 77 FR 5169 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Saginaw, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Saginaw, MI AGENCY:...

  18. 78 FR 76056 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Danville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ..., area, removing controlled airspace at Vermilion Regional Airport (78 FR 52718) Docket No. FAA-2013-0657...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  19. 77 FR 45240 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quakertown, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Airspace at Quakertown, PA, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Quakertown, PA (77 FR 30438) Docket No. FAA-2012-0386. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  20. 78 FR 22415 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Astoria, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Astoria Regional Airport, Astoria, OR, to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. This improves the safety and... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to modify controlled airspace at Astoria, OR (77 FR 61306). Interested...

  1. 77 FR 19076 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marion, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Airspace at Marion, AL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Marion, AL (77 FR 771) Docket No. FAA-2011-0590. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  2. 77 FR 16669 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bellefonte, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... airspace at Bellefonte, PA, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... surface at Bellefonte, PA (76 FR 79564). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) ] does not warrant preparation of...

  3. 76 FR 67056 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Jacksonville, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Airspace at Jacksonville, NC, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for..., NC (76 FR 52291). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort...

  4. 76 FR 14801 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colebrook, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Airspace at Colebrook, NH, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS..., NH (75 FR 81516). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  5. 76 FR 45177 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kayenta, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Kayenta Airport... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish controlled airspace at Kayenta, AZ (76 FR... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26,...

  6. 78 FR 72010 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Magee, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Airspace at Magee, MS, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) special..., MS, (78 FR 48080) Docket No. FAA-2013-0430. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  7. 78 FR 34557 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Sanibel, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Airspace at Sanibel, FL, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Sanibel, FL (78 FR 14473). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  8. 76 FR 45180 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Alturas, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... controlled airspace at Alturas, CA (76 FR 28915). Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  9. 77 FR 41259 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Plentywood, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... modify controlled airspace at Plentywood, MT (77 FR 24159). Interested parties were invited to... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  10. 78 FR 32553 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Boothbay, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Airspace at Boothbay, ME, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Boothbay, ME (78 FR 18929). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  11. 78 FR 22417 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Lakeview, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... airspace at Lakeview, OR, to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... Lakeview, OR (78 FR 5155). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  12. 78 FR 67024 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Prineville, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... airspace at Prineville, OR, to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard... Prineville, OR (78 FR 52717). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  13. 76 FR 52230 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Forest, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Airspace at Forest, VA, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS..., VA (76 FR 34196) Docket No. FAA-2011-0378. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory...

  14. 77 FR 28246 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tullahoma, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... amend Class E airspace at Tullahoma, TN (77 FR 12759). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  15. 76 FR 54690 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... E airspace at Clemson, SC (76 FR 38582) Docket No. FAA-2011-0394. Interested parties were invited to... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0...

  16. 75 FR 27637 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Claremore, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ..., OK, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Claremore Regional Airport (75 FR 5905) Docket No. FAA-2009...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  17. 77 FR 29875 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Houston, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ..., area, creating controlled airspace at Houston Memorial Airport (77 FR 4711) Docket No. FAA-2011-0903...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  18. 76 FR 53636 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gary, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ..., creating additional controlled airspace at Gary/Chicago International Airport (76 FR 28686) Docket No. FAA... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  19. 76 FR 45179 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E controlled airspace at Glasgow, MT (76 FR 30300). Interested parties...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February...

  20. 76 FR 66178 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Umiat, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register to revise Class E airspace at Umiat, AK (76 FR 49387... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory evaluation.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...