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Sample records for akademik ioffe cruise

  1. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Akademik Ioffe cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, February--April 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Rubin, S.; Sutherland, S.C.; Koshlyakov, M.H.; Kozyr, A. |

    1997-07-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples during the Research Vessel (R/V) Akademik Ioffe Expedition in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on February 14, 1992, and ended in Wellington, New Zealand, on April 6, 1992. WOCE Section S4P, located along {approximately}67{degree}S between 73{degree}W and 172{degree}E, was completed during the 51-day expedition. One hundred and thirteen hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section S4P included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor; bottle salinity; bottle oxygen, phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate, TCO{sub 2}; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 C.

  2. The Upper Pliocene-Quaternary Evolution of the Ioffe Calcareous Contourite Drift, Western South Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Borisov, D.; Murdmaa, I.; Levchenko, O. V.; Dmitrenko, O.; Emelyanov, E.

    2014-12-01

    The high-resolution seismic profiling during cruise 32 of the RV "Akademik Ioffe" (2010) discovered a large elongated contourite drift on the ridge of the Rio Grande fracture zone (Brazil Basin, western South Atlantic). This sedimentary body with a thickness up to 300 m, named Ioffe drift, is traced at water depth range from 3790 to 3980 m. Five seismic units are distinguished within the upper drift structure recorded to a depth of 60 mbsf. The seismic units are separated by angular discontinuities. The sediment core AI-2436 (25°51.6'S, 34°01.40'W, water depth 3800 m) retrieved near the drift top recovers about 6 m of nanno-foraminiferal ooze intercalated with foraminiferal sand interbeds. According to the planktonic foraminiferal and nannofossil stratigraphy, the sediment record embraces about 3 My of the Ioffe drift history, from the Late Pliocene to present. Absence of several foraminiferal and nannofossil zones in the core section indicates long-term hiatuses. Some zones are thicker here while others are reduced as compared to those on the nearby Rio Grande Rise. This suggests reworking of the biogenic material in the drift. The Ioffe drift was formed as a result of transport and deposition of biogenic calcareous material by the eastern branch of the Antarctic bottom water (AABW) flow. The biogenic calcareous material is mainly derived from the Rio Grande Rise where planktonic foraminiferal and nannofossil assemblages identical to those in core AI-2436 are studied at the DSDP site 516 (Barash et al., 1983). We suggest that the grain-size distribution of the calcareous sediments roughly corresponding to the foraminiferal/nannofossil ratio reflects the bottom currents velocity variations. Very high current velocities result in erosion and stratigraphic hiatuses. Angular unconformities in seismic profiles indicate episodes of intensified AABW flow velocity which led to the drift migration. The study was supported by RFBR, research projects 14-05-31357-mol_a, 14

  3. Analysis of SeaWiFS imagery over the southwestern Atlantic Ocean during the March 2002 R/V IOFFE cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudorff, Frederico d. M.; Frouin, Robert J.; Kampel, Milton; Kopelevich, Oleg; Lutz, Vivian

    2007-09-01

    SeaWiFS ocean-colour products for the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean are evaluated in comparison with in situ bio-optical data collected during the March 10-12, 2002 cruise from Ushuaia to Uruguay. Radiometric measurements and surface water sampling were carried out at 14 stations. The in situ dataset included HPLC chlorophyll-a concentration (chl-a), a ph( λ) spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, suspended particles, and a cdom( λ) dissolved organic matter, R RS remote sensing reflectance, AOT and aerosol optical thickness. In general, the SeaWiFS-derived and SIMBAD measured AOT were low, but with a good agreement within SIMBAD uncertainty errors. The SeaWiFS-derived R RS was systematically underestimated, but still with good fits. The a * ph (440) were high indicating the presence of small size cells with a low packaging effect. The HPLC pigment composition did not show strong variations amongst the sampled points, with communities most probably dominated by small cells. The phytoplankton community was more homogeneous in the southern stations, than in the northernmost stations influenced by the mixing of the Brazil and Malvinas Currents and the La Plata River discharge. The analyzes of the in situ a cdom (440) characterized the sampling stations as CDOM rich waters. All SeaWiFS chl-a algorithms showed reasonable performances. The empirical algorithms overestimated lower chl-a while underestimated higher concentrations. The GSM01 semi-analytical algorithm underestimated most chl-a values, while CARDER underestimated only the lower concentrations. It is expected that the accuracy of chlorophyll retrievals in coastal areas of the BMC can be improved by a proper tuning of the semi-analytical models with regional inherent optical properties measurements.

  4. Fusion Research in Ioffe Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, L. G.; Afanasyev, V. I.; Altukhov, A. B.; Bakharev, N. N.; Belokurov, A. A.; Bulanin, V. V.; Bykov, A. S.; Chernyshev, F. V.; Chugunov, I.; Dyachenko, V. V.; Esipov, L. A.; Gin, D.; Goncharov, P. R.; Gurchenko, A. D.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Gusev, V. K.; Heuraux, S.; Iblyaminova, A. D.; Irzak, M. A.; Kantor, M. Yu.; Kaveeva, E. G.; Kiviniemi, T.; Khilkevitch, E. M.; Khitrov, S. A.; Khromov, N. A.; Kornev, V. A.; Kouprienko, D. V.; Kurskiev, G. S.; Lashkul, S. I.; Lebedev, S. V.; Leerink, S.; Melnik, A. D.; Minaev, V. B.; Mironov, M. I.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Mukhin, E. E.; Nesenevich, V. G.; Niskala, P.; Novokhatsky, A. N.; Patrov, M. I.; Perevalov, A. A.; Petrov, M. P.; Petrov, A. V.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Popov, A. Yu.; Rozhansky, V. A.; Rozhdestvenskiy, V. V.; Sakharov, N. V.; Saveliev, A. N.; Senichenkov, I. Yu.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Shchegolev, P. B.; Shatalin, S. V.; Shcherbinin, O. N.; Shevelev, A. E.; Sidorov, A. V.; da Silva, F.; Smirnov, A. I.; Stepanov, A. Yu.; Sysoeva, E. V.; Teplova, N. V.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.; Tukachinsky, A. S.; Varfolomeev, V. I.; Vekshina, E. O.; Vildjunas, M. I.; Voronin, A. V.; Voskoboinikov, S. P.; Wagner, F.; Yashin, A. Yu.; Zhubr, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present the fusion related activities of the Plasma Physics Division at the Ioffe Institute. The first experiments on lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in a spherical tokamak performed at the Globus-M tokamak (R = 0.36 m, a = 0.24 m, Bt = 0.4 T, Ip = 200 kA) with a novel poloidally oriented grill resulted in an RF driven current of up to 30 kA at (100 kW, 2.5 GHz), exceeding the modelling predictions. At the FT-2 tokamak (R = 0.56 m, a = 0.08 m, Bt = 3 T, Ip = 30 kA) experiments with a traditional toroidally oriented grill revealed no strong dependence of the LHCD density limit on the H/D ratio in spite of LH resonance densities differing by a factor of 3. Microwave Doppler reflectometry (DR) at the Globus-M, and DR and heavy ion beam probe measurements at the tokamak TUMAN-3M (R = 0.53 m, a = 0.24 m, Bt = 1.0 T, Ip = 190 kA) demonstrated geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) suppression at the L to H transition. Observations at FT-2 using Doppler Enhanced Scattering showed that the GAM amplitude is anti-correlated both spatially and temporally to the drift turbulence level and electron thermal diffusivity. For the first time turbulence amplitude modulation at the GAM frequency was found both experimentally and in global gyrokinetic modelling. A model of the L-H transition is proposed based on this effect. The loss mechanisms of energetic ions' (EI) were investigated in the neutral beam injection (NBI) experiments on Globus-M and TUMAN-3M. Empirical scaling of the 2.45 MeV DD neutron rate for the two devices shows a strong dependence on toroidal field Bt1.29 and plasma current Ip1.34 justifying the Bt and Ip increase by a factor of 2.5 for the proposed upgrade of Globus-M. Bursts of ˜1 MHz Alfvenic type oscillations correlating with sawtooth crashes were observed in ohmic TUMAN-3M discharges. The possibility of low threshold parametric excitation of Bernstein and upper hybrid waves trapped in drift-wave eddies resulting in anomalous absorption in electron

  5. Deep-water Hydrozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) in the Sea of Japan, collected during the 51st Cruise of R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev, with description Opercularella angelikae, sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanjants, Sofia D.

    2013-02-01

    A report is given about Hydrozoa collected at depths between 455 and 3666 m in the Sea of Japan during the Russian-German expedition on R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev. Ten species were found, with four of them being typical bathyal-abyssal and abyssal zones. A new species, Opercularella angelikae, is described, and it was the dominant hydroid in samples from 970 to 3660 m. Four eurybathic species characteristics of the Sea of Japan were sampled between 455 and 582 m. Abyssal (pseudoabyssal after Andriashev, 1979) hydroid fauna in the Sea of Japan is reported. The hypothesis that an exclusively deep-water fauna is lacking in abyssal regions of the Sea of Japan is disputed. The author's personal opinion considered concerning the borders of 1000 m between shallow and deep hydrozoan species in the Sea of Japan.

  6. Antihydrogen Production within a Penning-Ioffe Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Le Sage, D.; Levitt, B.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Wrubel, J.; Speck, A.; George, M. C.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Carew, A.; Comeau, D.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Walz, J.

    2008-03-21

    Slow antihydrogen (H) is produced within a Penning trap that is located within a quadrupole Ioffe trap, the latter intended to ultimately confine extremely cold, ground-state H atoms. Observed H atoms in this configuration resolve a debate about whether positrons and antiprotons can be brought together to form atoms within the divergent magnetic fields of a quadrupole Ioffe trap. The number of detected H atoms actually increases when a 400 mK Ioffe trap is turned on.

  7. Antihydrogen production within a Penning-Ioffe trap.

    PubMed

    Gabrielse, G; Larochelle, P; Le Sage, D; Levitt, B; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Wrubel, J; Speck, A; George, M C; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zhang, Z; Carew, A; Comeau, D; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Walz, J

    2008-03-21

    Slow antihydrogen (H) is produced within a Penning trap that is located within a quadrupole Ioffe trap, the latter intended to ultimately confine extremely cold, ground-state H[over ] atoms. Observed H[over ] atoms in this configuration resolve a debate about whether positrons and antiprotons can be brought together to form atoms within the divergent magnetic fields of a quadrupole Ioffe trap. The number of detected H atoms actually increases when a 400 mK Ioffe trap is turned on. PMID:18517780

  8. Antiproton Confinement in a Penning-Ioffe Trap for Antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Le Sage, D.; Levitt, B.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Kuljanishvili, I.; McConnell, R.; Wrubel, J.; Esser, F. M.; Glueckler, H.; Hansen, G.; Schillings, J.; Schmitt, M.; Soltner, H.; Grzonka, D.; Martin, S.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Comeau, D.

    2007-03-16

    Antiprotons (p) remain confined in a Penning trap, in sufficient numbers to form antihydrogen (H) atoms via charge exchange, when the radial field of a quadrupole Ioffe trap is added. This first demonstration with p suggests that quadrupole Ioffe traps can be superimposed upon p and e{sup +} traps to attempt the capture of H atoms as they form, contrary to conclusions of previous analyses.

  9. Antiproton confinement in a Penning-Ioffe trap for antihydrogen.

    PubMed

    Gabrielse, G; Larochelle, P; Le Sage, D; Levitt, B; Kolthammer, W S; Kuljanishvili, I; McConnell, R; Wrubel, J; Esser, F M; Glückler, H; Grzonka, D; Hansen, G; Martin, S; Oelert, W; Schillings, J; Schmitt, M; Sefzick, T; Soltner, H; Zhang, Z; Comeau, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Speck, A; Nillius, F; Walz, J; Hänsch, T W

    2007-03-16

    Antiprotons (p[over]) remain confined in a Penning trap, in sufficient numbers to form antihydrogen (H[over ) atoms via charge exchange, when the radial field of a quadrupole Ioffe trap is added. This first demonstration with p[over] suggests that quadrupole Ioffe traps can be superimposed upon p[over] and e(+) traps to attempt the capture of H[over] atoms as they form, contrary to conclusions of previous analyses. PMID:17501048

  10. {delta}-kick cooling using the Ioffe-Pritchard potential

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, T.; Kato, T.; Tanami, Y.; Nakamatsu, H.

    2006-06-15

    We demonstrated {delta}-kick cooling of sodium atoms with a three-dimensional anisotropic harmonic potential. The radius and temperature of the atomic cloud oscillated with kick time, indicating that the elongated atomic distribution in phase space rotates in the Ioffe-Pritchard potential. The temperature of kicked atoms was reduced to below the recoil temperature.

