Science.gov

Sample records for airway facilities maintenance

  1. Facilities maintenance handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This handbook is a guide for facilities maintenance managers. Its objective is to set minimum facilities maintenance standards. It also provides recommendations on how to meet the standards to ensure that NASA maintains its facilities in a manner that protects and preserves its investment in the facilities in a cost-effective manner while safely and efficiently performing its mission. This handbook implements NMI 8831.1, which states NASA facilities maintenance policy and assigns organizational responsibilities for the management of facilities maintenance activities on all properties under NASA jurisdiction. It is a reference for facilities maintenance managers, not a step-by-step procedural manual. Because of the differences in NASA Field Installation organizations, this handbook does not assume or recommend a typical facilities maintenance organization. Instead, it uses a systems approach to describe the functions that should be included in any facilities maintenance management system, regardless of its organizational structure. For documents referenced in the handbook, the most recent version of the documents is applicable. This handbook is divided into three parts: Part 1 specifies common definitions and facilities maintenance requirements and amplifies the policy requirements contained in NMI 8831. 1; Part 2 provides guidance on how to meet the requirements of Part 1, containing recommendations only; Part 3 contains general facilities maintenance information. One objective of this handbook is to fix commonality of facilities maintenance definitions among the Centers. This will permit the application of uniform measures of facilities conditions, of the relationship between current replacement value and maintenance resources required, and of the backlog of deferred facilities maintenance. The utilization of facilities maintenance system functions will allow the Centers to quantitatively define maintenance objectives in common terms, prepare work plans, and

  2. [Airway equipment and its maintenance for a non difficult adult airway management (endotracheal intubation and its alternative: face mask, laryngeal mask airway, laryngeal tube)].

    PubMed

    Francon, D; Estèbe, J P; Ecoffey, C

    2003-08-01

    The airway equipment for a non difficult adult airway management are described: endotracheal tubes with a specific discussion on how to inflate the balloon, laryngoscopes and blades, stylets and intubation guides, oral airways, face masks, laryngeal mask airways and laryngeal tubes. Cleaning and disinfections with the maintenance are also discussed for each type of airway management.

  3. NASA Critical Facilities Maintenance Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberhettinger, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Critical Facilities Maintenance Assessment (CFMA) was first implemented by NASA following the March 2000 overtest of the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) spacecraft. A sine burst dynamic test using a 40 year old shaker failed. Mechanical binding/slippage of the slip table imparted 10 times the planned force to the test article. There was major structural damage to HESSI. The mechanical "health" of the shaker had not been assessed and tracked to assure the test equipment was in good working order. Similar incidents have occurred at NASA facilities due to inadequate maintenance (e.g., rainwater from a leaky roof contaminated an assembly facility that housed a spacecraft). The HESSI incident alerted NASA to the urgent need to identify inadequacies in ground facility readiness and maintenance practices. The consequences of failures of ground facilities that service these NASA systems are severe due to the high unit value of NASA products.

  4. Maintenance Staffing Guidelines For Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide a resource or guide for educational facilities in establishing or developing a maintenance trades organization that is sufficient to accomplish basic facilities maintenance functions. The guidelines are intended to suggest staffing levels for those routine facilities maintenance activities that are…

  5. Preventive Maintenance Guidelines for School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciha, John C.

    This five-part manual, intended to increase the integrity and support the longevity of school facilities, provides easy-to-use preventive maintenance (PM) system guidelines. Part 1 outlines the special considerations of school maintenance as compared to other facilities. Part 2 establishes the basic components of a PM program and provides Work…

  6. Reliability centered maintenance in astronomical infrastructure facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansorge, W. R.

    2006-06-01

    Hundreds of mirror segment, thousands of high precision actuators, highly complex mechanical, hydraulic, electrical and other technology subsystems, and highly sophisticated control systems: an ELT system consists of millions of individual parts and components, each of them may fail and lead to a partial or complete system breakdown. The traditional maintenance concepts characterized by predefined preventive maintenance activities and rigid schedules are not suitable for handling this large number of potential failures and malfunctions and the extreme maintenance workload. New maintenance strategies have to be found suitable to increase reliability while reducing the cost of needless maintenance services. The Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) methodology is already used extensively by airlines, and in industrial and marine facilities and even by scientific institutions like NASA. Its application increases the operational reliability while reducing the cost of unnecessary maintenance activities and is certainly also a solution for current and future ELT facilities. RCM is a concept of developing a maintenance scheme based on the reliability of the various components of a system by using "feedback loops between instrument / system performance monitoring and preventive/corrective maintenance cycles." Ideally RCM has to be designed within a system and should be located in the requirement definition, the preliminary and final design phases of new equipment and complicated systems. However, under certain conditions, an implementation of RCM into the maintenance management strategy of already existing astronomical infrastructure facilities is also possible. This presentation outlines the principles of the RCM methodology, explains the advantages, and highlights necessary changes in the observatory development, operation and maintenance philosophies. Presently, it is the right time to implement RCM into current and future ELT projects and to save up to 50% maintenance

  7. School Facilities Maintenance and Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials of the United States and Canada, Park Ridge, IL. Research Corp.

    This publication presents a series of field-proven school energy conservation, management, maintenance, and operations practices and ideas. Also included are the names, addresses, and phone numbers of individuals and organizations to contact for more detailed information. The brief summaries are grouped into six sections. "Planning and Managing…

  8. Ground Software Maintenance Facility (GSMF) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, V.; Derrig, D.; Griffith, G.

    1986-01-01

    Instructions for the Ground Software Maintenance Facility (GSMF) system user is provided to operate the GSMF in all modes. The GSMF provides the resources for the Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) computer program maintenance (GCOS and GOAL). Applicable reference documents are listed. An operational overview and descriptions of the modes in terms of operator interface, options, equipment, material utilization, and operational procedures are contained. Test restart procedures are described. The GSMF documentation tree is presented including the user manual.

  9. Facility Maintenance. V-TECS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles G.; And Others

    This facility maintenance guide is a compilation of duties, tasks, performance objectives, and performance guides that deals with the psychomotor aspect of an occupation. The guide addresses the three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. Each unit provides job-relevant tasks, standards of performance, source of standard,…

  10. Ground Software Maintenance Facility (GSMF) system manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derrig, D.; Griffith, G.

    1986-01-01

    The Ground Software Maintenance Facility (GSMF) is designed to support development and maintenance of spacelab ground support software. THE GSMF consists of a Perkin Elmer 3250 (Host computer) and a MITRA 125s (ATE computer), with appropriate interface devices and software to simulate the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE). This document is presented in three sections: (1) GSMF Overview; (2) Software Structure; and (3) Fault Isolation Capability. The overview contains information on hardware and software organization along with their corresponding block diagrams. The Software Structure section describes the modes of software structure including source files, link information, and database files. The Fault Isolation section describes the capabilities of the Ground Computer Interface Device, Perkin Elmer host, and MITRA ATE.

  11. Health maintenance facility: Dental equipment requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, John; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The objectives were to test the effectiveness of the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) dental suction/particle containment system, which controls fluids and debris generated during simulated dental treatment, in microgravity; to test the effectiveness of fiber optic intraoral lighting systems in microgravity, while simulating dental treatment; and to evaluate the operation and function of off-the-shelf dental handheld instruments, namely a portable dental hand drill and temporary filling material, in microgravity. A description of test procedures, including test set-up, flight equipment, and the data acquisition system, is given.

  12. Manned Mars mission health maintenance facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degioanni, Joseph C.

    1986-01-01

    The Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) requirements which enable/enhance manned Mars missions (MMMs) are addressed. It does not attempt to resolve any issues that may affect the feasibility of any given element in the HMF. Reference is made to current work being conducted in the design of the space station HMF. The HMF requirements are discussed within the context of two distinctly different scenarios: HMF as part of the Mars surface infrastructure, and HMF as part of the nine months translation from low Earth orbit to Mars orbit. Requirements for an HMF are provided, and a concept of HMF is shown.

  13. 24 CFR 242.57 - Maintenance of hospital facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maintenance of hospital facility... Requirements § 242.57 Maintenance of hospital facility. The mortgagor shall maintain the hospital's grounds... such repairs and maintenance as HUD considers necessary....

  14. 14 CFR 121.123 - Servicing maintenance facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Servicing maintenance facilities. 121.123 Section 121.123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operations § 121.123 Servicing maintenance facilities. Each certificate holder conducting...

  15. 14 CFR 121.123 - Servicing maintenance facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Servicing maintenance facilities. 121.123 Section 121.123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operations § 121.123 Servicing maintenance facilities. Each certificate holder conducting...

  16. 24 CFR 242.57 - Maintenance of hospital facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance of hospital facility... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Regulatory Agreement, Accounting and Reporting, and Financial Requirements § 242.57 Maintenance of hospital facility. The mortgagor shall maintain the hospital's...

  17. Alaska School Facilities Preventive Maintenance Handbook. 1997 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mearig, Tim; Crittenden, Edwin; Morgan, Michael

    The State of Alaska has issued preventive maintenance guidelines for educational facilities designed to prevent premature failure, or to maximize or extend the useful life of a facility and its components, including roofing inspections, repainting, and door hardware adjustments. The handbook examines preventive maintenance state legislation, and…

  18. Health maintenance facility system effectiveness testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.; Gosbee, John; Bueker, Richard; Kupra, Debra; Ruta, Mary

    1993-01-01

    The Medical Simulations Working Group conducted a series of medical simulations to evaluate the proposed Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) Preliminary Design Review (PDR) configuration. The goal of these simulations was to test the system effectiveness of the HMF PDR configurations. The objectives of the medical simulations are to (1) ensure fulfillment of requirements with this HMF design, (2) demonstrate the conformance of the system to human engineering design criteria, and (3) determine whether undesirable design or procedural features were introduced into the design. The simulations consisted of performing 6 different medical scenarios with the HMF mockup in the KRUG laboratory. The scenarios included representative medical procedures and used a broad spectrum of HMF equipment and supplies. Scripts were written and simulations performed by medical simulations working group members under observation from others. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, debriefings, and videotapes. Results were extracted and listed in the individual reports. Specific issues and recommendations from each simulation were compiled into the individual reports. General issues regarding the PDR design of the HMF are outlined in the summary report.

  19. Development and maintenance of force and stiffness in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Lan, Bo; Norris, Brandon A; Liu, Jeffrey C-Y; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y; Deng, Linhong

    2015-03-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) plays a central role in the excessive narrowing of the airway that characterizes the primary functional impairment in asthma. This phenomenon is known as airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). Emerging evidence suggests that the development and maintenance of ASM force involves dynamic reorganization of the subcellular filament network in both the cytoskeleton and the contractile apparatus. In this review, evidence is presented to support the view that regulation of ASM contraction extends beyond the classical actomyosin interaction and involves processes within the cytoskeleton and at the interfaces between the cytoskeleton, the contractile apparatus, and the extracellular matrix. These processes are initiated when the muscle is activated, and collectively they cause the cytoskeleton and the contractile apparatus to undergo structural transformation, resulting in a more connected and solid state that allows force generated by the contractile apparatus to be transmitted to the extracellular domain. Solidification of the cytoskeleton also serves to stiffen the muscle and hence the airway. Oscillatory strain from tidal breathing and deep inspiration is believed to be the counter balance that prevents hypercontraction and stiffening of ASM in vivo. Dysregulation of this balance could lead to AHR seen in asthma.

  20. A health maintenance facility for space station freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, R. D.; Doarn, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a health care facility to be built and used on an orbiting space station in low Earth orbit. This facility, called the health maintenance facility, is based on and modeled after isolated terrestrial medical facilities. It will provide a phased approach to health care for the crews of Space Station Freedom. This paper presents the capabilities of the health maintenance facility. As Freedom is constructed over the next decade there will be an increase in activities, both construction and scientific. The health maintenance facility will evolve with this process until it is a mature, complete, stand-alone health care facility that establishes a foundation to support interplanetary travel. As our experience in space continues to grow so will the commitment to providing health care.

  1. A health maintenance facility for space station freedom.

    PubMed

    Billica, R D; Doarn, C R

    1991-10-01

    We describe a health care facility to be built and used on an orbiting space station in low Earth orbit. This facility, called the health maintenance facility, is based on and modeled after isolated terrestrial medical facilities. It will provide a phased approach to health care for the crews of Space Station Freedom. This paper presents the capabilities of the health maintenance facility. As Freedom is constructed over the next decade there will be an increase in activities, both construction and scientific. The health maintenance facility will evolve with this process until it is a mature, complete, stand-alone health care facility that establishes a foundation to support interplanetary travel. As our experience in space continues to grow so will the commitment to providing health care.

  2. School Facilities Maintenance and Operations Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    Often a community's largest single investment is in its physical plants, including public school buildings and grounds. An essential factor in efficient school district operation is a well-organized, responsive plant operations and maintenance division. Maintenance has generally been defined as those services, activities, and procedures concerned…

  3. Waste sampling and characterization facility (WSCF) maintenance implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, J.L.

    1997-08-13

    This Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) is written to satisfy the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4B, Maintenance Management Program that specifies the general policy and objectives for the establishment of the DOE controlled maintenance programs. These programs provide for the management and performance of cost effective maintenance and repair of the DOE property, which includes facilities. This document outlines maintenance activities associated with the facilities operated by Waste Management Hanford, Inc. (WMH). The objective of this MIP is to provide baseline information for the control and execution of WMH Facility Maintenance activities relative to the requirements of Order 4330.4B, assessment of the WMH maintenance programs, and actions necessary to maintain compliance with the Order. Section 2.0 summarizes the history, mission and description of the WMH facilities. Section 3.0 describes maintenance scope and requirements, and outlines the overall strategy for implementing the maintenance program. Specific elements of DOE Order 4330.4B are addressed in Section 4.0, listing the objective of each element, a discussion of the WMH compliance methodology, and current implementation requirements with references to WMH and HNF policies and procedures. Section 5.0 addresses deviations from policy requirements, and Section 6.0 is a schedule for specific improvements in support of this MIP.

  4. 30 CFR 71.501 - Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance. 71.501 Section 71.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities...

  5. Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Douglas D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment: (1) operators, training, and certification; (2) solutions to operating problems; (3) collection systems; (4) operations manuals; (5) wastewater treatment facility case histories; (5) land application; and (6) treatment of industrial wastes. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory FY 1993 Site Maintenance Plan for maintenance of DOE nonnuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-09-28

    This Site Maintenance Plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Nonnuclear Facilities. It is based on requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter I, Change No. 4. The objective of this maintenance plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE Order 4330.4A, to identify needed improvements, and to document the planned maintenance budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 and to estimate maintenance budgets for FY 1994 and FY 1995 for all PNL facilities. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected 12 of the 36 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A, Chapter I, for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are: Facility Condition Inspections; Work Request (Order) System; Formal Job Planning and Estimating; Work Performance (Time) Standards; Priority System; Maintenance Procedures and Other Work-Related Documents; Scheduling System; Post Maintenance Testing; Backlog Work Control; Equipment Repair History and Vendor Information; Work Sampling; and Identification and Control. Based upon a graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory FY 1993 Site Maintenance Plan for maintenance of DOE nonnuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-09-28

    This Site Maintenance Plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Nonnuclear Facilities. It is based on requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter I, Change No. 4. The objective of this maintenance plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE Order 4330.4A, to identify needed improvements, and to document the planned maintenance budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 and to estimate maintenance budgets for FY 1994 and FY 1995 for all PNL facilities. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected 12 of the 36 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A, Chapter I, for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are: Facility Condition Inspections; Work Request (Order) System; Formal Job Planning and Estimating; Work Performance (Time) Standards; Priority System; Maintenance Procedures and Other Work-Related Documents; Scheduling System; Post Maintenance Testing; Backlog Work Control; Equipment Repair History and Vendor Information; Work Sampling; and Identification and Control. Based upon a graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods.

  8. 1. AERIAL VIEW, NAVAL INACTIVE SHIPS MAINTENANCE FACILITY, SINCLAIR ISLET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, NAVAL INACTIVE SHIPS MAINTENANCE FACILITY, SINCLAIR ISLET, BREMERTON, KITSAP COUNTY, WASHINGTON WITH EX-USS HORNET CVS-12, THREE MINECRAFT ALONGSIDE TO PORT. OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS IN BACKGROUND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  9. 30 CFR 75.1712-10 - Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance. 75.1712-10 Section 75.1712-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-10 Underground sanitary...

  10. 20. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING (BUILDING 543) AT LEFT AND WHITE PHOSPHOROUS FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 541) AT CENTER. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 22. SOUTH PLANT FROM ROOF OF FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SOUTH PLANT FROM ROOF OF FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING, SHOWING WHITE PHOSPHOROUS FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 541) AND WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 542) AT LEFT CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.803 What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are eligible for maintenance under the BIA Road Maintenance Program: (1) BIA transportation facilities listed...

  13. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.803 What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are eligible for maintenance under the BIA Road Maintenance Program: (1) BIA transportation facilities listed...

  14. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.803 What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are eligible for maintenance under the BIA Road Maintenance Program: (1) BIA transportation facilities listed...

  15. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.803 What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are eligible for maintenance under the BIA Road Maintenance Program: (1) BIA transportation facilities listed...

  16. Maintenance implementation plan for the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.A.

    1997-01-30

    This plan implements the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 4330.4B, Maintenance Management Program (1994), at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The FFTF is a research and test reactor located near Richland, Washington, and is operated under contract for the DOE by the B&W Hanford Company (BWHC). The intent of this Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) is to describe the manner in which the activities of the maintenance function are executed and controlled at the FFTF and how this compares to the requirements of DOE 4330.4B. The MIP ii a living document that is updated through a Facility Maintenance Self- Assessment Program. During the continuing self-assessment program, any discrepancies found are resolved to meet DOE 4330.4B requirements and existing practices. The philosophy of maintenance management at the FFTF is also describe within this MIP. This MIP has been developed based on information obtained from various sources including the following: * A continuing self-assessment against the requirements of the Conduct of Maintenance Order * In-depth reviews conducted by the members of the task team that assembled this MIP * Inputs from routine audits and appraisals conducted at the facility The information from these sources is used to identify those areas in which improvements could be made in the manner in which the facility conducts maintenance activities. The action items identified in Rev. 1 of the MIP have been completed. The MIP is arranged in six sections. Section I is this Executive Summary. Section 2 describes the facility and its 0683 history. Section 3 describes the philosophy of the graded approach and how it is applied at FFTF. Section 3 also discusses the strategy and the basis for the prioritizing resources. Section 4 contains the detailed discussion of `the elements of DOE 4330.4B and their state of implementation. Section 5 is for waivers and requested deviations from the requirements of the order. Section 6 contains a copy of the Maintenance

  17. Preventive Maintenance for Higher Education Facilities: A Planning & Budgeting Tool for Facilities Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This guide is designed to help higher education facilities managers, through the implementation of preventive maintenance (PM), to increase the life of facility systems and equipment, lower overall operating costs, and provide maximum responsiveness to the college/university community. Part One, "Selling the Need," is designed to address the…

  18. Alternative Cask Maintenance Facility concepts, an update and reassessment

    SciTech Connect

    Attaway, C.R.; Medley, L.B.; Williamson, A.; Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.

    1992-02-01

    The results of three trade-off studies of alternative concepts for performing cask maintenance for Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System casks are presented. An earlier study resulted in a recommendation that a submerged pool concept for cask internal component removal be used in the design of a Cask Maintenance Facility. The first trade-off study resulted in confirming the previous recommendation that a submerged pool concept be used rather than an isolation cell; the basis for this continued recommendation is discussed. The second study provides an evaluation of the previously proposed facility for the capability of handling an increased quantity of OCRWM casks. This third study provides a preliminary concept for adding the capability to repaint the exterior cylindrical portions of casks.

  19. 25 CFR 170.806 - What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.806 What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? An IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is an IRR Transportation Facilities...

  20. 25 CFR 170.806 - What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.806 What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? An IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is an IRR Transportation Facilities...

  1. 25 CFR 170.806 - What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.806 What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? An IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is an IRR Transportation Facilities...

  2. 25 CFR 170.806 - What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.806 What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? An IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is an IRR Transportation Facilities...

  3. 25 CFR 170.806 - What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.806 What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? An IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is an IRR Transportation Facilities...

  4. Yap tunes airway epithelial size and architecture by regulating the identity, maintenance, and self-renewal of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Fallon, Timothy R; Saladi, Srinivas Vinod; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Villoria, Jorge; Mou, Hongmei; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Gonzalez-Celeiro, Meryem; Nunna, Naveen; Hariri, Lida P; Camargo, Fernando; Ellisen, Leif W; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2014-07-28

    Our understanding of how stem cells are regulated to maintain appropriate tissue size and architecture is incomplete. We show that Yap (Yes-associated protein 1) is required for the actual maintenance of an adult mammalian stem cell. Without Yap, adult airway basal stem cells are lost through their unrestrained differentiation, resulting in the simplification of a pseudostratified epithelium into a columnar one. Conversely, Yap overexpression increases stem cell self-renewal and blocks terminal differentiation, resulting in epithelial hyperplasia and stratification. Yap overexpression in differentiated secretory cells causes them to partially reprogram and adopt a stem cell-like identity. In contrast, Yap knockdown prevents the dedifferentiation of secretory cells into stem cells. We then show that Yap functionally interacts with p63, the cardinal transcription factor associated with myriad epithelial basal stem cells. In aggregate, we show that Yap regulates all of the cardinal behaviors of airway epithelial stem cells and determines epithelial architecture.

  5. Does the Health Maintenance Facility Provide Speciality Capabilities?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Joey; Wurgler, James; Broadwell, Kim; Martin, William; Stiernberg, Charles M.; Bove, Alfred; Fromm, Rob; O'Neill, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) is capable of handling all minor illnesses, most moderate illnesses, and some major illnesses on board a space station. Its primary purpose should be to treat problems that are mission threatening, not life threatening. The HMF will have greater medical capabilities than those currently on Navy submarines. Much of the discussion in this document focuses on the possibilities of treating specific medical conditions on board a space station. The HMF will be limited to caring for critically ill patients for a few days, so a crew return vehicle will be important.

  6. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Embracing Safe Ground Test Facility Operations and Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Steven C.; Green, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting integrated operations and maintenance in wind tunnel ground test facilities requires a balance of meeting due dates, efficient operation, responsiveness to the test customer, data quality, effective maintenance (relating to readiness and reliability), and personnel and facility safety. Safety is non-negotiable, so the balance must be an "and" with other requirements and needs. Pressure to deliver services faster at increasing levels of quality in under-maintained facilities is typical. A challenge for management is to balance the "need for speed" with safety and quality. It s especially important to communicate this balance across the organization - workers, with a desire to perform, can be tempted to cut corners on defined processes to increase speed. Having a lean staff can extend the time required for pre-test preparations, so providing a safe work environment for facility personnel and providing good stewardship for expensive National capabilities can be put at risk by one well-intending person using at-risk behavior. This paper documents a specific, though typical, operational environment and cites management and worker safety initiatives and tools used to provide a safe work environment. Results are presented and clearly show that the work environment is a relatively safe one, though still not good enough to keep from preventing injury. So, the journey to a zero injury work environment - both in measured reality and in the minds of each employee - continues. The intent of this paper is to provide a benchmark for others with operational environments and stimulate additional sharing and discussion on having and keeping a safe work environment.

  8. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1997-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow satellite facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead and Three Mile Dam is used for holding and spawning adult fall chinook and coho salmon. Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and summer steelhead. The main goal of acclimation is to reduce stress from trucking prior to release and improve imprinting of juvenile salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin. Juveniles are transported to the acclimation facilities primarily from Umatilla and Bonneville Hatcheries. This report details activities associated with operation and maintenance of the Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques, Thornhollow and Three Mile Dam facilities in 1996.

  9. Management and maintenance of the airway in cervical necrotising fasciitis: a retrospective analysis of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, S J; Ji, N; Chen, Y-x; Zhao, S-j; Xiao, J-r; Lin, X-m; Han, X-x

    2015-09-01

    Cervical necrotising fasciitis is a progressive deep infection of the neck associated with high mortality, and skillful management of the airway is critical for operations under general anaesthesia. Tracheostomy under local anaesthesia has been considered the gold standard of airway management in patients with deep neck infections, but it may be difficult or impossible in advanced cases. We report here our experience over 6 years (January 2008 and December 2013) during which a total of 15 patients was diagnosed with cervical necrotising fasciitis. Of 6 patients, admitted between January 2008 and March 2010, 5 had routine tracheostomy under local anaesthesia, 1 had direct laryngoscopy intubation, and 9 who were admitted between Spring 2010 and December 2013 were treated with nasotracheal intubation. Postoperatively all patients were given moderate sedation and analgesia. Nasotracheal intubation was continued until the infection had been controlled. During intubation patency of the endotracheal tube was maintained by humidification with a continuous pump of 0.45% sodium chloride and suction. All 15 patients (10 men and 5 women, mean age 62 years, range 36-93) required an emergency drainage procedure under general anaesthesia. Fourteen of the 15 had evidence of compromise of the airway, but emergency intervention was not required. Since Spring 2010, 9 consecutive patients had required nasotracheal intubation, including 7 video laryngoscopies and 2 fibreoptic bronchoscopies. No other interventions were required. Patients were intubated postoperatively from 3 to 14 days, and there were no problems with the airway. Advanced techniques for control of the airway have a high rate of success in patients with necrotising fasciitis and could be an appropriate alternative to a traditional airway. Postoperative sedation and analgesia should be considered as routine management of pain and anxiety. PMID:25981627

  10. Guideline to good practices for types of maintenance activities at DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of the Guideline to Good Practices for Types of Maintenance at DOE Nuclear Facilities is to provide contractor maintenance organizations with information that may be used for the development and implementation of a properly balanced corrective, preventive and predictive maintenance program at DOE nuclear facilities. This document is intended to be an example guideline for the implementation of DOE Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter II, Element 4. DOE contractors should not feel obligated to adopt all parts of this guide. Rather, they should use the information contained herein as a guide for developing maintenance programs that are applicable to their facility.

  11. Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, William R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

  12. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities; Operations and Maintenance, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald

    2003-05-01

    -one spring chinook mortalities were examined for culturable bacteria and enteric redmouth disease (Yersinia ruckeri) was detected in one fish. Cell culture assays for replicating viral agents on spawned fall chinook were negative. One hundred eighty-three spawned fall chinook females were sampled for BKD and all had ELISA readings between 0.00 and 0.099, indicating negative to low level positives. Two fall chinook mortalities were examined for BKD and both had OD{sub 405} readings of less than 0.099, indicating negative to very low levels of Rs antigen. Regularly scheduled maintenance of pumps, equipment, and facilities was performed in 2002. Critical maintenance and repair was also performed by Umatilla Passage Facility Operation and Maintenance crews.

  13. What do we need for airway management of adult casualties on the Primary Casualty Receiving Facility? A review of airway management on Role 3 Afloat.

    PubMed

    Mercer, S; Read, J; Sudheer, S; Risdall, J E; Connor, D

    2015-01-01

    The Primary Casualty Receiving Facility (PCRF) of the Royal Navy (RN) is currently based on Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) ARGUS and provides a functioning hospital with surgical teams and a CT scanner (Role 3) within the maritime environment. The case mix could include complex trauma, critically ill patients returning to theatre several times, as well as non-battle injury procedures. This paper describes how we have used national guidelines, evidence from recent military experience, and the Clinical Guidelines for Operations (CGOs) to review and rationalise the airway equipment that is available and that would be required for the PCRF in its current configuration, whilst maintaining capability in a deployed setting. PMID:26867417

  14. The role of indoor pollution in the development and maintenance of chronic airway inflammation in children.

    PubMed

    Packeu, A; Chasseur, C; Bladt, S; Detandt, M

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the great problems of this century and it plays an important role in the increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory problems in the upper airway in children. Since their lungs and immune system are not fully developed when exposure begins, newborns and children appear to be more sensitive to the effects of both outdoor and indoor air pollution. Furthermore, children spend most of their time indoors and are exposed more often to pollutants in indoor air. The link between health problems, chemical products and allergens (the latter mainly from cats and mites) has been extensively studied. Other important indoor contaminants are fungi, which are often present in damp buildings and can cause severe respiratory disease by producing spores, allergens, volatile irritant compounds and toxins. A proper identification of mould contamination of this kind is vital for correct diagnosis, treatment and the prevention of health problems, and improvements have been observed after the removal or cleaning of the contaminated materials and improvements to the ventilation of buildings. While a possible association between respiratory symptoms, such as rhinitis, and the presence of fungi in the indoor environment has been documented by several authors, other studies have observed no significant relationship. The development of standardised sampling, detection and diagnostic tests will be essential to understand the proper role of fungi in the indoor atmosphere and their impact on public health. PMID:23431612

  15. Fast Flux Test Facility interim examination and maintenance cell: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, J.R.

    1990-09-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell was designed to perform interim examination and/or disassembly of experimental core components for final analysis elsewhere, as well as maintenance of sodium-wetted or neutron-activated internal reactor parts and plant support hardware. The Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell equipment developed and used for the first ten years of operation has been primarily devoted to the disassembly and examination of core component test assemblies. While no major reactor equipment has required remote repair or maintenance, the Interim Examina Examination and Maintenance Cell has served as the remote repair facility for its own in-cell equipment, and several innovative remote repairs have been accomplished. The Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell's demonstrated versatility has shown its capability to support a challenging future. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Study of the impact of automation on productivity in bus-maintenance facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sumanth, D.J.; Weiss, H.J.; Adya, B.

    1988-12-01

    Whether or not the various types of automation and new technologies introduced in a bus-transit system really have an impact on productivity is the question addressed in the study. The report describes a new procedure of productivity measurement and evaluation for a county-transit system and provides an objective perspective on the impact of automation on productivity in bus maintenance facilities. The research objectives were: to study the impact of automation on total productivity in transit maintenance facilities; to develop and apply a methodology for measuring the total productivity of a Floridian transit maintenance facility (Bradenton-Manatee County bus maintenance facility which has been introducing automation since 1983); and to develop a practical step-by-step implementation scheme for the total productivity-based productivity measurement system that any bus manager can use. All 3 objectives were successfully accomplished.

  17. Students Speak With Angela Bauer, Facilities Operations and Maintenance Group Lead

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center Angela Bauer, Facilities Operations and Maintenance Group lead in the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center, partic...

  18. 14 CFR 147.37 - Maintenance of facilities, equipment, and material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of facilities, equipment, and material. 147.37 Section 147.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN...

  19. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  20. 75 FR 80397 - Version One Regional Reliability Standards for Facilities Design, Connections, and Maintenance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ..., if so, how. \\27\\ Order No. 723, 74 FR 25,442 at P 37-40. 39. WECC proposes to define Functionally... Facilities Design, Connections, and Maintenance; Protection and Control; and Voltage and Reactive December 17...-WECC-1--Transmission Maintenance 11 B. PRC-004-WECC-1--Protection System and Remedial 25 Action...

  1. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Boardwalks; (5) Adjacent parking areas; (6) Maintenance yards; (7) Bus stations; (8) System public pedestrian... facilities such as public roads, highway bridges, trails, and bus stations; and (4) Other transportation... maintenance under paragraph (a)(1) of this section: (1) BIA road systems and related road appurtenances...

  2. Improving Math Literacy for the Facilities Maintenance Industry: A Multimedia Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, John; Taylor, Don

    Texas State Technical College in Waco (TSTCW) entered into a partnership with ServiceMaster, one of the largest maintenance companies in the world, to develop a contextual-based videodisc curriculum for facility maintenance workers intended to increase math literacy. TSTCW developed a task analysis, a curriculum, and evaluation measures for the…

  3. Analyses in support of risk-informed natural gas vehicle maintenance facility codes and standards :

    SciTech Connect

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Blaylock, Myra L.; LaFleur, Angela Christine; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Horne, Douglas B.

    2014-03-01

    Safety standards development for maintenance facilities of liquid and compressed gas fueled large-scale vehicles is required to ensure proper facility design and operation envelopes. Standard development organizations are utilizing risk-informed concepts to develop natural gas vehicle (NGV) codes and standards so that maintenance facilities meet acceptable risk levels. The present report summarizes Phase I work for existing NGV repair facility code requirements and highlights inconsistencies that need quantitative analysis into their effectiveness. A Hazardous and Operability study was performed to identify key scenarios of interest. Finally, scenario analyses were performed using detailed simulations and modeling to estimate the overpressure hazards from HAZOP defined scenarios. The results from Phase I will be used to identify significant risk contributors at NGV maintenance facilities, and are expected to form the basis for follow-on quantitative risk analysis work to address specific code requirements and identify effective accident prevention and mitigation strategies.

  4. EBR-II facility for cleaning and maintenance of LMR components

    SciTech Connect

    Washburn, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The cleaning and maintenance of EBR-II sodium wetted components is accomplished in a separate hands-on maintenance facility known as the Sodium Components Maintenance Shop (SCMS). Sodium removal is mostly done using alcohol but steam or water is used. The SCMS has three alcohol cleaning systems: one for small nonradioactive components, one for small radioactive components, and one for large radioactive components. The SCMS also has a water-wash station for the removal of sodium with steam or water. An Alcohol Recovery Facility removes radioactive contaminants from the alcohol and reclaims the alcohol for reuse. Associated with the large components cleaning system is a major component handling system.

  5. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Palmdale, California, Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center pilot Tom McMurtry lands NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with Space Shuttle Discovery attached at Rockwell Aerospace's Palmdale, California, facility about 1:00 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time (PDT). There for nine months of scheduled maintenance, Discovery and the 747 were completing a two-day flight from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, that began at 7:04 a.m. Eastern Standard Time on 27 September and included an overnight stop at Salt Lake City International Airport, Utah. At the conclusion of this mission, Discovery had flown 21 shuttle missions, totaling more than 142 days in orbit. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and

  6. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Palmdale, California, Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center pilot Tom McMurtry lands NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with Space Shuttle Discovery attached at Rockwell Aerospace's Palmdale, California, facility about 1:00 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time (PDT). There for nine months of scheduled maintenance, Discovery and the 747 were completing a two-day flight from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, that began at 7:04 a.m. Eastern Standard Time on 27 September and included an overnight stop at Salt Lake City International Airport, Utah. At the conclusion of this mission, Discovery had flown 21 shuttle missions, totaling more than 142 days in orbit. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and

  7. Maintenance & Operations Solutions: Meeting the Challenge of Improving School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This paper examines the impact current maintenance and operations (M&O) practices have on U.S. school performance and offers possible opportunities for improvement through the judicious use of technology and methodology. The paper also presents a regional comparative analysis of M&O costs across the country. A list of equipment and their service…

  8. Developing Mobile- and BIM-Based Integrated Visual Facility Maintenance Management System

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yu-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Facility maintenance management (FMM) has become an important topic for research on the operation phase of the construction life cycle. Managing FMM effectively is extremely difficult owing to various factors and environments. One of the difficulties is the performance of 2D graphics when depicting maintenance service. Building information modeling (BIM) uses precise geometry and relevant data to support the maintenance service of facilities depicted in 3D object-oriented CAD. This paper proposes a new and practical methodology with application to FMM using BIM technology. Using BIM technology, this study proposes a BIM-based facility maintenance management (BIMFMM) system for maintenance staff in the operation and maintenance phase. The BIMFMM system is then applied in selected case study of a commercial building project in Taiwan to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate its effectiveness in FMM practice. Using the BIMFMM system, maintenance staff can access and review 3D BIM models for updating related maintenance records in a digital format. Moreover, this study presents a generic system architecture and its implementation. The combined results demonstrate that a BIMFMM-like system can be an effective visual FMM tool. PMID:24227995

  9. Developing mobile- and BIM-based integrated visual facility maintenance management system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Su, Yu-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Facility maintenance management (FMM) has become an important topic for research on the operation phase of the construction life cycle. Managing FMM effectively is extremely difficult owing to various factors and environments. One of the difficulties is the performance of 2D graphics when depicting maintenance service. Building information modeling (BIM) uses precise geometry and relevant data to support the maintenance service of facilities depicted in 3D object-oriented CAD. This paper proposes a new and practical methodology with application to FMM using BIM technology. Using BIM technology, this study proposes a BIM-based facility maintenance management (BIMFMM) system for maintenance staff in the operation and maintenance phase. The BIMFMM system is then applied in selected case study of a commercial building project in Taiwan to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate its effectiveness in FMM practice. Using the BIMFMM system, maintenance staff can access and review 3D BIM models for updating related maintenance records in a digital format. Moreover, this study presents a generic system architecture and its implementation. The combined results demonstrate that a BIMFMM-like system can be an effective visual FMM tool.

  10. 14 CFR 141.89 - Maintenance of personnel, facilities, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Maintenance of personnel, facilities, and equipment. The holder of a pilot school certificate or provisional pilot school certificate may not provide training to a student who is enrolled in an approved course of training unless: (a) Each airport, aircraft, and facility necessary for that training meets the...

  11. 14 CFR 141.89 - Maintenance of personnel, facilities, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Maintenance of personnel, facilities, and equipment. The holder of a pilot school certificate or provisional pilot school certificate may not provide training to a student who is enrolled in an approved course of training unless: (a) Each airport, aircraft, and facility necessary for that training meets the...

  12. 14 CFR 141.89 - Maintenance of personnel, facilities, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Maintenance of personnel, facilities, and equipment. The holder of a pilot school certificate or provisional pilot school certificate may not provide training to a student who is enrolled in an approved course of training unless: (a) Each airport, aircraft, and facility necessary for that training meets the...

  13. 14 CFR 141.89 - Maintenance of personnel, facilities, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Maintenance of personnel, facilities, and equipment. The holder of a pilot school certificate or provisional pilot school certificate may not provide training to a student who is enrolled in an approved course of training unless: (a) Each airport, aircraft, and facility necessary for that training meets the...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1600-2 - Communication facilities; working sections; installation and maintenance requirements; audible or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication facilities; working sections; installation and maintenance requirements; audible or visual alarms. 75.1600-2 Section 75.1600-2 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Communications § 75.1600-2 Communication facilities;...

  15. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  16. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  17. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  18. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G - List of Activities Eligible for Funding Under BIA Transportation Facility Maintenance Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Transportation Facility Maintenance Program A Appendix A to Subpart G Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance Pt. 170... Transportation Facility Maintenance Program The following activities are eligible for BIA Transportation...

