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Sample records for aix sponsa eggs

  1. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Echols, K.R.; Peterman, P.H.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.04 ??g/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.02 ??g/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. ?? 2008 US Government.

  2. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, T P; Echols, K R; Peterman, P H; May, T W; Orazio, C E; Tillitt, D E; Di Giulio, R T

    2008-11-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.04 microg/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.02 mug/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. PMID:18726540

  3. Incubation temperature influences locomotor performance in young wood ducks (Aix sponsa).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Brittney Cole; Durant, Sarah Elizabeth; Hepp, Gary Richard; Hopkins, William Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Incubation temperature is an important maternal effect in birds that can influence numerous offspring traits. For example, ducklings from eggs incubated at lower temperatures have lower growth rates, protein content, and are in poorer body condition than ducklings from eggs incubated at higher temperatures. Based on these observations, we predicted that incubation temperature would indirectly influence performance through its direct effects on body size. Wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs were incubated at three ecologically relevant temperatures (35, 35.9, 37°C). After hatching, all ducklings were housed under identical conditions and were subjected to aquatic and terrestrial racing trials at 15 and 20 days posthatch (dph). Contrary to our prediction, incubation temperature did not influence most duckling body size parameters at 15 or 20 dph. However, incubation temperature did have a strong influence on locomotor performance independent of body size and body condition. Ducklings hatched from eggs incubated at the lowest temperature had significantly reduced maximum aquatic swim velocity than ducklings from higher temperatures. Maximum terrestrial sprint velocity followed a similar pattern, but did not differ statistically among incubation treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that slight changes in incubation temperature can directly affect locomotor performance in avian offspring and thus provide a significant source of phenotypic variation in natural wood duck populations.

  4. DDE residues in young wood ducks (Aix sponsa) near a former DDT manufacturing plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Cromartie, E.

    1981-01-01

    Breast muscle DDE residues were as high as 5.8 ppm wet-weight basis and 280 ppm lipid-weight basis in young wood ducks (Aix Sponsa) collected on Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge near a former DDT manufacturing plant in northern Alabama. The average DDE residue in wood ducks collected nearest the plant was 46 times background levels 74 km from the plant.

  5. Embryo toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the wood duck (Aix sponsa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Bursian, S.J.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Hinton, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity of the wood duck (Aix sponsa) embryo to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by injecting the toxicant into their eggs. Six groups of wood duck eggs (n = 35 to 211 per trial) were injected with 0 to 4600 pg TCDD/g egg between 2003 and 2005. Injections were made into yolk prior to incubation, and eggs were subsequently incubated and assessed weekly for mortality. Significant TCDD-induced mortality was not observed through day 25 (90% of incubation). Liver, heart, eye, and brain histology were generally unremarkable. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, a biomarker of dioxin-like compound exposure, was induced by 12-fold in the 4600 pg/g treatment relative to controls. The median lethal dose for chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs we dosed identically to wood duck eggs was about 100 pg/g, similar to other assessments of chickens. Among dioxin-like compound embryo lethality data for 15 avian genera, the wood duck 4600 pg/g no-observed-effect level ranks near the middle. Because no higher doses were tested, wood ducks may be like other waterfowl (order Anseriformes), which are comparatively tolerant to embryo mortality from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans when exposed by egg injection. ?? 2008 US Government.

  6. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on nesting wood ducks (Aix Sponsa) at Bayou Meto, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) nesting along Bayou Meto downstream from a hazardous waste site in central Arkansas were contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Residues in eggs, based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), ranged up to 611 parts per trillion (ppt), and egg arithmetic means were 90-fold higher at the site nearest the point source compared with a reference site. We monitored productivity of wood ducks in artificial nest boxes at three sites on the bayou and at a reference site on a separate drainage during 1988-1990. Productivity was suppressed (p 20 to 50 ppt. Oxidative stress and teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting sites nearest the point source. These findings suggest that wood ducks may be more sensitive to PCDD and PCDF contamination than some other aquatic birds and could serve as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants.

  7. Thermal challenge severity differentially influences wound healing in wood duck (Aix sponsa) ducklings.

    PubMed

    Carter, A W; Durant, S E; Hepp, G R; Hopkins, W A

    2013-08-01

    Environmental conditions during early development can profoundly influence an individual's phenotype. Development requires simultaneous maturation and orchestration of multiple physiological systems creating the potential for interaction among key systems and requiring substantial resources. We investigated the influence of thermoregulation on immunocompetence in Wood Duck ducklings (Aix sponsa). At both 1 and 2 days post hatch (dph) we evaluated ducklings' abilities to thermoregulate during a thermal challenge at one of four temperatures (36 [thermoneutral controls], 20, 10, or 5°C). At 3 dph, ducklings received a superficial wound, which was monitored until full recovery to quantify wound healing ability, an ecologically relevant, integrative measure of immune function. We demonstrated that duckling body temperature decreased with increasing thermal challenge severity, thermoregulatory ability increased with age, and thermoregulation had temperature-dependent effects on the immune system. Specifically, a more severe thermal challenge (5°C) resulted in decreased immune performance when compared to a mild challenge (20°C). We conclude that early thermoregulatory experiences are influential in shaping immune responses early in development. Furthermore, our results emphasize that future studies of environmental stressors need to consider multiple physiological endpoints since interaction among systems can result in competing physiological demands.

  8. Experimental susceptibility of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik; Porter, Robert E; Franson, J Christian

    2015-04-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 10(4.54) plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 10(2) and 10(2.9) PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that they play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  9. Experimental susceptibility of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Porter, Robert E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 104.54 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 102and 102.9 PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that ducks play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  10. Availability of nest cavity trees for wood ducks (Aix sponsa) at Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clugston, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The availability of natural cavities for cavitynesting waterfowl, especially wood ducks (Aix sponsa), was unknown ferating forest of Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, ME. An assessment of cavity availability was needed to determine if the existing nesting box program should be increased. During November to March, 199697 and 199798, I sampled 56 onehalf ha random plots, stratified into 5 types (upland hardwood, upland conifer, upland mixwood, wetland conifer, and wetland hardwood) to assess availability of trees with cavities. The predominant tree species with cavities were red maple (Acer rubrum; 39%) and aspen (Populus sp.; 31%); 72% of all trees with cavities were alive. Density ees/plot averaged from 1.0 +0.4 (x +SE) in wetland softwoods to 1.9 +0.4 in upland hardwoods. This low density of potential cavity trees and the small mean dbh (39.4 +1.6 cm) indicate a young forest with few suitable cavities. Forested areas, especially hardwoods near canopy openings, need to be allowed to mature to increase the number and quality of future cavities. An expanded nest box program seems justified.

  11. Dioxin effects on wood duck (Aix sponsa) embryos from sites near paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, D.K.; Melancon, M.J.; Fleming, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Biological and biochemical variables were studied in wood duck embryos from four dioxin-contaminated sites near paper mills in the Southeastern United States and three reference sites. Sites were selected based on a history of dioxin contamination in both sediments and fish. In addition, wood duck embryos collected downstream from an Arkansas Superfund site with demonstrated dioxin-induced reproductive impairment served as positive controls. Whole clutches of eggs were collected from the wild after fifteen days of incubation and mechanically incubated. Two embryos per clutch were sacrificed at pipping and liver monooxygenase activities (BROD, EROD and MROD) were quantified. Hatching success was determined for the remainder of the nest. Preliminary results indicate no difference in monooxygenase activities across sites even though the authors have previously demonstrated induction of monooxygenase activity in wood duck embryos in laboratory studies. In addition, there were no differences in weight at pipping, liver weight and liver weight to body weight ratios. No differences were seen in hatching success or weight at hatch nor were there any gross morphological abnormalities. This may indicate that exposure of wood ducks nesting near these pulp paper mills is below those which cause elevated monooxygenase activities and reproductive impairment.

  12. Hatchability tests with eggs from captive wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doty, H.A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of diet and artificial incubation on fertility and hatchability of wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs and survival of young was measured. Hatchability of eggs from hens fed a diet containing 37 percent protein was increased significantly (P <0.05) over that of hens fed a diet containing 17 percent protein. Hatchability was also significantly (P<0.005) greater for eggs incubated 10 days under hens before being placed in an incubator than for eggs placed in an incubator for the entire period. Ducklings that hatched from naturally started incubation survived at a much higher rate (P<0.001). Egg fertility was not affected by the diets.

  13. AixMICADAS, the accelerator mass spectrometer dedicated to 14C recently installed in Aix-en-Provence, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Edouard; Tuna, Thibaut; Fagault, Yoann; Bonvalot, Lise; Wacker, Lukas; Fahrni, Simon; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2015-10-01

    A compact AMS system dedicated to measuring 14C in ultra-small samples was installed at the CEREGE in Aix-en-Provence at the end of March 2014, together with an automated graphitization system. AixMICADAS operates at around 200 kV with carbon ion stripping in helium leading to a transmission of about 47%. The hybrid ion source works with graphite targets and CO2 gas. It is coupled to a versatile gas interface system that ensures stable gas measurements from different sources: a cracker for CO2 in glass ampoules, an elemental analyzer for combusting organic matter and an automated system to handle carbonate by wet chemistry. The analyses performed during the first half-year of operation show that a precision of about 2‰ is reached on modern samples of about 1 mg of carbon. Measurements of IAEA reference materials of various 14C ages show a good agreement with consensus values. Direct measurements of geological graphites indicate a machine background equivalent to an age of 68,000 years BP. AixMICADAS is thus limited solely by the 14C contamination of samples in the field and in the laboratory. The performances of the gas ion source and its gas interface system were tested with two CO2 production units: the elemental analyzer and the automated carbonate hydrolysis unit. These tests show that samples ranging between 10 and 100 μg C can produce a 12C- ion beam of the order of 10-15 μA during time spans ranging from 3 to 30 min depending on the sample mass. Coupling the automated hydrolysis system to the gas ion source of AixMICADAS, enables us to develop a method involving sequential leaching of carbonate samples with direct 14C measurements of the leached fractions and the residual sample. The main advantage is that all of steps leaching and hydrolysis are performed in the same vial for a particular sample. A sequential leaching was applied to a young carbonate sample (ca. 6600 years BP) whose 14C age agrees with previous determination and which shows no sign of

  14. Eggs and Egg Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The total U. S. egg production in 2009 was 78.5 billion table eggs, with 24 billion broken for the production of egg products. Shell eggs have many uses in homes, restaurants, and institutions, either alone or as ingredients in other foods. Egg products are also popular with consumers and are used i...

  15. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Egg Allergy Print A ... labels carefully. It's work, but it's important. About Egg Allergy Eggs in themselves aren't bad, but ...

  16. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Egg Allergy Print A ... with no problem after that. What Is an Egg Allergy? You probably know that some people are ...

  17. ChromAIX: Fast photon-counting ASIC for Spectral Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Roger; Herrmann, Christoph; Mülhens, Oliver; Maeding, Dale G.

    2011-08-01

    X-ray attenuation properties of matter (i.e. human body in medical Computed Tomography) are energy and material dependent. This dependency is largely neglected in conventional CT techniques, which require the introduction of correction algorithms in order to prevent image artefacts. The exploitation of the inherent energy information contained in the X-ray spectrum allows distinguishing the two main physical causes of energy-dependent attenuation (photo-electric effect and Compton effect). Currently a number of methods exist that allow assessing the energy-dependent attenuation in conventional systems. These methods consist of using two distinct spectra (kVp switching or dual source) or of discriminating low and high energy photons by means of stacking two detectors. Further improvements can be achieved by transitioning to direct-conversion technologies and counting-mode detection, which inherently exhibits a better signal-to-noise ratio. Further including energy discrimination enables new applications, which are not feasible with dual-energy techniques, e.g. the possibility to discriminate K-edge features (contrast agents, e.g. gadolinium) from other contributions to the X-ray attenuation of a human body. The capability of providing energy-resolved information with two or more independent measurements is referred to as Spectral CT.A new proprietary photon-counting ASIC (ChromAIX) has been developed to provide high count-rate capabilities while offering energy discrimination. ChromAIX consists of a pixel array with an isotropic pitch of 300 μm. Each pixel contains independent discriminators that enable the possibility to discretize the incoming photons into a number of energy levels. Extensive electrical characterization has been carried out to assess the performance in terms of count-rate performance and noise. Observed rates exceed 10 Mcps/pixel (Poissonian, mean incoming rates >27 Mcps). The energy resolution is better than 4.1 keV FWHM and has been shown to be

  18. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  19. ChromAIX: a high-rate energy-resolving photon-counting ASIC for spectal computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Roger; Herrmann, Christoph; Mülhens, Oliver; Maeding, Dale G.; Colley, James; Firlit, Ted; Luhta, Randy; Chappo, Marc; Harwood, Brian; Kosty, Doug

    2010-04-01

    In Computed Tomography applications a major opportunity has been identified in the exploitation of the spectral information inherently available due to the polychromatic emission of the X-ray tube. Current CT technology based on indirect-conversion and integrating-mode detection can be used to some extent to distinguish the two predominant physical causes of energy-dependent attenuation (photo-electric effect and Compton effect) by using dual-energy techniques, e.g. kVp switching, dual-source or detector stacking. Further improvements can be achieved by transitioning to direct-conversion technologies and counting-mode detection, which inherently exhibits a better signal-to-noise ratio. Further including energy discrimination, enables new applications, which are not feasible with dual-energy techniques, e.g. the possibility to discriminate K-edge features (contrast agents, e.g. Gadolinium) from the other contributions to the x-ray attenuation of a human body. The capability of providing energy-resolved information with more than two different measurements is referred to as Spectral CT. To study the feasibility of Spectral CT, an energy-resolving proprietary photon counting ASIC (ChromAIX) has been designed to provide high count-rate capabilities while offering energy discrimination. The ChromAIX ASIC consists of an arrangement of 4 by 16 pixels with an isotropic pitch of 300 μm. Each pixel contains a number of independent energy discriminators with their corresponding 12-bit counters with continuous read-out capability. Observed Poissonian count-rates exceeding 10 Mcps (corresponding to approximately 27 Mcps incident mean Poisson rate) have been experimentally validated through electrical characterization. The measured noise of 2.6 mVRMS (4 keV FWHM) adheres to specifications. The ChromAIX ASIC has been specifically designed to support direct-converting materials CdZnTe and CdTe.

  20. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... out. If it's not treated, anaphylaxis can be life threatening. Egg allergy usually first shows up when kids are very young. Most kids outgrow an egg allergy by the time they're 5 years old, but some people stay allergic. The viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken ...

  1. In an Egg Shell: Egg to Chick to Egg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon Electric Company, Chula Vista, CA.

    The goals of this program include enabling students to learn about the anatomy of an avian egg, egg formation, bird embryo development, and the process of egg incubation. This guide is designed to accompany the hands-on experience of incubation and hatching chicken eggs and is organized in three sections. The teaching materials section includes…

  2. A census of students with disabilities and the support provided at the University of Aix-Marseille.

    PubMed

    Prats, Marion; Kerzoncuf, Marjorie; Bensoussan, Laurent; Agresti, Jean-Philippe; Delorge, Béatrice; Viton, Jean-Michel; Delarque, Alain

    2015-09-01

    Access to the college cycle for students with disabilities and their employability have become a priority for universities. The Handicap Mission manages it within the Aix-Marseille University (AMU). Few studies have focused on the students with disabilities' insertion/integration within the universities and on the compensations. The objective of this study is to analyze within the AMU the students with disabilities census and characteristics, and the Handicap Mission's operating. The census was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire (Handi need card: university curriculum, deficiencies, technical and social help, adjustments appealed for at the university). It was performed by the staff at the AMU's Mission Handicap Department/Office. If supporting measures seem to be necessary, the interdisciplinary team (comprised of representatives of the University teaching, Administrative and Technical staff, Mission Handicap staff, Preventive Medicine staff, and partners from associations involved in assisting people with disabilities) then defines and sets up suitable means of assistance. The Handicap Mission improves students with disabilities insertion, defines necessary adjustments, and promotes research on disability. A total of 551 students with disabilities were identified, 304 in law and human sciences. In all, 141 deficiencies encountered related to language disorders, among which 105 were not defined by the students ('Other' in the questionnaire). In all, 519 SWD benefited from extra time when sitting exams and 40 were helped to take notes by others students. Compensations and Handicap Mission improve the monitoring and the link between high school and university for the students with disabilities, promote their exam success, and support them in their working life.

  3. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  4. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  5. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  6. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  7. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  9. EGGS and SCIENCE in Katmandu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Georgeanne; Lonsdale, Stephen M.

    1986-01-01

    Provides examples of science experiments and demonstrations that are centered on the theme of eggs. Activity explanations include: (1) the floating egg; (2) egg-in-the-bottle; (3) walking on eggs; and (4) egg balancing. (ML)

  10. The Egg Joust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  11. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Mosquitoes of the Culex species lay their eggs in the form of egg rafts that float in ... feed on micro-organisms before developing into flying mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  12. Géométrie et cinématique post-oligocène des failles d'Aix et de la moyenne Durance (Provence, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guignard, Pierre; Bellier, Olivier; Chardon, Dominique

    2005-02-01

    The southern termination of the left-lateral 'Moyenne Durance' Fault (FMD) consists in several segments, some being connected to WSW-trending south-verging reverse faults. To the south, the Aix fault is reactivated in a post-Oligocene strike-slip movement showing that these two faults might belong to the same system. This system seems to transfer, in turn, slip to the east-trending, south-verging Trévaresse reverse fault, allowing southward propagation of the Alpine deformation front in western Provence. Fault kinematics analysis shows lateral stress field change between the two faults. Strike-slip stress state is characterized by an average N150°E trending σ1 near the FMD termination, whilst strike-slip and reverse faulting stress states show north-trending σ to the south. To cite this article: P. Guignard et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  13. The Egg Joust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-09-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops,1,2 the egg walk,3 and the great Canadian egg race,4 as well as the mousetrap cars,5 have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate6 students. Students at Greendale High School in suburban Milwaukee, WI, participate in an annual egg-jousting competition that combines the energy of a mousetrap with the delicateness of an egg. For this evening event, students gather in costume for a night of medieval intrigue where parents and friends witness the peril of two eggs colliding while atop their trusty steed.

  14. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  15. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  16. The three eggs experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin Bülbül, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The three eggs experiment concerns 37 pre-service science teachers’ predictions about the impact shapes of three uncooked eggs dropped from different heights. This experiment looks at energy transformation from potential to kinetic energy, where the smaller parts of the egg shell spread far from the center of the impact. This experience encouraged the pre-service science teachers to use their familiar models, such as a fried egg, omelet, puddle, dropping or explosions, to explain their predictions. These models from everyday life presented can be used as a tool to explain unfamiliar phenomena.

  17. Eggs: good or bad?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  18. Food Crystalization and Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Crystalization and Eggs Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. USDA Agricultural Research Service Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit Athens, Georgia, USA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a foo...

  19. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  20. Egg Bungee Jump!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  1. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  2. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  3. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  4. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  5. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  6. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  7. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  8. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  9. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  10. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs. PMID:27516874

  11. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs.

  12. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  13. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  14. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole.

  15. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  16. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  17. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  18. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  19. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  20. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  1. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  2. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  3. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  4. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  5. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  6. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  7. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  8. Hatching Eggs in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    This article provides detailed instructions on how to hatch chicken eggs. Sections include: (1) making the incubator; (2) making the brooder; (3) guidelines for hatching eggs; (4) from incubator to brooder; and (5) recommended readings. (JMK)

  9. Egg Bungee Jump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the spirit of the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996), many teachers attempt to have their students experience science in a constructivist, inquiry-oriented manner. The egg bungee jump activity will certainly support that mode of teaching, and has the added benefit of providing a concrete context within which students can explore…

  10. Egg Donation Brokers

    PubMed Central

    Holwell, Eve; Keehn, Jason; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Sauer, Mark V.; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare Websites of agencies that broker the services women who provide human eggs for in vitro fertilization versus clinics that recruit egg providers. STUDY DESIGN We examined 207 websites, of which 128 were egg provider agency (40%) or clinic (60%) websites that recruited providers online. We compared them regarding several variables related to adherence to American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) guidelines. RESULTS According to their respective websites, agencies were more likely than clinics to mention ASRM guidelines, be located in the West/Pacific, indicate compensation, offer a fee range, set their minimum > $5,000, specify preferable traits, cap provider age at ≤ 31,require an education minimum, allow both parties to meet, discuss short-term risks, and not acknowledge a possible cancer risk. Only 25.5% of agencies and 19.5% of clinics mention psychological/emotional risks, and 11.8% and 5.2%, respectively, mention risks, to future fertility. CONCLUSIONS This research, the first to systematically compare several key aspects of egg provider agencies versus clinics, suggests significant differences in adherence to guidelines, raising several concerns and suggesting needs for consideration of improved monitoring and regulation by ASRM or others. PMID:25552124

  11. Egg Processing Plant Sanitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  12. Effects of cryogenic cooling of shell eggs on egg quality.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Tharrington, J B; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Keener, K M; Jones, F T

    2002-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cryogenic cooling on shell egg quality. Gaseous nitrogen (GN), liquid nitrogen (LN), and gaseous carbon dioxide (GC) were utilized to rapidly cool eggs in a commercial egg processing facility and were compared to traditional cooling (TC). A modified food freezer was attached to existing egg processing equipment in order to expose eggs to the selected cryogen. In Experiment 1, eggs were treated with GN, LN, and TC then stored and tested over 10 wk. Experiment 2 eggs were treated (GC and TC) and evaluated for 12 wk. Quality factors that were measured included Haugh units, vitelline membrane strength and deformation at rupture, and USDA shell egg grades for quality defects. Haugh unit values were greater for cryogenically treated eggs as compared to traditionally cooled eggs (Experiment 1: 73.27, GN; 72.03, LN; and 71.4, TC and Experiment 2: 74.42, GC and 70.18, TC). The percentage of loss eggs in the GN treatment was significantly (P < 0.01) greater than those of the LN and TC treatments. Vitelline membrane strength was greater for the cryogenically cooled eggs versus traditional processing. Vitelline membrane breaking strength decreased over storage time. Vitelline membrane deformation at rupture was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for the cryogenically cooled eggs compared to the traditional eggs in each experiment. Use of the technology could allow for egg quality to be maintained for a longer time, which could increase international markets and potentially lead to extended shelf lives.

  13. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  14. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  15. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  16. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  17. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  18. Estimating repeatability of egg size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Rockwell, R.F.; Sedinger, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Measures of repeatability have long been used to assess patterns of variation in egg size within and among females. We compared different analytical approaches for estimating repeatability of egg size of Black Brant. Separate estimates of repeatability for eggs of each clutch size and laying sequence number varied from 0.49 to 0.64. We suggest that using the averaging egg size within clutches results in underestimation of variation within females and thereby overestimates repeatability. We recommend a nested design that partitions egg-size variation within clutches, among clutches within females, and among females. We demonstrate little variation in estimates of repeatability resulting from a nested model controlling for egg laying sequence and a nested model in which we assumed laying sequence was unknown.

  19. Egg phospholipids and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Blesso, Christopher N

    2015-04-01

    Eggs are a major source of phospholipids (PL) in the Western diet. Dietary PL have emerged as a potential source of bioactive lipids that may have widespread effects on pathways related to inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function. Based on pre-clinical studies, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin appear to regulate cholesterol absorption and inflammation. In clinical studies, egg PL intake is associated with beneficial changes in biomarkers related to HDL reverse cholesterol transport. Recently, egg PC was shown to be a substrate for the generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbe-dependent metabolite associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. More research is warranted to examine potential serum TMAO responses with chronic egg ingestion and in different populations, such as diabetics. In this review, the recent basic science, clinical, and epidemiological findings examining egg PL intake and risk of CVD are summarized.

  20. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  1. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  2. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  3. Fatty acid composition and egg components of specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Holsonbake, T B; Goeger, M P

    2002-01-01

    Egg components, total fat, and fatty acid content of specialty eggs were compared. One dozen eggs were collected and analyzed from each of five different brands from hens fed a diet free of animal fat (SP1), certified organic free-range brown eggs (SP2), uncaged unmedicated brown eggs (SP3), cage-free vegetarian diet brown eggs (SP4), or naturally nested uncaged (SP5). Regular white-shelled eggs were the control. A significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed in the egg components and fatty acid content in different brands. The percentage of yolk was lower (P < 0.05) in SP2 and SP4 with a concomitant increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of white. The percentage of shell was lower (P < 0.05) in SP4 and SP5. The total edible portion was greater in SP4 and SP5. The yolk:white ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in SP3. The total lipid content was lower in SP4 eggs. The content of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and total saturated fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) in SP1. No difference was observed in the content of palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), or total monounsaturated fatty acids. The content of n-3 fatty acids in SP2, SP4, and SP5 were similar to control eggs. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 39.2 for SP5 to 11.5 for SP1 (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the total polyunsaturated fatty acid content of eggs (P > 0.05).

  4. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  5. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and suitable substances that aid in protecting or restoring the whipping properties of liquid egg... whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of the... perform a useful function as whipping aids or in the pasteurization or other treatment to render...

  6. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and suitable substances that aid in protecting or restoring the whipping properties of liquid egg... whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of the... perform a useful function as whipping aids or in the pasteurization or other treatment to render...

  7. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and suitable substances that aid in protecting or restoring the whipping properties of liquid egg... whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of the... perform a useful function as whipping aids or in the pasteurization or other treatment to render...

  8. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official plants. 590.35 Section 590.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities §...

  9. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in... of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. (a) The shell eggs shall be sorted and... as breaking stock. (b) Shell eggs having strong odors or eggs received in cases having strong...

  10. Egg White Phantoms for HIFU

    SciTech Connect

    Divkovic, Gabriela; Jenne, Juergen W.

    2005-03-28

    We used fresh egg white and polyacrylamide to create a transparent tissue mimicking phantom. Heating of phantoms by HIFU leads to egg white protein denaturation and creation of visible white lesions. We measured the acoustical and thermal properties and investigated the possibility to use such phantoms to study the lesion formation during the HIFU therapy.

  11. The Eagle's EGGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    VLT ISAAC Looks for Young Stars in the Famous "Pillars of Creation" Summary Through imaging at infrared wavelengths, evidence has been found for recent star formation in the so-called "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula (also known as Messier 16 ), made famous when the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained spectacular visible-wavelength images of this object in 1995. Those huge pillars of gas and dust are being sculpted and illuminated by bright and powerful high-mass stars in the nearby NGC 6611 young stellar cluster . The Hubble astronomers suggested that perhaps even younger stars were forming inside. Using the ISAAC instrument on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , European astronomers have now made a wide-field infrared image of the Messier 16 region with excellent spatial resolution, enabling them to penetrate the obscuring dust and search for light from newly born stars . Two of the three pillars are seen to have very young, relatively massive stars in their tips. Another dozen or so lower-mass stars seem to be associated with the small "evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs)" that the Hubble astronomers had discovered scattered over the surface of the pillars. These findings bring new evidence to several key questions about how stars are born . Was the formation of these new stars triggered as the intense ultraviolet radiation from the NGC 6611 stars swept over the pillars, or were they already there? Will the new stars be prematurely cut off from surrounding gas cloud, thus stunting their growth? If the new stars have disks of gas and dust around them, will they be destroyed before they have time to form planetary systems? PR Photo 37a/01 : Full wide-field ISAAC image of the Eagle Nebula. PR Photo 37b/01 : Close-up view of the ISAAC image , showing the famous "Pillars of Creation". PR Photo 37c/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 1 . PR Photo 37d/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 2 . PR Photo 37e/01

  12. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  13. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  14. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  15. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  16. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  17. Rigid shells enhance survival of gekkotan eggs.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robin M

    2015-11-01

    The majority of lizards and snakes produce permeable parchment-shelled eggs that require high moisture conditions for successful embryonic development. One clade of gekkotan lizards is an exception; females produce relatively impermeable rigid-shelled eggs that normally incubate successfully under low moisture conditions. I tested the hypothesis that the rigid-shell increases egg survival during incubation, but only under low moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, I incubated rigid-shelled eggs of Chondrodactylus turneri under low and under high moisture conditions. Eggs were incubated with parchment-shelled eggs of Eublepharis macularius to insure that incubation conditions were suitable for parchment-shelled eggs. Chondrodactylus turneri eggs had very high survival (>90%) when they were incubated under low moisture conditions. In contrast, eggs incubated under high moisture conditions had low survival overall, and lower survival than those of the parchment-shelled eggs of E. macularius. Mortality of C. turneri and E. macularius eggs incubated under high moisture conditions was the result of fungal infection, a common source of egg mortality for squamates under laboratory and field conditions. These observations document high survival of rigid-shelled eggs under low moisture conditions because eggs escape from fungal infection. Highly mineralized rigid shells also make egg survival independent of moisture availability and may also provide protection from small invertebrates in nature. Enhanced egg survival could thus compensate for the low reproductive output of gekkotans that produce rigid-shelled eggs.