  11. First antihydrogen production within a combined Penning-Ioffe trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sage, David Anthony

    The long-term goal of the ATRAP collaboration is to perform precision laser spectroscopy on antihydrogen, the simplest atom made entirely of antimatter. Comparing this to the hydrogen spectrum would be a direct test of CPT invariance. Antihydrogen has been produced by ATRAP both during the positron cooling of antiprotons and by a laser-controlled charge-exchange process. Antihydrogen spectroscopy will first require confining the atoms produced in a Penning ion trap within the magnetic confining field of a superimposed Ioffe trap. A new experimental zone was established at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator, and a combined Penning-Ioffe trap was constructed for the trapping and spectroscopy of antihydrogen. Significant advances were made in the methods of accumulating the constituent particles necessary for antihydrogen formation, including a factor of 400 improvement of the positron loading rate using buffer-gas accumulation, the demonstration of a new electron loading method via the photoelectric effect using UV laser pulses, and efficient antiproton trapping using magnetic fields that were much lower than previously demonstrated, as required to maximize antihydrogen trapping depths. The loss of particles from the Penning trap caused by the radial magnetic field of a quadrupole-Ioffe trap was measured, and found to be suitably low for antihydrogen production. Following this, antihydrogen production in a combined Penning-Ioffe trap was demonstrated for the first time. A new method of antihydrogen production via positron-cooling of antiprotons was utilized that prolonged the interaction time of the positrons and antiprotons, while minimizing the mixing-energy of the antiprotons. Larger amounts of antihydrogen were produced in the presence of the Ioffe field than without it, assuaging reasonable fears that the magnetic confining field would restrict antihydrogen formation. Searches for antihydrogen confined in the magnetic trap yielded null results, likely due to the

  12. A gradient and offset compensated Ioffe-Pritchard trap for Bose-Einstein condensation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolpasi, Vasiliki; Grucker, Jules; Morrissey, Michael J.; von Klitzing, Wolf

    2012-12-01

    The Ioffe-Pritchard trap is the workhorse of modern cold atom physics. Here, we present a novel Ioffe-Pritchard trap coil configuration based purely on circular coils. By eliminating the traditional Ioffe bars one can increase the gradient and thus the radial trapping frequency by almost a factor 2. We also present a method to achieve minimal coupling between the gradient, curvature and offset fields of the trap, thus facilitating the dynamic control of the trapping frequencies and aspect ratio.

  13. Combined Jonker and Ioffe Analysis of Oxide Conductors and Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Q.M.; Hopper, E.M.; Ingram, B.J.; Mason, Thomas O.

    2010-09-27

    Jonker plots (Seebeck coefficient versus logarithm of conductivity) have been utilized to obtain the product of the density of states (DOS) and mobility (μ) in oxide semiconductors, from which the maximum electrical conductivity can be estimated for degenerate transparent conducting oxide (TCO) applications. In addition, the DOS–μ product can be utilized to predict the maximum achievable “power factor” (PF, Seebeck coefficient squared times conductivity) for oxide semiconductors. The PF is an important parameter governing the figure of merit for thermoelectric oxide (TEO) applications. The procedure employs an analysis developed by Ioffe, and provides an important screening tool for oxide (and other) thermoelectric materials, based upon data from polycrystalline ceramic specimens. Several oxides, including known transparent conductors, are considered as TCO and TEO case studies in the present work.

  14. Stability of a charged particle in a combined Penning-Ioffe trap.

    PubMed

    Squires, T M; Yesley, P; Gabrielse, G

    2001-06-01

    The axial symmetry of a familiar Penning trap is broken by adding the radial magnetic field of an Ioffe trap. Despite the resulting loss of a confinement theorem, stable orbits related to adiabatic invariants are identified, expressions are given for their frequencies, and resonances that must be avoided are characterized. It seems feasible to experimentally realize the new Penning-Ioffe trap to test these theoretical predictions. It also may be possible to simultaneously confine cold positrons and antiprotons in a Penning-Ioffe trap, along with any cold antihydrogen they may form. PMID:11384474

  15. ITER diagnostic systems in development in Ioffe Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, M.; Afanasyev, V.; Petrov, S.; Mironov, M.; Mukhin, E.; Tolstyakov, S.; Chugunov, I.; Shevelev, A.

    2014-08-21

    Three diagnostic systems are being developed in Ioffe Institute for ITER. Those are Neutral Particle Analysis (NPA), Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) and Gamma Spectroscopy (GS). The main objective of NPA in ITER is to measure D/T fuel ration in plasma on the basis of measurement of neutralized fluxes of D and T ions [1]. Fuel ratio is one of the key parameters needed by ITER control system to provide the optimal conditions in plasma and the most effective plasma burning. Another objective is to measure the distribution function of fast ions (including alpha particles) generated as a result of the additional heating and nuclear fusion reactions. Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) [2] will be used to measure electron temperature and density in the scrape-off layer in outer leg of ITER divertor. The main task of TSD is to protect the machine from divertor overloading. Gamma Spectroscopy (GS) [3] is based on the measurement of spectral lines of MeV range gammas generated in nuclear reactions in plasma. 2-D gamma-ray emission measurements give valuable information on the confined alpha particles in DT plasma. They also provide important information on the location of MeV range runaway electron beams in ITER plasma. For all three cases the physical basis and instrumentation are presented. The simple NPA version for measurements of D/T ratio in DEMO is also briefly described.

  16. Transport of atom packets in a train of Ioffe-Pritchard traps

    SciTech Connect

    Lahaye, T.; Reinaudi, G.; Wang, Z.; Couvert, A.; Guery-Odelin, D.

    2006-09-15

    We demonstrate transport and evaporative cooling of several atomic clouds in a chain of magnetic Ioffe-Pritchard traps moving at a low speed (<1 m/s). The trapping scheme relies on the use of a magnetic guide for transverse confinement and of magnets fixed on a conveyor belt for longitudinal trapping. This experiment introduces a different approach for parallelizing the production of Bose-Einstein condensates as well as for the realization of a continuous atom laser.

  17. Neutral atom analyzers for diagnosing hot plasmas: A review of research at the ioffe physicotechnical institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislyakov, A. I.; Petrov, M. P.

    2009-07-01

    Research on neutral particle diagnostics of thermonuclear plasmas that has been carried out in recent years at the Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg, Russia) is reviewed. Work on the creation and improvement of neutral atom analyzers was done in two directions: for potential applications (in particular, on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which is now under construction at Cadarache in France) and for investigation of the ion plasma component in various devices (in particular, in the largest tokamaks, such as JET, TFTR, and JT-60). Neutral atom analyzers are the main tool for studying the behavior of hydrogen ions and isotopes in magnetic confinement systems. They make it possible to determine energy spectra, to perform the isotope analysis of atom fluxes from the plasma, to measure the absolute intensity of the fluxes, and to record how these parameters vary with time. A comparative description of the analyzers developed in recent years at the Ioffe Institute is given. These are ACORD-12/24 analyzers for recording 0.2-100-keV hydrogen and deuterium atoms with a tunable range of simultaneously measured energies, CNPA compact analyzers for a fixed energy gain in the ranges 80-1000 eV and 0.8-100 keV, an ISEP analyzer for simultaneously recording the atoms of all the three hydrogen isotopes (H, D, and T) in the energy range 5-700 keV, and GEMMA analyzers for recording atom fluxes of hydrogen and helium isotopes in the range 0.1-4 MeV. The scintillating detectors of the ISEP and GEMMA analyzers have a lowered sensitivity to neutrons and thus can operate without additional shielding in neutron fields of up to 109 n/(cm2 s). These two types of analyzers, intended to operate under deuterium-tritium plasma conditions, are prototypes of atom analyzers created at the Ioffe Institute for use in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. With these analyzers, a number of new results have been

  18. Nonadiabatic production of spinor condensates with a quadrupole-Ioffe-configuration trap

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.; Xu, Z.; You, L.

    2006-01-15

    Motivated by the recent experimental observation of multicomponent spinor condensates via a time-dependent quadrupole-Ioffe-configuration trap, we provide a general framework for the investigation of nonadiabatic Landau-Zener dynamics of a hyperfine spin, e.g., from an atomic magnetic dipole moment coupled to a weak time-dependent magnetic (B-) field. The spin flipped population distribution, or the so-called Majorona formula, is expressed in terms of system parameters and experimental observables; thus, the distribution provides much needed insight into the underlying mechanism for the production of spinor condensates due to nonadiabatic level crossings.

  19. Boson peak and Ioffe-Regel criterion in amorphous siliconlike materials: The effect of bond directionality.

    PubMed

    Beltukov, Y M; Fusco, C; Parshin, D A; Tanguy, A

    2016-02-01

    The vibrational properties of model amorphous materials are studied by combining complete analysis of the vibration modes, dynamical structure factor, and energy diffusivity with exact diagonalization of the dynamical matrix and the kernel polynomial method, which allows a study of very large system sizes. Different materials are studied that differ only by the bending rigidity of the interactions in a Stillinger-Weber modelization used to describe amorphous silicon. The local bending rigidity can thus be used as a control parameter, to tune the sound velocity together with local bonds directionality. It is shown that for all the systems studied, the upper limit of the Boson peak corresponds to the Ioffe-Regel criterion for transverse waves, as well as to a minimum of the diffusivity. The Boson peak is followed by a diffusivity's increase supported by longitudinal phonons. The Ioffe-Regel criterion for transverse waves corresponds to a common characteristic mean-free path of 5-7 Å (which is slightly bigger for longitudinal phonons), while the fine structure of the vibrational density of states is shown to be sensitive to the local bending rigidity. PMID:26986404

  20. Boson peak and Ioffe-Regel criterion in amorphous siliconlike materials: The effect of bond directionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltukov, Y. M.; Fusco, C.; Parshin, D. A.; Tanguy, A.

    2016-02-01

    The vibrational properties of model amorphous materials are studied by combining complete analysis of the vibration modes, dynamical structure factor, and energy diffusivity with exact diagonalization of the dynamical matrix and the kernel polynomial method, which allows a study of very large system sizes. Different materials are studied that differ only by the bending rigidity of the interactions in a Stillinger-Weber modelization used to describe amorphous silicon. The local bending rigidity can thus be used as a control parameter, to tune the sound velocity together with local bonds directionality. It is shown that for all the systems studied, the upper limit of the Boson peak corresponds to the Ioffe-Regel criterion for transverse waves, as well as to a minimum of the diffusivity. The Boson peak is followed by a diffusivity's increase supported by longitudinal phonons. The Ioffe-Regel criterion for transverse waves corresponds to a common characteristic mean-free path of 5-7 Å (which is slightly bigger for longitudinal phonons), while the fine structure of the vibrational density of states is shown to be sensitive to the local bending rigidity.

  1. Infections on Cruise Ships.

    PubMed

    Kak, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The modern cruise ship is a small city on the seas, with populations as large as 5,000 seen on large ships. The growth of the cruise ship industry has continued in the twenty-first century, and it was estimated that nearly 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2013, with the majority of these sailing from North America. The presence of large numbers of individuals in close proximity to each other facilitates transmission of infectious diseases, often through person-to-person spread or via contaminated food or water. An infectious agent introduced into the environment of a cruise ship has the potential to be distributed widely across the ship and to cause significant morbidity. The median cruise ship passenger is over 45 years old and often has chronic medical problems, so it is important that, to have a safe cruise ship experience, any potential for the introduction of an infecting agent as well as its transmission be minimized. The majority of cruise ship infections involve respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This article discusses infectious outbreaks on cruise ships and suggests preventative measures for passengers who plan to travel on cruise ships. PMID:26350312

  2. Supersonic Cruise Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, F. Edward

    1985-01-01

    The history and status of supersonic cruise research is covered. The early research efforts of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and efforts during the B-70 and SST phase are included. Technological progress made during the NASA Supersonic Cruise Research and Variable Cycle Engine programs are presented. While emphasis is on NASA's contributions to supersonic cruise research in the U.S., also noted are developments in England, France, and Russia. Written in nontechnical language, this book presents the most critical technology issues and research findings.

  3. The US Cruise Ship Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Willis H.

    1985-01-01

    The cruise ship industry relates directly to many features of the natural and cultural environments. The U.S. cruise ship industry is analyzed. Discusses the size of the industry, precruise passenger liners, current cruise ships, cruise regions and routes, ports of call, major ports, passengers, and future prospects. (RM)

  4. Cruise Missile Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Williams International's F107 fanjet engine is used in two types of cruise missiles, Navy-sponsored Tomahawk and the Air Force AGM-86B Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM). Engine produces about 600 pounds thrust, is one foot in diameter and weighs only 141 pounds. Design was aided by use of a COSMIC program in calculating airflows in engine's internal ducting, resulting in a more efficient engine with increased thrust and reduced fuel consumption.