  19. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  20. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  1. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G - List of Activities Eligible for Funding Under BIA Transportation Facility Maintenance Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transportation Facility Maintenance Program A Appendix A to Subpart G Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance Pt. 170... Transportation Facility Maintenance Program The following activities are eligible for BIA Transportation...

  2. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G - List of Activities Eligible for Funding Under BIA Transportation Facility Maintenance Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Transportation Facility Maintenance Program A Appendix A to Subpart G Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance Pt. 170... Transportation Facility Maintenance Program The following activities are eligible for BIA Transportation...

  3. Federal Guidelines - Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document contains the federal guidelines for meeting the specific requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. These guidelines are also intended to assist in meeting the regulations for grant assisted facility construction and to provide information on the key elements to be included in the operation plans for…

  4. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1996-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservoir (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead, fall chinook and coho salmon. Personnel from the ODFW Eastern Oregon Fish Pathology Laboratory in La Grande took samples of tissues and reproductive fluids from Umatilla River summer steelhead and coho salmon broodstock for monitoring and evaluation purposes. Coded-wire tag recovery information was accessed to determine the contribution of Umatilla river releases to ocean, Columbia River and Umatilla River fisheries.

  5. New challenges for the maintenance strategies on large astronomical facilities at remote observing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Armin

    2012-09-01

    The Change from a reacting to a proactive maintenance concept represents for large Observatories at remote operational sites a new challenge, considering the increasing numbers of complex subsystems. Conventional operational maintenance models will not cover all the requirements, will lead to more down time and the operational cost cannot be reduced. For the successful astronomical observation with large telescope facilities new strategies have to be applied. In this contribution we will demonstrate on the example of the 78 Cryogenic Sub-systems of ALMA how a proactive maintenance strategy help to increase the efficiency, to reduce the operational cost and the required staff resources. With respect to the growing number of complex subsystems on future telescope facilities the operational staff needs proper diagnostic and monitoring tools to allow a precise prediction respectively synchronization of the service activities. This leads away from a pure scheduling of preventive maintenance and enables a longer availability of the subsystems as tendencies and performance are monitored and controlled. Having this strategy considered during the developing phase of future large astronomical facilities allows the optimization of the required Infrastructure, a proper definition of the LRU1 strategy and to which level maintenance can be cost efficient on site.

  6. Optimal pricing policies for services with consideration of facility maintenance costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Ruey Huei; Lin, Yi-Fang

    2012-06-01

    For survival and success, pricing is an essential issue for service firms. This article deals with the pricing strategies for services with substantial facility maintenance costs. For this purpose, a mathematical framework that incorporates service demand and facility deterioration is proposed to address the problem. The facility and customers constitute a service system driven by Poisson arrivals and exponential service times. A service demand with increasing price elasticity and a facility lifetime with strictly increasing failure rate are also adopted in modelling. By examining the bidirectional relationship between customer demand and facility deterioration in the profit model, the pricing policies of the service are investigated. Then analytical conditions of customer demand and facility lifetime are derived to achieve a unique optimal pricing policy. The comparative statics properties of the optimal policy are also explored. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effects of parameter variations on the optimal pricing policy.

  7. Operation, Maintenance and Management of Wastewater Treatment Facilities: A Bibliography of Technical Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, Dottie

    This is an annotated bibliography of wastewater treatment manuals. Fourteen manuals are abstracted including: (1) A Planned Maintenance Management System for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants; (2) Anaerobic Sludge Digestion, Operations Manual; (3) Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities; (4) Estimating Laboratory Needs…

  8. 34 CFR 395.10 - The maintenance and replacement of vending facility equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true The maintenance and replacement of vending facility equipment. 395.10 Section 395.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... PROGRAM FOR THE BLIND ON FEDERAL AND OTHER PROPERTY The State Licensing Agency § 395.10 The...

  9. The reliability-centered maintenance study at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, S F

    1988-01-01

    A reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) program was applied to two Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) systems to evaluate this method for improving the equipment reliability and reducing maintenance costs. This technique is a systematic approach to failure analysis and maintenance task development. The RCM method was originally developed by the airline industry to reduce maintenance costs and improve reliability and it has since been adopted by the military. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has completed two pilot studies with a third in progress to determine the RCM applicability to the commercial nuclear power industry. These studies showed that the RCM methodology could be beneficial to the nuclear power industry. The EPRI study performed at the McGuire nuclear power station (EPRI 1986) was used as the model for the FFTF study.

  10. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA...

  11. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA...

  12. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA...

  13. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA...

  14. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA...

  15. Facility Decontamination and Decommissioning Program Surveillance and Maintenance Plan, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Poderis, Reed J.; King, Rebecca A.

    2013-09-30

    This Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan describes the activities performed between deactivation and final decommissioning of the following facilities located on the Nevada National Security Site, as documented in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order under the Industrial Sites program as decontamination and decommissioning sites: ? Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility: o EMAD Building (Building 25-3900) o Locomotive Storage Shed (Building 25-3901) ? Test Cell C (TCC) Facility: o Equipment Building (Building 25-3220) o Motor Drive Building (Building 25-3230) o Pump Shop (Building 25-3231) o Cryogenic Lab (Building 25-3232) o Ancillary Structures (e.g., dewars, water tower, piping, tanks) These facilities have been declared excess and are in various stages of deactivation (low-risk, long-term stewardship disposition state). This S&M Plan establishes and implements a solid, cost-effective, and balanced S&M program consistent with federal, state, and regulatory requirements. A graded approach is used to plan and conduct S&M activities. The goal is to maintain the facilities in a safe condition in a cost-effective manner until their final end state is achieved. This plan accomplishes the following: ? Establishes S&M objectives and framework ? Identifies programmatic guidance for S&M activities to be conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) ? Provides present facility condition information and identifies hazards ? Identifies facility-specific S&M activities to be performed and their frequency ? Identifies regulatory drivers, NNSA/NFO policies and procedures, and best management practices that necessitate implementation of S&M activities ? Provides criteria and frequencies for revisions and updates ? Establishes the process for identifying and dispositioning a condition that has not been previously identified or

  16. Evaluation and Selection of Renewable Energy Technologies for Highway Maintenance Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Taylor

    The interest in renewable energy has been increasing in recent years as attempts to reduce energy costs as well the consumption of fossil fuels are becoming more common. Companies and organizations are recognizing the increasing reliance on limited fossil fuels' resources, and as competition and costs for these resources grow, alternative solutions are becoming more appealing. Many federally run buildings and associations also have the added pressure of meeting the mandates of federal energy policies that dictate specific savings or reductions. Federal highway maintenance facilities run by the Department of Transportation fall into this category. To help meet energy saving goals, an investigation into potential renewable energy technologies was completed for the Ohio Department of Transportation. This research examined several types of renewable energy technologies and the major factors that affect their performance and evaluated their potential for implementation at highway maintenance facilities. Facilities energy usage data were provided, and a facility survey and site visits were completed to enhance the evaluation of technologies and the suitability for specific projects. Findings and technology recommendations were presented in the form of selection matrices, which were designed to help make selections in future projects. The benefits of utilization of other tools such as analysis software and life cycle assessments were also highlighted. These selection tools were designed to be helpful guides when beginning the pursuit of a renewable energy technology for highway maintenance facilities, and can be applied to other similar building types and projects. This document further discusses the research strategies and findings as well as the recommendations that were made to the personnel overseeing Ohio's highway maintenance facilities.

  17. Remote Operation and Maintenance Demonstration Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Remote Operation and Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program to demonstrate remote handling concepts on advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment and for other programs of national interest. The ROMD facility is a large-volume high-bay area that encloses a complete, technologically advanced remote maintenance system and full-scale development reprocessing equipment. The maintenance system consists of a full complement of teleoperated manipulators, manipulator transport systems, and overhead hoists that provide the capability of performing a large variety of remote handling tasks. This system has been used to demonstrate remote manipulation techniques for the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuels Development Corporation of Japan, the US Navy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Extensive tests of manipulative systems and remote maintainability of process equipment have been performed. This paper describes the ROMD facility and key remote maintenance equipment and presents a summary of major experimental activities. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Psychiatric components of a Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1987-01-01

    The operational psychiatric requirements for a comprehensive Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on a permanently manned Space Station are examined. Consideration is given to the psychological health maintenance program designed for the diagnosis of mental distress in astronauts during flight and for prevention of mental breakdown. The types of mental disorders that can possibly affect the astronauts in flight are discussed, including various organic, psychotic, and affective mental disorders, as well as anxiety, adjustment, and somatoform/dissociative disorders. Special attention is given to therapeutic considerations for psychiatric operations on Space Station, such as restraints, psychopharmacology, psychotherapy, and psychosocial support.

  19. Environmental risk assessment for start-up of a new consolidated maintenance facility

    SciTech Connect

    Heubach, J.G.; Wise, J.A.

    1992-10-01

    This paper summarizes a case study of a risk assessment for a consolidated maintenance facility (CMF). An interdisciplinary team was formed to identify and evaluate showstopper'' risks which could delay or prevent ontime, safe, and economical operation of a CMF and to recommend ways to mitigate the risks. The risk assessment was constrained by time, information, incomplete plans and facilities, and a concomitant major transition in manufacturing process, organization, and technology. Working within these constraints, the team integrated convergent findings into estimates of high, medium, and low risks based on the subjective likelihood of occurrence and predicted consequences of potential hazard events. The team also made risk-reduction recommendations for facility detail design and production start-up. The findings and recommendations reported in this study focus on risks related to environmental design and workstation ergonomics. Findings from the risk assessment effort should aid other constrained risk assessments and applied research on similar facilities.

  20. Potential applications of advanced remote handling and maintenance technology to future waste handling facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kring, C.T.; Herndon, J.N.; Meacham, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been advancing the technology in remote handling and remote maintenance of in-cell systems planned for future US nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Much of the experience and technology developed over the past decade in this endeavor are directly applicable to the in-cell systems being considered for the facilities of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). The ORNL developments are based on the application of teleoperated force-reflecting servomanipulators controlled by an operator completely removed from the hazardous environment. These developments address the nonrepetitive nature of remote maintenance in the unstructured environments encountered in a waste handling facility. Employing technological advancements in dexterous manipulators, as well as basic design guidelines that have been developed for remotely maintained equipment and processes, can increase operation and maintenance system capabilities, thereby allowing the attainment of two Federal Waste Management System major objectives: decreasing plant personnel radiation exposure and increasing plant availability by decreasing the mean-time-to-repair in-cell maintenance and process equipment.

  1. Operations and Maintenance Concept Plan for the Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    JANIN, L.F.

    2000-08-30

    This O&M Concept looks at the future operations and maintenance of the IHLW/CSB interim storage facility. It defines the overall strategy, objectives, and functional requirements for the portion of the building to be utilized by Project W-464. The concept supports the tasks of safety basis planning, risk mitigation, alternative analysis, decision making, etc. and will be updated as required to support the evolving design.

  2. Software solutions manage the definition, operation, maintenance and configuration control of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, D; Churby, A; Krieger, E; Maloy, D; White, K

    2011-07-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest laser composed of millions of individual parts brought together to form one massive assembly. Maintaining control of the physical definition, status and configuration of this structure is a monumental undertaking yet critical to the validity of the shot experiment data and the safe operation of the facility. The NIF business application suite of software provides the means to effectively manage the definition, build, operation, maintenance and configuration control of all components of the National Ignition Facility. State of the art Computer Aided Design software applications are used to generate a virtual model and assemblies. Engineering bills of material are controlled through the Enterprise Configuration Management System. This data structure is passed to the Enterprise Resource Planning system to create a manufacturing bill of material. Specific parts are serialized then tracked along their entire lifecycle providing visibility to the location and status of optical, target and diagnostic components that are key to assessing pre-shot machine readiness. Nearly forty thousand items requiring preventive, reactive and calibration maintenance are tracked through the System Maintenance & Reliability Tracking application to ensure proper operation. Radiological tracking applications ensure proper stewardship of radiological and hazardous materials and help provide a safe working environment for NIF personnel.

  3. Remote Handling and Maintenance in the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Thomas W; Aaron, Adam M; Carroll, Adam J; DeVore, Joe R; Giuliano, Dominic R; Graves, Van B; Bennett, Richard P; Bollen, Georg; Cole, Daniel F.; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Schein, Mike E; Zeller, Albert F

    2011-01-01

    Michigan State University (MSU) in East Lansing, MI was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to design and establish a Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), a cutting-edge research facility to advance the understanding of rare nuclear isotopes and the evolution of the cosmos. The research conducted at the FRIB will involve experimentation with intense beams of rare isotopes within a well-shielded target cell that will result in activation and contamination of components. The target cell is initially hands-on accessible after shutdown and a brief cool-down period. Personnel are expected to have hands-on access to the tops of shielded component modules with the activated in-beam sections suspended underneath. The modules are carefully designed to include steel shielding for protecting personnel during these hand-on operations. However, as the facility has greater levels of activation and contamination, a bridge mounted servomaniputor may be added to the cell, to perform the disconnecting of services to the component assemblies. Dexterous remote handling and exchange of the modularized activated components is completed at a shielded window workstation with a pair of master-slave manipulators. The primary components requiring exchange or maintenance are the production target, the beam wedge filter, the beam dump, and the beam focusing and bending magnets. This paper provides an overview of the FRIB Target Facility remote handling and maintenance design requirements, concepts, and techniques.

  4. Passive solar-heating retrofit of a maintenance facility: First-year performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, D. R.; Callahan, J. M.

    1982-09-01

    A 12,000 sf maintenance facility in Connecticut was retrofitted with a 1,500 sf passive solar Trombe wall, 2 in. of foam roof insulation and a new control system that allows night/weekend temperature setback. A new separate boiler was installed to heat an office/locker wing of the facility. An energy-consumption monitoring system was installed and collected data for 11/2 years before the retrofit and one complete year after the retrofit. Actual energy consumption for the facility was very close to that predicted using simple analytic methods. After the solar wall was installed and other energy-conservation measures implemented the yearly oil consumption was reduced to 2744 gallons/year.

  5. Umatilla Basin Fish Facilities Operation & Maintenance : Annual Report Fiscal Year 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, Mike

    2008-12-30

    Westland Irrigation District, as contractor to Bonneville Power Administration, and West Extension Irrigation District, as subcontractor to Westland, provide labor, equipment, and material necessary for the operation, care, and maintenance of fish facilities on the Umatilla River. Westland Irrigation District is the contractor of record. Job sites that are covered: Three Mile Right, Three Mile Left, Three Mile Adult Spawning, WEID Sampling Facility, Maxwell Screen Site, Westland Screen Site/Ladder/Juvenile Sampling Facility, Feed Canal Ladder/Screen Site, Stanfield Ladder/Screen Site, Minthorn Holding Facility, Thornhollow Acclimation Site, Imeques Acclimation Site, Pendleton Acclimation Site, and South Fork Walla Walla Spawning Facility. O & M personnel coordinate with the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel in performing tasks under this contract including scheduling of trap and haul, sampling, acclimation site maintenance, and other related activities as needed. The input from ODFW biologists Bill Duke and Ken Loffink, and CTUIR biologist Preston Bronson is indispensable to the success of the project, and is gratefully acknowledged. All tasks associated with the project were successfully completed during the fiscal year 2008 work period of October, 2007 through September, 2008. The project provides operations and maintenance throughout the year on five fish screen sites with a total of thirty-four rotating drum-screens, and four fish ladders in the Umatilla River Basin; additionally, periodic operations and maintenance is performed at holding, acclimation, and spawning sites in the Basin. Three people are employed full-time to perform these tasks. The FY08 budget for this project was $492,405 and actual expenditures were $490,267.01. Selected work activities and concerns: (1) Feed Dam Passage Improvement Project - A project to improve fish passage over the short term at the

  6. [STRATEGY OF USE AND MAINTENANCE OF CLINICAL HOSPITAL CENTER RIJEKA IN ACCORDANCE WITH KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR STRATEGIC HEALTHCARE FACILITIES MAINTENANCE].

    PubMed

    Sjekavica, Mariela; Haller, Herman; Cerić, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Building usage is the phase in the building life cycle that is most time-consuming, most functional, most significant due to building purpose and often systematically ignored. Maintenance is the set of activities that ensure the planned duration of facility exploitation phase in accordance with the requirements for quality maintenance of a large number of important building features as well as other elements immanent to the nature of facilities' life. The aim of the study is to show the analysis of the current state of organized, planned and comprehensive managerial approach in hospital utilization and maintenance in the Republic of Croatia, given on the case study of Clinical hospital center in Rijeka. The methodology used consists of relevant literature section of theory of facility utilization, maintenance and management in general, hospital buildings especially, display of practice on case study, and comparison of key performance indicators values obtained through interview with those that author Igal M. Shohet defined in his study by field surveys and statistical analyses. Despite many positive indicators of Clinical hospital center Rijeka maintenance, an additional research is needed in order to define a more complete national hospital maintenance strategy.

  7. 25 CFR 170.805 - What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in transportation facility maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.805 What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in transportation facility maintenance? (a) State, county, and local...

  8. 25 CFR 170.805 - What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in transportation facility maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.805 What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in transportation facility maintenance? (a) State, county, and local...

  9. 25 CFR 170.805 - What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in transportation facility maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.805 What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in transportation facility maintenance? (a) State, county, and local...

  10. 25 CFR 170.805 - What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in transportation facility maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.805 What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in transportation facility maintenance? (a) State, county, and local...

  11. 25 CFR 170.805 - What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in transportation facility maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.805 What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in transportation facility maintenance? (a) State, county, and local...

  12. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program : Facility Operation and Maintenance Facilities, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous salmonid stocks have declined in both the Grande Ronde River Basin (Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Status Review Symposium 1998) and in the entire Snake River Basin (Nehlsen et al. 1991), many to the point of extinction. The Grande Ronde River Basin historically supported large populations of fall and spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye (O. nerka), and coho (O. kisutch) salmon and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) (Nehlsen et al. 1991). The decline of chinook salmon and steelhead populations and extirpation of coho and sockeye salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin was, in part, a result of construction and operation of hydroelectric facilities, over fishing, and loss and degradation of critical spawning and rearing habitat in the Columbia and Snake River basins (Nehlsen et al. 1991). Hatcheries were built in Oregon, Washington and Idaho under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to compensate for losses of anadromous salmonids due to the construction and operation of the lower four Snake River dams. Lookingglass Hatchery (LGH) on Lookingglass Creek, a tributary of the Grande Ronde River, was completed under LSRCP in 1982 and has served as the main incubation and rearing site for chinook salmon programs for Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers in Oregon. Despite these hatchery programs, natural spring chinook populations continued to decline resulting in the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listing Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon as ''threatened'' under the federal Endangered Species Act (1973) on 22 April 1992. Continuing poor escapement levels and declining population trends indicated that Grande Ronde River basin spring chinook salmon were in imminent danger of extinction. These continuing trends led fisheries co-managers in the basin to initiate the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program (GRESCSSP) in order to prevent extinction and preserve options for use of endemic fish stocks

  13. Evidence for multiple roles for grainyhead-like 2 in the establishment and maintenance of human mucociliary airway epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xia; Vockley, Christopher M.; Pauli, Florencia; Newberry, Kimberly M.; Xue, Yan; Randell, Scott H.; Reddy, Timothy E.; Hogan, Brigid L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Most of the airways of the human lung are lined by an epithelium made up of ciliated and secretory luminal cells and undifferentiated basal progenitor cells. The integrity of this epithelium and its ability to act as a selective barrier are critical for normal lung function. In other epithelia, there is evidence that transcription factors of the evolutionarily conserved grainyheadlike (GRHL) family play key roles in coordinating multiple cellular processes required for epithelial morphogenesis, differentiation, remodeling, and repair. However, only a few target genes have been identified, and little is known about GRHL function in the adult lung. Here we focus on the role of GRHL2 in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, both as undifferentiated progenitors and as they differentiate in air–liquid interface culture into an organized mucociliary epithelium with transepithelial resistance. Using a dominant-negative protein or shRNA to inhibit GRHL2, we follow changes in epithelial phenotype and gene transcription using RNA sequencing or microarray analysis. We identify several hundreds of genes that are directly or indirectly regulated by GRHL2 in both undifferentiated cells and air–liquid interface cultures. Using ChIP sequencing to map sites of GRHL2 binding in the basal cells, we identify 7,687 potential primary targets and confirm that GRHL2 binding is strongly enriched near GRHL2-regulated genes. Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that GRHL2 plays a key role in regulating many physiological functions of human airway epithelium, including those involving cell morphogenesis, adhesion, and motility. PMID:23690579

  14. Hypergol Maintenance Facility Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas, SWMU 070 Corrective Measures Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ralinda R.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI) Year 10 Annual Report for implementation of corrective measures at the Hypergol Maintenance Facility (HMF) Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The work is being performed by Tetra Tech, Inc., for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) NNK12CA15B, Task Order (TO) 07. Mr. Harry Plaza, P.E., of NASA's Environmental Assurance Branch is the Remediation Project Manager for John F. Kennedy Space Center. The Tetra Tech Program Manager is Mr. Mark Speranza, P.E., and the Tetra Tech Project Manager is Robert Simcik, P.E.

  15. An assessment of clinical chemical sensing technology for potential use in space station health maintenance facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A Health Maintenance Facility is currently under development for space station application which will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on Earth. This final report addresses the study of alternate means of diagnosis and evaluation of impaired tissue perfusion in a microgravity environment. Chemical data variables related to the dysfunction and the sensors required to measure these variables are reviewed. A technology survey outlines the ability of existing systems to meet these requirements. How the candidate sensing system was subjected to rigorous testing is explored to determine its suitability. Recommendations for follow-on activities are included that would make the commercial system more appropriate for space station applications.

  16. Site handbook: data acquisition system information, passive solar retrofit Automobile Maintenance Facility, City of Philadelphia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Data were collected at the City of Philadelphia's Auto Maintenance Facility using an Aeoloan Kinetics PDL-24 data acquisition system. Instantaneous data readings were recorded each 15 seconds by the microprocessor. These channel readings were then averaged to produce hourly values which were then stored on an audio cassette. The energy saving strategies include: styrofoam and concrete roof coverings; weatherstripping; replacement of north windows with combination insulation and view glazing; PVC strips between heated and unheated areas; gas fired radiant heaters at individual work stations; reduction of the number of light fixtures; and the installation of retrofit window units for radiant solar heating, daylighting, ventilation, glare control and vandalism protection.

  17. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Facilities Maintenance Team (FMT) paint shop.

    SciTech Connect

    Klossner, Kristin Ann

    2003-05-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for Sandia National Laboratories/California Facilities Maintenance Team Paint Shop Operations in August and September 2002. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist Paint Shop personnel in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed and recommends options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Pollution Prevention staff will continue to work with the Paint Shop to implement the recommendations.

  18. Shuttle Flight Operations Contract Generator Maintenance Facility Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applegate, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    This Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP) has been prepared to inform current and potential future users of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Flight Operations Contract Generator Maintenance Facility (SFOC; SWMU 081; "the Site") of institutional controls that have been implemented at the Site1. Although there are no current unacceptable risks to human health or the environment associated with the SFOC, an institutional land use control (LUC) is necessary to prevent human health exposure to antimony-affected groundwater at the Site. Controls will include periodic inspection, condition certification, and agency notification.

  19. National Ignition Facility final optics assembly thermal effects of maintenance operations

    SciTech Connect

    Parietti, L.; Martin, R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world`s most powerful laser system, is being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study inertial fusion and high-energy-density science. This billion-dollar facility consists of 192 beams focusing 1.8 MJ on a fusion target. The Final Optics Assembly (FOA), the last mechanical apparatus before the target chamber, converts the light from an incoming frequency of 1 {omega} to ia target-ready 3 {omega}, and focuses the laser beam. The performance of the frequency conversion crystals is very sensitive to temperature changes; crystal temperature must be maintained within a 0.1 C of a nominal temperature prior to a laser shot. Maximizing system availability requires minimizing thermal recovery times after thermal disturbances occurring in both normal and maintenance operations. To guide the design, it is important to have estimates of those recovery times. This report presents Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) design calculations to evaluate thermal effects of maintenance operations.

  20. Design criteria document, Maintenance Shop/Support Facility, K-Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, M.W.B.

    1994-12-14

    During the next 10 years a substantial amount of work is scheduled in the K-Basin Area related to the storage and eventual removal of irradiated N-Reactor fuel. Currently, maintenance support activities are housed in existing structures that were constructed in the early 1950`s. These forty-year-old facilities and their supporting services are substandard, leading to inefficiencies. Because of numerous identified deficiencies and the planned increase in the numbers of K-Basin maintenance personnel, adequate maintenance support facilities that allow efficient operations are needed. The objective of this sub-project of Project W-405 is to provide a maintenance and storage facility which meets the K-Basin Maintenance Organization requirements as defined in Attachment 1. In Reference A, existing guidelines and requirements were used to allocate space for the maintenance activities and to provide a layout concept (See Attachment 2). The design solution includes modifying the existing 190 K-E building to provide space for shops, storage, and administration support functions. The primary reason for the modification is to simplify siting/permitting and make use of existing infrastructure. In addition, benefits relative to design loads will be realized by having the structure inside 190K-E. The new facility will meet the Maintenance Organization approved requirements in Attachment 1 relating to maintenance activities, storage areas, and personnel support services. This sub-project will also resolve outstanding findings and/or deficiencies relating to building fire protection, HVAC requirements, lighting replacement/upgrades, and personnel facilities. Compliance with building codes, local labor agreements and safety standards will result.

  1. Guidance for the design and management of a maintenance plan to assure safety and improve the predictability of a DOE nuclear irradiation facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, R.S.; Kryter, R.C.; Shepard, R.L.; Smith, O.L.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Rowan, W.J.

    1994-10-01

    A program is recommended for planning the maintenance of DOE nuclear facilities that will help safety and enhance availability throughout a facility`s life cycle. While investigating the requirements for maintenance activities, a major difference was identified between the strategy suitable for a conventional power reactor and one for a research reactor facility: the latter should provide a high degree of predicted availability (referred to hereafter as ``predictability``) to its users, whereas the former should maximize total energy production. These differing operating goals necessitate different maintenance strategies. A strategy for scheduling research reactor facility operation and shutdown for maintenance must balance safety, reliability,and predicted availability. The approach developed here is based on three major elements: (1) a probabilistic risk analysis of the balance between assured reliability and predictability (presented in Appendix C), (2) an assessment of the safety and operational impact of maintenance activities applied to various components of the facility, and (3) a data base of historical and operational information on the performance and requirements for maintenance of various components. These factors are integrated into a set of guidelines for designing a new highly maintainable facility, for preparing flexible schedules for improved maintenance of existing facilities, and for anticipating the maintenance required to extend the life of an aging facility. Although tailored to research reactor facilities, the methodology has broader applicability and may therefore be used to improved the maintenance of power reactors, particularly in anticipation of peak load demands.

  2. Evaluation of prototype air/fluid separator for Space Station Freedom Health Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Smith, Maureen; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype air/fluid separator suction apparatus proposed as a possible design for use with the Health Maintenance Facility aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF) was evaluated. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed for this purpose. The flights followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. A protocol was prepared to evaluate the prototype device in several regulator modes (or suction force), using three fluids of varying viscosity, and using either continuous or intermittent suction. It was felt that a matrixed approach would best approximate the range of utilization anticipated for medical suction on SSF. The protocols were performed in one-gravity in a lab setting to familiarize the team with procedures and techniques. Identical steps were performed aboard the KC-135 during parabolic flight.

  3. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program; Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    prompting an early release. The total mortality for the acclimation period was 49 (0.05 %). The total number of fish released from the acclimation facility during the late period was 105,369. Maintenance and repair activities were conducted at the acclimation facilities in 2005. Facility maintenance work consisted of snow removal, installation of drainage lines, removal of gravel from intake area, installation of new gate at the CCAF, and complete overhaul of 2 travel trailers. The Catherine Creek Adult Capture Facility (CCACF) was put into operation on 11 February 2005. The first adult summer steelhead was captured on 4 March. A total of 190 adult summer steelhead were trapped and released from 4 March to 16 May 2005. Peak arrival at the trap was the week of 8 April. The first adult spring Chinook salmon was captured at CCACF on 6 May 2005. A total of 226 spring Chinook salmon were trapped from 6 May to 8 July 2005. There were 56 adults and 4 jacks unmarked and 136 adult and 30 jack marked spring Chinook salmon trapped. Peak arrival at the trap was the week of 10 June for the unmarked and marked fish. None of the captive broodstock returns were collected for broodstock. Broodstock was collected systematically over the entire return from 31 May to 6 July 2005. Ten of the 34 broodstock collected and transported from CCACF to LGH were unmarked fish trapped. About 18% of the naturally produced adult males and females trapped were taken to LGH for broodstock. One jack was collected for every 5 adult males that were taken to LGH. A total of 30 age 4 and 5 and 4 age 3 fish were transported to LGH for broodstock. The hatchery component of the broodstock was 66.7%. Five weekly spawning surveys were conducted below the weir on Catherine Creek beginning 30 June 2005. During these surveys no live or dead fish were observed. The trap was removed from Catherine Creek on 3 August 2005. Temperatures at the CCACF ranged from -0.1 C on 14 February to 23.7 C on 21 July. The hourly

  4. Small-scale hydroelectric demonstration project: Reactivation of the Elk Rapids Hydroelectric Facility: Final operation and maintenance report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.

    1987-03-01

    Information related to the reactivation of the Elk River Hydroelectric Power facility is reported. This report includes a history of the power plant, pertinent cost data, emergency action plans, inspections and testing, warranty work, operating problems, project data, monthly production data, and monthly operating and maintenance costs. 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Husler, R.O. ); Weir, T.J. )

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  6. Airway management in trauma.

    PubMed

    Langeron, O; Birenbaum, A; Amour, J

    2009-05-01

    Maintenance of a patent and prevention of aspiration are essential for the management of the trauma patient, that requires experienced physicians in airway control techniques. Difficulties of the airway control in the trauma setting are increased by the vital failures, the risk of aspiration, the potential cervical spine injury, the combative patient, and the obvious risk of difficult tracheal intubation related to specific injury related to the trauma. Endotracheal intubation remains the gold standard in trauma patient airway management and should be performed via the oral route with a rapid sequence induction and a manual in-line stabilization maneuver, to decrease the risks previously mentioned. Different techniques to control the airway in trauma patients are presented: improvement of the laryngoscopic vision, lighted stylet tracheal intubation, retrograde technique for orotracheal intubation, the laryngeal mask and the intubating laryngeal mask airways, the combitube and cricothyroidotomy. Management of the airway in trauma patients requires regular training in these techniques and the knowledge of complementary techniques allowing tracheal intubation or oxygenation to overcome difficult intubation and to prevent major complications as hypoxemia and aspiration. PMID:19412149

  7. 20 CFR 670.220 - Are we responsible for the protection and maintenance of center facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Property Management Regulations at 41 CFR Chapter 101. (b) Federal agencies operating civilian conservation centers (CCC's) on public land are responsible for protection and maintenance of CCC...

  8. Operation, Maintenance and Evaluation of the Bonifer and Minthorn Springs Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facilities, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lofy, Peter T.

    1989-12-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife are cooperating in a joint effort to increase steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding adult steelhead and acclimation and release of juvenile steelhead and salmon. This report details the projects and maintenance done during 1988.

  9. Operation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of the Bonifer and Minthorn Springs Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facilities, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lofy, Peter T.

    1988-12-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife are cooperating in a joint effort to increase steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding adult steelhead and acclimation and release of juvenile steelhead and salmon. This report details the projects and maintenance done during 1987.

  10. Surgical Airway

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapna A; Meyer, Tanya K

    2014-01-01

    Close to 3% of all intubation attempts are considered difficult airways, for which a plan for a surgical airway should be considered. Our article provides an overview of the different types of surgical airways. This article provides a comprehensive review of the main types of surgical airways, relevant anatomy, necessary equipment, indications and contraindications, preparation and positioning, technique, complications, and tips for management. It is important to remember that the placement of a surgical airway is a lifesaving procedure and should be considered in any setting when one “cannot intubate, cannot ventilate”. PMID:24741501

  11. Retrospective cohort mortality study of workers at an aircraft maintenance facility. I. Epidemiological results.

    PubMed Central

    Spirtas, R; Stewart, P A; Lee, J S; Marano, D E; Forbes, C D; Grauman, D J; Pettigrew, H M; Blair, A; Hoover, R N; Cohen, J L

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study of 14,457 workers at an aircraft maintenance facility was undertaken to evaluate mortality associated with exposures in their workplace. The purpose was to determine whether working with solvents, particularly trichloroethylene, posed any excess risk of mortality. The study group consisted of all civilian employees who worked for at least one year at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, between 1 January 1952 and 31 December 1956. Work histories were obtained from records at the National Personnel Records Centre, St. Louis, Missouri, and the cohort was followed up for ascertainment of vital state until 31 December 1982. Observed deaths among white people were compared with the expected number of deaths, based on the Utah white population, and adjusted for age, sex, and calendar period. Significant deficits occurred for mortality from all causes (SMR 92, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 90-95), all malignant neoplasms (SMR 90, 95% CI 83-97), ischaemic heart disease (SMR 93, 95% CI 88-98), non-malignant respiratory disease (SMR 87, 95% CI 76-98), and accidents (SMR 61, 95% CI 52-70). Mortality was raised for multiple myeloma (MM) in white women (SMR 236, 95% CI 87-514), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in white women (SMR 212, 95% CI 102-390), and cancer of the biliary passages and liver in white men dying after 1980 (SMR 358, 95% CI 116-836). Detailed analysis of the 6929 employees occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene, the most widely used solvent at the base during the 1950s and 1960s, did not show any significant or persuasive association between several measures of exposure to trichloroethylene and any excess of cancer. Women employed in departments in which fabric cleaning and parachute repair operations were performed had more deaths than expected from MM and NHL. The inconsistent mortality patterns by sex, multiple and overlapping exposures, and small numbers made it difficult to ascribe these excesses to any particular substance

  12. Shuttle Discovery Being Unloaded from SCA-747 at Palmdale, California, Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery being unloaded from NASA's Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) at Rockwell Aerospace's Palmdale facility for nine months of scheduled maintenance. Discovery and the 747 were completing a two-day flight from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, that began at 7:04 a.m. Eastern Standard Time on 27 September and included an overnight stop at Salt Lake City International Airport, Utah. At the conclusion of this mission, Discovery had flown 21 shuttle missions, totaling more than 142 days in orbit. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide

  13. Site/Systems Operations, Maintenance and Facilities Management of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Susan

    2005-08-01

    This contract covered the site/systems operations, maintenance, and facilities management of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site.

  14. National Synchrotron Light Source Facility Manual Maintenance Management Program. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fewell, N.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this program s to meet the policy and objectives for the management and performance of cost-effective maintenance and repair of the National Synchrotron Light Source, as required by the US Department of Energy order DOE 433O.4A. It is the DOE`s policy that: The maintenance management program for the NSLS be consistent with this Order and that NSLS property is maintained in a manner which promotes operational safety, worker health, environmental protection and compliance, property preservation, and cost-effectiveness while meeting the NSLS`s programmatic mission. Structures, components and systems (active and passive) that are imporant to safe operation of the NSLS shall be subject to a maintenance program to ensure that they meet or exceed their design requirements throughout the life of the NSLS. Periodic examination of structures, systems components and equipment be performed to determine deterioration or technical obsolescence which may threaten performance and/or safety. Primary responsibility, authority, and accountability for the direction and management of the maintenance program at the NSLS reside with the line management assigned direct programmatic responsibility. Budgeting and accounting for maintenance programs are consistent with DOE Orders guidance.

  15. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yards and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impervious surfaces (driveways, parking lots, and buildings) and human activities (residential, industrial, and commercial) have been linked to substantial changes in both the quality and quantity of stormwater on a watershed scale (Brabec and others, 2002; Pitt and Maestre, 2005). Small-scale storage and equipment repair facilities increase impervious surfaces that prevent infiltration of stormwater, and these facilities accommodate activities that can introduce trace metals, organic compounds, and other contaminants to the facility’s grounds. Thus, these small facilities may contribute pollutants to the environment during storm events (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). The South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. Prior to this investigation, the SCDOT had no data to define the quality of stormwater leaving these facilities. To provide these data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the SCDOT, conducted an investigation to identify and quantify constituents that are transported in stormwater from two maintenance yards and a section shed in three different areas of South Carolina. The two maintenance yards, in North Charleston and Conway, S.C., were selected because they represent facilities where equipment and road maintenance materials are stored and complete equipment repair operations are conducted. The section shed, in Ballentine, S.C., was selected because it is a facility that stores equipment and road maintenance material. Characterization of the constituents that were transported in stormwater from these representative SCDOT maintenance facilities may be used by the SCDOT in the development of stormwater management plans for similar section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State to improve stormwater quality.

  16. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: GENERAL MAIL AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE FACILITY, UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, BUFFALO, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at a U.S.Postal Service (USPS) Facility in Buffalo, NY. The PPOA documented and quantified waste generation at the General Mail Facility (GMF) where mail is processed, and at the Vehicle Maintena...

  17. 78 FR 72794 - Revisions to Auxiliary Installations, Replacement Facilities, and Siting and Maintenance Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... replacement facilities are essential to provide certificated services, and therefore are jurisdictional. We... impact . . . we need to be informed of such activities before they occur.'' Order No. 544, 57 FR 46487... temporary work space used to construct the original ] facility.'' \\32\\ In this rulemaking proceeding, we...

