Science.gov

Sample records for airway trust fund

  1. National Education Trust Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapp, Milton J.

    1975-01-01

    A proposal from the governor of Pennsylvania for financing all levels of education through a National Education Trust Fund (NETF) that would operate as the present Federal Highway Trust Fund does on a revolving, self-liquidating basis with the cost of an individual's education repaid through a progressive education tax on income. (JT)

  2. Estate Planning: The Role of Trust Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidermeyer, Ellen; Neidermeyer, Adolph

    1985-01-01

    The authors present estate planning suggestions that address concerns about lifetime care for the disabled children of aging parents. Aspects covered include disinheriting children, trust funds, and medical and legal assistance and food stamps. (CL)

  3. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  4. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  5. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  6. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  7. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  8. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.500 The HOME Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in...

  9. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.500 The HOME Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in...

  10. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.500 The HOME Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in...

  11. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.500 The HOME Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in...

  12. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.500 The HOME Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in...

  13. 77 FR 5065 - Preservation Trust Advisors, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Preservation Trust Advisors, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application January 26...'') and Northern Lights Fund Trust (the ``Trust''). FILING DATES: The application was filed on...

  14. 5 CFR 2634.310 - Trusts, estates, and investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trusts, estates, and investment funds... EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Contents of Public Reports § 2634.310 Trusts, estates, and investment funds. (a) In general. (1) Except as otherwise...

  15. 5 CFR 2634.310 - Trusts, estates, and investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trusts, estates, and investment funds... EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Contents of Public Reports § 2634.310 Trusts, estates, and investment funds. (a) In general. (1) Except as otherwise...

  16. 5 CFR 2634.310 - Trusts, estates, and investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trusts, estates, and investment funds... EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Contents of Public Reports § 2634.310 Trusts, estates, and investment funds. (a) In general. (1) Except as otherwise...

  17. 5 CFR 2634.310 - Trusts, estates, and investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trusts, estates, and investment funds... EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Contents of Public Reports § 2634.310 Trusts, estates, and investment funds. (a) In general. (1) Except as otherwise...

  18. 5 CFR 2634.310 - Trusts, estates, and investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trusts, estates, and investment funds... EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Contents of Public Reports § 2634.310 Trusts, estates, and investment funds. (a) In general. (1) Except as otherwise...

  19. Louisiana Education Quality Trust Fund: Annual Report Fiscal Year 2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John

    2004-01-01

    The Louisiana Education Quality Trust Fund (LEQTF) was established in 1986 by Louisiana voters to improve the quality of education in the state. The LEQTF receives funds through the Federal Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act and deposits them in what is known as the Permanent Fund. From this Permanent Fund, a separate Support Fund (also known as…

  20. 77 FR 60484 - PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... COMMISSION PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application September 26, 2012. AGENCY... companies. Applicants: PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, PowerShares Actively Managed Exchange- Traded Fund Trust (each, a ``Trust'') and Invesco...

  1. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not...

  2. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not...

  3. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not...

  4. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not...

  5. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not...

  6. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds... Bonds and Trust Funds § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The BLM may require the operator or lessee to establish a trust fund or other funding mechanism to ensure the continuation of...

  7. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds...-GENERAL Bonds and Trust Funds § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The BLM may require the operator or lessee to establish a trust fund or other funding mechanism to ensure the continuation of...

  8. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds...-GENERAL Bonds and Trust Funds § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The BLM may require the operator or lessee to establish a trust fund or other funding mechanism to ensure the continuation of...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-6 - Trust fund agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trust fund agreements. 319.56-6 Section 319.56-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-6 Trust...

  10. Guidance for use of the oil spill liability trust fund

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This guidance document has been prepared to assist On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) and financial management personnel in accessing and using the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund (OSLTF) in orders to conduct oil pollution removal actions under Section 311(c) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and Section 1012 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA), and fully accounting for OSLTF funds. This document details the requirments and procedures for use of the OSLTF that are described in the Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Coast Guard for use of the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund (MOU).

  11. 25 CFR 115.709 - Will an annual audit be conducted on trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... has conducted an annual audit on a fiscal year basis of all the trust funds held by the United States... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will an annual audit be conducted on trust funds? 115.709... annual audit be conducted on trust funds? Yes, in accordance with the Trust Reform Act an annual...

  12. 25 CFR 115.709 - Will an annual audit be conducted on trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... has conducted an annual audit on a fiscal year basis of all the trust funds held by the United States... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Will an annual audit be conducted on trust funds? 115.709... annual audit be conducted on trust funds? Yes, in accordance with the Trust Reform Act an annual...

  13. 25 CFR 115.709 - Will an annual audit be conducted on trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... has conducted an annual audit on a fiscal year basis of all the trust funds held by the United States... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Will an annual audit be conducted on trust funds? 115.709... annual audit be conducted on trust funds? Yes, in accordance with the Trust Reform Act an annual...

  14. 25 CFR 115.709 - Will an annual audit be conducted on trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... has conducted an annual audit on a fiscal year basis of all the trust funds held by the United States... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Will an annual audit be conducted on trust funds? 115.709... annual audit be conducted on trust funds? Yes, in accordance with the Trust Reform Act an annual...

  15. 25 CFR 115.709 - Will an annual audit be conducted on trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... has conducted an annual audit on a fiscal year basis of all the trust funds held by the United States... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Will an annual audit be conducted on trust funds? 115.709... annual audit be conducted on trust funds? Yes, in accordance with the Trust Reform Act an annual...

  16. 75 FR 22639 - Pax World Funds Trust II, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... COMMISSION Pax World Funds Trust II, et al.; Notice of Application April 26, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and... World Funds Trust II (``Trust''), Pax World Management LLC \\2\\ (``Adviser''), and ALPS Distributors, Inc. (``Distributor''). \\1\\ Pax World Funds Trust II, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos. 28834 (Jul. 22,...

  17. 9 CFR 201.42 - Custodial accounts for trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custodial accounts for trust funds. 201.42 Section 201.42 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS...

  18. 40 CFR 280.103 - Standby trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS... underground storage tanks identified herein and is required to establish a standby trust fund able to accept... contract or agreement entered into to meet the requirements of 40 CFR 280.93. The Trustee shall...

  19. 40 CFR 280.103 - Standby trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS... underground storage tanks identified herein and is required to establish a standby trust fund able to accept... contract or agreement entered into to meet the requirements of 40 CFR 280.93. The Trustee shall...

  20. 40 CFR 280.103 - Standby trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS... underground storage tanks identified herein and is required to establish a standby trust fund able to accept... contract or agreement entered into to meet the requirements of 40 CFR 280.93. The Trustee shall...

  1. 40 CFR 280.103 - Standby trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS... underground storage tanks identified herein and is required to establish a standby trust fund able to accept... contract or agreement entered into to meet the requirements of 40 CFR 280.93. The Trustee shall...

  2. 75 FR 61786 - Northern Lights Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Northern Lights Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application September 30, 2010. AGENCY: Securities... invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: Northern Lights Fund Trust (``NLFT''), Arrow Investment Advisors, LLC (``AIA''), and Northern Lights Distributors, LLC (``NLD''). Filing Dates:...

  3. 25 CFR 115.810 - May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... funds must be in accordance with the requirements of the Trust Reform Act and 25 CFR part 1200, subpart... ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and Managing Tribal...

  4. 78 FR 7821 - Allianz Variable Insurance Products Fund of Funds Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Management LLC (``AIM''), and Allianz Life Financial Services, LLC (``ALFS''). DATES: Filing Date: The... COMMISSION Allianz Variable Insurance Products Fund of Funds Trust, et al.; Notice of Application January 29...) under the Act. Summary of Application: Applicants request an order to permit open-end...

  5. 25 CFR 1200.31 - What part of withdrawn funds can be returned to trust?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What part of withdrawn funds can be returned to trust? 1200.31 Section 1200.31 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Returning Tribal Funds to Trust § 1200.31...

  6. 78 FR 35073 - Compass Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC and Compass EMP Funds Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... COMMISSION Compass Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC and Compass EMP Funds Trust; Notice of Application June 4.... Applicants: Compass Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC (the ``Adviser'') and Compass EMP Funds Trust (``the... ``Compass Funds'').\\1\\ Each series of the Trust has its own investment objective, policies and...

  7. 25 CFR 115.808 - Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? 115.808 Section 115.808 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES... § 115.808 Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? The value of trust fund investments...

  8. 25 CFR 115.810 - May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... funds must be in accordance with the requirements of the Trust Reform Act and 25 CFR part 1200, subpart... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds... ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and Managing Tribal...

  9. 25 CFR 115.810 - May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... funds must be in accordance with the requirements of the Trust Reform Act and 25 CFR part 1200, subpart... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds... ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and Managing Tribal...

  10. 25 CFR 115.810 - May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... funds must be in accordance with the requirements of the Trust Reform Act and 25 CFR part 1200, subpart... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds... ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and Managing Tribal...

  11. 25 CFR 115.810 - May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... funds must be in accordance with the requirements of the Trust Reform Act and 25 CFR part 1200, subpart... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds... ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and Managing Tribal...

  12. 25 CFR 115.808 - Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? 115.808 Section 115.808 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES... § 115.808 Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? The value of trust fund investments...

  13. 25 CFR 115.808 - Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? 115.808 Section 115.808 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES... § 115.808 Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? The value of trust fund investments...

  14. 25 CFR 115.808 - Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? 115.808 Section 115.808 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES... § 115.808 Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? The value of trust fund investments...

  15. 25 CFR 115.808 - Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? 115.808 Section 115.808 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES... § 115.808 Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? The value of trust fund investments...

  16. 25 CFR 115.807 - Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds? 115.807 Section 115.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.807 Will OTFM...

  17. 25 CFR 115.807 - Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds? 115.807 Section 115.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.807 Will...

  18. 25 CFR 115.807 - Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds? 115.807 Section 115.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.807 Will...

  19. 78 FR 77175 - Catalyst Capital Advisors LLC and Mutual Fund Series Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... COMMISSION Catalyst Capital Advisors LLC and Mutual Fund Series Trust; Notice of Application December 16... agreements without shareholder approval. APPLICANTS: Catalyst Capital Advisors LLC (``CCA'' or the ``Adviser'') and Mutual Fund Series Trust (formerly Catalyst Funds) (the ``Trust''). DATES: Filing Dates:...

  20. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(18)-1 - Certain funded pension trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain funded pension trusts. 1.501(c)(18)-1... pension trusts. (a) In general. Organizations described in section 501(c)(18) are trusts created before June 25, 1959, forming part of a plan for the payment of benefits under a pension plan funded only...

  1. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(18)-1 - Certain funded pension trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain funded pension trusts. 1.501(c)(18)-1... pension trusts. (a) In general. Organizations described in section 501(c)(18) are trusts created before June 25, 1959, forming part of a plan for the payment of benefits under a pension plan funded only...

  2. 78 FR 24241 - John Hancock Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... COMMISSION John Hancock Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application April 18, 2013. AGENCY...) of the Act for an exemption from sections 17(a)(1) and 17(a)(2) of the Act. APPLICANTS: John Hancock Exchange-Traded Fund Trust (``Trust''); John Hancock Advisers, LLC and John Hancock Investment...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6032-1 - Returns of banks with respect to common trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns of banks with respect to common trust... Returns and Records § 301.6032-1 Returns of banks with respect to common trust funds. For provisions relating to requirement of returns of banks with respect to common trust funds, see § 1.6032-1 of...

  4. 25 CFR 1200.31 - What part of withdrawn funds can be returned to trust?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What part of withdrawn funds can be returned to trust? 1200.31 Section 1200.31 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Returning Tribal Funds to Trust § 1200.31 What part of withdrawn funds can be returned...

  5. 76 FR 75561 - Information Collection Request for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Trust Fund Activities Reports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Information Collection Request for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Trust Fund Activities Reports: Extension... Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) require that all monies received in the unemployment fund of a state be paid immediately to the Secretary of Treasury to the credit of the Unemployment Trust Fund (UTF). This is...

  6. Airport and Airway Trust Fund Financing Reauthorization Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Camp, Dave [R-MI-4

    2011-03-11

    03/29/2011 Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 22. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1079, which became Public Law 112-7 on 3/31/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Airport and Airway Trust Fund Reauthorization Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Baucus, Max [D-MT

    2011-02-14

    02/14/2011 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 10. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1079, which became Public Law 112-7 on 3/31/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. 26 CFR 1.6032-1 - Returns of banks with respect to common trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns of banks with respect to common trust funds. 1.6032-1 Section 1.6032-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6032-1 Returns of banks with respect to common trust funds. Every bank...

  9. 25 CFR 115.807 - Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds? 115.807 Section 115.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and...

  10. 78 FR 2363 - Notification of Deletion of a System of Records; Automated Trust Funds Database

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Agriculture (USDA) published in the Federal Register (73 FR 23414- 23416, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0026) a system of records notice establishing the Automated Trust Funds (ATF) database system of records. The... Trust Funds Database AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  11. 25 CFR 115.807 - Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Will OTFM consult with tribes about investments of tribal trust funds? 115.807 Section 115.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and...

  12. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds. 3904.40 Section 3904.40 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Bonds and Trust Funds § 3904.40 Long-term...

  13. 25 CFR 115.809 - May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's... FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.809 May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's trust funds?...

  14. 25 CFR 115.809 - May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's... FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.809 May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's trust funds?...

  15. 25 CFR 115.809 - May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's... FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.809 May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's trust funds?...

  16. 25 CFR 115.809 - May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's... FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.809 May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's trust funds?...

  17. 76 FR 50773 - Pax World Funds Series Trust I and Pax World Management LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Pax World Funds Series Trust I and Pax World Management LLC; Notice of Application August 10, 2011.... Applicants: Pax World Funds Series Trust I (``Mutual Funds Trust'') and Pax World Management LLC (the... Gates LLP, One Lincoln Street, Boston, MA 02111, and Joseph F. Keefe, Pax World Management LLC,...

  18. 76 FR 73748 - Genesis Capital, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Genesis Capital, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application November 21, 2011... approval. Applicants: Genesis Capital, LLC (``Genesis Capital'' or the ``Adviser'') and Northern...

  19. 76 FR 33376 - Altegris Advisors, L.L.C. and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Altegris Advisors, L.L.C. and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application June 1, 2011...: Altegris Advisors, L.L.C. (the ``Adviser'') and Northern Lights Fund Trust (the ``Trust''). DATES:...

  20. 78 FR 48205 - Ranger Alternative Management, L.P. and Ranger Funds Investment Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Ranger Alternative Management, L.P. and Ranger Funds Investment Trust; Notice of Application...: Ranger Alternative Management, L.P. (``Ranger'') and Ranger Funds Investment Trust (the ``Trust... be received by the Commission by 5:30 p.m. on August 26, 2013, and should be accompanied by proof...

  1. 25 CFR 183.5 - What documents must the Tribe submit to request money from the Trust Fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN... the Tribe submit to request money from the Trust Fund? To request a distribution of principal or... copy of a duly enacted resolution of the Tribal Council requesting a distribution from the Trust...

  2. 25 CFR 183.5 - What documents must the Tribe submit to request money from the Trust Fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN... the Tribe submit to request money from the Trust Fund? To request a distribution of principal or... copy of a duly enacted resolution of the Tribal Council requesting a distribution from the Trust...

  3. 77 FR 6606 - DoubleLine Capital LP and DoubleLine Funds Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... COMMISSION DoubleLine Capital LP and DoubleLine Funds Trust; Notice of Application February 2, 2012. AGENCY... relying on rule 12d1-2 under the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. APPLICANTS: DoubleLine Capital LP (``DoubleLine'') and DoubleLine Funds Trust (``Trust''). FILING DATE: The application was...

  4. 26 CFR 1.58-5 - Common trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the fund is determined as if the participant had realized, or incurred, his pro rata share of... incurred by the fund. The participant's pro rata share of such items is determined in a manner...

  5. 26 CFR 1.58-5 - Common trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the fund is determined as if the participant had realized, or incurred, his pro rata share of... incurred by the fund. The participant's pro rata share of such items is determined in a manner...

  6. 49 CFR 387.19 - Electronic filing of surety bonds, trust fund agreements, certificates of insurance and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electronic filing of surety bonds, trust fund... CARRIERS Motor Carriers of Property § 387.19 Electronic filing of surety bonds, trust fund agreements... commerce must file certificates of insurance, surety bonds, and other securities and agreements with...

  7. 25 CFR 115.809 - May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe recommend to OTFM how to invest the tribe's trust funds? 115.809 Section 115.809 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Investing and...

  8. 25 CFR 183.3 - Does the American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act of 1994 apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act of 1994 apply to this part? 183.3 Section 183.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND...

  9. 25 CFR 183.3 - Does the American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act of 1994 apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does the American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act of 1994 apply to this part? 183.3 Section 183.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND...

  10. 49 CFR 387.323 - Electronic filing of surety bonds, trust fund agreements, certificates of insurance and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic filing of surety bonds, trust fund... Electronic filing of surety bonds, trust fund agreements, certificates of insurance and cancellations. (a... number of fields and same length. The record layouts for ASCII electronic transactions are described...

  11. 78 FR 43251 - Grosvenor Alternative Funds Master Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... COMMISSION Grosvenor Alternative Funds Master Trust, et al.; Notice of Application July 15, 2013. AGENCY...: Filing Dates: The application was filed on January 8, 2013, and amended on May 10, 2013. Hearing or... Commission by 5:30 p.m. on August 9, 2013 and should be accompanied by proof of service on the applicants,...

  12. 78 FR 2700 - First Trust Exchange-Traded Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION First Trust Exchange-Traded Fund, et al.; Notice of Application January 8, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application for an order under section 12(d)(1)(J) of the Investment Company...

  13. 75 FR 21048 - Northern Lights Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Northern Lights Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application April 16, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and... shareholder approval and would grant relief from certain disclosure requirements. Applicants: Northern...

  14. 76 FR 72462 - Bandon Capital Management, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Bandon Capital Management, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application November 17.... Applicants: Bandon Capital Management, LLC (``Bandon Capital'' or the ``Adviser'') and Northern Lights...

  15. 75 FR 9960 - First Trust/Aberdeen Global Opportunity Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Investment Company Act Release No. 29163; 812-13161-01] First Trust/Aberdeen Global Opportunity Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application February 26, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice...

  16. 75 FR 63194 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Comment Request Housing Trust Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection Comment Request Housing Trust Fund AGENCY... Reduction Act Compliance Officer, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street,...

  17. Welfare Eligibility: Programs Treat Indian Tribal Trust Fund Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report was sought by the Conference Committee on the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985, concerned that federal law allows payments from tribal trust funds to be excluded when determining eligibility for welfare benefits to American Indians. Applicable federal laws and eligibility policies were reviewed to determine the…

  18. 78 FR 34410 - First Trust Exchange-Traded Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION First Trust Exchange-Traded Fund, et al.; Notice of Application June 3, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application under section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940...

  19. 77 FR 16282 - Columbia Funds Master Investment Trust, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Columbia Funds Master Investment Trust, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application March 13, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application under section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of...

  20. 25 CFR 183.4 - How can the Tribe use the principal and income from the Trust Fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN CARLOS APACHE... the following ways: (a) To put to beneficial use the water entitlement provided to the Tribe in...

  1. 25 CFR 183.4 - How can the Tribe use the principal and income from the Trust Fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN CARLOS APACHE... the following ways: (a) To put to beneficial use the water entitlement provided to the Tribe in...

  2. 25 CFR 115.704 - May we accept for deposit into a trust account retirement checks/payments or pension fund checks...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... checks/payments or pension fund checks/payments even though those funds are not specified in § 115.702... May we accept for deposit into a trust account retirement checks/payments or pension fund checks.../payments or pension fund checks/payments or any funds from sources that are not identified in the table...

  3. 25 CFR 115.704 - May we accept for deposit into a trust account retirement checks/payments or pension fund checks...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... checks/payments or pension fund checks/payments even though those funds are not specified in § 115.702... May we accept for deposit into a trust account retirement checks/payments or pension fund checks.../payments or pension fund checks/payments or any funds from sources that are not identified in the table...

  4. 25 CFR 115.812 - Is a tribe responsible for its expenditures of trust funds that are not made in compliance with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is a tribe responsible for its expenditures of trust funds that are not made in compliance with statutory language or other federal law? 115.812 Section 115... language or other federal law? If a tribe's use of trust funds is limited by statutory language or...

  5. 25 CFR 115.812 - Is a tribe responsible for its expenditures of trust funds that are not made in compliance with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is a tribe responsible for its expenditures of trust funds that are not made in compliance with statutory language or other federal law? 115.812 Section 115... language or other federal law? If a tribe's use of trust funds is limited by statutory language or...

  6. 25 CFR 115.812 - Is a tribe responsible for its expenditures of trust funds that are not made in compliance with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is a tribe responsible for its expenditures of trust funds that are not made in compliance with statutory language or other federal law? 115.812 Section 115... language or other federal law? If a tribe's use of trust funds is limited by statutory language or...

  7. 25 CFR 115.812 - Is a tribe responsible for its expenditures of trust funds that are not made in compliance with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... that are not made in compliance with statutory language or other federal law? 115.812 Section 115.812... responsible for its expenditures of trust funds that are not made in compliance with statutory language or other federal law? If a tribe's use of trust funds is limited by statutory language or other federal...

  8. 25 CFR 115.428 - Will you automatically receive all of your trust funds when you reach the age of 18?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... when you reach the age of 18? 115.428 Section 115.428 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... § 115.428 Will you automatically receive all of your trust funds when you reach the age of 18? No, we will not automatically send your trust funds to you when you reach the age of 18....

  9. 25 CFR 115.428 - Will you automatically receive all of your trust funds when you reach the age of 18?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... when you reach the age of 18? 115.428 Section 115.428 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... § 115.428 Will you automatically receive all of your trust funds when you reach the age of 18? No, we will not automatically send your trust funds to you when you reach the age of 18....

  10. 25 CFR 1200.5 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4? 1200.5 Section 1200.5 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE... General Provisions § 1200.5 What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under...

  11. 25 CFR 1200.5 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4? 1200.5 Section 1200.5 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE... General Provisions § 1200.5 What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under...

  12. 25 CFR 1200.5 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4? 1200.5 Section 1200.5 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE... General Provisions § 1200.5 What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under...

  13. 25 CFR 1200.5 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4? 1200.5 Section 1200.5 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE... General Provisions § 1200.5 What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under...

  14. 25 CFR 1200.5 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4? 1200.5 Section 1200.5 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE... General Provisions § 1200.5 What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under...

  15. 25 CFR 115.812 - Is a tribe responsible for its expenditures of trust funds that are not made in compliance with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is a tribe responsible for its expenditures of trust funds that are not made in compliance with statutory language or other federal law? 115.812 Section 115... language or other federal law? If a tribe's use of trust funds is limited by statutory language or...

  16. 25 CFR 115.704 - May we accept for deposit into a trust account retirement checks/payments or pension fund checks...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May we accept for deposit into a trust account retirement checks/payments or pension fund checks/payments even though those funds are not specified in § 115.702? 115.704 Section 115.704 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND...

  17. 25 CFR 115.804 - Will we account to a tribe for those trust funds the tribe receives through direct pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Will we account to a tribe for those trust funds the tribe receives through direct pay? 115.804 Section 115.804 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts § 115.804 Will we account to a tribe for...

  18. 25 CFR 115.429 - What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to access your trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to access your trust funds? 115.429 Section 115.429 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts: Minors § 115.429 What do you need to do when you reach...

  19. 25 CFR 115.429 - What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to access your trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to access your trust funds? 115.429 Section 115.429 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to access your trust funds? You must contact...

  20. 75 FR 63222 - Claymore Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... track an Underlying Index provided by either AlphaShares, LLC (``AlphaShares'') or Delta Global Indices, LLC (``Delta Global'') (collectively, the ``Affected Funds'').\\2\\ Currently, neither AlphaShares nor... Adviser, or any Sub-Adviser to a Fund, the Distributor or promoter of a Fund. \\2\\ AlphaShares is the...

  1. 76 FR 47617 - BofA Funds Series Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... investment performance of a Fund. 7. The portfolio securities in which each of the Funds, consistent with... the extent that such trades affect the investment performance of a Fund. (c) MLPF&S will not share any... subsidiary of Bank of America, N.A., which is an indirect wholly owned banking subsidiary of Bank of...

  2. 77 FR 57597 - Wells Fargo Funds Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... writing to the Commission's Secretary and serving applicants with a copy of the request, personally or by... other holders of the Unaffiliated Fund's shares. This condition will not apply to a Subadvisory Group.... Applicants request an order to permit (a) certain Wells Fargo Advantage Funds that operate as a ``fund...

  3. 78 FR 39799 - First Trust Exchange-Traded Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act'') for an exemption from sections 2(a)(32), 5... Commission's Web site by searching for the file number, or an applicant using the Company name box, at http... Existing Trust is registered under the Act as an open-end management investment company. An Existing...

  4. 78 FR 41443 - BofA Funds Series Trust, et al., Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... profits and losses of BAC and its affiliates as a whole and such trades affect the investment performance... as a whole or to the extent that such trades affect the investment performance of a Fund. (c) MLPF&S..., wholly-owned banking subsidiary of Bank of America Corporation (``BAC''). Each Fund has an...

  5. Fees on health insurance policies and self-insured plans for the patient-centered outcomes research trust fund. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    This document contains final regulations that implement and provide guidance on the fees imposed by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on issuers of certain health insurance policies and plan sponsors of certain self-insured health plans to fund the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund. These final regulations affect the issuers and plan sponsors that are directed to pay those fees. PMID:23227570

  6. 25 CFR 115.429 - What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to access your trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to... What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to access your trust funds? You must contact OTFM... require certain information from you to verify your identity, etc. prior to the release of your...

  7. 25 CFR 115.429 - What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to access your trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to... What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to access your trust funds? You must contact OTFM... require certain information from you to verify your identity, etc. prior to the release of your...

  8. 26 CFR 1.468B-6 - Escrow accounts, trusts, and other funds used during deferred exchanges of like-kind property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Escrow accounts, trusts, and other funds used during deferred exchanges of like-kind property under section 1031(a)(3). 1.468B-6 Section 1.468B-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for...

  9. 26 CFR 1.468B-6 - Escrow accounts, trusts, and other funds used during deferred exchanges of like-kind property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Escrow accounts, trusts, and other funds used during deferred exchanges of like-kind property under section 1031(a)(3). 1.468B-6 Section 1.468B-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for...

  10. 25 CFR 115.429 - What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to access your trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to... What do you need to do when you reach 18 years of age to access your trust funds? You must contact OTFM... require certain information from you to verify your identity, etc. prior to the release of your...