  5. ^7Li BEC in a millimeter-scale Ioffe-Pritchard trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingchang; Wang, Ruquan; Minardi, Francesco; Kasevich, Mark

    2006-05-01

    A millimeter-scale Ioffe-Pritchard type magnetic trap with excellent optical access has been used to demonstrate Bose-Einstein condensation in^ 7Li. The trap utilizes a novel combination of free space and substrate patterned current carrying elements to produce the required fields. Substrate electrodes are fabricated with using the direct-bond copper (DBC) process on a ceramic substrate. DBC fabrication enables excellent thermal dissipation together with high current capacity vias and surface conductors. With 100A trapping current, which dissipates less than 10W the trap provides 400G/Cm magnetic gradient in the radial direction, 50Hz trapping frequency in axial direction and 80G trap depth for ^7Li. With conventional water cooling, lifetime for the trap is over 1 minute and BEC regime is reached after 35s forced evaporation. The demonstrated performance for ^7Li is expected to scale well to other alkalis and this compact configuration may serve as an excellent platform for mobile ultra-cold atom sensors.

  6. Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit and resistivity crossover in a tractable electron-phonon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werman, Yochai; Berg, Erez

    2016-02-01

    Many metals display resistivity saturation—a substantial decrease in the slope of the resistivity as a function of temperature that occurs when the electron scattering rate τ-1 becomes comparable to the Fermi energy EF/ℏ (the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit). At such temperatures, the usual description of a metal in terms of ballistically propagating quasiparticles is no longer valid. We present a tractable model of a large number N of electronic bands coupled to N2 optical phonon modes, which displays a crossover behavior in the resistivity at temperatures where τ-1˜EF/ℏ . At low temperatures, the resistivity obeys the familiar linear form, while at high temperatures, the resistivity still increases linearly, but with a modified slope (that can be either lower or higher than the low-temperature slope, depending on the band structure). The high-temperature non-Boltzmann regime is interpreted by considering the diffusion constant and the compressibility, both of which scale as the inverse square root of the temperature.

  7. Ioffe-Regel criterion and diffusion of vibrations in random lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltukov, Y. M.; Kozub, V. I.; Parshin, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Using a stable random matrix approach, we consider the diffusion of vibrations in 3d harmonic lattices with strong force-constant disorder. Above some frequency ωIR, corresponding to the Ioffe-Regel crossover, the notion of phonons becomes ill defined. They cannot propagate through the system and transfer energy. Nevertheless, most of the vibrations in this range are not localized. We show that they are similar to diffusons introduced by Allen [P. B. Allen, J. L. Feldman, J. Fabian, and F. Wooten, Phil. Mag. B1364-281210.1080/13642819908223054 79, 1715 (1999)] to describe heat transport in glasses. The crossover frequency ωIR is close to the position of the boson peak. By changing the strength of disorder we can vary ωIR from zero value (when the rigidity is zero and there are no phonons in the lattice) up to a typical frequency in the system. Above ωIR, the energy in the lattice is transferred by means of diffusion of vibrational excitations. We calculated the diffusivity of the modes D(ω) using both the direct numerical solution of the Newton equations and the formula of Edwards and Thouless. It is nearly a constant above ωIR and goes to zero at the localization threshold. We show that apart from the diffusion of energy, a diffusion of particle displacements in the lattice takes place as well. Above ωIR, a displacement structure factor S(q,ω) coincides well with a structure factor of random walk on the lattice. As a result, the vibrational line width is Γ(q)=Duq2, where Du is a diffusion coefficient of particle displacements. These findings may be important for the interpretation of experimental data on inelastic x-ray scattering and mechanisms of heat transfer in glasses. We also show that the scaling with model parameters in our model maps directly onto the scaling observed in the jamming transition model.

  8. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Konrad

    Die adaptive Fahrgeschwindigkeitsregelung (ACC, Adaptive Cruise Control) ist eine Weiterentwicklung der konventionellen Fahrgeschwindigkeitsregelung, die eine konstante Fahrgeschwindigkeit einstellt. ACC überwacht mittels eines Radarsensors den Bereich vor dem Fahrzeug und passt die Geschwindigkeit den Gegebenheiten an. ACC reagiert auf langsamer vorausfahrende oder einscherende Fahrzeuge mit einer Reduzierung der Geschwindigkeit, sodass der vorgeschriebene Mindestabstand zum vorausfahrenden Fahrzeug nicht unterschritten wird. Hierzu greift ACC in Antrieb und Bremse ein. Sobald das vorausfahrende Fahrzeug beschleunigt oder die Spur verlässt, regelt ACC die Geschwindigkeit wieder auf die vorgegebene Sollgeschwindigkeit ein (Bild 1). ACC steht somit für eine Geschwindigkeitsregelung, die sich dem vorausfahrenden Verkehr anpasst.

  9. BENCAL Cruise Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Barlow, Ray; Sessions, Heather; Silulwane, Nonkqubela; Engel, Hermann; Aiken, James; Fishwick, James; Martinez-Vicente, Victor; Morel, Andre

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities on board the South African Fisheries Research Ship (FRS) Africana during an ocean color calibration and validation cruise in the Benguela upwelling ecosystem (BEN-CAL), 4-17 October 2002. The cruise, denoted Afncana voyage 170, was staged in the southern Benguela between Cape Town and the Orange River within the region 14-18.5 deg E,29-34 deg S, with 15 scientists participat- ing from seven different international organizations. Uniquely in October 2002, four high-precision ocean color sensors were operational, and these included the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Aqua and Terra spacecraft, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). SeaWiFS imagery was transmitted daily to the ship to assist in choosing the vessel's course and selecting stations for bio-optical deployments. There were four primary objectives of the cruise. The first was to conduct bio-optical measurements with above- and in-water optical instruments to vicariously calibrate the satellite sensors. The second was to interrelate diverse measurements of the apparent optical properties (AOPs) at satellite sensor wavelengths with inherent optical properties (IOPs) and bio-optically active constituents of seawater such as particles, pigments, and dissolved compounds. The third was to determine the interrelationships between optical properties, phytoplankton pigment composition, photosynthetic rates, and primary production, while the fourth objective was to collect samples for a second pigment round-robin intercalibration experiment. Weather conditions were generally very favorable, and a range of hyperspectral and fixed wavelength AOP instruments were deployed during daylight hours. Various IOP instruments were used to determine the absorption, attenuation, scattering, and backscattering properties of particulate matter and dissolved substances, while

  10. Teacher Techniques: Exploring Timber Cruising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    A timber cruise is an estimate of the timber in a stand to see what kinds of trees are growing, how many are marketable, and whether good forest management practices are followed. The objectives of timber cruising are to secure information to recommend good management practices to the land owner and to determine the commercial value of the trees.…

  11. Oceanographic Mower Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, J.; Ercilla, G.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.; Casas, D.

    2015-04-01

    The MOWER Cruise has executed a geophysics and geologic expedition in the Gulf of Cádiz (sector adjacent to the Strait of Gibraltar) and west off Portugal, in the framework of the coordinate research project MOWER "Erosive features and associated sandy deposits generated by the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) around Iberia: paleoceanographic, sedimentary & economic implications" (CTM 2012-39599-C03). The main aim of this project is to identify and study the erosional features (terraces and channels) and associated sedimentary deposits (sandy contourites) generated by the Mediterranean Water Masses around the middle continental slope of Iberia (The Mediterranean Outflow Water - MOW - in the Atlantic margins), their Pliocene and Quaternary evolution and their paleoceanographic, sedimentary and economic implications. This objective directly involves the study of alongslope (contourite) processes associated with the MOW and across-slope (turbiditic flows, debris flows, etc.) processes in the sedimentary stacking pattern and evolution of the Iberian margins. The MOWER project and cruise are related to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 (Mediterranean Outflow). It is also linked and coordinated with CONDRIBER Project "Contourite drifts and associated mass-transport deposits along the SW Iberia margin - implications to slope stability and tsunami hazard assessment" (2013-2015) funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (PTDC/GEO-GEO/4430/2012).

  12. CMO: Cruise Metadata Organizer for JAMSTEC Research Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, K.; Saito, H.; Hanafusa, Y.; Vanroosebeke, A.; Kitayama, T.

    2011-12-01

    JAMSTEC's Data Research Center for Marine-Earth Sciences manages and distributes a wide variety of observational data and samples obtained from JAMSTEC research vessels and deep sea submersibles. Generally, metadata are essential to identify data and samples were obtained. In JAMSTEC, cruise metadata include cruise information such as cruise ID, name of vessel, research theme, and diving information such as dive number, name of submersible and position of diving point. They are submitted by chief scientists of research cruises in the Microsoft Excel° spreadsheet format, and registered into a data management database to confirm receipt of observational data files, cruise summaries, and cruise reports. The cruise metadata are also published via "JAMSTEC Data Site for Research Cruises" within two months after end of cruise. Furthermore, these metadata are distributed with observational data, images and samples via several data and sample distribution websites after a publication moratorium period. However, there are two operational issues in the metadata publishing process. One is that duplication efforts and asynchronous metadata across multiple distribution websites due to manual metadata entry into individual websites by administrators. The other is that differential data types or representation of metadata in each website. To solve those problems, we have developed a cruise metadata organizer (CMO) which allows cruise metadata to be connected from the data management database to several distribution websites. CMO is comprised of three components: an Extensible Markup Language (XML) database, an Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) software, and a web-based interface. The XML database is used because of its flexibility for any change of metadata. Daily differential uptake of metadata from the data management database to the XML database is automatically processed via the EAI software. Some metadata are entered into the XML database using the web

  13. Developmental Continuity? Crawling, Cruising, and Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.; Berger, Sarah E.; Leo, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined developmental continuity between "cruising" (moving sideways holding onto furniture for support) and walking. Because cruising and walking involve locomotion in an upright posture, researchers have assumed that cruising is functionally related to walking. Study 1 showed that most infants crawl and cruise concurrently prior…

  14. Staying Healthy on a Cruise

    MedlinePlus

    ... get the most out of your cruise vacation. Zika Travel Information The 2016 Olympics in Brazil, Reggae ... the summer is full of great international celebrations! Zika has been reported in many popular event destinations ...

  15. A study of aircraft cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.

    1986-01-01

    The long range aircraft cruise problem is analyzed using a model intermediate in complexity between energy model and point mass model. It is shown that this formulation imbeds the classical steady state cruise as the central member along with several other oscillatory extremals. The oscillatory cruise trajectories are shown to exist if the Hessian of the function QD/VT with respect to altitude and airspeed is positive definite. An expression for predicting the frequency of oscillation is developed. Qualitative effects of increasing the vehicle thrust and improving the L/D are discussed. Numerical results for two fighter aircraft and a transport aircraft are given. While oscillatory cruise mode exists for the two fighter aircraft, steady state cruise at full throttle is found to be optimal for the transport aircraft. A second variation analysis to bring out the reason for fuel savings is developed. It is shown that whenever the Hessian of the function QD/VT is positive definite, the second variation will be zero along the classical steady state cruise arc, indicating that a neighboring extremal is competitive. Comparisons with the previous point mass and energy modeled results are given.

  16. Supersonic Cruise Research 1979, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamics, stability and control, propulsion, and environmental factors of the supersonic cruise aircraft are discussed. Other topics include airframe structures and materials, systems integration, and economics.

  17. 32 CFR 705.23 - Guest cruises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guest cruises. 705.23 Section 705.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.23 Guest cruises. (a) General policy. (1) The embarkation of civilian guests in Navy ships...

  18. 32 CFR 705.23 - Guest cruises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guest cruises. 705.23 Section 705.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.23 Guest cruises. (a) General policy. (1) The embarkation of civilian guests in Navy ships...

  19. Improved Tracking of Research Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Ed; Sathyendranath, Shubha; de Leeuw, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Every year, several hundred ocean research cruises are conducted by academic institutions and government agencies worldwide, with major expenditures of finances and human resources. Ships may be in the same ocean area at the same time without prior knowledge of one another's activities, missing opportunities for joint work. Some ships go to sea with empty berths, which might have been filled if scientists from other institutions or countries had known about the availability of space. Many scientists using in situ instruments have missed opportunities to deploy them in seldom visited parts of the ocean because the scientists did not realize a ship was going to that area, and opportunities for ``sea truthing'' of satellite observations in remote regions are missed.

  20. Cruise performance and range prediction reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torenbeek, Egbert

    1997-05-01

    A unified analytical treatment of the cruise performance of subsonic transport aircraft is derived, valid for gas turbine powerplant installations: turboprop, turbojet and turbofan powered aircraft. Different from the classical treatment the present article deals with compressibility effects on the aerodynamic characteristics. Analytical criteria are derived for optimum cruise lift coefficient and Mach number, with and without constraints on the altitude and engine rating. A simple alternative to the Bréguet range equation is presented which applies to several practical cruising flight techniques: flight at constant altitude and Mach number and stepped cruise/climb. A practical non-iterative procedure for computing mission and reserve fuel loads in the preliminary design stage is proposed.