  18. Shuttle Discovery Overflight of Edwards Enroute to Palmdale, California, Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery overflies the Rogers Dry Lakebed, California, on 28 September 1995, at 12:50 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time (PDT) atop NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA). On its way to Rockwell Aerospace's Palmdale facility for nine months of scheduled maintenance, Discovery and the 747 were completing a two-day flight from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, that began at 7:04 a.m. Eastern Standard Time on 27 September and included an overnight stop at Salt Lake City International Airport, Utah. At the conclusion of this mission, Discovery had flown 21 shuttle missions, totaling more than 142 days in orbit. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can

  19. Shuttle Discovery Overflight of Edwards Enroute to Palmdale, California, Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery overflies the Rogers Dry Lakebed, California, on 28 September 1995, at 12:50 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time (PDT) atop NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA). On its way to Rockwell Aerospace's Palmdale facility for nine months of scheduled maintenance, Discovery and the 747 were completing a two-day flight from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, that began at 7:04 a.m. Eastern Standard Time on 27 September and included an overnight stop at Salt Lake City International Airport, Utah. At the conclusion of this mission, Discovery had flown 21 shuttle missions, totaling more than 142 days in orbit. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can

  20. 76 FR 23690 - Version One Regional Reliability Standards for Facilities Design, Connections, and Maintenance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Establishment, Approval, and Enforcement of Electric Reliability Standards, Order No. 672, 71 FR 8662 (Feb. 17, 2006), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,204, at P 290, order on reh'g, Order No. 672-A, 71 FR 19814 (Apr. 18... Maintenance; Protection and Control; and Voltage and Reactive, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR...

  1. 33 CFR 127.401 - Maintenance: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.401 Maintenance: General. The...

  2. 33 CFR 127.401 - Maintenance: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.401 Maintenance: General. The...

  3. 33 CFR 127.401 - Maintenance: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.401 Maintenance: General. The...

  4. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Husler, R.O.; Weir, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I&C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  5. Fiber Bragg grating microphone system for condition-based maintenance of industrial facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, D.; Olivero, M.; Perrone, G.; Vallan, A.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a multipoint fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system operating as a precision microphone. This instrument aims to become the best performing technology for condition-based maintenance (CBM) of critical elements, like ball bearings and cogwheels, embedded in industrial manufacturing machineries. The system architecture is based on the simple matched-laser principle, leading to a low-cost and high-sensitivity system, operating in time and wavelength multiplexing mode. Then, heavy signal processing is applied, providing an outstanding performance improvement of 59 dB in terms of signal-to-noise ratio. A demonstration of condition-based maintenance operation has been performed using standard models of ball bearing sound spectra. Compared to traditional microphones applied to CBM, the signal processing-powered FBG system provides remarkable advantages in terms of sensitivity and rejection of environment noise, providing an improvement of cost-effectiveness of CBM.

  6. Review of Maintenance and Repair Times for Components in Technological Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2012-11-01

    This report is a compilation of some unique component repair time data and it also presents citations of more extensive reports where lists of repair times can be found. This collection of information should support analysts who seek to quantify maintainability and availability of high technology and nuclear energy production systems. While there are newer sources of repair time information, most, if not all, of the newer sources are proprietary and cannot be shared. This report offers data that, while older, is openly accessible and can serve as reasonable estimates of repair times, at least for initial studies. Some times were found for maintenance times in radiation environments, and some guidance for multiplicative factors to use to account for work in contamination areas.

  7. The meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance and quality assurance programs at a former nuclear weapons facility

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    The purposes of the meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance, and quality assurance programs at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), are to (1) support Emergency Preparedness (EP) programs at the Site in assessing the transport, dispersion, and deposition of effluents actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by Site operations; and (2) provide information for onsite and offsite projects concerned with the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, and remediation activities. The risk from the Site includes chemical and radioactive emissions historically related to nuclear weapons component production activities that are currently associated with storage of large quantities of radionuclides (plutonium) and radioactive waste forms. The meteorological monitoring program provides information for site-specific weather forecasting, which supports Site operations, employee safety, and Emergency Preparedness operations.

  8. An overview of the space medicine program and development of the Health Maintenance Facility for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam Lee

    1988-01-01

    Because the prolonged stay on board the Space Station will increase the risk of possible inflight medical problems from that on Skylab missions, the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) planned for the Space Station is much more sophisticated than the small clinics of the Skylab missions. The development of the HMF is directed by the consideration of three primary factors: prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of injuries and illnesses that may occur in flight. The major components of the HMF include the clinical laboratory, pharmacy, imaging system, critical-care system, patient-restraint system, data-management system, exercise system, surgical system, electrophysiologic-monitoring system, introvenous-fluid system, dental system, and hyperbaric-treatment-support system.

  9. Effect of amplifier component maintenance on laser system availability and reliability for the US National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Erlandson, A.C.; Lambert, H.; Zapata, L.E.

    1996-12-01

    We have analyzed the availability and reliability of the flashlamp- pumped, Nd:glass amplifiers that, as a part of a laser now being designed for future experiments, in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), will be used in the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Clearly , in order for large ICF systems such as the NIF to operate effectively as a whole, all components must meet demanding availability and reliability requirements. Accordingly, the NIF amplifiers can achieve high reliability and availability by using reliable parts, and by using a cassette-based maintenance design that allows most key amplifier parts to be 1744 replaced within a few hours. In this way, parts that degrade slowly, as the laser slabs, silver reflectors, and blastshields can be expected to do, based on previous experience, can be replaced either between shots or during scheduled maintenance periods, with no effect on availability or reliability. In contrast, parts that fail rapidly, such as the flashlamps, can and do cause unavailability or unreliability. Our analysis demonstrates that the amplifiers for the NIF will meet availability and reliability goals, respectively, of 99.8% and 99.4%, provided that the 7680 NIF flashlamps in NIF have failure rates of less than, or equal to, those experienced on Nova, a 5000-lamp laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  10. Maintenance and operation of the multispectral data collection and reproduction facilities of the Willow Run Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Stewart, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    The accomplishments in multispectral mapping during 1970 and (fiscal year) 1971 are presented. The mapping was done with the instrumented C-47 aircraft owned and operated by Willow Run Laboratories of The University of Michigan. Specific information for flight operations sponsored by NASA/MSC (Manned Spacecraft Center) in 1970 and fiscal year 1971 is presented, and a total listing of flights for 1968, 1969, 1970, and fiscal year 1971 is included in the appendices. The data-collection and reproduction facilities are described.

  11. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program : Facility Operations and Maintenance, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2005-02-01

    There were 2 acclimation periods at the Catherine Creek Acclimation Facility (CCAF) in 2004. During the early acclimation period, 92,475 smolts were delivered from Lookingglass Hatchery (LGH) on 8 March. This group was comprised entirely of progeny from the captive broodstock program. The size of the fish at delivery was 23.1 fish/lb. Volitional releases began 15 March 2004 and ended 22 March with an estimated total (based on PIT tag detections of 1,475) of 8,785 fish leaving the raceways. This was 9.5% of the total fish delivered. Fish remaining in the raceways after volitional release were forced out. Hourly detections of PIT-tagged fish showed that most of the fish left between 1200 and 2000 hours which was similar to the hourly temperature profile. The size of the fish just before the volitional release was 23.1 and the size of the fish remaining just before the forced release was 23.5 fish/lb. The total mortality for the acclimation period was 62 (0.07 %). The total number of fish released from the acclimation facility during the early period was 92,413. During the second acclimation period 70,977 smolts were delivered from LGH on 24 March. This group was comprised entirely of progeny from the conventional broodstock program. The size of the fish at delivery was 23.4 fish/lb. Volitional releases began 30 March 2004 and ended 12 April with an estimated total (based on PIT tag detections of 3,632) of 49,147 fish leaving the raceways. This was 69.2% of the total fish delivered. Fish remaining in the raceways after volitional release were forced out. Hourly detections of PIT-tagged fish showed that most of the fish left between 1200 and 2000 hours which was similar to the hourly temperature profile. The size of the fish just before the volitional release was 23.4 and the size of the fish remaining just before the forced release was 23.9 fish/lb. The total mortality for the acclimation period was 18 (0.03 %). The total number of fish released from the acclimation

  12. Rat maintenance in the Research Animal Holding Facility during the flight of Space Lab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, T.; Grindeland, R.; Kraft, L.; Ruder, M.; Vasques, M.

    1985-01-01

    To test the husbandry capabilities of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) during space flight, 24 male rats were flown on Spacelab 3 for 7 days. Twelve large rats (400 g, LF), 5 of which had telemetry devices implanted (IF), and 12 small rats (200 g, SF) were housed in the RAHF. Examination 3 hr after landing (R + 3) revealed the rats to be free of injury, well nourished, and stained with urine. At R + 10 the rats were lethargic and atonic with hyperemia of the extremities and well groomed except for a middorsal area stained with urine and food. Both LF and SF rats showed weight gains comparable to their IG controls; IF rats grew less than controls. Food and water consumption were similar for flight and control groups. Plasma concentrations of total protein, sodium, albumin and creatinine did not differ between flight and control groups. LF and SF rats had elevated plasma glucose, and SF rats had increased blood urea nitrogen, potassium and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. These observations indicate that rats maintained in the RAHF were healthy, well nourished and experienced minimal stress; physiological changes in the rats can thus be attributed to the effects of space flight.

  13. Annual summary report on surveillance and maintenance activities of the surplus contaminated facilities program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for period ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, T.R.; Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The Surplus Contaminated Facilities Program (SCFP) was established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1985 to provide support for inactive contaminated facilities that were largely abandoned by the programs which they formerly served. This support provides for routine surveillance and maintenance (S M) and special projects beyond a routine nature when such actions are needed to ensure adequate protection of personnel or the environment. The facilities included in the program had been used for research, technology development, isotope production and processing, and waste management. Support for facilities in the SCFP has previously been provided by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Research: Multiprogram Energy Laboratories -- Facilities Support (ERKG) because of multiprogram use of the facilities or because of the landlord responsibility of Energy Research. Recently, an integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) program within the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has been established to collectively manage the former Surplus Facilities Management Program, Defense D D Program, and the KG-funded, ORNL-originated SCFP. This report gives an overview of the S M planning, routine S M, and special maintenance project activities which have occurred at the SCFP facilities during the 1991 Fiscal Year.

  14. School Operations and Maintenance: Best Practices For Controlling Energy Costs. A Guidebook for K-12 School System Business Officers and Facilities Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Operations and maintenance (O&M) offers not only strategies for maintaining facilities, but also opportunities for reducing energy costs and increasing energy efficiency at existing schools, regardless of age. This Guidebook provides detailed and practical guidance on how K-12 school districts can plan and implement enhancements to their current…

  15. Analysis of the University of Ibadan Carrying Capacities vis-à-vis Enrolment and Facilities' Maintenance: Implications on Administration and Curriculum Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atanda, Ademola

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the University of Ibadan complies with carrying capacity standards as directed by the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the level of facility maintenance. A descriptive research design was adopted with three research questions. The population of study comprised undergraduate students and an…

  16. In-depth survey report: evaluation of brake drum service controls at United States Postal Service Vehicle Maintenance Facility, Louisville, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.C.; Sheehy, J.W.; O'Brien, D.M.; McGlothlin, J.D.; Todd, W.F.

    1987-12-01

    A control technology assessment of various methods to control worker exposure to asbestos during brake repair was reported for the Vehicle Maintenance Facility at the U.S. Post Office Building in Louisville, Kentucky. Results indicated that effective control of asbestos dust was achieved with the system used; one of 22 samples had a detectable level. Recommendations for better work practices were presented.

  17. In-flight demonstration of the Space Station Freedom Health Maintenance Facility fluid therapy system (E300/E05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will provide medical care for crew members for up to 10 days. An integral part of the required medical care consists of providing intravenous infusion of fluids, electrolyte solutions, and nutrients to sustain an ill or injured crew member. In terrestrial health care facilities, intravenous solutions are normally stored in large quantities. However, due to the station's weight and volume constraints, an adequate supply of the required solutions cannot be carried onboard SSF. By formulating medical fluids onboard from concentrates and station water as needed, the Fluid Therapy System (FTS) eliminates weight and volume concerns regarding intravenous fluids. The first full-system demonstration of FTS is continuous microgravity will be conducted in Spacelab-Japan (SL-J). The FTS evaluation consists of two functional objectives and an in-flight demonstration of intravenous administration of fluids. The first is to make and store sterile water and IV solutions onboard the spacecraft. If intravenous fluids are to be produced in SSF, successful sterilization of water and reconstituting of IV solutions must be achieved. The second objective is to repeat the verification of the FTS infusion pump, which had been performed in Spacelab Life Sciences - 1 (SLS-1). during SLS-1, the FTS IV pump was operated in continuous microgravity for the first time. The pump functioned successfully, and valuable knowledge on its performance in continuous microgravity was obtained. Finally, the technique of starting an IF in microgravity will be demonstrated. The IV technique requires modifications in microgravity, such as use of restraints for equipment and crew members involved.

  18. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents include…

  19. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yard and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The South Carolina Department of Transportation operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a cooperative investigation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation to characterize water-quality constituents that are transported in stormwater from representative maintenance yard and section shed facilities in South Carolina. At a section shed in Ballentine, S.C., stormwater discharges to a retention pond outfall (Ballentine). At the Conway maintenance yard, stormwater in the southernmost section discharges to a pipe outfall (Conway1), and stormwater in the remaining area discharges to a grass-lined ditch (Conway2). At the North Charleston maintenance yard, stormwater discharges from the yard to Turkey Creek through a combination of pipes, ditches, and overland flow; therefore, samples were collected from the main channel of Turkey Creek at the upstream (North Charleston1) and downstream (North Charleston2) limits of the North Charleston maintenance yard facility. The storms sampled during this study had a wide range of rainfall amounts, durations, and intensities at each of the facilities and, therefore, were considered to be reasonably representative of the potential for contaminant transport. At all facilities, stormwater discharge was significantly correlated to rainfall amount and intensity. Event-mean unit-area stormwater discharge increased with increasing impervious surface at the Conway and North Charleston maintenance yards. The Ballentine facility with 79 percent impervious surface had a mean unit-area discharge similar to that of the North Charleston maintenance yard (62 percent impervious surface). That similarity may be attributed, in part, to the effects of the retention pond on the stormwater runoff at the Ballentine facility and to the greater rainfall intensities and amounts at the North Charleston facility. Stormwater samples from the facilities were analyzed for multiple

  20. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G - List of Activities Eligible for Funding Under BIA Transportation Facility Maintenance Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or purchasing of maintenance equipment. 13. Paying utilities cost for roadway lighting and traffic... traffic control devices, guardrails and other features necessary to control traffic and protect the...

  1. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G - List of Activities Eligible for Funding Under BIA Transportation Facility Maintenance Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., or purchasing of maintenance equipment. 13. Paying utilities cost for roadway lighting and traffic... traffic control devices, guardrails and other features necessary to control traffic and protect the...

  2. Contingent post-closure plan, hazardous waste management units at selected maintenance facilities, US Army National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, is a US Army training installation that provides tactical experience for battalion/task forces and squadrons in a mid- to high-intensity combat scenario. Through joint exercises with US Air Force and other services, the NTC also provides a data source for improvements of training doctrines, organization, and equipment. To meet the training and operational needs of the NTC, several maintenance facilities provide general and direct support for mechanical devices, equipment, and vehicles. Maintenance products used at these facilities include fuels, petroleum-based oils, lubricating grease, various degreasing solvents, antifreeze (ethylene glycol), transmission fluid, brake fluid, and hydraulic oil. Used or spent petroleum-based products generated at the maintenance facilities are temporarily accumulated in underground storage tanks (USTs), collected by the NTC hazardous waste management contractor (HAZCO), and stored at the Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant (POL) Storage Facility, Building 630, until shipped off site to be recovered, reused, and/or reclaimed. Spent degreasing solvents and other hazardous wastes are containerized and stored on-base for up to 90 days at the NTC's Hazardous Waste Storage Facility, Building 703. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed an inspection and reviewed the hazardous waste management operations of the NTC. Inspections indicated that the NTC had violated one or more requirements of Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and as a result of these violations was issued a Notice of Noncompliance, Notice of Necessity for Conference, and Proposed Compliance Schedule (NON) dated October 13, 1989. The following post-closure plan is the compliance-based approach for the NTC to respond to the regulatory violations cited in the NON.

  3. Contingent post-closure plan, hazardous waste management units at selected maintenance facilities, US Army National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, is a US Army training installation that provides tactical experience for battalion/task forces and squadrons in a mid- to high-intensity combat scenario. Through joint exercises with US Air Force and other services, the NTC also provides a data source for improvements of training doctrines, organization, and equipment. To meet the training and operational needs of the NTC, several maintenance facilities provide general and direct support for mechanical devices, equipment, and vehicles. Maintenance products used at these facilities include fuels, petroleum-based oils, lubricating grease, various degreasing solvents, antifreeze (ethylene glycol), transmission fluid, brake fluid, and hydraulic oil. Used or spent petroleum-based products generated at the maintenance facilities are temporarily accumulated in underground storage tanks (USTs), collected by the NTC hazardous waste management contractor (HAZCO), and stored at the Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant (POL) Storage Facility, Building 630, until shipped off site to be recovered, reused, and/or reclaimed. Spent degreasing solvents and other hazardous wastes are containerized and stored on-base for up to 90 days at the NTC`s Hazardous Waste Storage Facility, Building 703. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed an inspection and reviewed the hazardous waste management operations of the NTC. Inspections indicated that the NTC had violated one or more requirements of Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and as a result of these violations was issued a Notice of Noncompliance, Notice of Necessity for Conference, and Proposed Compliance Schedule (NON) dated October 13, 1989. The following post-closure plan is the compliance-based approach for the NTC to respond to the regulatory violations cited in the NON.

  4. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yard and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The South Carolina Department of Transportation operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a cooperative investigation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation to characterize water-quality constituents that are transported in stormwater from representative maintenance yard and section shed facilities in South Carolina. At a section shed in Ballentine, S.C., stormwater discharges to a retention pond outfall (Ballentine). At the Conway maintenance yard, stormwater in the southernmost section discharges to a pipe outfall (Conway1), and stormwater in the remaining area discharges to a grass-lined ditch (Conway2). At the North Charleston maintenance yard, stormwater discharges from the yard to Turkey Creek through a combination of pipes, ditches, and overland flow; therefore, samples were collected from the main channel of Turkey Creek at the upstream (North Charleston1) and downstream (North Charleston2) limits of the North Charleston maintenance yard facility. The storms sampled during this study had a wide range of rainfall amounts, durations, and intensities at each of the facilities and, therefore, were considered to be reasonably representative of the potential for contaminant transport. At all facilities, stormwater discharge was significantly correlated to rainfall amount and intensity. Event-mean unit-area stormwater discharge increased with increasing impervious surface at the Conway and North Charleston maintenance yards. The Ballentine facility with 79 percent impervious surface had a mean unit-area discharge similar to that of the North Charleston maintenance yard (62 percent impervious surface). That similarity may be attributed, in part, to the effects of the retention pond on the stormwater runoff at the Ballentine facility and to the greater rainfall intensities and amounts at the North Charleston facility. Stormwater samples from the facilities were analyzed for multiple

  5. Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents responses from Matt McGovern, "School Planning and Management's" Maintenance and Operations columnist, on the issue of school facility maintenance. McGovern does not believe schools will ever likely meet acceptable levels of maintenance, nor use infrared thermography for assessing roofs, outsource all maintenance work, nor find a pressing…

  6. Triggers of airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kerrebijn, K F

    1986-01-01

    Most asthmatics have hyperresponsive airways. This makes them more sensitive than non-asthmatics to bronchoconstricting environmental exposures which, in their turn, may enhance responsiveness. Airway inflammation is considered to be a key determinant of airway hyperresponsiveness: the fact that chronic airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis does not lead to airway hyperresponsiveness of any importance indicates, however, that the role of airway inflammation is complex and incompletely elucidated. The main inducers of airway inflammation are viral infections, antigens, occupational stimuli and pollutants. Although exercise, airway cooling and hyper- or hypotonic aerosols are potent stimuli of bronchoconstriction, it is questionable if airway inflammation is involved in their mode of action. Each of the above-mentioned stimuli is discussed, with emphasis laid on the relation of symptoms to mechanisms. PMID:3533597

  7. An examination of maintenance activities in liquid metal reactor facilities: An analysis by the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO)

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M J; Knee, H E; Manning, J J; Manneschmidt, J F; Setoguchi, K

    1987-01-01

    The Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is the largest repository of liquid metal reactor (LMR) component reliability data in the world. It is jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. The CREDO database contains information on a population of more than 21,000 components and approximately 1300 event records. Total experience is approaching 1.2 billion component operating hours. Although data gathering for CREDO concentrates on event (failure) information, the work reported here focuses on the maintenance information contained in CREDO and the development of maintenance critical items lists. That is, components are ranked in prioritized lists from worse to best performers from a maintenance standpoint.

  8. Evaluation of prototype Advanced Life Support (ALS) pack for use by the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to evaluate the prototype Advanced Life Support (ALS) Pack which was developed for the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF). This pack will enable the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) to have ready access to advanced life support supplies and equipment for time critical responses to any situation within the Space Station Freedom. The objectives are: (1) to evaluate the design of the pack; and (2) to collect comments for revision to the design of the pack. The in-flight test procedures and other aspects of the KC-135 parabolic test flight to simulate weightlessness are presented.

  9. 20 CFR 638.306 - Protection and maintenance of contract center facilities owned or leased by Job Corps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities owned or leased by Job Corps. 638.306 Section 638.306 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT... facilities owned or leased by Job Corps. The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures for the...

  10. 25 CFR 502.22 - Construction and maintenance of the gaming facility, and the operation of that gaming is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the operation of that gaming is conducted in a manner which adequately protects the environment and... protects the environment and the public health and safety. Construction and maintenance of the gaming... environment and the public health and safety means a tribe has identified and enforces laws,...

  11. 25 CFR 502.22 - Construction and maintenance of the gaming facility, and the operation of that gaming is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the operation of that gaming is conducted in a manner which adequately protects the environment and... protects the environment and the public health and safety. Construction and maintenance of the gaming... environment and the public health and safety means a tribe has identified and enforces laws,...

  12. 25 CFR 502.22 - Construction and maintenance of the gaming facility, and the operation of that gaming is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the operation of that gaming is conducted in a manner which adequately protects the environment and... protects the environment and the public health and safety. Construction and maintenance of the gaming... environment and the public health and safety means a tribe has identified and enforces laws,...

  13. Emergency airway puncture

    MedlinePlus

    Emergency airway puncture is the placement of a hollow needle through the throat into the airway. It ... efforts to assist with breathing have failed. A hollow needle or tube can be inserted into the ...

  14. Careers in Airway Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has initiated the Airway Science curriculum as a method of preparing the next generation of aviation technicians and managers. This document: (1) discusses the FAA's role in the Airway Science program; (2) describes some of the career fields that FAA offers to Airway Science graduates (air traffic control…

  15. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys... premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as...) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  16. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys... premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as...) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  17. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys... premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as...) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  18. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys... premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as...) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  19. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys... premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as...) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  20. The emergency airway.

    PubMed

    Goon, Serena S H; Stephens, Robert C M; Smith, Helen

    2009-12-01

    The 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario is a nightmare for all clinicians who manage airways. Cricothyroidotomy is one of several emergency airway management techniques. Cricothyroidotomy is a short-term solution which provides oxygenation, not ventilation, and is not a definitive airway. Although there are tests which can help predict whether an intubation will be difficult, they are not always good predictors. As the can't intubate, can't ventilate scenario is rare, cricothyroidotomy is an unfamiliar procedure to many. In this situation, expert help must be called for early on. In the meantime, it is vital that all other simple airway manoeuvres have been attempted, such as good positioning of the patient with head tilt and chin lift, and use of airway adjuncts like the oral (Guedel) airway or nasopharyngeal airway, and the laryngeal mask airway. However, if attempts to secure the airway are unsuccessful, there may be no other option than to perform a cricothyroidotomy. It is a difficult decision to make, but with increasing hypoxia, it is essential that one oxygenates the patient. Cricothyroidotomy provides an opening in the pace between the anterior inferior border of the thyroid cartilage and the anterior superior border of the cricoid cartilage, allowing access to the airway below the glottis. The anatomical considerations are important when performing this procedure (Ellis, 2009), and there are other scenarios when it is used. It is not without consequence, as with any procedure.

  1. Improving the safety of remote site emergency airway management.

    PubMed

    Wijesuriya, Julian; Brand, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Airway management, particularly in non-theatre settings, is an area of anaesthesia and critical care associated with significant risk of morbidity & mortality, as highlighted during the 4th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists (NAP4). A survey of junior anaesthetists at our hospital highlighted a lack of confidence and perceived lack of safety in emergency airway management, especially in non-theatre settings. We developed and implemented a multifaceted airway package designed to improve the safety of remote site airway management. A Rapid Sequence Induction (RSI) checklist was developed; this was combined with new advanced airway equipment and drugs bags. Additionally, new carbon dioxide detector filters were procured in order to comply with NAP4 monitoring recommendations. The RSI checklists were placed in key locations throughout the hospital and the drugs and advanced airway equipment bags were centralised in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). It was agreed with the senior nursing staff that an appropriately trained ICU nurse would attend all emergency situations with new airway resources upon request. Departmental guidelines were updated to include details of the new resources and the on-call anaesthetist's responsibilities regarding checks and maintenance. Following our intervention trainees reported higher confidence levels regarding remote site emergency airway management. Nine trusts within the Northern Region were surveyed and we found large variations in the provision of remote site airway management resources. Complications in remote site airway management due lack of available appropriate drugs, equipment or trained staff are potentially life threatening and completely avoidable. Utilising the intervention package an anaesthetist would be able to safely plan and prepare for airway management in any setting. They would subsequently have the drugs, equipment, and trained assistance required to manage any difficulties or complications

  2. Engineering Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Soleas, John P.; Paz, Ana; Marcus, Paula; McGuigan, Alison; Waddell, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Airway epithelium is constantly presented with injurious signals, yet under healthy circumstances, the epithelium maintains its innate immune barrier and mucociliary elevator function. This suggests that airway epithelium has regenerative potential (I. R. Telford and C. F. Bridgman, 1990). In practice, however, airway regeneration is problematic because of slow turnover and dedifferentiation of epithelium thereby hindering regeneration and increasing time necessary for full maturation and function. Based on the anatomy and biology of the airway epithelium, a variety of tissue engineering tools available could be utilized to overcome the barriers currently seen in airway epithelial generation. This paper describes the structure, function, and repair mechanisms in native epithelium and highlights specific and manipulatable tissue engineering signals that could be of great use in the creation of artificial airway epithelium. PMID:22523471

  3. Fixing Maintenance Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes how one university's facility managers use Nextel communications technology in conjunction with a Famis Software maintenance management system to improve the productivity of its maintenance technicians. The system uses a wireless Internet connection to automate the flow of work order information to and from technicians. The key to these…

  4. Design and maintenance considerations for pesticide and fertilizer containment systems used in lawn care and golf course facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hurto, K.A.

    1994-12-31

    The design of pesticide and fertilizer containment facilities for lawn and golf course operations are similar to those designs used for most pesticide handling operations. In lawn care operations, service vehicles are filled from a centralized facility and the diluted mixtures are transported to residential and commercial sites where mixtures are applied to turfgrass areas. Golf course operations involve fewer vehicles and the volume and frequency of spray operations performed are much lower compared to lawn care operations. Rarely are spray mixtures used in golf course operations transported off-site. A golf course operation will involve spray applications to 100 to 200 acres of plantings. Typically, the amount of spray activity conducted averages 3 to 5 days per month, whereas commercial lawn care companies may be providing applications to 10 to 200 acres daily. Because of the potential risk of cross contamination of spray equipment, operations associated with tree and shrub plantings should be segregated from those associated with herbicide and other materials considered toxic to ornamental plants.

  5. Data Sharing Report for the Quantification of Removable Activity in Various Surveillance and Maintenance Facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    SciTech Connect

    King, David A

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OR-EM) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. Specifically, DOE OR-EM requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting potential removable radiological contamination that may be transferrable to future personal protective equipment (PPE) and contamination control materials—collectively referred to as PPE throughout the remainder of this report—used in certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Project facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Routine surveys in Bldgs. 3001, 3005, 3010, 3028, 3029, 3038, 3042, 3517, 4507, and 7500 continuously generate PPE. The waste is comprised of Tyvek coveralls, gloves, booties, Herculite, and other materials used to prevent worker exposure or the spread of contamination during routine maintenance and monitoring activities. This report describes the effort to collect and quantify removable activity that may be used by the ORNL S&M Project team to develop radiation instrumentation “screening criteria.” Material potentially containing removable activity was collected on smears, including both masselin large-area wipes (LAWs) and standard paper smears, and analyzed for site-related constituents (SRCs) in an analytical laboratory. The screening criteria, if approved, may be used to expedite waste disposition of relatively clean PPE. The ultimate objectives of this effort were to: 1) determine whether screening criteria can be developed for these facilities, and 2) provide process knowledge information for future site planners. The screening criteria, if calculated, must be formally approved by Federal Facility Agreement parties prior to use for

  6. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways

    PubMed Central

    Klučka, Jozef; Štourač, Petr; Štoudek, Roman; Ťoukálková, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient. PMID:26759809

  7. Management of the difficult airway.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Robert A; Noordhoek, Roseanna

    2010-03-01

    The oral and maxillofacial surgeon frequently encounters and manages difficult airways. Knowledge of and calm progression by practitioner and staff through different means to ventilate and manage a difficult airway are crucial. Practitioners should become comfortable with different types of alternative or rescue airways in order to intervene quickly in case of emergent or unanticipated airway compromise.

  8. Stick with a School Maintenance Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's "Planning Guide for Maintaining School Facilities" states that a sound facilities maintenance plan serves as evidence that school facilities are, and will be, cared for appropriately. On the other hand, negligent facilities maintenance planning can cause real problems. Budget restraints and cuts in areas not…

  9. 18. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL AREAS; LOOKING EAST - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  10. 17. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL AREAS; LOOKING WEST. - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  11. In-depth survey report: evaluation of brake-drum-service controls at United States Postal Service, vehicle maintenance facility, Nashville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, F.W.; Cooper, T.C.; Sheehy, J.W.; O'Brien, D.M.; Van Wagenen, H.D.

    1987-08-01

    The effectiveness of a brake-washer assembly unit (Kleer-Flo Model LW-22 Rollabout) for limiting exposure to asbestos during the servicing of automotive brakes was evaluated as the U.S. Post Office Maintenance Garage in Nashville, TN. A fleet of 575 Jeep delivery vehicles are serviced at the facility. Most of the vehicles had 13- or 14-inch wheels and 10-inch long brake shoes. Ventilation in the garage was minimal. During winter months, there was no provision for fresh, heated air from the outside. When the 14 bay doors were open in the summer, they provided good ventilation in conjunction with roof fans. One gallon of concentrated detergent, Greasoff No. 19, was used diluted to clean 40 to 50 wheels. Very low asbestos exposures were recorded when the washing assembly was in operation. Personal air samples for the brake mechanics averaged less than the detection limit of 0.004 fibers/cubic centimeter (f/cc) with only one sample above 0.004f/cc. Of the ten vehicles tested, fibers found in the drums were between 83 to 100% chrysotile, with two vehicles having 100% asbestos fibers.

  12. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; Operation, Maintenance and Evaluation of the Bonifer and Minthorn Springs Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facilities, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lofy, Peter T.; Rowan, Gerald D.

    1990-03-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to increase steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding and spawning adult steelhead and acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Regularly-scheduled maintenance was completed in 1989. Equipment and pumps received maintenance and repair. An automatic dialing system was incorporated into the alarm system at the Minthorn facility. A security company has replaced the function of the Umatilla Tribal Police which was to contact fisheries personnel in case of an alarm. The configuration of the alarm system was upgraded to activate the alarm faster and provide better access to project personnel with a pager system. A survey was completed in 1988 by Thomas Bumstead of Albrook Hydraulics Lab in Pullman, WA. to determine potential measures to address the change in course of the Umatilla River around Minthorn as a result of the flood of 1986. Options and recommendations were submitted in a report in 1989. Fish Management Consultants Inc. submitted the final reports of evaluations for both the Bonifer and Minthorn facilities. A total of 150 adult steelhead were collected for broodstock at Threemile Dam from December through March and held at Minthorn. Forty-two pairs were spawned (37 pairs from Minthorn and 5 pairs collected and immediately spawned at Threemile Dam). The 241,682 eggs were transferred to Irrigon Hatchery for incubation and later moved to Oak Springs Hatchery for rearing. An estimated 368 adult hatchery steelhead returned to the Umatilla River in 1988-89 (based on Threemile Dam trap counts and harvest below Threemile Dam) these, and 349 were released upriver. Of seven returned to the Bonifer trap where the smolts were initially released. Acclimation of 79,984 spring chinook salmon and 22

  13. Role of upper airway ultrasound in airway management.

    PubMed

    Osman, Adi; Sum, Kok Meng

    2016-01-01

    Upper airway ultrasound is a valuable, non-invasive, simple, and portable point of care ultrasound (POCUS) for evaluation of airway management even in anatomy distorted by pathology or trauma. Ultrasound enables us to identify important sonoanatomy of the upper airway such as thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, cricoid cartilage, cricothyroid membrane, tracheal cartilages, and esophagus. Understanding this applied sonoanatomy facilitates clinician to use ultrasound in assessment of airway anatomy for difficult intubation, ETT and LMA placement and depth, assessment of airway size, ultrasound-guided invasive procedures such as percutaneous needle cricothyroidotomy and tracheostomy, prediction of postextubation stridor and left double-lumen bronchial tube size, and detecting upper airway pathologies. Widespread POCUS awareness, better technological advancements, portability, and availability of ultrasound in most critical areas facilitate upper airway ultrasound to become the potential first-line non-invasive airway assessment tool in the future. PMID:27529028

  14. Role of upper airway ultrasound in airway management.

    PubMed

    Osman, Adi; Sum, Kok Meng

    2016-01-01

    Upper airway ultrasound is a valuable, non-invasive, simple, and portable point of care ultrasound (POCUS) for evaluation of airway management even in anatomy distorted by pathology or trauma. Ultrasound enables us to identify important sonoanatomy of the upper airway such as thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, cricoid cartilage, cricothyroid membrane, tracheal cartilages, and esophagus. Understanding this applied sonoanatomy facilitates clinician to use ultrasound in assessment of airway anatomy for difficult intubation, ETT and LMA placement and depth, assessment of airway size, ultrasound-guided invasive procedures such as percutaneous needle cricothyroidotomy and tracheostomy, prediction of postextubation stridor and left double-lumen bronchial tube size, and detecting upper airway pathologies. Widespread POCUS awareness, better technological advancements, portability, and availability of ultrasound in most critical areas facilitate upper airway ultrasound to become the potential first-line non-invasive airway assessment tool in the future.

  15. Transcriptional Regionalization of the Fruit Fly’s Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Muhammad N.; Hoffmann, Julia; El-Kholy, Samar; Kallsen, Kimberley; Wagner, Christina; Bruchhaus, Iris; Fink, Christine; Roeder, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Although airway epithelia are primarily devoted to gas exchange, they have to fulfil a number of different tasks including organ maintenance and the epithelial immune response to fight airborne pathogens. These different tasks are at least partially accomplished by specialized cell types in the epithelium. In addition, a proximal to distal gradient mirroring the transition from airflow conduction to real gas exchange, is also operative. We analysed the airway system of larval Drosophila melanogaster with respect to region-specific expression in the proximal to distal axis. The larval airway system is made of epithelial cells only. We found differential expression between major trunks of the airways and more distal ones comprising primary, secondary and terminal ones. A more detailed analysis was performed using DNA-microarray analysis to identify cohorts of genes that are either predominantly expressed in the dorsal trunks or in the primary/secondary/terminal branches of the airways. Among these differentially expressed genes are especially those involved in signal transduction. Wnt-signalling associated genes for example are predominantly found in secondary/terminal airways. In addition, some G-protein coupled receptors are differentially expressed between both regions of the airways, exemplified by those activated by octopamine or tyramine, the invertebrate counterparts of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Whereas the OAMB is predominantly found in terminal airway regions, the oct3βR has higher expression levels in dorsal trunks. In addition, we observed a significant association of both, genes predominantly expressed in dorsal trunks or in primary to terminal branches branches with those regulated by hypoxia. Taken together, this observed differential expression is indicative for a proximal to distal transcriptional regionalization presumably reflecting functional differences in these parts of the fly’s airway system. PMID:25020150

  16. Indirect airway challenges.

    PubMed

    Joos, G F; O'Connor, B; Anderson, S D; Chung, F; Cockcroft, D W; Dahlén, B; DiMaria, G; Foresi, A; Hargreave, F E; Holgate, S T; Inman, M; Lötvall, J; Magnussen, H; Polosa, R; Postma, D S; Riedler, J

    2003-06-01

    Indirect challenges act by causing the release of endogenous mediators that cause the airway smooth muscle to contract. This is in contrast to the direct challenges where agonists such as methacholine or histamine cause airflow limitation predominantly via a direct effect on airway smooth muscle. Direct airway challenges have been used widely and are well standardised. They are highly sensitive, but not specific to asthma and can be used to exclude current asthma in a clinic population. Indirect bronchial stimuli, in particular exercise, hyperventilation, hypertonic aerosols, as well as adenosine, may reflect more directly the ongoing airway inflammation and are therefore more specific to identify active asthma. They are increasingly used to evaluate the prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and to assess specific problems in patients with known asthma, e.g. exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, evaluation before scuba diving. Direct bronchial responsiveness is only slowly and to a modest extent, influenced by repeated administration of inhaled steroids. Indirect challenges may reflect more closely acute changes in airway inflammation and a change in responsiveness to an indirect stimulus may be a clinically relevant marker to assess the clinical course of asthma. Moreover, some of the indirect challenges, e.g. hypertonic saline and mannitol, can be combined with the assessment of inflammatory cells by induction of sputum.