  11. FAILURE PREDICTIONS FOR THE POST-CLOSURE LIABILITY TRUST FUND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    With passage of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, Congress created two funds to assist in the restoration of areas contaminated with hazardous wastes. In addition to the better known 'Superfund' which helps cover the cost of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.584-2 - Income of participants in common trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.584-2 Income of participants in...-3. (b) Any tax withheld at the source from income of the fund (e.g., under section 1441) is deemed... gains and losses, ordinary taxable income or ordinary net loss, dividends and interest received, and...

  13. 26 CFR 1.584-2 - Income of participants in common trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.584-2 Income of participants in...-3. (b) Any tax withheld at the source from income of the fund (e.g., under section 1441) is deemed... gains and losses, ordinary taxable income or ordinary net loss, dividends and interest received, and...

  14. 26 CFR 1.584-2 - Income of participants in common trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.584-2 Income of participants in...-3. (b) Any tax withheld at the source from income of the fund (e.g., under section 1441) is deemed... gains and losses, ordinary taxable income or ordinary net loss, dividends and interest received, and...

  15. 26 CFR 1.584-2 - Income of participants in common trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.584-2 Income of participants in...-3. (b) Any tax withheld at the source from income of the fund (e.g., under section 1441) is deemed... gains and losses, ordinary taxable income or ordinary net loss, dividends and interest received, and...

  16. 77 FR 37714 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Trust Fund Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance... Section 3304(a)(3) of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) require that all monies received in the unemployment fund of a state be paid immediately to the Secretary of Treasury to the credit of the...

  17. 5 CFR 2640.201 - Exemptions for interests in mutual funds, unit investment trusts, and employee benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in several mutual funds whose portfolios contain stock in a small computer company. Each mutual fund prospectus describes the fund as a “management company,” but does not characterize the fund as having a... computer company. Example 2 to paragraph (a): A nonsupervisory employee of the Department of Energy...

  18. 5 CFR 2640.201 - Exemptions for interests in mutual funds, unit investment trusts, and employee benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in several mutual funds whose portfolios contain stock in a small computer company. Each mutual fund... computer company. Example 2 to paragraph (a): A nonsupervisory employee of the Department of Energy...

  19. 5 CFR 2640.201 - Exemptions for interests in mutual funds, unit investment trusts, and employee benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in several mutual funds whose portfolios contain stock in a small computer company. Each mutual fund... computer company. Example 2 to paragraph (a): A nonsupervisory employee of the Department of Energy...

  20. Trusting patients, trusting nurses.

    PubMed

    Sellman, Derek

    2007-01-01

    The general expectation that patients should be willing to trust nurses is rarely explored or challenged despite claims of diminishing public trust in social and professional institutions. Everyday meanings of trust take account of circumstance and suggest that our understanding of what it means to trust is contextually bound. However, in the context of health care, to trust implies a particular understanding which becomes apparent when abuses of this trust are reported and acknowledged as scandals. The predominant assumption in the literature that trust is something that occurs between equally competent adults cannot explain trust in nursing precisely because of the unequal power relationships between patients on the one hand and healthcare professionals on the other. Moreover, the tendency to conflate terms such as trust, reliance, confidence and so on suggests that confusion permeates discussions of trust in nursing. In this paper, I argue in support of Annette Baier's requirement of good will (or lack of ill will) as the essential feature of trust, and outline how this account (i) enables us to make the necessary distinctions between trust on the one hand and 'trust pretenders' on the other; and (ii) lays the foundations for understanding trust in relationships, such as those between patients and nurses, where power differentials exist. PMID:17238998

  1. 5 CFR 2640.201 - Exemptions for interests in mutual funds, unit investment trusts, and employee benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prospectus describes the fund as a “management company,” but does not characterize the fund as having a policy of concentrating its investments in any particular industry, business, single country (other than... assets of which are invested primarily in stocks chosen by an independent financial management firm....

  2. 5 CFR 2640.201 - Exemptions for interests in mutual funds, unit investment trusts, and employee benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prospectus describes the fund as a “management company,” but does not characterize the fund as having a policy of concentrating its investments in any particular industry, business, single country (other than... assets of which are invested primarily in stocks chosen by an independent financial management firm....

  3. 12 CFR 204.123 - Sale of Federal funds by investment companies or trusts in which the entire beneficial interest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 204.2(a)(1)(vii)(A)(1)). These exemptions from the definition of deposit are known collectively as... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of Federal funds by investment companies... SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.123 Sale...

  4. 77 FR 50185 - LoCorr Fund Management, LLC and LoCorr Investment Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... standard. 3. Applicants assert that the shareholders expect the Adviser and the Board to select the... shareholder approval. Applicants: LoCorr Fund Management, LLC (``LFM'' or the ``Adviser'') and LoCorr... materially amend Subadvisory Agreements without obtaining shareholder approval. The requested relief will...

  5. 76 FR 44625 - Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application July 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities.... APPLICANTS: Northern Lights Variable Trust (the ``Fund'') and Gemini Fund Services, LLC (``Gemini.... Northern Lights Variable Trust, c/o Emile Molineaux, Esquire, Gemini Fund Services, LLC, 450...

  6. A Trust That Can't Be Breached.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1990-01-01

    Children's Investment Trust is a proposed trust fund for children's services (nutrition, health, education, and social services) similar in design to Social Security fund. The trust would be funded by a small, progressive payroll tax levied on both employer and employee on wages greater than $5 per hour. The tax would raise $25 billion more every…

  7. Detroit Jobs Trust Fund Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Clarke, Hansen [D-MI-13

    2011-09-14

    10/03/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Surgical Airway

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapna A; Meyer, Tanya K

    2014-01-01

    Close to 3% of all intubation attempts are considered difficult airways, for which a plan for a surgical airway should be considered. Our article provides an overview of the different types of surgical airways. This article provides a comprehensive review of the main types of surgical airways, relevant anatomy, necessary equipment, indications and contraindications, preparation and positioning, technique, complications, and tips for management. It is important to remember that the placement of a surgical airway is a lifesaving procedure and should be considered in any setting when one “cannot intubate, cannot ventilate”. PMID:24741501

  9. 75 FR 33857 - DWS Advisor Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... to list and trade their shares on a national securities exchange at negotiated prices (``ETFs... Trust, DWS Mutual Funds, Inc., DWS Portfolio Trust, DWS Securities Trust, DWS Strategic Income Fund,...

  10. 77 FR 74231 - Hatteras Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... COMMISSION Hatteras Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application December 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and.... Applicants: Hatteras Variable Trust (``Trust'') and Hatteras Alternative Mutual Funds (``Hatteras... account supporting variable life insurance contracts (``VLI Accounts'') holds shares of an...

  11. Rethinking trust.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2009-06-01

    Will we ever learn? We'd barely recovered from Enron and WorldCom before we faced the subprime mortgage meltdown and more scandals that shook our trust in businesspeople. Which raises the question: Do we trust too much? In this article, Stanford professor and social psychologist Kramer explores the reasons we trust so easily--and, often, so unwisely. He explains that genetics and childhood learning make us predisposed to trust and that it's been a good survival mechanism. That said, our willingness to trust makes us vulnerable. Our sense of trust kicks in on remarkably simple cues, such as when people look like us or are part of our social group. We also rely on third parties to verify the character of others, sometimes to our detriment (as the victims of Bernard Madoff learned). Add in our illusions of invulnerability and our tendencies to see what we want to see and to overestimate our own judgment, and the bottom line is that we're often easily fooled. We need to develop tempered trust. For those who trust too much, that means reading cues better; for the distrustful, it means developing more receptive behaviors. Everyone should start with small acts of trust that encourage reciprocity and build up. Having a hedge against potential abuses also helps. Hollywood scriptwriters, for instance, register their treatments with the Writers Guild of America to prevent their ideas from being stolen by the executives they pitch. To attract the right relationships, people must strongly signal their own honesty, proactively allay concerns, and, if their trust is abused, retaliate. Trusting individuals in certain roles, which essentially means trusting the system that selects and trains them, also works but isn't foolproof. And don't count on due diligence alone for protection; constant vigilance is needed to make sure the landscape hasn't changed. PMID:19496472

  12. The Challenge of Financing Higher Education and the Role of Student Loans Scheme: An Analysis of the Student Loan Trust Fund (SLTF) in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atuahene, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Student loans program is one of the most controversial phenomena in financing higher education in Ghana, but its importance as a cost sharing mechanism is incontestable. This paper describes the challenge of financing higher education in Ghana. It provides a critique of the Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT) Student Loans Scheme,…

  13. 12 CFR 303.14 - Being “engaged in the business of receiving deposits other than trust funds.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 of the FDI Act, 12 U.S.C. 1815(a), shall be deemed to be “engaged in the business of receiving... trust funds” and to termination of its insured status under section 8(p) of the FDI Act, 12 U.S.C. 1818... of the FDI Act until the institution's insured status is terminated by the FDIC pursuant to...

  14. 12 CFR 303.14 - Being “engaged in the business of receiving deposits other than trust funds.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 of the FDI Act, 12 U.S.C. 1815(a), shall be deemed to be “engaged in the business of receiving... trust funds” and to termination of its insured status under section 8(p) of the FDI Act, 12 U.S.C. 1818... of the FDI Act until the institution's insured status is terminated by the FDIC pursuant to...

  15. 12 CFR 303.14 - Being “engaged in the business of receiving deposits other than trust funds.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 of the FDI Act, 12 U.S.C. 1815(a), shall be deemed to be “engaged in the business of receiving... trust funds” and to termination of its insured status under section 8(p) of the FDI Act, 12 U.S.C. 1818... of the FDI Act until the institution's insured status is terminated by the FDIC pursuant to...

  16. 12 CFR 303.14 - Being “engaged in the business of receiving deposits other than trust funds.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 of the FDI Act, 12 U.S.C. 1815(a), shall be deemed to be “engaged in the business of receiving... trust funds” and to termination of its insured status under section 8(p) of the FDI Act, 12 U.S.C. 1818... of the FDI Act until the institution's insured status is terminated by the FDIC pursuant to...

  17. 12 CFR 303.14 - Being “engaged in the business of receiving deposits other than trust funds.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 of the FDI Act, 12 U.S.C. 1815(a), shall be deemed to be “engaged in the business of receiving... trust funds” and to termination of its insured status under section 8(p) of the FDI Act, 12 U.S.C. 1818... of the FDI Act until the institution's insured status is terminated by the FDIC pursuant to...

  18. Funding, Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Micah

    2009-01-01

    I show herein how to develop fundable proposals to support your research. Although the proposal strategy I discuss is commonly used in successful proposals, most junior faculty (and many senior scholars) in political science and other social sciences seem to be unaware of it. I dispel myths about funding, and discuss how to find funders and target…

  19. 25 CFR 115.711 - How is money in a trust account invested?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is money in a trust account invested? 115.711 Section 115.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS... § 115.711 How is money in a trust account invested? OTFM manages trust fund investments and...

  20. 25 CFR 115.711 - How is money in a trust account invested?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How is money in a trust account invested? 115.711 Section 115.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS... § 115.711 How is money in a trust account invested? OTFM manages trust fund investments and...

  1. 25 CFR 115.711 - How is money in a trust account invested?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How is money in a trust account invested? 115.711 Section 115.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS... § 115.711 How is money in a trust account invested? OTFM manages trust fund investments and...

  2. 25 CFR 115.711 - How is money in a trust account invested?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How is money in a trust account invested? 115.711 Section 115.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS... § 115.711 How is money in a trust account invested? OTFM manages trust fund investments and...

  3. 25 CFR 115.711 - How is money in a trust account invested?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How is money in a trust account invested? 115.711 Section 115.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS... § 115.711 How is money in a trust account invested? OTFM manages trust fund investments and...

  4. 25 CFR 1200.33 - How can funds be returned?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can funds be returned? 1200.33 Section 1200.33... TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Returning Tribal Funds to Trust § 1200.33 How can funds be returned....S.C. 162a. Cash can be transferred to the US Treasury by Electronic Funds Transfers (EFT), or...

  5. Fund offers support and expertise.

    PubMed

    Nattrass, Clive

    2011-04-01

    Clive Nattrass, programme director for the Carbon and Energy Fund (CEF), describes how the Fund can potentially help NHS Trusts seeking to upgrade and improve their infrastructure to reduce their carbon footprint, and thus make useful energy savings, to secure the necessary finance. He outlines the steps that Trusts interested in obtaining CEF funding need to take, and explains the key timelines over the next 3-4 years. PMID:21585145

  6. H. R. 3059: A bill to establish a scrap tire trust fund to provide financial assistance to States to eliminate current scrap tire piles and to manage the future disposal of scrap tires, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 25, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on July 25, 1991 to establish a scrap tire trust fund to provide financial assistance to states to eliminate current scrap tire piles and to manage the future disposal of scrap tires. Amounts from the fund will be available for making expenditures for purposes of conducting surveys of current scrap tire piles, developing tire management plans, and carrying out plans relating to the reduction and elimination of existing scrap tire piles, including recycling, recovering, and reusing scrap tires. Not in excess to 5% of the account may be used for payment of expenses for administration of the fund.

  7. 75 FR 33369 - EQ Advisors Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... to invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: EQ Advisors Trust, AXA Premier VIP Trust... future will comply with the terms and conditions of the application. \\2\\ A Fund of Funds may not invest... to permit Funds that invest in Underlying Funds in reliance on section 12(d)(1)(G) of the Act,...

  8. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  9. 78 FR 42122 - Bridge Builder Trust and Olive Street Investment Advisers, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... COMMISSION Bridge Builder Trust and Olive Street Investment Advisers, LLC; Notice of Application July 9, 2013... requirements. APPLICANTS: Bridge Builder Trust (the ``Trust'') and Olive Street Investment Advisers (the... currently intends to rely on the requested order as a Fund is the Bridge Builder Bond Fund. For purposes...

  10. Emergency airway puncture

    MedlinePlus

    Emergency airway puncture is the placement of a hollow needle through the throat into the airway. It ... Emergency airway puncture is done in an emergency situation, when someone is choking and all other efforts ...

  11. Blockage of upper airway

    MedlinePlus

    ... Airway obstruction - acute upper Images Throat anatomy Choking Respiratory system References Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies: upper airway obstruction and infections. In: Marx ...

  12. 75 FR 66977 - Housing Trust Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... rule published on December 4, 2009 (74 FR 63938). The allocation formula will be renumbered and... National Affordable Housing Act of 1992, the HOME program is the largest Federal block grant program that...-assisted housing. Section 1338(c)(9) of FHEFSSA requires an eligible recipient of a grant from a...

  13. Setting up a CFO Trust Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the importance of a solid relationship with the head of finance is critical to success, both for the IT department and the institution as a whole. Never has this been truer than in today's bleak economy, as CFOs become increasingly cautious about initiatives that involve significant expense, yet information technology can help…

  14. Housing Trust Fund Elimination Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-40

    2011-07-07

    07/12/2011 Forwarded by Subcommittee to Full Committee (Amended) by the Yeas and Nays: 18 - 14 . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. The TRUST Partnership: Institutional Impacts at Lehman College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Heather; Kelly, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the institutional impacts at Lehman College, City University of New York, of the Teacher Renewal for Urban Science Teaching (TRUST) Project, a partnership between the American Museum of Natural History and Brooklyn and Lehman Colleges funded by the National Science Foundation. We examine the impact that TRUST had and continues…

  16. Sustainable Urban Water and Wastewater Services: The TRUST Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The TRUST (Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow) Project is a research program funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme. The overall objective of TRUST is to help water and wastewater authorities and utilities across Europe to formulate and impleme...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.352 - What are “trust resources” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... responsibility. For example, water rights and off-reservation treaty rights. (c) This definition defines trust... assets, trust revenue, royalties, or rental, including natural resources, land, water, minerals, funds, property, assets, or claims, and any intangible right or interest in any of the foregoing; (2) Any...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.352 - What are “trust resources” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... responsibility. For example, water rights and off-reservation treaty rights. (c) This definition defines trust... assets, trust revenue, royalties, or rental, including natural resources, land, water, minerals, funds, property, assets, or claims, and any intangible right or interest in any of the foregoing; (2) Any...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.352 - What are “trust resources” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... responsibility. For example, water rights and off-reservation treaty rights. (c) This definition defines trust... assets, trust revenue, royalties, or rental, including natural resources, land, water, minerals, funds, property, assets, or claims, and any intangible right or interest in any of the foregoing; (2) Any...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.352 - What are “trust resources” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... responsibility. For example, water rights and off-reservation treaty rights. (c) This definition defines trust... assets, trust revenue, royalties, or rental, including natural resources, land, water, minerals, funds, property, assets, or claims, and any intangible right or interest in any of the foregoing; (2) Any...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.352 - What are “trust resources” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... responsibility. For example, water rights and off-reservation treaty rights. (c) This definition defines trust... assets, trust revenue, royalties, or rental, including natural resources, land, water, minerals, funds, property, assets, or claims, and any intangible right or interest in any of the foregoing; (2) Any...

  2. 78 FR 79511 - IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... COMMISSION IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application December 23, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... funds based on indexes with an Affiliated Index Provider (defined below). See Investment Company Act Rel...''). Applicants: IndexIQ ETF Trust (the ``Trust''); IndexIQ Advisors LLC (``IndexIQ Advisors''); and...

  3. 77 FR 29394 - Van Eck VIP Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... of other registered open-end management investment companies and unit investment trusts that are...) as the Fund of Funds and also in other registered open-end management investment companies and...

  4. 25 CFR 1200.32 - How often can funds be returned?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How often can funds be returned? 1200.32 Section 1200.32 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Returning Tribal Funds to Trust § 1200.32 How often can funds...

  5. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  6. Upper airway test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    An upper airway biopsy is obtained by using a flexible scope called a bronchoscope. The scope is passed down through ... may be performed when an abnormality of the upper airway is suspected. It may also be performed as ...

  7. Careers in Airway Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has initiated the Airway Science curriculum as a method of preparing the next generation of aviation technicians and managers. This document: (1) discusses the FAA's role in the Airway Science program; (2) describes some of the career fields that FAA offers to Airway Science graduates (air traffic control…

  8. 78 FR 75392 - American Beacon Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... COMMISSION American Beacon Funds, et al.; Notice of Application December 5, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... (Jun. 25, 1996) (order). Applicants: American Beacon Funds and American Beacon Select Funds (collectively, the ``Trusts'') and American Beacon Advisors, Inc. (``American Beacon'' and...

  9. 25 CFR 115.705 - May we accept for deposit into a trust account money awarded or assessed by a court of competent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May we accept for deposit into a trust account money awarded or assessed by a court of competent jurisdiction? 115.705 Section 115.705 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Trust Fund Accounts: General Information...

  10. Personal Trust Increases Cooperation beyond General Trust

    PubMed Central

    Acedo-Carmona, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology which, while allowing for anonymous interaction, it also makes possible to compare decisions of cooperating or defecting when playing games within a group, according to whether or not players personally trust each other. The design thus goes beyond standard approaches to the role of trust in fostering cooperation, which is restricted to general trust. It also allows considering the role of the topology of the social network involved may play in the level of cooperation found. The results of this work support the idea that personal trust promotes cooperation beyond the level of general trust. We also found that this effect carries over to the whole group, making it more cohesive, but that higher levels of cohesion rely on a particular topology. As a conclusion, we hypothesize that personal trust is a psychological mechanism evolved to make human social life possible in the small groups our ancestors lived in, and that this mechanism persists and plays a role in sustaining cooperation and social cohesion. PMID:25144539

  11. The Physiologically Difficult Airway.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Jarrod M; Joshi, Raj; Hypes, Cameron; Pacheco, Garrett; Valenzuela, Terence; Sakles, John C

    2015-12-01

    Airway management in critically ill patients involves the identification and management of the potentially difficult airway in order to avoid untoward complications. This focus on difficult airway management has traditionally referred to identifying anatomic characteristics of the patient that make either visualizing the glottic opening or placement of the tracheal tube through the vocal cords difficult. This paper will describe the physiologically difficult airway, in which physiologic derangements of the patient increase the risk of cardiovascular collapse from airway management. The four physiologically difficult airways described include hypoxemia, hypotension, severe metabolic acidosis, and right ventricular failure. The emergency physician should account for these physiologic derangements with airway management in critically ill patients regardless of the predicted anatomic difficulty of the intubation. PMID:26759664

  12. The Physiologically Difficult Airway

    PubMed Central

    Mosier, Jarrod M.; Joshi, Raj; Hypes, Cameron; Pacheco, Garrett; Valenzuela, Terence; Sakles, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Airway management in critically ill patients involves the identification and management of the potentially difficult airway in order to avoid untoward complications. This focus on difficult airway management has traditionally referred to identifying anatomic characteristics of the patient that make either visualizing the glottic opening or placement of the tracheal tube through the vocal cords difficult. This paper will describe the physiologically difficult airway, in which physiologic derangements of the patient increase the risk of cardiovascular collapse from airway management. The four physiologically difficult airways described include hypoxemia, hypotension, severe metabolic acidosis, and right ventricular failure. The emergency physician should account for these physiologic derangements with airway management in critically ill patients regardless of the predicted anatomic difficulty of the intubation. PMID:26759664

  13. Funding Diversity: Performance-Based Funding Regimes as Drivers of Differentiation in Higher Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorlin, Sverker

    2007-01-01

    In most countries higher education institutions used to receive large portions of their funding by direct state allocation. For the past couple of decades this trust-based funding regime has been replaced by performance-based regimes. The article rests on the empirical observation that new funding regimes are increasingly becoming a policy…

  14. Trust in interprofessional collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Paul A. M.; Austin, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trust is integral to effective interprofessional collaboration. There has been scant literature characterizing how trust between practitioners is formed, maintained or lost. The objective of this study was to characterize the cognitive model of trust that exists between pharmacists and family physicians working in collaborative primary care settings. Methods: Pharmacists and family physicians who work collaboratively in primary care were participants in this study. Family health teams were excluded from this study because of the distinct nature of these settings. Through a snowball convenience sampling method, a total of 11 pharmacists and 8 family physicians were recruited. A semistructured interview guide was used to guide discussion around trust, relationships and collaboration. Constant-comparative coding was used to identify themes emerging from these data. Results: Pharmacists and family physicians demonstrate different cognitive models of trust in primary care collaboration. For pharmacists, trust appears to be conferred on physicians based on title, degree, status and positional authority. For family physicians, trust appears to be earned based on competency and performance. These differences may lead to interprofessional tension when expectations of reciprocal trust are not met. Conclusions: Further work in characterizing how trust is developed in interprofessional relationships is needed to support effective team formation and functioning. PMID:27540406

  15. Engineering Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Soleas, John P.; Paz, Ana; Marcus, Paula; McGuigan, Alison; Waddell, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Airway epithelium is constantly presented with injurious signals, yet under healthy circumstances, the epithelium maintains its innate immune barrier and mucociliary elevator function. This suggests that airway epithelium has regenerative potential (I. R. Telford and C. F. Bridgman, 1990). In practice, however, airway regeneration is problematic because of slow turnover and dedifferentiation of epithelium thereby hindering regeneration and increasing time necessary for full maturation and function. Based on the anatomy and biology of the airway epithelium, a variety of tissue engineering tools available could be utilized to overcome the barriers currently seen in airway epithelial generation. This paper describes the structure, function, and repair mechanisms in native epithelium and highlights specific and manipulatable tissue engineering signals that could be of great use in the creation of artificial airway epithelium. PMID:22523471

  16. 25 CFR 1200.20 - How can a tribe withdraw additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can a tribe withdraw additional funds? 1200.20 Section 1200.20 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Withdrawing Tribal Funds From Trust § 1200.20 How can...

  17. 25 CFR 1200.34 - Can a tribe withdraw redeposited funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe withdraw redeposited funds? 1200.34 Section 1200.34 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Returning Tribal Funds to Trust § 1200.34 Can a tribe...

  18. 25 CFR 183.8 - How can the Tribe spend funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can the Tribe spend funds? 183.8 Section 183.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE LEASE FUND Trust...

  19. 25 CFR 183.8 - How can the Tribe spend funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How can the Tribe spend funds? 183.8 Section 183.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE LEASE FUND Trust...

  20. 42 CFR 417.596 - Establishment of a benefit stabilization fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... from one contract period to another. (d) Financial management of benefit stabilization funds. (1) The... Federal Health Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund. (2) The..., AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Risk Basis § 417.596 Establishment of a...

  1. The trust formula: Trust = fairness + leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Lovenheim, R.

    1995-11-01

    Many state and compact LLW siting processes have been characterized by slippage and failure. The paper focuses on two major {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} regarding public interaction and trust, and how these lessons are being applied to current siting efforts. The relationship of environmental idealism and trust will be explored further in this paper. Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer concludes his 1994 book, Breaking the Vicious Circle by stating: {open_quotes}Finally, this book also reflects a belief that trust in institutions arises not simply as a result of openness in government, responses to local interest groups, or priorities emphasized in the press -- though these attitudes and actions play an important role -- but also from those institutions doing a difficult job well.{close_quotes}

  2. Global Custody of Endowment Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfreyman, David

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the law relating to the global custodianship of funds, notably as managed for endowed charities such as universities and independent schools. Is global custody based on the legal concept of bailment or of trusts? Just how secure are the legal underpinnings of this financial mechanism? The conclusions are that the legal…

  3. Dimensionality of Organizational Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Samuel H.; Wiswell, Albert K.

    2007-01-01

    Trust facilitates individual and organizational learning, and is often misunderstood by organizations although they must continuously learn in order to attain organizational goals and survive. Leaders of organizations often view trust defensively and their reactions may impede organizational learning This paper builds on prior research concerning…

  4. Trust versus Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of trust in the education system. What is different about the issue of trust in the education system is the assault upon it, sometimes overt but most often subtle. There is a difference between strong criticism and willful manipulation. The nation's schools are responding to the former--perhaps too slowly for…

  5. Conquering the difficult airway.

    PubMed

    Gandy, William E

    2008-01-01

    Every medic should practice regularly for the inevitable difficult airway case. Practice should include review of the causes of difficult airways, as well as skill practice. Having a preassembled airway kit can make your response to an unexpected difficult situation easier. Of all the devices mentioned, the bougie is the airway practitioner's best friend. Using the BURP technique, if not contraindicated, together with the bougie will enable you to intubate many difficult patients with confidence. Remember, "If your patient cannot breathe, nothing else matters. PMID:18251307

  6. 25 CFR 115.805 - If a tribe is paid directly under a contract for the sale or use of trust assets, will we accept...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false If a tribe is paid directly under a contract for the sale or use of trust assets, will we accept those trust funds for deposit into a tribal trust account? 115.805 Section 115.805 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL...