  1. Lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, H. C.; Franklin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the technology related to lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft, covering propulsion systems, thrust deflection, flight dynamics, controls, displays, aerodynamics, and configurations. Piloting problems are discussed, and the need for integration of power management and thrust-vector controls is pointed out. Major components for a high-bypass-ratio lift/cruise fan propulsion system for VTOL aircraft have been tested.

  2. Developmental Continuity? Crawling, Cruising, and Walking

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Berger, Sarah E.; Leo, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined developmental continuity between “cruising” (moving sideways holding onto furniture for support) and walking. Because cruising and walking involve locomotion in an upright posture, researchers have assumed that cruising is functionally related to walking. Study 1 showed that most infants crawl and cruise concurrently prior to walking, amassing several weeks of experience with both skills. Study 2 showed that cruising infants perceive affordances for locomotion over an adjustable gap in a handrail used for manual support, but despite weeks of cruising experience, cruisers are largely oblivious to the dangers of gaps in the floor beneath their feet. Study 3 replicated the floor-gap findings for infants taking their first independent walking steps, and showed that new walkers also misperceive affordances for locomoting between gaps in a handrail. The findings suggest that weeks of cruising do not teach infants a basic fact about walking: the necessity of a floor to support their body. Moreover, this research demonstrated that developmental milestones that are temporally contiguous and structurally similar might have important functional discontinuities. PMID:21399716

  3. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  4. Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

  5. Robust predictive cruise control for commercial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junell, Jaime; Tumer, Kagan

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we explore learning-based predictive cruise control and the impact of this technology on increasing fuel efficiency for commercial trucks. Traditional cruise control is wasteful when maintaining a constant velocity over rolling hills. Predictive cruise control (PCC) is able to look ahead at future road conditions and solve for a cost-effective course of action. Model- based controllers have been implemented in this field but cannot accommodate many complexities of a dynamic environment which includes changing road and vehicle conditions. In this work, we focus on incorporating a learner into an already successful model- based predictive cruise controller in order to improve its performance. We explore back propagating neural networks to predict future errors then take actions to prevent said errors from occurring. The results show that this approach improves the model based PCC by up to 60% under certain conditions. In addition, we explore the benefits of classifier ensembles to further improve the gains due to intelligent cruise control.

  6. When propfans cruise, will LDN 65 fly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Fred; Dickerson, William

    1990-01-01

    The type and extent of response that may be expected from the persons exposed to the noise of propfans cruising overhead is examined. The cruise mode is of particular interest because it appears that it is in this mode that the propfan airplane noise differs substantially from the noise of present jet-powered airplanes. Early test data on propfan engines suggests that noise levels on the ground under the flight track of commercial propfan transports may approach 65 decibels. To explore the reaction of the exposed population to repeated noise levels of this magnitude, it may be helpful to review some of the pertinent literature on the effects of environmental noise.

  7. Systems integration studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Technical progress in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA AST/SCAR Program supported the integration of these technical advances into supersonic cruise aircraft configuration concepts. While the baseline concepts reflect differing design philosophy, all reflect a level of economic performance considerably above the current foreign aircraft as well as the former U.S. SST. Range-payload characteristics of the study configurating show significant improvement, while meeting environmental goals such as takeoff and landing noise and upper atmospheric pollution.

  8. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  9. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  10. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  11. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  12. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  13. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1...

  14. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1...

  15. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1...

  16. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1...

  17. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Interplanetary Cruise Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, Tung-Han; Graat, Eric; Halsell, Allen; Highsmith, Dolan; Long, Stacia; Bhat, Ram; Demcak, Stuart; Higa, Earl; Mottinger, Neil; Jah, Moriba

    2007-01-01

    Carrying six science instruments and three engineering payloads, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is the first mission in a low Mars orbit to characterize the surface, subsurface, and atmospheric properties with unprecedented detail. After a seven-month interplanetary cruise, MRO arrived at Mars executing a 1.0 km/s Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) maneuver. MRO achieved a 430 km periapsis altitude with the final orbit solution indicating that only 10 km was attributable to navigation prediction error. With the last interplanetary maneuver performed four months before MOI, this was a significant accomplishment. This paper describes the navigation analyses and results during the 210-day interplanetary cruise. As of August 2007 MRO has returned more than 18 Terabits of scientific data in support of the objectives set by the Mars Exploration Program (MEP). The robust and exceptional interplanetary navigation performance paved the way for a successful MRO mission.

  18. Supersonic Cruise Efficiency - Propulsion Tech Challenge Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis James R.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation provides a brief overview of the research underway in the Cruise Efficiency -- Propulsion technical challenge area of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics project. The research involves both computational and experimental efforts in the areas of Advanced Inlet Concepts, High Performance/Wide Operability Fan and Compressors, Advanced Nozzle Concepts and Intelligent Sensors/Actuators. The work consists of both internal NASA research and external efforts funded through the NASA Research Announcement process.

  19. A study of altitude-constrained supersonic cruise transport concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, David C.; Martin, Glenn L.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of restricting maximum cruise altitude on the mission performance of two supersonic transport concepts across a selection of cruise Mach numbers is studied. Results indicate that a trapezoidal wing concept can be competitive with an arrow wing depending on the altitude and Mach number constraints imposed. The higher wing loading of trapezoidal wing configurations gives them an appreciably lower average cruise altitude than the lower wing loading of the arrow wing configurations, and this advantage increases as the maximum allowable cruise altitude is reduced.

  20. Mars Science Laboratory Cruise Propulsion Maneuvering Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Raymond S.; Mizukami, Masahi; Barber, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity" is NASA's most recent mission to Mars, launched in November 2011, and landed in August 2012. It is a subcompact car-sized nuclear powered rover designed for a long duration mission, with an extensive suite of science instruments. Entry, descent and landing used a unique "skycrane" concept. This report describes the propulsive maneuvering operations during cruise from Earth to Mars, to control attitudes and to target the vehicle for entry. The propulsion subsystem, mission operations, and flight performance are discussed. All trajectory control maneuvers were well within accuracy requirements, and all turns and spin corrections were nominal.

  1. Career Cruising Impact on the Self Efficacy of Deciding Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smother, Anthony William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of "Career Cruising"© on self-efficacy of deciding majors in a university setting. The use of the self-assessment instrument, "Career Cruising"©, was used with measuring the career-decision making self-efficacy in a pre and post-test with deciding majors. The independent…

  2. Cruise missiles should not stop START

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipis, K.

    1988-11-01

    A method for verifying a cruise-missile agreement that would be acceptable to the military, industrial, and intelligence communities in both nations must be as unintrusive as possible, while remaining immune to cheating of any significance. This is the goal of the technical solutions outlined here. The elements of a verification regime described do not require routine, intrusive, on-site visits to naval vessels, aircraft, air bases, or weapons magazines where missiles may be stored. They do not interfere with the operational readiness of the missiles, and they protect legitimate military secrets of the inspected nation. If supported by competent national technical means of verification such as those both sides already employ, with a small number of on-site challenge inspections, a combination of technical solutions and procedures such as these could be effective. They would adequately safeguard the national security and sovereignty of the participating nations while providing policymakers with the option of a treaty that limits the number of long-range nuclear cruise missiles or eliminates them completely. As discussed, there are problems that remain to be addressed, but they should not be allowed to block a U.S.-Soviet agreement significantly reducing strategic nuclear arsenals.

  3. Structural design of supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischler, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The major efforts leading to an efficient structural design include: (1) the analysis methods used to improve the structural model optimization and compare the structural concepts, (2) the analysis and description of the fail-safe, crack growth, and residual strength studies and tests, (3) baseline structural trade studies to determine optimum structural weights including effects of geometry changes, strength, fail-safety, aeroelastics and flutter, 6AL-4V annealed titanium in structural efficiency after 70,000 hours at temperature, (5) the study of three structural models for aircraft at 2.0 Mach, 2.2 Mach, and 2.4 Mach cruise speeds, (6) the study of many structural concepts to determine their weight efficiencies; and (7) the determination of the requirements for large-scale structural development testing.

  4. Long-range nuclear cruise missiles and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.N.; Postol, T.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles are highly accurate and are capable of reaching most targets within the United States and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) from launch points beyond their borders. Neither the United States nor the CIS has air surveillance systems capable of providing reliable warning against cruise missiles. Thus it is possible that a small-scale cruise missile attack could go entirely undetected until the nuclear weapons arrived over their targets. Such an attack could destroy the other country's entire strategic bomber force on the ground and severely damage its strategic command and control system, perhaps to the point of endangering the ability of its ICBM force to be launched on warning. This capability makes long-range nuclear cruise missiles potentially one of the most destabilizing of all nuclear weapons.

  5. Galileo post-Gaspra cruise and Earth-2 encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, P. E.; Andrews, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    This article documents DSN support for the Galileo cruise after the Oct. 1991 encounter with the asteroid Gaspra. This article also details the Earth-2 encounter and the special non-DSN support provided during the Earth-2 closest approach.

  6. Contourite systems in the region of the southern São Paulo Plateau escarpment, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, D. G.; Murdmaa, I. O.; Ivanova, E. V.; Levchenko, O. V.; Yutsis, V. V.; Frantseva, T. N.

    2013-07-01

    Seismoacoustic investigations with a high-resolution parametric echo-sounder "SES 2000 deep" carried out on cruises 33, 35, and 37 of the R/V Akademik Ioffe revealed several erosional-depositional contourite systems on the São Paulo Plateau escarpment and its toe in the South Atlantic. Two contourite terraces related to interfaces between different water masses are observable on the escarpment. These terraces presumably reflect the activity of internal waves and turbulent eddies. The São Paulo contourite channel and genetically related drift are traceable along the escarpment toe. Changes in planktonic foraminiferal assemblages in Core AI-2563 retrieved from the summit of the São Paulo contourite drift suggest a shallowing of the Weddell Sea Deep Water mass during glacial times. It is established that the contour current of the Weddell Sea Deep Water and Lower Circumpolar Water considerably affect the formation of contourite depositional systems on the escarpment and its toe.

  7. Erosion-accumulative activity of the bottom currents on the continental rise of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, D. G.; Murdmaa, I. O.; Ivanova, E. V.; Roslyakov, A. G.; Anan'ev, R. A.

    2013-09-01

    Several high-resolution "SES 2000 deep" seismic profiles and a core of bottom sediments were obtained in cruises 33, 35, and 37 of the R/V Akademik Ioffe in the area of the Columbia channel (continental rise of Brazil, South America). The analysis of seismic facies and direct correlation of acoustic and lithological data indicates that sedimentation in this area is mostly controlled by the contour current of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). The gravity flows from seamounts and continental slope only episodically contributed coarser material to the deposition of the muddy contourites. The mixed gravitite-contourite systems consisting of accumulative bodies (drifts) and erosion channels are the results of interaction of these sedimentation processes.

  8. Cabin cruising altitudes for regular transport aircraft.

    PubMed

    2008-04-01

    The adverse physiological effects of flight, caused by ascent to altitude and its associated reduction in barometric pressure, have been known since the first manned balloon flights in the 19th century. It soon became apparent that the way to protect the occupant of an aircraft from the effects of ascent to altitude was to enclose either the individual, or the cabin, in a sealed or pressurized environment. Of primary concern in commercial airline transport operations is the selection of a suitable cabin pressurization schedule that assures adequate oxygen partial pressures for all intended occupants. For the past several decades, 8000 ft has been accepted as the maximum operational cabin pressure altitude in the airline industry. More recent research findings on the physiological and psycho-physiological effects of mild hypoxia have provided cause for renewed discussion of the "acceptability" of a maximum cabin cruise altitude of 8000 ft; however, we did not find sufficient scientific data to recommend a change in the cabin altitude of transport category aircraft. The Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) should support further research to evaluate the safety, performance and comfort of occupants at altitudes between 5000 and 10,000 ft. PMID:18457303

  9. CruiseViewer: SIOExplorer Graphical Interface to Metadata and Archives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, D. W.; Helly, J. J.; Miller, S. P.; Chase, A.; Clark, D.