  17. Airway statuses and nasopharyngeal airway use for airway obstruction in syndromic craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Kouga, Takeshi; Tanoue, Koji; Matsui, Kiyoshi

    2014-05-01

    Syndromic craniosynostosis is associated with a high rate of respiratory difficulty, due mainly to midfacial hypoplasia. Nasopharyngeal airway establishment has been reported as the first-line approach to airway obstruction and may obviate the need for a highly invasive tracheotomy. No previous studies have compared airway obstruction status in syndromic craniosynostosis between cases requiring and not requiring airway managements. We focus on nasopharyngeal airway use and airway status outcomes to assess respiratory difficulty in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. A retrospective data analysis of 51 cases with syndromic craniosynostosis was carried out. We divided 30 of the 51 cases with lateral pharyngeal x-rays taken before operations affecting airway diameters into 2 groups, one with neither nasopharyngeal airway insertion nor tracheotomy and the other with one or both of these interventions, and the mean diameters for 8 indices related to the pharyngeal space were compared. Cases with respiratory difficulty due to nasopharyngeal stenosis and requiring airway managements comprised a significantly higher proportion of those with Pfeiffer syndrome than patients with Crouzon or Apert syndrome. Comparative examination of lateral x-ray cephalometry between cases with neither nasopharyngeal airway insertion nor tracheotomy and cases with one or both revealed oropharyngeal diameters tended to be smaller in those with interventions. Cases requiring nasopharyngeal airway insertion were able to continue nasopharyngeal airway use for more than 1 year and a considerable number avoided tracheotomy. It may be worth considering an oropharyngeal-bypass nasopharyngeal airway before performing a tracheotomy. PMID:24820706

  18. Vascular Anomalies and Airway Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Caroline; Lee, Edward I.; Edmonds, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies, both tumors and malformations, can occur anywhere in the body, including the airway, often without any external manifestations. However, vascular anomalies involving the airway deserve special consideration as proper recognition and management can be lifesaving. In this article, the authors discuss vascular anomalies as they pertains to the airway, focusing on proper diagnosis, diagnostic modalities, and therapeutic options. PMID:25045336

  19. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-04-08

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the

  20. Reflex modulation of airflow dynamics through the upper airway.

    PubMed

    Seelagy, M M; Schwartz, A R; Russ, D B; King, E D; Wise, R A; Smith, P L

    1994-06-01

    We studied the effect of respiratory reflexes on maximal inspiratory flow (VImax) and its mechanical determinants, pharyngeal critical pressure (Pcrit) and nasal resistance, in an isolated feline upper airway preparation. Chemoreceptor reflexes were evaluated by varying inspired oxygen and end-tidal CO2 concentrations. At each gas concentration, we found that changes in VImax were related to changes in Pcrit. As CO2 increased, Pcrit became increasingly subatmospheric (P < 0.02), indicating reductions in pharyngeal collapsibility. In contrast, progressive hypoxia had no effect on Pcrit. We then examined the effects of vagal afferents and upper airway mucosal receptors on airflow dynamics at three levels of CO2. We confirmed that CO2 increased VImax (P < 0.01) and decreased Pcrit to more subatmospheric levels (P < 0.05) in both the presence and absence of vagal and airway mucosal afferent activity. Moreover, airway mucosal afferents led to smaller reductions in Pcrit (a less collapsible airway) (P < 0.05), whereas vagal afferents led to a larger increase in Pcrit (a more collapsible pharynx) under hypercapnic conditions (P < 0.01). We conclude that CO2 had a major effect on pharyngeal collapsability and that its effect was modulated by vagal and mucosal afferents. We speculate that the sensitivity and threshold to reflex CO2 responses play a major role in the maintenance of airway patency.

  1. Progenitor Cells in Proximal Airway Epithelial Development and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Thomas J.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple distinct epithelial domains are found throughout the airway that are distinguishable by location, structure, function, and cell-type composition. Several progenitor cell populations in the proximal airway have been identified to reside in confined microenvironmental niches including the submucosal glands (SMGs), which are embedded in the tracheal connective tissue between the surface epithelium and cartilage, and basal cells that reside within the surface airway epithelium (SAE). Current research suggests that regulatory pathways that coordinate development of the proximal airway and establishment of progenitor cell niches may overlap with pathways that control progenitor cell responses during airway regeneration following injury. SMGs have been shown to harbor epithelial progenitor cells, and this niche is dysregulated in diseases such as cystic fibrosis. However, mechanisms that regulate progenitor cell proliferation and maintenance within this glandular niche are not completely understood. Here we discuss glandular progenitor cells during development and regeneration of the proximal airway and compare properties of glandular progenitors to those of basal cell progenitors in the SAE. Further investigation into glandular progenitor cell control will provide a direction for interrogating therapeutic interventions to correct aberrant conditions affecting the SMGs in diseases such as cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. PMID:24818588

  2. Restoring airway epithelial barrier dysfunction: a new therapeutic challenge in allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Steelant, B; Seys, S F; Boeckxstaens, G; Akdis, C A; Ceuppens, J L; Hellings, P W

    2016-09-01

    An intact functional mucosal barrier is considered to be crucial for the maintenance of airway homeostasis as it protects the host immune system from exposure to allergens and noxious environmental triggers. Recent data provided evidence for the contribution of barrier dysfunction to the development of inflammatory diseases in the airways, skin and gut. A defective barrier has been documented in chronic rhinosinusitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. However, it remains to be elucidated to what extent primary (genetic) versus secondary (inflammatory) mechanisms drive barrier dysfunction. The precise pathogenesis of barrier dysfunction in patients with chronic mucosal inflammation and its implications on tissue inflammation and systemic absorption of exogenous particles are only partly understood. Since epithelial barrier defects are linked with chronicity and severity of airway inflammation, restoring the barrier integrity may become a useful approach in the treatment of allergic diseases. We here provide a state-of-the-art review on epithelial barrier dysfunction in upper and lower airways as well as in the intestine and the skin and on how barrier dysfunction can be restored from a therapeutic perspective.

  3. Total airway reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Connor, Matthew P; Barrera, Jose E; Eller, Robert; McCusker, Scott; O'Connor, Peter

    2013-02-01

    We present a case of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that required multilevel surgical correction of the airway and literature review and discuss the role supraglottic laryngeal collapse can have in OSA. A 34-year-old man presented to a tertiary otolaryngology clinic for treatment of OSA. He previously had nasal and palate surgeries and a Repose tongue suspension. His residual apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 67. He had a dysphonia associated with a true vocal cord paralysis following resection of a benign neck mass in childhood. He also complained of inspiratory stridor with exercise and intolerance to continuous positive airway pressure. Physical examination revealed craniofacial hypoplasia, full base of tongue, and residual nasal airway obstruction. On laryngoscopy, the paretic aryepiglottic fold arytenoid complex prolapsed into the laryngeal inlet with each breath. This was more pronounced with greater respiratory effort. Surgical correction required a series of operations including awake tracheostomy, supraglottoplasty, midline glossectomy, genial tubercle advancement, maxillomandibular advancement, and reconstructive rhinoplasty. His final AHI was 1.9. Our patient's supraglottic laryngeal collapse constituted an area of obstruction not typically evaluated in OSA surgery. In conjunction with treating nasal, palatal, and hypopharyngeal subsites, our patient's supraglottoplasty represented a key component of his success. This case illustrates the need to evaluate the entire upper airway in a complicated case of OSA. PMID:22965285

  4. 33 CFR 106.255 - Security systems and equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.255 Security systems and equipment maintenance....

  5. 33 CFR 106.255 - Security systems and equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.255 Security systems and equipment maintenance....

  6. 33 CFR 106.255 - Security systems and equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.255 Security systems and equipment maintenance....

  7. 33 CFR 106.255 - Security systems and equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.255 Security systems and equipment maintenance....

  8. 33 CFR 106.255 - Security systems and equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.255 Security systems and equipment maintenance....

  9. Methods of airway resistance assessment.

    PubMed

    Urbankowski, Tomasz; Przybyłowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Airway resistance is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of the airflow in the airways. The most frequent methods used to measure airway resistance are whole-body plethysmography, the interrupter technique and the forced oscillation technique. All these methods allow to measure resistance during respiration at the level close to tidal volume, they do not require forced breathing manoeuvres or deep breathing during measurement. The most popular method for measuring airway resistance is whole-body plethysmography. The results of plethysmography include among others the following parameters: airway resistance (Raw), airway conductance (Gaw), specific airway resistance (sRaw) and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The interrupter technique is based on the assumption that at the moment of airway occlusion, air pressure in the mouth is equal to the alveolar pressure . In the forced oscillation technique (FOT), airway resistance is calculated basing on the changes in pressure and flow caused by air vibration. The methods for measurement of airway resistance that are described in the present paper seem to be a useful alternative to the most common lung function test - spirometry. The target group in which these methods may be widely used are particularly the patients who are unable to perform spirometry.

  10. Airway Trefoil Factor Expression during Naphthalene Injury and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Greeley, Melanie A.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Edwards, Patricia C.; Plopper, Charles G.

    2010-01-01

    While the role of trefoil factors (TFF) in the maintenance of epithelial integrity in the gastrointestinal tract is well known, their involvement in wound healing in the conducting airway is less well understood. We defined the pattern of expression of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 in the airways of mice during repair of both severe (300 mg/kg) and moderate (200 mg/kg) naphthalene-induced Clara cell injury. Quantitative real-time PCR for tff messenger RNA expression and immunohistochemistry for protein expression were applied to airway samples obtained by microdissection of airway trees or to fixed lung tissue from mice at 6 and 24 h and 4 and 7 days after exposure to either naphthalene or an oil (vehicle) control. All three TFF were expressed in normal whole lung and airways. TFF2 was the most abundant and was enriched in airways. Injury of the airway epithelium by 300 mg/kg naphthalene caused a significant induction of tff1 gene expression at 24 h, 4 days, and 7 days. In contrast, tff2 was decreased in the high-dose group at 24 h and 4 days but returned to baseline levels by 7 days. tff3 gene expression was not significantly changed at any time point. Protein localization via immunohistochemistry did not directly correlate with the gene expression measurements. TFF1 and TFF2 expression was most intense in the degenerating Clara cells in the injury target zone at 6 and 24 h. Following the acute injury phase, TFF1 and TFF2 were localized to the luminal apices of repairing epithelial cells and to the adjacent mesenchyme in focal regions that correlated with bifurcations and the bronchoalveolar duct junction. The temporal pattern of increases in TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 indicate a role in cell death as well as proliferation, migration, and differentiation phases of airway epithelial repair. PMID:19880587

  11. Comparison of i-gel supraglottic airway and LMA-ProSeal™ in pediatric patients under controlled ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Saran, Sai; Mishra, Sandeep Kumar; Badhe, Ashok Shankar; Vasudevan, Arumugam; Elakkumanan, Lenin Babu; Mishra, Gayatri

    2014-01-01

    Background: i-gel™ and the ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) are two supraglottic airway devices with gastric channel used for airway maintenance in anesthesia. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of i-gel compared with PLMA for airway maintenance in pediatric patients under general anesthesia with controlled ventilation. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2 patients were included in the study and randomized to either i-gel or PLMA group. After induction of anesthesia using a standardized protocol for all the patients, one of supraglottic airway devices was inserted. Insertion parameters, ease of gastric tube insertion and fiber-optic scoring of the glottis were noted. Airway parameters such as end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2), peak airway pressures and leak airway pressures were noted. Patients were observed for any complications in the first 12 h of the post-operative period. Results: Both groups were comparable in terms of ease of insertion, number of attempts and other insertion parameters. Ease of gastric tube insertion, EtCO2, airway pressures (peak and leak airway pressure) and fiber-optic view of the glottis were comparable in both groups. There were no clinically significant complications in the first 12 h of the post-operative period. Conclusion: i-gel is as effective as PLMA in pediatric patients under controlled ventilation. PMID:24803756

  12. Landscaping With Maintenance in Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Examines school ground landscape design that enhances attractive of the school and provides for easier maintenance. Landscape design issues discussed include choice of grass, trees, and shrubs; irrigation; and safety and access. Other considerations for lessening maintenance problems for facility managers are also highlighted. (GR)

  13. Maintenance Process Strategic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Stachowiak, A.

    2016-08-01

    The performance and competitiveness of manufacturing companies is dependent on the availability, reliability and productivity of their production facilities. Low productivity, downtime, and poor machine performance is often linked to inadequate plant maintenance, which in turn can lead to reduced production levels, increasing costs, lost market opportunities, and lower profits. These pressures have given firms worldwide the motivation to explore and embrace proactive maintenance strategies over the traditional reactive firefighting methods. The traditional view of maintenance has shifted into one of an overall view that encompasses Overall Equipment Efficiency, Stakeholders Management and Life Cycle assessment. From practical point of view it requires changes in approach to maintenance represented by managers and changes in actions performed within maintenance area. Managers have to understand that maintenance is not only about repairs and conservations of machines and devices, but also actions striving for more efficient resources management and care for safety and health of employees. The purpose of the work is to present strategic analysis based on SWOT analysis to identify the opportunities and strengths of maintenance process, to benefit from them as much as possible, as well as to identify weaknesses and threats, so that they could be eliminated or minimized.

  14. 14 CFR 171.11 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Maintenance and operations requirements. (a) The owner of the facility must establish an adequate maintenance system and provide qualified maintenance personnel to maintain the facility at the level attained at the time it was commissioned. Each person who maintains a facility must meet at least the...

  15. 14 CFR 171.161 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (DME) § 171.161 Maintenance and operations requirements. (a) The owner of the facility shall establish an adequate maintenance system and provide qualified maintenance personnel to maintain the facility at the level attained at the time it was commissioned. Each person who maintains a facility...

  16. Airway goblet cells: responsive and adaptable front-line defenders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D F

    1994-09-01

    Goblet cells are situated in the epithelium of the conducting airways, often with their apical surfaces protruding into the lumen, a location which fits them for a rapid response to inhaled airway insults. Together with the submucosal glands, goblet cells secrete high molecular weight mucus glycoproteins (mucins), which confer upon the airway surface fluid the requisite biochemical and biophysical properties which determine the efficiency of entrapment and transportation of inhaled irritants, particles and micro-organisms. The diversity of glycosylation of airway mucins may be important in facilitating adherence of micro-organisms to mucus prior to mucociliary clearance. Other secretory products, including lipids and "small" glycoproteins, may also be produced by goblet cells. It is possible that goblet cells have the potential to produce markedly more mucus than do the glands. Mucins are tightly packed in the intracellular granules of the goblet cell. The morphology of these granules varies with fixation technique, and release of mucins may be via a combination of merocrine and apocrine secretion. Discharge of mucus is accomplished remarkably rapidly (tens of milliseconds) and vast quantities of mucus are released (size expansions from the granule of many hundredfold). Depending upon species and preparation, goblet cells discharge mucus in response to a wide variety of stimuli, including proteinases, irritant gases, inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species, nerve activation and changes in the biophysical environment. Under normal conditions, goblet cell proliferation and differentiation, particularly to ciliated cells, contributes to maintenance of the airway epithelial cell population. In addition to participating in acute airway defence, goblet cells increase in number in response to chronic airway insult, with a resultant increase in output of mucus. The increase in number of cells is via hyperplastic and metaplastic mechanisms. Early triggers for the

  17. Essentials of airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation: part 1: basic equipment and devices.

    PubMed

    Becker, Daniel E; Rosenberg, Morton B; Phero, James C

    2014-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Optimizing patient safety using crisis resource management (CRM) involves the entire dental office team being familiar with airway rescue equipment. Basic equipment for oxygenation, ventilation, and airway management is mandated in the majority of US dental offices per state regulations. The immediate availability of this equipment is especially important during the administration of sedation and anesthesia as well as the treatment of medical urgencies/emergencies. This article reviews basic equipment and devices essential in any dental practice whether providing local anesthesia alone or in combination with procedural sedation. Part 2 of this series will address advanced airway devices, including supraglottic airways and armamentarium for tracheal intubation and invasive airway procedures. PMID:24932982

  18. Essentials of airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation: part 1: basic equipment and devices.

    PubMed

    Becker, Daniel E; Rosenberg, Morton B; Phero, James C

    2014-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Optimizing patient safety using crisis resource management (CRM) involves the entire dental office team being familiar with airway rescue equipment. Basic equipment for oxygenation, ventilation, and airway management is mandated in the majority of US dental offices per state regulations. The immediate availability of this equipment is especially important during the administration of sedation and anesthesia as well as the treatment of medical urgencies/emergencies. This article reviews basic equipment and devices essential in any dental practice whether providing local anesthesia alone or in combination with procedural sedation. Part 2 of this series will address advanced airway devices, including supraglottic airways and armamentarium for tracheal intubation and invasive airway procedures.

  19. Construction and maintenance of SUNY facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Progress report, 1 July 1983-1 July 1984. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bigeleisen, J.

    1984-01-01

    Research reported includes beamline facilities, X-21 beamline update, SUNY-PRT participation in the design and commissioning of the CHESS crystallography facility, surface physics, material and structure studies using EXAFS, x-ray standing wave studies of surfaces and interfaces, and surface diffraction of adsorbed polyatomic molecules. (GHT)

  20. Managing upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Innes, M H

    A complete respiratory obstruction can lead to death in 3 minutes. The first and constant duty of the nurse aider is to check that the person is breathing by looking, listening and feeling. Partial obstruction is no less serious than complete obstruction. The nurse aider, in any situation, should assess the problem and attempt to overcome the airway obstruction using the measures described. PMID:1490067

  1. Airway gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jane C; Alton, Eric W F W

    2005-01-01

    Given both the accessibility and the genetic basis of several pulmonary diseases, the lungs and airways initially seemed ideal candidates for gene therapy. Several routes of access are available, many of which have been refined and optimized for nongene drug delivery. Two respiratory diseases, cystic fibrosis (CF) and alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) deficiency, are relatively common; the single gene responsible has been identified and current treatment strategies are not curative. This type of inherited disease was the obvious initial target for gene therapy, but it has become clear that nongenetic and acquired diseases, including cancer, may also be amenable to this approach. The majority of preclinical and clinical studies in the airway have involved viral vectors, although for diseases such as CF, likely to require repeated application, non-viral delivery systems have clear advantages. However, with both approaches a range of barriers to gene expression have been identified that are limiting success in the airway and alveolar region. This chapter reviews these issues, strategies aimed at overcoming them, and progress into clinical trials with non-viral vectors in a variety of pulmonary diseases.

  2. The Maintenance of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Systems and Indoor Air Quality in Schools: A Guide for School Facility Managers. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    To help maintain good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools, guidance for the development and implementation of an effective program for maintenance and operation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are discussed. Frequently, a building's occupants will complain about IAQ when the temperature or humidity are at uncomfortable…

  3. Maintenance Downtime

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-10

    ... will be unavailable March 5, 2013 8:00 am to 5:00 pm due to database maintenance. Date(s):  Tuesday, March 5, 2013 ... will be unavailable March 5, 2013 8:00 am to 5:00 pm due to database maintenance. ...

  4. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  5. Software Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Glenn; Jobe, Holly

    Proper cleaning and storage of audiovisual aids is outlined in this brief guide. Materials and equipment needed for first line maintenance are listed, as well as maintenance procedures for records, audio and video tape, film, filmstrips, slides, realia, models, prints, graphics, maps, and overhead transparencies. A 15-item quiz on software…

  6. Causes of the difficult airway.

    PubMed

    Orfanos, John G; Quereshy, Faisal A

    2010-03-01

    Recognizing a potentially difficult airway is important in avoiding a life-threatening emergency. There are 2 separate scenarios for considering the difficult airway: difficult mask ventilation (DMV) and difficult tracheal intubation (DTI). DMV can be described as lacking the ability to maintain oxygen saturation or lacking the ability to reverse signs of inadequate ventilation with positive-pressure mask ventilation under general anesthesia. DTI remains constant among anesthesia-related patient injuries, and is the third most common respiratory-related episode leading to death and possible brain damage. It is important to preoperatively assess every patient by completing a full history and physical. A thorough history can provide clues in detecting a possible difficult airway. Airway impairment has been further subdivided into the anatomic regions that affect the airway, namely above the larynx, supraglottic, glottic, subglottic, and tracheobronchial. This article discusses the factors that can result in a difficult airway.

  7. 33 CFR 127.401 - Maintenance: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance: General. 127.401 Section 127.401 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.401 Maintenance: General. The...

  8. 33 CFR 127.401 - Maintenance: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance: General. 127.401 Section 127.401 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.401 Maintenance: General. The...

  9. 49 CFR 260.39 - Maintenance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance standards. 260.39 Section 260.39... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Standards for Maintenance of Facilities Involved in the Project § 260.39 Maintenance standards. (a) When the proceeds of a direct loan or an obligation guaranteed...

  10. 49 CFR 260.39 - Maintenance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maintenance standards. 260.39 Section 260.39... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Standards for Maintenance of Facilities Involved in the Project § 260.39 Maintenance standards. (a) When the proceeds of a direct loan or an obligation guaranteed...

  11. Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS)/TRICARE: Refills of Maintenance Medications Through Military Treatment Facility Pharmacies or National Mail Order Pharmacy Program. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    This interim final rule implements Section 702 (c) of the Carl Levin and Howard P. "Buck" McKeon National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015 which states that beginning October 1, 2015, the pharmacy benefits program shall require eligible covered beneficiaries generally to refill non-generic prescription maintenance medications through military treatment facility pharmacies or the national mail-order pharmacy program. Section 702(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015 also terminates the TRICARE For Life Pilot Program on September 30, 2015. The TRICARE For Life Pilot Program described in Section 716 (f) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, was a pilot program which began in March 2014 requiring TRICARE For Life beneficiaries to refill non-generic prescription maintenance medications through military treatment facility pharmacies or the national mail-order pharmacy program. TRICARE for Life beneficiaries are those enrolled in the Medicare wraparound coverage option of the TRICARE program. This interim rule includes procedures to assist beneficiaries in transferring covered prescriptions to the mail order pharmacy program. This regulation is being issued as an interim final rule in order to comply with the express statutory intent that the program begin October 1, 2015. Public comments, however, are invited and will be considered for possible revisions to this rule for the second year of the program. PMID:26248388

  12. Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS)/TRICARE: Refills of Maintenance Medications Through Military Treatment Facility Pharmacies or National Mail Order Pharmacy Program. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    This interim final rule implements Section 702 (c) of the Carl Levin and Howard P. "Buck" McKeon National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015 which states that beginning October 1, 2015, the pharmacy benefits program shall require eligible covered beneficiaries generally to refill non-generic prescription maintenance medications through military treatment facility pharmacies or the national mail-order pharmacy program. Section 702(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015 also terminates the TRICARE For Life Pilot Program on September 30, 2015. The TRICARE For Life Pilot Program described in Section 716 (f) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, was a pilot program which began in March 2014 requiring TRICARE For Life beneficiaries to refill non-generic prescription maintenance medications through military treatment facility pharmacies or the national mail-order pharmacy program. TRICARE for Life beneficiaries are those enrolled in the Medicare wraparound coverage option of the TRICARE program. This interim rule includes procedures to assist beneficiaries in transferring covered prescriptions to the mail order pharmacy program. This regulation is being issued as an interim final rule in order to comply with the express statutory intent that the program begin October 1, 2015. Public comments, however, are invited and will be considered for possible revisions to this rule for the second year of the program.

  13. Future-oriented maintenance strategy based on automated processes is finding its way into large astronomical facilities at remote observing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Armin; Gonzalez, Christian; Pino, Francisco; Escarate, Patricio; Gairing, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    With expanding sizes and increasing complexity of large astronomical observatories on remote observing sites, the call for an efficient and recourses saving maintenance concept becomes louder. The increasing number of subsystems on telescopes and instruments forces large observatories, like in industries, to rethink conventional maintenance strategies for reaching this demanding goal. The implementation of full-, or semi-automatic processes for standard service activities can help to keep the number of operating staff on an efficient level and to reduce significantly the consumption of valuable consumables or equipment. In this contribution we will demonstrate on the example of the 80 Cryogenic subsystems of the ALMA Front End instrument, how an implemented automatic service process increases the availability of spare parts and Line Replaceable Units. Furthermore how valuable staff recourses can be freed from continuous repetitive maintenance activities, to allow focusing more on system diagnostic tasks, troubleshooting and the interchanging of line replaceable units. The required service activities are decoupled from the day-to-day work, eliminating dependencies on workload peaks or logistic constrains. The automatic refurbishing processes running in parallel to the operational tasks with constant quality and without compromising the performance of the serviced system components. Consequentially that results in an efficiency increase, less down time and keeps the observing schedule on track. Automatic service processes in combination with proactive maintenance concepts are providing the necessary flexibility for the complex operational work structures of large observatories. The gained planning flexibility is allowing an optimization of operational procedures and sequences by considering the required cost efficiency.

  14. Global airway disease beyond allergy.

    PubMed

    Hellings, Peter W; Prokopakis, Emmanuel P

    2010-03-01

    Besides the anatomic continuity of the upper and lower airways, inflammation in one part of the airway influences the homeostasis of the other. The mechanisms underlying this interaction have been studied primarily in allergic disease, showing systemic immune activation, induction of inflammation at a distance, and a negative impact of nasal inflammation on bronchial homeostasis. In addition to allergy, other inflammatory conditions of the upper airways are associated with lower airway disease. Rhinosinusitis is frequently associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The impairment of purification, humidification, and warming up of the inspired air by the nose in rhinosinusitis may be responsible in part for bronchial pathology. The resolution of sinonasal inflammation via medical and/or surgical treatment is responsible for the beneficial effect of the treatment on bronchial disease. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of upper and lower airway communication beyond allergic disease.

  15. The mechanics of airway closure.

    PubMed

    Heil, Matthias; Hazel, Andrew L; Smith, Jaclyn A

    2008-11-30

    We describe how surface-tension-driven instabilities of the lung's liquid lining may lead to pulmonary airway closure via the formation of liquid bridges that occlude the airway lumen. Using simple theoretical models, we demonstrate that this process may occur via a purely fluid-mechanical "film collapse" or through a coupled, fluid-elastic "compliant collapse" mechanism. Both mechanisms can lead to airway closure in times comparable with the breathing cycle, suggesting that surface tension is the primary mechanical effect responsible for the closure observed in peripheral regions of the human lungs. We conclude by discussing the influence of additional effects not included in the simple models, such as gravity, the presence of pulmonary surfactant, respiratory flow and wall motion, the airways' geometry, and the mechanical structure of the airway walls. PMID:18595784

  16. Operative endoscopy of the airway

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Dustin M.

    2016-01-01

    Airway endoscopy has long been an important and useful tool in the management of thoracic diseases. As thoracic specialists have gained experience with both flexible and rigid bronchoscopic techniques, the technology has continued to evolve so that bronchoscopy is currently the foundation for diagnosis and treatment of many thoracic ailments. Airway endoscopy plays a significant role in the biopsy of tumors within the airways, mediastinum, and lung parenchyma. Endoscopic methods have been developed to treat benign and malignant airway stenoses and tracheomalacia. And more recently, techniques have been conceived to treat end-stage emphysema and prolonged air leaks in select patients. This review describes the abundant uses of airway endoscopy, as well as technical considerations and limitations of the current technologies. PMID:26981263

  17. Language Laboratory Facilities: Technical Guide for the Selection, Purchase, Use, and Maintenance. New Media for Instruction, 4. Bulletin, 1963, No. 37. OE-21024

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alfred S.

    1963-01-01

    During the past fifteen years, educators and electronics specialists have been experimenting with language facilities, usually by modifying equipment components which were originally designed for other purposes. The rapid growth, wide diversity, and newness of these electronic aids to language learning have created the need for a study of the most…

  18. 14 CFR 171.115 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information concerning the facility: (i) Facility component locations with respect to airport layout... Facility (SDF) § 171.115 Maintenance and operations requirements. (a) The owner of the facility shall... facility at the level attained at the time it was commissioned. Each person who maintains a facility...

  19. 14 CFR 171.51 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information concerning the facility: (i) Facility component locations with respect to airport layout... (ILS) Facilities § 171.51 Maintenance and operations requirements. (a) The owner of the facility must... facility at the level attained at the time it was commissioned. Each person who maintains a facility...

  20. Respiratory failure due to expiratory central airway collapse.

    PubMed

    Murgu, Septimiu D; Cherrison, Lawrence J; Colt, Henri G

    2007-06-01

    We report a patient with respiratory failure due to expiratory central airway collapse successfully treated with airway stents. A 74-year-old male with obesity and obstructive sleep apnea had recurrent episodes of acute respiratory failure. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation failed because of patient intolerance and lack of improvement, and soon after he stopped using the noninvasive ventilator he developed severe respiratory failure that required a tracheostomy. He was transferred to our institution one month later. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed diffuse expiratory central airway collapse of both main bronchi and the lower two thirds of the trachea, caused by bulging of the posterior airway membrane. During rigid bronchoscopy we inserted studded silicone stents in the right and left mainstem bronchi and in the distal trachea. The patient was weaned from mechanical ventilation 72 hours later and discharged to a long-term care facility. Expiratory central airway collapse should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with respiratory failure, especially when weaning from mechanical ventilation is difficult. PMID:17521465

  1. Increased airway glucose increases airway bacterial load in hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Simren K; Hui, Kailyn; Farne, Hugo; Garnett, James P; Baines, Deborah L; Moore, Luke S P; Holmes, Alison H; Filloux, Alain; Tregoning, John S

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased frequency of hospitalization due to bacterial lung infection. We hypothesize that increased airway glucose caused by hyperglycaemia leads to increased bacterial loads. In critical care patients, we observed that respiratory tract bacterial colonisation is significantly more likely when blood glucose is high. We engineered mutants in genes affecting glucose uptake and metabolism (oprB, gltK, gtrS and glk) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain PAO1. These mutants displayed attenuated growth in minimal medium supplemented with glucose as the sole carbon source. The effect of glucose on growth in vivo was tested using streptozocin-induced, hyperglycaemic mice, which have significantly greater airway glucose. Bacterial burden in hyperglycaemic animals was greater than control animals when infected with wild type but not mutant PAO1. Metformin pre-treatment of hyperglycaemic animals reduced both airway glucose and bacterial load. These data support airway glucose as a critical determinant of increased bacterial load during diabetes. PMID:27273266

  2. Increased airway glucose increases airway bacterial load in hyperglycaemia

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Simren K.; Hui, Kailyn; Farne, Hugo; Garnett, James P.; Baines, Deborah L.; Moore, Luke S.P.; Holmes, Alison H.; Filloux, Alain; Tregoning, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased frequency of hospitalization due to bacterial lung infection. We hypothesize that increased airway glucose caused by hyperglycaemia leads to increased bacterial loads. In critical care patients, we observed that respiratory tract bacterial colonisation is significantly more likely when blood glucose is high. We engineered mutants in genes affecting glucose uptake and metabolism (oprB, gltK, gtrS and glk) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain PAO1. These mutants displayed attenuated growth in minimal medium supplemented with glucose as the sole carbon source. The effect of glucose on growth in vivo was tested using streptozocin-induced, hyperglycaemic mice, which have significantly greater airway glucose. Bacterial burden in hyperglycaemic animals was greater than control animals when infected with wild type but not mutant PAO1. Metformin pre-treatment of hyperglycaemic animals reduced both airway glucose and bacterial load. These data support airway glucose as a critical determinant of increased bacterial load during diabetes. PMID:27273266

  3. Beyond the Status Quo: Creating a School Maintenance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, T. C.

    2000-01-01

    A well-planned maintenance program will prolong a new school building's life expectancy and save enormous sums. A maintenance program should include a facility inventory, a building archive, management of punch-list and warranty items, custodial service, proactive maintenance, a maintenance schedule, and energy conservation features. (MLH)

  4. Apoptosis and the Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    White, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    The airway epithelium functions as a barrier and front line of host defense in the lung. Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or to environmental toxins, or to drugs. While apoptosis can be induced via activation of death receptors on the cell surface or by disruption of mitochondrial polarity, epithelial cells compared to inflammatory cells are more resistant to apoptotic stimuli. This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways diseases. PMID:22203854

  5. Extraglottic airway devices: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ramaiah, Ramesh; Das, Debasmita; Bhananker, Sanjay M; Joffe, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    Extraglottic airway devices (EAD) have become an integral part of anesthetic care since their introduction into clinical practice 25 years ago and have been used safely hundreds of millions of times, worldwide. They are an important first option for difficult ventilation during both in-hospital and out-of-hospital difficult airway management and can be utilized as a conduit for tracheal intubation either blindly or assisted by another technology (fiberoptic endoscopy, lightwand). Thus, the EAD may be the most versatile single airway technique in the airway management toolbox. However, despite their utility, knowledge regarding specific devices and the supporting data for their use is of paramount importance to patient's safety. In this review, number of commercially available EADs are discussed and the reported benefits and potential pitfalls are highlighted. PMID:24741502

  6. United airway disease: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Takejima, Priscila; Kalil, Jorge; Agondi, Rosana Câmara

    2016-01-01

    Upper and lower airways are considered a unified morphological and functional unit, and the connection existing between them has been observed for many years, both in health and in disease. There is strong epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, and clinical evidence supporting an integrated view of rhinitis and asthma: united airway disease in the present review. The term “united airway disease” is opportune, because rhinitis and asthma are chronic inflammatory diseases of the upper and lower airways, which can be induced by allergic or nonallergic reproducible mechanisms, and present several phenotypes. Management of rhinitis and asthma must be jointly carried out, leading to better control of both diseases, and the lessons of the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma initiative cannot be forgotten. PMID:27257389

  7. Airway Surface Mycosis in Chronic Th2-Associated Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Paul; Lim, Dae Jun; Maskatia, Zahida Khan; Mak, Garbo; Tsai, Chu-Lin; Citardi, Martin J; Fakhri, Samer; Shaw, Joanne L.; Fothergil, Annette; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B; Luong, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental fungi have been linked to T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-related airway inflammation and the Th2-associated chronic airway diseases asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS), but whether these organisms participate directly or indirectly in disease pathology remains unknown. Objective To determine the frequency of fungus isolation and fungus-specific immunity in Th2-associated and non-associated airway disease patients. Methods Sinus lavage fluid and blood were collected from sinus surgery patients (n=118) including CRS patients with and without nasal polyps and AFRS and non-CRS/non-asthmatic control patients. Asthma status was deteremined from medical history. Sinus lavage fluids were cultured and directly examined for evidence of viable fungi. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were restimulated with fungal antigens in an enzyme linked immunocell spot (ELISpot) assay to determine total memory fungus-specific IL-4-secreting cells. These data were compared to fungus-specific IgE levels measured from plasma by ELISA. Results Filamentous fungi were significantly more commonly cultured from Th2-associated airway disease subjects (asthma, CRSwNP, or AFRS: n=68) compared to non-Th2-associated control patients (n=31); 74% vs 16% respectively, p<0.001. Both fungus-specific IL-4 ELISpot (n=48) and specific IgE (n=70) data correlated with Th2-associated diseases (sensitivity 73% and specificity 100% vs. 50% and 77%, respectively). Conclusions The frequent isolation of fungi growing directly within the airways accompanied by specific immunity to these organisms only in patients with Th2-associated chronic airway diseases suggests that fungi participate directly in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Efforts to eradicate airway fungi from the airways should be considered in selected patients. Clinical Implications Airway fungi may contribute to the expression of sinusitis with nasal polyps and

  8. Essentials of Airway Management, Oxygenation, and Ventilation: Basic Equipment and Devices.

    PubMed

    Becker, Daniel E; Rosenberg, Morton B; Phero, James C

    2015-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Optimizing patient safety using crisis resource management involves the entire dental office team being familiar with airway rescue equipment. Basic equipment for oxygenation, ventilation, and airway management is mandated in the majority of U.S. dental offices, per state regulations. The immediate availability of this equipment is especially important during the administration of sedation and anesthesia, as well as the treatment of medical urgencies/emergencies. This article reviews basic equipment and devices essential in any dental practice, whether providing local anesthesia alone or in combination with procedural sedation. PMID:26168530

  9. Airway obstruction with cricoid pressure.

    PubMed

    Hartsilver, E L; Vanner, R G

    2000-03-01

    Cricoid pressure may cause airway obstruction. We investigated whether this is related to the force applied and to the technique of application. We recorded expired tidal volumes and inflation pressures during ventilation via a face-mask and oral airway in 52 female patients who were anaesthetised and about to undergo elective surgery. An inspired tidal volume of 900 ml was delivered using a ventilator. Ventilation was assessed under five different conditions: no cricoid pressure, backwards cricoid pressure applied with a force of 30 N, cricoid pressure applied in an upward and backward direction with a force of 30 N, backwards cricoid pressure with a force of 44 N and through a tracheal tube. An expired tidal volume of < 200 ml was taken to indicate airway obstruction. Airway obstruction did not occur without cricoid pressure, but did occur in one patient (2%) with cricoid pressure at 30 N, in 29 patients (56%) with 30 N applied in an upward and backward direction and in 18 (35%) patients with cricoid pressure at 44 N. Cricoid pressure applied with a force of 44 N can cause airway obstruction but if cricoid pressure is applied with a force of 30 N, airway obstruction occurs less frequently (p = 0.0001) unless the force is applied in an upward and backward direction.