  18. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  19. Polarity of the Amphibian Egg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Amphibian egg polarity and the mechanism which generates the polarity is addressed. Of particular concern is the question of whether the activation rotation which responds to gravity is a prerequisite for normal development.

  20. Mechanical Hatching Egg Sanitization: A Fresh Look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three to four decades ago, hatching egg sanitization was done by immersion of eggs in an egg-gathering basket (plastic-coated metal wire) into a small vat with a heating element and disinfectant solution. This procedure failed miserably for several reasons. First, the eggs were not subjected to the...

  1. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (P<0.01) higher than white shell color eggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of white shell color eggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of brown shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  2. Whooping crane egg management: options and consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Eggs to build captive whooping crane (Grus americana) flocks and most eggs for reintroduction experiments have come from second viable eggs in 2-egg clutches in Canada. Four years ago, egg removal ceased. Based on reproductive rates for years when second eggs were removed and for years when eggs were not removed, we project numbers of young fledging in the wild and in captivity for the 2 most likely egg-management strategies. From existing data sets, we find that reproductive performance was, on average, better during the era of routine removal of the second viable eggs than when no manipulation occurred. Further, the number of young produced in captivity from the removed eggs, on average, resulted in a doubling of the number of young birds (wild and captive) alive each autumn.

  3. 76 FR 55642 - Regulations for the Inspection of Eggs (Shell Egg Surveillance), Request for Extension and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Regulations for the Inspection of Eggs (Shell Egg... approved information collection in support of the shell egg surveillance portion of the Regulation for the... disposition of dirty and checked shell eggs; to control unwholesome, adulterated, and inedible shell eggs...

  4. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required... INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled. (a) All shell eggs packed into containers destined for the ultimate consumer shall be labeled...

  5. It’s what’s inside that counts: Egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, Mark; Ackerman, Josh; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Hartman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm3) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6–13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  6. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  7. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. PMID:26389951

  8. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  9. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  10. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  11. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  12. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  13. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  14. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  15. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  16. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  17. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  18. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  19. Cytoplasmic rearrangements associated with amphibian egg symmetrization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Cytoplasmic rearrangements which follow fertilization were mentioned in normal and inverted eggs. A set of yolk compartments was resolved by cytological analyses of both normally oriented and inverted eggs. Those compartments were characterized by their yolk platelet compositions and movement during egg inversion. It is found that during egg inversion the yolk compartments shift minor cytoplasmic compartments which line the egg cortex. Those yolk mass shifts occurred only after the inverted egg was activated. The direction of shift of the major yolk components, rather than the sperm entrance site, determines the dorsal/ventral polarity of the inverted egg. Among different spawnings the rate of shift varied. Eggs that displayed the fastest rate of shift exhibited the highest frequency of developmental abnormalities during organogenesis. Interpretation of novel observations on cytoplasmic organization provide criticism of some earlier models. A new density compartment model is presented as a coherent way to view the organization of the egg cytoplasm and the development of bilateral symmetry.

  20. [Denaturation of egg antigens by cooking].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Akaboshi, Chie; Sekido, Haruko; Tanaka, Kouki; Tanaka, Kazuko; Shimojo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Changes in egg protein contents by cooking were measured with an ELISA kit using Tris-HCl buffer in model foods including cake, meatballs, pasta and pudding made with whole egg, egg-white and egg-yolk. The egg protein contents were lowest in the deep-fried model foods of cakes and meatballs. Ovalbumin (OVA) was undetectable (<1 µg/g) and ovomucoid (OVM) was lowest in pouched meatballs, suggesting that processing temperature and uniform heat-treatment affect the detection of egg protein. Furthermore, egg protein contents were below 6 µg/g in the pouched meatballs and pasta made with egg-yolk, and OVA and OVM were not detected by Western blotting analysis with human IgE from patients' serum. On the other hand, processed egg proteins were detected with an ELISA kit using a surfactant and reductant in the extract buffer.

  1. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were <3%. We summarized the literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  2. Fluid dynamics of liquid egg products.

    PubMed

    Kumbár, Vojtěch; Strnková, Jana; Nedomová, Šárka; Buchar, Jaroslav

    2015-06-01

    The rheological behavior of liquid egg products (egg yolk, egg white, and whole liquid egg) was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Eggs of three poultry specimens were used: hen (Isa Brown), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), and goose (Anser anser f. domestica). Rheological behavior was pseudoplastic and flow curves fitted by the power law model (Herschel-Bulkley and Ostwald-De Waele). The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors and velocity profiles during flow of liquid egg products in tube has been shown. PMID:25761859

  3. Acceptance of brown-shelled eggs in a white-shelled egg market.

    PubMed

    Johnston, N P; Jefferies, L K; Rodriguez, B; Johnston, D E

    2011-05-01

    Brown eggs have gradually entered the traditional white-egg markets as a distinctive mode for packaging specialty eggs. A test was conducted at the Brigham Young University Sensory Laboratory (Provo, UT) to understand how consumers view attributes of the brown egg relative to the white egg. The objectives were to see how the consumer viewed properties of eggs by color and to examine the preference for brown color intensity. The 52 panelists were all women who routinely purchased and consumed eggs. Some women (53.8%) consumed eggs twice weekly, and 40.4% purchased them at least every 2 wk. Purchases included specialty eggs (14.6%) consisting of cage-free (50.0%), organic (28.6%), and n-3 enhanced (21.4%) eggs. The panelists preferred white eggs (90.4%). Though brown-shelled eggs did not exceed white eggs in preference, they were perceived positively (white-shelled %:brown-shelled %) as being more nutritious (65:29), having more flavor (27:14) and n-3 content (62:39), having a farm-flock origin (46:44), and being from organically fed hens (56:31) To test the preference for shade of brown eggs, a set of 6 eggs with varying intensities of brown color was evaluated for accepted appearance using a 9-point hedonic scale. The egg color intensities were measured using a Hunter Colorflex spectrophotometer (Hunter Associates Laboratory, Reston, VA) and the CIE system. The lightness (L*) values ranged from 83.2 for the white egg to 63.6 to 46.5 for the brown eggs. A significant (P < 0.05) preference was found for the 2 lighter shades of brown-shelled eggs (L* 63.6 and 57.5). Using the 9-point scale, panelists then compared brown eggs side by side with white eggs. Again, the 2 most light-tinted brown eggs were found most comparable with the white egg in acceptability and better (P < 0.05) than the darker brown eggs. In conclusion, white eggs were preferred over brown eggs; however, brown eggs gained in acceptance but did not exceed white as likely to be more nutritious or

  4. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  5. Antimicrobial potential of egg yolk ovoinhibitor, a multidomain Kazal-like inhibitor of chicken egg.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Marie; Gautron, Joël; Berges, Magali; Attucci, Sylvie; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Labas, Valérie; Nys, Yves; Rehault-Godbert, Sophie

    2011-12-14

    Chicken egg ovoinhibitor is a multidomain Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with unknown function. Comparison of expression between different tissues indicated that ovoinhibitor is highly expressed in the magnum and liver followed by the uterus, which secrete egg white, egg yolk, and eggshell precursors, respectively. The results also revealed that ovoinhibitor expression is increased in the liver during sexual maturation followed by a subsequent decrease in mature hens. Ovoinhibitor was purified from the egg yolk plasma from nonfertilized eggs using two consecutive affinity chromatographies and gel filtration. Purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor was shown to inhibit trypsin and subtilisin. It was shown that purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor exhibited antimicrobial activities against Bacillus thuringiensis . The results suggest that this anti-protease plays a significant role in antibacterial egg defense against Bacillus spp., preventing contamination of table eggs (nonfertilized eggs) and protecting the chick embryo (fertilized eggs).

  6. Rotten Egg Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Violent gas collisions that produced supersonic shock fronts in a dying star are seen in a new, detailed image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    The picture, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    Stars like our Sun will eventually die and expel most of their material outward into shells of gas and dust. These shells eventually form some of the most beautiful objects in the universe, called planetary nebulae.

    'This new image gives us a rare view of the early death throes of stars like our Sun. For the first time, we can see phenomena leading to the formation of planetary nebulae. Until now, this had only been predicted by theory, but had never been seen directly,' said Dr. Raghvendra Sahai, research scientist and member of the science team at JPL for the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

    The object is sometimes called the Rotten Egg Nebula, because it contains a lot of sulphur, which would produce an awful odor if one could smell in space. The object is also known as the Calabash Nebula or by the technical name OH231.8+4.2.

    The densest parts of the nebula are composed of material ejected recently by the central star and accelerated in opposite directions. This material, shown as yellow in the image, is zooming away at speeds up to one and a half million kilometers per hour (one million miles per hour). Most of the star's original mass is now contained in these bipolar gas structures.

    A team of Spanish and American astronomers used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to study how the gas stream rams into the surrounding material, shown in blue. They believe that such interactions dominate the formation process in planetary nebulae. Due to the high speed of the gas, shock-fronts are formed on impact and heat the surrounding gas. Although computer calculations have predicted the existence and

  7. Put Your Eggs in This Basket.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Jeane; Leiva, Miriam

    1988-01-01

    Plastic Easter eggs are useful devices for teaching basic mathematics skills, from counting activities to graphing. Eggs are used to reinforce addition, subtraction, and multiplication skills; column addition, estimation, statistics, and other topics are introduced. Sample activities are described. (JL)

  8. Raw eggs-moving target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Doug

    1999-09-01

    High school physics students often have difficulty with understanding when and where to use an appropriate calculation to solve a problem. In this activity students have to solve a real problem using formulas they have seen before, but in a context with which they are unfamiliar; namely dropping a raw egg on a moving target-their instructor.

  9. Egg Drop: An Invention Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Alan J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes an activity designed to stimulate elementary and junior high students to become actively engaged in thinking creatively rather than only analytically, convergently, or repetitively. The activity requires students to devise means of dropping an egg from a height without it breaking. (JR)

  10. The Chicken and Egg Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  11. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (P<0.01) lower than the eggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (P<0.01; P<0.05). The albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk index of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  12. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... broken promptly. (3) Eggs with meat or blood spots may be used if the spots are removed in an acceptable... to include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with diffused blood in the albumen... other than removable blood and meat spots in the egg meat. (2) Any egg with a portion of the shell...

  13. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... broken promptly. (3) Eggs with meat or blood spots may be used if the spots are removed in an acceptable... to include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with diffused blood in the albumen... other than removable blood and meat spots in the egg meat. (2) Any egg with a portion of the shell...

  14. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance.

  15. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos.

    PubMed

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E

    2014-10-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  16. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos.

    PubMed

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E

    2014-10-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance.

  17. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos

    PubMed Central

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  18. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  19. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  20. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  1. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  2. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  3. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  4. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  5. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  6. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  7. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  8. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  9. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  10. Effect of selenium-enriched probiotics on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium content, and egg glutathione peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Cuiling; Zhao, Yuxin; Liao, Shengfa F; Chen, Fu; Qin, Shunyi; Wu, Xianshi; Zhou, Hong; Huang, Kehe

    2011-11-01

    A 35-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium (Se) content, and egg glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Five hundred 58-week-old Rohman laying hens were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments of 100 each. Each treatment had 5 replicates, and each replicate had 5 cages with 4 hens per cage. The SP was supplemented to a corn-soybean-meal basal diet at 3 different levels that supplied total Se at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg. The basal diet served as a blank control, while the basal diet with supplemental probiotics served as a probiotics control. The results showed that dietary SP supplementation not only increased (p < 0.05) the rate of egg laying, day egg weight, mean egg weight, egg Se content, and egg GPX activity but also decreased (p < 0.05) the feed:egg ratio and egg cholesterol content. The egg Se content was gradually increased (p < 0.05) along with the increasing level of dietary Se. The SP supplementation also slowed down (p < 0.05) the drop of Haugh units (HU) of eggs stored at room temperature. The egg GPX activity had a positive correlation (p < 0.01) with egg Se content and a negative correlation (p < 0.01) with egg HU drop. These results suggested that Se contents, GPX activity, and HU of eggs were affected by the dietary Se level, whereas the egg-laying performance and egg cholesterol content were affected by the dietary probiotics. It was concluded that this SP is an effective feed additive that combines the organic Se benefit for hen and human health with the probiotics benefit for laying hen production performance. It was also suggested that the eggs from hens fed this SP can serve as a nutraceutical food with high Se and low cholesterol contents for both healthy people and patients with hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, or cardiovascular disease. PMID:21942342

  11. Mercury accumulation and loss in mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury as methylmercury chloride. One egg was collected from each bird before the start of the mercury diets and 15 eggs were collected from each bird while it was being fed mercury. The mercury diets were then replaced by uncontaminated diets, and each female was allowed to lay 29 more eggs. Mercury levels in eggs rose to about 7,18, and 35 ppm wet-weight in females fed 5,10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Mercury levels fell to about 0.16,0.80, and 1.7 ppm in the last egg laid by birds that had earlier been fed 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Higher concentrations of mercury were found in egg albumen than in yolk, and between 95 and 100% of the mercury in the eggs was in the form of methylmercury.

  12. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    PubMed

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts.

  13. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  14. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  15. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  16. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  17. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  18. Exploding microwaved eggs--revisited.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Y; Adler, N; Hauben, D J

    2001-12-01

    Different types of injuries are described as caused by the use of microwave ovens. Four of 41 burns from microwave ovens, presented by an international survey in 1986, were due to exploding microwave-heated eggs. Careful review of the English language literature through a Medline search from 1966 to 2000 was performed, in search of burns caused by exploding eggs. Clinical information from the published articles was reviewed and missing information was completed by e-mail correspondence with authors. Our own case was added to the collected data, and a total of 13 cases were analyzed. The average age of patients was 24.3 years (range, 7-49 years). All patients suffered from superficial burns of the mid and upper face, namely the forehead, periorbital region, dorsum of nose and malar areas. All patients with information available complained of ocular disturbances, and three suffered long-term decrease in visual acuity. Long-term skin complications were not reported. In summary, the clinical presentation of a facial injury from an exploding microwave-heated egg is relatively constant and mild. Favorable outcome can be expected but a meticulous ophthalmologic evaluation and a close follow-up are mandatory for prevention of long-term sequelae.

  19. Dioxins and congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls in three avian species from the Wisconsin River, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Hines, Randy K.

    2002-01-01

    Sediments from the Wisconsin River, WI, USA are contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Wet weight concentrations of TCDD and PCBs in eggs were at background levels and highest in the piscivorous hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus; geometric MEAN=7 pg/g TCDD and 0.92 I?g/g PCBs) and lowest in the omnivorous wood duck (Aix sponsa) (<1 pg/g and 0.07 I?g/g); concentrations in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) were intermediate (<1 pg/g and 0.33 I?g/g). Positive accumulation rates of TCDD (8a??19 pg/day) and PCBs (0.4a??0.7 I?g/day) in tree swallow nestlings suggest that the Wisconsin River is the source of these contaminants for tree swallow nestlings. The lower representation of trichlorobiphenyls and tetrachorobiphenyls in hooded merganser eggs compared to wood duck or tree swallow eggs suggests that the hooded merganser or its diet has a greater ability to metabolize lower-numbered PCB congeners than wood ducks or tree swallows.

  20. Egg shape changes at the theropod-bird transition, and a morphometric study of amniote eggs.

    PubMed

    Deeming, D Charles; Ruta, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    The eggs of amniotes exhibit a remarkable variety of shapes, from spherical to elongate and from symmetrical to asymmetrical. We examine eggshell geometry in a diverse sample of fossil and living amniotes using geometric morphometrics and linear measurements. Our goal is to quantify patterns of morphospace occupation and shape variation in the eggs of recent through to Mesozoic birds (neornithe plus non-neornithe avialans), as well as in eggs attributed to non-avialan theropods. In most amniotes, eggs show significant deviation from sphericity, but departure from symmetry around the equatorial axis is mostly confined to theropods and birds. Mesozoic bird eggs differ significantly from extant bird eggs, but extinct Cenozoic bird eggs do not. This suggests that the range of egg shapes in extant birds had already been attained in the Cenozoic. We conclude with a discussion of possible biological factors imparting variation to egg shapes during their formation in the oviduct.

  1. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  2. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    PubMed

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  3. Cracking the shell on egg-hypersensitive patients and egg-containing vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chernin, Leah R; Swender, David; Hostoffer, Robert W

    2011-10-01

    Hens' eggs are a common food in the American diet. They are consumed as a primary food source and added as an ingredient to other foods. In individuals who are hypersensitive to eggs, egg-containing foods can cause mild to severe allergic reactions if ingested. These individuals may also have adverse reactions to vaccines produced on egg media. Vaccines that are created on egg media include those for measles, mumps, and rubella; rabies; yellow fever; and influenza. The authors discuss recent developments in the use of egg-containing vaccines in hypersensitive patients.

  4. Baked Milk and Egg Diets for Milk and Egg Allergy Management.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna H

    2016-02-01

    In baked form, cow's milk and egg are less allergenic and are tolerated by most milk- and egg-allergic children. Not only may including baked milk and egg in the diets of children who are tolerant improve nutrition and promote more social inclusion but there is also evidence that inclusion may accelerate the resolution of unheated milk and egg allergy. Further research is needed on biomarkers that can predict baked milk or egg reactivity; however, data suggest casein- and ovomucoid-specific immunoglobulin E levels may be useful. Physician-supervised introduction of baked milk and egg is recommended because anaphylaxis has occurred. PMID:26617232

  5. Egg arrangement in avian clutches covaries with the rejection of foreign eggs.

    PubMed

    Polačiková, Lenka; Takasu, Fugo; Stokke, Bård G; Moksnes, Arne; Røskaft, Eivin; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš

    2013-09-01

    In birds, the colour, maculation, shape, and size of their eggs play critical roles in discrimination of foreign eggs in the clutch. So far, however, no study has examined the role of egg arrangement within a clutch on host rejection responses. We predicted that individual females which maintain consistent egg arrangements within their clutch would be better able to detect and reject foreign eggs than females without a consistent egg arrangement (i.e. whose eggs change positions more often across incubation). We tested this "egg arrangement hypothesis" in blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrush (T. philomelos). Both species are suitable candidates for research on egg rejection, because they show high inter-individual variation and individual repeatability in egg rejection responses. As predicted, using our custom-defined metrics of egg arrangement, rejecter females' clutches showed significantly more consistent patterns in egg arrangement than acceptor females' clutches. Only parameters related to blunt pole showed consistent differences between rejecters and acceptors. This finding makes biological sense because it is already known that song thrush use blunt pole cues to reject foreign eggs. We propose that a disturbance of the original egg arrangement pattern by the laying parasite may alert host females that maintain a consistent egg arrangement to the risk of having been parasitized. Once alerted, these hosts may shift their discrimination thresholds to be more restrictive so as to reject a foreign egg with higher probability. Future studies will benefit from experimentally testing whether these two and other parasitized rejecter host species may rely on the use of consistent egg arrangements as a component of their anti-parasitic defence mechanisms. PMID:23443406

  6. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Donald J

    2015-10-21

    The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Schistosoma mansoni Egg Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Cynthia L.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Califf, Lindsay L.; Xu, Tao; Hernandez, Hector J.; Stadecker, Miguel J.; Yates, John R.; Williams, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a largely neglected, global health problem. The morbid pathology of the disease stems from the host's inflammatory response to parasite eggs trapped in host tissues. Long term host/parasite survival is dependent upon the successful modulation of the acute pathological response, which is induced by egg antigens. In this study, using Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology, we identified the Schistosoma mansoni egg secretome consisting of 188 proteins. Notably we identified proteins involved in redox balance, molecular chaperoning and protein folding, development and signaling, scavenging and metabolic pathways, immune response modulation, and 32 novel, previously uncharacterized schistosome proteins. We localized a subset of previously-characterized schistosome proteins identified in egg secretions in this study, to the surface of live S. mansoni eggs using the circumoval precipitin reaction. The identification of proteins actively secreted by live schistosome eggs provides important new information for understanding immune modulation and the pathology of schistosomiasis. PMID:17644200

  8. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Donald J.

    2015-01-01

    The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. PMID:26506379

  9. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  10. Quail Egg compared to a quarter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Quail eggs are small (shown here with a quarter for scale) and develop quickly, making them ideal for space experiments. The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels (below), one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations, Development and function of the inner-ear balance system in normal and altered gravity environments, and Skeletal development in embryonic quail.

  11. [Allergy to egg proteins in children].

    PubMed

    Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Cobos, Armando; Montiel-Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pantoja-Minguela, Cinthya Lorena; Pineda-Maldonado, Mario Luis; Piñeyro-Beltrán, Eduardo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1), ovoalbumin (Gal d2), ovotransferrin (Gal d3), lysozyme (Gal d4) and albumin (Gal d5). Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  12. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  13. Transferring profile of dietary sulphaquinoxaline into eggs.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N; Tsuzukida, Y; Kubota, M; Yamaguchi, H

    1998-05-01

    Sulphaquinoxaline (SQ) was fed to laying hens at the dietary levels of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm, respectively, for 7 successive days. The increasing amount of SQ transferred into the whole egg during SQ feeding could be well described by the following equation: [equation: see text] where y is the SQ content (ppm) in the whole egg, x is the dietary SQ level (ppm), T is days on SQ feeding (T < or = 4). After 4 days of SQ feeding, the SQ content in the homogenized eggs reached a plateau at 0.0292.x (= 0.007318.4x) ppm. This equation permits to predict SQ content in the eggs. PMID:9697423

  14. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E; Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin's brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins' rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  15. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U.; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V.; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  16. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E; Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin's brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins' rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  17. Irradiation of shell egg on the physicochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white.

    PubMed

    Min, B; Nam, K C; Jo, C; Ahn, D U

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of irradiation of shell eggs on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white during storage. Color and textural parameters of irradiated liquid egg white after cooking were also determined. Shell eggs were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 kGy using a linear accelerator. Egg white was separated from yolk and stored in at 4°C up to 14 d. Viscosity, pH, turbidity, foaming properties, color, and volatile profile of liquid egg white, and color and texture properties of cooked egg white were determined at 0, 7, and 14 d of storage. Irradiation increased the turbidity but decreased viscosity of liquid egg white. Foaming capacity and foam stability were not affected by irradiation at lower dose (2.5 kGy), but were deteriorated at higher doses (≥5.0 kGy) of irradiation. Sulfur-containing volatiles were generated by irradiation and their amounts increased as the irradiation dose increased. However, the sulfur volatiles disappeared during storage under aerobic conditions. Lightness (L* value) and yellowness (b* value) decreased, but greenness (-a* value) increased in cooked egg white in irradiation dose-dependent manners. All textural parameters (hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience) of cooked egg white increased as the irradiation dose increased, but those changes were marginal. Our results indicated that irradiation of shell egg at lower doses (up to 2.5 kGy) had little negative impact on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white, but can improve the efficiency of egg processing due to its viscosity-lowering effect. Therefore, irradiation of shell eggs at the lower doses has high potential to be used by the egg processing industry to improve the safety of liquid egg without compromising its quality.

  18. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  19. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  20. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  1. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  2. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  3. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  4. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  5. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  6. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  7. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  8. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  9. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  10. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  11. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  12. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  13. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  14. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water... used for hatching purposes and should be collected in a separate container from the nest eggs....

  15. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water... used for hatching purposes and should be collected in a separate container from the nest eggs....

  16. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water... used for hatching purposes and should be collected in a separate container from the nest eggs....

  17. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water... used for hatching purposes and should be collected in a separate container from the nest eggs....

  18. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water... used for hatching purposes and should be collected in a separate container from the nest eggs....

  19. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  20. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  1. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  2. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  3. Short preincubations during egg storage increase hatchability and chick quality in long-stored broiler eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have investigated the efficacy of the SPIDES (short pre-incubations during egg storage) regimen in restoration of hatchability of broiler eggs during 21-day cool storage. Prolonged cool storage reduced hatchability of stored eggs from 92% to 71%. Alternatively, the SPIDES treatment, which consi...

  4. Egg freezing and egg banking: empowerment and alienation in assisted reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, John A.

    2014-01-01

    With the development of rapid freezing of human oocytes, many programs have reported IVF success rates comparable to those achieved with fresh eggs and thawed frozen embryos. Egg freezing is now gaining professional and regulatory acceptance as a safe and effective technique for women who wish to avoid discarding excess embryos, who face fertility-threatening medical treatments, or who want to preserve their eggs for use when they are better situated to have a family. This article focuses on the uses of and justification for egg freezing, the path to professional acceptance, the variability in success rates, and the controversy over freezing eggs for social rather than medical reasons. It also addresses the emergence of egg banking as a separate sector in the infertility industry, the regulatory issues that it poses, and its effect on egg donation. Key here is the legal control of stored eggs by banking women and their options when they wish to dispose of those eggs. The analysis is framed around empowerment and alienation. Egg freezing is generally empowering for women, but the donation or sale of unused eggs to infertile women, egg bankers, and researchers also raises issues of alienation.

  5. Penetration depth of UV in liquid egg white and whole egg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonthermal pasteurization of apple cider using UV light is a well established commercial process. Yet, the extension of UV technology to pasteurizing liquid egg has not occurred, partially due to the limited penetration depth of UV in egg. Therefore, in designing thin film UV reactors for egg produc...

  6. Improved modified pressure imaging and software for egg micro-crack detection and egg quality grading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cracks in the egg shell increase a food safety risk. Especially, eggs with very fine, hairline cracks (micro-cracks) are often undetected during the grading process because they are almost impossible to detect visually. A modified pressure imaging system was developed to detect eggs with micro-crack...

  7. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... manner. (d) All loss or inedible eggs shall be placed in a designated container and be handled as required in § 590.504(c). Inedible and loss eggs for the purpose of this section and § 590.522 are...

  8. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... manner. (d) All loss or inedible eggs shall be placed in a designated container and be handled as required in § 590.504(c). Inedible and loss eggs for the purpose of this section and § 590.522 are...

  9. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and country of origin of the exporter, and the date of pack and quality of the eggs (e.g., checks, or... An Official USDA Processing Plant,” or “Restricted Eggs—Not To Be Used As Human Food.” Such... destination breaking plant. (b) Eggs which are imported for use as human food and upon entry are found...

  10. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food. 590.45 Section 590.45 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  11. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... not intended for use as human food. 590.45 Section 590.45 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food. (a) No person shall buy, sell, or...

  12. Eggs under pressure: components of water potential of chameleon eggs during incubation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Geoffrey K; Andrews, Robin M; Noble, Lydia M

    2010-01-01

    Water exchange of squamate eggs is driven by the difference between the water potentials of eggs and of their nest environment. While osmotic potential is generally assumed to dominate the net water potential of eggs, resistance of the eggshell to stretching also affects egg water potential. We therefore determined osmotic potentials and pressure potentials (mechanical pressure) of eggs of the veiled chameleon Chamaeleo calyptratus over the course of incubation. Because embryos are diapausing gastrulae when eggs are laid and diapause persists several months, the water potential of eggs can be evaluated before it is influenced by the developing embryo. Water uptake during the first 2 wk of incubation was rapid as a result of the large difference between the total water potential of the egg (-848 kPa) and that of its incubation substrate. After about 2 wk, water potential of the egg stabilized at -460 kPa. By day 80 of incubation, the developing embryo and allantois affected water exchange of the egg. The allantoic fluid was initially very dilute, but its osmotic potential decreased to about -200 kPa by the end of incubation. Pressure potential of the egg averaged 25 kPa, with no systematic trend during incubation. The pressure potential exerted by the eggshell reduced the difference between the water potential of the egg and the water potential of the environment, that is, the ability of eggs to take up water. At the time of oviposition, this effect was relatively small, producing a 4%-6% reduction in water potential difference. Once the yolk osmotic potential stabilized, however, the reduction was 12% or more. This observation means that the dynamics of water uptake by squamate eggs cannot be fully understood without consideration of the pressure that is exerted on the contents of eggs by their shells.

  13. Two new hemoglobin variants: Hb Aix-Les-Bains [β5(A2)Pro→Leu; HBB:c.17 C>T] and Hb Dubai [α122(H5)His→Leu (α2); HBA2:c.368 A>T].

    PubMed

    Joly, Philippe; Garcia, Caroline; Lacan, Philippe; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2011-01-01

    We report two new hemoglobin (Hb) variants; one causing an impairment of the N-terminal glycation of the β-globin chain and the other a hematological phenotype of α-thalassemia (α-thal). The first variant is Hb Aix-les-Bains [β5(A2)Pro→Leu] and the second Hb Dubai [α122(H5)His→Leu (α2)]. These two new Hb variants were detected by chromatographic and electrophoretic methods and characterized by molecular studies. Hb Dubai gives an α-thalassemic phenotype and should be routinely detected for preventing severe Hb H disease in couples at-risk for α-thal.