    2002-12-01

    We are introducing "CruiseViewer" as a prototype graphical interface for the SIOExplorer digital library project, part of the overall NSF National Science Digital Library (NSDL) effort. When complete, CruiseViewer will provide access to nearly 800 cruises, as well as 100 years of documents and images from the archives of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). The project emphasizes data object accessibility, a rich metadata format, efficient uploading methods and interoperability with other digital libraries. The primary function of CruiseViewer is to provide a human interface to the metadata database and to storage systems filled with archival data. The system schema is based on the concept of an "arbitrary digital object" (ADO). Arbitrary in that if the object can be stored on a computer system then SIOExplore can manage it. Common examples are a multibeam swath bathymetry file, a .pdf cruise report, or a tar file containing all the processing scripts used on a cruise. We require a metadata file for every ADO in an ascii "metadata interchange format" (MIF), which has proven to be highly useful for operability and extensibility. Bulk ADO storage is managed using the Storage Resource Broker, SRB, data handling middleware developed at the San Diego Supercomputer Center that centralizes management and access to distributed storage devices. MIF metadata are harvested from several sources and housed in a relational (Oracle) database. For CruiseViewer, cgi scripts resident on an Apache server are the primary communication and service request handling tools. Along with the CruiseViewer java application, users can query, access and download objects via a separate method that operates through standard web browsers, http://sioexplorer.ucsd.edu. Both provide the functionability to query and view object metadata, and select and download ADOs. For the CruiseViewer application Java 2D is used to add a geo-referencing feature that allows users to select basemap images

  10. Participation in the 1996 Arlindo Cruise to the Indonesian Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, John

    1997-01-01

    The objective of Arlindo-Productivity is to understand the factors responsible for regional differences in the response of phytoplankton and zooplankton to the SE and NW Monsoons in Indonesia. The hypothesis is that an interplay between circulation and shoaling of the nutricline, as a response to the monsoons, regulates productivity in the Indonesian Seas. My o@jective for the cruise in 1996 was to continue our collaboration with Indonesian scientists by conducting a set of hydrographic, primary production and spectral irradiance observations in the Indonesian Seas. This grant paid for shipping, travel and incidental costs associated with participation in the cruise in December, 1996. Ship costs were borne by the Indonesian Institute of Sciences as part of the collaborative effort. A plan for Arlindo in 1996 was agreed upon in March, 1996, by Indonesian scientists together with Arnold Gordon. The plan called for a 20-day physical oceanography and mooring cruise in November, 1996, followed by a 5-day bio-optical cruise. The bio-optical cruise departed from, and returned to, Ambon, and sampled in the Banda Sea. We completed a series of chlorophyll analyses, both a sampling of surface variability and depth profiles in the Banda Sea. We also completed three MER profiles for depth profiles of spectral irradiance. These data have a useful by-product in that they can be used for vicarious calibration of the OCTS sensor aboard the ADEOS satellite. As such, the data has been transmitted to NASDA in Japan for their use.

  11. Dispelling myths about verification of sea-launched cruise missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.N. ); Ride, S.K. ); Townsend, J.S. )

    1989-11-10

    It is widely believed that an arms control limit on nuclear-armed sea-launched cruise missiles would be nearly impossible to verify. Among the reasons usually given are: these weapons are small, built in nondistinctive industrial facilities, deployed on a variety of ships and submarines, and difficult to distinguish from their conventionally armed counterparts. In this article, it is argued that the covert production and deployment of nuclear-armed sea-launched cruise missiles would not be so straightforward. A specific arms control proposed is described, namely a total ban on nuclear-armed sea-launched cruise missiles. This proposal is used to illustrate how an effective verification scheme might be constructed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Acute Gastroenteritis on Cruise Ships - United States, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Freeland, Amy L; Vaughan, George H; Banerjee, Shailendra N

    2016-01-01

    From 1990 to 2004, the reported rates of diarrheal disease (three or more loose stools or a greater than normal frequency in a 24-hour period) on cruise ships decreased 2.4%, from 29.2 cases per 100,000 travel days to 28.5 cases (1,2). Increased rates of acute gastroenteritis illness (diarrhea or vomiting that is associated with loose stools, bloody stools, abdominal cramps, headache, muscle aches, or fever) occurred in years that novel strains of norovirus, the most common etiologic agent in cruise ship outbreaks, emerged (3). To determine recent rates of acute gastroenteritis on cruise ships, CDC analyzed combined data for the period 2008-2014 that were submitted by cruise ships sailing in U.S. jurisdiction (defined as passenger vessels carrying ≥13 passengers and within 15 days of arriving in the United States) (4). CDC also reviewed laboratory data to ascertain the causes of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks and examined trends over time. During the study period, the rates of acute gastroenteritis per 100,000 travel days decreased among passengers from 27.2 cases in 2008 to 22.3 in 2014. Rates for crew members remained essentially unchanged (21.3 cases in 2008 and 21.6 in 2014). However, the rate of acute gastroenteritis was significantly higher in 2012 than in 2011 or 2013 for both passengers and crew members, likely related to the emergence of a novel strain of norovirus, GII.4 Sydney (5). During 2008-2014, a total of 133 cruise ship acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported, 95 (71%) of which had specimens available for testing. Among these, 92 (97%) were caused by norovirus, and among 80 norovirus specimens for which a genotype was identified, 59 (73.8%) were GII.4 strains. Cruise ship travelers experiencing diarrhea or vomiting should report to the ship medical center promptly so that symptoms can be assessed, proper treatment provided, and control measures implemented. PMID:26766396

  13. FRV Deleware II cruise, 30 June to 7 July 1978. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, W.; von Bock, K.

    1982-05-01

    This was the last of three companion cruises designed to provide broad-scale coverage of seasonal shelf conditions occurring between the April and October investigations undertaken aboard ATLANTIS II cruises 99 and 104.

  14. Some design considerations for supersonic cruise mixed compression inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowditch, D. N.

    1973-01-01

    A mixed compression inlet designed for supersonic cruise has very demanding requirements for high total pressure recovery and low bleed and cowl drag. However, since the optimum inlet for supersonic cruise performance may have other undesirable characteristics, it is necessary to establish trade-offs between inlet performance and other inlet characteristics. Some of these trade-offs between the amount of internal compression, aerodynamic performance and angle-of-attack tolerance are reviewed. Techniques for analysis of boundary layer control and subsonic diffuser flow are discussed.

  15. Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM): A Cruise Missile Guidance Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Joe P.

    1980-12-01

    The Cruise Missile is guided by an inertial guidance system aided by an updating technique called Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM). Chance-Vought first proposed the terrain correlation technique in the late 1950's. Since that time TERCOM has evolved into a reliable, accurate, all weather, day and night method of position fixing and updating for cruise missiles. A brief history of TERCOM development will be presented giving results where possible. A description of TERCOM and how is works will be discussed. A snapshot of the present TERCOM status and future planned developments will be addressed.

  16. An economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used and the results of an economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle. This vehicle was designed for a maximum range of 4000 n.mi. at a cruise speed of Mach 2.7 and carrying 292 passengers. The economic study includes the estimation of aircraft unit cost, operating cost, and idealized cash flow and discounted cash flow return on investment. In addition, it includes a sensitivity study on the effects of unit cost, manufacturing cost, production quantity, average trip length, fuel cost, load factor, and fare on the aircraft's economic feasibility.

  17. Cassini - Huygens maneuver experience : cruise and arrival at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodson, Troy; Buffington, Brent; Hahn, Yungsun; Strange, Nathan; Wagner, Sean; Wong, Mau

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan was launched in 1997. It is an international effort to study the Saturnian system. Cassini-Huygens' interplanetary cruise delivered the spacecraft to Saturn in 2004. It also made use of many propulsive maneuvers, both statistical and deterministic. Maneuver-related analysis and performance for latter half of cruise is reported. The system has performed more accurately than the pre-launch expectations and requirements. Additionally, some maneuvers have already been skipped, saving propellant and flight team effort. Analysis of historical execution error data is presented.

  18. Performance and benefits of an advanced technology supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The results of four years research on technology are synthesized in an advanced supersonic cruise aircraft design. Comparisons are presented with the former United States SST and the British-French Concorde, including aerodynamic efficiency, propulsion efficiency, weight efficiency, and community noise. Selected trade study results are presented on the subjects of design cruise Mach number, engine cycle selection, and noise suppression. The critical issue of program timing is addressed and some observations made regarding the impact that timing has on engine selection and minimization of program risk.

  19. 33 CFR 165.1157 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Cruise Ships... § 165.1157 Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California. (a) Location. The following areas are... cruise ship located within 3 nautical miles of the Santa Barbara Harbor Breakwater Light (Light...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1157 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Cruise Ships... § 165.1157 Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California. (a) Location. The following areas are... cruise ship located within 3 nautical miles of the Santa Barbara Harbor Breakwater Light (Light...

  1. Application of powered-lift concepts for improved cruise efficiency of long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Fournier, P. G.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies conducted to explore the use of powered lift concepts for improved low speed performance of long range subsonic and supersonic cruise vehicles are summarized. It is indicated that powered lift can provide significant improvements in low speed performance, as well as substantial increases in cruise efficiency and range for both subsonic and supersonic cruise configurations.

  2. 33 CFR 165.1108 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Diego. (c) Regulations. Under regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart D, a person or vessel may not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zones; Cruise Ships... § 165.1108 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship”...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1108 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Diego. (c) Regulations. Under regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart D, a person or vessel may not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zones; Cruise Ships... § 165.1108 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship”...

  4. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and Cruise Missile Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the 1983 controversy over cruise missile testing by the United States over Canadian air space, this article provides the text of an open letter to the people and an interview by Prime Minister Trudeau. Parenthetical comments inserted by the author point out contradiction contained in the two documents. (JDH)

  5. Learning to Work on a Cruise Ship: Accounts from Bali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artini, Luh Putu; Nilan, Pam

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at motivations and both formal and informal learning contexts for well-educated young Balinese from poorer areas who enrol in cruise ship training colleges. The major motivations were getting a high income and helping the family. While basic hospitality and tourism skills are acquired, trainees also named other capacities such…

  6. 16 CFR 309.22 - Determining estimated cruising range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cruising range values for dedicated vehicles required to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 are... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 (other than electric vehicles), you must possess a...

  7. 16 CFR 309.22 - Determining estimated cruising range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cruising range values for dedicated vehicles required to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 are... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 (other than electric vehicles), you must possess a...

  8. 16 CFR 309.22 - Determining estimated cruising range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cruising range values for dedicated vehicles required to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 are... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 (other than electric vehicles), you must possess a...

  9. The NASA research program on propulsion for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives and status of the propulsion portion of a program aimed at advancing the technology and establishing a data base appropriate for the possible future development of supersonic cruise aircraft are reviewed. Research related to exhaust nozzles, combustors, and inlets that is covered by the noise, pollution, and dynamics programs is described.

  10. 6. Photocopy of photograph, c. 18801890. VIEW OF STEAMPOWERED CRUISE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1880-1890. VIEW OF STEAM-POWERED CRUISE BOAT FROM MAPLEWOOD PARK ON CLARK'S MILL POND. (Original in possession of the Erie County Historical Society.) 8'x10' enlargement from 4'x5' negative. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Little French Creek at Bridge Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

  11. 16 CFR 309.22 - Determining estimated cruising range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cruising range values for dedicated vehicles required to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 are... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 (other than electric vehicles), you must possess a...

  12. Yet More Visualized JAMSTEC Cruise and Dive Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, T.; Hase, H.; Fukuda, K.; Saito, H.; Kayo, M.; Matsuda, S.; Azuma, S.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, JAMSTEC performs about a hundred of research cruises and numerous dive surveys using its research vessels and submersibles. JAMSTEC provides data and samples obtained during these cruises and dives to international users through a series of data sites on the Internet. The "DARWIN (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/darwin/e)" data site disseminates cruise and dive information. On DARWIN, users can search interested cruises and dives with a combination search form or an interactive tree menu, and find lists of observation data as well as links to surrounding databases. Document catalog, physical sample databases, and visual archive of dive surveys (e. g. in http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jmedia/portal/e) are directly accessible from the lists. In 2014, DARWIN experienced an update, which was arranged mainly for enabling on-demand data visualization. Using login users' functions, users can put listed data items into the virtual basket and then trim, plot and download the data. The visualization tools help users to quickly grasp the quality and characteristics of observation data. Meanwhile, JAMSTEC launched a new data site named "JDIVES (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jdives/e)" to visualize data and sample information obtained by dive surveys. JDIVES shows tracks of dive surveys on the "Google Earth Plugin" and diagrams of deep-sea environmental data such as temperature, salinity, and depth. Submersible camera images and links to associated databases are placed along the dive tracks. The JDVIES interface enables users to perform so-called virtual dive surveys, which can help users to understand local geometries of dive spots and geological settings of associated data and samples. It is not easy for individual researchers to organize a huge amount of information recovered from each cruise and dive. The improved visibility and accessibility of JAMSTEC databases are advantageous not only for second-hand users, but also for on-board researchers themselves.