  10. A new removable airway stent

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Tore; Sørhaug, Sveinung; Leira, Håkon Olav; Tyvold, Stig Sverre; Langø, Thomas; Hammer, Tommy; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Mattsson, Erney

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant airway obstruction is a feared complication and will most probably occur more frequently in the future because of increasing cancer incidence and increased life expectancy in cancer patients. Minimal invasive treatment using airway stents represents a meaningful and life-saving palliation. We present a new removable airway stent for improved individualised treatment. Methods To our knowledge, the new airway stent is the world's first knitted and uncovered self-expanding metal stent, which can unravel and be completely removed. In an in vivo model using two anaesthetised and spontaneously breathing pigs, we deployed and subsequently removed the stents by unravelling the device. The procedures were executed by flexible bronchoscopy in an acute and a chronic setting – a ‘proof-of-principle’ study. Results The new stent was easily and accurately deployed in the central airways, and it remained fixed in its original position. It was easy to unravel and completely remove from the airways without clinically significant complications. During the presence of the stent in the chronic study, granulation tissue was induced. This tissue disappeared spontaneously with the removal. Conclusions The new removable stent functioned according to its purpose and unravelled easily, and it was completely removed without significant technical or medical complications. Induced granulation tissue disappeared spontaneously. Further studies on animals and humans are needed to define its optimal indications and future use. PMID:27608269

  11. Airway obstruction with cricoid pressure.

    PubMed

    Hartsilver, E L; Vanner, R G

    2000-03-01

    Cricoid pressure may cause airway obstruction. We investigated whether this is related to the force applied and to the technique of application. We recorded expired tidal volumes and inflation pressures during ventilation via a face-mask and oral airway in 52 female patients who were anaesthetised and about to undergo elective surgery. An inspired tidal volume of 900 ml was delivered using a ventilator. Ventilation was assessed under five different conditions: no cricoid pressure, backwards cricoid pressure applied with a force of 30 N, cricoid pressure applied in an upward and backward direction with a force of 30 N, backwards cricoid pressure with a force of 44 N and through a tracheal tube. An expired tidal volume of < 200 ml was taken to indicate airway obstruction. Airway obstruction did not occur without cricoid pressure, but did occur in one patient (2%) with cricoid pressure at 30 N, in 29 patients (56%) with 30 N applied in an upward and backward direction and in 18 (35%) patients with cricoid pressure at 44 N. Cricoid pressure applied with a force of 44 N can cause airway obstruction but if cricoid pressure is applied with a force of 30 N, airway obstruction occurs less frequently (p = 0.0001) unless the force is applied in an upward and backward direction. PMID:10671836

  12. Effects of second hand smoke on airway secretion and mucociliary clearance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanyan; Di, Y. Peter

    2012-01-01

    The airway acts as the first defense against inhaled pathogens and particulate matter from the environment. One major way for the airway to clear inhaled foreign objects is through mucociliary clearance (MCC), an important component of the respiratory innate immune defense against lung disease. MCC is characterized by the upward movement of mucus by ciliary motion that requires a balance between the volume and composition of the mucus, adequate periciliary liquid (PCL) volume, and normal ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Airway surface fluid (ASL) is a thin layer liquid that consists of the highly viscous mucus upper “gel” layer, and the watery lubricating lower “sol” layer. Mucus production, secretion and clearance are considered to play a critical role in maintenance of airway health because it maintains hydration in the airway and traps particulates, bacteria, and viruses. Different types of epithelial cells, including secretory cells, and ciliated cells, contribute to the MCC function. Cigarette smoke (CS) contains chemicals and particulates that significantly affect airway secretion. Active and passive CS-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently associated with hyperplasia of goblet cells and submucosal glands (SMGs), thus increasing the secretory capacity of the airways that impairs MCC. PMID:22973232

  13. A study of the quality and effectiveness of the Airway Science Electronic Systems program to meet the workforce needs of the Federal Aviation Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedge, Clarence Alvin

    1999-11-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to determine the quality and effectiveness of the Airway Science Electronics Systems program to meet the workforce needs of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The study was to research traditional FAA hired electronics technicians and Airway Science degree graduate electronics technicians. More specially, the study sought (1) to compare the traditional electronics training course requirements to the Airway Science curriculum course requirements, (2) to examine the ratio of Airway Science Electronics Systems graduates to graduates of other Airway Science options and also related electronics training and (3) to determine strengths and weaknesses in the Airway Science Electronics System. Findings and conclusions. The data were obtained by questionnaires sent to (1) the 61 recognized Airway Science Institutions, (2) personal interviews with department chairmen who are members of the Oklahoma City Aviation Aerospace Alliance and (3) personal interviews were also conducted with Electronics Technicians and supervisors at the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. It was found that the present area of airway science curriculum encompasses Airway Science Management, Airway Computer Science, Airway Electronics Systems, Aviation Maintenance Management and Aircraft Systems Management. Programs in airway science are designed specifically to help prepare individuals for meeting the requirements for a strong educational background for tomorrow's aviation leaders. The data indicated that the majority of airway science students pursue careers with the FAA but also find even greater opportunities in industry. The data also shows that in the surveyed schools with approved airway science programs, Airway Science Management was the most frequent offered program.

  14. Human airway ciliary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kristin; Knowles, Michael R.; Davis, C. William

    2013-01-01

    Airway cilia depend on precise changes in shape to transport the mucus gel overlying mucosal surfaces. The ciliary motion can be recorded in several planes using video microscopy. However, cilia are densely packed, and automated computerized systems are not available to convert these ciliary shape changes into forms that are useful for testing theoretical models of ciliary function. We developed a system for converting planar ciliary motions recorded by video microscopy into an empirical quantitative model, which is easy to use in validating mathematical models, or in examining ciliary function, e.g., in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The system we developed allows the manipulation of a model cilium superimposed over a video of beating cilia. Data were analyzed to determine shear angles and velocity vectors of points along the cilium. Extracted waveforms were used to construct a composite waveform, which could be used as a standard. Variability was measured as the mean difference in position of points on individual waveforms and the standard. The shapes analyzed were the end-recovery, end-effective, and fastest moving effective and recovery with mean (± SE) differences of 0.31(0.04), 0.25(0.06), 0.50(0.12), 0.50(0.10), μm, respectively. In contrast, the same measures for three different PCD waveforms had values far outside this range. PMID:23144323

  15. Airway Hydration and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arunava; Boucher, R.C.; Tarran, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the prevalent causes of worldwide mortality and encompasses two major clinical phenotypes, i.e., chronic bronchitis (CB) and emphysema. The most common cause of COPD is chronic tobacco inhalation. Research focused on the chronic bronchitic phenotype of COPD has identified several pathological processes that drive disease initiation and progression. For example, the lung’s mucociliary clearance (MCC) system performs the critical task of clearing inhaled pathogens and toxic materials from the lung. MCC efficiency is dependent on: (i) the ability of apical plasma membrane ion channels such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) to maintain airway hydration; (ii) ciliary beating; and, (iii) appropriate rates of mucin secretion. Each of these components is impaired in CB and likely contributes to the mucus stasis/accumulation seen in CB patients. This review highlights the cellular components responsible for maintaining MCC and how this process is disrupted following tobacco exposure and with CB. We shall also discuss existing therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chronic bronchitis and how components of the MCC can be used as biomarkers for the evaluation of tobacco or tobacco-like-product exposure. PMID:26068443

  16. Efficacy of Surgical Airway Plasty for Benign Airway Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term patency is required during treatment for benign airway stenosis. This study investigated the effectiveness of surgical airway plasty for benign airway stenosis. Methods: Clinical courses of 20 patients, who were treated with surgical plasty for their benign airway stenosis, were retrospectively investigated. Results: Causes of stenosis were tracheobronchial tuberculosis in 12 patients, post-intubation stenosis in five patients, malacia in two patients, and others in one patient. 28 interventional pulmonology procedures and 20 surgical plasty were performed. Five patients with post-intubation stenosis and four patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with tracheoplasty. Eight patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with bronchoplasty, and two patients with malacia were treated with stabilization of the membranous portion. Anastomotic stenosis was observed in four patients, and one to four additional treatments were required. Performance status, Hugh–Jones classification, and ventilatory functions were improved after surgical plasty. Outcomes were fair in patients with tuberculous stenosis and malacia. However, efficacy of surgical plasty for post-intubation stenosis was not observed. Conclusion: Surgical airway plasty may be an acceptable treatment for tuberculous stenosis. Patients with malacia recover well after surgical plasty. There may be untreated patients with malacia who have the potential to benefit from surgical plasty. PMID:26567879

  17. Computer-Assisted School Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2012-01-01

    At thousands of schools and universities, years of economic troubles have led to repeated budget cuts. The reductions typically fall disproportionately on maintenance departments, where cuts are viewed as less critical than those that directly affect classroom instruction. And so nearly every facility manager at an education institution faces a…

  18. Maintenance Sourcebook: A Caretaker's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatts, G. Dewey; Stoverink, Al; Conry, Terry; Goulet, Nicole; Wilson, Joe; Ryan, Rob

    2002-01-01

    Discusses five areas of custodial maintenance caretaking in which facility managers need continual education: first aid and safety, hazardous materials, products and supplies, chemicals and their intended use, and cleaning procedures. Includes an annotated list of resources related to these areas. (EV)

  19. Site Maintenance Plan: Part 2, Site Maintenance Action Plan for FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, E.L.

    1994-06-01

    This Fiscal Year (FY) 1994 Site Maintenance Action Plan (SMAP) is Part II of the Site Maintenance Plan, and has been written by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to outline the requirements stated in DOE Order 4330.4B, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter 1, Paragraph 3.3.1. The SMAP provides an annual status of maintenance initiatives completed and planned, a summary of performance indicators, a summary of maintenance backlog, a listing of real property and capital equipment maintenance cost estimates that were used to create the FY 1996 infrastructure and maintenance budget input, and a listing of proposed line item and general plant projects. Additionally, assumptions for various Site programs are listed to bring the Site Maintenance Plan into focus with overall Site activities. The primary mission at Hanford is to clean up the Site. In this cleanup process WHC will provide scientific and technological expertise to meet global needs, and partnership with stakeholders in the region to develop regional economic diversification. Other missions at the Hanford Site include energy research and development, and waste management and disposal activities. Their primary mission has a 30-year projected life span and will direct the shutting down and cleanup of defense production facilities and the Fast Flux Test Facility. This long-term mission requires continuous maintenance and in many instances, replacement of existing basic infrastructure, support facilities, and utilities. Without adequate maintenance and capital funding these infrastructure, support facilities, and utilities will continue to deteriorate causing an increase in backlogged work.

  20. Allergen-induced airway responses.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Gail M; El-Gammal, Amani I; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    Environmental allergens are an important cause of asthma and can contribute to loss of asthma control and exacerbations. Allergen inhalation challenge has been a useful clinical model to examine the mechanisms of allergen-induced airway responses and inflammation. Allergen bronchoconstrictor responses are the early response, which reaches a maximum within 30 min and resolves by 1-3 h, and late responses, when bronchoconstriction recurs after 3-4 h and reaches a maximum over 6-12 h. Late responses are followed by an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. These responses occur when IgE on mast cells is cross-linked by an allergen, causing degranulation and the release of histamine, neutral proteases and chemotactic factors, and the production of newly formed mediators, such as cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2. Allergen-induced airway inflammation consists of an increase in airway eosinophils, basophils and, less consistently, neutrophils. These responses are mediated by the trafficking and activation of myeloid dendritic cells into the airways, probably as a result of the release of epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from type 2 helper T-cells. Allergen inhalation challenge has also been a widely used model to study potential new therapies for asthma and has an excellent negative predictive value for this purpose. PMID:26206871

  1. The Airway Microbiome at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H.; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  2. Special Feature: Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, George; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Planning Laboratory Design" (Storm); "Perkins Money for Automotive Programs" (Cash); "Stretching a Budget" (Warren); "Video Teleconferencing--Powerful Communication for Occupational Educators" (Major); "Danger: Hazardous Materials" (Brown); and "Keeping Facilities Safe--Electrical Safety and Maintenance" (Kirk). (JOW)

  3. Characteristic of Inflammatory Airway Disease in Japanese Thoroughbred Racehorses

    PubMed Central

    KUSANO, Kanichi; ISHIKAWA, Yuhiro; SEKI, Kazuhiro; KUSUNOSE, Ryo

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is a common cause of poor performance, interruption of training and premature retirement in racehorses. It is also reported that up to 80% of horses are affected at some point in the first years of training in UK and Australia. However, no studies with regard to the information on occurrence of IAD in Japanese Thoroughbred racehorses have been reported. To investigate the occurrence and the characteristics of IAD, epidemic research including endoscopic examination of the airway tract and trachea wash was conducted for Thoroughbred racehorses presenting coughs or poor performance which airway tract disease was suspected stalled in training facility managed by Japan Racing Association. Fifty-six out of 76 Thoroughbred racehorses (73.7%) presenting coughing or poor performance were diagnosed as IAD. Mean incidence rate of IAD was 0.3% and it has been confirmed that constant number of IAD exists in Japan. Up to 35.7% of IAD horses showed upper airway abnormalities in some extent. There was a trend for IAD horses to use wood shavings for bedding and fed hay from the ground compared with the control group. Therefore, improvement of stabling environment may aid in preventing IAD. This study demonstrated that Japanese Thoroughbred racehorses are affected by IAD likewise other countries as well as demonstrated the characteristics of IAD which may contribute to the clarification of the pathogenesis of IAD. PMID:24833952

  4. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    SciTech Connect

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  5. Postnatal Exposure History and Airways

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Shannon R.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Edwards, Patricia C.; Miller, Lisa A.; Hyde, Dallas M.

    2012-01-01

    Postnatally, the lung continues to grow and differentiate while interacting with the environment. Exposure to ozone (O3) and allergens during postnatal lung development alters structural elements of conducting airways, including innervation and neurokinin abundance. These changes have been linked with development of asthma in a rhesus monkey model. We hypothesized that O3 exposure resets the ability of the airways to respond to oxidant stress and that this is mediated by changes in the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). Infant rhesus monkeys received episodic exposure to O3 biweekly with or without house dust mite antigen (HDMA) from 6 to 12 months of age. Age-matched monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA). Microdissected airway explants from midlevel airways (intrapulmonary generations 5–8) for four to six animals in each of four groups (FA, O3, HDMA, and HDMA+O3) were tested for NK-1R gene responses to acute oxidant stress using exposure to hydrogen peroxide (1.2 mM), a lipid ozonide (10 μM), or sham treatment for 4 hours in vitro. Airway responses were measured using real-time quantitative RT-PCR of NK-1R and IL-8 gene expression. Basal NK-1R gene expression levels were not different between the exposure groups. Treatment with ozonide or hydrogen peroxide did not change NK-1R gene expression in animals exposed to FA, HDMA, or HDMA+O3. However, treatment in vitro with lipid ozonide significantly increased NK-1R gene expression in explants from O3–exposed animals. We conclude that a history of prior O3 exposure resets the steady state of the airways to increase the NK-1R response to subsequent acute oxidant stresses. PMID:22962062

  6. Airway Assessment for Office Sedation/Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Morton B; Phero, James C

    2015-01-01

    Whenever a patient is about to receive sedation or general anesthesia, no matter what the technique, the preoperative assessment of the airway is one of the most important steps in ensuring patient safety and positive outcomes. This article, Part III in the series on airway management, is directed at the ambulatory office practice and focuses on predicting the success of advanced airway rescue techniques.

  7. 14 CFR 171.273 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... beacon power, and modulation. (18) The following information concerning the ISMLS facility: (i) Facility... emission and frequencies of the ISMLS localizer, glide path, beacon markers, and associated compass... marker beacon radiation characteristics must be conducted in accordance with the maintenance...

  8. 14 CFR 171.273 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... beacon power, and modulation. (18) The following information concerning the ISMLS facility: (i) Facility... emission and frequencies of the ISMLS localizer, glide path, beacon markers, and associated compass... marker beacon radiation characteristics must be conducted in accordance with the maintenance...

  9. 14 CFR 171.273 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beacon power, and modulation. (18) The following information concerning the ISMLS facility: (i) Facility... emission and frequencies of the ISMLS localizer, glide path, beacon markers, and associated compass... marker beacon radiation characteristics must be conducted in accordance with the maintenance...

  10. Inflammatory bowel disease and airway diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vutcovici, Maria; Brassard, Paul; Bitton, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Airway diseases are the most commonly described lung manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the similarities in disease pathogenesis and the sharing of important environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility suggest that there is a complex interplay between IBD and airway diseases. Recent evidence of IBD occurrence among patients with airway diseases and the higher than estimated prevalence of subclinical airway injuries among IBD patients support the hypothesis of a two-way association. Future research efforts should be directed toward further exploration of this association, as airway diseases are highly prevalent conditions with a substantial public health impact. PMID:27678355

  11. Inflammatory bowel disease and airway diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vutcovici, Maria; Brassard, Paul; Bitton, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Airway diseases are the most commonly described lung manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the similarities in disease pathogenesis and the sharing of important environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility suggest that there is a complex interplay between IBD and airway diseases. Recent evidence of IBD occurrence among patients with airway diseases and the higher than estimated prevalence of subclinical airway injuries among IBD patients support the hypothesis of a two-way association. Future research efforts should be directed toward further exploration of this association, as airway diseases are highly prevalent conditions with a substantial public health impact.

  12. Lung function and airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Scott T

    2010-01-01

    Two studies report genome-wide association studies for lung function, using cross-sectional spirometric measurements in healthy individuals. They identify six genetic loci newly associated to natural variation in lung function, which may have implications for the related airway diseases of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:20037613

  13. Management of the difficult airway.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, D E; Wiener-Kronish, J P

    1991-09-01

    For clinicians involved in airway management, a plan of action for dealing with the difficult airway or a failed intubation should be developed well in advance of encountering a patient in whom intubation is not routine. When difficulty is anticipated, the equipment necessary for performing a difficult intubation should be immediately available. It also is prudent to have a surgeon skilled in performing a tracheotomy and a criothyroidotomy stand by. The intubation should be attempted in the awake state, preferably using the fiberoptic bronchoscope. The more challenging situation is when the difficult airway is confronted unexpectedly. After the first failed attempt at laryngoscopy, head position should be checked and the patient ventilated with oxygen by mask. A smaller styletted tube and possibly a different laryngoscope blade should be selected for a second attempt at intubation. The fiberoptic bronchoscope and other equipment for difficult intubation should be obtained. A second attempt should then be made. If this is unsuccessful, the patient should be reoxygenated, and assistance including a skilled anesthesiologist and surgeon should be summoned. On a third attempt, traction to the tongue can be applied by an assistant, a tube changer could be used to enter the larynx, or one of the other special techniques previously described can be used. If this third attempt fails, it may be helpful to have a physician more experienced in airway management attempt intubation after oxygen has been administered to the patient. If all attempts are unsuccessful, then invasive techniques to secure the airway will have to be performed. PMID:1934950

  14. [Supraglottic airways in infants and children].

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Kai

    2013-04-01

    The development of the LMA-Classic™ revolutionized anaesthesia practice as its wide-spread use led to the establishment of a unique form of airway management, the "supraglottic airway management", besides the existing classical airway management with the face mask or endotracheal tube. Today, 25 years later, along with the original prototype of supraglottic airways quite a few numbers of different devices exist that can be used to secure the airway "above the glottis". After initially primarily marketing adult sizes many suppliers offer paediatric sizes nowadays. However, the scientific evidence in terms of superiority or at a least equality to the original LMA-Classic( of any of these airway devices must be considered insufficient except for the LMA-ProSeal™. Consequently, the routine use of these devices outside controlled clinical studies must be considered questionable. The following article aims at providing a critical appraisal of currently available supraglottic airway devices for neonates and infants. PMID:23633256

  15. Laryngeal mask airway: uses in anesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Pinosky, M

    1996-06-01

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA), developed in 1983, is a new device to assist in the management of the pediatric and adult airway. In 1991, the Food and Drug Administration gave its approval for use of the LMA in the United States. The LMA is reusable and appears to provide cost-effective airway management in numerous situations. The LMA is simple to use, atraumatic to insert, and helpful in overcoming an obstructed airway. Its role in management of the difficult airway and the traumatic airway is still evolving. This review will introduce the LMA to the nonanesthesiologist and review for the anesthesiologist the origins of the LMA, its physical structure, the technical aspects of insertion, problems with aspiration, its role in the difficult airway, and experience with the pediatric population.

  16. Sarcoidosis of the upper and lower airways.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Teirstein, Alvin S

    2011-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology characterized by a variable clinical presentation and disease course. Although clinical granulomatous inflammation may occur within any organ system, more than 90% of sarcoidosis patients have lung disease. Sarcoidosis is considered an interstitial lung disease that is frequently characterized by restrictive physiologic dysfunction on pulmonary function tests. However, sarcoidosis also involves the airways (large and small), causing obstructive airways disease. It is one of a few interstitial lung diseases that affects the entire length of the respiratory tract - from the nose to the terminal bronchioles - and causes a broad spectrum of airways dysfunction. This article examines airway dysfunction in sarcoidosis. The anatomical structure of the airways is the organizational framework for our discussion. We discuss sarcoidosis involving the nose, sinuses, nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchi and small airways. Common complications of airways disease, such as, atelectasis, fibrosis, bullous leions, bronchiectasis, cavitary lesions and mycetomas, are also reviewed. PMID:22082167

  17. 49 CFR 193.2639 - Maintenance records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... at each LNG plant of the date and type of each maintenance activity performed on each component to meet the requirements of this part. For each LNG facility that is designed and constructed after March... records must be retained for as long as the LNG facility remains in service: (1) Each record or...

  18. ICD Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, P. L.

    2007-06-25

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Plan describes how the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducts operations, winterization, and startup of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The ICDF Complex is the centralized INL facility responsible for the receipt, storage, treatment (as necessary), and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation waste.

  19. 28 CFR 36.211 - Maintenance of accessible features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of accessible features. 36... DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.211 Maintenance of... service or access due to maintenance or repairs....

  20. 36 CFR 212.4 - Construction and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction and maintenance... TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.4 Construction and maintenance. (a) Construction and maintenance work on forest transportation facilities with appropriated...

  1. 32 CFR 174.14 - Maintenance and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance and repair. 174.14 Section 174.14... REVITALIZING BASE CLOSURE COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Maintenance and Repair § 174.14 Maintenance and repair. (a) Facilities and equipment located on installations being closed are often...

  2. 36 CFR 212.4 - Construction and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Construction and maintenance... TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.4 Construction and maintenance. (a) Construction and maintenance work on forest transportation facilities with appropriated...

  3. School Facilities. Appendix A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Penny; Miller, Barbara; Krantzler, Nora

    1997-01-01

    This appendix to the theme issue summarizes the challenges of providing and maintaining educational facilities, discussing the maintenance of existing buildings and the need for new ones. Possible sources of needed funds are considered, and the equity problems related to school facilities are reviewed, emphasizing the problems of urban schools.…

  4. 14 CFR 171.273 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Interim Standard Microwave... facility be ceasing radiation, and issue a “Notice to Airman” (NOTAM) that the facility is out of service... marker beacon radiation characteristics must be conducted in accordance with the maintenance...

  5. 14 CFR 171.273 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Interim Standard Microwave... facility be ceasing radiation, and issue a “Notice to Airman” (NOTAM) that the facility is out of service... marker beacon radiation characteristics must be conducted in accordance with the maintenance...

  6. 14 CFR 171.51 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance and operations requirements. 171.51 Section 171.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (ILS) Facilities § 171.51 Maintenance and operations requirements. (a) The owner of the facility...

  7. 14 CFR 171.161 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... meet at a minimum the Federal Communications Commission's licensing requirements and show that he has the special knowledge and skills needed to maintain the facility, including proficiency in maintenance... facility. (2) Maintenance and operations by authorized persons only. (3) Federal Communications...

  8. School Facilities and Deferred Maintenance. Issuegram 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, C. Kent

    School systems have been forced to postpone purchases of new equipment and to defer repair and renovation projects. At present, 39 states provide support for local school district capital expenditures through five primary mechnanisms: full state assumption, state/local sharing, state flat grant, state equalizing grant, and state loans. In response…

  9. Innovative Coatings Potentially Lower Facility Maintenance Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Through extensive testing at Stennis Space Center, Nanocepts Inc. of Lexington, Kentucky, received key validation of the effectiveness of its photocatalytic coatings. Now a NASA Dual Use Technology partner, the company s commercial coatings offer unique environmental and medical benefits, and their self-cleaning properties help limit grime buildup on buildings.

  10. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs).

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Addis, A; Adcock, I; Agache, I; Agusti, A; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Anto, J M; Bachert, C; Baena-Cagnani, C E; Bai, C; Baigenzhin, A; Barbara, C; Barnes, P J; Bateman, E D; Beck, L; Bedbrook, A; Bel, E H; Benezet, O; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bernabeu-Wittel, M; Bewick, M; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Boulet, L P; Bourdin, A; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Brightling, C E; Briggs, A; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Bush, A; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M; Calverley, P; Camargos, P A; Camuzat, T; Canonica, G W; Carlsen, K H; Casale, T B; Cazzola, M; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Cesario, A; Chen, Y Z; Chkhartishvili, E; Chavannes, N H; Chiron, R; Chuchalin, A; Chung, K F; Cox, L; Crooks, G; Crooks, M G; Cruz, A A; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; Demoly, P; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dubakiene, R; Eglin, S; Elliot, F; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L; Fink Wagner, A; Fletcher, M; Fokkens, W J; Fonseca, J; Franco, A; Frith, P; Furber, A; Gaga, M; Garcés, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gamkrelidze, A; Gonzales-Diaz, S; Gouzi, F; Guzmán, M A; Haahtela, T; Harrison, D; Hayot, M; Heaney, L G; Heinrich, J; Hellings, P W; Hooper, J; Humbert, M; Hyland, M; Iaccarino, G; Jakovenko, D; Jardim, J R; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Joos, G; Jung, K S; Kalayci, O; Karunanithi, S; Keil, T; Khaltaev, N; Kolek, V; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Le, L T; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Mair, A; Majer, I; Manning, P; de Manuel Keenoy, E; Masjedi, M R; Melen, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Menzies-Gow, A; Mercier, G; Mercier, J; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; N'Diaye, M; Nafti, S; Nekam, K; Neou, A; Nicod, L; O'Hehir, R; Ohta, K; Paggiaro, P; Palkonen, S; Palmer, S; Papadopoulos, N G; Papi, A; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pigearias, B; Plavec, D; Postma, D S; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Radier Pontal, F; Redon, J; Rennard, S; Roberts, J; Robine, J M; Roca, J; Roche, N; Rodenas, F; Roggeri, A; Rolland, C; Rosado-Pinto, J; Ryan, D; Samolinski, B; Sanchez-Borges, M; Schünemann, H J; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Small, I; Sola-Morales, O; Sooronbaev, T; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Stiris, T; Sud, P; Tellier, V; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valiulis, A; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Viegi, G; Visier, L; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagstaff, R; Wahn, U; Wallaert, B; Whalley, B; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Wilson, N; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yorgancioglu, A; Yusuf, O M; Zar, H J; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Zuberbier, T

    2014-08-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will add value to existing public health knowledge by: 1) proposing a common framework of care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases, which will facilitate comparability and trans-national initiatives; 2) informing cost-effective policy development, strengthening in particular those on smoking and environmental exposure; 3) aiding risk stratification in chronic disease patients, using a common strategy; 4) having a significant impact on the health of citizens in the short term (reduction of morbidity, improvement of education in children and of work in adults) and in the long-term (healthy ageing); 5) proposing a common simulation tool to assist physicians; and 6) ultimately reducing the healthcare burden (emergency visits, avoidable hospitalisations, disability and costs) while improving quality of life. In the longer term, the incidence of disease may be reduced by innovative prevention strategies. AIRWAYSICPs was initiated by Area 5 of the Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. All stakeholders are involved (health and social care, patients, and policy makers). PMID:24925919

  11. UPPER AIRWAY BLOCKS FOR AWAKE DIFFICULT AIRWAY MANAGEMENT.

    PubMed

    Pintaric, Tatjana Stopar

    2016-03-01

    Airway anesthesia is pivotal for successful awake intubation provided either topically or by blocks. Airway blocks are considered technically more difficult to perform and carry a higher risk of complications. However, in experienced hands, they can be useful as they provide excellent intubating conditions. For complete upper airway anesthesia, bilateral glossopharyngeal and superior laryngeal nerve blocks with translaryngeal injection are required. Superior laryngeal nerve block and translaryngeal injection can be performed easily, safely and with a high success rate in patients with normal anatomy. In those with difficult landmarks, ultrasound can be of assistance. For the superior laryngeal nerve block, other targets than the nerve itself must be established to make the technique consistently successful, easy to teach, learn and perform. The same applies to the translaryngeal injection, where the use of ultrasound is necessary for correct midline identification. Intraoral glossopharyngeal nerve block is also safe and easy to perform, but associated with long lasting discomfort. Bilateral extraoral peristyloid approach should be discouraged since inadvertent blocks of the closely adjacent vagus nerve cannot be prevented in this location. A safe and easy method of blocking the distal portions of the glossopharyngeal nerve for awake intubation is therefore required. PMID:27276778

  12. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs).

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Addis, A; Adcock, I; Agache, I; Agusti, A; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Anto, J M; Bachert, C; Baena-Cagnani, C E; Bai, C; Baigenzhin, A; Barbara, C; Barnes, P J; Bateman, E D; Beck, L; Bedbrook, A; Bel, E H; Benezet, O; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bernabeu-Wittel, M; Bewick, M; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Boulet, L P; Bourdin, A; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Brightling, C E; Briggs, A; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Bush, A; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M; Calverley, P; Camargos, P A; Camuzat, T; Canonica, G W; Carlsen, K H; Casale, T B; Cazzola, M; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Cesario, A; Chen, Y Z; Chkhartishvili, E; Chavannes, N H; Chiron, R; Chuchalin, A; Chung, K F; Cox, L; Crooks, G; Crooks, M G; Cruz, A A; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; Demoly, P; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dubakiene, R; Eglin, S; Elliot, F; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L; Fink Wagner, A; Fletcher, M; Fokkens, W J; Fonseca, J; Franco, A; Frith, P; Furber, A; Gaga, M; Garcés, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gamkrelidze, A; Gonzales-Diaz, S; Gouzi, F; Guzmán, M A; Haahtela, T; Harrison, D; Hayot, M; Heaney, L G; Heinrich, J; Hellings, P W; Hooper, J; Humbert, M; Hyland, M; Iaccarino, G; Jakovenko, D; Jardim, J R; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Joos, G; Jung, K S; Kalayci, O; Karunanithi, S; Keil, T; Khaltaev, N; Kolek, V; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Le, L T; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Mair, A; Majer, I; Manning, P; de Manuel Keenoy, E; Masjedi, M R; Melen, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Menzies-Gow, A; Mercier, G; Mercier, J; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; N'Diaye, M; Nafti, S; Nekam, K; Neou, A; Nicod, L; O'Hehir, R; Ohta, K; Paggiaro, P; Palkonen, S; Palmer, S; Papadopoulos, N G; Papi, A; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pigearias, B; Plavec, D; Postma, D S; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Radier Pontal, F; Redon, J; Rennard, S; Roberts, J; Robine, J M; Roca, J; Roche, N; Rodenas, F; Roggeri, A; Rolland, C; Rosado-Pinto, J; Ryan, D; Samolinski, B; Sanchez-Borges, M; Schünemann, H J; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Small, I; Sola-Morales, O; Sooronbaev, T; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Stiris, T; Sud, P; Tellier, V; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valiulis, A; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Viegi, G; Visier, L; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagstaff, R; Wahn, U; Wallaert, B; Whalley, B; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Wilson, N; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yorgancioglu, A; Yusuf, O M; Zar, H J; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Zuberbier, T

    2014-08-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will add value to existing public health knowledge by: 1) proposing a common framework of care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases, which will facilitate comparability and trans-national initiatives; 2) informing cost-effective policy development, strengthening in particular those on smoking and environmental exposure; 3) aiding risk stratification in chronic disease patients, using a common strategy; 4) having a significant impact on the health of citizens in the short term (reduction of morbidity, improvement of education in children and of work in adults) and in the long-term (healthy ageing); 5) proposing a common simulation tool to assist physicians; and 6) ultimately reducing the healthcare burden (emergency visits, avoidable hospitalisations, disability and costs) while improving quality of life. In the longer term, the incidence of disease may be reduced by innovative prevention strategies. AIRWAYSICPs was initiated by Area 5 of the Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. All stakeholders are involved (health and social care, patients, and policy makers).

  13. Low maintenance hydrocarbon soil & groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Seabolt, L.K. Jr.; Ryckman, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper illustrates practical methods to control remedial system life cycle costs for pump and treat and biovent systems through the use of low maintenance treatment systems. Cost control factors will be illustrated through the presentation of three case histories: a groundwater free product recovery system at an Air Force P.O.L. (Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant) storage area, a free product recovery and bioventing system at a beverage fleet distribution facility, and a free product recovery and ventilation system at a publication facility.

  14. Maintenance and Operations study for K basins sludge treatment

    SciTech Connect

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1998-11-30

    This study evaluates maintenance and operating concepts for the chemical treatment of sludge from the 100 K Basins at Hanford. The sludge treatment equipment that will require remote operation or maintenance was identified. Then various maintenance and operating concepts used in the nuclear industry were evaluated for applicability to sludge treatment. A hot cell or cells is recommended as the best maintenance and operating concept for a sludge treatment facility.

  15. Obesity and upper airway control during sleep

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Susheel P.; Squier, Samuel; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P.; Smith, Philip L.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms linking obesity with upper airway dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea are reviewed. Obstructive sleep apnea is due to alterations in upper airway anatomy and neuromuscular control. Upper airway structural alterations in obesity are related to adipose deposition around the pharynx, which can increase its collapsibility or critical pressure (Pcrit). In addition, obesity and, particularly, central adiposity lead to reductions in resting lung volume, resulting in loss of caudal traction on upper airway structures and parallel increases in pharyngeal collapsibility. Metabolic and humoral factors that promote central adiposity may contribute to these alterations in upper airway mechanical function and increase sleep apnea susceptibility. In contrast, neural responses to upper airway obstruction can mitigate these mechanical loads and restore pharyngeal patency during sleep. Current evidence suggests that these responses can improve with weight loss. Improvements in these neural responses with weight loss may be related to a decline in systemic and local pharyngeal concentrations of specific inflammatory mediators with somnogenic effects. PMID:19875707

  16. Airway management in cervical spine injury

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Naola; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Dagal, Arman

    2014-01-01

    To minimize risk of spinal cord injury, airway management providers must understand the anatomic and functional relationship between the airway, cervical column, and spinal cord. Patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury may require emergent intubation for airway protection and ventilatory support or elective intubation for surgery with or without rigid neck stabilization (i.e., halo). To provide safe and efficient care in these patients, practitioners must identify high-risk patients, be comfortable with available methods of airway adjuncts, and know how airway maneuvers, neck stabilization, and positioning affect the cervical spine. This review discusses the risks and benefits of various airway management strategies as well as specific concerns that affect patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury. PMID:24741498

  17. Airway obstruction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reverdin, Alexandra K; Mosquera, Ricardo; Colasurdo, Giuseppe N; Jon, Cindy K; Clements, Roya M

    2014-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is the failure of the autonomic system to control adequate ventilation while asleep with preserved ventilatory response while awake. We report a case of a patient with CCHS who presented with intrathoracic and extrathoracic airway obstruction after tracheostomy tube decannulation and phrenic nerve pacer placement. Nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) revealed hypoxia, hypercapnia and obstructive sleep apnoea, which required bilevel positive airway pressure titration. Airway endoscopy demonstrated tracheomalacia and paretic true vocal cords in the paramedian position during diaphragmatic pacing. Laryngeal electromyography demonstrated muscular electrical impulses that correlated with diaphragmatic pacer settings. Thus, we surmise that the patient's upper and lower airway obstruction was secondary to diaphragmatic pacer activity. Thorough airway evaluation, including NPSG and endoscopy, may help identify the side effects of diaphragmatic pacing, such as airway obstruction, in patients with CCHS.

  18. 76 FR 68674 - Proposed Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-320 and V-440; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... necessary for the continued safe and efficient management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations within... and Airspace Docket No. 11-AAL-19) and be submitted in triplicate to the Docket Management Facility.... 11-AAL-1 published on April 28, 2011 (76 FR 23687), that amends all Alaska Federal Airways...

  19. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  20. AIRWAY VISUALIZATION: EYES SEE WHAT MIND KNOWS.

    PubMed

    Sorbello, Massimiliano; Frova, Giulio; Zdravković, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Airway management is basic for anesthesia practice, and sometimes it can represent a really dramatic scenario for both the patient and the physicians. Laryngoscopy has been the gold standard of airway visualization for more than 60 years, showing its limitations and failure rates with time. New technology has made available an opportunity to move the physician's eye inside patient airways thanks to video laryngoscopy and video assisted airway management technique. Undoubtedly, we have entered a new era of high resolution airway visualization and different approach in airway instrumentation. Nevertheless, each new technology needs time to be tested and considered reliable, and pitfalls and limitations may come out with careful and long lasting analysis, so it is probably not the right time yet to promote video assisted approach as a new gold standard for airway visualization, despite the fact that it certainly offers some new prospects. In any case, whatever the visualization approach, no patient dies because of missed airway visualization or failed intubation, but due to failed ventilation, which remains without doubt the gold standard of any patient safety goal and airway management technique.

  1. Method for 3D Airway Topology Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Grothausmann, Roman; Kellner, Manuela; Heidrich, Marko; Lorbeer, Raoul-Amadeus; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko; Kuehnel, Mark P.; Ochs, Matthias; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    In lungs the number of conducting airway generations as well as bifurcation patterns varies across species and shows specific characteristics relating to illnesses or gene variations. A method to characterize the topology of the mouse airway tree using scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) tomograms is presented in this paper. It is used to test discrimination between two types of mice based on detected differences in their conducting airway pattern. Based on segmentations of the airways in these tomograms, the main spanning tree of the volume skeleton is computed. The resulting graph structure is used to distinguish between wild type and surfactant protein (SP-D) deficient knock-out mice. PMID:25767561

  2. Sequential Stenting for Extensive Malignant Airway Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Tei, Keiko; Yamamoto, Ryoji

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Malignant airway stenosis extending from the bronchial bifurcation to the lower lobar orifice was treated with airway stenting. We herein examine the effectiveness of airway stenting for extensive malignant airway stenosis. Methods: Twelve patients with extensive malignant airway stenosis underwent placement of a silicone Dumon Y stent (Novatech, La Ciotat, France) at the tracheal bifurcation and a metallic Spiral Z-stent (Medico’s Hirata, Osaka, Japan) at either distal side of the Y stent. We retrospectively analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of the sequential placement of these silicone and metallic stents in these 12 patients. Results: The primary disease was lung cancer in eight patients, breast cancer in two patients, tracheal cancer in one patient, and thyroid cancer in one patient. The median survival period after airway stent placement was 46 days. The Hugh–Jones classification and performance status improved in nine patients after airway stenting. One patient had prolonged hemoptysis and died of respiratory tract hemorrhage 15 days after the treatment. Conclusion: Because the initial disease was advanced and aggressive, the prognosis after sequential airway stent placement was significantly poor. However, because respiratory distress decreased after the treatment in most patients, this treatment may be acceptable for selected patients with extensive malignant airway stenosis. PMID:25273272

  3. NOX Modifiers—Just a Step Away from Application in the Therapy of Airway Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Wieczfinska, Joanna; Sokolowska, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes, which are widely expressed in different airway cell types, not only contribute to the maintenance of physiological processes in the airways but also participate in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic diseases. Therefore, the understanding of NOX isoform regulation, expression, and the manner of their potent inhibition might lead to effective therapeutic approaches. Recent Advances: The study of the role of NADPH oxidases family in airway physiology and pathophysiology should be considered as a work in progress. While key questions still remain unresolved, there is significant progress in terms of our understanding of NOX importance in airway diseases as well as a more efficient way of using NOX modifiers in human settings. Critical Issues: Agents that modify the activity of NADPH enzyme components would be considered useful tools in the treatment of various airway diseases. Nevertheless, profound knowledge of airway pathology, as well as the mechanisms of NOX regulation is needed to develop potent but safe NOX modifiers. Future Directions: Many compounds seem to be promising candidates for development into useful therapeutic agents, but their clinical potential is yet to be demonstrated. Further analysis of basic mechanisms in human settings, high-throughput compound scanning, clinical trials with new and existing molecules, and the development of new drug delivery approaches are the main directions of future studies on NOX modifiers. In this article, we discuss the current knowledge with regard to NOX isoform expression and regulation in airway inflammatory diseases as well as the aptitudes and therapeutic potential of NOX modifiers. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 428–445. PMID:24383678

  4. Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults.