  14. Dioxins and furans linked to reproductive impairment in wood ducks

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T. )

    1994-01-01

    A wetland in central Arkansas was contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and because the area was a major waterflow habitat, we studied the effects of the contamination on nesting wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during 1988-90. Residues in wood duck eggs, based on toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for combined compounds, ranged from 0.2 to 611 parts per trillion (ppt) wet mass (70% were the toxic isomer 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxine [tetraCDD]) and were 50 times higher in eggs from near the point source than from an uncontaminated reference site 111 km away. Nest success, hatching success, and duckling production were suppressed (P < 0.05) at nesting sites 9 and 17 km downstream, as was hatching success 58 km downstream. Egg TEFs were inversely correlated (P < 0.001) with productivity in corresponding nests. In addition, tetraogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting site nearest the point source. The threshold range of toxicity (based on TEFs) where reduced productivity was evident in wood ducks was >20-50 ppt. Wood ducks were sensitive to dioxin and furan contamination, and we recommended it as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants. 26 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Dioxins and furans linked to reproductive impairment in wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    A wetland in central Arkansas was contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and because the area was a major waterfowl habitat, we studied the effects of the contamination on nesting wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during 1988-90. Residues in wood duck eggs, based on toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for combined compounds, ranged from 0.2 to 611 parts per trillion (ppt) wet mass (70% were the toxic isomer 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (tetraCDD)) and were 50 times higher in eggs from near the point source than from an uncontaminated reference site 111 km away. Nest success, hatching success, and duckling production were suppressed (P lt 0.05) at nesting sites 9 and 17 km downstream, as was hatching success 58 km downstream. Egg TEFs were inversely correlated (P lt 0.001) with productivity in corresponding nests. In addition, teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting site nearest the point source. The threshold range of toxicity (based on TEFs) where reduced productivity was evident in wood ducks was gt 20-50 ppt. Wood ducks were sensitive to dioxin and furan contamination, and we recommend it as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants.

  16. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    PubMed

    Golüke, Sarah; Dörrenberg, Sebastian; Krause, E Tobias; Caspers, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited. PMID:27192061

  17. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures ...

  18. Palaeontology: pterosaur egg with a leathery shell.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qiang; Ji, Shu-An; Cheng, Yen-Nien; You, Hai-Lu; Lü, Jun-Chang; Liu, Yong-Qing; Yuan, Chong-Xi

    2004-12-01

    The recent discovery of a pterosaur egg with embryonic skeleton and soft tissues from the Yixian Formation confirmed that the flying pterosaurs were oviparous. Here we describe another pterosaur egg whose exquisite preservation indicates that the shell structure was soft and leathery.

  19. Teaching Science: Air Pressure "Eggs-periments."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can introduce students to various scientific concept concerning motion, air composition, and heat by conducting an experiment: A peeled, hard-boiled egg is sucked into a bottle neck slightly smaller than the egg, after the bottle has been filled and emptied of hot water. Also discusses how students' understanding of the…

  20. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Golüke, Sarah; Dörrenberg, Sebastian; Krause, E. Tobias; Caspers, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial—breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited. PMID:27192061

  1. An egg shell-like retroperitoneal pseudocyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Lun; Li, Hong-Liang; Chen, Hai-Weng; Gan, Wei-Ming

    2011-09-01

    Retroperitoneal pseudocysts are rare entities. Egg shell-like calcified retroperitoneal pseudocyst is rarer. We report a 75-year-old woman with an egg shell-like calcified retroperitoneal pseudocyst. Subsequently, the calcified pseudocyst was dissected and excised completely through laparoscopy via a retroperitoneal approach.

  2. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  3. Microbiology and Safety of Table Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the microbiology of table eggs, effects of processing, regulatory influences, relative risk of egg-borne disease, and the role of retail and consumer practices in outbreaks. Effects of washing, refrigeration, and facility sanitation in US commercial facilities will be describe...

  4. Description of the egg of Aedeomyia squamipennis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Petersen, J L; Linley, J R

    1995-11-01

    The egg of Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribalzaga) is described with the aid of scanning electron micrographs. This study allows separation of the eggs of Ad. squamipennis from the eggs of other mosquitoes inhabiting similar aquatic vegetation. PMID:8551515

  5. Specific gravity of Opisthorchis viverrini eggs.

    PubMed

    Harnnoi, T; Wijit, A; Morakote, N; Pipitgool, V; Maleewong, W

    1998-12-01

    The specific gravity of the eggs of the liver fluke Opisthorchisviverrini was determined using a sucrose gradient centrifugation and found to range from 1.2713 to 1.3043. The peak egg count was located at the sucrose fraction with a specific gravity of 1.2814. An attempt to float eggs in saturated sodium nitrate solution, sp.gr. 1.4, failed. Examination of human stool specimens for Oviverrini eggs by simple flotation in saturated sodium nitrate solution and the formol-ether sedimentation technique revealed that the flotation technique was not as efficient as the sedimentation technique. It was suggested that the flotation techniques were inappropriate for the detection of Oviverrini eggs in faeces or contaminated soil.

  6. Hydrolysed egg displays strong decrease in allergenicity and is well tolerated by egg-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Ballmer-Weber, B K; Brockow, K; Fiocchi, A; Theler, B; Vogel, L; Ring, J; Szépfalusi, Z; Mazzina, O; Schaller, R; Fritsché, R; Vissers, Y M; Nutten, S

    2016-05-01

    Food allergies are believed to be on the rise, and currently, management relies on the avoidance of the food. Hen's egg allergy is after cow's milk allergy the most common food allergy; eggs are used in many food products and thus difficult to avoid. A technological process using a combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and heat treatment was designed to produce modified hen's egg with reduced allergenic potential. Biochemical (SDS-PAGE, Size exclusion chromatography and LC-MS/MS) and immunological (ELISA, immunoblot, RBL-assays, animal model) analysis showed a clear decrease in intact proteins as well as a strong decrease of allergenicity. In a clinical study, 22 of the 24 patients with a confirmed egg allergy who underwent a double-blind food challenge with the hydrolysed egg remained completely free of symptoms. Hydrolysed egg products may be beneficial as low-allergenic foods for egg-allergic patients to extent their diet.

  7. Light Dulls and Darkens Bird Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Johanna Y.; Lahti, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Although egg color is generally consistent within individual birds and robust to environmental variation, recent evidence suggests a degree of susceptibility to environmental perturbation or modulation of egg color. Most of this variation manifests via the physiology of the laying female, but some direct impacts of the environment on laid eggs have also been discovered. Here we test whether light changes bird egg color and we quantify its effect, by subjecting variable blue-green eggs of Rüppell's weaver (Ploceus galbula) to a broad-spectrum light source under laboratory conditions, and measuring egg reflectance every few hours. Eggshells gradually decreased in reflectance across the entire measured wavelength spectrum of 250–800 nm. Reflectance peaks were disproportionately affected, such that the height decreased of both the blue-green peak and the smaller UV peak typical of blue-green eggs. The reflectance of lighter eggs was affected slightly more than that of darker eggs. These changes are similar to previous results for changes over long periods of time in darkness, suggesting that light might hasten the same process of pigment degradation that proceeds even without light. Comparison between the experimental light source and both sunlight and typical artificial lighting situations raises the possibility that significant color change might occur during incubation in some birds, but indicates that eggshell illumination in museums for short periods of study is unlikely to affect their color to a detectable extent. Additional research should be performed on eggs of other species and in other light environments, with an eye to an eventual generalized model of the effect of light on eggshell color. PMID:25541724

  8. Upright Imaging of Drosophila Egg Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Lathiena; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis provides an ideal context for studying varied developmental processes since the ovary is relatively simple in architecture, is well-characterized, and is amenable to genetic analysis. Each egg chamber consists of germ-line cells surrounded by a single epithelial layer of somatic follicle cells. Subsets of follicle cells undergo differentiation during specific stages to become several different cell types. Standard techniques primarily allow for a lateral view of egg chambers, and therefore a limited view of follicle cell organization and identity. The upright imaging protocol describes a mounting technique that enables a novel, vertical view of egg chambers with a standard confocal microscope. Samples are first mounted between two layers of glycerin jelly in a lateral (horizontal) position on a glass microscope slide. The jelly with encased egg chambers is then cut into blocks, transferred to a coverslip, and flipped to position egg chambers upright. Mounted egg chambers can be imaged on either an upright or an inverted confocal microscope. This technique enables the study of follicle cell specification, organization, molecular markers, and egg development with new detail and from a new perspective. PMID:25867882

  9. Upright imaging of Drosophila egg chambers.

    PubMed

    Manning, Lathiena; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle

    2015-03-13

    Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis provides an ideal context for studying varied developmental processes since the ovary is relatively simple in architecture, is well-characterized, and is amenable to genetic analysis. Each egg chamber consists of germ-line cells surrounded by a single epithelial layer of somatic follicle cells. Subsets of follicle cells undergo differentiation during specific stages to become several different cell types. Standard techniques primarily allow for a lateral view of egg chambers, and therefore a limited view of follicle cell organization and identity. The upright imaging protocol describes a mounting technique that enables a novel, vertical view of egg chambers with a standard confocal microscope. Samples are first mounted between two layers of glycerin jelly in a lateral (horizontal) position on a glass microscope slide. The jelly with encased egg chambers is then cut into blocks, transferred to a coverslip, and flipped to position egg chambers upright. Mounted egg chambers can be imaged on either an upright or an inverted confocal microscope. This technique enables the study of follicle cell specification, organization, molecular markers, and egg development with new detail and from a new perspective.

  10. As the egg turns: monitoring egg attendance behavior in wild birds using novel data logging technology.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Scott A; Clatterbuck, Corey A; Kelsey, Emma C; Naiman, Alex D; Young, Lindsay C; VanderWerf, Eric A; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1-7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h(-1)) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1-10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h(-1)) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4 °C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding.

  11. Brood parasite eggs enhance egg survivorship in a multiply parasitized host

    PubMed Central

    Gloag, Ros; Fiorini, Vanina D.; Reboreda, Juan C.; Kacelnik, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Despite the costs to avian parents of rearing brood parasitic offspring, many species do not reject foreign eggs from their nests. We show that where multiple parasitism occurs, rejection itself can be costly, by increasing the risk of host egg loss during subsequent parasite attacks. Chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus) are heavily parasitized by shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis), which also puncture eggs in host nests. Mockingbirds struggle to prevent cowbirds puncturing and laying, but seldom remove cowbird eggs once laid. We filmed cowbird visits to nests with manipulated clutch compositions and found that mockingbird eggs were more likely to escape puncture the more cowbird eggs accompanied them in the clutch. A Monte Carlo simulation of this ‘dilution effect’, comparing virtual hosts that systematically either reject or accept parasite eggs, shows that acceptors enjoy higher egg survivorship than rejecters in host populations where multiple parasitism occurs. For mockingbirds or other hosts in which host nestlings fare well in parasitized broods, this benefit might be sufficient to offset the fitness cost of rearing parasite chicks, making egg acceptance evolutionarily stable. Thus, counterintuitively, high intensities of parasitism might decrease or even reverse selection pressure for host defence via egg rejection. PMID:22158956

  12. Eggs as energy: revisiting the scaling of egg size and energetic content among echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Moran, A L; McAlister, J S; Whitehill, E A G

    2013-08-01

    Marine organisms exhibit substantial life-history diversity, of which egg size is one fundamental parameter. The size of an egg is generally assumed to reflect the amount of energy it contains and the amount of per-offspring maternal investment. Egg size and energy are thought to scale isometrically. We investigated this relationship by updating published datasets for echinoderms, increasing the number of species over those in previous studies by 62%. When we plotted egg energy versus egg size in the updated dataset we found that planktotrophs have a scaling factor significantly lower than 1, demonstrating an overall trend toward lower energy density in larger planktotrophic eggs. By looking within three genera, Echinometra, Strongylocentrotus, and Arbacia, we also found that the scaling exponent differed among taxa, and that in Echinometra, energy density was significantly lower in species with larger eggs. Theoretical models generally assume a strong tradeoff between egg size and fecundity that limits energetic investment and constrains life-history evolution. These data suggest that the evolution of egg size and egg energy content can be decoupled, possibly facilitating response to selective factors such as sperm limitation which could act on volume alone.

  13. Brood parasite eggs enhance egg survivorship in a multiply parasitized host.

    PubMed

    Gloag, Ros; Fiorini, Vanina D; Reboreda, Juan C; Kacelnik, Alex

    2012-05-01

    Despite the costs to avian parents of rearing brood parasitic offspring, many species do not reject foreign eggs from their nests. We show that where multiple parasitism occurs, rejection itself can be costly, by increasing the risk of host egg loss during subsequent parasite attacks. Chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus) are heavily parasitized by shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis), which also puncture eggs in host nests. Mockingbirds struggle to prevent cowbirds puncturing and laying, but seldom remove cowbird eggs once laid. We filmed cowbird visits to nests with manipulated clutch compositions and found that mockingbird eggs were more likely to escape puncture the more cowbird eggs accompanied them in the clutch. A Monte Carlo simulation of this 'dilution effect', comparing virtual hosts that systematically either reject or accept parasite eggs, shows that acceptors enjoy higher egg survivorship than rejecters in host populations where multiple parasitism occurs. For mockingbirds or other hosts in which host nestlings fare well in parasitized broods, this benefit might be sufficient to offset the fitness cost of rearing parasite chicks, making egg acceptance evolutionarily stable. Thus, counterintuitively, high intensities of parasitism might decrease or even reverse selection pressure for host defence via egg rejection.

  14. As the Egg Turns: Monitoring Egg Attendance Behavior in Wild Birds Using Novel Data Logging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Scott A.; Clatterbuck, Corey A.; Kelsey, Emma C.; Naiman, Alex D.; Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C.

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1–7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h−1) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1–10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h−1) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4°C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding. PMID:24887441

  15. Rotational Collision Apparatus for Indoor Egg Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halada, Richard

    2003-05-01

    Our units about momentum and energy are richly illustrated with applications to car crashes and explanations of such safety features as airbags and crumple zones. The main lab exercise, however, is an egg crash (car insurance rates being so much higher). Fairly standard rules apply: Students must devise an "egg-protection package" that will keep a teacher-supplied egg intact through two successive impacts. After the test, they must hand in a written analysis of the specific physics principles they employed, modifications they would make after seeing their project's actual performance, and suggestions for applying their protection system to auto safety.

  16. Selenium accumulation and loss in mallard eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz, G.H. )

    1993-04-01

    Five female mallards (Anas platyhynchos) that had just started egg laying were first fed a diet containing 15 ppm selenium in the form of selenomethionine for 20 d and then an untreated diet for 20 d. Selenium levels in eggs peaked (to about 13-20 ppm) in about two weeks on the treated diet and leveled off at a low level (< 5 ppm) after about 10 d back on the untreated diet. Selenium levels in egg whites responded faster than levels in yolks to the females' consumption of treated and untreated diets.

  17. Predation on lake trout eggs and fry: A modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Bowen, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A general model was developed to examine the effects of multiple predators on survival of eggs and fry of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, associated with spawning reefs. Three kinds of predation were simulated: epibenthic egg predators consuming eggs on the substrate surface during spawning, interstitial egg predators that can move in rocky substrate and consume incubating eggs, and fry predators. Also simulated was the effect of water temperature on predation rates. The model predicted that interstitial predation on eggs accounted for most (76 to 81%) of the predation on early life history stages of lake trout; epibenthic egg predation (12 to 19%) and fry predation (0 to 12%) had less effect on lake trout survival. Initial predation conditions chosen for the model were: epibenthic egg predation peaked at 2 eggs/mA?/d over 30 d, insterstitial egg predation at 2 eggs/mA?/d over 180 d, and fry predation at 1 fry/mA?/d over 60 d. With a starting egg density of 100 eggs/mA? and initial predation conditions, no lake trout were estimated to survive to swim-up. At egg densities of 250 eggs/mA?, 36% of the lake trout survived. At the highest egg densities examined, 500 to 1,000 eggs/mA?, estimated survival increased to about 70 to 80%. Simulated survival rates of lake trout decreased dramatically as predation rate increased but were not as sensitive to increases in the duration of predation.

  18. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

    1982-01-01

    One egg from each of 440 clutches of eggs of 19 species of Alaskan seabirds collected in 1973-76 was analyzed for organochlorine residues. All eggs contained DDE; 98.9% contained PCB's; 84.3%, oxychlordane; and 82.7%, HCB. Endrin was found in only one egg, but DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, cis-chlordane (or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, and toxaphene each occurred in at least 22% of the samples.Concentrations of organochlorines in the samples were generally low. Mean concentrations of eight compounds were highest in eggs of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from three sites: DDE (5.16 ppm, wet weight), dieldrin (0.214 ppm), oxychlordane (0.251 ppm), and PCB's (3.55 ppm) in eggs from Bogoslof Island; heptachlor epoxide (0.037 ppm), cis-chlordane (0.075 ppm), and HCB (0.188 ppm) in eggs from Buldir Island; and cis-nonachlor (0.026 ppm) in eggs from the Semidi Islands. Highest concentrations of DDD (0.157 ppm), DDT (0.140 ppm), and toxaphene (0.101 ppm) were in eggs of fork-tailed storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) from Buldir Island, and the highest concentration of mirex (0.044 ppm) was in fork-tailed storm-petrel eggs from the Barren Islands.Both frequency of occurrence and concentration of residues in the eggs differed geographically and by species, apparently reflecting non-uniform distribution of organochlorines in the environment, dissimilar feeding habits and migration patterns of the species, or metabolic differences among the species.The overall frequency of residue occurrence was highest in eggs from the Pribilof Islands, but only three species were represented in the samples collected there. Detectable residues also were more frequent in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska colonies than elsewhere, and the lowest frequency was in eggs from nesting colonies on or near the Seward Peninsula. Regionally, concentrations of DDE and PCB's were usually higher than average in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska and lower than average in eggs from the

  19. Egg number-egg size: an important trade-off in parasite life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2014-03-01

    Parasites produce from just a few to many eggs of variable size, but our understanding of the factors driving variation in these two life history traits at the intraspecific level is still very fragmentary. This study evaluates the importance of performing multilevel analyses on egg number and egg size, while characterising parasite life history strategies. A total of 120 ovigerous females of Octopicola superba (Copepoda: Octopicolidae) (one sample (n=30) per season) were characterised with respect to different body dimensions (total length; genital somite length) and measures of reproductive effort (fecundity; mean egg diameter; total reproductive effort; mean egg sac length). While endoparasites are suggested to follow both an r- and K-strategy simultaneously, the evidence found in this and other studies suggests that environmental conditions force ectoparasites into one of the two alternatives. The positive and negative skewness of the distributions of fecundity and mean egg diameter, respectively, suggest that O. superba is mainly a K-strategist (i.e. produces a relatively small number of large, well provisioned eggs). Significant sample differences were recorded concomitantly for all body dimensions and measures of reproductive effort, while a general linear model detected a significant influence of season*parasite total length in both egg number and size. This evidence suggests adaptive phenotypic plasticity in body dimensions and size-mediated changes in egg production. Seasonal changes in partitioning of resources between egg number and size resulted in significant differences in egg sac length but not in total reproductive effort. Evidence for a trade-off between egg number and size was found while controlling for a potential confounding effect of parasite total length. However, this trade-off became apparent only at high fecundity levels, suggesting a state of physiological exhaustion. PMID:24462500

  20. Egg number-egg size: an important trade-off in parasite life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2014-03-01

    Parasites produce from just a few to many eggs of variable size, but our understanding of the factors driving variation in these two life history traits at the intraspecific level is still very fragmentary. This study evaluates the importance of performing multilevel analyses on egg number and egg size, while characterising parasite life history strategies. A total of 120 ovigerous females of Octopicola superba (Copepoda: Octopicolidae) (one sample (n=30) per season) were characterised with respect to different body dimensions (total length; genital somite length) and measures of reproductive effort (fecundity; mean egg diameter; total reproductive effort; mean egg sac length). While endoparasites are suggested to follow both an r- and K-strategy simultaneously, the evidence found in this and other studies suggests that environmental conditions force ectoparasites into one of the two alternatives. The positive and negative skewness of the distributions of fecundity and mean egg diameter, respectively, suggest that O. superba is mainly a K-strategist (i.e. produces a relatively small number of large, well provisioned eggs). Significant sample differences were recorded concomitantly for all body dimensions and measures of reproductive effort, while a general linear model detected a significant influence of season*parasite total length in both egg number and size. This evidence suggests adaptive phenotypic plasticity in body dimensions and size-mediated changes in egg production. Seasonal changes in partitioning of resources between egg number and size resulted in significant differences in egg sac length but not in total reproductive effort. Evidence for a trade-off between egg number and size was found while controlling for a potential confounding effect of parasite total length. However, this trade-off became apparent only at high fecundity levels, suggesting a state of physiological exhaustion.

  1. Imaging Calcium in Drosophila at Egg Activation.

    PubMed

    Derrick, Christopher J; York-Andersen, Anna H; Weil, Timothy T

    2016-01-01

    Egg activation is a universal process that includes a series of events to allow the fertilized egg to complete meiosis and initiate embryonic development. One aspect of egg activation, conserved across all organisms examined, is a change in the intracellular concentration of calcium (Ca(2+)) often termed a 'Ca(2+) wave'. While the speed and number of oscillations of the Ca(2+) wave varies between species, the change in intracellular Ca(2+) is key in bringing about essential events for embryonic development. These changes include resumption of the cell cycle, mRNA regulation, cortical granule exocytosis, and rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. In the mature Drosophila egg, activation occurs in the female oviduct prior to fertilization, initiating a series of Ca(2+)-dependent events. Here we present a protocol for imaging the Ca(2+) wave in Drosophila. This approach provides a manipulable model system to interrogate the mechanism of the Ca(2+) wave and the downstream changes associated with it. PMID:27584955

  2. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit... render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as...

  3. Experimental Shifts in Intraclutch Egg Color Variation Do Not Affect Egg Rejection in a Host of a Non-Egg-Mimetic Avian Brood Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host’s ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins’ behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch. PMID:25831051

  4. Experimental shifts in intraclutch egg color variation do not affect egg rejection in a host of a non-egg-mimetic avian brood parasite.

    PubMed

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host's ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins' behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch.

  5. Host intra-clutch variation, cuckoo egg matching and egg rejection by great reed warblers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Michael I.; Bennett, Andrew T. D.; Moskát, Csaba

    2007-06-01

    Prevailing theory predicts that lower levels of intra-clutch variation in host eggs facilitate the detection of brood parasitism. We assessed egg matching using both human vision and UV-VIS spectrophotometry and then followed the nest fate of great reed warblers naturally parasitised by European cuckoos. Rejection was predicted by the following three variables: matching between cuckoo and host eggs on the main chromatic variable defined by principal components analysis of the egg spectra (which has a strong loading in the UV); the number of host eggs in the nest; and human estimates of intra-clutch variation. The first variable is not correlated to human estimates of matching, which do not predict rejection. In line with another recent study, rejection rates were predicted by higher levels of intra-clutch variation in the host eggs, suggesting that higher rather than lower levels of intra-clutch variation can facilitate the discrimination of cuckoo eggs by hosts. We suggest that the importance of intra-clutch variation is context dependent, with intra-clutch variation being important when there is good matching between the host and the cuckoo eggs. Our results also suggest that both spectrometric and human visual assessments of egg matching and intra-clutch variation are prudent: the former provide the best method of estimating reflectance variation, whereas the latter include some assessment of patterns of maculation.

  6. Is the HFEA's policy on compensating egg donors and egg sharers defensible?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    This paper asks whether the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority's (HFEA's) recently revised policies on compensating egg donors and egg sharers are defensible, paying particular heed to the ethical arguments, concepts, and principles deployed in support of them. The paper proceeds by briefly outlining both the 'old' and 'new' HFEA policies before describing and explaining the main arguments that are supposed to underpin these. The arguments are then subjected to scrutiny and generally found wanting. The paper's primary conclusion is that treating egg sharers more generously than egg donors (which is what both the 'old' and 'new' policies do) is inconsistent and unjustified. In order to render the HFEA's policies consistent, it would need either to limit more strictly the benefits-in-kind available to egg sharers or to take a more permissive approach to monetary compensation for egg donors. The paper's secondary conclusion is that the latter is preferable. Egg donors could, provided that suitable regulatory controls were in place, be compensated more generously without this being ethically problematic. Furthermore, since egg sharing is in some respects more problematic than other forms of egg donation, there is something to be said for encouraging a move away from sharing to donation.

  7. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... decharacterant, such as FD&C brown, blue, black, or green colors, meat and fish by-products, grain and milling by... the egg meat. Except that, lots of eggs containing significant percentages of blood spots or meat spots, but no other types of loss or inedible eggs may be shipped directly to official egg...

  8. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  9. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  10. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG..., and Facility Requirements § 590.549 Dried egg storage. Dried egg storage shall be sufficient...

  11. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG..., and Facility Requirements § 590.549 Dried egg storage. Dried egg storage shall be sufficient...

  12. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG..., and Facility Requirements § 590.549 Dried egg storage. Dried egg storage shall be sufficient...

  13. 7 CFR 57.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 57.800 Section 57... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of...

  14. Aeromonas chitinase degrades chironomid egg masses.

    PubMed

    Laviad, Sivan; Golan, Amnon; Shaked, Tamar; Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Halpern, Malka; Pick, Elah

    2016-02-01

    Chironomids are freshwater insects that undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages. Chironomid egg masses can be degraded by Vibrio cholerae and some Aeromonas species. Egg mass degradation by V. cholerae requires haemagglutinin protease activity. Our aim was to identify the egg mass degrading (EMD) factor secreted by Aeromonas dhkanesis 3K1C15. Following the hypothesis that the EMD factor of A. dhkanesis is also a protease, secreted proteases were screened, but none of them proved to have the same properties as the EMD factor. Using conventional protein purification methods, we found that the active fraction included chitinases. We further confirmed chitin as a building block of the egg masses. Interestingly, by supplementing bacterial growth media with chitin, we observed unexpected EMD factor activity in Aeromonas isolates that initially were not able to degrade egg masses. Accordingly, we concluded that although strain 3K1C15 secretes chitinases constitutively, most Aeromonas strains secrete chitinases inductively. Induction of chitinases in nature presumably occurs when bacteria are attached to the egg mass habitat, in which chitin is abundant. Considering that chitinases are highly conserved across bacteria phyla, we assume that the role of this enzyme in the bacteria-insect interplay could be wider than is currently thought. PMID:26472256

  15. Molecular diagnosis of egg allergy: an update.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Hen's egg allergy affects up to 2.5% of young children and is potentially life-threatening. Several phenotypes of egg allergy have been identified, including those who tolerate extensively heated egg in bakery products. Diagnosis and monitoring for resolution often requires oral food challenges, which can result in anaphylaxis. Newer approaches, such as component-resolved diagnostics, microarray analysis and epitope mapping, are being evaluated to determine if these strategies can replace or reduce the need for oral food challenges. Studies suggest that elevated levels of ovomucoid IgE indicate an inability to tolerate extensively heated forms of egg. Egg protein-specific IgE/IgG4 ratios may be helpful in predicting tolerance. Additionally, patients with conformational epitopes to hen's egg are more likely to resolve their allergy compared with those with IgE binding to sequential epitopes. The pairing of microarray technology to epitope mapping is a potential tool to improve diagnosis. This review examines the current body of literature on these tools. PMID:25975845

  16. Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Piesman, Joseph; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ticks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. In the Americas, the Ixodidae ticks Amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. In the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern Brazil. Additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes scapularis tick eggs were also performed. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified 17 different bacterial types identified as Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus spp., distributed in 12 phylogroups. Staphylococcus spp., especially S. sciuri, was the most prevalent bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs, occurring in 65% of the samples and also frequently observed infecting A. nitens eggs. S. maltophilia, S. marcescens and B. cereus occurred infecting eggs derived from specific sampling sites, but in all cases rising almost as pure cultures from infected A. cajennense eggs. The potential role of these bacterial associations is discussed and they possibly represent new targets for biological control strategies of ticks and tick borne diseases. PMID:26537602

  17. Prevalence of Pathogens Associated with Eggs and the Environment of Conventional Cage and Free Range Egg Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative egg production methods are becoming more popular with US consumers. As the drive to expand the retail shell egg market to accommodate consumer shifts proceeds, a need arises for additional information to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study ...

  18. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Eggs, other than hatching eggs, from birds or poultry from flocks not known to be infected with END may... obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (2) The eggs have been cleaned and sanitized in accordance with 9 CFR... processing and layer facilities, the incoming and outgoing eggs at the establishment, and any flocks that...

  19. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Eggs, other than hatching eggs, from birds or poultry from flocks not known to be infected with END may... obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (2) The eggs have been cleaned and sanitized in accordance with 9 CFR... processing and layer facilities, the incoming and outgoing eggs at the establishment, and any flocks that...

  20. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Eggs, other than hatching eggs, from birds or poultry from flocks not known to be infected with END may... obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (2) The eggs have been cleaned and sanitized in accordance with 9 CFR... processing and layer facilities, the incoming and outgoing eggs at the establishment, and any flocks that...