  7. The enemies of trust.

    PubMed

    Galford, Robert; Drapeau, Anne Seibold

    2003-02-01

    Researchers have established that trust is critical to organizational effectiveness. Being trustworthy yourself, however, does not guarantee that you are capable of building trust in an organization. That takes old-fashioned managerial virtues like consistency, clear communication, and a willingness to tackle awkward questions. It also requires a good defense: You must protect trust from its enemies. Any act of bad management erodes trust, so the list of potential enemies is endless. Among the most common enemies of trust, though, are inconsistent messages from top management, inconsistent standards, a willingness to tolerate incompetence or bad behavior, dishonest feedback, a failure to trust others to do good work, a tendency to ignore painful or politically charged situations, consistent corporate underperformance, and rumors. Fending off these enemies must be at the top of every chief executive's agenda. But even with constant vigilance, an organization and its leaders will sometimes lose people's trust. During a crisis, managers should enlist the help of an objective third party--chances are you won't be thinking clearly--and be available physically and emotionally. If you "go dark" in the face of a crisis, employees will worry about the company's survival, about their own capacity to cope, and about your abilities as a leader. And if trust has broken down so badly that your only choice is to start over, you can do so by figuring out exactly how the breach of trust happened, ascertaining the depth and breadth of the loss, owning up to the loss instead of downplaying it, and identifying as precisely as possible the specific changes you must make to rebuild trust. PMID:12577656

  8. Brachycephalic airway syndrome: management.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Dena L; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2012-08-01

    Brachycephalic airway syndrome (BAS) is a group of primary and secondary abnormalities that result in upper airway obstruction. Several of these abnormalities can be addressed medically and/or surgically to improve quality of life. This article reviews potential complications, anesthetic considerations, recovery strategies, and outcomes associated with medical and surgical management of BAS. PMID:22935992

  9. Simvastatin Inhibits Airway Hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, Amir A.; Franzi, Lisa; Last, Jerold; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Statin use has been linked to improved lung health in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We hypothesize that statins inhibit allergic airway inflammation and reduce airway hyperreactivity via a mevalonate-dependent mechanism. Objectives: To determine whether simvastatin attenuates airway inflammation and improves lung physiology by mevalonate pathway inhibition. Methods: BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin over 4 weeks and exposed to 1% ovalbumin aerosol over 2 weeks. Simvastatin (40 mg/kg) or simvastatin plus mevalonate (20 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally before each ovalbumin exposure. Measurements and Main Results: Simvastatin reduced total lung lavage leukocytes, eosinophils, and macrophages (P < 0.05) in the ovalbumin-exposed mice. Cotreatment with mevalonate, in addition to simvastatin, reversed the antiinflammatory effects seen with simvastatin alone (P < 0.05). Lung lavage IL-4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were all reduced by treatment with simvastatin (P < 0.05). Simvastatin treatment before methacholine bronchial challenge increased lung compliance and reduced airway hyperreactivity (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Simvastatin attenuates allergic airway inflammation, inhibits key helper T cell type 1 and 2 chemokines, and improves lung physiology in a mouse model of asthma. The mevalonate pathway appears to modulate allergic airway inflammation, while the beneficial effects of simvastatin on lung compliance and airway hyperreactivity may be independent of the mevalonate pathway. Simvastatin and similar agents that modulate the mevalonate pathway may prove to be treatments for inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma. PMID:19608720

  10. Autonomy, Trust, and Respect.

    PubMed

    Nys, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article seeks to explore and analyze the relationship between autonomy and trust, and to show how these findings could be relevant to medical ethics. First, I will argue that the way in which so-called "relational autonomy theories" tie the notions of autonomy and trust together is not entirely satisfying Then, I will introduce the so-called Encapsulated Interest Account as developed by Russell Hardin. This will bring out the importance of the reasons for trust. What good reasons do we have for trusting someone? I will criticize Hardin's business model as insufficiently robust, especially in the context of health care, and then turn to another source of trust, namely, love. It may seem that trust-through-love is much better suited for the vulnerability that is often involved in health care, but I will also show that it has its own deficiencies. Good health care should therefore pay attention to both models of trust, and I will offer some tentative remarks on how to do this. PMID:26668168

  11. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways

    PubMed Central

    Klučka, Jozef; Štourač, Petr; Štoudek, Roman; Ťoukálková, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient. PMID:26759809

  12. Building a Culture of Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Identifies important aspects of faculty trust and school climate. Trust in the principal and trust in colleagues were aspects of faculty trust that were affected in this study of middle schools. The organizational climate factors of supportive, directive, and restrictive principal behavior and collegial, committed, and disengaged teacher behavior…

  13. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  14. 78 FR 54298 - Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    .... Applicants currently intend that the initial series of the Trust will be the Horizons Active Global Dividend... through either the NSCC or DTC; or (ii) in the case of Funds holding non-U.S. investment (``Global Funds... holder of Shares of a Global Fund would be subject to unfavorable income tax treatment if the...

  15. 78 FR 2453 - Credit Suisse Opportunity Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... (``Opportunity Funds''), Credit Suisse Commodity Strategy Funds (``Commodity Strategy Funds''), Credit Suisse... Strategy Funds are organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Each is an open-end management investment... investment company. The Applicant Investing Funds invest or will invest in a variety of debt and/or...

  16. Computationally modeling interpersonal trust

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Joo; Knox, W. Bradley; Wormwood, Jolie B.; Breazeal, Cynthia; DeSteno, David

    2013-01-01

    We present a computational model capable of predicting—above human accuracy—the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind's readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naiveté of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to investigate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust. PMID:24363649

  17. TrustBuilder2

    2007-07-20

    TrustBuilder2 is a flexible framework for supporting research in the area trust negotiation protocols, designed to allow researchers to quickly prototype and experiment with various approaches to trust negotiation. In Trustbuilder2, the primary components of a trust negotiation system are represented using abstract interfaces. Any or all of these components can be implemented or extended by users of the TrustBuilder2 system, thereby making the system's functionality easily extensible. The TrustBuilder2 configuration files can be modifiedmore » to load these custom components in place of the default system components; this facilitates the use of new features without modifications to the underlying runtime system. In our implementation, we provide support for one negotiation strategy, a policy compliance checker based on Jess (the Java Expert System Shell), query interfaces enabling access to disk-based credential and policy repositories, a credential chain construction algorithm, two credential chain verification routines, and both graphical and text-based logging facilities. Trustbuilder2 also supports the interposition of user-defined plug-ins at communication points between system components to allow for easy monitoring of system activity or the modification of messages passed between components.« less

  18. Trusted Computing Technologies, Intel Trusted Execution Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Guise, Max Joseph; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We describe the current state-of-the-art in Trusted Computing Technologies - focusing mainly on Intel's Trusted Execution Technology (TXT). This document is based on existing documentation and tests of two existing TXT-based systems: Intel's Trusted Boot and Invisible Things Lab's Qubes OS. We describe what features are lacking in current implementations, describe what a mature system could provide, and present a list of developments to watch. Critical systems perform operation-critical computations on high importance data. In such systems, the inputs, computation steps, and outputs may be highly sensitive. Sensitive components must be protected from both unauthorized release, and unauthorized alteration: Unauthorized users should not access the sensitive input and sensitive output data, nor be able to alter them; the computation contains intermediate data with the same requirements, and executes algorithms that the unauthorized should not be able to know or alter. Due to various system requirements, such critical systems are frequently built from commercial hardware, employ commercial software, and require network access. These hardware, software, and network system components increase the risk that sensitive input data, computation, and output data may be compromised.

  19. Trusting Beliefs: A Functional Measurement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, Giulio; Massidda, Davide; Noventa, Stefano; Vicentini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Trust is a fundamental aspect of everyday life. Several authors define trust as the wish to depend on another entity and split the concept of trust into several interconnected components such as trusting beliefs (e.g., benevolence, competence, honesty, and predictability), trusting intentions, trusting behaviors, disposition to trust, and…

  20. Impact of signals and experience on trust and trusting behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Hueih; Chien, Shu-Hua; Wu, Jyh-Jeng; Tsai, Pei-Yin

    2010-10-01

    Trust is an essential factor that drives virtual interaction and transactions on the Internet. Researchers have investigated the trust development process, and identified several important factors that form the basis for trust. This research combines the signal perspective and trust theory to examine the impact of market signals and past experience on trust formation and trusting behavior. Three market signals, including brand image, Web-site investment, and privacy policies, are identified and empirically tested to determine their impact on consumer trust. Based on 322 active Web users, the quantitative results suggest that brand image, Web-site investment, privacy policies, and past experience all positively impact trust formation. Furthermore, trust shows a positive effect on Web-site stickiness. Both theoretical and practical implications of the results are also offered. PMID:20950178

  1. Airway dysfunction in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Bougault, Valérie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2012-05-01

    Elite competitive swimmers are particularly affected by airway disorders that are probably related to regular and intense training sessions in a chlorinated environment. Upper and lower airway respiratory symptoms, rhinitis, airway hyper-responsiveness, and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction are highly prevalent in these athletes, but their influence on athletic performance is still unclear. The authors reviewed the main upper and lower respiratory ailments observed in competitive swimmers who train in indoor swimming pools, their pathophysiology, clinical significance and possible effects on performance. Issues regarding the screening of these disorders, their management and preventive measures are addressed. PMID:22247299

  2. Meteorological conditions along airways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, W R

    1927-01-01

    This report is an attempt to show the kind of meteorological information that is needed, and is in part available, for the purpose of determining operating conditions along airways. In general, the same factors affect these operating conditions along all airways though in varying degree, depending upon their topographic, geographic, and other characteristics; but in order to bring out as clearly as possible the nature of the data available, a specific example is taken, that of the Chicago-Dallas airway on which regular flying begins this year (1926).

  3. 78 FR 34413 - KP Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... 12d1-2 under the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: KP Funds (``Trust... on section 12(d)(1)(E) of the Act. In accordance with condition 11, a Fund of Funds may not invest in... otherwise complies with rule 12d1-2 to also invest, to the extent consistent with its investment...

  4. 77 FR 16871 - Forward Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: Forward Funds (the ``Trust''), Forward...)(1)(G) of the Act; and (iii) is also eligible to invest in securities (as defined in section 2(a)(36) of the Act) in reliance on rule 12d1-2 under the Act (each a ``Fund of Funds''), to also invest,...

  5. 25 CFR 115.713 - When does money in a trust account start earning interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does money in a trust account start earning interest? 115.713 Section 115.713 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL... and Interests § 115.713 When does money in a trust account start earning interest? Funds must...

  6. 25 CFR 115.713 - When does money in a trust account start earning interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When does money in a trust account start earning interest? 115.713 Section 115.713 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL... and Interests § 115.713 When does money in a trust account start earning interest? Funds must...

  7. Trust transitivity in social networks.

    PubMed

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected "fringe" nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its "fringe" peers. PMID:21483683

  8. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  9. Airway management in trauma.

    PubMed

    Langeron, O; Birenbaum, A; Amour, J

    2009-05-01

    Maintenance of a patent and prevention of aspiration are essential for the management of the trauma patient, that requires experienced physicians in airway control techniques. Difficulties of the airway control in the trauma setting are increased by the vital failures, the risk of aspiration, the potential cervical spine injury, the combative patient, and the obvious risk of difficult tracheal intubation related to specific injury related to the trauma. Endotracheal intubation remains the gold standard in trauma patient airway management and should be performed via the oral route with a rapid sequence induction and a manual in-line stabilization maneuver, to decrease the risks previously mentioned. Different techniques to control the airway in trauma patients are presented: improvement of the laryngoscopic vision, lighted stylet tracheal intubation, retrograde technique for orotracheal intubation, the laryngeal mask and the intubating laryngeal mask airways, the combitube and cricothyroidotomy. Management of the airway in trauma patients requires regular training in these techniques and the knowledge of complementary techniques allowing tracheal intubation or oxygenation to overcome difficult intubation and to prevent major complications as hypoxemia and aspiration. PMID:19412149

  10. Trusted Translation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  11. Managing healthcare information: analyzing trust.

    PubMed

    Söderström, Eva; Eriksson, Nomie; Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie

    2016-08-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze two case studies with a trust matrix tool, to identify trust issues related to electronic health records. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative research approach is applied using two case studies. The data analysis of these studies generated a problem list, which was mapped to a trust matrix. Findings - Results demonstrate flaws in current practices and point to achieving balance between organizational, person and technology trust perspectives. The analysis revealed three challenge areas, to: achieve higher trust in patient-focussed healthcare; improve communication between patients and healthcare professionals; and establish clear terminology. By taking trust into account, a more holistic perspective on healthcare can be achieved, where trust can be obtained and optimized. Research limitations/implications - A trust matrix is tested and shown to identify trust problems on different levels and relating to trusting beliefs. Future research should elaborate and more fully address issues within three identified challenge areas. Practical implications - The trust matrix's usefulness as a tool for organizations to analyze trust problems and issues is demonstrated. Originality/value - Healthcare trust issues are captured to a greater extent and from previously unchartered perspectives. PMID:27477934

  12. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  13. State Unemployment Insurance Trust Solvency and Benefit Generosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel L.; Wenger, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs panel estimators with data on the 50 American states for the years 1963 to 2006 to test the relationship between Unemployment Insurance (UI) trust fund solvency and UI benefit generosity. We find that both average and maximum weekly UI benefit amounts, as ratios to the average weekly wage, are higher in states and in years with…

  14. Trust metrics in information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Trust is an important concept for machine intelligence and is not consistent across many applications. In this paper, we seek to understand trust from a variety of factors: humans, sensors, communications, intelligence processing algorithms and human-machine displays of information. In modeling the various aspects of trust, we provide an example from machine intelligence that supports the various attributes of measuring trust such as sensor accuracy, communication timeliness, machine processing confidence, and display throughput to convey the various attributes that support user acceptance of machine intelligence results. The example used is fusing video and text whereby an analyst needs trust information in the identified imagery track. We use the proportional conflict redistribution rule as an information fusion technique that handles conflicting data from trusted and mistrusted sources. The discussion of the many forms of trust explored in the paper seeks to provide a systems-level design perspective for information fusion trust quantification.

  15. Role of upper airway ultrasound in airway management.

    PubMed

    Osman, Adi; Sum, Kok Meng

    2016-01-01

    Upper airway ultrasound is a valuable, non-invasive, simple, and portable point of care ultrasound (POCUS) for evaluation of airway management even in anatomy distorted by pathology or trauma. Ultrasound enables us to identify important sonoanatomy of the upper airway such as thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, cricoid cartilage, cricothyroid membrane, tracheal cartilages, and esophagus. Understanding this applied sonoanatomy facilitates clinician to use ultrasound in assessment of airway anatomy for difficult intubation, ETT and LMA placement and depth, assessment of airway size, ultrasound-guided invasive procedures such as percutaneous needle cricothyroidotomy and tracheostomy, prediction of postextubation stridor and left double-lumen bronchial tube size, and detecting upper airway pathologies. Widespread POCUS awareness, better technological advancements, portability, and availability of ultrasound in most critical areas facilitate upper airway ultrasound to become the potential first-line non-invasive airway assessment tool in the future. PMID:27529028

  16. Trust Development in Outdoor Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Establishing trusting relationships between leaders and participants is one way that outdoor leaders can create an emotionally safe and productive milieu that supports the attainment of desirable outcomes. Multidisciplinary literature offers considerable insight into leader trust development and the outcomes that are linked to trust in a leader.…

  17. Why Teachers Trust School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Victoria; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Trust among teachers in schools is significantly related to student achievement and trust in school leaders is an important influence on such trust. The purpose of this study is to identify leadership practices which teachers interpret as signs of trustworthiness on the part of their principals. Design/methodology/approach: Evidence for…

  18. Trust It or Trash It?

    MedlinePlus

    Trust It or Trash It? About | Contact | Español Tab 1 Tab 2 What is Trust It or Trash It? This is a tool to help you think ... here for the developer version. Home Who Said It? Who wrote it? Think about TRUSTING IT if: ...

  19. Four Essential Practices for Building Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Julie Peterson; Harris, Sandra; Edmonson, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The presence of trust can enhance an organization's efforts to fulfill its mission, and the lack of trust can constrict those efforts. The authors offer four essential guidelines to help school leaders communicate in a way that builds trust. Build trust by understanding trust. Trusted leaders demonstrate care, character, and competence in their…

  20. Supraglottic airway devices.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Satya Krishna; Kumar, Anjana M

    2014-06-01

    Supraglottic airway devices (SADs) are used to keep the upper airway open to provide unobstructed ventilation. Early (first-generation) SADs rapidly replaced endotracheal intubation and face masks in > 40% of general anesthesia cases due to their versatility and ease of use. Second-generation devices have further improved efficacy and utility by incorporating design changes. Individual second-generation SADs have allowed more dependable positive-pressure ventilation, are made of disposable materials, have integrated bite blocks, are better able to act as conduits for tracheal tube placement, and have reduced risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. SADs now provide successful rescue ventilation in > 90% of patients in whom mask ventilation or tracheal intubation is found to be impossible. However, some concerns with these devices remain, including failing to adequately ventilate, causing airway damage, and increasing the likelihood of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. Careful patient selection and excellent technical skills are necessary for successful use of these devices. PMID:24891199

  1. DCB Funding

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Biology (DCB) funds and supports extramural basic research that investigates the fundamental biology behind cancer. Find out more about DCB's grants process and funding opportunities.

  2. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    PubMed

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  3. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  4. 25 CFR 115.703 - May we accept for deposit into a trust account money not specified in § 115.702?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May we accept for deposit into a trust account money not specified in § 115.702? 115.703 Section 115.703 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Trust Fund Accounts: General Information § 115.703 May we accept...

  5. Issues of critical airway management (Which anesthesia; which surgical airway?).

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Which anesthesia for patients with critical airway? Safe and effective analgesia and anesthesia in critical airway is a skilled task especially after severe maxillofacial injury combined with head injury and hemorrhagic shock. If on one side sedation is wanted, on the other hand it may worsen the airway and hemodynamic situation to a point where hypoventilation and decrease of blood pressure, common side-effect of many opioids, may prejudice the patient's level of consciousness and hemodynamic compensation, compounding an already critical situation. What to do when endotracheal intubation fails and blood is trickling down the airways in an unconscious patient or when a conscious patient has to sit up to breathe? Which surgical airway in critical airway? Comparative studies among the various methods of emergency surgical airway would be unethical; furthermore, operator's training and experience is relevant for indications and performance. PMID:23248494

  6. Total airway reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Connor, Matthew P; Barrera, Jose E; Eller, Robert; McCusker, Scott; O'Connor, Peter

    2013-02-01

    We present a case of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that required multilevel surgical correction of the airway and literature review and discuss the role supraglottic laryngeal collapse can have in OSA. A 34-year-old man presented to a tertiary otolaryngology clinic for treatment of OSA. He previously had nasal and palate surgeries and a Repose tongue suspension. His residual apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 67. He had a dysphonia associated with a true vocal cord paralysis following resection of a benign neck mass in childhood. He also complained of inspiratory stridor with exercise and intolerance to continuous positive airway pressure. Physical examination revealed craniofacial hypoplasia, full base of tongue, and residual nasal airway obstruction. On laryngoscopy, the paretic aryepiglottic fold arytenoid complex prolapsed into the laryngeal inlet with each breath. This was more pronounced with greater respiratory effort. Surgical correction required a series of operations including awake tracheostomy, supraglottoplasty, midline glossectomy, genial tubercle advancement, maxillomandibular advancement, and reconstructive rhinoplasty. His final AHI was 1.9. Our patient's supraglottic laryngeal collapse constituted an area of obstruction not typically evaluated in OSA surgery. In conjunction with treating nasal, palatal, and hypopharyngeal subsites, our patient's supraglottoplasty represented a key component of his success. This case illustrates the need to evaluate the entire upper airway in a complicated case of OSA. PMID:22965285

  7. Epithelial hyperplasia, airways

    Cancer.gov

    Number of respiratory epithelial cells is increased diffusely or focally. Frequently luminal protrusions are observed, sometimes forming papillae. Mucous (goblet) cell metaplastic hyperplasia is a variant, in which the respiratory epithelium of conducting airways is replaced by mucous cells either as a single or a pseudostratified layer.

  8. The neurobiology of trust.

    PubMed

    Zak, Paul J; Kurzban, Robert; Matzner, William T

    2004-12-01

    This is the first report that endogenous oxytocin in humans is related to social behaviors, which is consistent with a large animal literature. Subjects are put into a social dilemma in which absent communication, cooperative behavior can benefit both parties randomly assigned to a dyad. The dilemma arises because one participant must make a monetary sacrifice to signal the degree of trust in the other before the other's behavioral response is known. We show that receipt of a signal of trust is associated with a higher level of peripheral oxytocin than that in subjects receiving a random monetary transfer of the same average amount. Oxytocin levels were also related to trustworthy behavior (sharing a greater proportion of the monetary gains). We conclude that oxytocin may be part of the human physiology that motivates cooperation. PMID:15677415

  9. Advances in prehospital airway management

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, PE; Grabinsky, A

    2014-01-01

    Prehospital airway management is a key component of emergency responders and remains an important task of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems worldwide. The most advanced airway management techniques involving placement of oropharyngeal airways such as the Laryngeal Mask Airway or endotracheal tube. Endotracheal tube placement success is a common measure of out-of-hospital airway management quality. Regional variation in regard to training, education, and procedural exposure may be the major contributor to the findings in success and patient outcome. In studies demonstrating poor outcomes related to prehospital-attempted endotracheal intubation (ETI), both training and skill level of the provider are usually often low. Research supports a relationship between the number of intubation experiences and ETI success. National standards for certification of emergency medicine provider are in general too low to guarantee good success rate in emergency airway management by paramedics and physicians. Some paramedic training programs require more intense airway training above the national standard and some EMS systems in Europe staff their system with anesthesia providers instead. ETI remains the cornerstone of definitive prehospital airway management, However, ETI is not without risk and outcomes data remains controversial. Many systems may benefit from more input and guidance by the anesthesia department, which have higher volumes of airway management procedures and extensive training and experience not just with training of airway management but also with different airway management techniques and adjuncts. PMID:24741499

  10. Methods of airway resistance assessment.

    PubMed

    Urbankowski, Tomasz; Przybyłowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Airway resistance is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of the airflow in the airways. The most frequent methods used to measure airway resistance are whole-body plethysmography, the interrupter technique and the forced oscillation technique. All these methods allow to measure resistance during respiration at the level close to tidal volume, they do not require forced breathing manoeuvres or deep breathing during measurement. The most popular method for measuring airway resistance is whole-body plethysmography. The results of plethysmography include among others the following parameters: airway resistance (Raw), airway conductance (Gaw), specific airway resistance (sRaw) and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The interrupter technique is based on the assumption that at the moment of airway occlusion, air pressure in the mouth is equal to the alveolar pressure . In the forced oscillation technique (FOT), airway resistance is calculated basing on the changes in pressure and flow caused by air vibration. The methods for measurement of airway resistance that are described in the present paper seem to be a useful alternative to the most common lung function test - spirometry. The target group in which these methods may be widely used are particularly the patients who are unable to perform spirometry. PMID:27238174

  11. The Union Learning Fund: A Genuine Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The "Daily Telegraph" recently carried an attack on the Union Learning Fund (ULF) as part of its ongoing criticism of unions following the industrial action by cabin crew at British Airways. This included a quote from Conservative MP Francis Maude suggesting that the fund was a form of "money laundering." The article, which was re-hashed a couple…

  12. 12 CFR 614.4540 - Other financing institution access to Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks for funding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks for funding, discount, and other similar financial assistance... for funding, discount, and other similar financial assistance. (a) Basic criteria for access. Any national bank, State bank, trust company, agriculture credit corporation, incorporated livestock...

  13. Supraglottic airway devices in children

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, S; Jayanthi, R

    2011-01-01

    Modern anaesthesia practice in children was made possible by the invention of the endotracheal tube (ET), which made lengthy and complex surgical procedures feasible without the disastrous complications of airway obstruction, aspiration of gastric contents or asphyxia. For decades, endotracheal intubation or bag-and-mask ventilation were the mainstays of airway management. In 1983, this changed with the invention of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA), the first supraglottic airway device that blended features of the facemask with those of the ET, providing ease of placement and hands-free maintenance along with a relatively secure airway. The invention and development of the LMA by Dr. Archie Brain has had a significant impact on the practice of anaesthesia, management of the difficult airway and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children and neonates. This review article will be a brief about the clinical applications of supraglottic airways in children. PMID:22174464

  14. Management of the Traumatized Airway.

    PubMed

    Jain, Uday; McCunn, Maureen; Smith, Charles E; Pittet, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence-based approach regarding the best practice for airway management in patients with a traumatized airway. General recommendations for the management of the traumatized airway are summarized in table 5. Airway trauma may not be readily apparent, and its evaluation requires a high level of suspicion for airway disruption and compression. For patients with facial trauma, control of the airway may be significantly impacted by edema, bleeding, inability to clear secretions, loss of bony support, and difficulty with face mask ventilation. With the airway compression from neck swelling or hematoma, intubation attempts can further compromise the airway due to expanding hematoma. For patients with airway disruption, the goal is to pass the tube across the injured area without disrupting it or to insert the airway distal to the injury using a surgical approach. If airway injury is extensive, a surgical airway distal to the site of injury may be the best initial approach. Alternatively, if orotracheal intubation is chosen, spontaneous ventilation may be maintained or RSI may be performed. RSI is a common approach. Thus, some of the patients intubated may subsequently require tracheostomy. A stable patient with limited injuries may not require intubation but should be watched carefully for at least several hours. Because of a paucity of evidence-based data, the choice between these approaches and the techniques utilized is a clinical decision depending on the patient's condition, clinical setting, injuries to airway and other organs, and available personnel, expertise, and equipment. Inability to obtain a definitive airway is always an absolute indication for an emergency cricothyroidotomy or surgical tracheostomy. PMID:26517857

  15. 76 FR 3837 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... 23, 2010 (75 FR 80697) relating to deductions for contributions to trusts maintained for decommissioning nuclear power plants. DATES: This correction is effective on January 21, 2011, and is applicable... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BF08 Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction...

  16. 77 FR 58873 - Financial Investors Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ...-end management investment companies that operate as ``funds of funds'' to acquire shares of certain registered open-end management investment companies and unit investment trusts (``UITs'') that are within and... (202) 551-6821 (Division of Investment Management, Office of Investment Company...

  17. Optimal Distinctiveness Signals Membership Trust.

    PubMed

    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Loyd, Denise Lewin

    2016-07-01

    According to optimal distinctiveness theory, sufficiently small minority groups are associated with greater membership trust, even among members otherwise unknown, because the groups are seen as optimally distinctive. This article elaborates on the prediction's motivational and cognitive processes and tests whether sufficiently small minorities (defined by relative size; for example, 20%) are associated with greater membership trust relative to mere minorities (45%), and whether such trust is a function of optimal distinctiveness. Two experiments, examining observers' perceptions of minority and majority groups and using minimal groups and (in Experiment 2) a trust game, revealed greater membership trust in minorities than majorities. In Experiment 2, participants also preferred joining minorities over more powerful majorities. Both effects occurred only when minorities were 20% rather than 45%. In both studies, perceptions of optimal distinctiveness mediated effects. Discussion focuses on the value of relative size and optimal distinctiveness, and when membership trust manifests. PMID:27140657

  18. 25 CFR 1000.362 - What are the consequences of a finding of imminent jeopardy in the annual trust evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual... significant loss, harm, or devaluation of a trust asset, natural resources, or the public health and safety....