    PubMed

    Frerk, C; Mitchell, V S; McNarry, A F; Mendonca, C; Bhagrath, R; Patel, A; O'Sullivan, E P; Woodall, N M; Ahmad, I

    2015-12-01

    These guidelines provide a strategy to manage unanticipated difficulty with tracheal intubation. They are founded on published evidence. Where evidence is lacking, they have been directed by feedback from members of the Difficult Airway Society and based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been informed by advances in the understanding of crisis management; they emphasize the recognition and declaration of difficulty during airway management. A simplified, single algorithm now covers unanticipated difficulties in both routine intubation and rapid sequence induction. Planning for failed intubation should form part of the pre-induction briefing, particularly for urgent surgery. Emphasis is placed on assessment, preparation, positioning, preoxygenation, maintenance of oxygenation, and minimizing trauma from airway interventions. It is recommended that the number of airway interventions are limited, and blind techniques using a bougie or through supraglottic airway devices have been superseded by video- or fibre-optically guided intubation. If tracheal intubation fails, supraglottic airway devices are recommended to provide a route for oxygenation while reviewing how to proceed. Second-generation devices have advantages and are recommended. When both tracheal intubation and supraglottic airway device insertion have failed, waking the patient is the default option. If at this stage, face-mask oxygenation is impossible in the presence of muscle relaxation, cricothyroidotomy should follow immediately. Scalpel cricothyroidotomy is recommended as the preferred rescue technique and should be practised by all anaesthetists. The plans outlined are designed to be simple and easy to follow. They should be regularly rehearsed and made familiar to the whole theatre team. PMID:26556848

  5. Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults†

    PubMed Central

    Frerk, C.; Mitchell, V. S.; McNarry, A. F.; Mendonca, C.; Bhagrath, R.; Patel, A.; O'Sullivan, E. P.; Woodall, N. M.; Ahmad, I.

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines provide a strategy to manage unanticipated difficulty with tracheal intubation. They are founded on published evidence. Where evidence is lacking, they have been directed by feedback from members of the Difficult Airway Society and based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been informed by advances in the understanding of crisis management; they emphasize the recognition and declaration of difficulty during airway management. A simplified, single algorithm now covers unanticipated difficulties in both routine intubation and rapid sequence induction. Planning for failed intubation should form part of the pre-induction briefing, particularly for urgent surgery. Emphasis is placed on assessment, preparation, positioning, preoxygenation, maintenance of oxygenation, and minimizing trauma from airway interventions. It is recommended that the number of airway interventions are limited, and blind techniques using a bougie or through supraglottic airway devices have been superseded by video- or fibre-optically guided intubation. If tracheal intubation fails, supraglottic airway devices are recommended to provide a route for oxygenation while reviewing how to proceed. Second-generation devices have advantages and are recommended. When both tracheal intubation and supraglottic airway device insertion have failed, waking the patient is the default option. If at this stage, face-mask oxygenation is impossible in the presence of muscle relaxation, cricothyroidotomy should follow immediately. Scalpel cricothyroidotomy is recommended as the preferred rescue technique and should be practised by all anaesthetists. The plans outlined are designed to be simple and easy to follow. They should be regularly rehearsed and made familiar to the whole theatre team. PMID:26556848

  6. Physical principle of airway design in human lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keunhwan; Son, Taeho; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-11-01

    From an engineering perspective, lungs are natural microfluidic devices that extract oxygen from air. In the bronchial tree, airways branch by dichotomy with a systematic reduction of their diameters. It is generally accepted that in conducting airways, which air passes on the way to the acinar airways from the atmosphere, the reduction ratio of diameter is closely related to the minimization of viscous dissipation. Such a principle is formulated as the Hess-Murray law. However, in acinar airways, where oxygen transfer to alveolae occurs, the diameter reduction with progressive generations is more moderate than in conducting airways. Noting that the dominant transfer mechanism in acinar airways is diffusion rather than advection, unlike conducting airways, we construct a mathematical model for oxygen transfer through a series of acinar airways. Our model allows us to predict the optimal airway reduction ratio that maximizes the oxygen transfer in a finite airway volume, thereby rationalizing the observed airway reduction ratio in acinar airways.

  7. Cryogenics maintenance strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzat, Fabiola

    2012-09-01

    ALMA is an interferometer composed of 66 independent systems, with specific maintenance requirements for each subsystem. To optimize the observation time and reduce downtime maintenance, requirements are very demanding. One subsystem with high maintenance efforts is cryogenics and vacuum. To organize the maintenance, the Cryogenic and Vacuum department is using and implementing different tools. These are monitoring and problem reporting systems and CMMS. This leads to different maintenance approaches: Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance. In order to coordinate activities with other departments the preventive maintenance schedule is kept as flexible as systems allow. To cope with unavoidable failures, the team has to be prepared to work under any condition with the spares on time. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) will help to manage inventory control for reliable spare part handling, the correct record of work orders and traceability of maintenance activities. For an optimized approach the department is currently evaluating where preventive or condition based maintenance applies to comply with the individual system demand. Considering the change from maintenance contracts to in-house maintenance will help to minimize costs and increase availability of parts. Due to increased number of system and tasks the cryo team needs to grow. Training of all staff members is mandatory, in depth knowledge must be built up by doing complex maintenance activities in the Cryo group, use of advanced computerized metrology systems.

  8. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  9. Airway hyperresponsiveness in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Langdeau, J B; Turcotte, H; Bowie, D M; Jobin, J; Desgagné, P; Boulet, L P

    2000-05-01

    It has been suggested that high-level training could contribute to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), but the comparative effects of different sports on airway function remains to be determined. We evaluated 150 nonsmoking volunteers 18 to 55 yr of age; 100 athletes divided into four subgroups of 25 subjects each according to the predominant estimated hydrocaloric characteristic of ambient air inhaled during training: dry air (DA), cold air (CA), humid air (HA) and a mixture of dry and humid air (MA), and 50 sedentary subjects. Each subject had a respiratory questionnaire, a methacholine challenge, allergy skin-prick tests, and heart rate variability recording for evaluation of parasympathetic tone. The athletes had a 49% prevalence of AHR (PC(20) < 16 mg/ml), with a mean PC(20) of 16.9 mg/ml, compared with 28% (PC(20): 35.4) in sedentary subjects (p = 0.009). The prevalence (%) of AHR and mean PC(20) (mg/ml) varied as followed in the four subgroups of athletes: DA: 32% and 30.9; CA: 52% and 15.8; HA: 76% and 7.3; and MA: 32% and 21.5 (p = 0.002). The estimated parasympathetic tone was higher in athletes (p < 0.001), but this parameter showed only a weak correlation with PC(20) (r = -0.17, p = 0.04). This study has shown a significantly higher prevalence of AHR in athletes than in the control group because of the higher prevalence in the CA and HA groups. Parasympathetic activity may act as modulator of airway responsiveness, but the increased prevalence of AHR in our athlete population may be related to the type and possibly the content of inhaled air during training.

  10. Airway smooth muscle dynamics: a common pathway of airway obstruction in asthma

    PubMed Central

    An, S.S.; Bai, T.R.; Bates, J.H.T.; Black, J.L.; Brown, R.H.; Brusasco, V.; Chitano, P.; Deng, L.; Dowell, M.; Eidelman, D.H.; Fabry, B.; Fairbank, N.J.; Ford, L.E.; Fredberg, J.J.; Gerthoffer, W.T.; Gilbert, S.H.; Gosens, R.; Gunst, S.J.; Halayko, A.J.; Ingram, R.H.; Irvin, C.G.; James, A.L.; Janssen, L.J.; King, G.G.; Knight, D.A.; Lauzon, A.M.; Lakser, O.J.; Ludwig, M.S.; Lutchen, K.R.; Maksym, G.N.; Martin, J.G.; Mauad, T.; McParland, B.E.; Mijailovich, S.M.; Mitchell, H.W.; Mitchell, R.W.; Mitzner, W.; Murphy, T.M.; Paré, P.D.; Pellegrino, R.; Sanderson, M.J.; Schellenberg, R.R.; Seow, C.Y.; Silveira, P.S.P.; Smith, P.G.; Solway, J.; Stephens, N.L.; Sterk, P.J.; Stewart, A.G.; Tang, D.D.; Tepper, R.S.; Tran, T.; Wang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series of events leading to asthmatic symptoms is not clear. It is not certain whether, in asthma, there is a change in the intrinsic properties of ASM, a change in the structure and mechanical properties of the noncontractile components of the airway wall, or a change in the interdependence of the airway wall with the surrounding lung parenchyma. All these potential changes could result from acute or chronic airway inflammation and associated tissue repair and remodelling. Anti-inflammatory therapy, however, does not “cure” asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness can persist in asthmatics, even in the absence of airway inflammation. This is perhaps because the therapy does not directly address a fundamental abnormality of asthma, that of exaggerated airway narrowing due to excessive shortening of ASM. In the present study, a central role for airway smooth muscle in the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma is explored. PMID:17470619

  11. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES PERSISTENT AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The endotoxin component of organic dusts causes acute reversible airflow obstruction and airway inflammation. To test the hypothesis that endotoxin alone causes airway remodeling, we have compared the response of two inbred mouse strains to subchronic endotoxin ...

  12. Airway and Extracellular Matrix Mechanics in COPD.

    PubMed

    Bidan, Cécile M; Veldsink, Annemiek C; Meurs, Herman; Gosens, Reinoud

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common lung diseases worldwide, and is characterized by airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible with treatment. Even though airflow obstruction is caused by airway smooth muscle contraction, the extent of airway narrowing depends on a range of other structural and functional determinants that impact on active and passive tissue mechanics. Cells and extracellular matrix in the airway and parenchymal compartments respond both passively and actively to the mechanical stimulation induced by smooth muscle contraction. In this review, we summarize the factors that regulate airway narrowing and provide insight into the relative contributions of different constituents of the extracellular matrix and their biomechanical impact on airway obstruction. We then review the changes in extracellular matrix composition in the airway and parenchymal compartments at different stages of COPD, and finally discuss how these changes impact airway narrowing and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Finally, we position these data in the context of therapeutic research focused on defective tissue repair. As a conclusion, we propose that future works should primarily target mild or early COPD, prior to the widespread structural changes in the alveolar compartment that are more characteristic of severe COPD.

  13. Athletic Trainers' Knowledge Regarding Airway Adjuncts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edler, Jessica R.; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Kahanov, Leamor; Roman, Christopher; Mata, Heather Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Context: Research suggests that knowledge gaps regarding the appropriate use of airway adjuncts exist among various health care practitioners, and that knowledge is especially limited within athletic training. Objective: To determine the relationship between perceived knowledge (PK) and actual knowledge (AK) of airway adjunct use and the…

  14. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oropharyngeal airway. 868.5110 Section 868.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway....

  15. 21 CFR 868.5100 - Nasopharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasopharyngeal airway. 868.5100 Section 868.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5100 Nasopharyngeal airway....

  16. 21 CFR 868.5100 - Nasopharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasopharyngeal airway. 868.5100 Section 868.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5100 Nasopharyngeal airway....

  17. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oropharyngeal airway. 868.5110 Section 868.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway....

  18. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oropharyngeal airway. 868.5110 Section 868.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway....

  19. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oropharyngeal airway. 868.5110 Section 868.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway....

  20. 21 CFR 868.5100 - Nasopharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasopharyngeal airway. 868.5100 Section 868.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5100 Nasopharyngeal airway....

  1. 21 CFR 868.5100 - Nasopharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasopharyngeal airway. 868.5100 Section 868.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5100 Nasopharyngeal airway....

  2. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oropharyngeal airway. 868.5110 Section 868.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway....

  3. 21 CFR 868.5100 - Nasopharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasopharyngeal airway. 868.5100 Section 868.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5100 Nasopharyngeal airway....

  4. Airway and Extracellular Matrix Mechanics in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bidan, Cécile M.; Veldsink, Annemiek C.; Meurs, Herman; Gosens, Reinoud

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common lung diseases worldwide, and is characterized by airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible with treatment. Even though airflow obstruction is caused by airway smooth muscle contraction, the extent of airway narrowing depends on a range of other structural and functional determinants that impact on active and passive tissue mechanics. Cells and extracellular matrix in the airway and parenchymal compartments respond both passively and actively to the mechanical stimulation induced by smooth muscle contraction. In this review, we summarize the factors that regulate airway narrowing and provide insight into the relative contributions of different constituents of the extracellular matrix and their biomechanical impact on airway obstruction. We then review the changes in extracellular matrix composition in the airway and parenchymal compartments at different stages of COPD, and finally discuss how these changes impact airway narrowing and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Finally, we position these data in the context of therapeutic research focused on defective tissue repair. As a conclusion, we propose that future works should primarily target mild or early COPD, prior to the widespread structural changes in the alveolar compartment that are more characteristic of severe COPD. PMID:26696894

  5. Difficult Airway Response Team: A Novel Quality Improvement Program for Managing Hospital-Wide Airway Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Lynette J.; Herzer, Kurt R.; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Berkow, Lauren C.; Haut, Elliott R.; Hillel, Alexander T.; Miller, Christina R.; Feller-Kopman, David J.; Schiavi, Adam J.; Xie, Yanjun J.; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W.; Mirski, Marek A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. Methods We developed a quality improvement program—the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)—to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had three core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Results Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index > 40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous

  6. Airway fires during surgery: Management and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Navaid; Ansar, Farrukh; Baig, Mirza Shahzad; Abbas, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Airway fires pose a serious risk to surgical patients. Fires during surgery have been reported for many years with flammable anesthetic agents being the main culprits in the past. Association of airway fires with laser surgery is well-recognized, but there are reports of endotracheal tube fires ignited by electrocautery during pharyngeal surgery or tracheostomy or both. This uncommon complication has potentially grave consequences. While airway fires are relatively uncommon occurrences, they are very serious and can often be fatal. Success in preventing such events requires a thorough understanding of the components leading to a fire (fuel, oxidizer, and ignition source), as well as good communication between all members present to appropriately manage the fire and ensure patient safety. We present a case of fire in the airway during routine adenotonsillectomy. We will review the causes, preventive measures, and brief management for airway fires. PMID:27006554

  7. Airway fires during surgery: Management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Navaid; Ansar, Farrukh; Baig, Mirza Shahzad; Abbas, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Airway fires pose a serious risk to surgical patients. Fires during surgery have been reported for many years with flammable anesthetic agents being the main culprits in the past. Association of airway fires with laser surgery is well-recognized, but there are reports of endotracheal tube fires ignited by electrocautery during pharyngeal surgery or tracheostomy or both. This uncommon complication has potentially grave consequences. While airway fires are relatively uncommon occurrences, they are very serious and can often be fatal. Success in preventing such events requires a thorough understanding of the components leading to a fire (fuel, oxidizer, and ignition source), as well as good communication between all members present to appropriately manage the fire and ensure patient safety. We present a case of fire in the airway during routine adenotonsillectomy. We will review the causes, preventive measures, and brief management for airway fires. PMID:27006554

  8. Awake Craniotomy: A New Airway Approach.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Chitra; Schlichter, Rolf A; Baranov, Dimitry; Kofke, W Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Awake craniotomies have been performed regularly at the University of Pennsylvania since 2004. Varying approaches to airway management are described for this procedure, including intubation with an endotracheal tube and use of a laryngeal mask airway, simple facemask, or nasal cannula. In this case series, we describe the successful use (i.e., no need for endotracheal intubation related to inadequate gas exchange) of bilateral nasopharyngeal airways in 90 patients undergoing awake craniotomies. The use of nasopharyngeal airways can ease the transition between the asleep and awake phases of the craniotomy without the need to stimulate the airway. Our purpose was to describe our experience and report adverse events related to this technique. PMID:26579845

  9. Anaesthetic management of acute airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick; Wong, Jolin; Mok, May Un Sam

    2016-01-01

    The acutely obstructed airway is a medical emergency that can potentially result in serious morbidity and mortality. Apart from the latest advancements in anaesthetic techniques, equipment and drugs, publications relevant to our topic, including the United Kingdom’s 4th National Audit Project on major airway complications in 2011 and the updated American Society of Anesthesiologists’ difficult airway algorithm of 2013, have recently been published. The former contained many reports of adverse events associated with the management of acute airway obstruction. By analysing the data and concepts from these two publications, this review article provides an update on management techniques for the acutely obstructed airway. We discuss the principles and factors relevant to the decision-making process in formulating a logical management plan. PMID:26996162

  10. Maintenance Research. Report 6. Maintenance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Highways, Baton Rouge.

    The main objective of the training research phase of the maintenance management study was to develop and test training methods suitable for highway maintenance supervisors. Supervisors were trained by one of five different methods (lecture, group discussion, programed instruction, programed workshops, audiovisual instruction). The report documents…

  11. 14 CFR 151.97 - Maintenance and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., maintenance includes any regular or recurring work necessary to preserve existing airport facilities in good condition, any work involved in cleaning or caring for existing airport facilities, and any incidental or minor repair work on existing airport facilities, such as— (1) Mowing and fertilizing of turfed...

  12. 14 CFR 151.97 - Maintenance and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., maintenance includes any regular or recurring work necessary to preserve existing airport facilities in good condition, any work involved in cleaning or caring for existing airport facilities, and any incidental or minor repair work on existing airport facilities, such as— (1) Mowing and fertilizing of turfed...

  13. Investigating the geometry of pig airways using computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Azad, Md Khurshidul; McMurray, Brandon; Henry, Brian; Royston, Thomas J.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2015-03-01

    Numerical modeling of sound propagation in the airways requires accurate knowledge of the airway geometry. These models are often validated using human and animal experiments. While many studies documented the geometric details of the human airways, information about the geometry of pig airways is scarcer. In addition, the morphology of animal airways can be significantly different from that of humans. The objective of this study is to measure the airway diameter, length and bifurcation angles in domestic pigs using computed tomography. After imaging the lungs of 3 pigs, segmentation software tools were used to extract the geometry of the airway lumen. The airway dimensions were then measured from the resulting 3 D models for the first 10 airway generations. Results showed that the size and morphology of the airways of different animals were similar. The measured airway dimensions were compared with those of the human airways. While the trachea diameter was found to be comparable to the adult human, the diameter, length and branching angles of other airways were noticeably different from that of humans. For example, pigs consistently had an early airway branching from the trachea that feeds the superior (top) right lung lobe proximal to the carina. This branch is absent in the human airways. These results suggested that the human geometry may not be a good approximation of the pig airways and may contribute to increasing the errors when the human airway geometric values are used in computational models of the pig chest.

  14. Nucleotide release by airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Sesma, Juliana I; Seminario, Lucia; Esther, Charles R; Kreda, Silvia M

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic events regulating the airways' innate defenses are initiated by the release of purines from the epithelium, which occurs constitutively and is enhanced by chemical or mechanical stimulation. While the external triggers have been reviewed exhaustively, this chapter focuses on current knowledge of the receptors and signaling cascades mediating nucleotide release. The list of secreted purines now includes ATP, ADP, AMP and nucleotide sugars, and involves at least three distinct mechanisms reflecting the complexity of airway epithelia. First, the constitutive mechanism involves ATP translocation to the ER/Golgi complex as energy source for protein folding, and fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles with the plasma membrane. Second, goblet cells package ATP with mucins into granules, which are discharged in response to P2Y(2)R activation and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways. Finally, non-mucous cells support a regulated mechanism of ATP release involving protease activated receptor (PAR)-elicited G(12/13) activation, leading to the RhoGEF-mediated exchange of GDP for GTP on RhoA, and cytoskeleton rearrangement. Together, these pathways provide fine tuning of epithelial responses regulated by purinergic signaling events. PMID:21560042

  15. Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bandla, Preetam; Huang, Jingtao; Karamessinis, Laurie; Kelly, Andrea; Pepe, Michelle; Samuel, John; Brooks, Lee; Mason, Thornton. A.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: The upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading declines with age. The epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea suggests that sex hormones play a role in modulating upper airway function. Sex hormones increase gradually during puberty, from minimally detectable to adult levels. We hypothesized that the upper airway response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with increasing pubertal Tanner stage in males but remained stable during puberty in females. Design: Upper airway dynamic function during sleep was measured over the course of puberty. Participants: Normal subjects of Tanner stages 1 to 5. Measurements: During sleep, maximal inspiratory airflow was measured while varying the level of nasal pressure. The slope of the upstream pressure-flow relationship (SPF) was measured. Results: The SPF correlated with age and Tanner stage. However, the relationship with Tanner stage became nonsignificant when the correlation due to the mutual association with age was removed. Females had a lower SPF than males. Conclusions: In both sexes, the upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with age rather than degree of pubertal development. Thus, changes in sex hormones are unlikely to be a primary modulator of upper airway function during the transition from childhood to adulthood. Although further studies of upper airway structural changes during puberty are needed, we speculate that the changes in upper airway function with age are due to the depressant effect of age on ventilatory drive, leading to a decrease in upper airway neuromotor tone. Citation: Bandla P; Huang J; Karamessinis L; Kelly A; Pepe M; Samuel J; Brooks L; Mason TA; Gallagher PR; Marcus CL. Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep. SLEEP 2008;31(4):534-541. PMID:18457241

  16. Work control in separations facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, L.D.

    1990-12-31

    The topic addressed in this technical review is the development and implementation of a work control program in one of the chemical separations facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. This program will be used as a pilot for the Nuclear Materials Processing Division at the site. The SRS Work Control Pilot program is based on the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) good practices and guidelines for the conduct of maintenance and complies with SRS quality assurance and DOE orders on maintenance management. The program follows a ten-step process for control of maintenance and maintenance-related activities in a chemical separations facility. The program took the existing maintenance planning and scheduling system and upgraded it to comply with all INPO work control and related guidelines for histories, post-maintenance testing and scheduling. The development process of adapting a nuclear-related- based plan to a batch/continuous chemical separations plant was a challenge. There were many opportunities to develop improvements in performance while being creative and realistic in applying reactor maintenance technology to chemical plant maintenance. This pilot program for work control in a nonreactor nuclear facility will provide valuable information for applying a controlled maintenance process to a multiphase chemical operating plant environment.

  17. Work control in separations facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    The topic addressed in this technical review is the development and implementation of a work control program in one of the chemical separations facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. This program will be used as a pilot for the Nuclear Materials Processing Division at the site. The SRS Work Control Pilot program is based on the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) good practices and guidelines for the conduct of maintenance and complies with SRS quality assurance and DOE orders on maintenance management. The program follows a ten-step process for control of maintenance and maintenance-related activities in a chemical separations facility. The program took the existing maintenance planning and scheduling system and upgraded it to comply with all INPO work control and related guidelines for histories, post-maintenance testing and scheduling. The development process of adapting a nuclear-related- based plan to a batch/continuous chemical separations plant was a challenge. There were many opportunities to develop improvements in performance while being creative and realistic in applying reactor maintenance technology to chemical plant maintenance. This pilot program for work control in a nonreactor nuclear facility will provide valuable information for applying a controlled maintenance process to a multiphase chemical operating plant environment.

  18. MEDEMAS -Medical Device Management and Maintenance System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Ülkü Balcı; Dogan, Mehmet Ugur; Ülgen, Yekta; Özkan, Mehmed

    In the proposed study, a medical device maintenance management system (MEDEMAS) is designed and implemented which provides a data pool of medical devices, the maintenance protocols and other required information for these devices. The system also contains complete repair and maintenance history of a specific device. MEDEMAS creates optimal maintenance schedule for devices and enables the service technician to carry out and report maintenance/repair processes via remote access. Thus predicted future failures are possible to prevent or minimize. Maintenance and repair is essential for patient safety and proper functioning of the medical devices, as it prevents performance decrease of the devices, deterioration of the equipment, and detrimental effects on the health of a patient, the user or other interacting people. The study aims to make the maintenance process more accurate, more efficient, faster and easier to manage and organize; and much less confusing. The accumulated history of medical devices and maintenance personnel helps efficient facility planning.

  19. Educating the Educator: Teaching Airway Adjunct Techniques in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert

    2011-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Athletic Training Education Competencies" ("Competencies") now requires athletic training educators (ATEs) to introduce into the curriculum various types of airway adjuncts including: (1) oropharyngeal airways (OPA), (2) nasopharyngeal airways (NPA), (3) supraglottic airways (SGA), and (4) suction. The addition of these…

  20. Small particles disrupt postnatal airway development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DongYoub; Wallis, Chris; Schelegle, Edward S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Plopper, Charles G.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Kumfer, Ben; Kennedy, Ian M.; Chan, Jackie K. W.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of epidemiologic studies associate air pollution exposure in children with decreased lung function development. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to combustion-generated fine [230 and 212 nm number mean aerodynamic particle diameter (NMAD)] to ultrafine (73 nm NMAD) particles differing in elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon content on postnatal airway development in rats. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from postnatal day 7 through 25, and lung function and airway architecture were evaluated 81 days of age. In a separate group of rats, cell proliferation was examined after a single particle exposure at 7 days of age. Early life exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particles altered distal airway architecture and resulted in subtle changes in lung mechanics. Early life exposure to 212 nm high OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture but did alter lung mechanics in a manner suggestive of central airway changes. In contrast, early life exposure to 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture or mechanics. A single 6-h exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particle decreased airway cell proliferation, whereas 212 nm high OC/EC particles increased it and 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not. The early life exposure to ultrafine, high OC/EC particles results in persistent alterations in distal airway architecture that is characterized by an initial decrease in airway cell proliferation. PMID:20634362

  1. Comparison of analysis methods for airway quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.

    2012-03-01

    Diseased airways have been known for several years as a possible contributing factor to airflow limitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD). Quantification of disease severity through the evaluation of airway dimensions - wall thickness and lumen diameter - has gained increased attention, thanks to the availability of multi-slice computed tomography (CT). Novel approaches have focused on automated methods of measurement as a faster and more objective means that the visual assessment routinely employed in the clinic. Since the Full-Width Half-Maximum (FWHM) method of airway measurement was introduced two decades ago [1], several new techniques for quantifying airways have been detailed in the literature, but no approach has truly become a standard for such analysis. Our own research group has presented two alternative approaches for determining airway dimensions, one involving a minimum path and the other active contours [2, 3]. With an increasing number of techniques dedicated to the same goal, we decided to take a step back and analyze the differences of these methods. We consequently put to the test our two methods of analysis and the FWHM approach. We first measured a set of 5 airways from a phantom of known dimensions. Then we compared measurements from the three methods to those of two independent readers, performed on 35 airways in 5 patients. We elaborate on the differences of each approach and suggest conclusions on which could be defined as the best one.

  2. Defer Maintenance, Invite Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, William W.

    1977-01-01

    An AGB- and NACUBO-sponsored survey showed that "wish lists" are accumulating overdue major maintenance projects because energy costs are consuming physical plant budgets. Problem areas are discussed: budget "guesstimation," preventive maintenance, deferred maintenance inventory, the APPA accounting format, resource allocation, and inflation.…

  3. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  4. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

  5. Targeted inhibition of KCa3.1 channel attenuates airway inflammation and remodeling in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Hua; Xu, Jian-Rong; Wang, Yan-Xia; Xu, Guang-Ni; Xu, Zu-Peng; Yang, Kai; Wu, Da-Zheng; Cui, Yong-Yao; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2013-06-01

    KCa3.1 has been suggested to be involved in regulating cell activation, proliferation, and migration in multiple cell types, including airway inflammatory and structural cells. However, the contributions of KCa3.1 to airway inflammation and remodeling and subsequent airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in allergic asthma remain to be explored. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate the roles of KCa3.1 and the potential therapeutic value of KCa3.1 blockers in chronic allergic asthma. Using real-time PCR, Western blotting, or immunohistochemical analyses, we explored the precise role of KCa3.1 in the bronchi of allergic mice and asthmatic human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs). We found that KCa3.1 mRNA and protein expression were elevated in the bronchi of allergic mice, and double labeling revealed that up-regulation occurred primarily in airway smooth muscle cells. Triarylmethane (TRAM)-34, a KCa3.1 blocker, dose-dependently inhibited the generation and maintenance of the ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation associated with increased Th2-type cytokines and decreased Th1-type cytokine, as well as subepithelial extracellular matrix deposition, goblet-cell hyperplasia, and AHR in a murine model of asthma. Moreover, the pharmacological blockade and gene silencing of KCa3.1, which was evidently elevated after mitogen stimulation, suppressed asthmatic human BSMC proliferation and migration, and arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. In addition, the KCa3.1 activator 1-ethylbenzimidazolinone-induced membrane hyperpolarization and intracellular calcium increase in asthmatic human BSMCs were attenuated by TRAM-34. We demonstrate for the first time an important role for KCa3.1 in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and remodeling in allergic asthma, and we suggest that KCa3.1 blockers may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for asthma.

  6. Kalispell Maintenance Headquarters Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-01-01

    The facilities needed to maintain and repair Bonneville Power Administration (BPA's) electrical equipment in northwest Montana are currently in two locations: A maintenance headquarters at the Kalispell Substation, and a temporary leased facility south of Kalispell. The present situation is not efficient. There is not enough space to accommodate the equipment needed at each site, and coordination and communication between the two sites is difficult. Also, two sites means duplication of equipment and facilities. BPA needs a single, centralized facility that would efficiently accommodate all the area's maintenance activities and equipment. BPA proposes to build a maintenance headquarters facility consisting of 2 to 4 single-story buildings totaling about 35,000 square feet (office spaces and workshop areas); an open-ended vehicle storage building (carport style); a fenced-in storage year; a storage building for flammables, herbicides, and hazardous wastes; and a parking lot. The facility would require developing about 6 to 10 acres of land. Two sites are being considered for the proposed project (see the attached map for locations). This report is the environmental assessment of the two options.

  7. Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.

  8. Early events in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking-induced reprogramming of airway epithelial basal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Shaykhiev, Renat; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-12-01

    The airway epithelium is the primary site of the earliest pathologic changes induced by smoking, contributing to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The normal human airway epithelium is composed of several major cell types, including differentiated ciliated and secretory cells, intermediate undifferentiated cells, and basal cells (BC). BC contain the stem/progenitor cell population responsible for maintenance of the normally differentiated airway epithelium. Although inflammatory and immune processes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of COPD, the earliest lesions include hyperplasia of the BC population, suggesting that the disease may start with this cell type. Apart from BC hyperplasia, smoking induces a number of COPD-relevant airway epithelial remodeling phenotypes that are likely initiated in the BC population, including mucous cell hyperplasia, squamous cell metaplasia, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, altered ciliated and nonmucous secretory cell differentiation, and suppression of junctional barrier integrity. Significant progress has been recently made in understanding the biology of human airway BC, including gene expression features, stem/progenitor, and other functions, including interaction with other airway cell types. Accumulating evidence suggests that human airway BC function as both sensors and cellular sources of various cytokines and growth factors relevant to smoking-associated airway injury, as well as the origin of various molecular and histological phenotypes relevant to the pathogenesis of COPD. In the context of these considerations, we suggest that early BC-specific smoking-induced molecular changes are critical to the pathogenesis of COPD, and these represent a candidate target for novel therapeutic approaches to prevent COPD progression in susceptible individuals.

  9. Mound facility physical characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Tonne, W.R.; Alexander, B.M.; Cage, M.R.; Hase, E.H.; Schmidt, M.J.; Schneider, J.E.; Slusher, W.; Todd, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a baseline physical characterization of Mound`s facilities as of September 1993. The baseline characterizations are to be used in the development of long-term future use strategy development for the Mound site. This document describes the current missions and alternative future use scenarios for each building. Current mission descriptions cover facility capabilities, physical resources required to support operations, current safety envelope and current status of facilities. Future use scenarios identify potential alternative future uses, facility modifications required for likely use, facility modifications of other uses, changes to safety envelope for the likely use, cleanup criteria for each future use scenario, and disposition of surplus equipment. This Introductory Chapter includes an Executive Summary that contains narrative on the Functional Unit Material Condition, Current Facility Status, Listing of Buildings, Space Plans, Summary of Maintenance Program and Repair Backlog, Environmental Restoration, and Decontamination and Decommissioning Programs. Under Section B, Site Description, is a brief listing of the Site PS Development, as well as Current Utility Sources. Section C contains Site Assumptions. A Maintenance Program Overview, as well as Current Deficiencies, is contained within the Maintenance Program Chapter.

  10. Firefighting acutely increases airway responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Sherman, C B; Barnhart, S; Miller, M F; Segal, M R; Aitken, M; Schoene, R; Daniell, W; Rosenstock, L

    1989-07-01

    The acute effects of the products of combustion and pyrolysis on airway responsiveness among firefighters are poorly documented. To study this relationship, spirometry and methacholine challenge testing (MCT) were performed on 18 active Seattle firefighters before and 5 to 24 h after firefighting. Body plethysmography was used to measure changes in specific airway conductance (SGaw), and results of MCT were analyzed using PD35-SGaw, the cumulative dose causing a 35% decrease in SGaw. Subjects who did not react by the end of the protocol were assigned a value of 640 inhalational units, the largest cumulative dose. Fire exposure was defined as the total time (hours) spent without a self-contained breathing apparatus at the firesite and was categorized as mild (less than 1 h, n = 7), moderate (1 to 2 h, n = 5), or severe (greater than 2 h, n = 6). Mean age of the 18 firefighters was 36.7 +/- 6.7 yr (range, 25 to 51), with a mean of 9.1 +/- 7.9 active years in the trade (range, zero to 22). None was known to be asthmatic. After firefighting, FEV1 % predicted (%pred) and FEF25-75 %pred significantly decreased by means of 3.4 +/- 1.1% and 5.6 +/- 2.6%, respectively. The mean decline in PD35-SGaw after firefighting was 184.5 +/- 53.2 units (p = 0.003). This observed decline in PD35-SGaw could not be explained by decrements in prechallenge SGaw, FEV1, or FVC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Davis PV plant operation and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This operation and maintenance manual contains the information necessary to run the Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) test facility in Davis, California. References to more specific information available in drawings, data sheets, files, or vendor manuals are included. The PVUSA is a national cooperative research and demonstration program formed in 1987 to assess the potential of utility scale photovoltaic systems.

  12. 21 CFR 211.58 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maintenance. 211.58 Section 211.58 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities §...

  13. 21 CFR 211.58 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maintenance. 211.58 Section 211.58 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities §...

  14. 21 CFR 211.58 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maintenance. 211.58 Section 211.58 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities §...

  15. Mechanisms Linking Advanced Airway Management and Cardiac Arrest Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Justin L.; Prince, David K.; Wang, Henry E.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced airway management – such as endotracheal intubation (ETI) or supraglottic airway (SGA) insertion – is one of the most prominent interventions in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation. While randomized controlled trials are currently in progress to identify the best advanced airway technique in OHCA, the mechanisms by which airway management may influence OHCA outcomes remain unknown. We provide a conceptual model describing potential mechanisms linking advanced airway management with OHCA outcomes. PMID:26073275

  16. Nasal airway responses to nasal continuous positive airway pressure breathing: An in-vivo pilot study.

    PubMed

    White, David E; Bartley, Jim; Shakeel, Muhammad; Nates, Roy J; Hankin, Robin K S

    2016-06-14

    The nasal cycle, through variation in nasal airflow partitioning, allows the upper airway to accommodate the contrasting demands of air conditioning and removal of entrapped air contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) breathing has on both nasal airflow partitioning and nasal geometry. Using a custom-made nasal mask, twenty healthy participants had the airflow in each naris measured during normal nasal breathing followed by nCPAP breathing. Eight participants also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasal region during spontaneous nasal breathing, and then nCPAP breathing over a range of air pressures. During nCPAP breathing, a simultaneous reduction in airflow through the patent airway together with a corresponding increase in airway flow within the congested nasal airway were observed in sixteen of the twenty participants. Nasal airflow resistance is inversely proportional to airway cross-sectional area. MRI data analysis during nCPAP breathing confirmed airway cross-sectional area reduced along the patent airway while the congested airway experienced an increase in this parameter. During awake breathing, nCPAP disturbs the normal inter-nasal airflow partitioning. This could partially explain the adverse nasal drying symptoms frequently reported by many users of this therapy. PMID:27173595

  17. Method and computer program product for maintenance and modernization backlogging

    DOEpatents

    Mattimore, Bernard G; Reynolds, Paul E; Farrell, Jill M

    2013-02-19

    According to one embodiment, a computer program product for determining future facility conditions includes a computer readable medium having computer readable program code stored therein. The computer readable program code includes computer readable program code for calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, for calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and for calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. In another embodiment, a computer-implemented method for calculating future facility conditions includes calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. Other embodiments are also presented.

  18. Looking Northeast at Southwest End of Maintenance Shop with Milling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northeast at Southwest End of Maintenance Shop with Milling Machines, Hoist, Electrical Boxes in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  19. 14 CFR 171.115 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... meet at a minimum the Federal Communications Commission's licensing requirements and show that he has the special knowledge and skills needed to maintain the facility, including proficiency in maintenance... authorized persons only. (3) Federal Communications Commission requirements for operating personnel...