  1. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by <2% of volume on average from host eggs, whereas randomly paired eggs in random nests differed by nearly 8%. The precision with which parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  2. Physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of preserved duck egg white.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Tu, Yonggang; Xu, Mingsheng; Li, Jianke; Du, Huaying

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of preserved duck egg white were analyzed and compared with fresh egg and hard-cooked egg white (n = 3). The data obtained showed that the preserved egg white was rich in essential amino acids and minerals, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, K, and Na. After fresh duck eggs were processed into preserved eggs, contents of moisture, CP, amino acid, and water-soluble vitamin of egg white significantly decreased (P < 0.05); however, pH, free amino acid content, and most inorganic elemental contents of egg white significantly increased (P < 0.05). The preserved egg white had higher a* (redness/greenness) and b* values (yellowness/blueness; P < 0.05) and lower L* value (lightness; P < 0.05) than hard-cooked egg white. The gel hardness of preserved egg white was approximately 50% of hard-cooked egg white; however, its springiness and cohesiveness were approximately 1.5 times of hard-cooked egg white. The results indicated that pickling with alkaline and other additives can significantly change physical properties and chemical composition of duck egg white, which make preserved egg white with characteristics of rich elements, brown color, and high springiness, but low vitamin. PMID:25332139

  3. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin at cross contamination levels in the feed to egg matrices and distribution between egg yolk and egg white.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-05-01

    Chemical residues may be present in eggs from laying hens' exposure to drugs or contaminants. These residues may pose risks to human health. In this study, laying hens received experimental feed containing flubendazole or tylosin at cross contamination levels of 2.5, 5, and 10% of the therapeutic dose. Eggs were collected daily and analysis of the whole egg, egg white, and egg yolk was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Highest concentrations of the parent molecule flubendazole, as well as the hydrolyzed and the reduced metabolite, were detected in egg yolk. Residue concentrations of the parent molecule were higher compared with those of the metabolites in all egg matrices. No tylosin residue concentrations were detected above the limit of quantification for all concentration groups and in all egg matrices. Neither molecule exceeded the set maximum residue limits.

  4. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Containers and portable tanks of edible egg products, prior to leaving the official plant, shall be labeled... products to nonofficial outlets need not be sealed. Bulk shipments of liquid egg products transported from one official plant to another shall be sealed and accompanied by an official certificate....

  5. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... egg products plant, the immediate containers need not be labeled, provided that the shipment is segregated and controlled upon arrival at the destination breaking plant. (c) The labels shall not be false... date of production and plant number of the plant at which the egg product was processed and/or...

  6. Selenium interactions with essential and toxic elements in egg yolk from commercial and fortified eggs.

    PubMed

    Bargellini, Annalisa; Marchesi, Isabella; Rizzi, Laura; Cauteruccio, Laura; Masironi, Roberto; Simioli, Marco; Borella, Paola

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the interaction between selenium concentration in both commercial and Se-enriched eggs and other essential/toxic elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Pb, and Cd), taking into account a possible synergic action of iodine. Commercial eggs were purchased from several sale points or directly from the producers (farmyard eggs). Fortified eggs were obtained by supplementing chickenfeed for 6 weeks with Se as sodium selenite (1.0 microg/g Se) or Se plus iodine (1.0 microg/g Se+3.7 microg/g I). Se in experimental egg yolks significantly increased over the basic value by 39% in the Se group and 61% in the Se+I group, suggesting that I addition may enhance Se absorption. Levels of Se in commercial yolks were identical in free-range, barn or battery eggs, but significantly lower in farmyard and higher in organic eggs where the Se content approximated that found in Se fortified eggs. A significant reduction in Cd was observed in Se+I treated yolks compared to both control and Se alone diet, thus suggesting a high sensitivity of Cd to the detoxifying effect of Se combined with I. Furthermore, Se+I supplementation was associated with a significant Zn reduction, a finding which needs clarification to avoid attempts to maximize one component affecting the levels of other essential elements.

  7. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plants. 590.35 Section 590.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... or local jurisdiction may exercise jurisdiction with respect to eggs and egg products for the purpose of preventing the distribution for human food purposes of any such articles which are outside of...

  8. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... plants. 590.35 Section 590.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... or local jurisdiction may exercise jurisdiction with respect to eggs and egg products for the purpose of preventing the distribution for human food purposes of any such articles which are outside of...

  9. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plants. 590.35 Section 590.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... or local jurisdiction may exercise jurisdiction with respect to eggs and egg products for the purpose of preventing the distribution for human food purposes of any such articles which are outside of...

  10. Increasing hatchability of turkey eggs by matching incubator humidity to shell conductance of individual eggs.

    PubMed

    Meir, M; Nir, A; Ar, A

    1984-08-01

    One of the most important factors determining hatchability of avian eggs is the proper water balance of the eggs during incubation. In turkey eggs, a total diffusive water loss (F) of 12 +/- 1% SD initial egg mass in 28 days, yielded maximal hatchability irrespective of the combination of eggshell water vapor conductance (G) and incubator humidity (PI), which brought about this water loss. A good correlation was found between G as obtained at the beginning of incubation and the final F in a given PI. The G in a random sample of 1256 fresh turkey eggs was normally distributed around the mean of 18.70 +/- 2.87 SD milligrams (100 g X day X torr)-1 (Coefficient of variation = 15.3%). The distribution of G in eggs with dead in the shell embryos had, in addition, two more peaks of G values [around 22.5 and 13.0 mg (100 g X day X torr)-1]. When eggs were sorted into low (less than 17), medium (17 to 20), and high (greater than 20) G categories, and incubated at low (19.4), medium (26.6), and high (33.9) torr PI, respectively, hatchability increased by a factor of 1.08. Poor hatchabilities were obtained in mismatching humidities and conductances. It seems that hatchability success may be experimentally improved if a correct rate of water loss is fitted to sorted eggs during incubation.

  11. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Jose M.; Anton, Xaquin; Redondo-Valbuena, Celia; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lamas, Alexandre; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods. PMID:25608941

  12. Modified pressure system for imaging egg cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Kurt C.; Yoon, Seung Chul; Jones, Deana R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

    2008-04-01

    One aspect of grading table eggs is shell checks or cracks. Currently, USDA voluntary regulations require that humans grade a representative sample of all eggs processed. However, as processing plants and packing facilities continue to increase their volume and throughput, human graders are having difficulty matching the pace of the machines. Additionally, some plants also have a problem with micro-cracks that the graders often miss because they are very small and hard to see immediately post-processing but grow and become readily apparent before they reach market. An imaging system was developed to help the grader detect these small micro-cracks. The imaging system utilized one image captured at atmospheric pressure and a second at a slight negative pressure to enhance the crack and make detection much easier. A simple image processing algorithm was then applied to the ratio of these two images and the resulting image, containing both cracked and/or intact eggs were color-coded to simplify identification. The imaging system was capable of imaging 15 eggs in about 3/4 second and the algorithm processing took about another 10 seconds. These times could easily be reduced with a dedicated, multi-threaded computer program. In analyzing 1000 eggs, the system was 99.6% accurate overall with only 0.3% false positives compared to 94.2% accurate overall for the human graders with 1.2% false positives. An international patent on the system was filed and further automation of the system is needed.

  13. Illuminance and egg production in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D; Danisman, R; Gous, R M

    2009-03-01

    1. Ross broiler breeders were reared at a nominal illuminance of 15, 20 or 45 lux and transferred to a nominal illuminance of 25, 55 or 70 lux at 20 weeks. 2. There were no significant interactions between the response to illuminance during rearing and in lay. This means that it matters not whether illuminance is increased, decreased or held constant on transfer to the laying house, provided it equals or exceeds the biological optimum for satisfactory egg production. 3. Whilst there were no significant effects of illuminance in either the rearing period or laying periods on egg numbers, peak rate of lay, terminal rate of lay, egg mass output or liveability, meta-analyses of these and other data indicated biological optima of 15 lux during rearing and 7 lux in the laying period. Birds reared at 45 lux had a lower mean egg weight (and earlier sexual maturity) than birds reared at 15 lux, and hens illuminated at 25 lux in the laying period laid more eggs on the floor than at either 55 or 70 lux. 4. Typical primary breeder recommendations of 10-20 lux during rearing and 30-60 lux in lay are appropriate for floor-housed birds; however, an illuminance of 7 lux could be used for caged birds, subject to welfare-code compliance.

  14. Calcium Signaling in Mammalian Eggs at Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Hideki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Ito, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    The innovation and development of live-cell fluorescence imaging methods have revealed the dynamic aspects of intracellular Ca2+ in a wide variety of cells. The fertilized egg, the very first cell to be a new individual, has long been under extensive investigations utilizing Ca2+ imaging since its early days, and spatiotemporal Ca2+ dynamics and underlying mechanisms of Ca2+ mobilization, as well as physiological roles of Ca2+ at fertilization, have become more or less evident in various animal species. In this article, we illustrate characteristic patterns of Ca2+ dynamics in mammalian gametes and molecular basis for Ca2+ release from intracellular stores leading to the elevation in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and describe the identity and properties of sperm-borne egg-activating factor in relation to the induction of Ca2+ waves and Ca2+ oscillations, referring to its potential use in artificial egg activation as infertility treatment. In addition, a possible Ca2+ influx-driven mechanism for slow and long-lasting Ca2+ oscillations characteristic of mammalian eggs is proposed, based on the recent experimental findings and mathematical modeling. Cumulative knowledge about the roles of Ca2+ in the egg activation leading to early embryogenesis is summarized, to emphasize the diversity of functions that Ca2+ can perform in a single type of cell.

  15. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  16. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  17. 9 CFR 590.940 - Marking of egg products offered for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of egg products offered for..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.940 Marking of egg products offered for importation. Egg products which,...

  18. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  19. 9 CFR 590.940 - Marking of egg products offered for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of egg products offered for..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.940 Marking of egg products offered for importation. Egg products which,...

  20. 9 CFR 590.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., unwholesome, or adulterated egg products. 590.840 Section 590.840 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for...

  1. 9 CFR 590.940 - Marking of egg products offered for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of egg products offered for..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.940 Marking of egg products offered for importation. Egg products which,...

  2. 9 CFR 590.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., unwholesome, or adulterated egg products. 590.840 Section 590.840 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for...

  3. 9 CFR 590.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., unwholesome, or adulterated egg products. 590.840 Section 590.840 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for...

  4. 9 CFR 590.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., unwholesome, or adulterated egg products. 590.840 Section 590.840 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for...

  5. 9 CFR 590.940 - Marking of egg products offered for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of egg products offered for..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.940 Marking of egg products offered for importation. Egg products which,...

  6. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  7. 9 CFR 590.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., unwholesome, or adulterated egg products. 590.840 Section 590.840 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for...

  8. 9 CFR 590.940 - Marking of egg products offered for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of egg products offered for..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.940 Marking of egg products offered for importation. Egg products which,...

  9. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  10. Clinostat exposure and symmetrization of frog eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nace, G. W.; Tremor, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Since the orientation of unfertilized eggs and the righting of eggs after grey crescent formation do not affect the axes, attention here is directed toward a comparative study of the initial rotation of the fertilized egg, the so-called rotation of orientation (R-of-O). The goal of the investigation is to determine the timing and dynamics of the R-of-O (as distinct from inversion rotations), to confirm prior observations, and to examine the influence of gravity compensation at periods that might be crucial. Gravity compensation for 1 hr during the R-of-O is found to yield fewer abnormalities. It is hypothesized that it changes the axes and that return to normal conditions permits regulation. Longer exposure is found to yield more abnormalities, perhaps by perturbing both the action of the aster and regulation.

  11. Regulating the market for human eggs.

    PubMed

    Resnik, D B

    2001-02-01

    This essay provides a rationale for a regulated market for human oocytes. Although the commodification of human oocytes raises important moral concerns, these concerns do not justify laws banning commerce in human eggs. Given the burgeoning ART industry and the growing oocyte market, the most prudent course of action is to develop regulations for the human oocyte market that are designed to protect and promote important social values, such as health, safety, liberty, and respect for human life. Other responses, such as banning the sale of eggs altogether or allowing donors to be compensated only for their services, would either create a black market or would lead to corruption and abuse. Society still needs to debate specific rules and policies that should govern the human egg market, but further discussion of that important task is best left to legislative bodies and other commentators.

  12. Chemical residue content and hatchability of screech owl eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaas, E.E.; Swineford, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs of wild Screech Owls were collected from nests in northwestern Ohio in 1973. One egg was taken from each of 19 nests near the start of incubation. Mean shell thickness in these 19 eggs and mean thickness of 16 unhatched eggs did not differ from 49 archival eggs collected in Ohio and Pennsylvania prior to the widespread use of organochlorine pesticides. Residues were generally low although all eggs contained DDE and PCB?s. No relationship was found between hatching failures and the presence of organochlorine residues. Low residues are consistent with a long history of good nesting success and a stable population.

  13. Inactivation of Ascaris suum eggs by ammonia.

    PubMed

    Pecson, Brian M; Nelson, Kara L

    2005-10-15

    Uncharged ammonia is known to cause inactivation of a number of wastewater pathogens, but its effect on Ascaris eggs has never been isolated or quantified. The objectives of this research were to determine the conditions under which ammonia inactivates eggs of the swine Ascaris species, Ascaris suum, and to quantify the impact of ammonia on the U.S. EPA's requirements for alkaline treatment to produce Class A sludge. Eggs were incubated in controlled, laboratory solutions such that the effects of ammonia concentration and speciation, pH, and temperature could be separated. With a 24-h incubation, the inactivation at all pH levels (range 7-11) was not statistically different in the absence of ammonia. The presence of ammonia (0-1000 ppm as N) significantly increased Ascaris egg inactivation at pH 9 and 11, and the ovicidal effect was directly related to the concentration of the uncharged NH3 species. Increasing temperatures (32-52 degrees C) caused increased inactivation at all pH levels and ammonia concentrations. The current EPA treatment requirements to produce Class A biosolids by alkaline treatment have temperature, pH, and time requirements, but do not account for the effectof differences in ammonia concentration on inactivation. To illustrate the potential savings in temperature and pH that could be achieved when accounting for ammonia inactivation, the combinations of ammonia concentration, temperature, and pH neededto achieve 99% inactivation after 72 h were determined. The presence of ammonia at concentrations encountered in sludges and feces (up to 8000 ppm as N) allowed for 99% egg inactivation to be achieved at temperatures up to 14 degrees C lower than ammonia-free controls. Thus, environmentally relevant concentrations of ammonia may significantly increase the rate of Ascaris egg inactivation during alkaline stabilization.

  14. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Bunck, C.M.; Stafford, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Bald Eagle eggs (1968-84) were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and mercury. DDE declined in WI, ME and the Chesapeake Bay. DDE was most closely related to shell thickness and reproduction at sampled breeding areas. Sixteen ppm DDE (wet weight) was associated with 15% shell thinning. Reproduction was normal when eggs at sampled breeding areas contained <3.6 ppm DDE; success was nearly halved between 3.6 and 6.3 ppm and halved again when concentrations exceeded 6.3 ppm. Other contaminants were associated with poor reproduction and eggshell thinning; however, their impact appeared secondary to that of DDE.

  15. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations of egg quality traits in brown-egg dwarf layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L C; Ning, Z H; Xu, G Y; Hou, Z C; Yang, N

    2005-08-01

    Albumen height, albumen weight (AW), eggshell color (ESC), eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight (ESW), egg weight (EW), Haugh units, and yolk weight (YW) were measured in 2,272 eggs collected 3 d sequentially from 920 brown-egg dwarf layers caged individually. The restricted maximum likelihood procedure was applied to estimate heritabilities and genotypic and phenotypic correlations for these egg quality traits. Heritabilities of albumen height, AW, ESC, eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, ESW, EW, Haugh units, and YW were 0.51, 0.59, 0.46, 0.40, 0.24, 0.34, 0.64, 0.63, 0.41, and 0.45, respectively. The genetic correlations between EW and AW, YW, and ESW were high ranging from 0.67 to 0.97, whereas those for ESC with external and internal egg quality traits were low ranging from -0.23 to 0.13. Thus although heritabilities for these traits were moderate to high, genetic correlations with ESC were low, suggesting a minor relationship between shell color and physical attributes of the shell as well as internal egg quality in brown-egg dwarf layers.

  16. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness of the samples between the two methods was assessed. The method presented here was superior to the traditional method. Only 14% of the samples had a standard deviation higher than expected, as compared with 58% in the traditional method. To reduce bias in the estimation of the variance and the mean of a trait and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila.

  17. Geographical Variation in Egg Mass and Egg Content in a Passerine Bird

    PubMed Central

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Siitari, Heli; Eeva, Tapio; Belskii, Eugen; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Möstl, Erich; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Slater, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E.; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Laaksonen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated. PMID:22110579

  18. How to evade a coevolving brood parasite: egg discrimination versus egg variability as host defences.

    PubMed

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Arms races between avian brood parasites and their hosts often result in parasitic mimicry of host eggs, to evade rejection. Once egg mimicry has evolved, host defences could escalate in two ways: (i) hosts could improve their level of egg discrimination; and (ii) negative frequency-dependent selection could generate increased variation in egg appearance (polymorphism) among individuals. Proficiency in one defence might reduce selection on the other, while a combination of the two should enable successful rejection of parasitic eggs. We compared three highly variable host species of the Afrotropical cuckoo finch Anomalospiza imberbis, using egg rejection experiments and modelling of avian colour and pattern vision. We show that each differed in their level of polymorphism, in the visual cues they used to reject foreign eggs, and in their degree of discrimination. The most polymorphic host had the crudest discrimination, whereas the least polymorphic was most discriminating. The third species, not currently parasitized, was intermediate for both defences. A model simulating parasitic laying and host rejection behaviour based on the field experiments showed that the two host strategies result in approximately the same fitness advantage to hosts. Thus, neither strategy is superior, but rather they reflect alternative potential evolutionary trajectories.

  19. Intermittent hypoxia in eggs of Ambystoma maculatum: embryonic development and egg capsule conductance.

    PubMed

    Valls, J Hunter; Mills, Nathan E

    2007-07-01

    The spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum breeds in shallow freshwater pools and imbeds its eggs within a common outer jelly matrix that can limit oxygen availability. The eggs are impregnated with the unicellular alga Oophilia amblystomatis, which produces oxygen during the day but consumes oxygen at night. This daily cycle of algal oxygen production drives a diurnal fluctuation of oxygen partial pressure (PO2) within the eggs, the magnitude of which depends on the distance of an egg from the exterior of the jelly matrix and on the ambient PO2 of the pond. We subjected A. maculatum eggs to fluctuating oxygen levels with a variable minimum PO2 and an invariable maximum, to simulate natural conditions, and measured differences in developmental rate, day and stage at hatching, and egg capsule conductance (GO2). Lower minimum PO2 slowed development and resulted in delayed, yet developmentally premature hatching. GO2 increased in all treatments throughout development, but PO2 had no detectable effect on the increase. Intermittent hypoxia caused comparable but less pronounced developmental delays than chronic hypoxia and failed to elicit the measurable change in GO2 seen in ambystomatid salamander eggs exposed to chronic hypoxia. PMID:17601946

  20. Enumeration of salmonellae in table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes by using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Klein, Günter; Manfreda, Gerardo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-03-01

    Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products.

  1. Physical quality and composition of retail shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T; Anderson, K E; Thesmar, H S

    2010-03-01

    There are a number of specialty shell eggs available to consumers in the US retail market. A survey consisting of white and brown large shell eggs with various production and nutritional differences (traditional, cage-free, free-roaming, pasteurized, nutritionally enhanced, and fertile) was conducted to determine if physical quality and compositional differences exist. Identical brands of eggs were purchased from the same retail outlets on 3 occasions (replicates) in a single city. The average range of time from processing to purchase for all eggs was 7.67 to 25.33 d, with traditional white eggs in retail having the shortest time. Haugh unit values ranged from 66.67 (cage-free, docosahexaenoic acid, and n-3 enhanced) to 84.42 (traditional white). Albumen height followed a similar pattern. Egg weight was greater for brown eggs (61.12 vs. 58.85 g). Brown eggs also had greater static compression shell strength than white eggs (4,130.61 vs. 3,690.31 g force). Vitelline membrane strength was greatest for traditional brown eggs (2.24 g force). Percentage of total solids and crude fat was greatest in the cage-free, n-3-enhanced white eggs (25.07 and 11.71%, respectively). Although significant differences were found between white and brown shell eggs and production methods, average values for quality attributes varied without one egg type consistently maintaining the highest or lowest values.

  2. Egg Contribution Towards the Diet of Pregnant Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez-Millán, Ángela; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Damio, Grace; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Proper nutrition during gestation is important to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. Eggs contain many important nutrients necessary for fetal development and human survival. Three focus groups were conducted with Latina women living in Connecticut to identify cultural beliefs toward egg consumption during pregnancy, traditional egg dishes, and methods of preparation. A cross-sectional study was then carried out with a sample of predominately Puerto Rican pregnant Latinas (N = 241) to identify the frequency of consumption of eggs and egg-containing dishes as well as methods of preparation using a tailored food frequency questionnaire modified for this population. Paired sample t-tests were used to examine if there were differences in weekly mean egg intake patterns between the year prior to the pregnancy and during pregnancy based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Women were categorized into eggs consumers and non-consumers if they consumed or did not consume eggs during the previous day based on 24-hour recall data. Independent-sample t-test and chi-square cross-tabulation analyses were conducted to examine the association between egg consumption and nutrient intake categories. Results showed that eggs and egg-containing traditional dishes are consumed by Latinas before and during pregnancy. Egg consumers had higher intakes of protein, fat, vitamin K, vitamin E, selenium, beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, cholesterol, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, and docosahexaenoic acid. Eggs contribute significantly to the diet of pregnant Latinas. PMID:21883065

  3. Embryotoxic thresholds of mercury: estimates from individual mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Eighty pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed an uncontaminated diet until each female had laid 15 eggs. After each female had laid her 15th egg, the pair was randomly assigned to a control diet or diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ?g/g mercury as methylmercury until she had laid a second set of 15 eggs. There were 20 pairs in each group. After the second set of 15 eggs, the pair was returned to an uncontaminated diet, and the female was permitted to lay another 30 eggs. For those pairs fed the mercury diets, the even-numbered eggs were incubated and the odd-numbered eggs were saved for possible mercury analysis. Mercury in the even-numbered eggs was estimated as the average of what was in the neighboring odd-numbered eggs. Neurological signs of methylmercury poisoning were observed in ducklings that hatched from eggs containing as little as 2.3 ?g/g estimated mercury on a wet-weight basis, and deformities were seen in embryos from eggs containing about 1 ?g/g estimated mercury. Although embryo mortality was seen in eggs estimated to contain as little as 0.74 ?g/g mercury, there were considerable differences in the sensitivity of mallard embryos, especially from different parents, with some embryos surviving as much as 30 or more ?g/g mercury in the egg.

  4. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2006-03-01

    How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such “cue scrambling” does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker-laid eggs. Chemical analyses also showed that the surface hydrocarbon profile of these eggs was unchanged. Policing, therefore, is stable against this potential cheating mechanism probably because queen-laid eggs are made chemically distinct using chemicals, that are not easily transferred by physical contact.

  5. Proteolysis of Xenopus laevis egg envelope ZPA triggers envelope hardening.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Leann L; Hedrick, Jerry L

    2004-11-12

    The egg envelope of most animal eggs is modified following fertilization, resulting in the prevention of polyspermy and hardening of the egg envelope. In frogs and mammals a prominent feature of envelope modification is N-terminal proteolysis of the envelope glycoprotein ZPA. We have purified the ZPA protease from Xenopus laevis eggs and characterized it as a zinc metalloprotease. Proteolysis of isolated egg envelopes by the isolated protease resulted in envelope hardening. The N-terminal peptide fragment of ZPA remained disulfide bond linked to the ZPA glycoprotein moiety following proteolysis. We propose a mechanism for egg envelope hardening involving ZPA proteolysis by an egg metalloprotease as a triggering event followed by induction of global conformational changes in egg envelope glycoproteins. PMID:15474476

  6. Triple-yolked eggs in domestic ducks: a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Attila; Kent, John P

    2016-05-01

    Multiple-yolked avian eggs, and especially triple-yolked (TY) eggs, are rare. Over two years, 48,224 duck eggs (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were individually candled and seven (0.0145%) TY eggs were identified in a commercial breeding and incubation environment. When compared with double-yolked eggs (Salamon and Kent,2016) their mean weight, length, width and shape index did not differ, but their dimensions were greater than for single-yolked duck eggs. Yolk fertility in the TY eggs was low (33.33%), and this was attributed to smaller yolk size and early ovulation and/or follicle immaturity. By day 8 of incubation, fertile yolks were positioned next to the airspace. Egg 5 contained one fertile yolk, and the embryo developed to enter the airspace, was consuming all three yolks, but failed to hatch. PMID:26908889

  7. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... production or origin. (2) This shall not preclude a State from requiring the name, address, and license... jurisdiction may exercise jurisdiction for the purpose of preventing the distribution of eggs for human food... therewith. Eggs Not Intended for Human Food...

  8. Third Party Reproduction: Sperm, Egg, and Embryo Donation and Surrogacy

    MedlinePlus

    ... SOCIETY FOR REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE Third-party Reproduction Sperm, egg, and embryo donation and surrogacy A Guide for ... third-party reproduction” refers to the use of eggs , sperm , or embryos that have been donated by ...

  9. Moorhens have an internal representation of their own eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Marion; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2009-03-01

    How do birds recognize their own eggs? Do they have a stored template for their own egg characteristics, or do they use another mechanism? Intraspecific brood parasitism is considered to be an additional reproductive tactic where females can increase their own reproductive success. Because of the costs involved in rearing young that are not their own, it will pay females to detect and reject the eggs of a parasite, although it is not known how they do this. Here, we show experimentally that moorhens will cease laying in a nest when their first egg is replaced with another hen’s egg but not when it is replaced with their own egg taken from an earlier clutch. This provides good evidence that birds have an internal representation of their own eggs and use this in decisions about whether to reject foreign eggs.

  10. Egg phenotype differentiation in sympatric cuckoo Cuculus canorus gentes.

    PubMed

    Antonov, Anton; Stokke, B G; Vikan, J R; Fossøy, F; Ranke, P S; Røskaft, E; Moksnes, A; Møller, A P; Shykoff, J A

    2010-06-01

    The brood parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus consists of gentes, which typically parasitize only a single host species whose eggs they often mimic. Where multiple cuckoo gentes co-exist in sympatry, we may expect variable but generally poorer mimicry because of host switches or inter-gens gene flow via males if these also contribute to egg phenotypes. Here, we investigated egg trait differentiation and mimicry in three cuckoo gentes parasitizing great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus, marsh warblers Acrocephalus palustris and corn buntings Miliaria calandra breeding in close sympatry in partially overlapping habitat types. The three cuckoo gentes showed a remarkable degree of mimicry to their three host species in some but not all egg features, including egg size, a hitherto largely ignored feature of egg mimicry. Egg phenotype matching for both background and spot colours as well as for egg size has been maintained in close sympatry despite the possibility for gene flow.

  11. Palaeontology: which came first, the pterosaur or the egg?

    PubMed

    Martill, David M

    2014-07-01

    Pterosaur fossils are among the rarest and their eggs are even rarer. How then can we get an insight into the lifestyle of these flying reptiles? A wealth of new pterosaur fossils, including eggs, from China now provides exactly that.

  12. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  13. Triple-yolked eggs in domestic ducks: a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Attila; Kent, John P

    2016-05-01

    Multiple-yolked avian eggs, and especially triple-yolked (TY) eggs, are rare. Over two years, 48,224 duck eggs (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were individually candled and seven (0.0145%) TY eggs were identified in a commercial breeding and incubation environment. When compared with double-yolked eggs (Salamon and Kent,2016) their mean weight, length, width and shape index did not differ, but their dimensions were greater than for single-yolked duck eggs. Yolk fertility in the TY eggs was low (33.33%), and this was attributed to smaller yolk size and early ovulation and/or follicle immaturity. By day 8 of incubation, fertile yolks were positioned next to the airspace. Egg 5 contained one fertile yolk, and the embryo developed to enter the airspace, was consuming all three yolks, but failed to hatch.

  14. An Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presently, commercial eggs are washed with water containing an alkali detergent at approximately pH 11 followed by a chlorine rinse. At this pH, it is likely that there is little, if any, free chlorine in the final rinse to act as an antimicrobial against pathogens like Salmonella. Using a chlorine ...

  15. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the addition of dilute, chemically pure hydrochloric acid, and controlled fermentation is maintained by adding food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time...

  16. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the addition of dilute, chemically pure hydrochloric acid, and controlled fermentation is maintained by adding food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time...

  17. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the addition of dilute, chemically pure hydrochloric acid, and controlled fermentation is maintained by adding food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time...