  19. Capturing Young American Trust in National Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2011-01-01

    A pattern of decreasing trusting proportions in each consecutive decade and increasing trusting proportions with age was revealed in data. Although trust levels were lower in younger adults and the 2000s, findings did not support hypotheses of more rapidly falling trust levels or a college degree procuring less trust in the 2000s. A hypothesis of…

  20. Trust-Effectiveness Patterns in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Patrick B.; Barnes, Laura L. B.; Adams, Curt M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the consequences of relational trust, especially parent measured trust, for desirable school outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Using a US Midwestern state sample of 79 schools, parent and teacher trust data are used to derive a trust-effectiveness typology. Trust was conceptualized as one party's willingness to be…

  1. 13 CFR 107.1640 - SBA access to records of the CRA, Brokers, Dealers and Pool or Trust assemblers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1640 SBA access to... and copying purposes. Such access shall be at such party's primary place of business during...

  2. 13 CFR 108.1640 - SBA access to records of the CRA, Brokers, Dealers and Pool or Trust assemblers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 108... copying purposes. Such access shall be at such party's primary place of business during normal...

  3. 7 CFR 4290.1640 - Secretary's access to records of the CRA, Brokers, Dealers and Pool or Trust assemblers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1640 Secretary's access... copying purposes. Such access shall be at such party's primary place of business during normal...

  4. Upper Airway Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Verbraecken, Johan A.; De Backer, Wilfried A.

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses the pathophysiological aspects of sleep-disordered breathing, with focus on upper airway mechanics in obstructive and central sleep apnoea, Cheyne-Stokes respiration and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. These disorders constitute the end points of a spectrum with distinct yet interrelated mechanisms that lead to substantial pathology, i.e. increased upper airway collapsibility, control of breathing instability, increased work of breathing, disturbed ventilatory system mechanics and neurohormonal changes. Concepts are changing. Although sleep apnoea is considered more and more to be an increased loop gain disorder, the central type of apnoea is now considered as an obstructive event, because it causes pharyngeal narrowing, associated with prolonged expiration. Although a unifying concept for the pathogenesis is lacking, it seems that these patients are in a vicious circle. Knowledge of common patterns of sleep-disordered breathing may help to identify these patients and guide therapy. PMID:19478479

  5. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain trusts treated as separate trusts. 26... 1986 § 26.2654-1 Certain trusts treated as separate trusts. (a) Single trust treated as separate trusts—(1) Substantially separate and independent shares—(i) In general. If a single trust consists...

  6. The Need to Trust and to Trust More Wisely in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Where trust is an issue, there is no trust. Trust in diverse organizations has never been lower. A shadow of doubt stalks one's every decision to trust collegially and institutionally. Still, colleagues sense intuitively that institutions cannot function optimally without a bedrock level of trust. In academic life, trust is a form of social…

  7. Brachycephalic airway syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meola, Stacy D

    2013-08-01

    Brachycephalic airway syndrome is a common finding in brachycephalic breeds. A combination of primary and secondary changes can progress to life-threatening laryngeal collapse. Early recognition of primary anatomic abnormalities that include stenotic nares, elongated soft palate, and hypoplastic trachea would allow the clinician to make early recommendations for medical and surgical management, which can improve the quality of life in affected animals. PMID:24182996

  8. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hasan, N; Fletcher, E C

    1998-07-01

    Many clinicians are familiar with the clinical symptoms and signs of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In its most blatant form, OSA is complete airway obstruction with repetitive, prolonged pauses in breathing, arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation; followed by arousal with resumption of breathing. Daytime symptoms of this disorder include excessive daytime somnolence, intellectual dysfunction, and cardiovascular effects such as systemic hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction, and stroke. It has been recently recognized that increased pharyngeal resistance with incomplete obstruction can lead to a constellation of symptoms identical to OSA called "upper airway resistance syndrome" (UARS). The typical findings of UARS on sleep study are: (1) repetitive arousals from EEG sleep coinciding with a (2) waxing and waning of the respiratory airflow pattern and (3) increased respiratory effort as measured by esophageal pressure monitoring. There may be few, if any, obvious apneas or hypopneas with desaturation, but snoring may be a very prominent finding. Treatment with nasal positive airway pressure (NCPAP) eliminates the symptoms and confirms the diagnosis. Herein we describe two typical cases of UARS. PMID:9676067

  9. Airway closure in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Dutrieue, Brigitte; Verbanck, Sylvia; Darquenne, Chantal; Prisk, G Kim

    2005-08-25

    Recent single breath washout (SBW) studies in microgravity and on the ground have suggested an important effect of airway closure on gas mixing in the human lung, reflected particularly in the phase III slope of vital capacity SBW and bolus tests. In order to explore this effect, we designed a SBW in which subjects inspired 2-l from residual volume (RV) starting with a 150 ml bolus of He and SF6. In an attempt to vary the pattern of airways closure configuration before the test, the experiments were conducted in 1G and in microgravity during parabolic flight allowing the pre-test expiration to RV to be either in microgravity or at 1.8 G, with the actual test gas inhalation performed entirely in microgravity. Contrary to our expectations, the measured phase III slope and phase IV height and volume obtained from seven subjects in microgravity were essentially identical irrespective of the gravity level during the pre-test expiration to RV. The results suggest that airway closure configuration at RV before the test inspiration has no apparent impact on phases III and IV generation. PMID:15979418

  10. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  11. Management of the artificial airway.

    PubMed

    Branson, Richard D; Gomaa, Dina; Rodriquez, Dario

    2014-06-01

    Management of the artificial airway includes securing the tube to prevent dislodgement or migration as well as removal of secretions. Preventive measures include adequate humidification and appropriate airway suctioning. Monitoring airway patency and removing obstruction are potentially life-saving components of airway management. Cuff pressure management is important for preventing aspiration and mucosal damage as well as assuring adequate ventilation. A number of new monitoring techniques have been introduced, and automated cuff pressure control is becoming more common. The respiratory therapist should be adept with all these devices and understand the appropriate application and management. PMID:24891202

  12. Building Organizational Capacity through Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosner, Shelby

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the cultivation of collegial trust as a central feature of the capacity-building work of 11 high school principals, nominated for their expertise with capacity building. This qualitative study examined interview data and school documents collected over 18 months. Principals regarded trust as critical and were motivated to…

  13. Modeling and forecasting the volatility of Islamic unit trust in Malaysia using GARCH model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nuraini; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2015-10-01

    Due to the tremendous growth of Islamic unit trust in Malaysia since it was first introduced on 12th of January 1993 through the fund named Tabung Ittikal managed by Arab-Malaysian Securities, vast studies have been done to evaluate the performance of Islamic unit trust offered in Malaysia's capital market. Most of the studies found that one of the factors that affect the performance of the fund is the volatility level. Higher volatility produces better performance of the fund. Thus, we believe that a strategy must be set up by the fund managers in order for the fund to perform better. By using a series of net asset value (NAV) data of three different types of fund namely CIMB-IDEGF, CIMB-IBGF and CIMB-ISF from a fund management company named CIMB Principal Asset Management Berhad over a six years period from 1st January 2008 until 31st December 2013, we model and forecast the volatility of these Islamic unit trusts. The study found that the best fitting models for CIMB-IDEGF, CIMB-IBGF and CIMB-ISF are ARCH(4), GARCH(3,3) and GARCH(3,1) respectively. Meanwhile, the fund that is expected to be the least volatile is CIMB-IDEGF and the fund that is expected to be the most volatile is CIMB-IBGF.

  14. Trusted computing strengthens cloud authentication.

    PubMed

    Ghazizadeh, Eghbal; Zamani, Mazdak; Ab Manan, Jamalul-lail; Alizadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  15. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  16. Citrus, Wool, and Cotton Trust Fund Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Baucus, Max [D-MT

    2012-09-19

    09/20/2012 By Senator Baucus from Committee on Finance filed written report. Report No. 112-227. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Citrus Disease Research and Development Trust Fund Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Buchanan, Vern [R-FL-16

    2013-02-27

    03/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. 78 FR 54801 - Gulf Coast Restoration Trust Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... paid after July 6, 2012, under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act in connection with the Deepwater...)(i) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended by the RESTORE Act. Best available science... component of the Gulf RESTORE Program authorized by section 311(t)(2) of the Federal Water Pollution...

  19. 40 CFR 280.103 - Standby trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contract or agreement entered into to meet the requirements of 40 CFR 280.93. The Trustee shall reimburse... wording of this Agreement is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 280.103(b)(1) as such.... Section 6. Trustee Management The Trustee shall invest and reinvest the principal and income of the...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway. (a... provide a patent airway. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway. (a... provide a patent airway. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  2. Funding Backlash

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, William E.; Clark, Charlene H.

    1976-01-01

    Using California as an example, the authors illustrate how a state legislative decision relating to funding of the state university system effects the financial and academic conditions of the community colleges. (DC)

  3. Brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wykes, P M

    1991-06-01

    This is a complex condition, recognized primarily in brachycephalic breeds, that results in varying degrees of upper airway obstruction. The signs consist of respiratory distress, stridor, reduced exercise tolerance, and in more severe cases, cyanosis and collapse. The inherent anatomy of the brachycephalic skull contributes to the development of these signs. Such anatomic features include: a shortened and distorted nasopharynx, stenotic nares, an elongated soft palate, and everted laryngeal saccules. The increased negative pressure created in the pharyngolaryngeal region, as a result of these obstructing structures, ultimately results in distortion and collapse of the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx. PMID:1802247

  4. Trust, Respect, and Reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Phong, Tran Viet; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Dung, Nguyen Thanh; Ngan, Ta Thi Dieu; Kinh, Nguyen Van; Parker, Michael; Bull, Susan

    2015-01-01

    International science funders and publishers are driving a growing trend in data sharing. There is mounting pressure on researchers in low- and middle-income settings to conform to new sharing policies, despite minimal empirically grounded accounts of the ethical challenges of implementing the policies in these settings. This study used in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 48 stakeholders in Vietnam to explore the experiences, attitudes, and expectations that inform ethical and effective approaches to sharing clinical research data. Distinct views on the role of trust, respect, and reciprocity were among those that emerged to inform culturally appropriate best practices. We conclude by discussing the challenges that authors of data-sharing policies should consider in this unique context. PMID:26297747

  5. Trust in performance indicators?

    PubMed Central

    Davies, H. T.; Lampel, J.

    1998-01-01

    The 1980s and 90s have seen the proliferation of all forms of performance indicators as part of attempts to command and control health services. The latest area to receive attention is health outcomes. Published league tables of mortality and other health outcomes have been available in the United States for some time and in Scotland since the early 1990s; they have now been developed for England and Wales. Publication of these data has proceeded despite warnings as to their limited meaningfulness and usefulness. The time has come to ask whether the remedy is worse than the malady: are published health outcomes contributing to quality efforts or subverting more constructive approaches? This paper argues that attempts to force improvements through publishing health outcomes can be counterproductive, and outlines an alternative approach which involves fostering greater trust in professionalism as a basis for quality enhancements. PMID:10185142

  6. The Business of Trust.

    PubMed

    Frisse, Mark E

    2016-04-01

    New mobile devices, social networks, analytics, and communications technologies are emerging at an unparalleled rate. As a result, academic health centers will face both new opportunities and formidable challenges. Unlike previous transitions from paper-based systems to networked computer systems, these new technologies are the product of new entrepreneurial and commercial interests driven by consumers. As these new commercial products and services are more widely adopted, the likelihood grows that data will be used in unanticipated ways inconsistent with societal norms. Academic health centers will have to understand the implications of these technologies and engage more actively in processes governing the collection, aggregation, and use of health data produced in a new era of consumer-driven health care technology. Maintaining public trust should be a paramount concern. PMID:26630611

  7. Particle Deposition During Airway Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Cheng-Feng; Halpern, David; Grotberg, James B.

    2011-11-01

    Inhaled aerosol particles deposit in the lung and may be from environmental, toxic, or medical therapy sources. While much research focuses on inspiratory deposition, primarily at airway bifurcations due to inertial impaction, there are other mechanisms that allow the particles to reach the airway surface, such as gravitational settling and diffusion depending on particle size. We introduce a new mechanism not previously studied, i.e. aerosol deposition from airway closure. The airways are lined with a liquid layer. Due to the surface tension driven instability, a liquid plug can form from this layer which blocks the airway. This process of airway closure tends to occur toward the end of expiration. In this study, the efficiency of the impaction of the particles during airway closure will be investigated. The particles will be released from the upstream of the airway and convected by the air flow and deposited onto the closing liquid layer. We solve the governing equations using a finite volume approach in conjunction with a sharp interface method for the interfaces. Once the velocity field of the gas flow is obtained, the path of the particles will be calculated and the efficiency of the deposition can be estimated. We acknowledge support from the National Institutes of Health grant number NIH HL85156.

  8. 25 CFR 183.10 - How can the Tribe use income from the Lease Fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How can the Tribe use income from the Lease Fund? 183.10 Section 183.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE LEASE FUND...

  9. 25 CFR 183.10 - How can the Tribe use income from the Lease Fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can the Tribe use income from the Lease Fund? 183.10 Section 183.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE LEASE FUND...

  10. Operative endoscopy of the airway

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Dustin M.

    2016-01-01

    Airway endoscopy has long been an important and useful tool in the management of thoracic diseases. As thoracic specialists have gained experience with both flexible and rigid bronchoscopic techniques, the technology has continued to evolve so that bronchoscopy is currently the foundation for diagnosis and treatment of many thoracic ailments. Airway endoscopy plays a significant role in the biopsy of tumors within the airways, mediastinum, and lung parenchyma. Endoscopic methods have been developed to treat benign and malignant airway stenoses and tracheomalacia. And more recently, techniques have been conceived to treat end-stage emphysema and prolonged air leaks in select patients. This review describes the abundant uses of airway endoscopy, as well as technical considerations and limitations of the current technologies. PMID:26981263

  11. Trust Building in Virtual Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezgár, István

    By using different types of communication networks various groups of people can come together according to their private or business interest forming a Virtual Community. In these communities cooperation and collaboration plays an important role. As trust is the base of all human interactions this fact is even more valid in case of virtual communities. According to different experiments the level of trust in virtual communities is highly influenced by the way/mode of communication and by the duration of contact. The paper discusses the ways of trust building focusing on communication technologies and security aspects in virtual communities.

  12. Revealing Preconditions for Trustful Collaboration in CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses preconditions for trust in virtual learning environments. The concept of trust is discussed with reference to cases reporting trust in cyberspace and through a philosophical clarification holding that trust in the form of self-surrender is a common characteristic of all human co-existence. In virtual learning environments,…

  13. Trust, Behavior, and High School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Lisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on student trust and to examine the relationship between student trust, behavior, and academic outcomes in high school. It asks, first, does trust have a positive effect on high school outcomes? Second, does trust influence student behavior, exerting an indirect effect on…

  14. 43 CFR 426.7 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... criteria, the land held in trust will be ineligible to receive irrigation water until all of the criteria..., then irrigation water will not be made available to the land held in trust until the trust satisfies... charge the full-cost rate for irrigation water delivered to any land held by the trust that exceeds...

  15. Does Trust Beget Trustworthiness? Trust and Trustworthiness in Two Games and Two Cultures: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyonari, Toko; Yamagishi, Toshio; Cook, Karen S.; Cheshire, Coye

    2006-01-01

    An important unanswered question in the empirical literature on trust is whether trusting begets trustworthiness. In two experimental games, with Japanese and American participants, respectively, we compared trust and trustworthiness to provide an answer to this question. The trustee in the standard Trust Game knows that he or she is trusted,…

  16. Putting the Squeeze on Airway Epithelia.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Ah; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Drazen, Jeffrey M

    2015-07-01

    Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and progressive airway remodeling. The airway epithelium is known to play a critical role in the initiation and perpetuation of these processes. Here, we review how excessive epithelial stress generated by bronchoconstriction is sufficient to induce airway remodeling, even in the absence of inflammatory cells. PMID:26136543

  17. Putting the Squeeze on Airway Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Ah; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and progressive airway remodeling. The airway epithelium is known to play a critical role in the initiation and perpetuation of these processes. Here, we review how excessive epithelial stress generated by bronchoconstriction is sufficient to induce airway remodeling, even in the absence of inflammatory cells. PMID:26136543

  18. 78 FR 17724 - Ivy Funds Variable Insurance Portfolios, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Ivy Funds Variable Insurance Portfolios, et al.; Notice of Application March 15, 2013 . AGENCY... Variable Insurance Portfolios (the ``Trust''), Waddell & Reed Investment Management Company...

  19. Airway clearance in neuromuscular weakness.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Leanne Maree

    2009-05-01

    Impaired airway clearance leads to recurrent chest infections and respiratory deterioration in neuromuscular weakness. It is frequently the cause of death. Cough is the major mechanism of airway clearance. Cough has several components, and assessment tools are available to measure the different components of cough. These include measuring peak cough flow, respiratory muscle strength, and inspiratory capacity. Each is useful in assessing the ability to generate an effective cough, and can be used to guide when techniques of assisting airway clearance may be effective for the individual and which are most effective. Techniques to assist airway clearance include augmenting inspiration by air stacking, augmenting expiration by assisting the cough, and augmenting both inspiration and expiration with the mechanical insufflator-exsufflator or by direct suctioning via a tracheostomy. Physiotherapists are invaluable in assisting airway clearance, and in teaching patients and their families how to use these techniques. Use of the mechanical insufflator-exsufflator has gained popularity in recent times, but several simpler, more economical methods are available to assist airway clearance that can be used effectively alone or in combination. This review examines the literature available on the assessment and management of impaired airway clearance in neuromuscular weakness. PMID:19379290

  20. Trust and Privacy in Healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Peter; Kalra, Dipak

    This paper considers issues of trust and privacy in healthcare around increased data-sharing through Electronic Health Records (EHRs). It uses a model structured around different aspects of trust in the healthcare organisation’s reasons for greater data-sharing and their ability to execute EHR projects, particularly any associated confidentiality controls. It reflects the individual’s personal circumstances and attitude to use of health records.

  1. Mutual Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan L.

    1993-01-01

    There is good reason for college fund raisers and business officers to collaborate on common financial interests. Communication is a key element of such cooperation. Other needs include agreement on accounting and reporting of institutional finances, agreement on stewardship of gifts (particularly with restrictions or endowments), and common…

  2. Trust and Online Reputation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Ming; Ramachandran, Deepak

    Web 2.0 technologies provide organizations with unprecedented opportunities to expand and solidify relationships with their customers, partners, and employees—while empowering firms to define entirely new business models focused on sharing information in online collaborative environments. Yet, in and of themselves, these technologies cannot ensure productive online interactions. Leading enterprises that are experimenting with social networks and online communities are already discovering this fact and along with it, the importance of establishing trust as the foundation for online collaboration and transactions. Just as today's consumers must feel secure to bank, exchange personal information and purchase products and services online; participants in Web 2.0 initiatives will only accept the higher levels of risk and exposure inherent in e-commerce and Web collaboration in an environment of trust. Indeed, only by attending to the need to cultivate online trust with customers, partners and employees will enterprises ever fully exploit the expanded business potential posed by Web 2.0. But developing online trust is no easy feat. While various preliminary attempts have occurred, no definitive model for establishing or measuring it has yet been established. To that end, nGenera has identified three, distinct dimensions of online trust: reputation (quantitative-based); relationship (qualitative-based) and process (system-based). When considered together, they form a valuable model for understanding online trust and a toolbox for cultivating it to support Web 2.0 initiatives.

  3. Irritant-induced airway disorders.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Stuart M; Bernstein, I Leonard

    2011-11-01

    Thousands of persons experience accidental high-level irritant exposures each year but most recover and few die. Irritants function differently than allergens because their actions proceed nonspecifically and by nonimmunologic mechanisms. For some individuals, the consequence of a single massive exposure to an irritant, gas, vapor or fume is persistent airway hyperresponsiveness and the clinical picture of asthma, referred to as reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). Repeated irritant exposures may lead to chronic cough and continual airway hyperresponsiveness. Cases of asthma attributed to repeated irritant-exposures may be the result of genetic and/or host factors. PMID:21978855

  4. Increased airway glucose increases airway bacterial load in hyperglycaemia

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Simren K.; Hui, Kailyn; Farne, Hugo; Garnett, James P.; Baines, Deborah L.; Moore, Luke S.P.; Holmes, Alison H.; Filloux, Alain; Tregoning, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased frequency of hospitalization due to bacterial lung infection. We hypothesize that increased airway glucose caused by hyperglycaemia leads to increased bacterial loads. In critical care patients, we observed that respiratory tract bacterial colonisation is significantly more likely when blood glucose is high. We engineered mutants in genes affecting glucose uptake and metabolism (oprB, gltK, gtrS and glk) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain PAO1. These mutants displayed attenuated growth in minimal medium supplemented with glucose as the sole carbon source. The effect of glucose on growth in vivo was tested using streptozocin-induced, hyperglycaemic mice, which have significantly greater airway glucose. Bacterial burden in hyperglycaemic animals was greater than control animals when infected with wild type but not mutant PAO1. Metformin pre-treatment of hyperglycaemic animals reduced both airway glucose and bacterial load. These data support airway glucose as a critical determinant of increased bacterial load during diabetes. PMID:27273266

  5. Increased airway glucose increases airway bacterial load in hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Simren K; Hui, Kailyn; Farne, Hugo; Garnett, James P; Baines, Deborah L; Moore, Luke S P; Holmes, Alison H; Filloux, Alain; Tregoning, John S

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased frequency of hospitalization due to bacterial lung infection. We hypothesize that increased airway glucose caused by hyperglycaemia leads to increased bacterial loads. In critical care patients, we observed that respiratory tract bacterial colonisation is significantly more likely when blood glucose is high. We engineered mutants in genes affecting glucose uptake and metabolism (oprB, gltK, gtrS and glk) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain PAO1. These mutants displayed attenuated growth in minimal medium supplemented with glucose as the sole carbon source. The effect of glucose on growth in vivo was tested using streptozocin-induced, hyperglycaemic mice, which have significantly greater airway glucose. Bacterial burden in hyperglycaemic animals was greater than control animals when infected with wild type but not mutant PAO1. Metformin pre-treatment of hyperglycaemic animals reduced both airway glucose and bacterial load. These data support airway glucose as a critical determinant of increased bacterial load during diabetes. PMID:27273266

  6. Rare Upper Airway Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Alanna; Clemmens, Clarice; Jacobs, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    A broad spectrum of congenital upper airway anomalies can occur as a result of errors during embryologic development. In this review, we will describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management strategies for a few select, rare congenital malformations of this system. The diagnostic tools used in workup of these disorders range from prenatal tests to radiological imaging, swallowing evaluations, indirect or direct laryngoscopy, and rigid bronchoscopy. While these congenital defects can occur in isolation, they are often associated with disorders of other organ systems or may present as part of a syndrome. Therefore workup and treatment planning for patients with these disorders often involves a team of multiple specialists, including paediatricians, otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, speech pathologists, gastroenterologists, and geneticists. PMID:26277452

  7. [Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome].

    PubMed

    Costa, R; Orriols, R

    2005-01-01

    Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome, better known as RADS, was described as a clinical entity consisting in the appearance of bronchial asthma due to massive toxic inhalation. The term was coined and recognised for the first time in 1985. Since then different publications have verified new cases as well as different causal agents. It usually arises from an accident at the work place and in closed or poorly ventilated spaces, where high concentrations of irritant products are inhaled in the form of gas, smoke or vapour. In the following minutes or hours symptoms of bronchial obstruction appear in an acute form, with bronchial hyperresponsiveness persisting for months or years. The affected patients do not show a recurrence of symptoms following exposure to non-toxic doses of the same agent that started the symptoms. This is why diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations as it is not reproducible through a provocation test. PMID:15915173

  8. Apoptosis and the Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    White, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    The airway epithelium functions as a barrier and front line of host defense in the lung. Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or to environmental toxins, or to drugs. While apoptosis can be induced via activation of death receptors on the cell surface or by disruption of mitochondrial polarity, epithelial cells compared to inflammatory cells are more resistant to apoptotic stimuli. This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways diseases. PMID:22203854

  9. Extraglottic airway devices: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ramaiah, Ramesh; Das, Debasmita; Bhananker, Sanjay M; Joffe, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    Extraglottic airway devices (EAD) have become an integral part of anesthetic care since their introduction into clinical practice 25 years ago and have been used safely hundreds of millions of times, worldwide. They are an important first option for difficult ventilation during both in-hospital and out-of-hospital difficult airway management and can be utilized as a conduit for tracheal intubation either blindly or assisted by another technology (fiberoptic endoscopy, lightwand). Thus, the EAD may be the most versatile single airway technique in the airway management toolbox. However, despite their utility, knowledge regarding specific devices and the supporting data for their use is of paramount importance to patient's safety. In this review, number of commercially available EADs are discussed and the reported benefits and potential pitfalls are highlighted. PMID:24741502

  10. United airway disease: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Takejima, Priscila; Kalil, Jorge; Agondi, Rosana Câmara

    2016-01-01

    Upper and lower airways are considered a unified morphological and functional unit, and the connection existing between them has been observed for many years, both in health and in disease. There is strong epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, and clinical evidence supporting an integrated view of rhinitis and asthma: united airway disease in the present review. The term “united airway disease” is opportune, because rhinitis and asthma are chronic inflammatory diseases of the upper and lower airways, which can be induced by allergic or nonallergic reproducible mechanisms, and present several phenotypes. Management of rhinitis and asthma must be jointly carried out, leading to better control of both diseases, and the lessons of the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma initiative cannot be forgotten. PMID:27257389

  11. Tachykinin receptors and airway pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Maggi, C A

    1993-05-01

    The mammalian tachykinins (TKs), substance P and neurokinin A, are present in sensory nerve fibres in the upper and lower airways of various mammalian species, including humans. TKs are released from these afferent nerves in an "efferent" mode at peripheral level, especially in response to irritant stimuli. TKs exert a variety of biological effects (bronchoconstriction, plasma protein extravasation, stimulation of mucus secretion), collectively known as "neurogenic inflammation", and this process is thought to be of potential pathogenic relevance for various airway diseases. The recent development of potent and selective TK receptor antagonists on the one hand provides important new tools for the understanding of basic airway physiology and pathophysiology and, on the other, opens new possibilities for therapy of airway diseases. PMID:8390944

  12. Eosinophilic phenotypes of airway disease.

    PubMed

    Pavord, Ian D

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the clinical implications of eosinophilic airway inflammation has increased significantly over the last 20 years, aided by the development of noninvasive means to assess it. This pattern of airway inflammation can occur in a diverse range of airway diseases. It is associated with a positive response to corticosteroids and a high risk of preventable exacerbations. Our new understanding of the role of eosinophilic airway inflammation has paved the way for the clinical development of a number of more specific inhibitors that may become new treatment options. Different definitions, ideas of disease, and adoption of biomarkers that are not well known are necessary to fully realize the potential of these treatments. PMID:24313765

  13. Imaging of the Distal Airways

    PubMed Central

    Tashkin, Donald P.; de Lange, Eduard E.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging techniques of the lung continues to advance with improving ability to image the more distal airways. Two imaging techniques are reviewed, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance with hyperpolarized helium-3. PMID:19962040

  14. The Virtual Pediatric Airways Workbench.

    PubMed

    Quammen, Cory W; Taylor Ii, Russell M; Krajcevski, Pavel; Mitran, Sorin; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Superfine, Richard; Davis, Brad; Davis, Stephanie; Zdanski, Carlton

    2016-01-01

    The Virtual Pediatric Airways Workbench (VPAW) is a patient-centered surgical planning software system targeted to pediatric patients with airway obstruction. VPAW provides an intuitive surgical planning interface for clinicians and supports quantitative analysis regarding prospective surgeries to aid clinicians deciding on potential surgical intervention. VPAW enables a full surgical planning pipeline, including importing DICOM images, segmenting the airway, interactive 3D editing of airway geometries to express potential surgical treatment planning options, and creating input files for offline geometric analysis and computational fluid dynamics simulations for evaluation of surgical outcomes. In this paper, we describe the VPAW system and its use in one case study with a clinician to successfully describe an intended surgery outcome. PMID:27046595

  15. 25 CFR 115.814 - If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or project, may the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or project, may the tribe redeposit any money that was not used for its intended purpose... Funds § 115.814 If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or...