  13. Observations of atmospheric methane and its stable isotope ratio (δ13C) over the Arctic seas from ship cruises in the summer and autumn of 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Belikov, Igor; Pankratova, Natalia; Novigatsky, Alexander; Thompson, Rona

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important long-lived greenhouse gas. The Arctic has significant sources of CH4, such as from wetlands and possibly also from methane hydrates, which may act as a positive feedback on the climate system. Despite significant efforts in establishing a network of ground-based CH4 observations in the Arctic zone, there is still a lack of measurements over the Arctic Ocean and sub-polar seas. From 21 July to 9 October 2015, concentrations of CH4 and CO2, as well as of the 13C:12C isotopic ratio in CH4, i.e., δ13C, were measured in the marine boundary layer from aboard the Research Vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" by the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology. Measurements were made using a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instrument from Picarro™ (model G2132-i). The cruises covered a vast area including the North Atlantic up to 70°N, the Baltic, North, Norwegian, Greenland, Barents, White, Kara and Laptev Seas. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first measurements of their type made in these regions. Concentrations of CH4 typically had low variations (in the range of a few ppb) in the open sea but relatively large variations (of the order of 100 ppb) were recorded near and during stops in ports. High variability of atmospheric CH4 was also registered near the delta of the Lena River in the Laptev Sea, which has been suggested to be a large CH4 reservoir and where bubbles rising through the water column have been observed. The obtained set of δ13CCH4 is characterized by significant range of the measured values varying from open Atlantic to polluted regions near large sea ports. The Keeling plot analyses were implemented to study possible CH4 sources according to its isotopic signature. Footprint analyses are presented for the shipboard observations, as well as comparisons to simulated CH4 concentrations and δ13C using the Lagrangian transport model, FLEXPART. This work has been carried-out with the financial support of

  14. Mars Exploration Rover: Launch, Cruise, Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, James K.; Manning, Robert M.; Adler, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Project was an ambitious effort to land two highly capable rovers on Mars and concurrently explore the Martian surface for three months each. Launched in June and July of 2003, cruise operations were conducted through January 4, 2004 with the first landing, followed by the second landing on January 25. The prime mission for the second rover ended on April 27, 2004. This paper will provide an overview of the launch, cruise, and landing phases of the mission, including the engineering and science objectives and challenges involved in the selection and targeting of the landing sites, as well as the excitement and challenges of atmospheric entry, descent and landing execution.

  15. Minimum energy, liquid hydrogen supersonic cruise vehicle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The potential was examined of hydrogen-fueled supersonic vehicles designed for cruise at Mach 2.7 and at Mach 2.2. The aerodynamic, weight, and propulsion characteristics of a previously established design of a LH2 fueled, Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle (SCV) were critically reviewed and updated. The design of a Mach 2.2 SCV was established on a corresponding basis. These baseline designs were then studied to determine the potential of minimizing energy expenditure in performing their design mission, and to explore the effect of fuel price and noise restriction on their design and operating performance. The baseline designs of LH2 fueled aircraft were than compared with equivalent designs of jet A (conventional hydrocarbon) fueled SCV's. Use of liquid hydrogen for fuel for the subject aircraft provides significant advantages in performance, cost, noise, pollution, sonic boom, and energy utilization.

  16. [MORBIDITY OF SUBMARINE CREW SAILORS IN LONG-DISTANCE CRUISES].

    PubMed

    Myznikov, I L; Burtsev, N N; Bondarenko N V; Khamidullina, A Ya

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity among the personnel of a Kola-based (beyond the Arctic circle) atomic (ASM) and diesel-powered (DSM) submarines in the course of long-distance cruises in different waters of the world ocean was studied. Statistics was collected from the reports of submarine medical officers since 1969. Levels and causes of morbidity were analyzed. According to the data of many years' observations, within the structure of primary diseases of military contractors on cruises the leading place has been occupied by respiratory disorders followed by skin and subcutaneous fat problems, and digestive diseases. Incidence of chronic diseases among ASM and DSM personnel was evaluated. The authors raise the issue of dental care quality provided to submariners. PMID:26554134

  17. Environmental effects of an aircraft at cruise: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundararaman, N.

    1980-01-01

    The status of the calculations of ozone change due to high altitude aircraft is critically reviewed and important areas of uncertainty identified. Laboratory determinations of chemical reaction rates and modeling refinements show that the effect of cruise altitude emissions on stratospheric ozone has changed from one of ozone decrease to one of slight increase. It is concluded that the uncertainties in the present understanding of the effects of high altitude aircraft are such as to warrant continued studies.

  18. Overview of NASA's Supersonic Cruise Efficiency - Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The research in Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Propulsion (SCE-P) Technical Challenge area of NASA's Supersonics project is discussed. The research in SCE-P is being performed to enable efficient supersonic flight over land. Research elements in this area include: Advance Inlet Concepts, High Performance/Wider Operability Fan and Compressor, Advanced Nozzle Concepts, and Intelligent Sensors/Actuators. The research under each of these elements is briefly discussed.

  19. An autonomous rendezvous and docking system using cruise missile technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, ED; Nicholson, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 General Dynamics demonstrated an AR&D system for members of the Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group. This simulation utilized prototype hardware derived from the Cruise Missile and Centaur avionics systems. The object of this proof of concept demonstration was to show that all the accuracy, reliability, and operational requirements established for a spacecraft to dock with Space Station Freedom could be met by the proposed AR&D system.

  20. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  1. Texas Teacher at Sea on the BOLIVAR Project Geophysical Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keelan, M.; Sullivan, S.; Ellins, K.

    2004-12-01

    UTIG provides K-12 teachers with research experiences in field programs that involve UTIG scientists. I am a 6th-9th grade science teacher in Van Vleck, Texas and in April 2004 I sailed to the southeastern Caribbean aboard the R/V Maurice Ewing as a member of the BOLIVAR Project alongside scientists from the U.S. and Venezuela. Our goal was collect seismic data to image the crust and mantle beneath the Caribbean as part of a study of the tectonic processes accompanying different stages of the Caribbean arc/South America continental collision process. Throughout the 52-day cruise I worked as a watch stander, interpreted newly collected seismic reflection data, helped deploy the streamer, maintained a cruise blog (a chronological journal weblog documenting personal thoughts about my experience), spoke with students in Texas with the telephone on loan from Iridium Satellite Solutions, and responded to email inquiries from shore-based students. It was hard work, but most importantly, a voyage of discovery. With guidance from scientists and GK-12 Fellows at UTIG, I am using my experience and the data collected as the basis for K-12 curriculum resources, including learning activities and a video documentary. Support for my participation and post-cruise activities was provided by the NSF and the Trull Foundation in Texas. If given the opportunity to do this again, I would, without reservation!

  2. Federated provenance of oceanographic research cruises: from metadata to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rob; Leadbetter, Adam; Shepherd, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The World Wide Web Consortium's Provenance Data Model and associated Semantic Web ontology (PROV-O) have created much interest in the Earth and Space Science Informatics community (Ma et al., 2014). Indeed, PROV-O has recently been posited as an upper ontology for the alignment of various data models (Cox, 2015). Similarly, PROV-O has been used as the building blocks of a data release lifecycle ontology (Leadbetter & Buck, 2015). In this presentation we show that the alignment between different local data descriptions of an oceanographic research cruise can be achieved through alignment with PROV-O and that descriptions of the funding bodies, organisations and researchers involved in a cruise and its associated data release lifecycle can be modelled within a PROV-O based environment. We show that, at a first-order, this approach is scalable by presenting results from three endpoints (the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA; the British Oceanographic Data Centre at the National Oceanography Centre, UK; and the Marine Institute, Ireland). Current advances in ontology engineering, provide pathways to resolving reasoning issues from varying perspectives on implementing PROV-O. This includes the use of the Information Object design pattern where such edge cases as research cruise scheduling efforts are considered. PROV-O describes only things which have happened, but the Information Object design pattern allows for the description of planned research cruises through its statement that the local data description is not the the entity itself (in this case the planned research cruise) and therefore the local data description itself can be described using the PROV-O model. In particular, we present the use of the data lifecycle ontology to show the connection between research cruise activities and their associated datasets, and the publication of those data sets online with Digital Object Identifiers and

  3. Flying qualities design criteria applicable to supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalk, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive set of flying qualities design criteria was prepared for use in the supersonic cruise research program. The framework for stating the design criteria is established and design criteria are included which address specific failures, approach to dangerous flight conditions, flight at high angle of attack, longitudinal and lateral directional stability and control, the primary flight control system, and secondary flight controls. Examples are given of lateral directional design criteria limiting lateral accelerations at the cockpit, time to roll through 30 deg of bank, and time delay in the pilot's command path. Flight test data from the Concorde certification program are used to substantiate a number of the proposed design criteria.

  4. Maneuver Design for the Juno Mission: Inner Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlak, Thomas A.; Frauenholz, Raymond B.; Bordi, John J.; Kangas, Julie A.; Helfrich, Clifford E.

    2014-01-01

    The Juno spacecraft launched in August 2011 and, following a successful Earth flyby in October 2013, is on course for a nominal orbit insertion at Jupiter in July 2016. This paper examines the design and execution of deterministic and statistical trajectory correction maneuvers during the first approximately 27 months of post-launch operations that defined the "Inner Cruise" phase of the Juno mission. Topics of emphasis include the two deep space maneuvers, Earth flyby altitude biasing strategy, and the sequence of trajectory correction maneuvers executed in the weeks prior to the successful Earth gravity assist.

  5. [Medicine aboard cruise ships--law insurance specifics].

    PubMed

    Ottomann, C; Frenzel, R; Muehlberger, T

    2013-04-01

    The booming cruise industry, associated with ships with more passengers and crew on board, results in growing medical needs for the ship doctor. The ship's doctor insurance policy includes different jurisdictions, namely national law, international law, tort law, insurance law and labor law. In addition, international agreements must be taken into account, which complicates the design of an adequate insurance policy. Equally high are the costs and defense costs for the ship's doctor in case of liability. In order to limit the liability for all parties is to ask for appropriately qualified medical staff, hired on board. PMID:23589048

  6. Cruise aerodynamics of USB nacelle/wing geometric variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braden, J. A.; Hancock, J. P.; Burdges, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on aerodynamic effects of geometric variations in upper surface blown nacelle configurations at high speed cruise conditions. Test data include both force and pressure measurements on two and three dimensional models powered by upper surface blowing nacelles of varying geometries. Experimental results are provided on variations in nozzle aspect ratio, nozzle boattail angle, and multiple nacelle installations. The nacelles are ranked according to aerodynamic drag penalties as well as overall installed drag penalties. Sample effects and correlations are shown for data obtained with the pressure model.

  7. A systematic computation scheme of PAR-WIG cruising performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shigenori

    1993-08-01

    A systematic computation scheme is presented for PAR-WIG cruising performance, on a FORTRAN program. It is suitable for implementation on PCs. Effects of many parameters on the transportation efficiency are explored. Two concepts are presented in three views and artist impressions. One is a smallest single-crewman vehicle for experiment, sports, or pleasure. The other is a large vehicle for civil transportation. Both have twin hulls, which are quite suitable for installing a 'SMALL-TAIL-WIG' or 'WIG-let' to establish longitudinal attitude stability.

  8. Airframe-integrated propulsion system for hypersonic cruise vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Huber, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Research on a new, hydrogen burning, airbreathing engine concept which offers good potential for efficient hypersonic cruise vehicles is considered. Features of the engine which lead to good performance include; extensive engine-airframe integration, fixed geometry, low cooling, and the control of heat release in the supersonic combustor by mixed-modes of fuel injection from the combustor entrance. The engine concept is described along with results from inlet tests, direct-connect combustor tests, and tests of two subscale boiler-plate research engines presently underway at conditions which simulate flight at Mach 4 and 7.

  9. Variability of cloudiness at airline cruise altitudes from GASP measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastrom, G. D.; Davis, R. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Additional statistics relating to the climatology of cloud cover at airline cruise altitudes are presented. The data were obtained between 1975 and 1979 from commercial airliners participating in the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). The statistics describe the seasonal, latitudinal and altitudinal variation in cloudiness parameters as well as differences in the high-altitude cloud structure attributed to cyclone and convective-cloud generation processes. The latitudinal distribution of cloud cover derived form the GASP data was found to agree with high-altitude satellite observations. The relationships between three different measures of cloudiness and the relative vorticity at high altitudes is also discussed.

  10. Supersonic through-flow fan engines for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    Engine performance, weight and mission studies were carried out for supersonic through flow fan engine concepts. The mission used was a Mach 2.32 cruise mission. The advantages of supersonic through flow fan engines were evaluated in terms of mission range comparisons between the supersonic through flow fan engines and a more conventional turbofan engine. The specific fuel consumption of the supersonic through flow fan engines was 12 percent lower than the more conventional turbofan. The aircraft mission range was increased by 20 percent with the supersonic fan engines compared to the conventional turbofan.