  18. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the addition of dilute, chemically pure hydrochloric acid, and controlled fermentation is maintained by adding food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time...

  19. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the addition of dilute, chemically pure hydrochloric acid, and controlled fermentation is maintained by adding food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time...

  20. Sea urchin egg fertilization and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of subgravity (much less than unit gravity) on fertilization, cell division, differentiation, and growth of a relatively simple biological system (eggs of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata) were considered. The experiment was flown on Gemini 3 and recovered as scheduled. However, the experiment objectives were not achieved, primarily for mechanical reasons.

  1. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (>1200 nesting pairs, >1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (<25 m) incubating adult loon. However, although loon egg predation has been associated with Bald Eagles, predation events have yet to be described in peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a photographic observation of predation on a Common Loon egg by an immature Bald Eagle as captured by a nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  2. Frog egg growth, experiment S003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.; Tremor, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The objective of experiment was to determine the effect of weightlessness on the ability of a fertilized frog egg to divide normally and to differentiate and form a normal embryo. This experiment was first attempted on the Gemini 8 mission and was completed only partially because of the early termination of that mission.

  3. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  4. Rheological changes in irradiated chicken eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Lúcia F. S.; Del Mastro, Nélida L.

    1998-06-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may cause foodborne illnesses. Humans may introduce pathogens into foods during production, processing, distribution and or preparation. Some of these microorganisms are able to survive conventional preservation treatments. Heat pasteurization, which is a well established and satisfactory means of decontamination/disinfection of liquid foods, cannot efficiently achieve a similar objective for solid foods. Extensive work carried out worldwide has shown that irradiation is efficient in eradicating foodborne pathogens like Salmonella spp. that can contaminate poultry products. In this work Co-60 gamma irradiation was applied to samples of industrial powder white, yolk and whole egg at doses between 0 and 25 kGy. Samples were rehydrated and the viscosity measured in a Brookfield viscosimeter, model DV III at 5, 15 and 25°C. The rheological behaviour among the various kinds of samples were markedly different. Irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy, known to reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels, showed almost no variation of viscosity of irradiated egg white samples. On the other hand, whole or yolk egg samples showed some changes in rheological properties depending on the dose level, showing the predominance of whether polimerization or degradation as a result of the irradiation. Additionally, irradiation of yolk egg powder reduced yolk color as a function of the irradiation exposure implemented. The importance of these results are discussed in terms of possible industrial applications.

  5. Weathered petroleum: Effects on mallard egg hatchability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szaro, R.C.; Coon, N.C.; Stout, William C.

    1980-01-01

    Comparison of the effects of fresh and weathered No. 2 fuel oil and Prudhoe Bay crude oil on mallard embryos. Artificially-incubated eggs exposed by eggshell application to 1-50 ul of fresh or weathered oil on day 8 of incubation. Measured hatching success.

  6. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  7. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  8. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... the adding of safe and suitable substances (other than chemical preservatives) that are essential...

  9. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care.

  10. Maize landraces recruit egg and larval parasitoids in response to egg deposition by a herbivore.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Amanuel; Bruce, Toby J A; Woodcock, Christine M; Caulfield, John C; Midega, Charles A O; Ogol, Callistus K P O; Mayon, Patrick; Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2011-11-01

    Natural enemies respond to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), but an often overlooked aspect is that there may be genotypic variation in these 'indirect' plant defence traits within plant species. We found that egg deposition by stemborer moths (Chilo partellus) on maize landrace varieties caused emission of HIPVs that attract parasitic wasps. Notably, however, the oviposition-induced release of parasitoid attractants was completely absent in commercial hybrid maize varieties. In the landraces, not only were egg parasitoids (Trichogramma bournieri) attracted but also larval parasitoids (Cotesia sesamiae). This implies a sophisticated defence strategy whereby parasitoids are recruited in anticipation of egg hatching. The effect was systemic and caused by an elicitor, which could be extracted from egg materials associated with attachment to leaves. Our findings suggest that indirect plant defence traits may have become lost during crop breeding and could be valuable in new resistance breeding for sustainable agriculture.

  11. Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsules and egg masses

    PubMed Central

    Kaviarasan, T; Siva, Sankar R; Yogamoorthi, A

    2012-01-01

    Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last three decades for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological active compounds. Even though all marine organisms have the potential to produce antimicrobial secondary metabolites, the gastropod has the vital sources of secondary metabolites particularly their egg capsule which has the promising antimicrobial secondary metabolites. In the present review, we intend to focus on marine secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsule. The following compounds i.e. Kabiramid C, Aplysianin E, Aplysianin A, Thisaplysianin E and Tyrian purple have been documented in egg capsule of various gastropod and most of the antimicrobial secondary metabolites have not been isolated from the egg capsule because of the odious, and complex chemical structure. Stability of the compounds is unknown. PMID:23569871

  12. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P < 0.05) more than the reduction observed for the 20°C alkaline treatment and 20°C control water treatments. Ambient temperature acidic washes reduced Salmonella contamination to the same degree as the standard pH 11 warm water wash and may be a viable option to reduce cost, increase shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs. PMID:27357042

  13. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P < 0.05) more than the reduction observed for the 20°C alkaline treatment and 20°C control water treatments. Ambient temperature acidic washes reduced Salmonella contamination to the same degree as the standard pH 11 warm water wash and may be a viable option to reduce cost, increase shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs.

  14. Pencils solution to an egg-citing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Ooi, Gary; Keh, Chooi Yiang

    1999-02-01

    Here is an egg-citing contest that will make physics interesting and fun while allowing students to practice creative problem solving. Have each student drop a raw egg from an upper level of a building. The egg that falls fastest to the ground without breaking wins the contest.

  15. 7 CFR 1250.517 - Remittance to Egg Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Remittance to Egg Board. 1250.517 Section 1250.517... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Assessments, Collections, and Remittances § 1250.517 Remittance to Egg Board. (a)...

  16. 7 CFR 1250.517 - Remittance to Egg Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Remittance to Egg Board. 1250.517 Section 1250.517... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Assessments, Collections, and Remittances § 1250.517 Remittance to Egg Board. (a)...

  17. 7 CFR 1250.517 - Remittance to Egg Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Remittance to Egg Board. 1250.517 Section 1250.517... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Assessments, Collections, and Remittances § 1250.517 Remittance to Egg Board. (a)...

  18. 29 CFR 780.211 - Contract production of hatching eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contract production of hatching eggs. 780.211 Section 780... eggs. It is common practice for hatcherymen to enter into arrangements with farmer poultry raisers for the production of hatching eggs which the hatchery agrees to buy. Ordinarily, the farmer furnishes...

  19. 29 CFR 780.211 - Contract production of hatching eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contract production of hatching eggs. 780.211 Section 780... eggs. It is common practice for hatcherymen to enter into arrangements with farmer poultry raisers for the production of hatching eggs which the hatchery agrees to buy. Ordinarily, the farmer furnishes...

  20. 29 CFR 780.211 - Contract production of hatching eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contract production of hatching eggs. 780.211 Section 780... eggs. It is common practice for hatcherymen to enter into arrangements with farmer poultry raisers for the production of hatching eggs which the hatchery agrees to buy. Ordinarily, the farmer furnishes...

  1. An insect with selective control of egg coloration.

    PubMed

    Abram, Paul K; Guerra-Grenier, Eric; Després-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Boivin, Guy; Brodeur, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    The color and patterning of animal eggs has important consequences for offspring survival. There are examples of between-species and polymorphic differences in egg coloration in birds and amphibians [1-3], as well as cases of birds and insects whose nutritional status or age can cause within-individual variation in egg pigmentation [4-6]. However, no studies to date have demonstrated that individual animals can selectively control the color of their eggs. Here, we show that individual females of the predatory stink bug Podisus maculiventris can control the pigmentation of their eggs during oviposition, as a response to environmental conditions. The color of egg masses produced by individual females can range from pale yellow to dark black/brown. Females tend to lay darker eggs, which are more resistant to UV radiation, on the upper surface of leaves where UV exposure is highest in nature. Conversely, they lay lighter eggs on the undersides of leaves. However, egg color is not determined by the intensity of UV radiation falling on the surface where they are laid. Rather, female stink bugs appear to use a visual assessment of oviposition substrate reflectance to determine egg color. Unexpectedly, biochemical analyses revealed that the egg pigment is not melanin, the most ubiquitous light-absorbing pigment in animals. Our study offers the first example of an animal able to selectively control the color of its eggs. PMID:26212882

  2. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  3. Egg and miracidium of Hirudinella ventricosa (Trematoda: Hirudinellidae).

    PubMed

    Murugesh, M; Madhavi, R

    1990-10-01

    It is reported for the first time that Hirudinella ventricosa releases eggs in strings, each string containing active spermatozoa and numerous oval, thick-shelled, translucent eggs measuring 40-42 x 28-30 microns. Each egg contained a fully developed miracidium with an anterior crown of spines.

  4. Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in bald eagle eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krantz, W.C.; Mulhern, B.M.; Bagley, G.E.; Sprunt, A., IV; Ligas, F.J.; Robertson, W.B., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Bald eagle eggs collected in 1968 from nests in Wisconsin, Maine, and Florida all contained residues of DDE, DDD, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Many also contained traces of DDT. Eggs from five nonproductive nests sampled in Maine contained much higher residues than did eggs collected from either productive or nonproductive nests in Wisconsin and Florida.

  5. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been...

  6. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been...

  7. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been...

  8. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been...

  9. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been...

  10. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The temperature of the heated liquid egg product shall be continuously and automatically recorded... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  11. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The temperature of the heated liquid egg product shall be continuously and automatically recorded... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  12. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The temperature of the heated liquid egg product shall be continuously and automatically recorded... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  13. The Collection of Mosquito Eggs for Classroom and Field Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinly, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    A method for the collection of Aedes mosquito eggs is described whereby collection of mosquito eggs is used to monitor the intensity of egg deposition in urban and rural areas. The data is used to increase public awareness of the effect of human habitation and cultural practices on mosquito abundance.

  14. 29 CFR 780.211 - Contract production of hatching eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contract production of hatching eggs. 780.211 Section 780... eggs. It is common practice for hatcherymen to enter into arrangements with farmer poultry raisers for the production of hatching eggs which the hatchery agrees to buy. Ordinarily, the farmer furnishes...

  15. 7 CFR 1250.517 - Remittance to Egg Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Remittance to Egg Board. 1250.517 Section 1250.517... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Assessments, Collections, and Remittances § 1250.517 Remittance to Egg Board. (a)...

  16. Contaminants in greater snow geese and their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Heyland, J.D.; Reed, A.; Laporte, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and mercury residues in eggs and tissues of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) and provides data on egg length and width, egg and shell weight, shell thickness, and the index of thickness.

  17. Method for establishing the presence of salmonella bacteria in eggs

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Sinha, Dipen N.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of the acoustical resonances in eggs is shown to provide a rapid, noninvasive technique for establishing the presence of Salmonella bacteria. The technique is also sensitive to yolk puncture, shell cracks, and may be sensitive to other yolk properties and to egg freshness. Remote characterization, potentially useful for characterizing large numbers of eggs, has been demonstrated.

  18. Nondestructive pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shell eggs are on the top of the list of the 10 riskiest foods regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and 352 outbreaks from 1990 to 2006 were linked to eggs. The goals of this study were to design and assemble an apparatus to apply RF energy to shell eggs and to develop a process for pasteur...

  19. Factors that Affect the Microbiology of Commercial Shell Egg Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intact shell eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents, protecting a developing embryo, but also contributing to their wholesomeness as human food. In order for eggs to be involved in human enteritis, there is often temperature abuse of raw product followed by consumption o...

  20. Consumption of bird eggs by invasive Burmese Pythons in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dove, Carla J.; Reed, Robert N.; Snow, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    Burmese Pythons (Python molurus bivittatus or P. bivittatus) have been reported to consume 25 species of adult birds in Everglades National Park, Florida (Dove et al. 2011), but until now no records documented this species eating bird eggs. Here we report three recent cases of bird-egg consumption by Burmese Pythons and discuss egg-eating in basal snakes.

  1. An insect with selective control of egg coloration.

    PubMed

    Abram, Paul K; Guerra-Grenier, Eric; Després-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Boivin, Guy; Brodeur, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    The color and patterning of animal eggs has important consequences for offspring survival. There are examples of between-species and polymorphic differences in egg coloration in birds and amphibians [1-3], as well as cases of birds and insects whose nutritional status or age can cause within-individual variation in egg pigmentation [4-6]. However, no studies to date have demonstrated that individual animals can selectively control the color of their eggs. Here, we show that individual females of the predatory stink bug Podisus maculiventris can control the pigmentation of their eggs during oviposition, as a response to environmental conditions. The color of egg masses produced by individual females can range from pale yellow to dark black/brown. Females tend to lay darker eggs, which are more resistant to UV radiation, on the upper surface of leaves where UV exposure is highest in nature. Conversely, they lay lighter eggs on the undersides of leaves. However, egg color is not determined by the intensity of UV radiation falling on the surface where they are laid. Rather, female stink bugs appear to use a visual assessment of oviposition substrate reflectance to determine egg color. Unexpectedly, biochemical analyses revealed that the egg pigment is not melanin, the most ubiquitous light-absorbing pigment in animals. Our study offers the first example of an animal able to selectively control the color of its eggs.

  2. Irregularly calcified eggs and eggshells of Caiman latirostris (Alligatoridae: Crocodylia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Mariela Soledad; Simoncini, Melina Soledad; Dyke, Gareth

    2013-05-01

    We describe irregularly calcified egg and eggshell morphologies for the first time in nests of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris. Research is based on detailed descriptions of 270 eggs from a total sample of 46,800 collected between 2005 and 2011 in Santa Fe Province, Argentina, and encompasses animals from both natural habitats and held in captivity. We discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of eggs with different mineralisation patterns in our extensive C. latirostris field sample and its conservation significance; the chemistry of egg laying in amniotes is sensitive to environmental contamination which, in turn, has biological implications. Based on our egg sample, we identify two caiman eggshell abnormalities: (1) regularly calcified eggs with either calcitic nodules or superficial wrinkles at one egg end and (2) irregularly calcified eggs with structural gaps that weaken the shell. Some recently laid clutches we examined included eggs with most of the shell broken and detached from the flexible membrane. Most type 1 regularly calcified eggs lost their initial calcified nodules during incubation, suggesting that these deposits do not affect embryo survival rates. In contrast, irregularly calcified caiman eggs have a mean hatching success rate of 8.9 % (range 0-38 %) across our sample compared to a mean normal success of 75 %. Most irregularly calcified caiman eggs probably die because of infections caused by fungi and bacteria in the organic nest material, although another possible explanation that merits further investigation could be an increase in permeability, leading to embryo dehydration.

  3. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... decharacterant, such as FD&C brown, blue, black, or green colors, meat and fish by-products, grain and milling by... part. (4) By coloring the shells of loss and inedible eggs with a sufficient amount of FD&C color to... the egg meat. Except that, lots of eggs containing significant percentages of blood spots or...

  4. 7 CFR 1250.517 - Remittance to Egg Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remittance to Egg Board. 1250.517 Section 1250.517... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Assessments, Collections, and Remittances § 1250.517 Remittance to Egg Board. (a)...

  5. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.532 Liquid egg holding. (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid.... (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators....

  6. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.532 Liquid egg holding. (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid.... (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators....

  7. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.532 Liquid egg holding. (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid.... (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators....

  8. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.530 Liquid egg cooling. (a) Liquid egg storage rooms, including... condensation. Surface coolers and liquid holding vats containing product shall be kept covered while in...

  9. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.530 Liquid egg cooling. (a) Liquid egg storage rooms, including... condensation. Surface coolers and liquid holding vats containing product shall be kept covered while in...

  10. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization facilities... liquid egg product shall include a holding tube, an automatic flow diversion valve, thermal controls,...

  11. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization facilities... liquid egg product shall include a holding tube, an automatic flow diversion valve, thermal controls,...

  12. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.532 Liquid egg holding. (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid.... (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators....

  13. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.532 Liquid egg holding. (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid.... (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators....

  14. The affinity of magnetic microspheres for Schistosoma eggs.

    PubMed

    Candido, Renata R F; Favero, Vivian; Duke, Mary; Karl, Stephan; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Woodward, Robert C; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Jones, Malcolm K; St Pierre, Timothy G

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease of humans, with two species primarily causing the intestinal infection: Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. Traditionally, diagnosis of schistosomiasis is achieved through direct visualisation of eggs in faeces using techniques that lack the sensitivity required to detect all infections, especially in areas of low endemicity. A recently developed method termed Helmintex™ is a very sensitive technique for detection of Schistosoma eggs and exhibits 100% sensitivity at 1.3 eggs per gram of faeces, enough to detect even low-level infections. The Helminthex™ method is based on the interaction of magnetic microspheres and schistosome eggs. Further understanding the underlying egg-microsphere interactions would enable a targeted optimisation of egg-particle binding and may thus enable a significant improvement of the Helmintex™ method and diagnostic sensitivity in areas with low infection rates. We investigated the magnetic properties of S. mansoni and S. japonicum eggs and their interactions with microspheres with different magnetic properties and surface functionalization. Eggs of both species exhibited higher binding affinity to the magnetic microspheres than the non-magnetic microspheres. Binding efficiency was further enhanced if the particles were coated with streptavidin. Schistosoma japonicum eggs bound more microspheres compared with S. mansoni. However, distinct differences within eggs of each species were also observed when the distribution of the number of microspheres bound per egg was modelled with double Poisson distributions. Using this approach, both S. japonicum and S. mansoni eggs fell into two groups, one having greater affinity for magnetic microspheres than the other, indicating that not all eggs of a species exhibit the same binding affinity. Our observations suggest that interaction between the microspheres and eggs is more likely to be related to surface charge-based electrostatic

  15. A saltwater flotation technique to identify unincubated eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Devney, C.A.; Kondrad, S.L.; Stebbins, K.R.; Brittingham, K.D.; Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Field studies on nesting birds sometimes involve questions related to nest initiation dates, length of the incubation period, or changes in parental incubation behavior during various stages of incubation. Some of this information can be best assessed when a nest is discovered before the eggs have undergone any incubation, and this has traditionally been assessed by floating eggs in freshwater. However, because the freshwater method is not particularly accurate in identifying unincubated eggs, we developed a more reliable saltwater flotation method. The saltwater method involves diluting a saturated saltwater solution with freshwater until a salt concentration is reached where unincubated eggs sink to the bottom and incubated eggs float to the surface. For Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 39.0% (N = 251) of eggs that were subsequently found by candling to have undergone incubation prior to collection. By contrast, in a separate collection of gull eggs, no eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 225) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. For Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 15.6% (N = 250) of eggs that had undergone incubation prior to collection, whereas in a separate collection, none of the eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 85) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. Immersion of eggs in saltwater did not affect embryo survival. Although use of the saltwater method is likely limited to colonial species and requires calibrating a saltwater solution, it is a faster and more accurate method of identifying unincubated eggs than the traditional method of floating eggs in freshwater.

  16. The affinity of magnetic microspheres for Schistosoma eggs.

    PubMed

    Candido, Renata R F; Favero, Vivian; Duke, Mary; Karl, Stephan; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Woodward, Robert C; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Jones, Malcolm K; St Pierre, Timothy G

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease of humans, with two species primarily causing the intestinal infection: Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. Traditionally, diagnosis of schistosomiasis is achieved through direct visualisation of eggs in faeces using techniques that lack the sensitivity required to detect all infections, especially in areas of low endemicity. A recently developed method termed Helmintex™ is a very sensitive technique for detection of Schistosoma eggs and exhibits 100% sensitivity at 1.3 eggs per gram of faeces, enough to detect even low-level infections. The Helminthex™ method is based on the interaction of magnetic microspheres and schistosome eggs. Further understanding the underlying egg-microsphere interactions would enable a targeted optimisation of egg-particle binding and may thus enable a significant improvement of the Helmintex™ method and diagnostic sensitivity in areas with low infection rates. We investigated the magnetic properties of S. mansoni and S. japonicum eggs and their interactions with microspheres with different magnetic properties and surface functionalization. Eggs of both species exhibited higher binding affinity to the magnetic microspheres than the non-magnetic microspheres. Binding efficiency was further enhanced if the particles were coated with streptavidin. Schistosoma japonicum eggs bound more microspheres compared with S. mansoni. However, distinct differences within eggs of each species were also observed when the distribution of the number of microspheres bound per egg was modelled with double Poisson distributions. Using this approach, both S. japonicum and S. mansoni eggs fell into two groups, one having greater affinity for magnetic microspheres than the other, indicating that not all eggs of a species exhibit the same binding affinity. Our observations suggest that interaction between the microspheres and eggs is more likely to be related to surface charge-based electrostatic

  17. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  18. 9 CFR 590.900 - Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States. 590.900 Section 590.900 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  19. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  20. 9 CFR 590.900 - Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States. 590.900 Section 590.900 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  1. 9 CFR 590.900 - Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States. 590.900 Section 590.900 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  2. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  3. 9 CFR 590.900 - Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States. 590.900 Section 590.900 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  4. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  5. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS... industrial use or animal food under the following provisions: (1) Authorized government official of the... otherwise unfit for human food purposes that are not denatured or decharacterized for industrial use...

  6. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS... industrial use or animal food under the following provisions: (1) Authorized government official of the... otherwise unfit for human food purposes that are not denatured or decharacterized for industrial use...

  7. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... eggs, from birds or poultry from flocks not known to be infected with Newcastle disease may be moved... with § 82.11; (2) The eggs have been cleaned and sanitized in accordance with 9 CFR part 590; (3) The... and layer facilities, the incoming and outgoing eggs at the establishment, and any flocks that...

  8. 9 CFR 590.900 - Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States. 590.900 Section 590.900 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  9. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  10. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  11. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  12. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  13. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  14. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  15. Transfer of the coccidiostats monensin and lasalocid from feed at cross-contamination levels to whole egg, egg white and egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Huyghebaert, G; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Croubels, S; Daeseleire, E

    2012-01-01

    Recent legislation has addressed the unavoidable carry-over of coccidiostats and histomonostats in feed, which may lead to the presence of residues of these compounds in eggs. In this study, laying hens received cross-contaminated feed at a ratio of 2.5%, 5% and 10% of the therapeutic dose of monensin and lasalocid for broilers. The eggs were collected during the treatment and depletion period and were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The different egg matrices were separated and analysed during the plateau phase. High lasalocid concentrations, which exceeded the maximum residue level, and low monensin concentrations were found in whole egg. Plateau levels were reached at days 7-9 for lasalocid and at days 3-5 for monensin. For lasalocid, the highest concentrations were measured in egg yolk; residue concentrations in egg white were very low.

  16. Using candlers to determine the incubation stage of passerine eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.; Koford, Rolf R.

    1996-01-01

    Determining the incubation stage of bird eggs can provide important information to investigators conducting nesting studies. We describe the use of candlers in the field to determine the incubation stage in eggs of Lark Buntings (Calamospiza melanocorys) and other small birds with an incubation period of 11-13 d. Candling was accomplished easily using simple tools and did not involve the destruction of eggs or lengthy disturbance of nests. Candling is often preferable to other methods that rely on egg mass, mass-growth curves, or immersion of eggs in water.

  17. Egg Drop Competition Involving Only Toothpicks and Glue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houpt, Stephen

    2004-04-01

    The Winston Science Egg Drop Competition is held annually in November, one of a large group of science competitions organized by Lehman Marks of the Winston School in Dallas, TX. The rules for the competition state that the egg package may be constructed of toothpicks and glue only, with a mass limit of 50 g, not including the egg. Once the egg is placed inside the package, it is dropped from a height of 8 m. The winning entry is the one that makes impact in the least amount of time while still protecting the egg. Timing is electronic.

  18. Luminescence color as a characteristic for selection in poultry eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybalova, Natalya B.; Vasiljeva, Ludmilia T.; Zamorskaja, Tatjana; Bychajev, Al.

    1996-12-01

    This work concerns luminescence of egg shell and chick down and livability and egg production of hens. It was established that the best layers showed orange color of egg shell luminescence at the beginning of the laying period. Yellow color of chick down luminescence indicates on the chicken's good development especially concerning its digestive and circulatory systems, and connects with its future high livability and egg production. So the use of the color of luminescence is advisable as an additional characteristic providing good possibility to forecast the development of a chicken, its resistance for stressors, its livability and egg production afterwards.

  19. Organochlorine residues and shell characteristics of roseate tern eggs, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of Roseate Tern eggs were collected in 1981 from 5 of the largest colonies in the northeastern U.S. and from one large colony in the U.S. Virgin Islands. No organochlorine compounds were detected in eggs from the U.S. Virgin Islands. PCBs were found in all eggs and DDE was found in most eggs from the northeastern U.S., but concentrations were substantially lower than in Common Terns from the same colonies. There were no significant correlations between eggshell characteristics and organochlorine concentrations. DDE concentrations in Roseate Tern eggs were well below those reported to induce adverse effects in Common Terns.

  20. Aerobic bacterial flora of addled raptor eggs in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Houston, C S; Saunders, J R; Crawford, R D

    1997-04-01

    In south-central Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1986, 1987 and 1989, the aerobic bacterial flora was evaluated from 75 unhatched raptor eggs of three species: 42 of the Swainson's hawk (Buteo Swainsoni), 21 of the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis), and 12 of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). In addled Swainson's hawk eggs, the most common bacterial genera were Enterobacter (18 eggs), Escherichia (12), and Streptococcus (10). Seven great horned owl eggs and six ferruginous hawk eggs also contained Escherichia coli. Salmonella spp. were not isolated. These bacteria were interpreted as secondary contaminants and not the primary cause of reproductive failure. PMID:9131569

  1. Restoration with smoke-dependent species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Keeley, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  2. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O., Jr.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  3. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively) different levels of aerobic organisms dependent on housing system. Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic contamination in relation to hen strain with Hy-Line Silver Brown having the greatest (4.57 log cfu/mL). Hy-Line Brown and Barred Plymouth Rock hens produced eggs with significantly different (P < 0.01) levels of Enterobacteriaceae among housing systems with conventional caged eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system. PMID:23873573

  4. Effects of some pesticides on development of Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides.

  5. Life-history consequences of egg size in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, R B; French, V; Partridge, L

    1997-08-01

    We used a novel approach to study the effects of egg size on offspring fitness components in Drosophila melanogaster. Populations that differed genetically in egg size were crossed, and the female offspring from these reciprocal crosses were examined for life-history traits. These flies expressed effects of egg size, because they developed from eggs of different sizes as a result of maternal genetic effects, but displayed an equivalent range of nuclear genetic variation. The crosses used four independent pairs of outbred populations that differed in the pattern of covariation between egg size and life-history traits, so that the maternal genetic effects of egg size on offspring characters could be contrasted to the associations present among the parental populations. Egg size showed positive maternal genetic effects on embryonic viability and development rate, hatchling weight and feeding rate, and egg-larva and egg-adult development rate but no consistent effects on larval competitive ability, adult weight, or egg size in the offspring. Our method revealed a pattern of causality that could not be deduced from interpopulation comparisons and therefore provides a good way of disentangling the causes and consequences of variation in egg size while controlling for zygotic genetic effects.

  6. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively) different levels of aerobic organisms dependent on housing system. Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic contamination in relation to hen strain with Hy-Line Silver Brown having the greatest (4.57 log cfu/mL). Hy-Line Brown and Barred Plymouth Rock hens produced eggs with significantly different (P < 0.01) levels of Enterobacteriaceae among housing systems with conventional caged eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.

  7. Chemical defense against predation in an insect egg.

    PubMed

    Eisner, T; Eisner, M; Rossini, C; Iyengar, V K; Roach, B L; Benedikt, E; Meinwald, J

    2000-02-15

    The larva of the green lacewing (Ceraeochrysa cubana) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) is a natural predator of eggs of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae), a moth that sequesters pyrrolizidine alkaloids from its larval foodplant (Fabaceae, Crotalaria spp.). Utetheisa eggs are ordinarily endowed with the alkaloid. Alkaloid-free Utetheisa eggs, produced experimentally, are pierced by the larva with its sharp tubular jaws and sucked out. Alkaloid-laden eggs, in contrast, are rejected. When attacking an Utetheisa egg cluster (numbering on average 20 eggs), the larva subjects it to an inspection process. It prods and/or pierces a small number of eggs (on average two to three) and, if these contain alkaloid, it passes "negative judgement" on the remainder of the cluster and turns away. Such generalization on the part of the larva makes sense, because the eggs within clusters differ little in alkaloid content. There is, however, considerable between-cluster variation in egg alkaloid content, so clusters in nature can be expected to range widely in palatability. To check each cluster for acceptability must therefore be adaptive for the larva, just as it must be adaptive for Utetheisa to lay its eggs in large clusters and to apportion alkaloid evenly among eggs of a cluster.

  8. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Wu, Jianping

    2015-09-24

    Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides). In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.