  16. 25 CFR 115.814 - If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or project, may the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or project, may the tribe redeposit any money that was not used for its intended purpose... Funds § 115.814 If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or...

  17. 25 CFR 115.814 - If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or project, may the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or project, may the tribe redeposit any money that was not used for its intended purpose... Funds § 115.814 If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or...

  18. 25 CFR 115.814 - If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or project, may the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or project, may the tribe redeposit any money that was not used for its intended purpose... Funds § 115.814 If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or...

  19. 25 CFR 115.814 - If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or project, may the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or project, may the tribe redeposit any money that was not used for its intended purpose... Funds § 115.814 If a tribe withdraws money from its trust account for a particular purpose or...

  20. Airway Surface Mycosis in Chronic Th2-Associated Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Paul; Lim, Dae Jun; Maskatia, Zahida Khan; Mak, Garbo; Tsai, Chu-Lin; Citardi, Martin J; Fakhri, Samer; Shaw, Joanne L.; Fothergil, Annette; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B; Luong, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental fungi have been linked to T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-related airway inflammation and the Th2-associated chronic airway diseases asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS), but whether these organisms participate directly or indirectly in disease pathology remains unknown. Objective To determine the frequency of fungus isolation and fungus-specific immunity in Th2-associated and non-associated airway disease patients. Methods Sinus lavage fluid and blood were collected from sinus surgery patients (n=118) including CRS patients with and without nasal polyps and AFRS and non-CRS/non-asthmatic control patients. Asthma status was deteremined from medical history. Sinus lavage fluids were cultured and directly examined for evidence of viable fungi. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were restimulated with fungal antigens in an enzyme linked immunocell spot (ELISpot) assay to determine total memory fungus-specific IL-4-secreting cells. These data were compared to fungus-specific IgE levels measured from plasma by ELISA. Results Filamentous fungi were significantly more commonly cultured from Th2-associated airway disease subjects (asthma, CRSwNP, or AFRS: n=68) compared to non-Th2-associated control patients (n=31); 74% vs 16% respectively, p<0.001. Both fungus-specific IL-4 ELISpot (n=48) and specific IgE (n=70) data correlated with Th2-associated diseases (sensitivity 73% and specificity 100% vs. 50% and 77%, respectively). Conclusions The frequent isolation of fungi growing directly within the airways accompanied by specific immunity to these organisms only in patients with Th2-associated chronic airway diseases suggests that fungi participate directly in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Efforts to eradicate airway fungi from the airways should be considered in selected patients. Clinical Implications Airway fungi may contribute to the expression of sinusitis with nasal polyps and

  1. Airway obstruction with cricoid pressure.

    PubMed

    Hartsilver, E L; Vanner, R G

    2000-03-01

    Cricoid pressure may cause airway obstruction. We investigated whether this is related to the force applied and to the technique of application. We recorded expired tidal volumes and inflation pressures during ventilation via a face-mask and oral airway in 52 female patients who were anaesthetised and about to undergo elective surgery. An inspired tidal volume of 900 ml was delivered using a ventilator. Ventilation was assessed under five different conditions: no cricoid pressure, backwards cricoid pressure applied with a force of 30 N, cricoid pressure applied in an upward and backward direction with a force of 30 N, backwards cricoid pressure with a force of 44 N and through a tracheal tube. An expired tidal volume of < 200 ml was taken to indicate airway obstruction. Airway obstruction did not occur without cricoid pressure, but did occur in one patient (2%) with cricoid pressure at 30 N, in 29 patients (56%) with 30 N applied in an upward and backward direction and in 18 (35%) patients with cricoid pressure at 44 N. Cricoid pressure applied with a force of 44 N can cause airway obstruction but if cricoid pressure is applied with a force of 30 N, airway obstruction occurs less frequently (p = 0.0001) unless the force is applied in an upward and backward direction. PMID:10671836

  2. Tachykinin antagonists and the airways.

    PubMed

    Joos, G F; Kips, J C; Peleman, R A; Pauwels, R A

    1995-01-01

    There is now convincing evidence for the presence of substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) in human airway nerves. Studies on autopsy tissue, on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and on sputum suggest that SP may be present in increased amounts in the asthmatic airway. Substance P and NKA are potent bronchoconstrictors of human airways, asthmatics being more sensitive than normal persons. The major enzyme responsible for the degradation of the tachykinins, the neutral endopeptidase, is present in the airways and is involved in the breakdown of exogenously administered SP and NKA, both in normal and asthmatic persons. Other, less well documented airway effects of SP and NKA include mucus secretion, vasodilation and plasma extravasation, as well as the chemoattraction and stimulation of various cells presumed to be involved in asthmatic airway inflammation. NK2 receptors and, to a lesser extent, NK1 receptors have been shown to be involved in bronchoconstriction, whereas NK1 receptors were found to be involved in mucus secretion, microvascular leakage and vasodilatation, and in most of the effects on inflammatory cells. The first clinical trial with FK224, a peptide NK1 and NK2 receptor antagonist, and CP99994, a nonpeptide NK1 receptor antagonist, are negative. However, FK224 failed to block the bronchoconstrictor effect of NKA in asthmatics and the dose of CP99994, needed to antagonize tachykinin effects in man, remains to be determined. PMID:7543746

  3. Surfactant and allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Carla; Hohlfeld, Jens M

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of unique proteins and lipids that covers the airway lumen. Surfactant prevents alveolar collapse and maintains airway patency by reducing surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Furthermore, it provides a defence against antigen uptake by binding foreign particles and enhancing cellular immune responses. Allergic asthma is associated with chronic airway inflammation and presents with episodes of airway narrowing. The pulmonary inflammation and bronchoconstriction can be triggered by exposure to allergens or pathogens present in the inhaled air. Pulmonary surfactant has the potential to interact with various immune cells which orchestrate allergen- or pathogen-driven episodes of airway inflammation. The complex nature of surfactant allows multiple sites of interaction, but also makes it susceptible to external alterations, which potentially impair its function. This duality of modulating airway physiology and immunology during inflammatory conditions, while at the same time being prone to alterations accompanied by restricted function, has stimulated numerous studies in recent decades, which are reviewed in this article. PMID:23896983

  4. Elimination of Subjectivity from Trust Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Omar; Brunie, Lionel; Pierson, Jean-Marc; Bertino, Elisa

    In many distributed applications, a party who wishes to make a transaction requires that it has a certain level of trust in the other party. It is frequently the case that the parties are unknown to each other and thus share no pre-existing trust. Trust-based systems enable users to establish trust in unknown users through trust recommendation from known users. For example, Bob may choose to trust an unknown user Carol when he receives a recommendation from his friend Alice that Carol’s trustworthiness is 0.8 on the interval [0,1].

  5. Comparing the Laryngeal Mask Airway, Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway and Face Mask in Children Airway Management

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Beyza; Hatipoğlu, Zehra; Türktan, Mediha; Özcengiz, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Objective We compared the effects of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA), face mask and Cobra perilaryngeal airway (PLA) in the airway management of spontaneously breathing paediatric patients undergoing elective inguinal surgery. Methods In this study, 90 cases of 1–14-year-old children undergoing elective inguinal surgery were scheduled. The patients were randomly divided into three groups. Anaesthesia was provided with sevoflurane and 50%–50% nitrous oxide and oxygen. After providing an adequate depth of anaesthesia, supraglottic airway devices were inserted in the group I and II patients. The duration and number of insertion, haemodynamic parameters, plateau and peak inspiratory pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure of the patients were recorded preoperatively, after induction and at 5, 10, 15 and 30 min peroperatively. Results There were no statistical differences between the groups in terms of haemodynamic parameters (p>0.05). In group II, instrumentation success was higher and instrumentation time was shorter than group II. The positive end-expiratory pressure and plateau and peak inspiratory pressure values were statistically lower in group II (p<0.05). Conclusion We concluded that for airway safety and to avoid possible complications, LMA and Cobra PLA could be alternatives to face mask and that the Cobra PLA provided lower airway pressure and had a faster and more easy placement than LMA. PMID:27366563

  6. Human airway ciliary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kristin; Knowles, Michael R.; Davis, C. William

    2013-01-01

    Airway cilia depend on precise changes in shape to transport the mucus gel overlying mucosal surfaces. The ciliary motion can be recorded in several planes using video microscopy. However, cilia are densely packed, and automated computerized systems are not available to convert these ciliary shape changes into forms that are useful for testing theoretical models of ciliary function. We developed a system for converting planar ciliary motions recorded by video microscopy into an empirical quantitative model, which is easy to use in validating mathematical models, or in examining ciliary function, e.g., in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The system we developed allows the manipulation of a model cilium superimposed over a video of beating cilia. Data were analyzed to determine shear angles and velocity vectors of points along the cilium. Extracted waveforms were used to construct a composite waveform, which could be used as a standard. Variability was measured as the mean difference in position of points on individual waveforms and the standard. The shapes analyzed were the end-recovery, end-effective, and fastest moving effective and recovery with mean (± SE) differences of 0.31(0.04), 0.25(0.06), 0.50(0.12), 0.50(0.10), μm, respectively. In contrast, the same measures for three different PCD waveforms had values far outside this range. PMID:23144323

  7. Role of Small Airways in Asthma.

    PubMed

    Finkas, Lindsay K; Martin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory condition of both the small and large airways. Recently the small airways have gained attention as studies have shown significant inflammation in the small airways in all severities of asthma. This inflammation has correlated with peripheral airway resistance and as a result, noninvasive methods to reliably measure small airways have been pursued. In addition, recent changes in asthma inhalers have led to alterations in drug formulations and the development of extrafine particle inhalers that improve delivery to the distal airways. PMID:27401620

  8. A Trusted Portable Computing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming-wei, Fang; Jun-jun, Wu; Peng-fei, Yu; Xin-fang, Zhang

    A trusted portable computing device and its security mechanism were presented to solve the security issues, such as the attack of virus and Trojan horse, the lost and stolen of storage device, in mobile office. It used smart card to build a trusted portable security base, virtualization to create a secure virtual execution environment, two-factor authentication mechanism to identify legitimate users, and dynamic encryption to protect data privacy. The security environment described in this paper is characteristic of portability, security and reliability. It can meet the security requirement of mobile office.

  9. 75 FR 7637 - iShares Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... adviser) to acquire shares of the ETFs, and (b) Investing Funds to acquire shares of a series of iShares Trust that carries out its investment strategies by investing in a wholly owned subsidiary. \\1\\ iShares... (``Sponsor'') and a trustee (``Trustee''). \\3\\ Such open-end ETFs are referred to herein as ``Open-end...

  10. 78 FR 78417 - Forethought Variable Insurance Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Forethought Variable Insurance Trust, et al.; Notice of Application December 19, 2013. AGENCY... rule 12d1-2 under the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: Forethought Variable... as the underlying funding ] vehicles for variable annuity contracts (the ``Contracts'') issued by...

  11. 78 FR 48729 - Aspiriant Global Equity Trust and Aspiriant, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... following Sub-Advisers: AQR Capital Management, LLC, Dimensional Fund Advisors LP, and Parametric Risk... Investment Management, Exemptive Applications Office). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following is a summary... Delaware statutory trust and is registered under the Act as an open-end management investment company....

  12. 13 CFR 108.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates. 108.1600 Section 108.1600 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.356 - May the trust evaluation process be used for additional reviews?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the trust evaluation process be used for additional reviews? 1000.356 Section 1000.356 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO...

  14. 77 FR 25210 - Advisors Series Trust and Orinda Asset Management, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... reasons discussed below. 6. Applicants assert that the shareholders expect the Advisor subject to the... materially amend subadvisory agreements without shareholder approval and would grant relief from certain... will have been approved by each respective Fund's initial shareholder and the Trust's Board of...

  15. 77 FR 36022 - Notice of Application; Precidian ETFs Trust, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ...\\ stated that ``No Fund will make DTC book-entry dividend reinvestment service available for use by... terms and conditions of the application. 3. The Trust will make the DTC Dividend Reinvestment Service available for use by the beneficial owners of Shares (``Beneficial Owners'') through DTC Participants...

  16. Adequate trust avails, mistaken trust matters: on the moral responsibility of doctors as proxies for patients' trust in biobank research.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a different set of countermeasures. First, trust is mistaken when necessary competence is lacking; the competence must be developed or the illusion dispelled. Second, trust is irrational whenever the patient is mistaken about his actual reasons for trusting. Care must therefore be taken to support the patient's reasoning and moral agency. Third, some patients inappropriately trust doctors to recommend only research that will benefit them directly. Such trust should be counteracted by nurturing a culture where patients expect to be asked occasionally to contribute to the common good. PMID:22681564

  17. 25 CFR 183.11 - What documents must the Tribe submit to request money from the Lease Fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN... the Tribe submit to request money from the Lease Fund? To request a distribution of income from the... enacted resolution of the Tribal Council requesting a distribution from the Lease Fund; (b) A pro...

  18. 25 CFR 183.11 - What documents must the Tribe submit to request money from the Lease Fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN... the Tribe submit to request money from the Lease Fund? To request a distribution of income from the... enacted resolution of the Tribal Council requesting a distribution from the Lease Fund; (b) A pro...

  19. Online Health Information: Can You Trust It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... trust the health information I get on the Internet?” There are thousands of medical websites. Some provide ... trust is an important part of using the Internet. How Do I Find Reliable Health Information Online? ...

  20. Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

    Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

  1. Building trusting relationships in online health communities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Ha, Sejin; Widdows, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates consumers' use of online health communities (OHCs) for healthcare from a relationship building perspective based on the commitment-trust theory of relationships. The study proposes that perspective taking, empathic concern, self-efficacy, and network density affect the development of both cognitive and affective trust, which together determine OHC members' membership continuance intention (MCI) and knowledge contribution. Data collected from eight existing OHCs (N=255) were utilized to test the hypothesized model. Results show that perspective taking and self-efficacy can increase cognitive trust and affective trust, respectively. Network density contributes to cognitive and affective trust. Both cognitive trust and affective trust influence MCI, while only affective trust impacts members' knowledge contribution behaviors. PMID:23786170

  2. Trust or Consequences: The Relationship between Faculty Trust and Faculty Learning Communities in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gaye R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between FLC membership and faculty trust in higher education colleagues and faculty trust in higher education administration in public and private universities in the United States. This quantitative study examines trust in colleagues and trust in administration in higher education, two…

  3. Assessment of Organizational Trust: Italian Adaptation and Factorial Validity of the Organizational Trust Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, Giulio; Vicentini, Marco; Argentero, Piergiorgio; Bromiley, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Trust influences interactions among individuals and organizations but has been an elusive concept to define and measure. The Organizational Trust Inventory (OTI) measures three dimensions of organizational trust, as defined by Cummings and Bromiley (in: Kramer and Tyler (eds) Trust in Organizations, 1996), believing or feeling that others: keep…

  4. Airway Gland Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Wine, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    Submucosal glands contribute to airway surface liquid (ASL), a film that protects all airway surfaces. Glandular mucus comprises electrolytes, water, the gel-forming mucin MUC5B, and hundreds of different proteins with diverse protective functions. Gland volume per unit area of mucosal surface correlates positively with impaction rate of inhaled particles. In human main bronchi, the volume of the glands is ∼ 50 times that of surface goblet cells, but the glands diminish in size and frequency distally. ASL and its trapped particles are removed from the airways by mucociliary transport. Airway glands have a tubuloacinar structure, with a single terminal duct, a nonciliated collecting duct, then branching secretory tubules lined with mucous cells and ending in serous acini. They allow for a massive increase in numbers of mucus-producing cells without replacing surface ciliated cells. Active secretion of Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) by serous cells produces most of the fluid of gland secretions. Glands are densely innervated by tonically active, mutually excitatory airway intrinsic neurons. Most gland mucus is secreted constitutively in vivo, with large, transient increases produced by emergency reflex drive from the vagus. Elevations of [cAMP]i and [Ca(2+)]i coordinate electrolyte and macromolecular secretion and probably occur together for baseline activity in vivo, with cholinergic elevation of [Ca(2+)]i being mainly responsive for transient increases in secretion. Altered submucosal gland function contributes to the pathology of all obstructive diseases, but is an early stage of pathogenesis only in cystic fibrosis. PMID:26336032

  5. The Airway Microbiome at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H.; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  6. Allergen-induced airway responses.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Gail M; El-Gammal, Amani I; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    Environmental allergens are an important cause of asthma and can contribute to loss of asthma control and exacerbations. Allergen inhalation challenge has been a useful clinical model to examine the mechanisms of allergen-induced airway responses and inflammation. Allergen bronchoconstrictor responses are the early response, which reaches a maximum within 30 min and resolves by 1-3 h, and late responses, when bronchoconstriction recurs after 3-4 h and reaches a maximum over 6-12 h. Late responses are followed by an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. These responses occur when IgE on mast cells is cross-linked by an allergen, causing degranulation and the release of histamine, neutral proteases and chemotactic factors, and the production of newly formed mediators, such as cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2. Allergen-induced airway inflammation consists of an increase in airway eosinophils, basophils and, less consistently, neutrophils. These responses are mediated by the trafficking and activation of myeloid dendritic cells into the airways, probably as a result of the release of epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from type 2 helper T-cells. Allergen inhalation challenge has also been a widely used model to study potential new therapies for asthma and has an excellent negative predictive value for this purpose. PMID:26206871

  7. The Airway Microbiome at Birth.

    PubMed

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  8. Research of trust model in P2P network based on trusted computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Li, Lei

    2013-03-01

    In order to strengthen the security of P2P networks, it is necessary to build trust relationships between nodes of networks. However, the traditional trust evaluation models can't resist the attacks of Pseudospoofing and Pseudostheft effectively. To resolve the problems, in this paper, the trusted computing method is introduced into P2P networks, and an idea of group trust model based on trusted computing methods is proposed. In the process of trust evaluation, the model can realize the anonymous attestation of the node body, which improves the creditability of trust relationships between nodes and resolves the security problems of P2P networks.

  9. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.104 Trust accounts. (a) A trust account held with a member shall be deemed...

  10. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.104 Trust accounts. (a) A trust account held with a member shall be deemed...

  11. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  12. Enhancing Trust in SOA Based Collaborative Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursas, Latifa; Bourimi, Mohamed; Hommel, Wolfgang; Kesdogan, Dogan

    Considering trust and privacy requirements for online and collaborative distance learning environments, this paper discusses potential extensions of SOA based applications to simultaneously support authentication and authorization services, and offering mutual trust to both learners and service providers. This study shows that the security mechanisms integrated in the SOA platform can be effectively extended and correlated with a trust model.

  13. The Role of Trust in Information Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Stephen; Dibben, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the notion of trust as it relates to information science and technology, specifically user interfaces, autonomous agents, and information systems. Highlights include theoretical meaning of trust; trust and levels of analysis, including organizational trust; electronic commerce, user interfaces, and static trust; dynamic trust; and trust…

  14. 76 FR 36584 - Highmark Funds and Highmark Capital Management, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... COMMISSION Highmark Funds and Highmark Capital Management, Inc. June 16, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and...: Applicants request an order to permit open-end management investment companies relying on rule 12d1-2 under...Mark Capital Management, Inc. (``HCM,'' and together with the Trust, ``Applicants''). Filing Dates:...

  15. The Administrative Team, Trust & Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Elliot Z.

    This paper describes the first phase of a research study that examined (1) how superintendents define and select their administrative teams; (2) how team values are conceptualized by superintendents; (3) how "trust" is defined and its value perceived by superintendents; and (4) whether or not gender influences the way superintendents define "team"…

  16. Taxability of Educational Benefits Trusts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Law Quarterly, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Corporations have found the promise of providing a college education to the children of employees--without the recognition of income to the parent-employee--to be a popular fringe benefit. The Internal Revenue Service has attacked educational benefit trusts in Revenue Ruling 75-448. Implications are discussed. (LBH)

  17. The Sutton Trust: Mobility Manifesto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton Trust, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Ahead of the party conference season, the Sutton Trust is urging fairer admissions to comprehensives, grammar schools and independent schools as part of a 10-point Mobility Manifesto setting out ten practical policy steps designed to put social mobility at the heart of the 2015 election campaign. The manifesto urges greater use of ballots (random…

  18. Education and the National Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Gareth

    1995-01-01

    Defines the British National Trust as it marks its centenary. Known for its work in protecting historic buildings and places of natural beauty, a major focus is now education. Schoolchildren may attend curriculum-based special programs when visiting historic houses and the countryside. Others use open-space sites with no specific education…

  19. Trust as a Teaching Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon-Weil, Anica; Hewitt, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Should I stop the conflict or narrate it? Do I redirect or reassure? Two infant/toddler teachers explain how they use trust as a teaching tool, "teaching" less and involving the toddlers in their classroom in the decisions that affect them. They took to heart the philosophy of Magda Gerber, who urged parents to "observe more, do less." The author…

  20. Trust enhances IT service management.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    ITIL process adoption may be a prerequisite for the National Programme for IT (NPfIT), but implementation is far from straightforward. IT services company Plan-Net has been assisting Barts and The London NHS Trust with implementing its ambitious ITIL processes deployment. PMID:17847874

  1. Trust management of information vital.

    PubMed

    Rayfield, Jason

    2005-02-01

    The Freedom of Information (FOI) Act, which came into force on 1 January this year, requires all NHS bodies to disclose, when requested, any information they hold. Jason Rayfield reports on the work done by legal firm Morgan Cole to prepare NHS Trusts to deal with their responsibilities under the new legislation. PMID:15729999

  2. [Orthodontics and the upper airway].

    PubMed

    Cobo Plana, J; de Carlos Villafranca, F; Macías Escalada, E

    2004-03-01

    One of the general aims of orthodontic treatment and of the combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery is to achieve good occlusion and aesthetic improvement, especially in cases of severe dentoskeletal deformities. However, on many occasions, the parameters of the upper airways are not taken into account when the aims of conventional treatment are fulfilled. Patients with obstructive alterations during sleep represent for the orthodontist a type of patient who differs from the normal; for them, treatment should include the objective of improving oxygen saturation. Here, functional considerations should outweigh purely aesthetic ones. It is important, when making an orthodontic, surgical or combined diagnosis for a patient, to bear in mind the impact that treatment may have on the upper airways. Good aesthetics should never be achieved for some of our patients at the expense of diminishing the capacity of their upper airways. PMID:15301356

  3. 21 CFR 868.5810 - Airway connector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Airway connector. 868.5810 Section 868.5810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5810 Airway connector. (a) Identification. An airway connector is a device intended to...