  11. Design feasibility of an advanced technology supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    Research and development programs provide confidence that technology is in-hand to design an economically attractive, environmentally sound supersonic cruise aircraft for commercial operations. The principal results of studies and tests are described including those which define the selection of significant design features. These typically include the results of: (1) wind-tunnel tests, both subsonic and supersonic, (2) propulsion performance and acoustic tests on noise suppressors, including forward-flight effects, (3) studies of engine/airframe integration, which lead to the selection of engine cycles/sizes to meet future market, economic, and social requirements; and (4) structural testing.

  12. Engine/airframe compatibility studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology assessment studies were conducted to provide an updated technology base from which an advanced supersonic cruise aircraft can be produced with a high probability of success. An assessment of the gains available through the application of advanced technologies in aerodynamics, propulsion, acoustics, structures, materials, and active controls is developed. The potential market and range requirements as well as economic factors including payload, speed, airline operating costs, and airline profitability are analyzed. The conceptual design of the baseline aircraft to be used in assessing the technology requirements is described.

  13. NASA/Navy life/cruise fan preliminary design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary design studies were performed to define a turbotip lift/cruise fan propulsion system for a Navy multimission aircraft. The fan is driven by the exhausts of the YJ97-GE-100 turbojet or a 20 percent Growth J97 configuration as defined during the studies. The LCF459 fan configuration defined has a tip diameter of 1.50 meters (59.0 inches) and develops a design point thrust of 75,130 N (16,890 lbs) at a fan pressure ratio of 1.319. The fan has an estimated weight of 386 kg (850 lbs). Trade studies performed to define the selected configuration are described.

  14. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  15. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  16. 76 FR 5732 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, CA; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... FR 4833), regarding security zones for cruise ships in the Port of San Diego, California. This..., telephone 202-366-9826. Correction In the notice of proposed rulemaking FR Doc. 2011-1804, beginning on page... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego,...

  17. 76 FR 50710 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA AGENCY... CFR 165.1154, Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California, by providing a...

  18. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  19. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  20. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  1. 76 FR 30374 - Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), or you may visit http://dms.dot.gov . Basis and Purpose On July... SECURITY Coast Guard Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology AGENCY: Coast... public comment on the availability of technology to meet certain provisions of the Cruise Vessel...

  2. NASA/Navy lift/cruise fan. Phase 1: Design summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The initial design of the LCF459 lift/cruise fan system is documented. The LCF459 is a 1.5 meter diameter turbotip lift/cruise fan whose design point pressure ratio is 1.32 at a tip speed of 353 meters per second. The gas source for the tip turbine is the YJ97-GE-100 engine.

  3. 77 FR 1025 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... zones to encompass only navigable waters within a 100-yard radius around any cruise ship that is located... Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA in the Federal Register (76 FR 50710). We received no comments on the proposed..., within a 100 yard radius around any cruise ship that is within the San Pedro Bay port area inside the...

  4. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program from 1980 to 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1984-01-01

    A bibliography for the Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) and Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) Programs is presented. An annotated bibliography for the last 123 formal reports and a listing of titles for 44 articles and presentations is included. The studies identifies technologies for producing efficient supersonic commercial jet transports for cruise Mach numbers from 2.0 to 2.7.

  5. Development and analysis of a STOL supersonic cruise fighter concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.; Foss, W. E., Jr.; Morris, S. J., Jr.; Walkley, K. B.; Swanson, E. E.; Robins, A. W.

    1984-01-01

    The application of advanced and emerging technologies to a fighter aircraft concept is described. The twin-boom fighter (TBF-1) relies on a two dimensional vectoring/reversing nozzle to provide STOL performance while also achieving efficient long range supersonic cruise. A key feature is that the propulsion package is placed so that the nozzle hinge line is near the aircraft center-of-gravity to allow large vector angles and, thus, provide large values of direct lift while minimizing the moments to be trimmed. The configurations name is derived from the long twin booms extending aft of the engine to the twin vertical tails which have a single horizontal tail mounted atop and between them. Technologies utilized were an advanced engine (1985 state-of-the-art), superplastic formed/diffusion bonded titanium structure, advanced controls/avionics/displays, supersonic wing design, and conformal weapons carriage. The integration of advanced technologies into this concept indicate that large gains in takeoff and landing performance, maneuver, acceleration, supersonic cruise speed, and range can be acieved relative to current fighter concepts.

  6. Hydrographic data from R/V endeavor cruise #90

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalcup, M. D.; Joyce, T. M.; Barbour, R. L.; Dunworth, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The final cruise of the NSF sponsored Warm Core Rings Program studied a Warm Core Ring (WCR) in the Fall of 1982 as it formed from a large northward meander of the Gulf Stream. This ring, known as 82-H or the eighth ring identified in 1982, formed over the New England Seamounts near 39.5 deg N, 65 deg W. Surveys using Expendable Bathythermographs, Conductivity-Temperature-Depth-Oxygen stations and Doppler Current Profiling provide a look at the genesis of a WCR. These measurements reveal that WCR 82-H separated from the Gulf Stream sometime between October 2-5. This ring was a typical WCR with a diameter of about 200 km and speeds in the high velocity core of the 175 cm/sec. Satellite imagery of 82-H following the cruise showed that it drifted WSW in the Slope Water region at almost 9 km/day, had at least one interaction with the Gulf Stream and was last observed on February 8, 1983 at 39 deg N, 72 deg W.

  7. Computer aided design and manufacturing of composite propfan blades for a cruise missile wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.; Downey, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the propulsion concepts being investigated for future cruise missiles is advanced unducted propfans. To support the evaluation of this technology applied to the cruise missile, a joint DOD and NASA test project was conducted to design and then test the characteristics of the propfans on a 0.55-scale, cruise missile model in a NASA wind tunnel. The configuration selected for study is a counterrotating rearward swept propfan. The forward blade row, having six blades, rotates in a counterclockwise direction, and the aft blade row, having six blades, rotates in a clockwise direction, as viewed from aft of the test model. Figures show the overall cruise missile and propfan blade configurations. The objective of this test was to evaluate propfan performance and suitability as a viable propulsion option for next generation of cruise missiles. This paper details the concurrent computer aided design, engineering, and manufacturing of the carbon fiber/epoxy propfan blades as the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  8. Advanced missile technology. A review of technology improvement areas for cruise missiles. [including missile design, missile configurations, and aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronvich, L. L.; Liepman, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    Technology assessments in the areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures and materials for cruise missile systems are discussed. The cruise missiles considered cover the full speed, altitude, and target range. The penetrativity, range, and maneuverability of the cruise missiles are examined and evaluated for performance improvements.

  9. Acoustic doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data from the R/V T.G. THOMPSON is part of the core data for the US JGOFS Arabian Sea project along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises on the THOMPSON are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996. The first of these cruises, a transit of the R/V THOMPSON into the northern Arabian Sea area from Singapore, was a calibration and training cruise that took place between September 18 and October 7, 1994. (The cruises on the THOMPSON are numbered consecutively from the ship`s commissioning with the first JOGFS cruise designated TN039.) The remaining cruises have been and will be staged from Muscat, Oman. Seven of these cruises, referred to as process cruises, will follow a set cruise track, making hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The remainder of the cruises while not restricted to the set cruise track, will generally stay within the region defined by the track during the deployment and retrieval of moored equipment and the towing of a SeaSoar. Each cruise will last between two weeks and one month. ADCP data will be collected on all the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises using an autonomous data acquisition system developed for ship-of-opportunity cruises. This system, referred to as the AutoADCP, makes it possible to collect the ADCP data without the constant monitoring usually necessary and assures constant data coverage and uniform data quality. The AutoADCP system is an extension of RD Instrument`s DAS version 2.48 using enhancements made possible with ``user exit`` programs. This data report presents ADCP results from the first four JGOFS cruises, TN039 through TN042, concentrating on the data collection and processing methods.

  10. Active Tailoring of Lift Distribution to Enhance Cruise Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Pfeiffer, Neal J.; Christians, Joel G.

    2005-01-01

    During Phase I of this project, Raytheon Aircraft Company (RAC) has analytically and experimentally evaluated key components of a system that could be implemented for active tailoring of wing lift distribution using low-drag, trailing-edge modifications. Simple systems such as those studied by RAC could be used to enhance the cruise performance of a business jet configuration over a range of typical flight conditions. The trailing-edge modifications focus on simple, deployable mechanisms comprised of extendable small flap panels over portions of the span that could be used to subtly but positively optimize the lift and drag characteristics. The report includes results from low speed wind tunnel testing of the trailing-edge devices, descriptions of potential mechanisms for automation, and an assessment of the technology.

  11. Art concept of Magellan spacecraft in cruise configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Magellan spacecraft cruise configuration is illustrated in this artist concept. With solar panels deployed and having jettisoned the inertial upper stage (IUS), Magellan approaches the sun which it will orbit approximately 1.6 times before encountering Venus. Magellan, named after the 16th century Portuguese explorer, will orbit Venus about once every three hours, acquiring radar data for 37 minutes of each orbit when it is closest to the surface. Using an advanced instrument called a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), it will map more than 90 per cent of the surface with resolution ten times better than the best from prior spacecraft. Magellan is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); Martin Marietta Aerospace is developing the spacecraft and Hughes Aircraft Company, the advanced imaging radar. Magellan will be deployed from payload bay (PLB) of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during the STS-30 mission.

  12. Tilt-rotor flutter control in cruise flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nasu, Ken-Ichi

    1986-01-01

    Tilt-rotor flutter control under cruising operation is analyzed. The rotor model consists of a straight fixed wing, a pylon attached to the wingtip, and a three-blade rotor. The wing is cantilevered to the fuselage and is allowed to bend forward and upward. It also has a torsional degree of freedom about the elastic axis. Each rotor blade has two bending degrees of freedom. Feedback of wingtip velocity and acceleration to cyclic pitch is investigated for flutter control, using strip theory and linearized equations of motion. To determine the feedback gain, an eigenvalue analysis is performed. A second, independent, timewise calculation is conducted to evaluate the control law while employing more sophisticated aerodynamics. The effectiveness of flutter control by cyclic pitch change was confirmed.

  13. Status of noise technology for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

    1980-01-01

    Developments in acoustic technology applicable to advanced supersonic cruise aircraft, particularly those which relate to jet noise and its suppression are reviewed. The noise reducing potential of high radius ratio, inverted velocity profile coannular jets is demonstrated by model scale results from a wide range of nozzle geometries, including some simulated flight cases. These results were verified statistically at large scale on a variable cycle engine (VCE) testbed. A preliminary assessment of potential VCE noise sources such as fan and core noise is made, based on the testbed data. Recent advances in the understanding of flight effects are reviewed. The status of component noise prediction methods is assessed on the basis of recent test data, and the remaining problem areas are outlined.

  14. Status of noise technology for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

    1980-03-01

    Developments in acoustic technology applicable to advanced supersonic cruise aircraft, particularly those which relate to jet noise and its suppression are reviewed. The noise reducing potential of high radius ratio, inverted velocity profile coannular jets is demonstrated by model scale results from a wide range of nozzle geometries, including some simulated flight cases. These results were verified statistically at large scale on a variable cycle engine (VCE) testbed. A preliminary assessment of potential VCE noise sources such as fan and core noise is made, based on the testbed data. Recent advances in the understanding of flight effects are reviewed. The status of component noise prediction methods is assessed on the basis of recent test data, and the remaining problem areas are outlined.

  15. First-Order Altitude Effects on the Cruise Efficiency of Subsonic Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft fuel efficiency is a function of many different parameters, including characteristics of the engines, characteristics of the airframe, and the conditions under which the aircraft is operated. For a given vehicle, the airframe and engine characteristics are for the most part fixed quantities and efficiency is primarily a function of operational conditions. One important influence on cruise efficiency is cruise altitude. Various future scenarios have been postulated for cruise altitude, from the freedom to fly at optimum altitudes to altitude restrictions imposed for environmental reasons. This report provides background on the fundamental relationships determining aircraft cruise efficiency and examines the sensitivity of efficiency to cruise altitude. Analytical models of two current aircraft designs are used to derive quantitative results. Efficiency penalties are found to be generally less than 1% when within roughly 2000 ft of the optimum cruise altitude. Even the restrictive scenario of constant altitude cruise is found to result in a modest fuel consumption penalty if the fixed altitude is in an appropriate range.