  9. Eggshell thickness and DDE residue levels in vlulture eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiff, L.F.; Peakall, D.B.; Morrison, M.L.; Wilbur, S.R.; Wilbur, Sanford R.; Jackson, Jerome A.

    1983-01-01

    Post-DDT (post-1947) eggshell thickness was examined in samples of Turkey Vulture, Black Vulture, and Crested Caracara eggs from several parts of the United States. Highly significant post-DDT decreases in eggshell thickness indices of at least 10 percent were found in Turkey Vulture eggs from California, Florida, and Texas and in Black Vulture eggs from Texas and Florida. Over one-third of the Black VUlture eggs and about 30 percent of the Turkey Vulture eggs from Texas showed thinning exceeding 20 percent, a level associated with reproductive failure and population decline in other species. A strong negative correlation was found between eggshell thickness indices and DDE residues extracted from eggshell membranes in California and Texas samples of Turkey Vulture eggs and in Texas Black Vulture eggs. Crested Caracara eggs from Texas and Florida showed mean changes in eggshell thickness indices of only -5.6 and -8.2 percent, respectively, although thinning in a few eggs from both states exceeded 20 percent. Most of the post-DDT Old World vulture eggs examined appeared to be of normal thickness, with low DDE residue levels in eggshell membranes; but single eggs of Egyptian Vulture from India, Cinereous Vulture from Spain, and White-headed Vulture from Zambia showed apparent thinning. Further monitoring of vulture populations in tropical regions, where DDT use is still increasing, is recommended.

  10. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Wu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides). In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food. PMID:26404361

  11. Egg transport in the coelom of the newt cynops pyrrhogaster. I. The ovulated egg is transported to the ostium by the ciliary movement of coelomic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamahama, Yumi; Onitake, Kazuo

    2002-08-01

    We investigated the mechanism of egg transport in the newt not only by inserting various conditioned eggs into the recipient's body but also by placing them on the coelomic epithelia of the opened body cavity in the adult female newt. Most of the inserted coelomic eggs were oviposited, while 4 of 14 inserted de-jellied uterine eggs and 3 of 10 inserted de-jellied fertilized eggs were oviposited. The coelomic eggs placed on the coelomic epithelia were transported toward the ostium and entered the ostium. The de-jellied uterine eggs and the de-jellied fertilized eggs were transported to the ostium as well. Of all the eggs examined, the coelomic egg was transported the fastest. The transport speeds of coelomic eggs treated with periodic acid and the speed of boiled coelomic eggs were less than those of untreated coelomic eggs. In contrast, the transport speeds of coelomic eggs treated with trypsin and the speed of coelomic eggs removed from their vitelline envelopes (naked eggs) were faster than those of untreated coelomic eggs. Other experiments were carried out in order to ascertain the dependence of sexual activity on egg transport. The speed of coelomic egg transport in artificially sexually activated females was faster than in sexually inactive females, although the ciliary movement could always be observed in both sexually active females and sexually inactive females. This suggests that the speed of egg transport on the coelomic epithelia is controlled by the sexual activity of the female. PMID:12193806

  12. Two eggs, two different constraints: a potential explanation for the puzzling intraclutch egg size dimorphism in Eudyptes penguins

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Dehnhard, Nina; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Eens, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic stability are major components of the adaptive evolution of organisms to environmental variation. The invariant two-egg clutch size of Eudyptes penguins has recently been proposed to be a unique example of a maladaptive phenotypic stability, while their egg mass is a plastic trait. We tested whether this phenotypic plasticity during reproduction might result from constraints imposed by migration (migratory carry-over effect) and breeding (due to the depletion of female body reserves). For the first time, we examined whether these constraints differ between eggs within clutches and between egg components (yolk and albumen). The interval between colony return and clutch initiation positively influenced the yolk mass, the albumen mass, and the subsequent total egg mass of first-laid eggs. This time interval had only a slight negative influence on the yolk mass of second-laid eggs and no influence on their albumen and subsequent total masses. For both eggs, female body mass at laying positively influenced albumen and total egg masses. Female investment into the entire clutch was not related to the time in the colony before laying but increased with female body mass. These novel results suggest that the unique intraclutch egg size dimorphism exhibited in Eudyptes penguins, with first-laid eggs being consistently smaller than second-laid eggs, might be due to a combination of constraints: a migratory carry-over effect on the first-laid egg and a body reserve depletion effect on the second-laid egg. Both these constraints might explain why the timing of reproduction, especially egg formation, is narrow in migratory capital breeders. PMID:26306169

  13. Behaviorally Induced Camouflage: A New Mechanism of Avian Egg Protection.

    PubMed

    Mayani-Parás, Fernando; Kilner, Rebecca M; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2015-10-01

    When animals potentially occupy diverse microhabitats, how can camouflage be achieved? Here we combine descriptive and experimental methods to uncover a novel form of phenotypic plasticity in the camouflage of bird eggs that may be present in other avian taxa. Soil from the bare substrate adheres to the blue-footed booby's (Sula nebouxii's) pale eggs, which parents manipulate both under and on top of their webs. Analysis of digital images confirmed that dirtiness increases progressively during the first 16 days of the incubation period, making eggs more similar to the nest substrate. Observations of 3,668 single-egg clutches showed that the probability of egg loss declines progressively over the same time frame and then remains low for the rest of the 41-day incubation period. An experiment showed that when chicken eggs are soiled and exposed in artificial booby nests, they are less likely to be taken by Heermann's gulls (Larus heermanni) than clean eggs. PMID:26655580

  14. Behaviorally Induced Camouflage: A New Mechanism of Avian Egg Protection.

    PubMed

    Mayani-Parás, Fernando; Kilner, Rebecca M; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2015-10-01

    When animals potentially occupy diverse microhabitats, how can camouflage be achieved? Here we combine descriptive and experimental methods to uncover a novel form of phenotypic plasticity in the camouflage of bird eggs that may be present in other avian taxa. Soil from the bare substrate adheres to the blue-footed booby's (Sula nebouxii's) pale eggs, which parents manipulate both under and on top of their webs. Analysis of digital images confirmed that dirtiness increases progressively during the first 16 days of the incubation period, making eggs more similar to the nest substrate. Observations of 3,668 single-egg clutches showed that the probability of egg loss declines progressively over the same time frame and then remains low for the rest of the 41-day incubation period. An experiment showed that when chicken eggs are soiled and exposed in artificial booby nests, they are less likely to be taken by Heermann's gulls (Larus heermanni) than clean eggs.

  15. Ballistocardiogram of avian eggs determined by an electromagnetic induction coil.

    PubMed

    Ono, H; Akiyama, R; Sakamoto, Y; Pearson, J T; Tazawa, H

    1997-07-01

    As an avian embryo grows within an eggshell, the whole egg is moved by embryonic activity and also by the embryonic heartbeat. A technical interest in detecting minute biological movements has prompted the development of techniques and systems to measure the cardiogenic ballistic movement of the egg or ballistocardiogram (BCG). In this context, there is interest in using an electromagnetic induction coil (solenoid) as another simple sensor to measure the BCG and examining its possibility for BCG measurement. A small permanent magnet is attached tightly to the surface of an incubated egg, and then the egg with the magnet is placed in a solenoid. Preliminary model analysis is made to design a setup of the egg, magnet and solenoid coupling system. Then, simultaneous measurement with a laser displacement measuring system, developed previously, is made for chicken eggs, indicating that the solenoid detects the minute cardiogenic ballistic movements and that the BCG determined is a measure of the velocity of egg movements.

  16. Egg cannibalism and carnivory among three species of Toxorhynchites.

    PubMed

    Linley, J R; Duzak, D

    1989-09-01

    In laboratory experiments, third and early fourth instar larvae of Toxorhynchites amboinensis, Tx. splendens and Tx. brevipalpis, previously starved 24 h, rapidly cannibalized eggs of their own species, or ate the eggs of other species present on the water surface in small containers. Toxorhynchites amboinensis and Tx. splendens larvae of either instar cannibalized eggs somewhat more rapidly than Tx. brevipalpis, probably because brevipalpis eggs distributed themselves around the edge of the container and were less accessible. When offered heterospecific eggs, fourth instar larvae of all three species ate them as efficiently as they cannibalized their own except that eggs of Tx. brevipalpis were eaten very slowly. Toxorhynchites amboinensis larvae were offered conspecific hatched eggs, and these also were consumed. PMID:2573688

  17. Magnetic characterization of Daphnia resting eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, Masanobu; Kawasaki, Tamami . E-mail: tamami@rtri.or.jp; Shibue, Toshimichi; Takada, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Hideyuki; Namiki, Hideo

    2006-12-15

    This study characterized the magnetic materials found within Daphnia resting eggs by measuring static magnetization with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer, after forming two types of conditions, each of which consists of zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC). Magnetic ions, such as Fe{sup 3+}, contained in Daphnia resting eggs existed as (1) paramagnetic and superparamagnetic particles, demonstrated by a magnetization and temperature dependence of the magnetic moments under an applied magnetic field after ZFC and FC, and (2) ferromagnetic particles with definite magnetic moments, the content of which was estimated to be very low, demonstrated by the Moskowitz test. Conventionally, biomagnets have been directly detected by transmission electron microscopes (TEM). As demonstrated in this study, it is possible to nondestructively detect small biomagnets by magnetization measurement, especially after two types of ZFC and FC. This nondestructive method can be applied in detecting biomagnets in complex biological organisms.

  18. The Eagle's EGGs: Fertile or sterile?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughrean, M. J.; Andersen, M.

    2002-07-01

    We present a deep, high spatial resolution (0.35 arcsec FWHM), near-infrared (1-2.5 mu m) imaging survey of the Eagle Nebula, M 16, made with the VLT, centred on the famous elephant trunks. We compare these data with the existing HST optical images to search for evidence of ongoing or recent star formation in the trunks, and in particular in the 73 small evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs) on their surface. We find that two of the three HST trunks have relatively massive YSOs in their tips. Most of the EGGs appear to be empty, but some 15% of them do show evidence for associated young low-mass stars or brown dwarfs: in particular, there is a small cluster of such sources seen at the head of the largest trunk.

  19. The Walking Egg non-profit organisation.

    PubMed

    Dhont, N

    2011-01-01

    The Walking Egg non-profit organisation (npo) was founded in 2010 by scientists and an artist to realise the Arusha Project which strives to implement accessible infertility programmes in resource-poor countries. Right from the start The Walking Egg has opted for a multidisciplinary and global approach towards the problem of infertility and in cooperation with the Special Task Force (STF) on "Developing countries and infertility" of the European Society of Human reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the WHO, it gathers medical, social and economical scientists and experts along with artists to discuss and work together towards its goal. The project aims to raise awareness -surrounding childlessness in resource-poor countries and to make infertility care in all its aspects, including assisted reproductive technologies, available and accessible for a much larger part of the population.

  20. Teaching VSEPR: The Plastic Egg Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, James P.; Abbassian, Soraya

    1996-07-01

    Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory is taught best by using models. Although a number of models have been described previously, they suffer from a number of defects, especially in that they require a considerable amount of manipulation by the lecturer and they are not readily available for hands-on use by students. We describe the construction and use of a set of models based on plastic eggs, which afford advantages over the previously described models. The plastic egg models allow users to easily distinguish lone pairs from each other by color coding. The models can be used for molecules with more than one central atom. Free rotation of sigma bonds can be easily demonstrated. Mechanisms for SN1 and SN2 reactions can be depicted, providing a model for the inversion or retention of configuration.

  1. The avian egg and the retina

    PubMed Central

    MALCOLM, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for study of blood flow has been derived from the avian egg, utilizing the theories of crystallography and photosynthesis. The model is employed to explain the form of the eye and the function of the cells of the human retina, with special reference to colour vision and the pathology of migraine. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4736600

  2. Interlocking egg-crate type grid assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kast, S.J.

    1985-03-15

    Disclosed is an interlocking egg-crate hexagonal grid for supporting a nuclear fuel pin in a hexagonal array. The grid is formed from strips bent at an angle of about 120/sup 0/ at each vertex. Over some faces of each hexagonal cell the strips are coplanar but are arranged, by stacking interlocking, to avoid any double thickness of metal in that plane. Springs and dimples are formed in the faces of each cell to hold the fuel pin substantially centered.

  3. Interlocking egg-crate type grid assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kast, Steven J.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is an interlocking egg-crate hexagonal grid for supporting a nuclear fuel pin in a hexagonal array. The grid is formed from strips bent at an angle of about 120.degree. at each vertex. Over some faces of each hexagonal cell the strips are coplanar but are arranged, by stacking and interlocking, to avoid any double thickness of metal in that plane. Springs and dimples are formed in the faces of each cell to hold the fuel pin substantially centered.

  4. Incubation conditions are more important in determining early thermoregulatory ability than posthatch resource conditions in a precocial bird.

    PubMed

    DuRant, S E; Hopkins, W A; Carter, A W; Stachowiak, C M; Hepp, G R

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in birds suggests that investing in incubation is one mechanism by which parents can enhance the phenotype of their offspring. Posthatch environmental conditions can also shape an individual's phenotype, and it is thus possible for pre- and posthatch conditions to have interactive effects on an individual's phenotype. In this study, we examined the individual and interactive effects of prehatch incubation temperature and posthatch food availability on growth, food consumption, and thermoregulatory ability in wood duck (Aix sponsa) ducklings. Eggs were incubated at one of three temperatures (35.0°, 35.9°, or 37.0°C), and then ducklings were reared on an either ad lib. or time-restricted diet for 12 d after hatching. We found that food availability influenced duckling growth, with the slowest growth occurring in ducklings fed the restricted diet. Incubation temperature also interacted with food conditions to influence duckling growth: ducklings fed ad lib. from the lowest incubation temperature grew slower than ducklings fed ad lib. from the higher incubation temperatures. Most importantly, we found that the improvement in a duckling's ability to maintain body temperature in the face of a thermal challenge was influenced by embryonic incubation temperature but not feeding conditions. Ducklings from the highest incubation temperature experienced the greatest improvement in thermoregulatory performance with age. Our findings suggest that the prehatch environment is more important than posthatch resource conditions in determining some physiological functions and underscores the important role that incubation temperature plays in determining offspring phenotype in birds.

  5. Heat Resistance of Salmonella in Various Egg Products

    PubMed Central

    Garibaldi, J. A.; Straka, R. P.; Ijichi, K.

    1969-01-01

    The heat-resistance characteristics of Salmonella typhimurium Tm-1, a reference strain in the stationary phase of growth, were determined at several temperatures in the major types of products produced by the egg industry. The time required to kill 90% of the population (D value) at a given temperature in specific egg products was as follows: at 60 C (140 F), D = 0.27 min for whole egg; D = 0.60 min for whole egg plus 10% sucrose; D = 1.0 min for fortified whole egg; D = 0.20 min for egg white (pH 7.3), stabilized with aluminum; D = 0.40 min for egg yolk; D = 4.0 min for egg yolk plus 10% sucrose; D = 5.1 min for egg yolk plus 10% NaCl; D = 1.0 min for scrambled egg mix; at 55 C (131 F), D = 0.55 min for egg white (pH 9.2); D = 1.2 min for egg white (pH 9.2) plus 10% sucrose. The average Z value (number of degrees, either centigrade or fahrenheit, for a thermal destruction time curve to traverse one logarithmic cycle) was 4.6 C (8.3 F) with a range from 4.2 to 5.3 C. Supplementation with 10% sucrose appeared to have a severalfold greater effect on the heat stabilization of egg white proteins than on S. typhimurium Tm-1. This information should be of value in the formulation of heat treatments to insure that all egg products be free of viable salmonellae. Images PMID:4890741

  6. Does egg colouration reflect male condition in birds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Dixon, Heather; Vergara, Pablo; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Fargallo, Juan A.

    2010-05-01

    How colouration provides information about individuals in birds has been a central issue in recent decades. Although much information has been derived, little is known about the adaptive significance of egg colouration in birds. A recent idea suggests that biliverdin- and porphyrin-pigmented eggs may act as a post-mating sexual signal for males to assess female quality. In birds, it is common for males to influence prelaying female condition by courtship feeding. Using Eurasian kestrels, a species that lays protoporphyrin-pigmented eggs, we descriptively assessed the influence of male feeding on egg pigmentation by considering female phenotype, condition, breeding parameters and male body condition. We found that older females and females with greyer tails (an index of individual quality) produce highly pigmented eggs. However, male body condition was the only variable that explained egg colouration when considered together with the female-related variables. Therefore, females that mated with males in better condition laid highly pigmented eggs. With the same species, we also explored the cost of producing protoporphyrin-pigmented eggs using a food-supply experiment before the laying period. Food supplementation did not increase egg pigmentation, but hatching success and egg mass were positively related to egg colouration only in food supplied pairs. We suggest that egg colouration might be costly to produce and probably suggests egg quality. However, this cost cannot be explained by female quality, but by male condition instead. In general, our results do not support the theory that egg colouration is a post-mating sexual signal in species where males determine female condition at the time of laying.

  7. Egg boons: central components of marine fatty acid food webs.

    PubMed

    Fuiman, Lee A; Connelly, Tara L; Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K; McClelland, James W

    2015-02-01

    Food web relationships are traditionally defined in terms of the flow of key elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, and their role in limiting production. There is growing recognition that availability of important biomolecules, such as fatty acids, may exert controls on secondary production that are not easily explained by traditional element-oriented models. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are required by most organisms for proper physiological function but are manufactured almost entirely by primary producers. Therefore, the flow of EFAs, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and arachidonic acid (ARA), through aquatic food webs is critical for ecosystem functioning. A meta-analysis of data on the EFA content of marine organisms reveals that individual eggs of marine animals have exceptionally high concentrations of EFAs, and that superabundances of eggs released in temporally and spatially discrete patches create rich, but temporary, nutritional resources for egg predators, called "egg boons." Mortality rates of fish eggs are disproportionately higher than animals of similar size, and those eggs are consumed by predators, both larger and smaller than the adults that produce the eggs. Thus, egg boons are a major trophic pathway through which EFAs are repackaged and redistributed, and they are among the few pathways that run counter to the main direction of trophic flow. Egg boons can transport EFAs across ecosystems through advection of patches of eggs and spawning migrations of adults. Recognizing the significance of egg boons to aquatic food webs reveals linkages and feedbacks between organisms and environments that have important implications for understanding how food webs vary in time and space. Examples are given of top-down, bottom-up, and lateral control mechanisms that could significantly alter food webs through their effects on eggs. Our results suggest that trophodynamic food web models should include EFAs

  8. Egg yolk: structures, functionalities and processes.

    PubMed

    Anton, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Hen egg yolk is an ideal example of natural supramolecular assemblies of lipids and proteins with different organization levels. These assemblies are mainly due to interactions between proteins and phospholipids, and these interactions are essential in understanding and controlling the production of food made with yolk, and particularly emulsions. Furthermore, these assemblies can be modulated by external constraints among which thermo-mechanical and high-pressure treatments. This review focuses on multi-scale structures present in egg yolk, and their modulation by processes, in relation with their emulsifying properties. Egg yolk is mainly composed of two fractions-plasma and granules-which are natural nano- and micro-assemblies. These two fractions possess different composition, structures and functionalities and exhibit specific behaviour under treatments such as high pressure and temperature. Plasma contains a large quantity of lipids structured as lipoproteins (low-density lipoproteins), whereas granules are mainly composed of proteins aggregated in micrometric assemblies. If plasma is responsible for the important emulsifying properties of yolk, granules bring interesting emulsifying properties when assemblies are in the form of micelles in presence of salts. High-pressure or thermal treatments, applied before or after emulsion fabrication, alter their functionalities and could be used to commercially exploit these fractions.

  9. Spinning eggs-which end will rise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ken

    2004-06-01

    We examine the spinning behavior of egg-shaped axisymmetric bodies whose cross sections are described by several oval curves similar to real eggs with thin and fat ends. We use the gyroscopic balance condition of Moffatt and Shimomura and analyze the slip velocity of the bodies at the point of contact as a function of θ, the angle between the axis of symmetry and the vertical axis, and find the existence of the critical angle θc. When the bodies are spun with an initial angle θinitial>θc, θ will increase to π, implying that the body will spin at the thin end. Alternatively, if θinitial<θc, then θ will decrease. For some oval curves, θ will reduce to 0 and the corresponding bodies will spin at the fat end. For other oval curves, a fixed point at θf is predicted, where 0<θf<θc. Then the bodies will spin not at the fat end, but at a new stable point with θf. The empirical fact that eggs more often spin at the fat than at the thin end is explained.

  10. Eggs, ethics and exploitation? Investigating women's experiences of an egg sharing scheme

    PubMed Central

    Haimes, Erica; Taylor, Ken; Turkmendag, Ilke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is a growing global demand for human eggs for the treatment of sub-fertile women and for stem cell-related research. This demand provokes concerns for the women providing the eggs, including their possible exploitation, whether they should be paid, whether they can give properly informed consent and whether their eggs and bodies are becoming commodified. However, few of the debates have benefitted from insights from the women themselves. We address this gap in knowledge by reporting on a study investigating women’s views and experiences of a scheme in which they can volunteer, in their capacity as fertility patients, to ‘share’ their eggs with researchers and receive a reduction in in vitro fertilisation fees. We focus our discussion on the question of exploitation, a concept central to many sociological and ethical interests. In brief, our analysis suggests that while interviewees acknowledge the potential of this scheme to be exploitative, they argue that this is not the case, emphasising their ability to act autonomously in deciding to volunteer. Nonetheless, these freely made decisions do not necessarily take place under circumstances of their choosing. We discuss the implications of this for egg provision in general and for understandings of exploitation. PMID:22443419

  11. Dark nests and egg colour in birds: a possible functional role of ultraviolet reflectance in egg detectability

    PubMed Central

    Avilés, Jesús M; Soler, Juan J; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás

    2006-01-01

    Owing to the conspicuousness of ultraviolet (UV) colour in dark environments, natural selection might have selected UV egg coloration because it would enhance egg detectability by parents in murky nests. Here, we tested this hypothesis by using comparative and experimental approaches. First, we studied variation in egg coloration of 98 species of European passerines measured using UV–visible reflectance spectrometry (300–700 nm) in relation to nesting habits. Analyses based on raw data and controlling for phylogenetic distances both at the species and the family levels revealed that hole-nester species produced eggs with higher UV reflectance than those nesting in open habitats. The experimental approach consisted of the manipulation of UV reflectance of the experimental eggs introduced outside the nest-cup of the hole-nester spotless starling Sturnus unicolor and the study of the retrieval of these eggs. Ultraviolet-reflecting eggs (controls) were more frequently retrieved to the nest-cup than non-reflecting (–UV) eggs. These results were not due to ‘–UV’ eggs being recognized by starlings as parasitic because when a parasitic egg is detected, starlings removed it from the nest-box. Therefore, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that UV egg colours are designed to provide highly detectable targets for parent birds in dark nest environments. PMID:17015364

  12. Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Leigh, S A; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Collier, S D

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of Single Comb White Leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect against postproduction-peak egg losses associated with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) vaccination was also investigated. Vaccination with Vectormune FP MG did not result in any significant change in egg production or egg quality parameters compared with control (unvaccinated) hens. Subsequent revaccination with FMG at 45 wk of age (woa) yielded no impact on egg production or egg quality parameters of Vectormune FP MG vaccinated hens, unlike prior results for postproduction-peak vaccination of M. gallisepticum-clean hens with FMG, which exhibited a drop in egg production of approximately 6%. No difference in egg size distribution was observed for any of the treatment groups before or after FMG revaccination. These results suggest that hens can be safely vaccinated with Vectormune FP MG as pullets and can be revaccinated with a live M. gallisepticum vaccine such as FMG at a later date with no deleterious effects on egg production or egg or eggshell quality parameters. PMID:24235227

  13. Temperature during egg formation and the effect of climate warming on egg size in a small songbird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potti, Jaime

    2008-05-01

    The predicted effects of recent climate warming on egg size in birds are controversial, as only two long-term studies have been reported, with contrasting results. Long-term data on egg size variation are analyzed in relation to ambient temperatures in a southern European population of pied flycatchers where breeding phenology has not matched the spring advancement in the last decades. Cross-sectional, population analyses indicated that egg breadth, but not egg length, has decreased significantly along the 16-year period, leading to marginally non-significant decreases in egg volume. Longitudinal, individual analyses revealed that despite females consistently laying larger eggs when they experienced warmer temperatures during the prelaying and laying periods, there was an overall negative response - i.e. decreasing egg volume and breadth with increasing spring (May) average temperatures - across individuals. This trend is hypothesised to be caused by the mismatched breeding phenology, in relation to climate warming, of this population. Except in the unlikely cases of populations capable of perfectly synchronising their phenology to changes in their environment, maladjustments are likely for traits such as egg size, which depend strongly on female condition. Slight changes or absence thereof in breeding dates may be followed by mismatched dates, in terms of food abundance, for optimal egg formation, which would be reflected in smaller average egg size, contrary to early predictions on the effects of climate warming on bird egg size.

  14. Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Leigh, S A; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Collier, S D

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of Single Comb White Leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect against postproduction-peak egg losses associated with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) vaccination was also investigated. Vaccination with Vectormune FP MG did not result in any significant change in egg production or egg quality parameters compared with control (unvaccinated) hens. Subsequent revaccination with FMG at 45 wk of age (woa) yielded no impact on egg production or egg quality parameters of Vectormune FP MG vaccinated hens, unlike prior results for postproduction-peak vaccination of M. gallisepticum-clean hens with FMG, which exhibited a drop in egg production of approximately 6%. No difference in egg size distribution was observed for any of the treatment groups before or after FMG revaccination. These results suggest that hens can be safely vaccinated with Vectormune FP MG as pullets and can be revaccinated with a live M. gallisepticum vaccine such as FMG at a later date with no deleterious effects on egg production or egg or eggshell quality parameters.

  15. Studies on organoleptic properties of food products from fresh egg and egg powder through principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Valentina Singh; Sharma, Alka

    2003-04-01

    The population which is below the poverty line is devoid of nutritious diet. Egg and milk are categorized as complete foods. The defensive organizations are situated in such remote places where fresh food material is not available. Keeping in view these problems, the study of organoleptic variables, viz., color, appearance, aroma, texture and taste in the food products of cake, omelet doughnut, coconut macaroon and mayonnaise from fresh egg and egg powder, was conducted. Principal component analysis was carried out. Organoleptic properties of doughnut prepared from egg powder were superior compared to fresh egg which had better sensory traits for coconut macaroon. The sensory traits like taste, texture and aroma were the most influential traits studied to pronouncing as a panel decision. It is proposed that fresh egg and egg powder should be preferred in the process of preparation of coconut macaroon and doughnut, respectively. PMID:12744287

  16. Egg load dynamics and the risk of egg and time limitation experienced by an aphid parasitoid in the field.

    PubMed

    Dieckhoff, Christine; Theobald, Julian C; Wäckers, Felix L; Heimpel, George E

    2014-05-01

    Insect parasitoids and herbivores must balance the risk of egg limitation and time limitation in order to maximize reproductive success. Egg and time limitation are mediated by oviposition and egg maturation rates as well as by starvation risk and other determinants of adult lifespan. Here, we assessed egg load and nutritional state in the soybean aphid parasitoid Binodoxys communis under field conditions to estimate its risk of becoming either egg- or time-limited. The majority of female B. communis showed no signs of egg limitation. Experimental field manipulations of B. communis females suggested that an average of 4-8 eggs were matured per hour over the course of a day. Regardless, egg loads remained constant over the course of the day at approximately 80 eggs, suggesting that egg maturation compensates for oviposition. This is the first case of such "egg load buffering" documented for a parasitoid in the field. Despite this buffering, egg loads dropped slightly with increasing host (aphid) density. This suggests that egg limitation could occur at very high host densities as experienced in outbreak years in some locations in the Midwestern USA. Biochemical analyses of sugar profiles showed that parasitoids fed upon sugar in the field at a remarkably high rate. Time limitation through starvation thus seems to be very low and aphid honeydew is most likely a source of dietary sugar for these parasitoids. This latter supposition is supported by the fact that body sugar levels increase with host (aphid) density. Together, these results suggest that fecundity of B. communis benefits from both dynamic egg maturation strategies and sugar-feeding.