  4. Chronic effects of mechanical force on airways.

    PubMed

    Tschumperlin, Daniel J; Drazen, Jeffrey M

    2006-01-01

    Airways are embedded in the mechanically dynamic environment of the lung. In utero, this mechanical environment is defined largely by fluid secretion into the developing airway lumen. Clinical, whole lung, and cellular studies demonstrate pivotal roles for mechanical distention in airway morphogenesis and cellular behavior during lung development. In the adult lung, the mechanical environment is defined by a dynamic balance of surface, tissue, and muscle forces. Diseases of the airways modulate both the mechanical stresses to which the airways are exposed as well as the structure and mechanical behavior of the airways. For instance, in asthma, activation of airway smooth muscle abruptly changes the airway size and stress state within the airway wall; asthma also results in profound remodeling of the airway wall. Data now demonstrate that airway epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts respond to their mechanical environment. A prominent role has been identified for the epithelium in transducing mechanical stresses, and in both the fetal and mature airways, epithelial cells interact with mesenchymal cells to coordinate remodeling of tissue architecture in response to the mechanical environment. PMID:16460284

  5. Site of Fluid Secretion in Small Airways.

    PubMed

    Flores-Delgado, Guillermo; Lytle, Christian; Quinton, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    The secretion and management of readily transportable airway surface liquid (ASL) along the respiratory tract is crucial for the clearance of debris and pathogens from the lungs. In proximal large airways, submucosal glands (SMGs) can produce ASL. However, in distal small airways, SMGs are absent, although the lumens of these airways are, uniquely, highly plicated. Little is known about the production and maintenance of ASL in small airways, but using electrophysiology, we recently found that native porcine small airways simultaneously secrete and absorb. How these airways can concurrently transport ASL in opposite directions is puzzling. Using high expression of the Na-K-2Cl cotransport (NKCC) 1 protein (SLC12a2) as a phenotypic marker for fluid secretory cells, immunofluorescence microscopy of porcine small airways revealed two morphologically separated sets of luminal epithelial cells. NKCC1 was abundantly expressed by most cells in the contraluminal regions of the pleats but highly expressed very infrequently by cells in the luminal folds of the epithelial plications. In larger proximal airways, the acini of SMGs expressed NKCC1 prominently, but cells expressing NKCC1 in the surface epithelium were sparse. Our findings indicate that, in the small airway, cells in the pleats of the epithelium secrete ASL, whereas, in the larger proximal airways, SMGs mainly secrete ASL. We propose a mechanism in which the locations of secretory cells in the base of pleats and of absorptive cells in luminal folds physically help maintain a constant volume of ASL in small airways. PMID:26562629

  6. Toward the differentiation of trust in supervisor and trust in organization.

    PubMed

    Tan, H H; Tan, C S

    2000-05-01

    Trust in supervisor and trust in organization are argued to be distinct but related constructs, each with its own set of antecedents and outcomes. Empirical field results supported the proposition. Although trust in supervisor and trust in organization were positively and significantly correlated, trust in supervisor was more strongly associated with proximal variables (ability, benevolence, and integrity of supervisor), whereas trust in organization was more strongly correlated with global variables (perceived organizational support and justice). This conclusion held despite the inclusion of proximal variables in the regression on trust in organization and the inclusion of global variables in the regression on trust in supervisor. In addition to the differential antecedents of trust in supervisor and trust in organization, the outcomes for both variables were different. Trust in supervisor was related to increased innovative behavior and satisfaction with supervisor, and trust in organization was related to higher organizational commitment and lower intention to leave. Therefore, the authors provide clear preliminary data on the distinctiveness of trust in supervisor and trust in organization. One implication of this set of results is that organizations should adopt a more holistic approach in building trust, which can be achieved by focusing on the various constituents of the organization and the various levels (e.g., the supervisor level and the organizational level). PMID:10846623

  7. Laryngeal mask airway: an alternative for the difficult airway.

    PubMed

    Jones, J R

    1995-10-01

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was invented by Dr. Archie Brain at the London Hospital, Whitechapel, in 1981. Dr. Brain's main objective for the LMA was that it would provide a better method of maintaining a patient's airway than by face mask. Also, the LMA would be less hemodynamically stressful than with insertion of an endotracheal tube. The LMA consists of a silicone rubber tube connected to a miniature silicone mask. The perimeter of the mask consists of an inflatable elliptical cuff, which forms a tip at the distal aspect of the LMA. The aperture bars in the dome of the mask lift the epiglottis away, so the lumen remains unobstructive. The LMA forms a low pressure seal around the larynx. The LMA is contraindicated in any situation where the patient is at risk for pulmonary aspiration. The LMA is not a substitute for a properly placed endotracheal tube in this situation. The American Society of Anesthesiologists' difficult airway algorithm recommends the insertion of an LMA when ventilation and/or intubation are difficult. The distal aperture of the LMA is in close approximation to the vocal cords, so a 6.0-mm internal diameter endotracheal tube can be passed over an intubating stylet or a pediatric fiberoptic bronchoscope to secure a patient's airway. PMID:7502644

  8. 78 FR 17235 - Global X Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... COMMISSION Global X Funds, et al.; Notice of Application March 14, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... relying on rule 12d1-2 under the 1940 Act to invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: Global X Funds (``Trust'''), Global X Management Company LLC (``Adviser'') and SEI Investment Distribution...

  9. An Analysis of the Impacts of the AIR Funding Formula Proposal on New Mexico School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Strange, Marty

    2009-01-01

    This report of the Rural School and Community Trust and the Ben Lujan Leadership and Public Policy Institute presents findings from an investigation of the impact of the funding formula proposal commissioned by the New Mexico Funding Formula Task Force (FFTF) and developed by American Institutes of Research (AIR). Appointed by the New Mexico…

  10. 75 FR 60840 - Highland Capital Management, L.P. and Highland Funds I; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Highland Capital Management, L.P. and Highland Funds I; Notice of Application September 27, 2010.... Applicants: Highland Capital Management, L.P. (the ``Adviser'') and Highland Funds I (the ``Trust'' and... request, personally or by mail. Hearing requests should be received by the Commission by 5:30 p.m....

  11. 25 CFR 183.14 - What limits are there on how the Tribe can spend funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What limits are there on how the Tribe can spend funds? 183.14 Section 183.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN CARLOS APACHE...

  12. 25 CFR 183.9 - Can the Tribe request the principal of the Lease Fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can the Tribe request the principal of the Lease Fund? 183.9 Section 183.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN CARLOS APACHE...

  13. 25 CFR 183.14 - What limits are there on how the Tribe can spend funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What limits are there on how the Tribe can spend funds? 183.14 Section 183.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN CARLOS APACHE...

  14. 25 CFR 183.9 - Can the Tribe request the principal of the Lease Fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the Tribe request the principal of the Lease Fund? 183.9 Section 183.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN CARLOS APACHE...

  15. 26 CFR 1.642(i)-1 - Certain distributions by cemetery perpetual care funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... funds. 1.642(i)-1 Section 1.642(i)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(i)-1 Certain distributions by cemetery perpetual care funds. (a) In general. Section 642 (i) provides...

  16. 25 CFR 183.9 - Can the Tribe request the principal of the Lease Fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can the Tribe request the principal of the Lease Fund? 183.9 Section 183.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE TRIBE DEVELOPMENT TRUST FUND AND SAN CARLOS APACHE...

  17. [Airway equipment and its maintenance for a non difficult adult airway management (endotracheal intubation and its alternative: face mask, laryngeal mask airway, laryngeal tube)].

    PubMed

    Francon, D; Estèbe, J P; Ecoffey, C

    2003-08-01

    The airway equipment for a non difficult adult airway management are described: endotracheal tubes with a specific discussion on how to inflate the balloon, laryngoscopes and blades, stylets and intubation guides, oral airways, face masks, laryngeal mask airways and laryngeal tubes. Cleaning and disinfections with the maintenance are also discussed for each type of airway management. PMID:12943860

  18. Jaw thrust can deteriorate upper airway patency.

    PubMed

    von Ungern-Sternberg, B S; Erb, T O; Frei, F J

    2005-04-01

    Upper airway obstruction is a frequent problem in spontaneously breathing children undergoing anesthesia or sedation procedures. Failure to maintain a patent airway can rapidly result in severe hypoxemia, bradycardia, or asystole, as the oxygen demand of children is high and oxygen reserve is low. We present two children with cervical masses in whom upper airway obstruction exaggerated while the jaw thrust maneuver was applied during induction of anesthesia. This deterioration in airway patency was probably caused by medial displacement of the lateral tumorous tissues which narrowed the pharyngeal airway. PMID:15777312

  19. Sensory neuropeptides and airway function.

    PubMed

    Solway, J; Leff, A R

    1991-12-01

    Sensory nerves synthesize tachykinins and calcitonin-gene related peptide and package these neuropeptides together in synaptic vesicles. Stimulation of these C-fibers by a range of chemical and physical factors results in afferent neuronal conduction that elicits central parasympathetic reflexes and in antidromic conduction that results in local release of neuropeptides through the axon reflex. In the airways, sensory neuropeptides act on bronchial smooth muscle, the mucosal vasculature, and submucosal glands to promote airflow obstruction, hyperemia, microvascular hyperpermeability, and mucus hypersecretion. In addition, tachykinins potentiate cholinergic neurotransmission. Proinflammatory effects of these peptides also promote the recruitment, adherence, and activation of granulocytes that may further exacerbate neurogenic inflammation (i.e., neuropeptide-induced plasma extravasation and vasodilation). Enzymatic degradation limits the physiological effects of tachykinins but may be impaired by respiratory infection or other factors. Given their sensitivity to noxious compounds and physical stimuli and their potent effects on airway function, it is possible that neuropeptide-containing sensory nerves play an important role in mediating airway responses in human disease. Supporting this view are the striking phenomenological similarities between hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction (HIB) in guinea pigs and HIB in patients with exercise-induced asthma. Endogenous tachykinins released from airway sensory nerves mediate HIB in guinea pigs and also cause hyperpnea-induced bronchovascular hyperpermeability in these animals. On the basis of these observations, it is reasonable to speculate that sensory neuropeptides participate in the pathogenesis of hyperpnea-induced airflow obstruction in human asthmatic subjects as well. PMID:1663932

  20. Sinking slowly: Diversity in propensity to trust predicts downward trust spirals in small groups.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda J; Peterson, Randall S

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of trust spirals in small groups. Drawing on literature on the spiral reinforcement of trust, we theorize that diversity in propensity to trust has affective and cognitive consequences related to trust (i.e., feelings of frustration and perceptions of low similarity), reducing the level of experienced intragroup trust early in a group's development. Reduced experienced trust then fuels relationship conflict and lowers trust even further over time, ultimately having a negative effect on group performance. These ideas are tested using a sample of MBA student groups surveyed at 3 time periods over 4 months. Results confirm our hypothesis that diversity in propensity to trust is sufficient to trigger a downward trust spiral and poor performance in small groups. PMID:25602121

  1. Design Considerations for Financing a National Trust to Advance the Deployment of Geologic CO2 Storage and Motivate Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Trabucchi, Chiara; Patton , Lindene

    2010-03-01

    This paper explores how the flawed, widely held public policy view of an ever growing risk associated with long-term carbon dioxide (CO2) storage profoundly influences the public policy dialogue about how to best address the long term risk profile for geologic storage. In order to accomplish this, the authors present evidence from the rapidly emerging science and engineering of CO2 storage which demonstrates that, with proper site characterization and sound operating practices, retention of stored CO2 will increase with time thus invalidating the premise of an ever growing risk. The authors focus on key issues of fit, interplay, and scalability associated with a trust fund funded by a hypothetical $1/tonCO2 tipping fee for each ton of CO2 stored in the United States under WRE450 and WRE550 climate policies. The authors conclude there is no intrinsic value in creating a trust fund predicated solely on collecting a fixed fee that is not mapped to site-specific risk profiles. If left to grow unchecked, a trust fund that is predicated on a constant stream of annual payments unrelated to the site’s risk profile could result in the accumulation of hundreds of billions to more than a trillion dollars in real terms contributing to significant opportunity cost of capital. Further, rather than mitigating the financial consequences of long-term CCS risks, this analysis suggests a blanket $1/tonCO2 tipping fee may increase the probability and frequency of long-term risk by eliminating financial incentives for sound operating behavior and site selection criteria – contribute to moral hazard. At a minimum, effective use of a trust fund requires: (1) strong oversight regarding site selection and fund management, and (2) a clear process by which the fund is periodically valued and funds collected are mapped to the risk profile of the pool of covered CCS sites. Without appropriate checks and balances, there is no a priori reason to believe that the amount of funds held in trust

  2. Systems-level airway models of bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Graham M

    2016-09-01

    Understanding lung and airway behavior presents a number of challenges, both experimental and theoretical, but the potential rewards are great in terms of both potential treatments for disease and interesting biophysical phenomena. This presents an opportunity for modeling to contribute to greater understanding, and here, we focus on modeling efforts that work toward understanding the behavior of airways in vivo, with an emphasis on asthma. We look particularly at those models that address not just isolated airways but many of the important ways in which airways are coupled both with each other and with other structures. This includes both interesting phenomena involving the airways and the layer of airway smooth muscle that surrounds them, and also the emergence of spatial ventilation patterns via dynamic airway interaction. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:459-467. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1349 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27348217

  3. The Importance of Airway Management in Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Lenworth M.

    1988-01-01

    The airway is the most important priority in the management of the severely injured patient. It is essential to open and clear the airway to allow free access of air to the distal endobronchial tree. Manual methods of opening the airway are described. Numerous methods for establishing definitive control of the airway as well as the associated devices currently available to maintain control are described. Once the airway is maintained, it is important to ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation through the airway. Modern portable devices that monitor the carbon dioxide in the expired air at the end of each breath are currently available. These devices allow the physician to verify the position of the tube in the airway as well as to continuously monitor the efficacy of ventilation. PMID:3073226

  4. Sarcoidosis of the upper and lower airways.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Teirstein, Alvin S

    2011-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology characterized by a variable clinical presentation and disease course. Although clinical granulomatous inflammation may occur within any organ system, more than 90% of sarcoidosis patients have lung disease. Sarcoidosis is considered an interstitial lung disease that is frequently characterized by restrictive physiologic dysfunction on pulmonary function tests. However, sarcoidosis also involves the airways (large and small), causing obstructive airways disease. It is one of a few interstitial lung diseases that affects the entire length of the respiratory tract - from the nose to the terminal bronchioles - and causes a broad spectrum of airways dysfunction. This article examines airway dysfunction in sarcoidosis. The anatomical structure of the airways is the organizational framework for our discussion. We discuss sarcoidosis involving the nose, sinuses, nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchi and small airways. Common complications of airways disease, such as, atelectasis, fibrosis, bullous leions, bronchiectasis, cavitary lesions and mycetomas, are also reviewed. PMID:22082167

  5. [Memorandum - research funding of prevention].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Gold, C; Hoffmann, W; Jahn, I; Töppich, J; Wildner, M; Dubben, S; Franze, M; John, J; Kliche, T; Lehmann, H; Naegele, G; Nöcker, G; Plaumann, M; Pott, E; Robra, B-P

    2012-08-01

    The memorandum of the research funding of prevention has been devised within the framework of the Prevention Research Funding Programme of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It consists not only of the obtained findings of the research-practice co-operation but also of recommendations for the implementation of prospective, innovational, effective, practice-oriented and sustainable research. The respective knowledge has been acquired from quantitative surveys on the experiences of scientists and practice partners within the prevention research funding project as well as from extensive qualitative methods of structured group evaluation. A participatory co-operation between research and practice based on mutual respect, trust and recognition is seen as mandatory for the further development of both prevention and health promotion research. Research and practice partners are required to engage in an ab initio collaboration starting from the conception phase, whereby it is advisable to encourage and fortify the communication between research, practice and funding partners by systematic surveillance in form of a meta-project. In addition, the inclusion of the target population from the outset and on a collaborative basis is considered as beneficial in order to ensure the practical application of the research findings. Furthermore, innovatory research designs which are able to provide a framework for internal flexibility, continuous re-assessment and adjustment are fundamental for the implementation of practice-oriented research. Moreover, a dynamic co-operation between different groups of interest not only depends on sharing responsibility but also on sufficient funding for both research and practice, which is particularly important for the transfer and communication of the attained findings. With regard to the evaluation of both effectiveness and sustainability of interventions, a research funding project is required which makes long-term results possible

  6. Money and trust among strangers

    PubMed Central

    Camera, Gabriele; Casari, Marco; Bigoni, Maria

    2013-01-01

    What makes money essential for the functioning of modern society? Through an experiment, we present evidence for the existence of a relevant behavioral dimension in addition to the standard theoretical arguments. Subjects faced repeated opportunities to help an anonymous counterpart who changed over time. Cooperation required trusting that help given to a stranger today would be returned by a stranger in the future. Cooperation levels declined when going from small to large groups of strangers, even if monitoring and payoffs from cooperation were invariant to group size. We then introduced intrinsically worthless tokens. Tokens endogenously became money: subjects took to reward help with a token and to demand a token in exchange for help. Subjects trusted that strangers would return help for a token. Cooperation levels remained stable as the groups grew larger. In all conditions, full cooperation was possible through a social norm of decentralized enforcement, without using tokens. This turned out to be especially demanding in large groups. Lack of trust among strangers thus made money behaviorally essential. To explain these results, we developed an evolutionary model. When behavior in society is heterogeneous, cooperation collapses without tokens. In contrast, the use of tokens makes cooperation evolutionarily stable. PMID:23980139

  7. Noninvasive clearance of airway secretions.

    PubMed

    Hardy, K A; Anderson, B D

    1996-06-01

    Airway clearance techniques are indicated for specific diseases that have known clearance abnormalities (Table 2). Murray and others have commented that such techniques are required only for patients with a daily sputum production of greater than 30 mL. The authors have observed that patients with diseases known to cause clearance abnormalities can have sputum clearance with some techniques, such as positive expiratory pressure, autogenic drainage, and active cycle of breathing techniques, when PDPV has not been effective. Hasani et al has shown that use of the forced exhalatory technique in patients with nonproductive cough still resulted in movement of secretions proximally from all regions of the lung in patients with airway obstruction. It is therefore reasonable to consider airway clearance techniques for any patient who has a disease known to alter mucous clearance, including CF, dyskinetic cilia syndromes, and bronchiectasis from any cause. Patients with atelectasis from mucous plugs and hypersecretory states, such as asthma and chronic bronchitis, patients with pain secondary to surgical procedures, and patients with neuromuscular disease, weak cough, and abnormal patency of the airway may also benefit from the application of airway clearance techniques. Infants and children up to 3 years of age with airway clearance problems need to be treated with PDPV. Manual percussion with hands alone or a flexible face mask or cup and small mechanical vibrator/percussors, such as the ultrasonic devices, can be used. The intrapulmonary percussive ventilator shows growing promise in this area. The high-frequency oscillator is not supplied with vests of appropriate sizes for tiny babies and has not been studied in this group. Young patients with neuromuscular disease may require assisted ventilation and airway oscillations can be applied. CPAP alone has been shown to improve achievable flow rates that will increase air-liquid interactions for patients with these diseases

  8. From the general to the specific: How social trust motivates relational trust.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Blaine G

    2016-01-01

    When people form beliefs about the trustworthiness of others with respect to particular matters (i.e., when individuals trust), theory suggests that they rely on preexistent cognitive schemas regarding the general cooperativeness of individuals and organizations (i.e., social trust). In spite of prior work, the impact of social trust on relational trust-or what Russell Hardin (2002) calls trust as a three-part relation where actor A trusts actor B with reference to matter Y-is not well established. Four vignette experiments were administered to Amazon.com Mechanical Turk workers (N = 1388 and N = 1419) and to public university undergraduate students (N = 995 and N = 956) in order to investigate the relationship between social trust and relational trust. Measures of general social trust and particular social trust produced statistically equivalent effects that were positively associated with relational trust. Political trust, however, was statistically unrelated to relational trust. These results support the idea that people rely on schemas and stereotypes concerned with the general cooperativeness and helpfulness of others when forming beliefs about another person's trustworthiness with respect to a particular matter at hand. PMID:26680285

  9. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs).

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Addis, A; Adcock, I; Agache, I; Agusti, A; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Anto, J M; Bachert, C; Baena-Cagnani, C E; Bai, C; Baigenzhin, A; Barbara, C; Barnes, P J; Bateman, E D; Beck, L; Bedbrook, A; Bel, E H; Benezet, O; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bernabeu-Wittel, M; Bewick, M; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Boulet, L P; Bourdin, A; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Brightling, C E; Briggs, A; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Bush, A; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M; Calverley, P; Camargos, P A; Camuzat, T; Canonica, G W; Carlsen, K H; Casale, T B; Cazzola, M; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Cesario, A; Chen, Y Z; Chkhartishvili, E; Chavannes, N H; Chiron, R; Chuchalin, A; Chung, K F; Cox, L; Crooks, G; Crooks, M G; Cruz, A A; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; Demoly, P; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dubakiene, R; Eglin, S; Elliot, F; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L; Fink Wagner, A; Fletcher, M; Fokkens, W J; Fonseca, J; Franco, A; Frith, P; Furber, A; Gaga, M; Garcés, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gamkrelidze, A; Gonzales-Diaz, S; Gouzi, F; Guzmán, M A; Haahtela, T; Harrison, D; Hayot, M; Heaney, L G; Heinrich, J; Hellings, P W; Hooper, J; Humbert, M; Hyland, M; Iaccarino, G; Jakovenko, D; Jardim, J R; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Joos, G; Jung, K S; Kalayci, O; Karunanithi, S; Keil, T; Khaltaev, N; Kolek, V; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Le, L T; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Mair, A; Majer, I; Manning, P; de Manuel Keenoy, E; Masjedi, M R; Melen, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Menzies-Gow, A; Mercier, G; Mercier, J; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; N'Diaye, M; Nafti, S; Nekam, K; Neou, A; Nicod, L; O'Hehir, R; Ohta, K; Paggiaro, P; Palkonen, S; Palmer, S; Papadopoulos, N G; Papi, A; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pigearias, B; Plavec, D; Postma, D S; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Radier Pontal, F; Redon, J; Rennard, S; Roberts, J; Robine, J M; Roca, J; Roche, N; Rodenas, F; Roggeri, A; Rolland, C; Rosado-Pinto, J; Ryan, D; Samolinski, B; Sanchez-Borges, M; Schünemann, H J; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Small, I; Sola-Morales, O; Sooronbaev, T; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Stiris, T; Sud, P; Tellier, V; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valiulis, A; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Viegi, G; Visier, L; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagstaff, R; Wahn, U; Wallaert, B; Whalley, B; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Wilson, N; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yorgancioglu, A; Yusuf, O M; Zar, H J; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Zuberbier, T

    2014-08-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will add value to existing public health knowledge by: 1) proposing a common framework of care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases, which will facilitate comparability and trans-national initiatives; 2) informing cost-effective policy development, strengthening in particular those on smoking and environmental exposure; 3) aiding risk stratification in chronic disease patients, using a common strategy; 4) having a significant impact on the health of citizens in the short term (reduction of morbidity, improvement of education in children and of work in adults) and in the long-term (healthy ageing); 5) proposing a common simulation tool to assist physicians; and 6) ultimately reducing the healthcare burden (emergency visits, avoidable hospitalisations, disability and costs) while improving quality of life. In the longer term, the incidence of disease may be reduced by innovative prevention strategies. AIRWAYSICPs was initiated by Area 5 of the Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. All stakeholders are involved (health and social care, patients, and policy makers). PMID:24925919

  10. Interaction between haemopoietic regulation and airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, P M; Gauvreau, G M; Wood, L J

    1999-06-01

    Asthma is characterized by reversible airway narrowing, by airway hyperresponsiveness, and by airway inflammation. Inhaled allergens are the most important of the stimuli known to cause asthma. Methods for studying inhaled allergen in the laboratory have been well standardized and extensively used for the investigation of the pathophysiology and the pharmacological modulation of allergen-induced airway responses. Allergen inhalation by a sensitized subject results in an early asthmatic response, and, in the majority of subjects, a late asthmatic response and airway hyperresponsiveness. The late response and airway hyperresponsiveness are associated with increases in airway eosinophils and metachromatic cells. Allergen-induced airway inflammation in dogs (predominantly neutrophilic) is associated with increased granulocyte-macrophage progenitors in bone marrow, which is dependent on the effects of a circulating serum factor stimulating the bone marrow. The newly formed cells traffic to the airways. These increases in granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are blocked by inhaled corticosteroids. In human subjects, allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation is associated with increases in Eo/B progenitors, mediated through up-regulation if the IL-5 receptor on progenitors and increases responsiveness to IL-5. Inhaled corticosteroids also attenuate all allergen-induced physiological responses and airway inflammation, an effect possibly mediated, in part, through inhibition of eosinophil and basophil maturation or release from the bone marrow. PMID:10421819

  11. Paediatric airway management: What is new?

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, S; Jayanthi, R; Archana, SR

    2012-01-01

    Airway management plays a pivotal role in Paediatric Anaesthesia. Over the last two decades many improvements in this area have helped us to overcome this final frontier. From an era where intubation with a conventional laryngoscope or blind nasal intubation was the only tool for airway management, we have come a long way. Today supraglottic airway devices have pride of place in the Operating Room and are becoming important airway devices used in routine procedures. Direct and indirect fibreoptic laryngoscopes and transtracheal devices help us overcome difficult and previously impossible airway situations. These developments mean that we need to update our knowledge on these devices. Also much of our basic understanding of the physiology and anatomy of the paediatric airway has changed. This article attempts to shed light on some of the most important advances/opinions in paediatric airway management like, cuffed endotracheal tubes, supraglottic airway devices, video laryngoscopes, rapid sequence intubation, the newly proposed algorithm for difficult airway management and the role of Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT) procedure in the management of the neonatal airway. PMID:23293383

  12. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. PMID:26599529

  13. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking

    PubMed Central

    Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W.; van de Groep, Suzanne; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more focused/exclusive cognitive control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the trust game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor) transfers to another (the trustee). As expected, trustors transferred significantly more money to trustees after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated) cognitive states. PMID:24936194

  14. The Value of Trust to Nursing.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Marcella M

    2014-01-01

    Trust, one of nursing's intangible assets, impacts nurses' ability to form meaningful relationships with patients and this connection positively impacts health outcomes. Linking trust to the fabric of nursing and investing in its measurement will become essential to nursing's valuation and the resulting investment in nursing. Trust, as nursing's core value, should be fostered by nurse educators as they prepare the next generation of nurses. Nurse administrators should connect the trust a patient has for his or her nurse and patient cooperation and honest transparent communication between providers and the patient. Banking trust as a valuable nursing asset will substantiate nursing's marketing and support its worth. Nursing's trustworthiness is an intangible asset that warrants protection, as trust once lost is hard to recapture. PMID:26267958

  15. Trust-Building in Electronic Markets: Relative Importance and Interaction Effects of Trust-Building Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tams, Stefan

    We examine the relative and complementary effectiveness of trust-building strategies in online environments. While prior research has examined various antecedents to trust, we investigated two trust-building mechanisms more in depth: Web site trust and vendor reputation. We tried to understand the relative effectiveness of these two important mechanisms to provide online businesses with a clear recommendation of how to establish trust in an effective and efficient manner. Drawing from the literature on trust, we proposed vendor reputation to be more effective than Web site trust. Moreover, we examined a potential complementary effect of these mechanisms so as to provide online businesses with a deeper understanding of how to derive superior trust. We hypothesize a small such effect. The study proposes a laboratory experiment to test the model.

  16. 5 CFR 2634.403 - Qualified blind trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified blind trusts. 2634.403 Section... Qualified blind trusts. (a) Definition. A qualified blind trust is a trust in which the filer, his spouse... instrument which establishes a blind trust must adhere substantively to model drafts circulated by the...

  17. 5 CFR 2634.403 - Qualified blind trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified blind trusts. 2634.403 Section... Qualified blind trusts. (a) Definition. A qualified blind trust is a trust in which the filer, his spouse... instrument which establishes a blind trust must adhere substantively to model drafts circulated by the...