  20. Facilities of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The bricks-and-mortar infrastructure of community colleges has not nearly kept pace with increases in student enrollments. Not only are colleges bursting at the proverbial seams, but, according to the American Graduation Initiative, many two-year institutions "face large needs due to deferred maintenance or lack the modern facilities and equipment…

  1. Extravascular fibrin, plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitors, and airway hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Wagers, Scott S.; Norton, Ryan J.; Rinaldi, Lisa M.; Bates, Jason H.T.; Sobel, Burton E.; Irvin, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying airway hyperresponsiveness are not yet fully elucidated. One of the manifestations of airway inflammation is leakage of diverse plasma proteins into the airway lumen. They include fibrinogen and thrombin. Thrombin cleaves fibrinogen to form fibrin, a major component of thrombi. Fibrin inactivates surfactant. Surfactant on the airway surface maintains airway patency by lowering surface tension. In this study, immunohistochemically detected fibrin was seen along the luminal surface of distal airways in a patient who died of status asthmaticus and in mice with induced allergic airway inflammation. In addition, we observed altered airway fibrinolytic system protein balance consistent with promotion of fibrin deposition in mice with allergic airway inflammation. The airways of mice were exposed to aerosolized fibrinogen, thrombin, or to fibrinogen followed by thrombin. Only fibrinogen followed by thrombin resulted in airway hyperresponsiveness compared with controls. An aerosolized fibrinolytic agent, tissue-type plasminogen activator, significantly diminished airway hyperresponsiveness in mice with allergic airway inflammation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that leakage of fibrinogen and thrombin and their accumulation on the airway surface can contribute to the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:15232617

  2. Tongue Protrusion Strength in Arousal State Is Predictive of the Airway Patency in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Kanezaki, Masashi; Ogawa, Teruhiro; Izumi, Tadafumi

    2015-01-01

    Contraction of the genioglossus affects either tongue protrusion strength or dilating forces of the upper airway. The upper airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is thought to collapse during sleep, at least in part because of a sleep related reduction in genioglossus muscle activity. Thus, although tongue protrusion strength by genioglossus activity during sleep contributes to the maintenance of airway patency in patients with OSA, the relationship between tongue protrusion strength in the arousal state and obstructive sleep apnea has not been fully elucidated. Conventional method of tongue protrusion strength cannot be used to evaluate in edentulous subjects and/or subjects with the decreased biting force. In this study, employing a novel measurement method that does not require biting a transducer, we investigated relationships between the tongue protrusion strength and polysomnographic findings. We enrolled twenty normal subjects and 26 subjects with OSA. All subjects completed the measurement of tongue protrusion strength. Each subject with OSA was evaluated by full polysomnography. The degree of tongue protrusion strength was assessed by maximum voluntary contraction against the tongue depressor connected with a strain gauge dynamometer. The tongue protrusion strength was negatively correlated with obstructive apnea time, apnea index (AI) and the percent of sleep stage 2 (r = -0.61, p < 0.0001, r = -0.41 p = 0.03 and r = -0.39 p = 0.04, respectively). Tongue protrusion strength measured in the arousal state is predictive of the airway patency during sleep in OSA.

  3. Therapeutic bronchoscopic interventions for malignant airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dalar, Levent; Özdemir, Cengiz; Abul, Yasin; Karasulu, Levent; Sökücü, Sinem Nedime; Akbaş, Ayşegül; Altın, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is no definitive consensus about the factors affecting the choice of interventional bronchoscopy in the management of malignant airway obstruction. The present study defines the choice of the interventional bronchoscopic modality and analyzes the factors influencing survival in patients with malignant central airway obstruction. Totally, over 7 years, 802 interventional rigid bronchoscopic procedures were applied in 547 patients having malignant airway obstruction. There was a significant association between the type of stent and the site of the lesion in the present study. Patients with tracheal involvement and/or involvement of the main bronchi had the worst prognosis. The sites of the lesion and endobronchial treatment modality were independent predictors of survival in the present study. The selection of different types of airway stents can be considered on the base of site of the lesion. Survival can be estimated based on the site of the lesion and endobronchial brochoscopic modality used. PMID:27281104

  4. 21 CFR 868.5810 - Airway connector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... airway connector is a device intended to connect a breathing gas source to a tracheal tube, tracheostomy tube, or mask. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5810 - Airway connector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... airway connector is a device intended to connect a breathing gas source to a tracheal tube, tracheostomy tube, or mask. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5810 - Airway connector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... airway connector is a device intended to connect a breathing gas source to a tracheal tube, tracheostomy tube, or mask. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  7. Virtual Airway Skills Trainer (VAST) Simulator

    PubMed Central

    DEMIREL, Doga; YU, Alexander; HALIC, Tansel; SANKARANARAYANAN, Ganesh; RYASON, Adam; SPINDLER, David; BUTLER, Kathryn L.; CAO, Caroline; PETRUSA, Emil; MOLINA, Marcos; JONES, Dan; DE, Suvranu; DEMOYA, Marc; JONES, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of Virtual Airway Skill Trainer (VAST) tasks. The simulated tasks are a part of two main airway management techniques; Endotracheal Intubation (ETI) and Cricothyroidotomy (CCT). ETI is a simple nonsurgical airway management technique, while CCT is the extreme surgical alternative to secure the airway of a patient. We developed identification of Mallampati class, finding the optimal angle for positioning pharyngeal/mouth axes tasks for ETI and identification of anatomical landmarks and incision tasks for CCT. Both ETI and CCT simulators were used to get physicians’ feedback at Society for Education in Anesthesiology and Association for Surgical Education spring meetings. In this preliminary validation study, total 38 participants for ETI and 48 for CCT performed each simulation task and completed pre and post questionnaires. In this work, we present the details of the simulation for the tasks and also the analysis of the collected data from the validation study. PMID:27046559

  8. 21 CFR 868.5810 - Airway connector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... airway connector is a device intended to connect a breathing gas source to a tracheal tube, tracheostomy tube, or mask. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  9. Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

  10. Airway clearance therapy: finding the evidence.

    PubMed

    Volsko, Teresa A

    2013-10-01

    Disease processes can impair ciliary function, alter secretion production and mucus rheology, and interfere with the cough reflex. Airway clearance therapy has been a cornerstone of therapy aimed at minimizing the devastating effects of airway obstruction, infection, and inflammation due to mucus stasis on the conducting airways and lung parenchyma. Although challenges to performing clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of airway clearance therapeutic modalities exist, resources are available in the literature. In addition to device evaluations and original clinical research, the expert opinion, systematic reviews, and evidence-based practice guidelines can be found. These tools can be used to develop protocols and pathways to guide our practice. Monitoring and reporting patient, process, and financial outcomes are essential steps germane to the implementation of evidence-based care.

  11. 29 CFR 1917.111 - Maintenance and load limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance and load limits. 1917.111 Section 1917.111 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.111 Maintenance and load...

  12. 14 CFR 171.11 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... test equipment. (b) The owner must prepare, and obtain FAA approval of, an operations and maintenance... state of the art. In addition, he shall provide a stock of spare parts, including vacuum tubes, of such.... (g) The owner shall provide all approved test instruments needed for maintenance of the facility....

  13. B Plant surveillance and maintenance phase technical safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    SCHWEHR, B.A.

    1999-10-05

    This document identifies administrative controls that are established for the operating contractor of the B Plant facility during the B Plant surveillance and maintenance phase. When approved by the DOE-RL, this document is part of the B Plant safety authorization basis. Look for the associated B Plant Surveillance and Maintenance Phase Safety Analysis Report, HNF-3358.

  14. 33 CFR 146.15 - Maintenance of emergency equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of emergency equipment. 146.15 Section 146.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.15 Maintenance...

  15. 10 CFR 95.13 - Maintenance of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of records. 95.13 Section 95.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 95.13 Maintenance of records. (a) Each...

  16. 77 FR 67584 - Air Carrier Contract Maintenance Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478...-certificated repair facilities, and the air carriers' outsourcing of maintenance. In each of those reports... maintenance outsourcing practices (Recommendation 2). \\3\\ Review of Air Carriers' Use of Aircraft...

  17. 36th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study: Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    Colleges are focusing increased effort--and money--to improve the physical condition of existing facilities and address a huge backlog of deferred maintenance. According to "American School & University's" 36th annual Maintenance and Operations (M&O) Cost Study, the median college spends 16.4% of total college budget on M&O, up from 11% the year…

  18. Airway obstruction secondary to rhinoscleroma during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, W B; Peskind, S P; Bressler, K L; Crockett, D M

    1995-11-01

    Dyspnea is a fairly common complaint during pregnancy. However, if one excludes allergic nasal congestion of pregnancy, upper airway obstruction is a distinctly uncommon cause of dyspnea in the pregnant patient. Three cases of laryngeal rhinoscleroma in pregnant women requiring tracheostomy for airway management are reported. All three delivered healthy infants vaginally. Postpartum, two of the three were successfully decannulated, while the third became pregnant again before decannulation was accomplished. Treatment options and a review of the literature are presented.

  19. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    PubMed Central

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  20. Migration of Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerthoffer, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Migration of smooth muscle cells is a process fundamental to development of hollow organs, including blood vessels and the airways. Migration is also thought to be part of the response to tissue injury. It has also been suggested to contribute to airways remodeling triggered by chronic inflammation. In both nonmuscle and smooth muscle cells numerous external signaling molecules and internal signal transduction pathways contribute to cell migration. The review includes evidence for the functional significance of airway smooth muscle migration, a summary of promigratory and antimigratory agents, and summaries of important signaling pathways mediating migration. Important signaling pathways and effector proteins described include small G proteins, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3-K), Rho activated protein kinase (ROCK), p21-activated protein kinases (PAK), Src family tyrosine kinases, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). These signaling modules control multiple critical effector proteins including actin nucleating, capping and severing proteins, myosin motors, and proteins that remodel microtubules. Actin filament remodeling, focal contact remodeling and propulsive force of molecular motors are all coordinated to move cells along gradients of chemical cues, matrix adhesiveness, or matrix stiffness. Airway smooth muscle cell migration can be modulated in vitro by drugs commonly used in pulmonary medicine including β-adrenergic agonists and corticosteroids. Future studies of airway smooth muscle cell migration may uncover novel targets for drugs aimed at modifying airway remodeling. PMID:18094091

  1. Trichobezoar Causing Airway Compromise during Esophagogastroduodenoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Erica Y.; Scalzitti, Nicholas J.; Dion, Gregory R.; Bowe, Sarah N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. (1) Report the case of a 5-year-old female with trichotillomania and trichophagia that suffered airway compromise during esophagogastroduodenoscopy for removal of a trichobezoar. (2) Provide management recommendations for an unusual foreign body causing extubation and partial airway obstruction. Methods. Case report of a rare situation of airway compromise caused by a trichobezoar. Results. A 5-year-old patient underwent endoscopic retrieval of a gastric trichobezoar (hairball) by the gastroenterology service under general endotracheal anesthesia in a sedation unit. During removal, the hairball, due to its large size, dislodged the endotracheal tube, effectively extubating the patient. The bezoar became lodged at the cricopharyngeus muscle. Attempts to remove the bezoar or reintubation were unsuccessful. The child was able to be mask ventilated while the otolaryngology service was called. Direct laryngoscopy revealed a hairball partially obstructing the view of the glottis from its position in the postcricoid area. The hairball, still entrapped in the snare from the esophagoscope, was grasped with Magill forceps and slowly extracted. The patient was then reintubated and the airway and esophagus were reevaluated. Conclusions. Trichobezoar is an uncommon cause of airway foreign body. Careful attention to airway management during these and similar foreign body extractions can prevent inadvertent extubations. PMID:26457086

  2. Taste Receptors in Upper Airway Immunity.

    PubMed

    Carey, Ryan M; Lee, Robert J; Cohen, Noam A

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors are well known for their role in communicating information from the tongue to the brain about nutritional value or potential toxicity of ingested substances. More recently, it has been shown that taste receptors are expressed in other locations throughout the body, including the airway, gastrointestinal tract, brain and pancreas. The roles of some 'extraoral' taste receptors are largely unknown, but emerging research suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are capable of sensing bacteria and modulating innate immunity. This chapter focuses on the role of bitter and sweet taste receptors in human airway innate immunity and their clinical relevance to rhinosinusitis. The bitter taste receptor T2R38 expressed in sinonasal cilia detects bitter bacterial quorum-sensing molecules and activates a nitric oxide-dependent innate immune response; moreover, there are polymorphisms in T2R38 that underlie susceptibility to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Bitter and sweet receptors in sinonasal solitary chemosensory cells control secretion of antimicrobial peptides in the upper airway and may have a profound impact on airway infections in patients with CRS and diabetes. Future research on taste receptors in the airway has enormous potential to expand our understanding of host-pathogen immune interactions and provide novel therapeutic targets. PMID:27466851

  3. Mechanical Properties of the Upper Airway

    PubMed Central

    Strohl, Kingman P.; Butler, James P.; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the upper airway (nose, pharynx, and larynx) in health and in the pathogenesis of sleep apnea, asthma, and other airway diseases, discussed elsewhere in the Comprehensive Physiology series, prompts this review of the biomechanical properties and functional aspects of the upper airway. There is a literature based on anatomic or structural descriptions in static circumstances, albeit studied in limited numbers of individuals in both health and disease. As for dynamic features, the literature is limited to studies of pressure and flow through all or parts of the upper airway and to the effects of muscle activation on such features; however, the links between structure and function through airway size, shape, and compliance remain a topic that is completely open for investigation, particularly through analyses using concepts of fluid and structural mechanics. Throughout are included both historically seminal references, as well as those serving as signposts or updated reviews. This article should be considered a resource for concepts needed for the application of biomechanical models of upper airway physiology, applicable to understanding the pathophysiology of disease and anticipated results of treatment interventions. PMID:23723026

  4. State School Facility Programs Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of General Services, Sacramento. Office of Public School Construction.

    This overview examines California's various State Allocation Board's funding programs for the construction, modernization, and maintenance of local school facilities. Funding information is provided for each program as are explanations of the school facility program construction process and the lease purchase program. The organizational chart for…

  5. Planning Maintenance and Repairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of school facility design as an aid to efficiently repairing and maintaining facility systems. Also presents details on facility design's influence in properly maintaining mechanical and electrical systems. (GR)

  6. Innovation for maintenance technology improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shives, T. R. (Editor); Willard, W. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A group of 34 submitted entries (32 papers and 2 abstracts) from the 33rd meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group whose subject was maintenance technology improvement through innovation. Areas of special emphasis included maintenance concepts, maintenance analysis systems, improved maintenance processes, innovative maintenance diagnostics and maintenance indicators, and technology improvements for power plant applications.

  7. Maintenance dialysis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Aditi; Bagga, Arvind

    2015-02-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease require renal replacement therapy with maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis while awaiting transplantation. In addition to economic issues and limited state funding for advanced health care, the lack of trained medical personnel contributes to scarce dialysis facilities for children in developing countries. The establishment and operation of a hemodialysis unit with multidisciplinary facilities is both cost- and labor-intensive. Hemodialysis is usually carried out three times a week in a hospital setting and affects the curricular and extracurricular activities of the patient. Chronic ambulatory or cyclic peritoneal dialysis is technically simpler and allows better nutrition and growth, but is expensive for the majority of patients who must pay out of their own pocket. Multiple initiatives to enhance the training of pediatricians and nurses in skills related to initiating and managing patients on maintenance dialysis have resulted in the improved survival of children with end-stage renal disease. Support from state governments and philanthropic institutions have helped in establishing pediatric nephrology units that are equipped to provide renal replacement therapy for children. PMID:24469439

  8. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  9. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  10. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  11. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  12. Status of fusion maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission.

  13. Full Airway Drainage by Fiber Bronchoscopy Through Artificial Airway in the Treatment of Occult Traumatic Atelectasis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue Hong; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Zhong Yan; Zhang, Shao Yang; Yu, Wen Qiao; Huang, Fang-Fang

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of full airway drainage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway in the treatment of traumatic atelectasis with occult manifestations. From May 2006 to May 2011, 40 cases of occult traumatic atelectasis were enrolled into our prospective study. Group A (n = 18) received drainage by nasal bronchoscope; group B underwent airway drainage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway (n = 22). The effects of treatment were evaluated by the incidence of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung abscess, and the average length of hospital stay. Compared with nasal fiber-optic treatment, airway drainage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway reduced the incidence of ARDS (p = 0.013) and lung abscess (p = 0.062) and shortened the mean length of stay (p = 0.018). Making the decision to create an artificial airway timely and carry out lung lavage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway played a significant role in the treatment of occult traumatic atelectasis. PMID:27011511

  14. Full Airway Drainage by Fiber Bronchoscopy Through Artificial Airway in the Treatment of Occult Traumatic Atelectasis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue Hong; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Zhong Yan; Zhang, Shao Yang; Yu, Wen Qiao; Huang, Fang-Fang

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of full airway drainage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway in the treatment of traumatic atelectasis with occult manifestations. From May 2006 to May 2011, 40 cases of occult traumatic atelectasis were enrolled into our prospective study. Group A (n = 18) received drainage by nasal bronchoscope; group B underwent airway drainage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway (n = 22). The effects of treatment were evaluated by the incidence of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung abscess, and the average length of hospital stay. Compared with nasal fiber-optic treatment, airway drainage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway reduced the incidence of ARDS (p = 0.013) and lung abscess (p = 0.062) and shortened the mean length of stay (p = 0.018). Making the decision to create an artificial airway timely and carry out lung lavage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway played a significant role in the treatment of occult traumatic atelectasis.

  15. Industrial Maintenance Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad Akbar

    2006-07-01

    Industrial plants have become more complex due to technological advancement. This has made the task of maintenance more difficult. The maintenance costs in terms of resources and downtime loss are so high that maintenance function has become a critical factor in a plant's profitability. Industry should devote as much forethought to the management of maintenance function as to production. Maintenance has grown from an art to a precise, technical engineering science. Planning, organizing scheduling and control of maintenance using modern techniques pays dividends in the form of reduced costs and increased reliability. The magnitude and the dimension of maintenance have multiplied due to development in the engineering technologies. Production cost and capacities are directly affected by the breakdown time. Total operating cost including the maintenance cost plays an important role in replacement dimension. The integrated system approach would bring forth the desired results of high maintenance standards. The standards once achieved and sustained, would add to the reliability of the plan and relieve heavy stresses and strains on the engineering logistic support. (author)

  16. [Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area.

  17. The relation of airway size to lung function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leader, J. Ken; Zheng, Bin; Sciurba, Frank C.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Bon, Jessica M.; Park, Sang C.; Pu, Jiantao; Gur, David

    2008-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may cause airway remodeling, and small airways are the mostly likely site of associated airway flow obstruction. Detecting and quantifying airways depicted on a typical computed tomography (CT) images is limited by spatial resolution. In this study, we examined the association between lung function and airway size. CT examinations and spirometry measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second as a percent predicted (FEV I%) from 240 subjects were used in this study. Airway sections depicted in axial CT section were automatically detected and quantified. Pearson correlation coefficients (PCC) were computed to compare lung function across three size categories: (1) all detected airways, (2) the smallest 50% of detected airways, and (3) the largest 50% of detected airways using the CORANOVA test. The mean number of all airways detected per subject was 117.4 (+/- 40.1) with mean size ranging from 20.2 to 50.0 mm2. The correlation between lung function (i.e., FEV I) and airway morphometry associated with airway remodeling and airflow obstruction (i.e., lumen perimeter and wall area as a percent of total airway area) was significantly stronger for smaller compared to larger airways (p < 0.05). The PCCs between FEV I and all airways, the smallest 50%, and the largest 50% were 0.583, 0.617, 0.523, respectively, for lumen perimeter and -0.560, -0.584, and -0.514, respectively, for wall area percent. In conclusion, analyzing a set of smaller airways compared to larger airways may improve detection of an association between lung function and airway morphology change.

  18. Quality control in microarray assessment of gene expression in human airway epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Tina; O'Connor, Timothy P; Hackett, Neil R; Wang, Wei; Harvey, Ben-Gary; Attiyeh, Marc A; Dang, David T; Teater, Matthew; Crystal, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    Background Microarray technology provides a powerful tool for defining gene expression profiles of airway epithelium that lend insight into the pathogenesis of human airway disorders. The focus of this study was to establish rigorous quality control parameters to ensure that microarray assessment of the airway epithelium is not confounded by experimental artifact. Samples (total n = 223) of trachea, large and small airway epithelium were collected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy of 144 individuals and hybridized to Affymetrix microarrays. The pre- and post-chip quality control (QC) criteria established, included: (1) RNA quality, assessed by RNA Integrity Number (RIN) ≥ 7.0; (2) cRNA transcript integrity, assessed by signal intensity ratio of GAPDH 3' to 5' probe sets ≤ 3.0; and (3) the multi-chip normalization scaling factor ≤ 10.0. Results Of the 223 samples, all three criteria were assessed in 191; of these 184 (96.3%) passed all three criteria. For the remaining 32 samples, the RIN was not available, and only the other two criteria were used; of these 29 (90.6%) passed these two criteria. Correlation coefficients for pairwise comparisons of expression levels for 100 maintenance genes in which at least one array failed the QC criteria (average Pearson r = 0.90 ± 0.04) were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) than correlation coefficients for pairwise comparisons between arrays that passed the QC criteria (average Pearson r = 0.97 ± 0.01). Inter-array variability was significantly decreased (p < 0.0001) among samples passing the QC criteria compared with samples failing the QC criteria. Conclusion Based on the aberrant maintenance gene data generated from samples failing the established QC criteria, we propose that the QC criteria outlined in this study can accurately distinguish high quality from low quality data, and can be used to delete poor quality microarray samples before proceeding to higher-order biological analyses and interpretation. PMID:19852842

  19. Diagnostic significance of nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled air from the airways in allergic rhinitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Samoliński, Bolesław K; Zalewska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the human body is very important due its physiological regulation of the following functions of airways: modulation of ciliary movement and maintenance of sterility in sinuses. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic significance of NO concentrations in exhaled air from the upper and lower airways in patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (AR). Material and methods The subjects included in the study were a group of 30 people diagnosed with sensitivity to environmental allergens and a control group consisting of 30 healthy subjects. The measurement of NO in the air exhaled from the lower and upper airways was performed using an on-line method by means of Restricted Exhaled Breath (REB), as well as using the measurement procedure (chemiluminescence) set out in the guidelines prepared in 2005 by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Results In the late phase of the allergic reaction, higher values of the level of exhaled NO concentration from the lower airways were observed in the groups of subjects up to the threshold values of 25.17 ppb in the group of subjects with year-round allergic rhinitis and 21.78 ppb in the group with diagnosed seasonal allergic rhinitis. The difference in the concentration of NO exhaled from the lungs between the test group and the control group in the 4th h of the test was statistically significant (p = 0.045). Conclusions Exhaled NO should be considered as a marker of airway inflammation. It plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of allergy. PMID:27279816

  20. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with relapsing polychondritis with airway involvement.

    PubMed

    Hong, Goohyeon; Kim, Hojoong

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the clinical characteristics, management modalities, and outcomes in patients with relapsing polychondritis (RP) with airway involvement. The medical records of RP patients with airway involvement seen at Samsung Medical Center from August 2004 to December 2011 were collected. The clinical manifestations were investigated retrospectively, including rheumatologic record, diagnostic tests, treatment modalities, and clinical outcomes. Twelve patients (five females, seven males) with a median age of 48(interquartile range (IQR) 44-60) years were included. All patients had airway involvement, including the trachea (100 %), main bronchi (83 %), and larynx (25 %). Rheumatological manifestations were frequent, including inflammatory arthritis (50 %), auricular chondritis (42 %), keratoconjunctivitis (42 %), nasal chondritis (42 %), saddle nose (25 %), and sensorineural hearing loss (17 %). All patients who had acute exacerbations were treated with high-dose corticosteroids (1,000 mg per day) and were maintained on oral prednisolone (5-40 mg per day), with weekly methotrexate (2.5-15 mg per week) during follow up. One out of 12 patients required mechanical ventilation. Nine patients have survived without ventilator support and eight patients without a tracheostomy. Two patients underwent a tracheostomy with endobronchial stenting. During follow-up (median 24[IQR 7-50] months), the clinical outcome was favorable in nine patients, while three patients died of pneumonia and respiratory failure. High-doses of corticosteroids during an acute exacerbation followed by maintenance prednisolone with methotrexate could be recommended as a therapeutic option in RP patients with airway involvement. Airway intervention by an experienced clinician is sometimes required.

  1. Technical information report: Plasma melter operation, reliability, and maintenance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-03-14

    This document provides a technical report of operability, reliability, and maintenance of a plasma melter for low-level waste vitrification, in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. A process description is provided that minimizes maintenance and downtime and includes material and energy balances, equipment sizes and arrangement, startup/operation/maintence/shutdown cycle descriptions, and basis for scale-up to a 200 metric ton/day production facility. Operational requirements are provided including utilities, feeds, labor, and maintenance. Equipment reliability estimates and maintenance requirements are provided which includes a list of failure modes, responses, and consequences.

  2. Halt Runaway Maintenance Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    To keep expensive computer software and hardware functioning requires good housekeeping, some protective equipment, ground rules, and supervision. Schools can arrange microcomputer maintenance through service agreements with computer manufacturers, pay-as-you-go service from local computer stores, or setting up their own maintenance and repair…

  3. Progressive Planned Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary Jo; Jacobs, Richard S.

    A planned maintenance system, which was implemented at Washington State University (WSU), uniquely integrates functions of equipment inventory, scheduling, time reporting, project management, materials inventory, and billing. Management now has immediate access to equipment data, maintenance status, and costs. Staff requirements are readily…

  4. Maximizing Hard Floor Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steger, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Explains the maintenance options available for hardwood flooring that can help ensure long life cycles and provide inviting spaces. Developing a maintenance system, knowing the type of traffic that the floor must endure, using entrance matting, and adhering to manufacturers guidelines are discussed. Daily, monthly or quarterly, and long-term…

  5. Acoustic simulation of a patient's obstructed airway.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, W C P; van Zuijlen, A H; de Jong, A T; Lynch, C T; Hoeve, L J; Bijl, H

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the numerical simulation of stridor; a high pitched, abnormal noise, resulting from turbulent airflow and vibrating tissue through a partially obstructed airway. Characteristics of stridor noise are used by medical doctors as indication for location and size of the obstruction. The relation between type of stridor and the various diseases associated with airway obstruction is unclear; therefore, simply listening to stridor is an unreliable diagnostic tool. The overall aim of the study is to better understand the relationship between characteristics of stridor noise and localization and size of the obstruction. Acoustic analysis of stridor may then in future simplify the diagnostic process, and reduce the need for more invasive procedures such as laryngoscopy under general anesthesia. In this paper, the feasibility of a coupled flow, acoustic and structural model is investigated to predict the noise generated by the obstruction as well as the propagation of the noise through the airways, taking into account a one-way coupled fluid, structure, and acoustic interaction components. The flow and acoustic solver are validated on a diaphragm and a simplified airway model. A realistic airway model of a patient suffering from a subglottic stenosis, derived from a real computed tomography scan, is further analyzed. Near the mouth, the broadband noise levels at higher frequencies increased with approximately 15-20 dB comparing the stridorous model with the healthy model, indicating stridorous sound.

  6. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  7. Measles: an epidemic of upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Manning, S C; Ridenour, B; Brown, O E; Squires, J

    1991-09-01

    Between October 1989 and August 1990, Dallas County experienced an 11-month epidemic of measles. Of 995 cases of pediatric measles diagnosed in the outpatient department of Children's Medical Center, 108 patients were admitted and 34 of these demonstrated significant upper airway obstruction at the time of admission. Airway problems ranged from mild inspiratory stridor with nasal flaring to frank obstruction and arrest in the emergency room, requiring intubation. Eight of the 34 airway patients were eventually diagnosed with bacterial tracheitis on the basis of endoscopic findings and culture results. The remaining patients had pictures more consistent with viral laryngotracheitis, but all patients were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics to prevent possible progression to bacterial tracheitis. A total of nine patients overall required intubation for airway obstruction and all were successfully extubated. Large outbreaks of measles are becoming common again in populations of urban poor--largely unvaccinated children. The disease in these populations tends to occur at a younger age and may be more aggressive with more associated complications. Physicians must keep in mind the possibility of upper airway obstruction in a significant proportion of these patients. Early diagnosis on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms, endoscopy, and radiographs is the key to timely appropriate management.

  8. Acoustic simulation of a patient's obstructed airway.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, W C P; van Zuijlen, A H; de Jong, A T; Lynch, C T; Hoeve, L J; Bijl, H

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the numerical simulation of stridor; a high pitched, abnormal noise, resulting from turbulent airflow and vibrating tissue through a partially obstructed airway. Characteristics of stridor noise are used by medical doctors as indication for location and size of the obstruction. The relation between type of stridor and the various diseases associated with airway obstruction is unclear; therefore, simply listening to stridor is an unreliable diagnostic tool. The overall aim of the study is to better understand the relationship between characteristics of stridor noise and localization and size of the obstruction. Acoustic analysis of stridor may then in future simplify the diagnostic process, and reduce the need for more invasive procedures such as laryngoscopy under general anesthesia. In this paper, the feasibility of a coupled flow, acoustic and structural model is investigated to predict the noise generated by the obstruction as well as the propagation of the noise through the airways, taking into account a one-way coupled fluid, structure, and acoustic interaction components. The flow and acoustic solver are validated on a diaphragm and a simplified airway model. A realistic airway model of a patient suffering from a subglottic stenosis, derived from a real computed tomography scan, is further analyzed. Near the mouth, the broadband noise levels at higher frequencies increased with approximately 15-20 dB comparing the stridorous model with the healthy model, indicating stridorous sound. PMID:25567545

  9. Kinins, airway obstruction, and anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Allen P

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a term that implies symptoms that are present in many organs, some of which are potentially fatal. The pathogenic process can either be IgE-dependent or non-IgE-dependent; the latter circumstance may be referred to as anaphylactoid. Bradykinin is frequently responsible for the manifestations of IgE-independent reactions. Blood levels may increase because of overproduction; diseases such as the various forms of C1 inhibitor deficiency (hereditary or acquired) or hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor are examples in this category. Blood levels may also increase because of an abnormality in bradykinin metabolism; the angioedema due to ACE inhibitors is a commonly encountered example. Angioedema due to bradykinin has the potential to cause airway obstruction and asphyxia as well as severe gastrointestinal symptoms simulating an acute abdomen. Formation of bradykinin in plasma is a result of a complex interaction among proteins such as factor XII, prekallikrein, and high molecular weight kininogen (HK) resulting in HK cleavage and liberation of bradykinin. These proteins also assemble along the surface of endothelial cells via zinc-dependent interactions with gC1qR, cytokeratin 1, and u-PAR. Endothelial cell expression (or secretion) of heat-shock protein 90 or prolylcarboxypeptidase can activate the prekallikrein-HK complex to generate bradykinin in the absence of factor XII, however factor XII is then secondarily activated by the kallikrein that results. Bradykinin is destroyed by carboxypeptidase N and angiotensin-converting enzyme. The hypotension associated with IgE-dependent anaphylaxis maybe mediated, in part, by massive proteolytic digestion of HK by kallikreins (tissue or plasma-derived) or other cell-derived kininogenases. PMID:20519882

  10. 34 CFR 361.62 - Maintenance of effort requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAM Financing of State Vocational Rehabilitation Programs § 361.62 Maintenance of effort requirements... provides for the construction of a facility for community rehabilitation program purposes, the amount of... for the construction of a facility for community rehabilitation program purposes or the...

  11. 14 CFR 171.211 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance and operations requirements. 171.211 Section 171.211 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons §...

  12. 14 CFR 171.211 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance and operations requirements. 171.211 Section 171.211 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons §...

  13. 14 CFR 171.211 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance and operations requirements. 171.211 Section 171.211 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons §...

  14. 14 CFR 171.31 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance and operations requirements. 171.31 Section 171.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Nondirectional Radio...

  15. 14 CFR 171.31 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance and operations requirements. 171.31 Section 171.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Nondirectional Radio...

  16. 14 CFR 171.31 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintenance and operations requirements. 171.31 Section 171.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Nondirectional Radio...

  17. 14 CFR 171.211 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance and operations requirements. 171.211 Section 171.211 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons §...

  18. 14 CFR 171.211 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintenance and operations requirements. 171.211 Section 171.211 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons §...

  19. 14 CFR 171.31 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance and operations requirements. 171.31 Section 171.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Nondirectional Radio...

  20. 14 CFR 171.31 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance and operations requirements. 171.31 Section 171.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Nondirectional Radio...

  1. Operation and maintenance considerations for waste-to-energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, F.; O'Leary, P.; Walsh, P.

    1987-08-01

    In this article, the author discusses environmental and safety issues surrounding waste-to-energy systems. A facility can be safe and compatible with the surrounding community if management has an ethic to provide for the disposal of refuse in an economic, safe, and environmentally sound manner and the operator is trained in the proper procedures for facility operation, maintenance, troubleshooting and repair.

  2. 40 CFR 63.1160 - Compliance dates and maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1160 Compliance dates and maintenance requirements.../or hydrochloric acid regeneration plant subject to this subpart shall achieve initial compliance with... reconstructed steel pickling facility and/or hydrochloric acid regeneration plant subject to this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1160 - Compliance dates and maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1160 Compliance dates and maintenance requirements.../or hydrochloric acid regeneration plant subject to this subpart shall achieve initial compliance with... reconstructed steel pickling facility and/or hydrochloric acid regeneration plant subject to this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1160 - Compliance dates and maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1160 Compliance dates and maintenance requirements.../or hydrochloric acid regeneration plant subject to this subpart shall achieve initial compliance with... reconstructed steel pickling facility and/or hydrochloric acid regeneration plant subject to this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1160 - Compliance dates and maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1160 Compliance dates and maintenance requirements.../or hydrochloric acid regeneration plant subject to this subpart shall achieve initial compliance with... reconstructed steel pickling facility and/or hydrochloric acid regeneration plant subject to this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1160 - Compliance dates and maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1160 Compliance dates and maintenance requirements.../or hydrochloric acid regeneration plant subject to this subpart shall achieve initial compliance with... reconstructed steel pickling facility and/or hydrochloric acid regeneration plant subject to this subpart...

  7. SPONTANEOUS AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-A DEFICIENT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Airway hyperresponsiveness is a critical feature of asthma. Substantial epidemiologic evidence supports a role for female sex hormones in modulating lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in humans. Objectives: To examine the role of estrogen receptors in modulat...

  8. 25 CFR 170.811 - What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? If BIA determines that an IRR transportation facility is not...

  9. 25 CFR 170.811 - What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? If BIA determines that an IRR transportation facility is not...

  10. 25 CFR 170.811 - What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? If BIA determines that an IRR transportation facility is not...

  11. 25 CFR 170.811 - What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? If BIA determines that an IRR transportation facility is not...

  12. 25 CFR 170.811 - What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? If BIA determines that an IRR transportation facility is not...

  13. 25 CFR 171.700 - When do I not have to pay my annual operation and maintenance assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.700 When do I not have... and maintenance assessment for your land(s) within the service area of your irrigation facility...

  14. 25 CFR 171.700 - When do I not have to pay my annual operation and maintenance assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.700 When do I not have... and maintenance assessment for your land(s) within the service area of your irrigation facility...

  15. 25 CFR 171.700 - When do I not have to pay my annual operation and maintenance assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.700 When do I not have... and maintenance assessment for your land(s) within the service area of your irrigation facility...

  16. 25 CFR 171.700 - When do I not have to pay my annual operation and maintenance assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.700 When do I not have... and maintenance assessment for your land(s) within the service area of your irrigation facility...

  17. 25 CFR 171.700 - When do I not have to pay my annual operation and maintenance assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.700 When do I not have... and maintenance assessment for your land(s) within the service area of your irrigation facility...

  18. Laser applications in pediatric airway surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamzadeh, Amir M.; Ahuja, Gurpreet S.; Nguyen, John D.; Crumley, Roger

    2003-06-01

    The smaller anatomy and limited access to instrumentation pose a challenge to the pediatric airway surgeon. The enhanced precision and ability to photocoagulate tissue while operating with the laser enhances the surgeon"s ability to successfully treat unique pediatric conditions such subglottic hemangiomas, congenital cysts, respiratory papillomatosis, and laryngeal or tracheal stenosis. Due to its shallow tissue penetration and thermal effect, the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is generally considered the laser of choice for pediatric airway applications. The potential for increased scarring and damage to underlying tissue caused by the greater penetration depth and thermal effect of the Nd:YAG and KTP lasers preclude their use in this population. In this review, we will describe the specific advantages of using lasers in airway surgery, the current technology and where the current technology is deficient.

  19. Airway Management in Croup and Epiglottitis

    PubMed Central

    Crumley, Roger L.

    1977-01-01

    Treatment techniques for airway obstruction in croup and epiglottitis are reviewed in the medical literature. Series totaling 295 nasotracheal intubations, and 591 tracheostomies were reviewed. There were two deaths attributable to airway complications in 126 patients in whom nasotracheal intubation was carried out. In three patients subglottic granulation tissue and subglottic stenoses developed from short-term nasotracheal intubation. There were no subglottic stenoses or tracheal stenoses reported in the 591 tracheostomies. From this review, it would seem feasible to use nasotracheal intubation for short-term airway treatment in croup and epiglottitis. The increasing occurrence of laryngeal and tracheal complications with long-term intubation suggests that tracheostomy be considered in such cases. PMID:349884

  20. MicroRNA in United Airway Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Xin-Hao; Callejas-Díaz, Borja; Mullol, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    The concept of united airway diseases (UAD) has received increasing attention in recent years. Sustained and increased inflammation is a common feature of UAD, which is inevitably accompanied with marked gene modification and tight gene regulation. However, gene regulation in the common inflammatory processes in UAD remains unclear. MicroRNA (miRNA), a novel regulator of gene expression, has been considered to be involved in many inflammatory diseases. Although there are an increasing number of studies of miRNAs in inflammatory upper and lower airway diseases, few miRNAs have been identified that directly link the upper and lower airways. In this article, therefore, we reviewed the relevant studies available in order to improve the understanding of the roles of miRNAs in the interaction and pathogenesis of UAD. PMID:27187364

  1. Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Collection Systems. Volume II. Third Edition. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    Proper installations, inspections, operations, maintenance and repairs of wastewater collection, conveyance and treatment facilities have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance costs, and the effectiveness of these facilities. This manual is the second volume of a two-part program designed to provide wastewater collection system…

  2. Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Collection Systems. Volume I. Third Edition. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    Proper installations, inspections, operations, maintenance and repairs of wastewater collection, conveyance and treatment facilities have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance costs, and the effectiveness of these facilities. This manual is the first volume of a two-part program designed to provide wastewater collection system…

  3. 25 CFR 171.505 - How does BIA calculate my annual operation and maintenance assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and Collections... the service area of our irrigation facility by the annual operation and maintenance assessment rate we... as described in the Incentive Agreement (See § 171.610). (d) Some irrigation facilities may charge...