  17. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  18. Egg load dynamics and the risk of egg and time limitation experienced by an aphid parasitoid in the field

    PubMed Central

    Dieckhoff, Christine; Theobald, Julian C; Wäckers, Felix L; Heimpel, George E

    2014-01-01

    Insect parasitoids and herbivores must balance the risk of egg limitation and time limitation in order to maximize reproductive success. Egg and time limitation are mediated by oviposition and egg maturation rates as well as by starvation risk and other determinants of adult lifespan. Here, we assessed egg load and nutritional state in the soybean aphid parasitoid Binodoxys communis under field conditions to estimate its risk of becoming either egg- or time-limited. The majority of female B. communis showed no signs of egg limitation. Experimental field manipulations of B. communis females suggested that an average of 4–8 eggs were matured per hour over the course of a day. Regardless, egg loads remained constant over the course of the day at approximately 80 eggs, suggesting that egg maturation compensates for oviposition. This is the first case of such “egg load buffering” documented for a parasitoid in the field. Despite this buffering, egg loads dropped slightly with increasing host (aphid) density. This suggests that egg limitation could occur at very high host densities as experienced in outbreak years in some locations in the Midwestern USA. Biochemical analyses of sugar profiles showed that parasitoids fed upon sugar in the field at a remarkably high rate. Time limitation through starvation thus seems to be very low and aphid honeydew is most likely a source of dietary sugar for these parasitoids. This latter supposition is supported by the fact that body sugar levels increase with host (aphid) density. Together, these results suggest that fecundity of B. communis benefits from both dynamic egg maturation strategies and sugar-feeding. PMID:24963373

  19. Egg Quality Assurance Programs and Egg-associated Salmonella Enteritidis Infections, United States

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Patricia M.; Meltzer, Martin I.; Braden, Chris R.; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2004-01-01

    A Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis epidemic in the United States began in 1978, spread to much of the country in the following decade, and began declining in 1996. We examined correlations between annual changes in S. Enteritidis incidence in humans and introductions of egg quality assurance programs (EQAPs) in some states to reduce S. Enteritidis contamination of eggs. Before EQAPs, 62% of the changes in S. Enteritidis incidence were higher than the baseline for each state. After EQAPs, 73%–84% of the changes were below the baseline. Regression analysis showed that a 1% increase in the number of eggs produced under an EQAP was associated with a 0.14% decrease in S. Enteritidis incidence (p < 0.05). These data indicate that EQAPs probably played a major role in reducing S. Enteritidis illness in these states. PMID:15504264

  20. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely. PMID:26951988

  1. Characteristics and incidence of large eggs in Trichuris muris.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Koichi

    2013-05-01

    The production of small numbers of large eggs among the standard-sized eggs of Trichuris trichiura is well known. Large eggs have also been observed in Trichuris muris, but they have not been studied previously. This paper compares the characteristics of the large eggs (LEs, ≥74.5 μm long) and standard-sized eggs (SEs, <74.5 μm long) in cultures of T. muris. Among 112,554 cultured eggs, LEs occurred at very low frequency (0.03 %, i.e., about three large eggs per 10(4) cultured eggs). Embryonated eggs represented 93.72 % of SEs, but only 25.00 % of LEs were embryonated. Embryonated LEs and SEs contained fully matured larvae. An atypical category of unembryonated egg, which contained an incompletely developed larva, an abnormal larva, or granular components, was common among the LEs. However, similar atypical unembryonated SEs were rarely observed. These observations suggest that the LEs that occur very infrequently in T. muris result from an abnormality of embryonation (larval development).

  2. Peptides from sperm acrosomal protein that initiate egg development.

    PubMed

    Gould, M C; Stephano, J L

    1991-08-01

    How sperm initiate egg development is being investigated with gametes of the marine worm Urechis. Sperm acrosomal protein, previously shown to activate eggs (Gould et al., 1986, Dev. Biol. 117, 306-318; Gould and Stephano, 1987, Science 235, 1654-1656), was enzymatically cleaved into soluble peptide fragments. When this mixture was added to eggs they activated, and parthenogenetic cleavage often occurred. An active peptide (P23) was purified from the mixture and its sequence was determined to be Val-Ala-Lys-Lys-Pro-Lys. Synthetic peptide had the same biological activity. P23 induced eggs to undergo the complete sequence of changes that normally follows fertilization, including the fertilization potential, completion of meiosis, and DNA replication. When a sperm centrosome was introduced into eggs by prefertilization without activation, and the eggs were subsequently activated by P23, they developed normally to trochophore larvae (the contribution of another sperm component is not ruled out by this experiment). P23 covalently coupled to bovine serum albumin also activated eggs, showing that it acted on the external surface of the egg. The peptide did not activate sea urchin eggs, but did cause oyster eggs to undergo germinal vesicle breakdown.

  3. A brood parasite selects for its own egg traits.

    PubMed

    Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2013-10-23

    Many brood parasitic birds lay eggs that mimic their hosts' eggs in appearance. This typically arises from selection from discriminating hosts that reject eggs which differ from their own. However, selection on parasitic eggs may also arise from parasites themselves, because it should pay a laying parasitic female to detect and destroy another parasitic egg previously laid in the same host nest by a different female. In this study, I experimentally test the source of selection on greater honeyguide (Indicator indicator) egg size and shape, which is correlated with that of its several host species, all of which breed in dark holes. Its commonest host species did not discriminate against experimental eggs that differed from their own in size and shape, but laying female honeyguides preferentially punctured experimental eggs more than host or control eggs. This should improve offspring survival given that multiple parasitism by this species is common, and that honeyguide chicks kill all other nest occupants. Hence, selection on egg size in greater honeyguides parasitizing bee-eaters appears to be imposed not by host defences but by interference competition among parasites themselves.

  4. Nest sanitation elicits egg discrimination in cuckoo hosts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Canchao; Chen, Min; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-11-01

    Nest sanitation is a nearly universal behavior in birds, while egg discrimination is a more specific adaptation that has evolved to counter brood parasitism. These two behaviors are closely related with nest sanitation being the ancestral behavior, and it has been hypothesized to constitute a preadaptation for egg discrimination. However, previous studies found little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we conducted an empirical test of the association between nest sanitation and egg discrimination in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by inserting a single non-mimetic model egg or a non-mimetic model egg plus half a peanut shell into host nests. Compared to the rejection rate of single model eggs, barn swallows significantly increased egg rejection frequency if a half peanut shell was simultaneously introduced. Our result for the first time shows the impact of nest sanitation on egg discrimination and demonstrates that nest sanitation can elicit egg discrimination in hosts of brood parasites. This study provided evidence for nest sanitation being a preadaptation to egg discrimination by facilitating egg rejection, thereby significantly advancing our understanding of avian cognition of foreign objects. Furthermore, we suggest that egg discrimination behavior in many accepters and intermediate rejecters may be lost or diluted. Such egg discrimination can be elicited and restored after nest sanitation, implying a sensitive and rapid phenotypic response to increased risk of parasitism. Our study offers a novel perspective for investigating the role of so-called intermediate rejecter individuals or species in the long-term coevolutionary cycle between brood parasites and their hosts. PMID:26160343

  5. Inferential reasoning and egg rejection in a cooperatively breeding cuckoo.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Christina; Strong, Meghan J; Edwards, Scott V

    2015-01-01

    Inferential reasoning-associating a visible consequence with an imagined event-has been demonstrated in several bird species in captivity, but few studies have tested wild birds in ecologically relevant contexts. Here, we investigate inferential reasoning by the greater ani, a cooperatively breeding cuckoo in which several females lay eggs in one nest. Prior to laying her first egg, each female removes any eggs that have already been laid by other females in the shared nest. After laying her first egg, however, each female stops removing eggs, presumably in order to avoid accidentally rejecting her own. But are anis using inferential reasoning to track the fate of their eggs in the communal nest, or is egg ejection governed by non-cognitive determinants? We experimentally removed eggs from two-female nests after both females had laid at least one egg and used video recording to verify that both females viewed the empty nest. We waited until one female (A) laid an egg in the nest, and video recorded the behavior of the female that had not yet re-laid (B). We predicted that if capable of inferential reasoning, female B should infer that the new egg could not be her own and she should remove it. Five out of five females tested failed to make this inference, suggesting that egg removal is either determined by the female's reproductive status or by the amount of time elapsed between egg removal and re-laying. This apparent cognitive constraint may have implications for the evolutionary stability of the anis' unusual breeding system. PMID:24993064

  6. Inferential reasoning and egg rejection in a cooperatively breeding cuckoo.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Christina; Strong, Meghan J; Edwards, Scott V

    2015-01-01

    Inferential reasoning-associating a visible consequence with an imagined event-has been demonstrated in several bird species in captivity, but few studies have tested wild birds in ecologically relevant contexts. Here, we investigate inferential reasoning by the greater ani, a cooperatively breeding cuckoo in which several females lay eggs in one nest. Prior to laying her first egg, each female removes any eggs that have already been laid by other females in the shared nest. After laying her first egg, however, each female stops removing eggs, presumably in order to avoid accidentally rejecting her own. But are anis using inferential reasoning to track the fate of their eggs in the communal nest, or is egg ejection governed by non-cognitive determinants? We experimentally removed eggs from two-female nests after both females had laid at least one egg and used video recording to verify that both females viewed the empty nest. We waited until one female (A) laid an egg in the nest, and video recorded the behavior of the female that had not yet re-laid (B). We predicted that if capable of inferential reasoning, female B should infer that the new egg could not be her own and she should remove it. Five out of five females tested failed to make this inference, suggesting that egg removal is either determined by the female's reproductive status or by the amount of time elapsed between egg removal and re-laying. This apparent cognitive constraint may have implications for the evolutionary stability of the anis' unusual breeding system.

  7. Nest sanitation elicits egg discrimination in cuckoo hosts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Canchao; Chen, Min; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-11-01

    Nest sanitation is a nearly universal behavior in birds, while egg discrimination is a more specific adaptation that has evolved to counter brood parasitism. These two behaviors are closely related with nest sanitation being the ancestral behavior, and it has been hypothesized to constitute a preadaptation for egg discrimination. However, previous studies found little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we conducted an empirical test of the association between nest sanitation and egg discrimination in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by inserting a single non-mimetic model egg or a non-mimetic model egg plus half a peanut shell into host nests. Compared to the rejection rate of single model eggs, barn swallows significantly increased egg rejection frequency if a half peanut shell was simultaneously introduced. Our result for the first time shows the impact of nest sanitation on egg discrimination and demonstrates that nest sanitation can elicit egg discrimination in hosts of brood parasites. This study provided evidence for nest sanitation being a preadaptation to egg discrimination by facilitating egg rejection, thereby significantly advancing our understanding of avian cognition of foreign objects. Furthermore, we suggest that egg discrimination behavior in many accepters and intermediate rejecters may be lost or diluted. Such egg discrimination can be elicited and restored after nest sanitation, implying a sensitive and rapid phenotypic response to increased risk of parasitism. Our study offers a novel perspective for investigating the role of so-called intermediate rejecter individuals or species in the long-term coevolutionary cycle between brood parasites and their hosts.

  8. Distribution of flatfish eggs in the 1989 egg surveys in the southeastern North Sea, and mortality of plaice and sole eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Land, Marco A.

    From January to July 1989 eight egg surveys were carried out in the southeastern North Sea. The first three surveys were designed to estimate the egg production of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) and cod ( Gadus morhua). The other five surveys were aimed at the eggs of sole ( Solea solea) and horse mackerel ( Trachurus trachurus) Of a selection of the samples collected in 1989 all fish eggs were identified to species. This paper presents data on the distribution, timing and intensity of spawning of the flatfish species plaice, flounder ( Platichthys flesus), dab ( Limanda limanda), long rough dab ( Hippoglossoides platessoides), sole, solenette ( Buglossidium luteum), turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) and scaldfish ( Arnoglossus laterna). Egg mortality was studied in plaice and sole and compared to previous estimates. Plaice egg mortality in 1988 and 1989 was higher than in 1987, coinciding with higher ambient temperatures. Egg production in sole was recorded earlier in the year in 1988 to 1990 than in 1984, and at lower ambient temperatures. Sole egg mortality rates were shown to be lower in 1988 to 1990 than in 1984.

  9. Metabolic effects of quail eggs in diabetes-induced rats: comparison with chicken eggs

    PubMed Central

    Lontchi-Yimagou, Eric; Tanya, Agatha; Tchankou, Carine; Ngondi, Judith; Oben, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Background Quail eggs as a food item have recently been introduced into the diet of some Cameroonians. These eggs are being sold in local markets, but with many unfounded health claims. One claim is that quail eggs can reduce blood glucose levels in diabetics. It was therefore necessary to evaluate the effect of consuming quail eggs on blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters in diabetes-induced rats. Methods Twenty Wistar rats weighing, on average, 250 g were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 consisted of rats with normal blood glucose, and the other three groups (2, 3, and 4) consisted of diabetes-induced rats achieved by intravenous injection of streptozotocin. During 16 days, rats in groups 1 and 2 received distilled water; and rats in groups 3 and 4 received quail and chicken eggs, respectively, with gastroesophageal probe at a dose of 1 mL/200 g body weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were determined in all the groups on the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 17th days after induction of diabetes. On the 17th day, the fasting rats were sacrificed, and blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results In 17 days, the consumption of quail and chicken eggs had no effect on blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. Total cholesterol levels were higher in groups 3 (75.59 mg/dL) and 4 (59.41 mg/dL) compared to group 2 (55.67 mg/dl), although these differences were not significant (all p>0.05). Triglyceride levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups 3 (106.52 mg/dL) and 4 (109.65 mg/dL) compared to group 2 (65.82 mg/dL). Quail eggs had no effect on oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides, and catalase). Conclusions The consumption of quail eggs by diabetic rats at the tested dose had no effect on blood glucose level and oxidative stress parameters and may have a negative effect on lipid profile. PMID:27717410

  10. Organochlorine contaminants in white-faced ibis eggs in southern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    White-faced ibis eggs collected from 2 colonies in southern Texas in 1985 had low mean concentrations of DDE. DDD, the only other organochlorine contaminant detected, was found in only 1 of 20 eggs. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly correlated with eggshell thickness. Mean DDE concentrations were significantly higher in eggs collected from nests where not all of the remaining eggs hatched than in eggs collected from nests where all the remaining eggs hatched.

  11. Egg color variation, but not egg rejection behavior, changes in a cuckoo host breeding in the absence of brood parasitism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Canchao; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Lijin; Liang, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Interactions between parasitic cuckoos and their songbird hosts form a classical reciprocal "arms race," and are an excellent model for understanding the process of coevolution. Changes in host egg coloration via the evolution of interclutch variation in egg color or intraclutch consistency in egg color are hypothesized counter adaptations that facilitate egg recognition and thus limit brood parasitism. Whether these antiparasitism strategies are maintained when the selective pressure of parasitism is relaxed remains debated. However, introduced species provide unique opportunities for testing the direction and extent of natural selection on phenotypic trait maintenance and variation. Here, we investigated egg rejection behavior and egg color polymorphism in the red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), a common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) host, in a population introduced to Hawaii 100 years ago (breeding without cuckoos) and a native population in China (breeding with cuckoos). We found that egg rejection ability was equally strong in both the native and the introduced populations, but levels of interclutch variation and intraclutch consistency in egg color in the native population were higher than in the introduced population. This suggests that egg rejection behavior in hosts can be maintained in the absence of brood parasitism and that egg appearance is maintained by natural selection as a counter adaptation to brood parasitism. This study provides rare evidence that host antiparasitism strategies can change under parasite-relaxed conditions and reduced selection pressure. PMID:25360264

  12. Egg color variation, but not egg rejection behavior, changes in a cuckoo host breeding in the absence of brood parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Canchao; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Lijin; Liang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between parasitic cuckoos and their songbird hosts form a classical reciprocal “arms race,” and are an excellent model for understanding the process of coevolution. Changes in host egg coloration via the evolution of interclutch variation in egg color or intraclutch consistency in egg color are hypothesized counter adaptations that facilitate egg recognition and thus limit brood parasitism. Whether these antiparasitism strategies are maintained when the selective pressure of parasitism is relaxed remains debated. However, introduced species provide unique opportunities for testing the direction and extent of natural selection on phenotypic trait maintenance and variation. Here, we investigated egg rejection behavior and egg color polymorphism in the red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), a common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) host, in a population introduced to Hawaii 100 years ago (breeding without cuckoos) and a native population in China (breeding with cuckoos). We found that egg rejection ability was equally strong in both the native and the introduced populations, but levels of interclutch variation and intraclutch consistency in egg color in the native population were higher than in the introduced population. This suggests that egg rejection behavior in hosts can be maintained in the absence of brood parasitism and that egg appearance is maintained by natural selection as a counter adaptation to brood parasitism. This study provides rare evidence that host antiparasitism strategies can change under parasite-relaxed conditions and reduced selection pressure. PMID:25360264

  13. Egg color variation, but not egg rejection behavior, changes in a cuckoo host breeding in the absence of brood parasitism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Canchao; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Lijin; Liang, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Interactions between parasitic cuckoos and their songbird hosts form a classical reciprocal "arms race," and are an excellent model for understanding the process of coevolution. Changes in host egg coloration via the evolution of interclutch variation in egg color or intraclutch consistency in egg color are hypothesized counter adaptations that facilitate egg recognition and thus limit brood parasitism. Whether these antiparasitism strategies are maintained when the selective pressure of parasitism is relaxed remains debated. However, introduced species provide unique opportunities for testing the direction and extent of natural selection on phenotypic trait maintenance and variation. Here, we investigated egg rejection behavior and egg color polymorphism in the red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), a common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) host, in a population introduced to Hawaii 100 years ago (breeding without cuckoos) and a native population in China (breeding with cuckoos). We found that egg rejection ability was equally strong in both the native and the introduced populations, but levels of interclutch variation and intraclutch consistency in egg color in the native population were higher than in the introduced population. This suggests that egg rejection behavior in hosts can be maintained in the absence of brood parasitism and that egg appearance is maintained by natural selection as a counter adaptation to brood parasitism. This study provides rare evidence that host antiparasitism strategies can change under parasite-relaxed conditions and reduced selection pressure.

  14. Ascidian eggs block polyspermy by two independent mechanisms: one at the egg plasma membrane, the other involving the follicle cells.

    PubMed

    Lambert, C; Goudeau, H; Franchet, C; Lambert, G; Goudeau, M

    1997-09-01

    Many ascidians live in clumps and usually release sperm before the eggs. Consequently, eggs are often spawned into dense clouds of sperm. Because fertilization by more than a single sperm is lethal, ascidians have evolved at least two successive blocks to polyspermy: the rapid release of a glycosidase that inhibits sperm binding to the vitelline coat (VC) and a subsequent change in membrane potential that prevents supernumerary sperm-egg fusion. This paper shows that (1) these two blocks can be uncoupled by the use of suramin, and (2) most of the glycosidase appears to be from the follicle cells, which are accessory cells on the outside of the egg VC. Phallusia mammillata eggs initially bind numerous sperm but, after the glycosidase is released, only a few additional sperm bind. Intact eggs in 20 microM suramin release glycosidase, but the electrical response is inhibited; sperm swim actively and bind to the VC but fail to penetrate. Suramin treatment is completely reversible; intact eggs exhibit the electrical response an average of 11 minutes after the drug is washed out. Sperm must contact the follicle cells before passing through the VC; eggs with the VC removed and fertilized in the presence of 20 microM suramin show the electrical response 35% of the time, thus VC removal enhances sperm entry. Like the intact eggs, 100% of the naked eggs respond electrically to fertilization after the drug is washed out. Follicle cells that are isolated by calcium magnesium free seawater and then returned to complete seawater release N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in response to sperm. Thus, these eggs have two blocks to polyspermy that operate in sequence: an early first block resulting from enzymatic modification of the VC by N-acetylglucosaminidase released primarily from follicle cells and a second electrical block operating at the egg plasma membrane level and requiring sperm-egg fusion. PMID:9266770

  15. Ascidian eggs block polyspermy by two independent mechanisms: one at the egg plasma membrane, the other involving the follicle cells.

    PubMed

    Lambert, C; Goudeau, H; Franchet, C; Lambert, G; Goudeau, M

    1997-09-01

    Many ascidians live in clumps and usually release sperm before the eggs. Consequently, eggs are often spawned into dense clouds of sperm. Because fertilization by more than a single sperm is lethal, ascidians have evolved at least two successive blocks to polyspermy: the rapid release of a glycosidase that inhibits sperm binding to the vitelline coat (VC) and a subsequent change in membrane potential that prevents supernumerary sperm-egg fusion. This paper shows that (1) these two blocks can be uncoupled by the use of suramin, and (2) most of the glycosidase appears to be from the follicle cells, which are accessory cells on the outside of the egg VC. Phallusia mammillata eggs initially bind numerous sperm but, after the glycosidase is released, only a few additional sperm bind. Intact eggs in 20 microM suramin release glycosidase, but the electrical response is inhibited; sperm swim actively and bind to the VC but fail to penetrate. Suramin treatment is completely reversible; intact eggs exhibit the electrical response an average of 11 minutes after the drug is washed out. Sperm must contact the follicle cells before passing through the VC; eggs with the VC removed and fertilized in the presence of 20 microM suramin show the electrical response 35% of the time, thus VC removal enhances sperm entry. Like the intact eggs, 100% of the naked eggs respond electrically to fertilization after the drug is washed out. Follicle cells that are isolated by calcium magnesium free seawater and then returned to complete seawater release N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in response to sperm. Thus, these eggs have two blocks to polyspermy that operate in sequence: an early first block resulting from enzymatic modification of the VC by N-acetylglucosaminidase released primarily from follicle cells and a second electrical block operating at the egg plasma membrane level and requiring sperm-egg fusion.

  16. Effects of dietary rosemary and oregano volatile oil mixture on quail performance, egg traits and egg oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Yesilbag, D; Gezen, S S; Biricik, H; Meral, Y

    2013-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of volatile oil mixture on quail laying performance, egg traits and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. 2. A total of 260 Pharaoh quails (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) aged 6 weeks were equally divided into 5 groups of 65 (4 replicates of 13 quails each). The mixture of diets was as follows: a control treatment with 0 mg volatile oil/kg of diet; (1) 200 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil; (2) 200 mg/kg oregano volatile oil; (3) 40 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil plus 160 mg/kg oregano volatile oil (ratio 20:80) and (4) 160 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil plus 40 mg/kg oregano volatile oil (ratio 80:20). The diets were prepared fresh for each treatment. The experimental period lasted 10 weeks. 3. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences amongst the groups in body weight, egg weight, egg mass, egg shape index, Haugh unit, egg shell thickness or egg shell-breaking strength. 4. Diets containing rosemary volatile oil increased the egg production significantly. Feed intake significantly increased in the groups containing volatile oil mixture (groups 4 and 5). The inclusion of rosemary volatile oil at 200 mg/kg improved feed efficiency. 5. Egg albumen and egg yolk index values showed significant increases in the group given diets containing rosemary volatile oil. Egg yolk colour became darker with the addition of rosemary and oregano volatile oil. The treatment group had lower egg yolk MDA concentration than the control group. 6. It is concluded that, alone or in combination, rosemary and oregano volatile oil can be used in quail diets without adverse effects on the measured parameters. Inclusion of rosemary and oregano volatile oil in quail diets enhanced the antioxidant status of eggs.

  17. Effects of egg order on organic and inorganic element concentrations and egg characteristics in tree swallows, tachycineta bicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Gray, B.R.; Custer, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    The laying order of tree swallow eggs was identified from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA, and eggs were chemically analyzed individually to document possible effects of laying order on organic contaminant and inorganic element concentrations. Effects of laying order on other parameters such as egg weight, size, and lipid and moisture content also were assessed. Some effects of egg order on total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected, but the effect was not uniform across individual females or between years. In 2004, clutches with higher total PCBs tended to have concentrations decline across egg order, whereas clutches with lower concentrations of PCBs tended to increase across egg order. In contrast, in 2005, there was a tendency for concentrations to increase across egg order. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were highly variable within and among clutches in both years. The directionality of egg order associations (i.e., slopes) for trace elements was element dependent, was positive for Mn and Zn, was negative for B, and had no slope for Cr. Whole egg weight increased across egg order. Percentage lipid was variable within a clutch, with no pattern common across all females. Percentage lipid was also correlated with organic contaminant concentration. In highly contaminated environments, higher lipid content could have the unanticipated corollary of having higher concentrations of lipophilic contaminants such as PCBs. To reduce the effect of high variation within a clutch when assessing contamination exposure, it is recommended that two eggs per clutch be collected and pooled for chemical analysis. We further recommend that, as long as the two eggs are randomly collected, the additional effort needed to identify and collect specific eggs is not warranted. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  18. Egg allergy: are all childhood food allergies the same?

    PubMed

    Allen, Clare Wendy; Campbell, Dianne Elizabeth; Kemp, Andrew Stewart

    2007-04-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood affecting about 1-2% of preschool children and differs in a number of ways from other common childhood food allergies such as cows milk and peanut. Common egg allergens are altered both by heat and gastric enzymes. Compared with peanuts/tree nuts and milk, egg allergy appears less likely to cause severe life-threatening reactions or fatal anaphylaxis. Children are much more likely to outgrow egg allergy by school age as compared with peanut allergy. While the MMR vaccine is no longer contraindicated in egg allergy, influenza vaccine is contraindicated in children with anaphylaxis to egg. An understanding of the similarities and differences in these common food allergies of childhood is helpful in the management of these common and increasing problems.

  19. An inexpensive fathead minnow egg incubation and toxicant exposure system

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, S.A.; Oris, J.T.; Guttman, S.I.

    1995-08-01

    Several methods have been developed for bulk hatching of fathead minnow eggs for laboratory and commercial culture. These methods generally involve placing whole, egg-laden breeding substrates in an aeration or water-flow device, or manually removing eggs from breeding substrates. Eggs removed from substrates are then hatched in Downing or McDonald jar hatching devices or are agitated in cylindrical vessels from which larvae are manually removed. These methods are difficult to incorporate into toxicity tests involving determination of hatching success in replicate systems. Both require either continuous water flow to individual hatching chambers or frequent static renewal, which adds to the labor of separating larvae from unhatched eggs. The authors report on an inexpensive, easily constructed system for hatching fathead minnow eggs and maintaining hatched larvae for growth and survivorship studies. Data are presented to illustrate the use of the system for toxicant exposures. This system has applications for both field and laboratory studies.

  20. Heartbeat, embryo communication and hatching synchrony in snake eggs.

    PubMed

    Aubret, Fabien; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Bignon, Florent; Kok, Philippe J R

    2016-01-01

    Communication is central to life at all levels of complexity, from cells to organs, through to organisms and communities. Turtle eggs were recently shown to communicate with each other in order to synchronise their development and generate beneficial hatching synchrony. Yet the mechanism underlying embryo to embryo communication remains unknown. Here we show that within a clutch, developing snake embryos use heart beats emanating from neighbouring eggs as a clue for their metabolic level, in order to synchronise development and ultimately hatching. Eggs of the water snake Natrix maura increased heart rates and hatched earlier than control eggs in response to being incubated in physical contact with more advanced eggs. The former produced shorter and slower swimming young than their control siblings. Our results suggest potential fitness consequences of embryo to embryo communication and describe a novel driver for the evolution of egg-clustering behaviour in animals. PMID:26988725

  1. Heartbeat, embryo communication and hatching synchrony in snake eggs

    PubMed Central

    Aubret, Fabien; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Bignon, Florent; Kok, Philippe J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Communication is central to life at all levels of complexity, from cells to organs, through to organisms and communities. Turtle eggs were recently shown to communicate with each other in order to synchronise their development and generate beneficial hatching synchrony. Yet the mechanism underlying embryo to embryo communication remains unknown. Here we show that within a clutch, developing snake embryos use heart beats emanating from neighbouring eggs as a clue for their metabolic level, in order to synchronise development and ultimately hatching. Eggs of the water snake Natrix maura increased heart rates and hatched earlier than control eggs in response to being incubated in physical contact with more advanced eggs. The former produced shorter and slower swimming young than their control siblings. Our results suggest potential fitness consequences of embryo to embryo communication and describe a novel driver for the evolution of egg-clustering behaviour in animals. PMID:26988725

  2. Predation on walleye eggs by fish on reefs in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, E.F.; Taylor, W.W.; Hayes, D.B.; Jones, A.L.; Francis, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    We examined diets of fishes from gillnet and egg pump collections conducted on reefs in western Lake Erie during walleye (Sander vitreus) egg incubation periods from 1994–1999 and 2004 to assess incidence of walleye eggs in fish diets. We collected no potential egg predators in samples taken in 1994 but from 1995–1999 and in 2004 we caught 22 different species of fish on reefs in addition to spawning walleye. In most years, white perch (Morone americana) stomachs contained more walleye eggs than any other species on the reefs averaging 253 eggs per stomach. We also found lower numbers of walleye eggs in the stomachs of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; 53 eggs/stomach), johnny darter (Etheostoma nigrum; 2 eggs/stomach), logperch (Percina caprodes; 10 eggs/stomach), quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus; 184 eggs/stomach), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris; 3 eggs/stomach), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus; 4 eggs/stomach), sculpin (Cottidae; 21 eggs/stomach), silver chub (Macrhybopsis storeriana; 3 eggs/stomach), spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius; 14 eggs/stomach), trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus; 30 eggs/stomach), white sucker (Catastomus commersonii; 20 eggs/stomach), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens; 181 eggs/stomach). Similar to other studies of predation on walleye eggs, our results indicate that prolonged incubation periods increase the potential for egg loss due to predation.