  18. Airway anastomosis for lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Diso, Daniele; Rendina, Erino Angelo; Venuta, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LT) is the only viable option for a selected group of patients with end stage pulmonary diseases. During the recent years satisfactory results in terms of long-term survival and quality of life have been achieved with improvements in surgical technique, immunosuppression and perioperative management. Since the beginning, the airway anastomosis has been considered crucial and significant efforts have been made to understand the healing process. A number of experimental studies allowed improving the surgical technique by modifying the technique of suturing, the anastomotic protection and type and dose of immunosuppression, reducing the risk of airway complications. Furthermore, a huge progress has been made in the management of such complications. Early diagnosis of bronchial complications and their prompt and correct management are crucial to achieve long-term survival. PMID:26981271

  19. Partial airway obstruction following manufacturing defect in laryngeal mask airway (Laryngeal Mask Silken™).

    PubMed

    Jangra, Kiran; Malhotra, Surender Kumar; Saini, Vikas

    2014-10-01

    Laryngeal mask (LM) airway is commonly used for securing airway in day-care surgeries. Various problems have been described while using LM airway. Out of those, mechanical obstruction causing airway compromise is most common. Here, we describe a case report of 4-year-old child who had partial upper airway obstruction due to LM manufacturer's defect. There was a silicon band in upper one-third of shaft of LM airway. This band was made up of the same material as that of LM airway so it was not identifiable on external inspection of transparent shaft. We suggest that such as non-transparent laryngeal mask, a transparent LM airway should also be inspected looking inside the lumen with naked eyes or by using a probe to rule out any manufacturing defect before its insertion. PMID:25422617

  20. Is It a Trust Issue? Factors That Influence Trust for Persons Living With HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Krause, Denise D; May, Warren L

    2016-09-01

    Trust in one's health care provider, trust in the health care system in general, and even trust in one's community affects engagement in HIV-related health care. This article examines the issue of trust among a random sample of HIV-infected individuals residing in Mississippi, an area hard-hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Five constructs based on survey responses from these individuals were developed: (1) trust in one's provider to offer the best possible medical care, (2) trust in one's provider to protect patient privacy, (3) willingness to disclose HIV status to one's provider, (4) trust in the health care system, and (5) trust in one's community. Findings suggest that interventions to improve trust in providers to deliver the highest quality of care should be targeted to young people, African Americans, and the more highly educated. Interventions to increase trust in providers to protect privacy should focus on creating and strengthening social support groups or networks that build relationships and foster trust. Interventions aimed to increase community trust also should be targeted to young people. This information is useful to researchers, policy makers, health care providers, and organizations interested in prioritizing interventions and strategies that have the greatest potential to reduce health disparities in HIV diagnosis and treatment in the Deep South. PMID:27095034

  1. Airway management in cervical spine injury

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Naola; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Dagal, Arman

    2014-01-01

    To minimize risk of spinal cord injury, airway management providers must understand the anatomic and functional relationship between the airway, cervical column, and spinal cord. Patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury may require emergent intubation for airway protection and ventilatory support or elective intubation for surgery with or without rigid neck stabilization (i.e., halo). To provide safe and efficient care in these patients, practitioners must identify high-risk patients, be comfortable with available methods of airway adjuncts, and know how airway maneuvers, neck stabilization, and positioning affect the cervical spine. This review discusses the risks and benefits of various airway management strategies as well as specific concerns that affect patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury. PMID:24741498

  2. Airway injury during high-level exercise.

    PubMed

    Kippelen, Pascale; Anderson, Sandra D

    2012-05-01

    Airway epithelial cells act as a physical barrier against environmental toxins and injury, and modulate inflammation and the immune response. As such, maintenance of their integrity is critical. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that exercise can cause injury to the airway epithelium. This seems the case particularly for competitive athletes performing high-level exercise, or when exercise takes place in extreme environmental conditions such as in cold dry air or in polluted air. Dehydration of the small airways and increased forces exerted on to the airway surface during severe hyperpnoea are thought to be key factors in determining the occurrence of injury of the airway epithelium. The injury-repair process of the airway epithelium may contribute to the development of the bronchial hyper-responsiveness that is documented in many elite athletes. PMID:22247295

  3. Drawing on a Knowledge-Based Trust Perspective to Examine and Conceptualize within-School Trust Development by Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosner, Shelby

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed the importance of trust to schools and pointed to the central role that principals play in cultivating within-school trust, yet less is known about the ways that principals cultivate such trust. Moreover, divergent perspectives and varied contexts for examining trust have limited the transfer of trust scholarship to practice…

  4. Fear, Trust, and Negotiating Safety

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Platais, Ingrida; Valera, Pamela; Barbieri, Raye; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2010-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews, this study examined the relational context of sexual HIV risk for 10 Black women aged 18–30 who were defendants in a community court setting. A qualitative data analysis identified themes of actual and feared intimate partner violence (IPV) and the expectations of demonstrating trust in a relationship as obstacles to negotiating the use of condoms. The findings speak to the broader structural factors and consequences of IPV and drug use. The article discusses the implications for HIV prevention for Black women who are involved in the criminal justice system. PMID:20445827

  5. Airway Assessment for Office Sedation/Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Morton B; Phero, James C

    2015-01-01

    Whenever a patient is about to receive sedation or general anesthesia, no matter what the technique, the preoperative assessment of the airway is one of the most important steps in ensuring patient safety and positive outcomes. This article, Part III in the series on airway management, is directed at the ambulatory office practice and focuses on predicting the success of advanced airway rescue techniques. PMID:26061578

  6. A bug's view of allergic airways disease.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Peter S; Campbell, Dianne E

    2016-06-01

    The increase in allergic airways disease has been linked to modern urbanization and lifestyle. Recent evidence suggests that the associated reduction in microbial exposure, reduction in dietary fibre intake and increased antibiotic use may cause early dysbiosis in infancy, which predisposes to immune dysregulation and allergic airways disease later in life. This implies that there may be a window of opportunity for primary prevention strategies aimed to protect or restore the microbiome early in life and thereby decrease the risk of developing allergic airways disease. Alternatively, strategies that correct dysbiosis may aid in the treatment of established allergic airways disease. PMID:27012478

  7. Airway vascular damage in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Moreira, André; Palmares, Carmo; Lopes, Cristina; Delgado, Luís

    2011-11-01

    We postulated that high level swimming can promote airway inflammation and thus asthma by enhancing local vascular permeability. We aimed to test this hypothesis by a cross-sectional study comparing swimmers (n = 13, 17 ± 3 years, competing 7 ± 4 years, training 18 ± 3 h per week), asthmatic-swimmers (n = 6, 17 ± 2 years, competing 8 ± 3 years, training 16 ± 4 h per week), and asthmatics (n = 19, 14 ± 3 years). Subjects performed induced sputum and had exhaled nitric oxide, lung volumes, and airway responsiveness determined. Airway vascular permeability index was defined as the ratio of albumin in sputum and serum. Results from the multiple linear regression showed each unit change in airway vascular permeability index was associated with an increase of 0.97% (95%CI: 0.02 to 1.92; p = 0.047) in sputum eosinophilis, and of 2.64% (95%CI:0.96 to 4.31; p = 0.006) in sputum neutrophils after adjustment for confounders. In a general linear model no significant differences between airway vascular permeability between index study groups existed, after controlling for sputum eosinophilis and neutrophils. In conclusion, competitive swimmers training in chlorine-rich pools have similar levels of airway vascular permeability than asthmatics. Although competitive swimming has been associated with asthma, airway inflammation and airway hyperesponsiveness do not seem to be dependent on increased airway vascular permeability. PMID:21669516

  8. Automated lobe-based airway labeling.

    PubMed

    Gu, Suicheng; Wang, Zhimin; Siegfried, Jill M; Wilson, David; Bigbee, William L; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-01-01

    Regional quantitative analysis of airway morphological abnormalities is of great interest in lung disease investigation. Considering that pulmonary lobes are relatively independent functional unit, we develop and test a novel and efficient computerized scheme in this study to automatically and robustly classify the airways into different categories in terms of pulmonary lobe. Given an airway tree, which could be obtained using any available airway segmentation scheme, the developed approach consists of four basic steps: (1) airway skeletonization or centerline extraction, (2) individual airway branch identification, (3) initial rule-based airway classification/labeling, and (4) self-correction of labeling errors. In order to assess the performance of this approach, we applied it to a dataset consisting of 300 chest CT examinations in a batch manner and asked an image analyst to subjectively examine the labeled results. Our preliminary experiment showed that the labeling accuracy for the right upper lobe, the right middle lobe, the right lower lobe, the left upper lobe, and the left lower lobe is 100%, 99.3%, 99.3%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Among these, only two cases are incorrectly labeled due to the failures in airway detection. It takes around 2 minutes to label an airway tree using this algorithm. PMID:23093951

  9. Airway sonography in live models and cadavers.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ban; Ip, Vivian; Walji, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Sonography using cadavers is beneficial in teaching and learning sonoanatomy, which is particularly important because imaging of the airway can be challenging due to the cartilaginous landmarks and air artifacts. In this exploratory study, we have attempted to compare the airway sonoanatomy of cadavers and live models. Our observations support the use of cadavers as teaching tools for learning airway sonoanatomy and practicing procedures involving airway structures, such as superior laryngeal nerve blocks, transtracheal injections, and needle cricothyroidotomy, before performance on patients in clinical situations. We believe this process will improve patient safety and enhance the competency of trainees and practitioners in rare procedures such as needle cricothyroidotomy. PMID:23716527

  10. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  11. Trust: the sublime duty in health care leadership.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2010-01-01

    Trust is the essence of human social existence. From the moment of birth, trust is the basic component in any human relationship and interaction. Trust is the Holy Grail for human confidence in others. From human survival to organizational survival, trust is the primordial bond. No organization is more dependent on trust than health care. This article views trust as the most basic fundamental quality for leadership. Trust is a sublime duty of a leader and the leadership of an organization. Leadership sets the culture of trust. Trust is the one quality that is essential for guiding an organization toward serving others. This article addresses trust from many perspectives. Trust is viewed from our subordinates, our peers, our superiors, and the public we serve. This article postulates how trust in an organization is the sublime duty of leadership that unites all human understanding and without it destroys all human relationships. PMID:20145465

  12. Physical principle of airway design in human lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keunhwan; Son, Taeho; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-11-01

    From an engineering perspective, lungs are natural microfluidic devices that extract oxygen from air. In the bronchial tree, airways branch by dichotomy with a systematic reduction of their diameters. It is generally accepted that in conducting airways, which air passes on the way to the acinar airways from the atmosphere, the reduction ratio of diameter is closely related to the minimization of viscous dissipation. Such a principle is formulated as the Hess-Murray law. However, in acinar airways, where oxygen transfer to alveolae occurs, the diameter reduction with progressive generations is more moderate than in conducting airways. Noting that the dominant transfer mechanism in acinar airways is diffusion rather than advection, unlike conducting airways, we construct a mathematical model for oxygen transfer through a series of acinar airways. Our model allows us to predict the optimal airway reduction ratio that maximizes the oxygen transfer in a finite airway volume, thereby rationalizing the observed airway reduction ratio in acinar airways.

  13. Price transparency: building community trust.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    With the push from policymakers, payers, and consumers for hospitals to make their prices public, healthcare executives need to recognize two central issues related to price transparency: 1) meaningful price transparency involves helping patients and consumers understand their financial obligation for an episode of care, and 2) price transparency is key to the most critical success strategy for healthcare providers: building trust. This article reviews the history of pricing and billing practices and explores why price transparency is not easily achieved in today's environment. Pricing is a mystery even to those of us who work in the field, yet despite its complexity, the call for price transparency is not going to go away. For transparency, the goal should be to establish a rational pricing system that is easily explainable and justified to all stakeholders. Healthcare executives must make pricing a priority, understand cost, develop a pricing philosophy, understand the overall revenue requirements, examine market conditions and prices, and set up systems for review. A rational process of price setting should enhance community trust. In this matter there is nothing less at stake than the hearts of our community members. PMID:17405387

  14. A Strategic Model of Trust Management in Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqing; Sun, Zhaohao; Li, Yuanzhe; Zhao, Shuliang

    This article examines trust and trust management in web services and proposes a multiagent model of trust relationship in web services. It looks at the hierarchical structure of trust management in web services and proposes a strategic model of trust management in web services. The proposed approach in this article will facilitate research and development of trust management in e-commerce, web services and social networking.

  15. NCLB Low Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the impact brought about by the "No Child Left Behind" Act (NCLB) on school funding. Because of changes in the funding formulas, most of the increased funding will go to districts in which the highest number of poor children reside. Districts which are less impacted by poverty will lose funding. The author…

  16. 25 CFR 1000.362 - What are the consequences of a finding of imminent jeopardy in the annual trust evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the consequences of a finding of imminent jeopardy in the annual trust evaluation? 1000.362 Section 1000.362 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.357 - May the parties negotiate standards of review for purposes of the trust evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the parties negotiate standards of review for purposes of the trust evaluation? 1000.357 Section 1000.357 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.358 - Can an initial review of the status of the trust asset be conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can an initial review of the status of the trust asset be conducted? 1000.358 Section 1000.358 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO...

  19. Further Exploration of Organizational Trust Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Samuel H.; Wiswell, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Trust facilitates individual and organizational learning, and is often misunderstood by organizations although they must continuously learn in order to attain strategic goals and survive. Furthermore, leaders of organizations often view trust defensively and their reactions may impede organizational learning. This paper builds on prior research…

  20. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  1. The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    The Churchill Trust was established in 1965 to honour the memory of Sir Winston Churchill by awarding overseas research Fellowships known as "Churchill Fellowships". Since its inception, The Churchill Trust has awarded Churchill Fellowships to more than 3,700 Australians who, like Churchill, are innovative, filled with a spirit of…

  2. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  3. Perceptions of Trust in Public Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Lucy; Baird, Jo-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Over recent years, the credibility of public examinations in England has increasingly come to the fore. Government agencies have invested time and money into researching public perceptions of the reliability and validity of examinations. Whilst such research overlaps into the conceptual domain of trust, trust in examinations remains an elusive…

  4. 7 CFR 46.46 - Statutory trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... commodities in whatever form, documentary or electronic, for billing or invoicing purposes. (b) Trust assets..., whether in documentary or electronic form, to preserve trust benefits. Alternately, the licensee's invoice... the affected transactions occur. (4) If the invoice or other billing statement is in electronic...

  5. Trusting Transformational Principals: An Empirical Surprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannion, Patrick T.

    This study explored the relationship between transformational leadership and trust in schools. The central thesis is that high levels of trust should significantly correlate with transformational leadership behaviors by school principals. The study involved a sample of 451 teachers in 39 public secondary schools located in four suburban areas…

  6. 26 CFR 301.7701-4 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-4 Trusts. (a) Ordinary trusts. In general, the term... the release of substances, preventing future releases of substances, and collecting amounts...

  7. The Importance of Trust in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnasingham, Pauline

    1998-01-01

    Introduces the new concept of trust and how it influences the process of managing the security of an organization operating in an electronic commerce environment. Theoretically, the study aims to develop a framework of trust and security to provide a set of guidelines for secure electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  8. Trust and the Development of Distributed Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smylie, Mark A.; Mayrowetz, David; Murphy, Joseph; Louis, Karen Seashore

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between trust and the development of distributed leadership. It presents a theoretical argument with supporting evidence from longitudinal fieldwork examining distributed leadership development in comparative cases of two secondary schools. The analysis suggests that trust matters in the design, performance,…

  9. Young Children and Trust in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alat, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children…

  10. 76 FR 60757 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... qualified trusts provisions for the executive branch in subparts D and E of 5 CFR part 2634 (see 57 FR 11800.... 12674, 54 FR 15159, 3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 215, as modified by E.O. 12731, 55 FR 42547, 3 CFR, 1990 Comp... the use of a qualified blind trust is the lack of knowledge, or actual ``blindness,'' by an...

  11. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  12. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  13. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  14. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  15. Development of Trust and Reciprocity in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bos, Wouter; Westenberg, Michiel; van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the development of two types of prosocial behavior, trust and reciprocity, as defined using a game-theoretical task that allows investigation of real-time social interaction, among 4 age groups from 9 to 25 years. By manipulating the possible outcome alternatives, we could distinguish among important determinants of trust and…

  16. Trust in prescription drug brand websites: website trust cues, attitude toward the website, and behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisu; Shin, Wonsun

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug brand websites, as a form of DTC advertising, are receiving increasing attention due to the growing number and importance as an ad and a consumer information source. This study examined consumer trust in a DTC website as an important factor influencing consumers' attitude toward the website and behavioral intention. Applying the conceptual framework of website trust, the particular focus of investigation was the effect of the website trust cue factor on consumers' perceived DTC website trust and subsequent attitudinal and behavioral responses. Results show a significant relation between the website trust cue factor and consumers' perceived DTC website trust. Perceived DTC website trust, in turn, was found to be significantly associated with consumers' attitude toward the DTC website and behavioral intention. PMID:24094133

  17. DualTrust: A Distributed Trust Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.; Dionysiou, Ioanna; Frincke, Deborah A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Bakken, David E.

    2011-02-01

    For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, trust management is important for the acceptance of the mobile agent sensors and to protect the system from malicious behavior by insiders and entities that have penetrated network defenses. This paper examines the trust relationships, evidence, and decisions in a representative system and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. We then propose the DualTrust conceptual trust model. By addressing the autonomic manager’s bi-directional primary relationships in the ACS architecture, DualTrust is able to monitor the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers, protect the sensor swarm in a scalable manner, and provide global trust awareness for the orchestrating autonomic manager.

  18. Tax authorities' interaction with taxpayers: A conception of compliance in social dilemmas by power and trust

    PubMed Central

    Gangl, Katharina; Hofmann, Eva; Kirchler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Tax compliance represents a social dilemma in which the short-term self-interest to minimize tax payments is at odds with the collective long-term interest to provide sufficient tax funds for public goods. According to the Slippery Slope Framework, the social dilemma can be solved and tax compliance can be guaranteed by power of tax authorities and trust in tax authorities. The framework, however, remains silent on the dynamics between power and trust. The aim of the present theoretical paper is to conceptualize the dynamics between power and trust by differentiating coercive and legitimate power and reason-based and implicit trust. Insights into this dynamic are derived from an integration of a wide range of literature such as on organizational behavior and social influence. Conclusions on the effect of the dynamics between power and trust on the interaction climate between authorities and individuals and subsequent individual motivation of cooperation in social dilemmas such as tax contributions are drawn. Practically, the assumptions on the dynamics can be utilized by authorities to increase cooperation and to change the interaction climate from an antagonistic climate to a service and confidence climate. PMID:25859096

  19. Trust method for multi-agent consensus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Dariusz G.; Lewis, Frank L.; Gu, Edward Y.; Hudas, Greg R.

    2012-06-01

    The consensus problem in multi-agent systems often assumes that all agents are equally trustworthy to seek agreement. But for multi-agent military applications - particularly those that deal with sensor fusion or multi-robot formation control - this assumption may create the potential for compromised network security or poor cooperative performance. As such, we present a trust-based solution for the discrete-time multi-agent consensus problem and prove its asymptotic convergence in strongly connected digraphs. The novelty of the paper is a new trust algorithm called RoboTrust, which is used to calculate trustworthiness in agents using observations and statistical inferences from various historical perspectives. The performance of RoboTrust is evaluated within the trust-based consensus protocol under different conditions of tolerance and confirmation.

  20. Grounding Research in Reality: Fiscal Equity and K-12 Funding in Illinois. Policy Research: IERC 2008-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Christopher M.; Brown, Kathleen Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate both The Education Trust's "The Funding Gap" and D. Verstegen and L. Driscoll's "The Illinois Dilemma" studies published in 2008 utilizing the actual allocations to districts resulting from the fiscal policy mechanism (funding formula) in Illinois for the 2004-2005 school year to understand the influence…

  1. 26 CFR 1.642(c)-6 - Valuation of a remainder interest in property transferred to a pooled income fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... transferred to a pooled income fund. 1.642(c)-6 Section 1.642(c)-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(c)-6 Valuation of a remainder interest in property transferred to a pooled income fund....

  2. 26 CFR 1.642(c)-6 - Valuation of a remainder interest in property transferred to a pooled income fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... transferred to a pooled income fund. 1.642(c)-6 Section 1.642(c)-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(c)-6 Valuation of a remainder interest in property transferred to a pooled income fund....

  3. 26 CFR 1.642(c)-6 - Valuation of a remainder interest in property transferred to a pooled income fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transferred to a pooled income fund. 1.642(c)-6 Section 1.642(c)-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(c)-6 Valuation of a remainder interest in property transferred to a pooled income fund....

  4. Effects of tracheal airway occlusion on hyoid muscle length and upper airway volume.

    PubMed

    van Lunteren, E; Haxhiu, M A; Cherniack, N S

    1989-12-01

    Complex relationships exist among electromyograms (EMGs) of the upper airway muscles, respective changes in muscle length, and upper airway volume. To test the effects of preventing lung inflation on these relationships, recordings were made of EMGs and length changes of the geniohyoid (GH) and sternohyoid (SH) muscles as well as of tidal changes in upper airway volume in eight anesthetized cats. During resting breathing, tracheal airway occlusion tended to increase the inspiratory lengthening of GH and SH. In response to progressive hypercapnia, the GH eventually shortened during inspiration in all animals; the extent of muscle shortening was minimally augmented by airway occlusion despite substantial increases in EMGs. SH lengthened during inspiration in six of eight animals under hypercapnic conditions, and in these cats lengthening was greater during airway occlusion even though EMGs increased. Despite the above effects on SH and GH length, upper airway tidal volume was increased significantly by tracheal occlusion under hypercapnic conditions. These data suggest that the thoracic and upper airway muscle reflex effects of preventing lung inflation during inspiration act antagonistically on hyoid muscle length, but, because of the mechanical arrangement of the hyoid muscles relative to the airway and thorax, they act agonistically to augment tidal changes in upper airway volume. The augmentation of upper airway tidal volume may occur in part as a result of the effects of thoracic movements being passively transmitted through the hyoid muscles. PMID:2606835

  5. Airway smooth muscle dynamics: a common pathway of airway obstruction in asthma

    PubMed Central

    An, S.S.; Bai, T.R.; Bates, J.H.T.; Black, J.L.; Brown, R.H.; Brusasco, V.; Chitano, P.; Deng, L.; Dowell, M.; Eidelman, D.H.; Fabry, B.; Fairbank, N.J.; Ford, L.E.; Fredberg, J.J.; Gerthoffer, W.T.; Gilbert, S.H.; Gosens, R.; Gunst, S.J.; Halayko, A.J.; Ingram, R.H.; Irvin, C.G.; James, A.L.; Janssen, L.J.; King, G.G.; Knight, D.A.; Lauzon, A.M.; Lakser, O.J.; Ludwig, M.S.; Lutchen, K.R.; Maksym, G.N.; Martin, J.G.; Mauad, T.; McParland, B.E.; Mijailovich, S.M.; Mitchell, H.W.; Mitchell, R.W.; Mitzner, W.; Murphy, T.M.; Paré, P.D.; Pellegrino, R.; Sanderson, M.J.; Schellenberg, R.R.; Seow, C.Y.; Silveira, P.S.P.; Smith, P.G.; Solway, J.; Stephens, N.L.; Sterk, P.J.; Stewart, A.G.; Tang, D.D.; Tepper, R.S.; Tran, T.; Wang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series of events leading to asthmatic symptoms is not clear. It is not certain whether, in asthma, there is a change in the intrinsic properties of ASM, a change in the structure and mechanical properties of the noncontractile components of the airway wall, or a change in the interdependence of the airway wall with the surrounding lung parenchyma. All these potential changes could result from acute or chronic airway inflammation and associated tissue repair and remodelling. Anti-inflammatory therapy, however, does not “cure” asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness can persist in asthmatics, even in the absence of airway inflammation. This is perhaps because the therapy does not directly address a fundamental abnormality of asthma, that of exaggerated airway narrowing due to excessive shortening of ASM. In the present study, a central role for airway smooth muscle in the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma is explored. PMID:17470619

  6. Athletic Trainers' Knowledge Regarding Airway Adjuncts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edler, Jessica R.; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Kahanov, Leamor; Roman, Christopher; Mata, Heather Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Context: Research suggests that knowledge gaps regarding the appropriate use of airway adjuncts exist among various health care practitioners, and that knowledge is especially limited within athletic training. Objective: To determine the relationship between perceived knowledge (PK) and actual knowledge (AK) of airway adjunct use and the…

  7. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES PERSISTENT AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The endotoxin component of organic dusts causes acute reversible airflow obstruction and airway inflammation. To test the hypothesis that endotoxin alone causes airway remodeling, we have compared the response of two inbred mouse strains to subchronic endotoxin ...

  8. Airway and Extracellular Matrix Mechanics in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bidan, Cécile M.; Veldsink, Annemiek C.; Meurs, Herman; Gosens, Reinoud

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common lung diseases worldwide, and is characterized by airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible with treatment. Even though airflow obstruction is caused by airway smooth muscle contraction, the extent of airway narrowing depends on a range of other structural and functional determinants that impact on active and passive tissue mechanics. Cells and extracellular matrix in the airway and parenchymal compartments respond both passively and actively to the mechanical stimulation induced by smooth muscle contraction. In this review, we summarize the factors that regulate airway narrowing and provide insight into the relative contributions of different constituents of the extracellular matrix and their biomechanical impact on airway obstruction. We then review the changes in extracellular matrix composition in the airway and parenchymal compartments at different stages of COPD, and finally discuss how these changes impact airway narrowing and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Finally, we position these data in the context of therapeutic research focused on defective tissue repair. As a conclusion, we propose that future works should primarily target mild or early COPD, prior to the widespread structural changes in the alveolar compartment that are more characteristic of severe COPD. PMID:26696894

  9. 21 CFR 868.5100 - Nasopharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasopharyngeal airway. 868.5100 Section 868.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5100 Nasopharyngeal airway....

  10. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oropharyngeal airway. 868.5110 Section 868.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway....

  11. 21 CFR 868.5100 - Nasopharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasopharyngeal airway. 868.5100 Section 868.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5100 Nasopharyngeal airway....

  12. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oropharyngeal airway. 868.5110 Section 868.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway....

  13. 21 CFR 868.5100 - Nasopharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasopharyngeal airway. 868.5100 Section 868.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5100 Nasopharyngeal airway....

  14. 21 CFR 868.5100 - Nasopharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasopharyngeal airway. 868.5100 Section 868.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5100 Nasopharyngeal airway....

  15. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oropharyngeal airway. 868.5110 Section 868.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway....

  16. 21 CFR 868.5100 - Nasopharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasopharyngeal airway. 868.5100 Section 868.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5100 Nasopharyngeal airway....