  4. Maintenance information: value added?

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlingson, P.D.

    2005-11-01

    A study of how well the mining industry uses information management systems for maintenance suggests there's plenty of room for improvement. The article presents results of a study of 13 mining and mineral processing operations over a four year period combined with a questionnaire completed by 91 attendees at seminars. None of the organizations had a well-defined, documented maintenance program and consequently were not able to use information effectively. Packaged information system providers did not recognise that industrial maintenance organizations had different information needs.

  5. [Modern airway management--current concepts for more patient safety].

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Arnd

    2009-04-01

    Effective and safe airway management is one of the core skills among anaesthesiologists and all physicians involved in acute care medicine. However, failure in airway management is still the most frequent single incidence with the highest impact on patient's morbidity and mortality known from closed claims analyses. The anaesthesiologist has to manage the airway in elective patients providing a high level of safety with as little airway injury and interference with the cardio-vascular system as possible. Clinical competence also includes the management of the expected and unexpected difficult airway in different clinical environments. Therefore, it is the anaesthesiologist's responsibility not only to educate and train younger residents, but also all kinds of medical personnel involved in airway management, e.g. emergency physicians, intensive care therapists or paramedics. Modern airway devices, strategies and educational considerations must fulfill these sometimes diverse and large range requirements. Supraglottic airway devices will be used more often in the daily clinical routine. This is not only due the multiple advantages of these devices compared to the tracheal tube, but also because of the new features of some supraglottic airways, which separate the airway from the gastric track and give information of the pharyngeal position. For the event of a difficult airway, new airway devices and concepts should be trained and applied in daily practice.

  6. 21 CFR 868.2600 - Airway pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Airway pressure monitor. 868.2600 Section 868.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2600 Airway pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An airway pressure monitor is a device used to measure the pressure in a patient's upper...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  9. 21 CFR 868.2600 - Airway pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Airway pressure monitor. 868.2600 Section 868.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2600 Airway pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An airway pressure monitor is a device used to measure the pressure in a patient's upper...

  10. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  11. 21 CFR 868.2600 - Airway pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Airway pressure monitor. 868.2600 Section 868.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2600 Airway pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An airway pressure monitor is a device used to measure the pressure in a patient's upper...

  12. 21 CFR 868.2600 - Airway pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Airway pressure monitor. 868.2600 Section 868.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2600 Airway pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An airway pressure monitor is a device used to measure the pressure in a patient's upper...

  13. 21 CFR 868.2600 - Airway pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Airway pressure monitor. 868.2600 Section 868.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2600 Airway pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An airway pressure monitor is a device used to measure the pressure in a patient's upper...

  14. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  15. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  16. Simple maintenance for dramatic effect.

    PubMed

    Wells, Scott; Collen, Mark

    2012-08-01

    In an article which first appeared in print in the March 2012 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, based on a presentation given at the Institute of Hospital Engineering Australia's 2009 National Conference, Scott Wells, energy manager, Engineering & Building Services, at Royal Brisbane Women's Hospital, and Mark Collen, a district account manager, Engineering and Process Development Division, at water treatment specialist, Nalco, discuss how sound, regular, and thorough, maintenance and cleaning of hospital air-handing units will not only enhance their operating efficiency, but will also help reduce airborne infection risk in the healthcare facilities they serve. They also detail practical measures taken at hospitals in Queensland to reduce the energy consumption of air-handling equipment. PMID:22984738

  17. 1. GENERAL VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE EMAD FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE E-MAD FACILITY AND THE SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENTAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL SETTING. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  18. Automating Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshier, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the following aspects of the State University of New York-Brockport's preventive maintenance computerization project: (1) software selection, (2) project implementation; and (3) problems and benefits of the system. (MCG)

  19. Timpani Repair and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, F. Michael

    1980-01-01

    Rather than focusing on specific brands of timpani, these guidelines for repair cover mechanical problems of a general nature: pedals, dents, unclear tone, and squeaking. Preventive maintenance is discussed. (Author/SJL)

  20. Automated preventive maintenance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cea, E. J.; Grieger, T. H.

    1971-01-01

    Maintenance program which is concise and inexpensive to operate adapts to almost any system that has a FORTRAN compiler. Program operates on a stored data base with an output consisting of scheduling information and various management reports.

  1. Carpet Maintenance Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ways to make carpet maintenance in schools easier and effective for keeping carpeted areas in schools attractive and long lasting. Covers cleaning tips for basic spills, ideas for staying on top of stains, and suggestions for eliminating odors. (GR)

  2. [Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area. PMID:26904890

  3. Getting into Motorcycle Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Lynn

    1978-01-01

    This article tells how to start a high school course in motorcycle maintenance and includes names and addresses of some motorcycle manufacturers and a list of needed tools, equipment, and materials. (MF)

  4. Computerized Fleet Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, John J.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Fleet Maintenance (CFM) program of a New York school district has major component areas of garage operation, vehicle replacement, and fuel consumption. CFM detects high expenditures and provides the rationale for bus replacement. (MLF)

  5. Care and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Carolyn H.; Hampton, Carol D.

    1979-01-01

    The classroom care and maintenance of terrestrial isopods is described. Includes illustrations of isopod external anatomy, a potato trap for collecting isopods, and a constructed habitat for raising isopods. (MA)

  6. Woodwind Instrument Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperl, Gary

    1980-01-01

    The author presents a simple maintenance program for woodwind instruments which includes the care of tendon corks, the need for oiling keys, and methods of preventing cracks in woodwind instruments. (KC)

  7. Acquisition and Maintenance of Endoscopic Skills: Developing an endoscopic dexterity training system for anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Marsland, Colin P; Robinson, Brian J; Chitty, Chris H; Guy, Bernard J

    2003-01-01

    The acquisition and maintenance of essential psychomotor skills that are only required sporadically is a significant problem in medical training and practice. It is of particular relevance to anesthesiologists with regard to fibreoptic intubation, a technique that may be under-utilized despite its central role in the management of the difficult airway. Dexterity deficit due to current training models, dexterity decay due to lack of practice, and situational stress related to the clinical environment may combine to impede effective training and confident use of endoscopes in airway management. An educational resource (DexterÔ) has been developed to overcome these problems. Dexter is a non-anatomical, endoscopic dexterity training system designed to encourage practice and help establish and maintain a state of procedural readiness, even if clinical exposure to difficult airway situations is sporadic. PMID:27175419

  8. Infrared Scanning For Electrical Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbath, Steven E.

    1983-03-01

    Given the technological age that we have now entered, the purpose of this paper is to relate how infrared scanning can be used for an electrical preventative maintenance program. An infrared scanner is able to produce an image because objects give off infrared radiation in relationship to their temperature. Most electrical problems will show up as an increase in temperature, thereby making the infrared scanner a useful preventative maintenance tool. Because of the sensitivity of most of the scanners, .1 to .2 of a degree, virtually all electrical problems can be pinpointed long before they become a costly failure. One of the early uses of infrared scanning was to check the power company's electrical distribution system. Most of this was performed via aircraft or truck mounted scanning devices which necessitated its semi-permanent mounting. With the advent of small hand held infrared imagers, along with more portability of the larger systems, infrared scanning has gained more popularity in checking electrical distribution systems. But the distribution systems are now a scaled down model, mainly the in-plant electrical systems. By in-plant, I mean any distribution of electricity; once it leaves the power company's grid. This can be in a hospital, retail outlet, warehouse or manufacturing facility.

  9. Remote Maintenance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Richard C.; Simkins, Lorenz; Rochette, Donn

    1990-01-01

    Automated system gives new life to aging network of computers. Remote maintenance monitoring system developed to diagnose problems in large distributed computer network. Consists of data links, displays, controls, software, and more than 200 computers. Uses sensors to collect data on failures and expert system to examine data, diagnose causes of failures, and recommend cures. Designed to be retrofitted into launch processing system at Kennedy Space Center. Reduces downtime, lowers workload and expense of maintenance, and makes network less dependent on human expertise.

  10. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Case reports of persistent airways hyperreactivity following high-level irritant exposures.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S M; Weiss, M A; Bernstein, I L

    1985-07-01

    Two individuals developed an asthma-like illness after a single exposure to high levels of an irritating aerosol, vapor, fume, or smoke. Symptoms developed within a few hours. A consistent physiologic accompaniment was airways hyperreactivity, with the two subjects showing positive methacholine challenge tests. No documented preexisting respiratory illness was identified, nor did subjects relate past respiratory complaints. Respiratory symptoms and airways hyperreactivity persisted for at least four years after the incident. The incriminated etiologic agents all shared a common characteristic of being irritant in nature. Bronchial biopsy specimens showed an airways inflammatory response. This report suggests that acute high-level irritant exposures may produce an asthma-like syndrome in some individuals, with long-term sequelae and chronic airways disease. Nonimmunologic mechanisms seems to be operative in the pathogenesis of this syndrome.

  11. Complications of upper airway surgery in companion animals.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Surgery of the upper airway is performed in dogs for the correction of brachycephalic airway syndrome and laryngeal paralysis and for temporary or permanent tracheostomy. Although technically simple to perform, upper airway surgeries can lead to the development of significant postoperative complications. This article reviews complications associated with common surgical conditions of the upper airway. It involves a discussion of brachycephalic airway syndrome and associated respiratory and gastrointestinal complications. It also covers laryngeal paralysis with a focus on unilateral arytenoid lateralization and the complication of aspiration pneumonia. The condition of acquired laryngeal webbing/stenosis and potential treatment options is also discussed. Finally, tracheostomies and associated complications in dogs and cats are reviewed.

  12. Anaesthesia and airway management in mucopolysaccharidosis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert; Belani, Kumar G; Braunlin, Elizabeth A; Bruce, Iain A; Hack, Henrik; Harmatz, Paul R; Jones, Simon; Rowe, Richard; Solanki, Guirish A; Valdemarsson, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    This paper provides a detailed overview and discussion of anaesthesia in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), the evaluation of risk factors in these patients and their anaesthetic management, including emergency airway issues. MPS represents a group of rare lysosomal storage disorders associated with an array of clinical manifestations. The high prevalence of airway obstruction and restrictive pulmonary disease in combination with cardiovascular manifestations poses a high anaesthetic risk to these patients. Typical anaesthetic problems include airway obstruction after induction or extubation, intubation difficulties or failure [can't intubate, can't ventilate (CICV)], possible emergency tracheostomy and cardiovascular and cervical spine issues. Because of the high anaesthetic risk, the benefits of a procedure in patients with MPS should always be balanced against the associated risks. Therefore, careful evaluation of anaesthetic risk factors should be made before the procedure, involving evaluation of airways and cardiorespiratory and cervical spine problems. In addition, information on the specific type of MPS, prior history of anaesthesia, presence of cervical instability and range of motion of the temporomandibular joint are important and may be pivotal to prevent complications during anaesthesia. Knowledge of these risk factors allows the anaesthetist to anticipate potential problems that may arise during or after the procedure. Anaesthesia in MPS patients should be preferably done by an experienced (paediatric) anaesthetist, supported by a multidisciplinary team (ear, nose, throat surgeon and intensive care team), with access to all necessary equipment and support.

  13. Nasal Airway Resistance: Its Measurement and Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Lyle H.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of regulation of nasal airway resistance (Rn). Describes methods of calculating Rn by measuring pressure-flow relationship. Data are presented on improved methods for measuring Rn and effects for expiratory and inspiratory Rn after topical application of phenylephrine nasal decongestant spray. (Author/SA)

  14. 21 CFR 868.5810 - Airway connector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5810 Airway connector. (a) Identification. An... tube, or mask. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in § 868.9....

  15. Severe upper airway obstruction during sleep.

    PubMed

    Bonekat, H William; Hardin, Kimberly A

    2003-10-01

    Few disorders may manifest with predominantly sleep-related obstructive breathing. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder, varies in severity and is associated with significant cardiovascular and neurocognitive morbidity. It is estimated that between 8 and 18 million people in the United States have at least mild OSA. Although the exact mechanism of OSA is not well-delineated, multiple factors contribute to the development of upper airway obstruction and include anatomic, mechanical, neurologic, and inflammatory changes in the pharynx. OSA may occur concomitantly with asthma. Approximately 74% of asthmatics experience nocturnal symptoms of airflow obstruction secondary to reactive airways disease. Similar cytokine, chemokine, and histologic changes are seen in both disorders. Sleep deprivation, chronic upper airway edema, and inflammation associated with OSA may further exacerbate nocturnal asthma symptoms. Allergic rhinitis may contribute to both OSA and asthma. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard treatment for OSA. Treatment with CPAP therapy has also been shown to improve both daytime and nighttime peak expiratory flow rates in patients with concomitant OSA and asthma. It is important for allergists to be aware of how OSA may complicate diagnosis and treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. A thorough sleep history and high clinical suspicion for OSA is indicated, particularly in asthma patients who are refractory to standard medication treatments.

  16. Quantitative analysis of airway abnormalities in CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Jens; Lo, Pechin; Nielsen, Mads; Edula, Goutham; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-03-01

    A coupled surface graph cut algorithm for airway wall segmentation from Computed Tomography (CT) images is presented. Using cost functions that highlight both inner and outer wall borders, the method combines the search for both borders into one graph cut. The proposed method is evaluated on 173 manually segmented images extracted from 15 different subjects and shown to give accurate results, with 37% less errors than the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) algorithm and 62% less than a similar graph cut method without coupled surfaces. Common measures of airway wall thickness such as the Interior Area (IA) and Wall Area percentage (WA%) was measured by the proposed method on a total of 723 CT scans from a lung cancer screening study. These measures were significantly different for participants with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) compared to asymptomatic participants. Furthermore, reproducibility was good as confirmed by repeat scans and the measures correlated well with the outcomes of pulmonary function tests, demonstrating the use of the algorithm as a COPD diagnostic tool. Additionally, a new measure of airway wall thickness is proposed, Normalized Wall Intensity Sum (NWIS). NWIS is shown to correlate better with lung function test values and to be more reproducible than previous measures IA, WA% and airway wall thickness at a lumen perimeter of 10 mm (PI10).

  17. Reproducibility of airway wall thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Owsijewitsch, Michael; de Hoop, Bartjan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Airway remodeling and accompanying changes in wall thickness are known to be a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with reduced lung function in diseased individuals. Further investigation of this disease as well as monitoring of disease progression and treatment effect demand for accurate and reproducible assessment of airway wall thickness in CT datasets. With wall thicknesses in the sub-millimeter range, this task remains challenging even with today's high resolution CT datasets. To provide accurate measurements, taking partial volume effects into account is mandatory. The Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) method has been shown to be inappropriate for small airways1,2 and several improved algorithms for objective quantification of airway wall thickness have been proposed.1-8 In this paper, we describe an algorithm based on a closed form solution proposed by Weinheimer et al.7 We locally estimate the lung density parameter required for the closed form solution to account for possible variations of parenchyma density between different lung regions, inspiration states and contrast agent concentrations. The general accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated using basic tubular software and hardware phantoms. Furthermore, we present results on the reproducibility of the algorithm with respect to clinical CT scans, varying reconstruction kernels, and repeated acquisitions, which is crucial for longitudinal observations.

  18. Airway epithelial cell responses to ozone injury

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.; Simpson, L.G.; Zhao, Qiyu

    1995-03-01

    The airway epithelial cell is an important target in ozone injury. Once activated, the airway epithelium responds in three phases. The initial, or immediate phase, involves activation of constitutive cells, often through direct covalent interactions including the formation of secondary ozonolysis products-hydroxyhydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we found hydroxyhydroperoxides to be potent agonists; of bioactive eicosanoid formation by human airway epithelial cells in culture. Other probable immediate events include activation and inactivation of enzymes present on the epithelial surface (e.g., neutral endopeptidase). During the next 2 to 24 hr, or early phase, epithelial cells respond by synthesis and release of chemotactic factors, including chemokines-macrophage inflammatory protein-2, RANTES, and interleukin-8. Infiltrating leukocytes during this period also release elastase, an important agonist of epithelial cell mucus secretion and additional chemokine formation. The third (late) phase of ozone injury is characterized by eosinophil or monocyte infiltration. Cytokine expression leads to alteration of structural protein synthesis, with increases in fibronectin evident by in situ hybridization. Synthesis of epithelial antiproteases, e.g., secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, may also increase locally 24 to 48 hr after elastase concentrations become excessive. Thus, the epithelium is not merely a passive barrier to ozone injury but has a dynamic role in directing the migration, activating, and then counteracting inflammatory cells. Through these complex interactions, epithelial cells can be viewed as the initiators (alpha) and the receptors (omega) of ozone-induced airway disease. 51 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. COLCHICINE DECREASES AIRWAY HYPERACTIVITY AFTER PHOSGENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosgene (COCl(2)) exposure affects an influx of inflammatory cells into the lung, which can be reduced in an animal model by pretreatment with colchicine. Inflammation in the respiratory tract can be associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity. We tested the hypotheses...

  20. Difficult airway in Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Packiasabapathy, Senthil; Chandiran, Ravindran; Batra, Ravinder K; Agarwala, Sandeep

    2016-11-01

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome involving multiple system abnormalities. The most consistently present components include facial deformity, mental retardation, and Hirschsprung disease. We report the anesthetic management of a case of Mowat-Wilson syndrome, with a difficult airway, who underwent Duhamel's procedure and colostomy closure. PMID:27687363

  1. Volatile Organic Compounds Contribute to Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Jang, An-Soo; Choi, Inseon-S; Koh, Young-Il

    2007-01-01

    Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in concentrations found in both the work and home environments may influence lung function. We investigated the prevalence of airway responsiveness in workers exposed to VOCs. Methods We used allergic skin tests, nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness testing and questionnaires to study twenty exposed workers and twenty-seven control subjects. Atopy was defined as a reactor who showed >3+ response to one or more allergens on the skin prick tests. Airway hyperresponsiveness (BRindex) was defined as log [% fall of FEV1/ log (last concentration of methacholine) +10]. Results The VOC exposed workers, in comparison with the control subjects, tended to have a higher BRindex (1.19±0.07 vs. 1.15±0.08, respectively). Workers exposed to VOCs with atopy or smoker, as compared with the workers exposed to VOCs with non-atopy and who were non-smokers and the control subjects with non-atopy and who were non-smokers, had a significantly higher BRindex (1.20±0.05 vs. 1.14±0.06 vs. 1.10±0.03, respectively p<0.05). The BRindex was not correlated with atopy, the smoking status or the duration of VOC exposure. Conclusions These findings suggest that VOCs may act as a contributing factor of airway hyperresponsiveness in workers exposed to VOCs. PMID:17427638

  2. Cell Jamming in the Airway Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Ah; Fredberg, Jeffrey J

    2016-03-01

    Hallmarks of asthma include chronic airway inflammation, progressive airway remodeling, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The initiation and perpetuation of these processes are attributable at least in part to critical events within the airway epithelium, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. New evidence now suggests that epithelial cells derived from donors without asthma versus donors with asthma, even in the absence of inflammatory cells or mediators, express modes of collective migration that innately differ not only in the amount of migration but also in the kind of migration. The maturing cell layer tends to undergo a transition from a hypermobile, fluid-like, unjammed phase in which cells readily rearrange, exchange places, and flow, to a quiescent, solid-like, jammed phase in which cells become virtually frozen in place. Moreover, the unjammed phase defines a phenotype that can be perpetuated by the compressive stresses caused by bronchospasm. Importantly, in cells derived from donors with asthma versus donors without asthma, this jamming transition becomes substantially delayed, thus suggesting an immature or dysmature epithelial phenotype in asthma. PMID:27027955

  3. [Quality assurance in airway management: education and training for difficult airway management].

    PubMed

    Kaminoh, Yoshiroh

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory problem is one of the main causes of death or severe brain damage in perioperative period. Three major factors of respiratory problem are esophageal intubation, inadequate ventilation, and difficult airway. The wide spread of pulse oximeter and capnograph reduced the incidences of esophageal intubation and inadequate ventilation, but the difficult airway still occupies the large portion in the causes of adverse events during anesthesia. "Practice guideline for management of the difficult airway" was proposed by American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) in 1992 and 2002. Improvement of knowledge, technical skills, and cognitive skills are necessary for the education and training of the difficult airway management. "The practical seminar of difficult airway management (DAM practical seminar)" has been cosponsored by the Japanese Association of Medical Simulation (JAMS) in the 51 st and 52 nd annual meetings of Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists and the 24th annual meeting of Japanese Society for Clinical Anesthesia. The DAM practical seminar is composed of the lecture session for ASA difficult airway algorithm, the hands-on training session for technical skills, and the scenario-based training session for cognitive skills. Ninty six Japanese anesthesiologists have completed the DAM practical seminar in one year. "The DAM instructor course" should be immediately prepared to organize the seminar more frequently. PMID:16440705

  4. Complications Associated with the Use of Supraglottic Airway Devices in Perioperative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Michalek, Pavel; Donaldson, William; Vobrubova, Eliska; Hakl, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Supraglottic airway devices are routinely used for airway maintenance in elective surgical procedures where aspiration is not a significant risk and also as rescue devices in difficult airway management. Some devices now have features mitigating risk of aspiration, such as drain tubes or compartments to manage regurgitated content. Despite this, the use of these device may be associated with various complications including aspiration. This review highlights the types and incidence of these complications. They include regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents, compression of vascular structures, trauma, and nerve injury. The incidence of such complications is quite low, but as some carry with them a significant degree of morbidity the need to follow manufacturers' advice is underlined. The incidence of gastric content aspiration associated with the devices is estimated to be as low as 0.02% with perioperative regurgitation being significantly higher but underreported. Other serious, but extremely rare, complications include pharyngeal rupture, pneumomediastinum, mediastinitis, or arytenoid dislocation. Mild short-lasting adverse effects of the devices have significantly higher incidence than serious complications and involve postoperative sore throat, dysphagia, pain on swallowing, or hoarseness. Devices may have deleterious effect on cervical mucosa or vasculature depending on their cuff volume and pressure.

  5. The multifunctional host defense peptide SPLUNC1 is critical for homeostasis of the mammalian upper airway.

    PubMed

    McGillivary, Glen; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2010-10-07

    Otitis media (OM) is a highly prevalent pediatric disease caused by normal flora of the nasopharynx that ascend the Eustachian tube and enter the middle ear. As OM is a disease of opportunity, it is critical to gain an increased understanding of immune system components that are operational in the upper airway and aid in prevention of this disease. SPLUNC1 is an antimicrobial host defense peptide that is hypothesized to contribute to the health of the airway both through bactericidal and non-bactericidal mechanisms. We used small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology to knock down expression of the chinchilla ortholog of human SPLUNC1 (cSPLUNC1) to begin to determine the role that this protein played in prevention of OM. We showed that knock down of cSPLUNC1 expression did not impact survival of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, a predominant causative agent of OM, in the chinchilla middle ear under the conditions tested. In contrast, expression of cSPLUNC1 was essential for maintenance of middle ear pressure and efficient mucociliary clearance, key defense mechanisms of the tubotympanum. Collectively, our data have provided the first in vivo evidence that cSPLUNC1 functions to maintain homeostasis of the upper airway and, thereby, is critical for protection of the middle ear.

  6. Complications Associated with the Use of Supraglottic Airway Devices in Perioperative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, William; Vobrubova, Eliska; Hakl, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Supraglottic airway devices are routinely used for airway maintenance in elective surgical procedures where aspiration is not a significant risk and also as rescue devices in difficult airway management. Some devices now have features mitigating risk of aspiration, such as drain tubes or compartments to manage regurgitated content. Despite this, the use of these device may be associated with various complications including aspiration. This review highlights the types and incidence of these complications. They include regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents, compression of vascular structures, trauma, and nerve injury. The incidence of such complications is quite low, but as some carry with them a significant degree of morbidity the need to follow manufacturers' advice is underlined. The incidence of gastric content aspiration associated with the devices is estimated to be as low as 0.02% with perioperative regurgitation being significantly higher but underreported. Other serious, but extremely rare, complications include pharyngeal rupture, pneumomediastinum, mediastinitis, or arytenoid dislocation. Mild short-lasting adverse effects of the devices have significantly higher incidence than serious complications and involve postoperative sore throat, dysphagia, pain on swallowing, or hoarseness. Devices may have deleterious effect on cervical mucosa or vasculature depending on their cuff volume and pressure. PMID:26783527

  7. Swelling-activated Ca2+ entry via TRPV4 channel is defective in cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Arniges, Maite; Vázquez, Esther; Fernández-Fernández, José M; Valverde, Miguel A

    2004-12-24

    The vertebrate transient receptor potential cationic channel TRPV4 has been proposed as an osmo- and mechanosensor channel. Studies using knock-out animal models have further emphasized the relevance of the TRPV4 channel in the maintenance of the internal osmotic equilibrium and mechanosensation. However, at the cellular level, there is still one important question to answer: does the TRPV4 channel generate the Ca(2+) signal in those cells undergoing a Ca(2+)-dependent regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response? RVD in human airway epithelia requires the generation of a Ca(2+) signal to activate Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels. The RVD response is lost in airway epithelia affected with cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel. We have previously shown that the defective RVD in CF epithelia is linked to the lack of swelling-dependent activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels. In the present study, we show the expression of TRPV4 in normal human airway epithelia, where it functions as the Ca(2+) entry pathway that triggers the RVD response after hypotonic stress, as demonstrated by TRPV4 antisense experiments. However, cell swelling failed to trigger Ca(2+) entry via TRPV4 channels in CF airway epithelia, although the channel's response to a specific synthetic activator, 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, was maintained. Furthermore, RVD was recovered in CF airway epithelia treated with 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate. Together, these results suggest that defective RVD in CF airway epithelia might be caused by the absence of a TRPV4-mediated Ca(2+) signal and the subsequent activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels. PMID:15489228

  8. Estimation of airway obstruction using oximeter plethysmograph waveform data

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Donald H; Spiro, David M; Desmond, Renee' A; Hagood, James S

    2005-01-01

    Background Validated measures to assess the severity of airway obstruction in patients with obstructive airway disease are limited. Changes in the pulse oximeter plethysmograph waveform represent fluctuations in arterial flow. Analysis of these fluctuations might be useful clinically if they represent physiologic perturbations resulting from airway obstruction. We tested the hypothesis that the severity of airway obstruction could be estimated using plethysmograph waveform data. Methods Using a closed airway circuit with adjustable inspiratory and expiratory pressure relief valves, airway obstruction was induced in a prospective convenience sample of 31 healthy adult subjects. Maximal change in airway pressure at the mouthpiece was used as a surrogate measure of the degree of obstruction applied. Plethysmograph waveform data and mouthpiece airway pressure were acquired for 60 seconds at increasing levels of inspiratory and expiratory obstruction. At each level of applied obstruction, mean values for maximal change in waveform area under the curve and height as well as maximal change in mouth pressure were calculated for sequential 7.5 second intervals. Correlations of these waveform variables with mouth pressure values were then performed to determine if the magnitude of changes in these variables indicates the severity of airway obstruction. Results There were significant relationships between maximal change in area under the curve (P < .0001) or height (P < 0.0001) and mouth pressure. Conclusion The findings suggest that mathematic interpretation of plethysmograph waveform data may estimate the severity of airway obstruction and be of clinical utility in objective assessment of patients with obstructive airway diseases. PMID:15985171

  9. Postnatal growth of tracheobronchial airways of Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DongYoub; Srirama, Praveen K; Wallis, Christopher; Wexler, Anthony S

    2011-01-01

    Rats are widely used for the studies of pulmonary toxicology in both juveniles and adults. To facilitate such studies, investigators have developed models of lung architecture based on manual or computerized airway measurements. However, postnatal growth of conducting airways of rat lungs has never been reported. In this paper, we present conducting airway architecture statistics for male Sprague–Dawley rat lungs at ages 15, 28, 40, and 81 days by analyzing CT images from airway silicon casts. Detailed branching characteristics and intersubject variance are presented. This study shows that (i) airway growth in diameter and length is not linear with age, (ii) growth of airway length is faster than that of diameter during the 15–81-day postnatal period, and (iii) asymmetry in airway diameter (ratio of major to minor daughter diameter) increases with age. PMID:21534951

  10. [Clinical basics of supraglottic airway management in paediatric anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Kai

    2013-04-01

    The low invasiveness and simplicity of use of the LMA-Classic™ contributed substantially to the supraglottic airway management acquiring a special role in the anaesthesia care of neonates and children. Due to the introduction of new supraglottic airway devices and the expansion of indications, this form of airway management has a predominant role in paediatric anaesthesia in many institutions nowadays. As securing the airway "above the glottis" differs substantially in some aspects from securing the airway using the endotracheal tube it is mandatory to acknowledge special aspects in routine clinical practice in order to avoid complications. The following article describes basic aspects of supraglottic airway management in paediatric anaesthesia and illustrates, where possible, the available scientific evidence in the use of different supraglottic airway devices in this regard. PMID:23633257

  11. [Airway Management in a Patient with Forestier's Disease].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yuriko; Echigo, Noriyuki; Akata, Mariko; Yokoyama, Kaori; Takasugi, Naoya; Goto, Takahisa

    2016-04-01

    Airway management in a patient with Forestier's disease can be challenging clinically because this disease may cause not only dysphagia but also airway obstruction due to the compression of the pharynx and esophagus caused by the ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament. We report our anesthetic management in a patient with Forestier's disease. Meanwhile, we studied the causes of difficult airway and the most suitable airway device for a patient with this disease from a standpoint of anatomy of upper airway. Our study indicated the possibility that the most suitable airway device differed depending on the actual location of the ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine and that more prudent airway management would be required if its lesion location extended to upper cervical spine. PMID:27188118

  12. BLUNTING AIRWAYS EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATION RESULTS IN A DECREASED AIRWAY NEUTROPHIL RESPONSE TO INHALED LPS IN ATOPIC ASTHMATICS A ROLE FOR CD-14

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent data demonstrate that atopic inflammation might enhance airway responses to inhaled LPS in individuals with atopic asthma by increasing CD14 expression on airway macrophages. We sought to determine whether blunting airway eosinophilic inflammation decreases CD14 expressio...

  13. Successful Funding Strategies for Facility Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew C.

    The discussion of college and university capital renewal and deferred maintenance (CRDM) explores issues facing campus managers, presents the successful facilities maintenance strategies of eight institutions, and gives an overview of the efforts of several Canadian institutions. An introductory chapter gives background information on CRDM in U.S.…

  14. Maintenance concept development for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), located at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, will be the next major experimental machine in the US Fusion Program. Its use of deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel requires the use of remote handling technology to carry out maintenance operations on the machine. These operations consist of removing and repairing such components as diagnostic equipment modules by using remotely operated maintenance equipment. The major equipment being developed for maintenance external to the vacuum vessel includes both bridge-mounted and floor-mounted manipulator systems. Additionally, decontamination (decon) equipment, hot cell repair facilities, and equipment for handling and packaging solid radioactive waste (rad-waste) are being developed. Recent design activities have focused on establishing maintenance system interfaces with the facility design, developing manipulator system requirements, and using mock-ups to support the tokamak configuration design. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Building Maintenance, Management, and Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawsey, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    Australian methods and formulas for funding building maintenance and management are outlined and found to be haphazard. Discussed are: ultimate costs of deferred maintenance, major plant replacements, life cycle costing, types of maintenance programs (including full preventive maintenance), use of computer programs for planning, and organization…

  16. Near Equilibrium Calculus of Stem Cells in Application to the Airway Epithelium Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zheng; Plikus, Maksim V.; Komarova, Natalia L.

    2016-01-01

    Homeostatic maintenance of tissues is orchestrated by well tuned networks of cellular signaling. Such networks regulate, in a stochastic manner, fates of all cells within the respective lineages. Processes such as symmetric and asymmetric divisions, differentiation, de-differentiation, and death have to be controlled in a dynamic fashion, such that the cell population is maintained at a stable equilibrium, has a sufficiently low level of stochastic variation, and is capable of responding efficiently to external damage. Cellular lineages in real tissues may consist of a number of different cell types, connected by hierarchical relationships, albeit not necessarily linear, and engaged in a number of different processes. Here we develop a general mathematical methodology for near equilibrium studies of arbitrarily complex hierarchical cell populations, under regulation by a control network. This methodology allows us to (1) determine stability properties of the network, (2) calculate the stochastic variance, and (3) predict how different control mechanisms affect stability and robustness of the system. We demonstrate the versatility of this tool by using the example of the airway epithelium lineage. Recent research shows that airway epithelium stem cells divide mostly asymmetrically, while the so-called secretory cells divide predominantly symmetrically. It further provides quantitative data on the recovery dynamics of the airway epithelium, which can include secretory cell de-differentiation. Using our new methodology, we demonstrate that while a number of regulatory networks can be compatible with the observed recovery behavior, the observed division patterns of cells are the most optimal from the viewpoint of homeostatic lineage stability and minimizing the variation of the cell population size. This not only explains the observed yet poorly understood features of airway tissue architecture, but also helps to deduce the information on the still largely hypothetical

  17. Airway Progenitor Clone Formation Is Enhanced by Y-27632-Dependent Changes in the Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Susan D; Rios, Cydney; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata; Zhuang, Yongbin; Pinter, Mary; Happoldt, Carrie; Hill, Cynthia L; Lallier, Scott W; Cosgrove, Gregory P; Solomon, George M; Nichols, David P; Seibold, Max A

    2016-09-01

    The application of conditional reprogramming culture (CRC) methods to nasal airway epithelial cells would allow more wide-spread incorporation of primary airway epithelial culture models into complex lung disease research. In this study, we adapted the CRC method to nasal airway epithelial cells, investigated the growth advantages afforded by this technique over standard culture methods, and determined the cellular and molecular basis of CRC cell culture effects. We found that the CRC method allowed the production of 7.1 × 10(10) cells after 4 passages, approximately 379 times more cells than were generated by the standard bronchial epithelial growth media (BEGM) method. These nasal airway epithelial cells expressed normal basal cell markers and could be induced to form a mucociliary epithelium. Progenitor cell frequency was significantly higher using the CRC method in comparison to the standard culture method, and progenitor cell maintenance was dependent on addition of the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis demonstrated widespread gene expression changes in Y-27632-treated basal cells. We found that Y-27632 treatment altered expression of genes fundamental to the formation of the basal cell cytoskeleton, cell-cell junctions, and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Importantly, we found that Y-27632 treatment up-regulated expression of unique basal cell intermediate filament and desmosomal genes. Conversely, Y-27632 down-regulated multiple families of protease/antiprotease genes involved in ECM remodeling. We conclude that Y-27632 fundamentally alters cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions, which preserves basal progenitor cells and allows greater cell amplification.

  18. Near Equilibrium Calculus of Stem Cells in Application to the Airway Epithelium Lineage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Plikus, Maksim V; Komarova, Natalia L

    2016-07-01

    Homeostatic maintenance of tissues is orchestrated by well tuned networks of cellular signaling. Such networks regulate, in a stochastic manner, fates of all cells within the respective lineages. Processes such as symmetric and asymmetric divisions, differentiation, de-differentiation, and death have to be controlled in a dynamic fashion, such that the cell population is maintained at a stable equilibrium, has a sufficiently low level of stochastic variation, and is capable of responding efficiently to external damage. Cellular lineages in real tissues may consist of a number of different cell types, connected by hierarchical relationships, albeit not necessarily linear, and engaged in a number of different processes. Here we develop a general mathematical methodology for near equilibrium studies of arbitrarily complex hierarchical cell populations, under regulation by a control network. This methodology allows us to (1) determine stability properties of the network, (2) calculate the stochastic variance, and (3) predict how different control mechanisms affect stability and robustness of the system. We demonstrate the versatility of this tool by using the example of the airway epithelium lineage. Recent research shows that airway epithelium stem cells divide mostly asymmetrically, while the so-called secretory cells divide predominantly symmetrically. It further provides quantitative data on the recovery dynamics of the airway epithelium, which can include secretory cell de-differentiation. Using our new methodology, we demonstrate that while a number of regulatory networks can be compatible with the observed recovery behavior, the observed division patterns of cells are the most optimal from the viewpoint of homeostatic lineage stability and minimizing the variation of the cell population size. This not only explains the observed yet poorly understood features of airway tissue architecture, but also helps to deduce the information on the still largely hypothetical

  19. Effect of surface tension of mucosal lining liquid on upper airway mechanics in anesthetized humans.

    PubMed

    Kirkness, Jason P; Eastwood, Peter R; Szollosi, Irene; Platt, Peter R; Wheatley, John R; Amis, Terence C; Hillman, David R

    2003-07-01

    Upper airway (UA) patency may be influenced by surface tension (gamma) operating within the (UAL). We examined the role of gamma of UAL in the maintenance of UA patency in eight isoflurane-anesthetized supine human subjects breathing via a nasal mask connected to a pneumotachograph attached to a pressure delivery system. We evaluated 1). mask pressure at which the UA closed (Pcrit), 2). UA resistance upstream from the site of UA collapse (RUS), and 3). mask pressure at which the UA reopened (Po). A multiple pressure-transducer catheter was used to identify the site of airway closure (velopharyngeal in all subjects). UAL samples (0.2 microl) were collected, and the gamma of UAL was determined by using the "pull-off force" technique. Studies were performed before and after the intrapharyngeal instillation of 5 ml of exogenous surfactant (Exosurf, Glaxo Smith Kline). The gamma of UAL decreased from 61.9 +/- 4.1 (control) to 50.3 +/- 5.0 mN/m (surfactant; P < 0.02). Changes in Po, RUS, and Po - Pcrit (change = control - surfactant) were positively correlated with changes in gamma (r2 > 0.6; P < 0.02) but not with changes in Pcrit (r2 = 0.4; P > 0.9). In addition, mean peak inspiratory airflow (no flow limitation) significantly increased (P < 0.04) from 0.31 +/- 0.06 (control) to 0.36 +/- 0.06 l/s (surfactant). These findings suggest that gamma of UAL exerts a force on the UA wall that hinders airway opening. Instillation of exogenous surfactant into the UA lowers the gamma of UAL, thus increasing UA patency and augmenting reopening of the collapsed airway. PMID:12626492

  20. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.