  3. Sampling efficiency of the Moore egg collector

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies focusing on the collection of semibuoyant fish eggs, which are associated with a pelagic broadcast-spawning reproductive strategy, are often conducted to evaluate reproductive success. Many of the fishes in this reproductive guild have suffered significant reductions in range and abundance. However, the efficiency of the sampling gear used to evaluate reproduction is often unknown and renders interpretation of the data from these studies difficult. Our objective was to assess the efficiency of a modified Moore egg collector (MEC) using field and laboratory trials. Gear efficiency was assessed by releasing a known quantity of gellan beads with a specific gravity similar to that of eggs from representatives of this reproductive guild (e.g., the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi) into an outdoor flume and recording recaptures. We also used field trials to determine how discharge and release location influenced gear efficiency given current methodological approaches. The flume trials indicated that gear efficiency ranged between 0.0% and 9.5% (n = 57) in a simple 1.83-m-wide channel and was positively related to discharge. Efficiency in the field trials was lower, ranging between 0.0% and 3.6%, and was negatively related to bead release distance from the MEC and discharge. The flume trials indicated that the gellan beads were not distributed uniformly across the channel, although aggregation was reduced at higher discharges. This clustering of passively drifting particles should be considered when selecting placement sites for an MEC; further, the use of multiple devices may be warranted in channels with multiple areas of concentrated flow.

  4. Determination of residues of sulphonamide in eggs and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Shazia; Ahmad, H B; Nawaz, R

    2007-07-01

    Eggs were collected from different areas of Faisalabad city. The quantity of sulphonamides was determined in yolk, white and whole egg and compared with the permissible limit 1 microg/ml for sulphadimethoxine available in literature. In another experiment, a group of hens were kept at a poultry farm after medicating them with darvisal liquid to see if the residues of sulphonamide pass into the eggs of poultry. The period of existence of residues was noted. PMID:17545104

  5. The Natural History of Egg Allergy in an Observational Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sicherer, Scott H.; Wood, Robert A.; Vickery, Brian P.; Jones, Stacie M.; Liu, Andrew H.; Fleischer, David M.; Dawson, Peter; Mayer, Lloyd; Burks, A. Wesley; Grishin, Alexander; Stablein, Donald; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are few studies on the natural history of egg allergy and most are single site, not longitudinal, and have not identified early predictors of outcomes. Objective To describe the natural course of egg allergy and to identify early prognostic markers. Methods Children aged 3–15 months were enrolled in a multicenter observational study with either a convincing history of an immediate allergic reaction to egg and/or milk with a positive prick skin test (SPT) to the trigger food; and/or moderate-severe atopic dermatitis and a positive SPT to egg or milk. Children enrolled with a clinical history of egg allergy were followed longitudinally and resolution was established by successful ingestion. Results The egg-allergic cohort consists of 213 children followed to a median age of 74 months. Egg allergy resolved in 105 (49.3%), at a median age of 72 months. Factors that were most predictive of resolution included the following: initial reaction characteristics (isolated urticaria/angioedema vs other presentations), baseline egg-specific IgE level, egg SPT wheal size, atopic dermatitis severity, IgG4 and IL-4 response (all P<0.05). Numerous additional baseline clinical and demographic factors and laboratory assessments were not associated with resolution. Multivariate analysis identified baseline egg-specific IgE and initial reaction characteristics as strongly associated with resolution; a calculator to estimate resolution probabilities using these variables was established. Conclusions In this cohort of infants with egg allergy, about one half had resolved over 74 months of follow-up. Baseline egg-specific IgE and initial reaction characteristics were important predictors of the likelihood of resolution. PMID:24636473

  6. Recombinant egg drop syndrome subunit vaccine offers an alternative to virus propagation in duck eggs.

    PubMed

    Gutter, B; Fingerut, E; Gallili, G; Eliahu, D; Perelman, B; Finger, A; Pitcovski, J

    2008-02-01

    Egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus vaccines are routinely produced in embryonated duck eggs (Solyom et al., 1982). This procedure poses the risk of dissemination of pathogens, such as avian influenza virus, as the eggs used are not from specific pathogen free birds. To address this problem, the knob and part of the shaft domain of the fibre protein of the EDS virus (termed knob-s) were expressed in Escherichia coli and assessed as a subunit vaccine. A single vaccination with the recombinant protein induced the production of anti-EDS virus antibodies, as detected by haemagglutination inhibition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization tests, for at least 20 weeks. A positive correlation was demonstrated between these three assays. A dose-response assessment showed that the vaccine was effective over the range of 2 to 64 microg protein per dose. Two vaccinations with the recombinant protein, administered before the onset of lay, induced high haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres, comparable with those induced by an inactivated whole-virus vaccine. The vaccine did not have any adverse effects on egg production, quality or weight. The present study has shown that two vaccinations with the recombinant knob-s protein elicited high neutralizing antibody titres that persisted for more than 50 weeks of lay.

  7. Differential Transcriptional Regulation Between Egg-contaminating and Non-egg-contaminating Strains of Salmonella Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is the most common cause of food-borne salmonellosis primarily transmitted by contaminated poultry eggs. Despite its genetically clonal nature, SE strains differ markedly in their ability to disseminate systemically in chickens and subsequently invade the inte...

  8. Suitability of non-fertilized eggs of Homalodisca vitripennis for the egg parasitoid Gonatocerus morrili

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gonatocerus morrili (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a natural enemy used in California, USA to control glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Virgin GWSS females deposit non-fertilized eggs and mated females can exhaust sperm reserves for ...

  9. Egg viability and worker policing in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Pirk, Christian W W; Neumann, Peter; Hepburn, Randall; Moritz, Robin F A; Tautz, Jürgen

    2004-06-01

    In many species of social Hymenoptera, unmated workers can lay eggs that will produce males by parthenogenesis. Nevertheless, in queenright honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera), worker reproduction is low. One possible mechanism for this difference is worker policing, the removal of worker-laid eggs by other workers. This behavior can evolve in species in which queens are multiply mated, where workers are more closely related to the sons of their mother than those of their sisters. Another possible mechanism of the low level of worker reproduction is worker-laid eggs being less viable than queen-laid eggs. We show that this difference in quality is the case for honey bees.

  10. Ultrastructural studies on the nematode Xiphinema diversicaudatum: Egg shell formation.

    PubMed

    Bleve-Zacheo, T; Melillo, M T; Zacheo, G

    1993-06-01

    The ultrastructure of the formation of the egg shell in the longidorid nematode Xiphinema diversicaudatum is described. Upon fertilization a vitelline membrane, which constitutes the vitelline layer of the egg shell, is formed. The chitinous layer is secreted in the perivitelline space, between the vitelline layer and the egg cell membrane. On completion of the chitinous layer, the material of the lipid layer is extruded from the egg cytoplasm to the outer surface, through finger-like projections. Both chitinous and lipid layers are secreted by granules in the egg cytoplasm that disappear as the layers are completed. Chitinous and lipid layers are formed during the passage of the egg through the oviduct. The vitelline layer is enriched with secretions produced by the oviduct cells and then by phospholipids secreted by the cells of the pars dilatata oviductus. The inner uterine layer is also formed by deposition of secretory products apposed on the egg shell in the distal uterine region and Z-differentiation. In the proximal part of the uterus, the egg has a discontinuous electron-dense layer, the external uterine layer. Tangential sections between chitinous and uterine layers revealed the presence of holes, possibly egg pores, delimited by the two uterine layers.

  11. Mercury in eggs of aquatic birds, Lake St. Clair-1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Elder, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs from four species of aquatic birds inhabiting waterways of the Lake St. Clair region were collected in 1973 and analyzed for mercury. Species analyzed were mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), common terns (Sterna hirundo), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and great egrets (Casmerodius albus). Mallard eggs contained relatively low residue levels, less than 0.05-0.26 ppm, and common tern eggs contained the highest residues, ranging up to 1.31 ppm. Mercury levels in the eggs were appreciably lower than those in the same species in 1970. The declines are attributed to the 1970 restrictions placed on industrial discharges of mercury into the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers.

  12. Effects of No. 2 fuel oil on common eider eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Szaro, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    An oil spill near a breeding colony could result in the transfer of oil from the plumage and feet of incubating birds to their eggs. Microlitre amounts of No. 2 fuel oil were applied externally to common eider eggs in an island breeding colony in Maine. Clutches of eggs treated with 20 ?l of fuel oil had significantly greater embryonic mortality than the control clutches when they were examined 7 days after treatment. The results are similar to those of an earlier study of artificially incubated common eider eggs and indicate that nest site conditions do not affect embryotoxicity of No. 2 fuel oil.

  13. Provisional bilateral symmetry in Xenopus eggs is established during maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. E.; Margelot, K. M.; Danilchik, M. V.

    1994-01-01

    Dorsal-ventral patterning in the Xenopus egg becomes established midway through the first cell cycle during a 30 degree rotation of the subcortical yolk mass relative to the egg cortex. This 'rotation of symmetrisation' is microtubule dependent, and its direction is thought to be cued by the usually eccentric sperm centrosome. The fact that parthenogenetically activated eggs also undergo a directed rotation, despite the absence of a sperm centrosome, suggests that an endogenous asymmetry in the unfertilised egg supports the directed polymerisation of microtubules in the vegetal cortex, in the way that an eccentric sperm centrosome would in fertilised eggs. Consistent with this idea, we noticed that the maturation spot is usually located an average of more than 15 degrees from the geometric centre of the pigmented animal hemisphere. In parthenogenetically activated eggs, this eccentric maturation spot can be used to predict the direction of rotation. Although in most fertilised eggs the yolk mass rotates toward the sperm entry point (SEP) meridian, occasionally this relationship is perturbed significantly; in such eggs, the maturation spot is never on the same side of the egg as the SEP. In oocytes tilted 90 degrees from upright during maturation in vitro, the maturation spot developed 15 degrees or more from the centre of the pigmented hemisphere, always displaced towards the point on the equator that was up during maturation. This experimentally demonstrated lability is consistent with an off-axis oocyte orientation during oogenesis determining its eccentric maturation spot position, and, in turn, its endogenous rotational bias.

  14. Oxidative stability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched eggs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuan; Perez, Tulia I; Zuidhof, Martin J; Renema, Robert A; Wu, Jianping

    2013-11-27

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) enriched eggs have a growing market share in the egg industry. This study examined the stability of n-3 PUFA enriched eggs fortified with antioxidants (vitamin E or organic Selenium [Sel-Plex] or both) following cooking and storage. The total fat content was not affected by cooking or simulated retail storage conditions, whereas, n-3 fatty acids were reduced. The content of n-3 fatty acids in boiled eggs was higher than in fried eggs. Lipid oxidation was significantly affected by the different cooking methods. Fried eggs contained higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, 2.02 μg/kg) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs, 13.58 μg/g) compared to boiled (1.44 and 10.15 μg/kg) and raw eggs (0.95 and 9.03 μg/kg, respectively, for MDA and COPs). Supplementation of antioxidants reduced the formation of MDA by 40% and COPs by 12% in fried eggs. Although the content of MDA was significantly increased after 28 days of storage, COPs were not affected by storage. Our study indicated that the n-3 PUFA in enriched eggs was relatively stable during storage and home cooking in the presence of antioxidants. PMID:24164329

  15. Anodic Oxidative Modification of Egg White for Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masahito; Handa, Akihiro; Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Kodama, Risa; Chiba, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-31

    A new functionalization of egg white was achieved by an electrochemical reaction. The method involves electron transfer from thiol groups of egg white protein to form disulfide bonds. The oxidized egg white produced less hydrogen sulfide during heat treatment; with sufficient application of electricity, almost no hydrogen sulfide was produced. In addition, gels formed by heating electrochemically oxidized egg white exhibited unique properties, such as a lower gelation temperature and a softened texture, presumably due to protein aggregation and electrochemically mediated intramolecular disulfide bond formation. PMID:27518910

  16. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae from washed and unwashed commercial shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, Michael T; Jones, Deana R; Northcutt, Julie K; Cox, Nelson A; Harrison, Mark A

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of processing on the safety and quality of retail shell eggs, a storage study was conducted with unwashed and commercially washed eggs. This work demonstrated that commercial processing decreased microbial contamination of eggshells. To know which species persisted during storage on washed or unwashed eggs, Enterobacteriaceae isolates were selected and identified biochemically. For each of three replications, shell eggs were purchased from a commercial processing plant, transported back to the laboratory, and stored at 4 degrees C. Once a week for 6 weeks, 12 eggs for each treatment (washed and unwashed control) were rinsed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. A 1-ml aliquot of each sample was plated onto violet red bile glucose agar with overlay and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Following incubation, plates were observed for colonies characteristic of the family Enterobacteriaceae. A maximum of 10 isolates per positive sample were streaked for isolation before being identified to the genus or species level using commercially available biochemical strips. Although most of the isolates from the unwashed control eggs belonged to the genera Escherichia or Enterobacter, many other genera and species were identified. These included Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Pantoea, Providencia, Rahnella, Salmonella, Serratia, and Yersinia. Non-Enterobacteriaceae also recovered from the unwashed egg samples included Xanthomonas and Flavimonas. Very few washed egg samples were contaminated with any of these bacteria. These data provide useful information on the effectiveness of processing in removing microorganisms from commercial shell eggs.

  17. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results of these analyses showed that all four families of GAGs were detected in all egg components. Keratan sulfate was found in egg whites (thick and thin) and shell matrix (calcified shell matrix supernatant and deposit) with high level. Chondroitin sulfates were much more plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane. Hyaluronan was plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane, but were only present in a trace of quantities in the yolk. Heparan sulfate was plentiful in the shell matrix deposit but was present in a trace of quantities in the egg content components (yolk, thick and thin egg whites). Most of the chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharides were present in the GAGs found in chicken eggs with the exception of chondroitin and heparan sulfate 2,6-disulfated disaccharides. Both CS and HS in the shell matrix deposit contained the most diverse chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharide compositions. Eggs might provide a potential new source of GAGs. PMID:25218438

  18. Abnormal Trichuris trichiura eggs detected during an epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Rodríguez, Iván; Kozek, Wieslaw J

    2007-09-01

    Abnormal eggs of Trichuris trichiura were found in the stools of one of the patients during a study on the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses among an institutionalized population. The abnormalities observed included great variation in shape, size, and color. Similar atypical whipworm eggs have been reported in patients after treatment with mebendazole, thiabendazole, tetracloroethylene, and dithiazanine. Apparently some anthelminthics have an effect on the reproductive system of female T. trichiura, resulting in production of abnormal eggs, which could lead to misdiagnosis of the infection, since they can be mistaken as eggs of other parasites or artifacts.

  19. The evolution of egg colour and patterning in birds.

    PubMed

    Kilner, R M

    2006-08-01

    Avian eggs differ so much in their colour and patterning from species to species that any attempt to account for this diversity might initially seem doomed to failure. Here I present a critical review of the literature which, when combined with the results of some comparative analyses, suggests that just a few selective agents can explain much of the variation in egg appearance. Ancestrally, bird eggs were probably white and immaculate. Ancient diversification in nest location, and hence in the clutch's vulnerability to attack by predators, can explain basic differences between bird families in egg appearance. The ancestral white egg has been retained by species whose nests are safe from attack by predators, while those that have moved to a more vulnerable nest site are now more likely to lay brown eggs, covered in speckles, just as Wallace hypothesized more than a century ago. Even blue eggs might be cryptic in a subset of nests built in vegetation. It is possible that some species have subsequently turned these ancient adaptations to new functions, for example to signal female quality, to protect eggs from damaging solar radiation, or to add structural strength to shells when calcium is in short supply. The threat of predation, together with the use of varying nest sites, appears to have increased the diversity of egg colouring seen among species within families, and among clutches within species. Brood parasites and their hosts have probably secondarily influenced the diversity of egg appearance. Each drives the evolution of the other's egg colour and patterning, as hosts attempt to avoid exploitation by rejecting odd-looking eggs from their nests, and parasites attempt to outwit their hosts by laying eggs that will escape detection. This co-evolutionary arms race has increased variation in egg appearance both within and between species, in parasites and in hosts, sometimes resulting in the evolution of egg colour polymorphisms. It has also reduced variation in

  20. A mechanistic, stochastic, population model of egg production.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S A; Gous, R M

    2007-04-01

    1. A mechanistic, stochastic egg production model is presented. Mean age at first egg may be predicted from the lighting programme applied during rearing, using the Bristol-Reading model (Lewis et al., 2002). 2. Rate of ovulation is determined by an amended version of the mathematical model of the ovulatory cycle, originally proposed by Etches and Schoch (1984). 3. Oviposition times are estimated from ovulation times. 4. Yolk, albumen and shell weights are calculated using allometric functions. 5. The model predicts egg production of a theoretical flock of laying hens for a full laying year, including random occurrences of double-yolked and soft-shelled eggs and internal ovulations.

  1. Does host immunity influence helminth egg hatchability in the environment?

    PubMed

    Lambert, K A; Pathak, A K; Cattadori, I M

    2015-07-01

    Transmission success for helminths with free-living stages depends on the ability of eggs and larvae to develop and survive once in the environment. While environmental conditions are often suggested to influence egg phenology and hatching rate, immunity against parasite eggs might also play a role. We examined this hypothesis using the gastrointestinal helminths Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Graphidium strigosum, two common infections of the European rabbit. Changes in egg hatching rate and volume were examined in relation to specific antibodies in the serum and bound to eggshells, using eggs shed in host faeces over a 15-week period. Hatching rate was consistently higher for T. retortaeformis than G. strigosum and no changes were observed between weeks. Egg volume increased for G. strigosum but decreased for T. retortaeformis. We did find evidence of egg-specific antibody responses and fewer antibodies were bound to eggs of T. retortaeformis compared to G. strigosum. Little to no association was found between antibodies and hatchability, or volume, for both helminths. We suggest that host antibodies play a relatively minor role in the egg hatching rate of these gastrointestinal helminths.

  2. Experimental shifts in egg-nest contrasts do not alter egg rejection responses in an avian host-brood parasite system.

    PubMed

    Hauber, Mark E; Aidala, Zachary; Igic, Branislav; Shawkey, Matthew D; Moskát, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    Obligate brood parasitic birds exploit their hosts to provide care for unrelated young in the nest. Potential hosts can reduce the cost of parasitism by rejecting foreign eggs from the nest. Observational, comparative, and experimental studies have concluded that most hosts use the coloration and patterning of eggshells to discriminate between own and foreign eggs in the nest. However, an alternative hypothesis is that birds use the colour contrasts between eggshells and the nest lining to identify parasitic eggs (egg-nest contrast hypothesis). In support of this hypothesis, we found that the avian perceivable chromatic contrasts between dyed eggs and unmanipulated nest linings significantly and negatively covaried with the rejection rates of different dyed eggs of the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, a frequently parasitized host of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. To experimentally test whether egg-nest contrasts influence rejection, we reciprocally dyed both eggs and the nest lining of this host species with one of two colours: orange and green. Contrary to the egg-nest contrast hypothesis, host rejection patterns in response to dyed eggs were not altered by dyeing nests, relative to unmanipulated control eggs and nests. In turn, experimental egg colour was the only significant predictor of egg rejection rate. Our results demonstrate that egg-nest contrast is a collateral, not a causal factor in egg rejection, and confirm the conclusions of previous studies that hosts can rely on the parasitic egg's appearance itself to recognize the foreign egg in the nest. PMID:26118673

  3. Egg forensics: an appraisal of DNA sequencing to assist in species identification of illegally smuggled eggs.

    PubMed

    Coghlan, Megan L; White, Nicole E; Parkinson, Liza; Haile, James; Spencer, Peter B S; Bunce, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are charismatic birds, their plumage and capacity for learning make them highly sought after pets. The illegal trade in parrots and cockatoos poses a serious threat to the viability of native populations; in addition, species transported to non-endemic areas may potentially vector disease and genetically 'pollute' local native avifauna. To reduce the logistical difficulties associated with trafficking live birds, smugglers often transport eggs. This creates a problem for authorities in elucidating accurate species identification without the laborious task of incubation and hand rearing until a morphological identification can be made. Here, we use 99 avian eggs seized from carriers coming into and within Australia, as a result of suspected illegal trade. We investigate and evaluate the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to accurately identify eggs to family, genus or species level. However, Identification of a species based on percentage mtDNA similarities is difficult without good representations of the inter- and intra-levels of species variation. Based on the available reference database, we were able to identify 52% of the eggs to species level. Of those, 10 species from eight genera were detected, all of which belong to the parrot (Psittacidae) and cockatoo (Cacatuidae) families. Of the remaining 48%, a further 36% of eggs were identified to genus level, and 12% identified to family level using our assignment criteria. Clearly the lack of validated DNA reference sequences is hindering our ability to accurately assign a species identity, and accordingly, we advocate that more attention needs to be paid to establishing validated, multi locus mtDNA reference databases for exotic birds that can both assist in genetic identifications and withstand legal scrutiny.

  4. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  5. Effect of the frizzle gene (F) on egg production and egg quality of laying hens kept in tropical villages.

    PubMed

    Adomako, K; Olympio, O S; Hagan, J K; Hamidu, J A

    2014-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of the frizzle gene (F) on the production and quality of chicken eggs kept on village farms in Ghana. 2. In the first experiment, 144 pullets, 72 each of Ff and ff pullets from F1 birds, were compared in a randomised complete block design (RCBD), with three villages and 4 batches of hatch as blocks and the two feather genotypes (Ff and ff) as the treatments. 3. The Ff pullets were superior (P < 0.05) to their ff counterparts in terms of the number of eggs per clutch, egg mass and hen-housed and hen-d rates of lay, whereas age at first egg was lower (P < 0.05) in ff layers compared to Ff ones. 4. The eggs of the F1 heterozygous frizzle (Ff) layers had higher values for albumen height, Haugh unit and yolk height compared with eggs from their normal feathered counterparts. 5. In the second experiment, 144 pullets, 48 each of FF, Ff and ff pullets, were compared in a RCBD, with three villages and 4 batches of hatch as blocks and the two feather genotypes (Ff and ff) as the treatments. 6. The F2 birds with genotypes Ff and FF were better than their ff counterparts in terms of the number of eggs per clutch, egg mass, and hen-housed and hen-d rates of lay. Age at first egg was significantly lower in ff layers compared to FF and Ff ones. 7. The Haugh unit value was higher in the homozygous and heterozygous frizzles compared to the normal feathered ones. 8. The presence of the frizzle gene (F) in egg type chickens led to an improvement in egg production and egg quality traits in village chickens, and the cross-breeding scheme evaluated in this project could contribute to improved productivity.

  6. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

    PubMed Central

    Reetha, T. Lurthu; Rajeswar, J. Johnson; Harikrishnan, T. J.; Sukumar, K.; Srinivasan, P.; Kirubakaran, J. John

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND) oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg. PMID:27651681

  7. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

    PubMed Central

    Reetha, T. Lurthu; Rajeswar, J. Johnson; Harikrishnan, T. J.; Sukumar, K.; Srinivasan, P.; Kirubakaran, J. John

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND) oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  8. Cell Cycle Synchronization in Xenopus Egg Extracts.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Peter J; Neusiedler, Julia; Creavin, Kevin; Chadha, Gaganmeet Singh; Blow, J Julian

    2016-01-01

    Many important discoveries in cell cycle research have been made using cell-free extracts prepared from the eggs of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. These extracts efficiently support the key nuclear functions of the eukaryotic cell cycle in vitro under apparently the same controls that exist in vivo. The Xenopus cell-free system is therefore uniquely suited to the study of the mechanisms, dynamics and integration of cell cycle regulated processes at a biochemical level. Here, we describe methods currently in use in our laboratory for the preparation of Xenopus egg extracts and demembranated sperm nuclei. We detail how these extracts can be used to study the key transitions of the eukaryotic cell cycle and describe conditions under which these transitions can be manipulated by addition of drugs that either retard or advance passage. In addition, we describe in detail essential techniques that provide a practical starting point for investigating the function of proteins involved in the operation of the eukaryotic cell cycle.

  9. 7 CFR 56.40 - Grading requirements of shell eggs identified with grademarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grading requirements of shell eggs identified with... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Prerequisites to Packaging Shell Eggs Identified with Grademarks § 56.40 Grading requirements of shell eggs identified...

  10. 7 CFR 56.37 - Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. 56.37... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.37 Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. Shell eggs identified with the grademarks shown...

  11. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs... shell eggs prior to breaking. (a) Immediately prior to breaking, all shell eggs shall be spray rinsed... sanitizing shell eggs washed in the plant. (b) Shell eggs shall be sufficiently dry at time of breaking...

  12. Imaging System with Modified-Pressure Chamber for Crack Detection in Shell-Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To detect checks and/or cracks in shell eggs, the egg industry is using high-speed acoustic systems. Prior to shipment, human graders candle a small subset of eggs to ensure that the high-speed systems are operating within specifications for a given grade of egg (e.g., Grade A Large Eggs). In addit...

  13. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  14. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  15. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  16. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  17. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  18. Application of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics for dried egg-pasta characterization and egg content quantification.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Marta; Bucci, Remo; Materazzi, Stefano; Marini, Federico

    2013-10-15

    Dried egg pasta is an important and traditional food in the Italian cuisine, and the eggs in pasta improve its nutritional value and organoleptic properties. For this reason the percentage of eggs present in the products sold as "egg pasta" has to always be clearly reported in the label. In this respect, the present research addresses the possibility of developing a method which would allow fast, simple and economic determination of egg content in dried egg-pasta, using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. However, as it is very likely that the spectroscopic fingerprint can also be affected by the manufacturing process of this product, in particular by drying temperature and time, the effect of the manufacturing process on the spectral profile of egg-pasta samples was thoroughly investigated, using experimental design coupled to a multivariate exploratory data analytical technique called ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Moreover, once confirmed the significance of the drying effect on spectral shape, with the aim of building a calibration model to quantify the egg content in pasta samples irrespective of the manufacturing protocol adopted, a non-linear approach based on local regression, namely LWR-PLS, was investigated. This method allowed the determination of the egg content in external validation samples with low error (RMSEP=1.25), resulting in predictions more accurate and precise than those obtained by a global PLS model.

  19. Composition and energy density of eggs from two species of freshwater turtle with twofold ranges in egg size.

    PubMed

    Booth, David T

    2003-01-01

    Lipid, protein, ash, carbohydrate and water content and energy density of eggs were measured from different clutches over a range of egg size in two species of freshwater turtle. Dry egg contents consisted of protein (54-60%), lipid (25-31%) and ash (5-6%) while carbohydrate was found to be negligible (<1%). Albumen consisted principally of water ( approximately 98%), and the dry component was composed of protein (47-51%), ash (19-26%) and lipid (18-21%), but contributed only a small amount ( approximately 2%) to overall dry egg contents. Energy density of dry albumen (15-17 kJ/g) was significantly lower than for dry yolk (26-27 kJ/g). Yolk consisted of 62-70% water, and the dry component was composed of protein (54-61%), lipid (25-31%) and ash (5-6%). Fractional concentrations of water, lipid, protein and ash and energy density remained constant over the range of egg size in Emydura signata eggs. In contrast, an increase in the yolk to albumen ratio and a decrease in water content of yolk as egg size increased caused the composition and energy density of Chelodina expansa eggs to vary systematically with egg size. PMID:12507616

  20. Chondrichthyan egg cases from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mabragaña, E; Figueroa, D E; Scenna, L B; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Colonello, J H; Delpiani, G

    2011-11-01

    Egg cases of 21 oviparous chondrichthyan species from the south-west Atlantic Ocean are described and compared. The catshark Schroederichthys bivius has a cigar-shaped egg case with curled tendrils only at the posterior end. Egg cases of the elephant fish Callorhinchus callorynchus are spindle-shaped with anterior and posterior tubular extensions and lateral flanges. The skate Amblyraja doellojuradoi presents medium-sized egg cases (71 mm in length) with a lateral keel extending to the first portion of the horns. The endemic skate species of the genus Atlantoraja have medium to large egg cases (69-104 mm in length) and present relatively large posterior horns. Egg cases of the genus Bathyraja have a medium size, 75-98 mm in length, and are characterized by a very similar morphology, a relatively smooth to rough surface case and posterior horns strongly curved inwards. Egg cases of the genera Dipturus and Zearaja are very large, 115-230 mm in length, and have a well-developed posterior apron. Despite the problematical identification of skates at species level, the egg capsules of the endemic genus Psammobatis are easily diagnosed; the capsules are small (25-53 mm in length), those of Psammobatis rutrum being the smallest known to date in the world. Egg cases of Rioraja agassizi have a medium size, 61-68 mm in length, relatively straight sides, a smooth surface and silky attachment fibres placed in the lateral keel next to each horn. Those of the genus Sympterygia are small to medium sized, 51-86 mm in length, and display the thickest lateral keel and the longest posterior horns among the skates of the world. Egg cases can be a useful tool for identifying species and egg-laying areas; therefore, a provisional key for the south-west Atlantic Ocean chondrichthyan capsules is presented. PMID:22026605