  17. Trefoil factor-2 reverses airway remodeling changes in allergic airways disease.

    PubMed

    Royce, Simon G; Lim, Clarice; Muljadi, Ruth C; Samuel, Chrishan S; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C; Giraud, Andrew S; Tang, Mimi L K

    2013-01-01

    Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) is a small peptide with an important role in mucosal repair. TFF2 is up-regulated in asthma, suggesting a role in asthma pathogenesis. Given its known biological role in promoting epithelial repair, TFF2 might be expected to exert a protective function in limiting the progression of airway remodeling in asthma. The contribution of TFF2 to airway remodeling in asthma was investigated by examining the expression of TFF2 in the airway and lung, and evaluating the effects of recombinant TFF2 treatment on established airway remodeling in a murine model of chronic allergic airways disease (AAD). BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or saline for 9 weeks, whereas mice with established OVA-induced AAD were treated with TFF2 or vehicle control (intranasally for 14 d). Effects on airway remodeling, airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness were then assessed, whereas TFF2 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. TFF2 expression was significantly increased in the airways of mice with AAD, compared with expression levels in control mice. TFF2 treatment resulted in reduced epithelial thickening, subepithelial collagen deposition, goblet-cell metaplasia, bronchial epithelium apoptosis, and airway hyperresponsiveness (all P < 0.05, versus vehicle control), but TFF2 treatment did not influence airway inflammation. The increased expression of endogenous TFF2 in response to chronic allergic inflammation is insufficient to prevent the progression of airway inflammation and remodeling in a murine model of chronic AAD. However, exogenous TFF2 treatment is effective in reversing aspects of established airway remodeling. TFF2 has potential as a novel treatment for airway remodeling in asthma. PMID:22652198

  18. Difficult Airway Response Team: A Novel Quality Improvement Program for Managing Hospital-Wide Airway Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Lynette J.; Herzer, Kurt R.; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Berkow, Lauren C.; Haut, Elliott R.; Hillel, Alexander T.; Miller, Christina R.; Feller-Kopman, David J.; Schiavi, Adam J.; Xie, Yanjun J.; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W.; Mirski, Marek A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. Methods We developed a quality improvement program—the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)—to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had three core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Results Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index > 40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous

  19. Airway tissue engineering for congenital laryngotracheal disease.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Elizabeth; Lesage, Flore; Butler, Colin R; Hynds, Robert E; Hewitt, Richard; Janes, Sam M; Deprest, Jan A; Coppi, Paolo De

    2016-06-01

    Regenerative medicine offers hope of a sustainable solution for severe airway disease by the creation of functional, immunocompatible organ replacements. When considering fetuses and newborns, there is a specific spectrum of airway pathologies that could benefit from cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. While hypoplastic lungs associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) could benefit from cellular based treatments aimed at ameliorating lung function, patients with upper airway obstruction could take advantage from a de novo tissue engineering approach. Moreover, the international acceptance of the EXIT procedure as a means of securing the precarious neonatal airway, together with the advent of fetal surgery as a method of heading off postnatal co-morbidities, offers the revolutionary possibility of extending the clinical indication for tissue-engineered airway transplantation to infants affected by diverse severe congenital laryngotracheal malformations. This article outlines the necessary basic components for regenerative medicine solutions in this potential clinical niche. PMID:27301606

  20. Regulation of human airway surface liquid.

    PubMed

    Widdicombe, J H; Widdicombe, J G

    1995-01-01

    Human airways are lined with a film of liquid from 5-100 microns in depth, consisting of a periciliary sol around and a mucous gel above the cilia. Microscopical studies have shown the sol to be invariably the same depth as the length of the cilia, and we discuss possible reasons for this. The composition and sources of the airway surface liquid are also described. In addition the forces regulating its volume are analyzed. Several airway diseases are characterised by dramatic changes in the volume and composition of airway liquid. We review recent research suggesting that the accumulation of airway mucous secretions in cystic fibrosis is caused by alterations in active transport of ions and water across both the surface and gland epithelia. PMID:7740210

  1. Awake Craniotomy: A New Airway Approach.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Chitra; Schlichter, Rolf A; Baranov, Dimitry; Kofke, W Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Awake craniotomies have been performed regularly at the University of Pennsylvania since 2004. Varying approaches to airway management are described for this procedure, including intubation with an endotracheal tube and use of a laryngeal mask airway, simple facemask, or nasal cannula. In this case series, we describe the successful use (i.e., no need for endotracheal intubation related to inadequate gas exchange) of bilateral nasopharyngeal airways in 90 patients undergoing awake craniotomies. The use of nasopharyngeal airways can ease the transition between the asleep and awake phases of the craniotomy without the need to stimulate the airway. Our purpose was to describe our experience and report adverse events related to this technique. PMID:26579845

  2. Airway fires during surgery: Management and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Navaid; Ansar, Farrukh; Baig, Mirza Shahzad; Abbas, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Airway fires pose a serious risk to surgical patients. Fires during surgery have been reported for many years with flammable anesthetic agents being the main culprits in the past. Association of airway fires with laser surgery is well-recognized, but there are reports of endotracheal tube fires ignited by electrocautery during pharyngeal surgery or tracheostomy or both. This uncommon complication has potentially grave consequences. While airway fires are relatively uncommon occurrences, they are very serious and can often be fatal. Success in preventing such events requires a thorough understanding of the components leading to a fire (fuel, oxidizer, and ignition source), as well as good communication between all members present to appropriately manage the fire and ensure patient safety. We present a case of fire in the airway during routine adenotonsillectomy. We will review the causes, preventive measures, and brief management for airway fires. PMID:27006554

  3. Anaesthetic management of acute airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick; Wong, Jolin; Mok, May Un Sam

    2016-01-01

    The acutely obstructed airway is a medical emergency that can potentially result in serious morbidity and mortality. Apart from the latest advancements in anaesthetic techniques, equipment and drugs, publications relevant to our topic, including the United Kingdom’s 4th National Audit Project on major airway complications in 2011 and the updated American Society of Anesthesiologists’ difficult airway algorithm of 2013, have recently been published. The former contained many reports of adverse events associated with the management of acute airway obstruction. By analysing the data and concepts from these two publications, this review article provides an update on management techniques for the acutely obstructed airway. We discuss the principles and factors relevant to the decision-making process in formulating a logical management plan. PMID:26996162

  4. Anaesthetic management of acute airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Patrick; Wong, Jolin; Mok, May Un Sam

    2016-03-01

    The acutely obstructed airway is a medical emergency that can potentially result in serious morbidity and mortality. Apart from the latest advancements in anaesthetic techniques, equipment and drugs, publications relevant to our topic, including the United Kingdom's 4th National Audit Project on major airway complications in 2011 and the updated American Society of Anesthesiologists' difficult airway algorithm of 2013, have recently been published. The former contained many reports of adverse events associated with the management of acute airway obstruction. By analysing the data and concepts from these two publications, this review article provides an update on management techniques for the acutely obstructed airway. We discuss the principles and factors relevant to the decision-making process in formulating a logical management plan. PMID:26996162

  5. 75 FR 52956 - Funding Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity Purpose of Notice: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Older Americans Act (OAA), Title VI, Part A... funding opportunity. Funding Opportunity Number: Program Announcement No. is HHS-2011-...

  6. Investigating the geometry of pig airways using computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Azad, Md Khurshidul; McMurray, Brandon; Henry, Brian; Royston, Thomas J.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2015-03-01

    Numerical modeling of sound propagation in the airways requires accurate knowledge of the airway geometry. These models are often validated using human and animal experiments. While many studies documented the geometric details of the human airways, information about the geometry of pig airways is scarcer. In addition, the morphology of animal airways can be significantly different from that of humans. The objective of this study is to measure the airway diameter, length and bifurcation angles in domestic pigs using computed tomography. After imaging the lungs of 3 pigs, segmentation software tools were used to extract the geometry of the airway lumen. The airway dimensions were then measured from the resulting 3 D models for the first 10 airway generations. Results showed that the size and morphology of the airways of different animals were similar. The measured airway dimensions were compared with those of the human airways. While the trachea diameter was found to be comparable to the adult human, the diameter, length and branching angles of other airways were noticeably different from that of humans. For example, pigs consistently had an early airway branching from the trachea that feeds the superior (top) right lung lobe proximal to the carina. This branch is absent in the human airways. These results suggested that the human geometry may not be a good approximation of the pig airways and may contribute to increasing the errors when the human airway geometric values are used in computational models of the pig chest.

  7. Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bandla, Preetam; Huang, Jingtao; Karamessinis, Laurie; Kelly, Andrea; Pepe, Michelle; Samuel, John; Brooks, Lee; Mason, Thornton. A.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: The upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading declines with age. The epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea suggests that sex hormones play a role in modulating upper airway function. Sex hormones increase gradually during puberty, from minimally detectable to adult levels. We hypothesized that the upper airway response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with increasing pubertal Tanner stage in males but remained stable during puberty in females. Design: Upper airway dynamic function during sleep was measured over the course of puberty. Participants: Normal subjects of Tanner stages 1 to 5. Measurements: During sleep, maximal inspiratory airflow was measured while varying the level of nasal pressure. The slope of the upstream pressure-flow relationship (SPF) was measured. Results: The SPF correlated with age and Tanner stage. However, the relationship with Tanner stage became nonsignificant when the correlation due to the mutual association with age was removed. Females had a lower SPF than males. Conclusions: In both sexes, the upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with age rather than degree of pubertal development. Thus, changes in sex hormones are unlikely to be a primary modulator of upper airway function during the transition from childhood to adulthood. Although further studies of upper airway structural changes during puberty are needed, we speculate that the changes in upper airway function with age are due to the depressant effect of age on ventilatory drive, leading to a decrease in upper airway neuromotor tone. Citation: Bandla P; Huang J; Karamessinis L; Kelly A; Pepe M; Samuel J; Brooks L; Mason TA; Gallagher PR; Marcus CL. Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep. SLEEP 2008;31(4):534-541. PMID:18457241

  8. Intrathoracic airway measurement: ex-vivo validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Raab, Stephen A.; D'Souza, Neil D.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1997-05-01

    High-resolution x-ray CT (HRCT) provides detailed images of the lungs and bronchial tree. HRCT-based imaging and quantitation of peripheral bronchial airway geometry provides a valuable tool for assessing regional airway physiology. Such measurements have been sued to address physiological questions related to the mechanics of airway collapse in sleep apnea, the measurement of airway response to broncho-constriction agents, and to evaluate and track the progression of disease affecting the airways, such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Significant attention has been paid to the measurements of extra- and intra-thoracic airways in 2D sections from volumetric x-ray CT. A variety of manual and semi-automatic techniques have been proposed for airway geometry measurement, including the use of standardized display window and level settings for caliper measurements, methods based on manual or semi-automatic border tracing, and more objective, quantitative approaches such as the use of the 'half-max' criteria. A recently proposed measurements technique uses a model-based deconvolution to estimate the location of the inner and outer airway walls. Validation using a plexiglass phantom indicates that the model-based method is more accurate than the half-max approach for thin-walled structures. In vivo validation of these airway measurement techniques is difficult because of the problems in identifying a reliable measurement 'gold standard.' In this paper we report on ex vivo validation of the half-max and model-based methods using an excised pig lung. The lung is sliced into thin sections of tissue and scanned using an electron beam CT scanner. Airways of interest are measured from the CT images, and also measured with using a microscope and micrometer to obtain a measurement gold standard. The result show no significant difference between the model-based measurements and the gold standard; while the half-max estimates exhibited a measurement bias and were significantly

  9. Trust and cooperation: a new experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Acedo, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2013-09-01

    Several theories within different disciplines emphasize the role of trust in fostering cooperation in human social life. Despite differences, the core of these notions of trust is affectively motivated loyalty, which makes the individuals feel mutually committed and willing to accept vulnerability because of positive expectations about each other's behavior. In evolutionary game theory and experimental economics, the notion of trust is much simpler: it is an expectation about another's behavior, a kind of wager, in which the sense of mutual commitment and vulnerability is completely absent. In order to extend the paradigm of trust games typical in those fields to explore the fuller sense of trust relationships, we have developed a new experimental design, in which an iterated prisoner dilemma is played by participants who do or do not hold a trusting personal relationship, while anonymity is preserved. We present here the results of our two pilot studies, which indicate the relevance of personal trust in fostering cooperation and suggest the influence of the structure of social networks on the degree of cooperation achieved. PMID:25708082

  10. Hype and Public Trust in Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists have begun elucidating the variables that influence public trust in science, yet little is known about hype in biotechnology and its effects on public trust. Many scholars claim that hyping biotechnology results in a loss of public trust, and possibly public enthusiasm or support for science, because public expectations of the biotechnological promises will be unmet. We argue for the need for empirical research that examines the relationships between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support. We discuss the complexities in designing empirical studies that provide evidence for a causal link between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support, but also illustrate how this may be remedied. Further empirical research on hype and public trust is needed in order to improve public communication of science and to design evidence-based education on the responsible conduct of research for scientists. We conclude that conceptual arguments made on hype and public trust must be nuanced to reflect our current understanding of this relationship. PMID:22045550

  11. Allergic airways disease develops after an increase in allergen capture and processing in the airway mucosa.

    PubMed

    von Garnier, Christophe; Wikstrom, Matthew E; Zosky, Graeme; Turner, Debra J; Sly, Peter D; Smith, Miranda; Thomas, Jennifer A; Judd, Samantha R; Strickland, Deborah H; Holt, Patrick G; Stumbles, Philip A

    2007-11-01

    Airway mucosal dendritic cells (AMDC) and other airway APCs continuously sample inhaled Ags and regulate the nature of any resulting T cell-mediated immune response. Although immunity develops to harmful pathogens, tolerance arises to nonpathogenic Ags in healthy individuals. This homeostasis is thought to be disrupted in allergic respiratory disorders such as allergic asthma, such that a potentially damaging Th2-biased, CD4(+) T cell-mediated inflammatory response develops against intrinsically nonpathogenic allergens. Using a mouse model of experimental allergic airways disease (EAAD), we have investigated the functional changes occurring in AMDC and other airway APC populations during disease onset. Onset of EAAD was characterized by early and transient activation of airway CD4(+) T cells coinciding with up-regulation of CD40 expression exclusively on CD11b(-) AMDC. Concurrent enhanced allergen uptake and processing occurred within all airway APC populations, including B cells, macrophages, and both CD11b(+) and CD11b(-) AMDC subsets. Immune serum transfer into naive animals recapitulated the enhanced allergen uptake observed in airway APC populations and mediated activation of naive allergen-specific, airway CD4(+) T cells following inhaled allergen challenge. These data suggest that the onset of EAAD is initiated by enhanced allergen capture and processing by a number of airway APC populations and that allergen-specific Igs play a role in the conversion of normally quiescent AMDC subsets into those capable of inducing airway CD4(+) T cell activation. PMID:17947647

  12. DualTrust: A Trust Management Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.

    2010-05-01

    Trust management techniques must be adapted to the unique needs of the application architectures and problem domains to which they are applied. For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, certain characteristics of the mobile agent ant swarm -- their lightweight, ephemeral nature and indirect communication -- make this adaptation especially challenging. This thesis looks at the trust issues and opportunities in swarm-based autonomic computing systems and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. After analyzing the applicability of trust management research as it has been applied to architectures with similar characteristics, this thesis specifies the required characteristics for trust management mechanisms used to monitor the trustworthiness of entities in a swarm-based autonomic computing system and describes a trust model that meets these requirements.

  13. Do Reputation Systems Undermine Trust? Divergent Effects of Enforcement Type on Generalized Trust and Trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Ko

    2015-03-01

    Research shows that enforcing cooperation using contracts or tangible sanctions can backfire, undermining people's intrinsic motivation to cooperate: when the enforcement is removed, people are less trusting or trustworthy than when there is no enforcement to begin with. The author examines whether reputation systems have similar consequences for generalized trust and trustworthiness. Using a web-based experiment simulating online market transactions (studies 1 and 2), he shows that reputation systems can reinforce generalized trust and trustworthiness, unlike contractual enforcement or relational enforcement based on repeated interactions. In a survey experiment (study 3), he finds that recalling their eBay feedback scores made participants more trusting and trustworthy. These results are predicated on the diffuse nature of reputational enforcement to reinforce perceptions of trust and trustworthiness. These results have implications for understanding how different forms of governance affect generalized trust and trustworthiness. PMID:26421343

  14. Trust Matters: Leadership for Successful Schools, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Make your school soar by escalating trust between teachers, students, and families. Trust is an essential element in all healthy relationships, and the relationships that exist in your school are no different. How can your school leaders or teachers cultivate trust? How can your institution maintain trust once it is established? These are the…

  15. A Novel Trust Service Provider for Internet Based Commerce Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyal, M. Y.; Barkat, B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework for enhancing trust in Internet commerce. Shows how trust can be provided through a network of Trust Service Providers (TSp). Identifies a set of services that should be offered by a TSp. Presents a distributed object-oriented implementation of trust services using CORBA, JAVA and XML. (Author/AEF)

  16. Trust Building via Risk Taking: A Cross-Societal Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Karen S.; Yamagishi, Toshio; Cheshire, Coye; Cooper, Robin; Matsuda, Masafumi; Mashima, Rie

    2005-01-01

    The role of risk taking in building trust relations has largely been overlooked in the burgeoning literature on trust in the social sciences; yet it is central to understanding how trust develops. We argue that a series of risk-taking behaviors is indispensable to building a trust relation. We conducted experiments in Japan and the United States…

  17. The Nature and Function of Trust in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose was to advance and test a theoretical model of the nature and function of trust in schools. Unlike other studies, ours specified school trust as a latent construct manifested through parent and teacher trust perceptions. We hypothesized that trust would have a larger direct effect on collective teacher efficacy and achievement…

  18. Principal Leadership: Building Trust to Support School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Pamela; Mathews, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    To develop trust, leaders must understand the determinants of a trusting organization. This study examined how an elementary school principal, new to a school that had been designated "in need of improvement," reacted to this status and worked to develop trust in a climate of low trust and increasing public accountability. Hoy and Tschannen-Moran…

  19. Collective Trust: Why Schools Can't Improve without It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Patrick B.; Adams, Curt M.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2011-01-01

    The culmination of nearly three decades of research, "Collective Trust" offers new insight and practical knowledge on the social construction of trust for school improvement. The authors argue that "collective trust" is not merely an average trust score for a group, but rather an independent concept with distinctive origins and consequences. The…

  20. An Investigation of Teacher Trust in the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makiewicz, Monica Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the concept of trust, its meaning, antecedents, and outcomes as they applied to teacher trust in principals. Since there are very few in-depth studies specifically on trust in a school principal, research on trust from an organizational perspective was consulted. This body of research has numerous and…

  1. 12 CFR 330.10 - Revocable trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... are commonly referred to as living trusts or family trusts. (Example 1: Account Owner “A” has a living... beneficiary in more than one revocable trust account, whether it be a payable-on-death account or living trust account, does not increase the total coverage amount.) (Example 3: Account Owner “A” establishes a...

  2. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the...

  3. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the...

  4. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the...

  5. Dynamic Trust Management for Mobile Networks and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Fenye

    2013-01-01

    Trust management in mobile networks is challenging due to dynamically changing network environments and the lack of a centralized trusted authority. In this dissertation research, we "design" and "validate" a class of dynamic trust management protocols for mobile networks, and demonstrate the utility of dynamic trust management…

  6. The impact of cuts in legal aid funding on charities

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Debra; Barr, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This article focusses on the specific impact of the cuts in legal aid funding on the charitable sector. The sector plays a significant role in advice giving. Some charities have the provision of legal advice as their sole purpose, whilst the work of other charities includes the giving of legal advice. Funding comes via a number of sources including legal aid, local authorities and charitable trusts. Whilst this volume highlights the legal aid reforms that will lead to significant cuts in funding, this article notes that charitable providers of legal advice have also suffered major cuts from their other traditional funding sources. Against this background, the article considers the serious and often unforeseen consequences for charities of the legal aid reforms, which go far beyond the impact on the high street law firm and access to justice for claimants. PMID:23667296

  7. Possible funding strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    Funding strategies are examined for the AIA rocket propulsion strategic plan. Either the government, industry, or universities can fund the project alone, or it was concluded, it works best if is a combination of these sources.

  8. Fanconi Anemia Research Fund

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support Publications Fundraising News What is the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund? Fanconi anemia is an inherited disease that can lead to ... population. Lynn and Dave Frohnmayer started the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund, in 1989 to find effective treatments ...

  9. Fund Raising with Panache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedman, Robert

    1985-01-01

    The key to fund raising is the donor, and fund raisers should learn to cultivate potential donors, approach them with goals compatible with their own, supplement their thinking, get them involved, and swamp them with gratitude. (MSE)

  10. Educating the Educator: Teaching Airway Adjunct Techniques in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert

    2011-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Athletic Training Education Competencies" ("Competencies") now requires athletic training educators (ATEs) to introduce into the curriculum various types of airway adjuncts including: (1) oropharyngeal airways (OPA), (2) nasopharyngeal airways (NPA), (3) supraglottic airways (SGA), and (4) suction. The addition of these…

  11. Small particles disrupt postnatal airway development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DongYoub; Wallis, Chris; Schelegle, Edward S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Plopper, Charles G.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Kumfer, Ben; Kennedy, Ian M.; Chan, Jackie K. W.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of epidemiologic studies associate air pollution exposure in children with decreased lung function development. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to combustion-generated fine [230 and 212 nm number mean aerodynamic particle diameter (NMAD)] to ultrafine (73 nm NMAD) particles differing in elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon content on postnatal airway development in rats. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from postnatal day 7 through 25, and lung function and airway architecture were evaluated 81 days of age. In a separate group of rats, cell proliferation was examined after a single particle exposure at 7 days of age. Early life exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particles altered distal airway architecture and resulted in subtle changes in lung mechanics. Early life exposure to 212 nm high OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture but did alter lung mechanics in a manner suggestive of central airway changes. In contrast, early life exposure to 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture or mechanics. A single 6-h exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particle decreased airway cell proliferation, whereas 212 nm high OC/EC particles increased it and 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not. The early life exposure to ultrafine, high OC/EC particles results in persistent alterations in distal airway architecture that is characterized by an initial decrease in airway cell proliferation. PMID:20634362

  12. Lung Transplantation: The State of the Airways.

    PubMed

    Husain, Aliya N; Garrity, Edward R

    2016-03-01

    Context .- Lung transplantation has become a viable option for definitive treatment of several end-stage lung diseases for which there are no other options available. However, long-term survival continues to be limited by chronic lung allograft dysfunction, which primarily affects the airways. Objective . -To highlight the complications occurring mainly in the airways of the lung transplant recipient from the early to late posttransplant periods. Data Sources .- Review literature focusing on the airways in patients with lung transplants and clinical experience of the authors. Conclusions .- Postsurgical complications and infections of the airways have decreased because of better techniques and management. Acute cellular rejection of the airways can be distinguished from infection pathologically and on cultures. Separating small from large airways need not be an issue because both are risk factors for bronchiolitis obliterans. Grading of airway rejection needs to be standardized. Chronic lung allograft dysfunction consists of both bronchiolitis obliterans and restrictive allograft syndrome, neither of which can be treated very effectively at present. PMID:26927718

  13. Comparison of analysis methods for airway quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.

    2012-03-01

    Diseased airways have been known for several years as a possible contributing factor to airflow limitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD). Quantification of disease severity through the evaluation of airway dimensions - wall thickness and lumen diameter - has gained increased attention, thanks to the availability of multi-slice computed tomography (CT). Novel approaches have focused on automated methods of measurement as a faster and more objective means that the visual assessment routinely employed in the clinic. Since the Full-Width Half-Maximum (FWHM) method of airway measurement was introduced two decades ago [1], several new techniques for quantifying airways have been detailed in the literature, but no approach has truly become a standard for such analysis. Our own research group has presented two alternative approaches for determining airway dimensions, one involving a minimum path and the other active contours [2, 3]. With an increasing number of techniques dedicated to the same goal, we decided to take a step back and analyze the differences of these methods. We consequently put to the test our two methods of analysis and the FWHM approach. We first measured a set of 5 airways from a phantom of known dimensions. Then we compared measurements from the three methods to those of two independent readers, performed on 35 airways in 5 patients. We elaborate on the differences of each approach and suggest conclusions on which could be defined as the best one.

  14. Breath tests and airway gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joseph C; Hlastala, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    Measuring soluble gas in the exhaled breath is a non-invasive technique used to estimate levels of respiratory, solvent, and metabolic gases. The interpretation of these measurements is based on the assumption that the measured gases exchange in the alveoli. While the respiratory gases have a low blood-solubility and exchange in the alveoli, high blood-soluble gases exchange in the airways. The effect of airway gas exchange on the interpretation of these exhaled breath measurements can be significant. We describe airway gas exchange in relation to exhaled measurements of soluble gases that exchange in the alveoli. The mechanisms of airway gas exchange are reviewed and criteria for determining if a gas exchanges in the airways are provided. The effects of diffusion, perfusion, temperature and breathing maneuver on airway gas exchange and on measurement of exhaled soluble gas are discussed. A method for estimating the impact of airway gas exchange on exhaled breath measurements is presented. We recommend that investigators should carefully control the inspired air conditions and type of exhalation maneuver used in a breath test. Additionally, care should be taken when interpreting breath tests from subjects with pulmonary disease. PMID:16413216

  15. Human airway measurement from CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaesung; Reeves, Anthony P.; Fotin, Sergei; Apanasovich, Tatiyana; Yankelevitz, David

    2008-03-01

    A wide range of pulmonary diseases, including common ones such as COPD, affect the airways. If the dimensions of airway can be measured with high confidence, the clinicians will be able to better diagnose diseases as well as monitor progression and response to treatment. In this paper, we introduce a method to assess the airway dimensions from CT scans, including the airway segments that are not oriented axially. First, the airway lumen is segmented and skeletonized, and subsequently each airway segment is identified. We then represent each airway segment using a segment-centric generalized cylinder model and assess airway lumen diameter (LD) and wall thickness (WT) for each segment by determining inner and outer wall boundaries. The method was evaluated on 14 healthy patients from a Weill Cornell database who had two scans within a 2 month interval. The corresponding airway segments were located in two scans and measured using the automated method. The total number of segments identified in both scans was 131. When 131 segments were considered altogether, the average absolute change over two scans was 0.31 mm for LD and 0.12 mm for WT, with 95% limits of agreement of [-0.85, 0.83] for LD and [-0.32, 0.26] for WT. The results were also analyzed on per-patient basis, and the average absolute change was 0.19 mm for LD and 0.05 mm for WT. 95% limits of agreement for per-patient changes were [-0.57, 0.47] for LD and [-0.16, 0.10] for WT.

  16. Online health information - what can you trust?

    MedlinePlus

    ... detective work, you can find information you can trust. Search for websites of well-known health institutions. Medical schools, professional health organizations, and hospitals often provide online health content. Look ...

  17. Usability and trust in e-banking.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Leotta, Salvatore Nuccio; Lucchiari, Claudio; Misuraca, Raffaella

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the role of usability in trust of e-banking services. A questionnaire was administered to 185 Italian undergraduate working students who volunteered for the experiment (M age = 30.5 yr., SD = 3.1). Participants were differentiated on computer ability (Expert, n = 104; Nonexpert, n = 81) and e-banking use (User, n = 93; Nonusers, n = 92). Analysis showed that the website usability of e-banking services did not play a very important role for the User group. Instead, institution-based trust, e.g., the trust in the security policy of the Web merchant, customers, and the overall trust of the bank were the crucial factors in the adoption of e-banking. PMID:18361127

  18. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust. (a) In... have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  19. 43 CFR 30.180 - May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? 30.180 Section 30.180 Public Lands: Interior Office of... I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? You...

  20. 43 CFR 30.180 - May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? 30.180 Section 30.180 Public Lands: Interior Office of... I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? You...