  16. Diatom community structure on in-service cruise ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Hunsucker, Kelli Zargiel; Koka, Abhishek; Lund, Geir; Swain, Geoffrey

    2014-10-01

    Diatoms are an important component of marine biofilms found on ship hulls. However, there are only a few published studies that describe the presence and abundance of diatoms on ships, and none that relate to modern ship hull coatings. This study investigated the diatom community structure on two in-service cruise ships with the same cruise cycles, one coated with an antifouling (AF) system (copper self-polishing copolymer) and the other coated with a silicone fouling-release (FR) system. Biofilm samples were collected during dry docking from representative areas of the ship and these provided information on the horizontal and vertical zonation of the hull, and intact and damaged coating and niche areas. Diatoms from the genera Achnanthes, Amphora and Navicula were the most common, regardless of horizontal ship zonation and coating type. Other genera were abundant, but their presence was more dependent on the ship zonation and coating type. Samples collected from damaged areas of the hull coating had a similar community composition to undamaged areas, but with higher diatom abundance. Diatom fouling on the niche areas differed from that of the surrounding ship hull and paralleled previous studies that investigated differences in diatom community structure on static and dynamically exposed coatings; niche areas were similar to static immersion and the hull to dynamic immersion. Additionally, diatom richness was greater on the ship with the FR coating, including the identification of several new genera to the biofouling literature, viz. Lampriscus and Thalassiophysa. These results are the first to describe diatom community composition on in-service ship hulls coated with a FR system. This class of coatings appears to have a larger diatom community compared to copper-based AF systems, with new diatom genera that have the ability to stick to ship hulls and withstand hydrodynamic forces, thus creating the potential for new problematic species in the biofilm. PMID

  17. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Yan

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data is part of the core data for the U.S. JGOFS Arabian Sea project, along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996 on the R/V T.G. Thompson. They are numbered consecutively from the ship`s commissioning with the first JGOFS cruise designated TN039. Table 1 lists start and end dates of each cruise with its mission. All but the first cruise have been or will be staged from Muscat, Oman. Each cruise is scheduled for a duration of between two weeks and one month. Seven of the cruises, referred to as process cruises, follow a standard cruise track, taking hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The rest of the cruises, which take place generally within the standard cruise region defined by a set track, are for the deployment and recovery of moored equipments and towing of a SeaSoar. ADCP data are collected using an autonomous data acquisition system developed for ship-of-opportunity cruises, named the AutoADCP system. The system is an extension of RD instrument`s DAS version 2.48 using enhancements made possible with {open_quotes}user-exit{close_quotes} programs. It makes it possible to collect ADCP data without the constant monitoring usually necessary and insures constant data coverage and uniform data quality.

  18. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.S.; Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Y.

    1996-12-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data is part of the core data for the US JGOFS Arabian Sea project, along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996 on the R/V T.G. Thompson. Seven of the cruises follow a standard cruise track, taking hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The rest of the cruises, which take place generally within the standard cruise region defined by a set track, are for the deployment and recovery of moored equipment and towing of a SeaSoar. Detailed description of ADCP hardware, the AutoADCP data acquisition system, and the collection of navigation and compass data on the Thompson is documented in Section 2. Followed by data collection for each cruise together with a cruise track, Section 3 presents the processing and analysis of velocity and acoustic backscatter intensity data. Section 5 shows results of profile quality diagnosis.

  19. Analysis of various descent trajectories for a hypersonic-cruise, cold-wall research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    The probable descent operating conditions for a hypersonic air-breathing research airplane were examined. Descents selected were cruise angle of attack, high dynamic pressure, high lift coefficient, turns, and descents with drag brakes. The descents were parametrically exercised and compared from the standpoint of cold-wall (367 K) aircraft heat load. The descent parameters compared were total heat load, peak heating rate, time to landing, time to end of heat pulse, and range. Trends in total heat load as a function of cruise Mach number, cruise dynamic pressure, angle-of-attack limitation, pull-up g-load, heading angle, and drag-brake size are presented.

  20. Fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, R.C.H.

    1982-01-01

    The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its simplicity and low volume data storage requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  1. Cruise report, RV ocean alert cruise A1-98-HW; January 30 through February 23, 1998, Honolulu to Honolulu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of cruise A1-98 was to map portions of the insular slopes of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii and to survey in detail US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ocean dumping sites using a Simrad EM300 high-resolution multibeam mapping system. The cruise was a jointly funded project between the US Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE), USEPA, and the US Geological Survey (USGS). The USACOE and EPA are interested in these areas because of a series of ocean dump sites off Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii (Fig. 1) that require high-resolution base maps for site monitoring purposes. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has several on-going projects off Oahu and Maui that lack high-precision base maps for a variety of ongoing geological studies. The cruise was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement between the USGS and the Ocean Mapping Group, University of New Brunswick, Canada.

  2. Atmospheric chemistry measurements from the 1992 ASTEX/MAGE Cruise, May 30, 1992 through July 21, 1992, Cruise Number 91-126. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Carsey, T.P.; Farmer, M.L.; Fischer, C.J.; Mendez, A.; Pszenny, A.A.

    1994-10-01

    The report describes the results of the 1992 ASTEX/MAGE cruise aboard the NOAA R/V MALCOLM BALDRIGE. The cruise was designed to support research sponsored by the NOAA Climate and Global Change Program under: (1) the Marine Sulfur and Climate (MS&C) component of the Atmosphere and Land-Surface Processes Core Project, and (2) the Radiatively Important Trace Species (RITS) component of the Atmospheric Chemistry Core Project. Chemical and meteorological measurements obtained on the cruise include reduced sulfur gases, ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and peroxyacetyl nitrate, rawinsondes, aerosol chemistry, microwave radiometry, vertical wind profiles, heat and water momentum flux, non-methane hydrocarbons, trace metals, aerosol size distributions, aerosol physical properties, and surface water chlorophyll. The report contains a brief description of the experimental apparatus and procedures employed, plus graphic and tabular presentations of the data sets, for most of the data from AOML/OCD investigators.

  3. A feasibility study of heat-pipe-cooled leading edges for hypersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    A theoretical study of the use of heat pipe structures for cooling the leading edges of hypersonic cruise aircraft was carried out over a Mach number range of 6 to 12. Preliminary design studies showed that a heat pipe cooling structure with a 33-in. chordwise length could maintain the maximum temperature of a 65 deg sweepback wing with a 0.5-in. leading edge radius below 1600 F during cruise at Mach 8. A few relatively minor changes in the steady-state design of the structure were found necessary to insure satisfactory cooling during the climb to cruise speed and altitude. It was concluded that heat pipe cooling is an attractive, feasible technique for limiting leading edge temperatures of hypersonic cruise aircraft.

  4. Lesbians and Gay Men's Vacation Motivations, Perceptions, and Constraints: A Study of Cruise Vacation Choice.

    PubMed

    Weeden, Clare; Lester, Jo-Anne; Jarvis, Nigel

    2016-08-01

    This study explores the push-pull vacation motivations of gay male and lesbian consumers and examines how these underpin their perceptions and purchase constraints of a mainstream and LGBT(1) cruise. Findings highlight a complex vacation market. Although lesbians and gay men share many of the same travel motivations as their heterosexual counterparts, the study reveals sexuality is a significant variable in their perception of cruise vacations, which further influences purchase constraints and destination choice. Gay men have more favorable perceptions than lesbians of both mainstream and LGBT cruises. The article recommends further inquiry into the multifaceted nature of motivations, perception, and constraints within the LGBT market in relation to cruise vacations. PMID:26983585

  5. R2R Eventlogger: Community-wide Recording of Oceanographic Cruise Science Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Stolp, L.; Lerner, S.; Avery, J.; Thiel, T.

    2012-12-01

    Methods used by researchers to track science events during a science research cruise - and to note when and where these occur - varies widely. Handwritten notebooks, printed forms, watch-keeper logbooks, data-logging software, and customized software have all been employed. The quality of scientific results is affected by the consistency and care with which such events are recorded and integration of multi-cruise results is hampered because recording methods vary widely from cruise to cruise. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has developed an Eventlogger system that will eventually be deployed on most vessels in the academic research fleet. It is based on the open software package called ELOG (http://midas.psi.ch/elog/) originally authored by Stefan Ritt and enhanced by our team. Lessons have been learned in its development and use on several research cruises. We have worked hard to find approaches that encourage cruise participants to use tools like the eventlogger. We examine these lessons and several eventlogger datasets from past cruises. We further describe how the R2R Science Eventlogger works in concert with the other R2R program elements to help coordinate research vessels into a coordinated mobile observing fleet. Making use of data collected on different research cruises is enabled by adopting common ways of describing science events, the science instruments employed, the data collected, etc. The use of controlled vocabularies and the practice of mapping these local vocabularies to accepted oceanographic community vocabularies helps to bind shipboard research events from different cruises into a more cohesive set of fleet-wide events that can be queried and examined in a cross-cruise manner. Examples of the use of the eventlogger during multi-cruise oceanographic research programs along with examples of resultant eventlogger data will be presented. Additionally we will highlight the importance of vocabulary use strategies to the success of the

  6. [Analysis of logistical and organizational aspects of a cruise for patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency. The RESpIRA Expedition and the COPD Cruise].

    PubMed

    Díaz Lobato, S; Mayoralas Alises, S; Gómez Mendieta, M A; Sanz Baena, S; Martín Sánchez, R; Díaz-Agero, P

    2003-06-01

    Patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency who are receiving domiciliary oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation report great difficulty in taking complex trips involving several destinations and prolonged stays away from home. Such patients share a common need for home equipment whose technology is relatively sophisticated, a condition that limits their freedom of movement. We are referring to systems for delivering oxygen therapy and mechanical respirators. Given that such patients have problems traveling by air, we hypothesized that a cruise would be an ideal alternative, given that travel would take place in the hotel itself. A cruise would facilitate the logistics of the journey, given that the equipment would have to be set up at only one setting. Working with these assumptions, we have thus far organized two cruises for chronic respiratory insufficiency patients: the "RESpIRA Expedition" and the "COPD Cruise". Our experience shows that the organizational problems to be coped with are patient recruitment, financing and choice of itinerary. With those aspects clear, organizers must then obtain the authorization of the cruise operator, including the approval of the medical and safety personnel on board. After obtaining permission for the cruise and as soon as the organizers know how many patients will travel, a list of oxygen therapy equipment (respirators and disposable supplies) must be compiled. Finally, equipment suppliers must be found. Afterwards, all that remains is to enjoy the trip. The participation of physicians responsible for domiciliary oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation programs is essential for making patients feel safe and for assuring solutions for technical and medical problems that might arise. PMID:12797943

  7. Cruise Report for G1-03-GM, USGS Gas Hydrates Cruise, R/V Gyre, 1-14 May 2003, Northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2004-01-01

    This report gives a summary of the field program and instrumentation used on the R/V Gyre in the Gulf of Mexico in May, 2003, to collect multichannel seismic data in support of USGS and Department of Energy gas hydrate studies. Tabulated statistics, metadata, figures and maps are included to show the breadth of data collected and preliminary interpretations made during the field program. Geophysical data collected during this cruise will be released in a separate report. At the start of the cruise, three test lines were run to compare different source configurations in order to optimize data quality for the objectives of the cruise. The source chosen was the 13/13 in3 Generator-Injector (GI) Gun. Following these tests, a total of 101 lines (approximately 1033 km) of 24-channel high-resolution seismic reflection data were collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico. 59 lines (about 600 km) were collected in and around lease block Keathley Canyon 195. An additional 4 lines (85 km) provided a seismic tie between the Keathley Canyon data and USGS multichannel data collected in 1999. About 253 km of data were collected along 35 short lines in and around lease block Atwater Valley 14 on the floor of the Mississippi Canyon. Three lines (53 km) completed the cruise and provided a seismic tie to USGS multichannel data collected in 1998. Two on-board trained marine-mammal observers fulfilled the requirements determined by NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service to avoid incidental harassment of marine mammals as established in the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). A total of three species of dolphins were observed during the cruise and one basking shark. No sperm whales were sighted. During the cruise, seismic operations were not delayed or terminated because of marine mammal activity.

  8. Air-breathing hypersonic cruise - Prospects for Mach 4-7 waverider aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.

    1992-01-01

    In the Mach 4-7 range, waverider aircraft are considered as candidates for both short- and long-range cruise missions, as hypersonic missiles, and as high L/D highly maneuverable craft. The potential for near- and far-term application of airbreathing engines to the waverider vehicle missions and concepts is presented. Attention is focused on the cruise mission and attempts are made to compare and contrast it with the accelerator mission.

  9. Ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships: Recruiter's comments on the German-Norwegian debate.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This contribution is intended to fertilise the current discussion of ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships. Therefore 10 points are added to the debate containing different considerations focussing on the recommendations of the German Society of Maritime Medicine, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP's) Health Care Guidelines for Cruise Ship Medical Facilities and the different skills a ship's doctor should have from the perspective of the recruiter. PMID:26394316

  10. Study on a human guidance method for autonomous cruise of indoor robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bao-Zhi; Zhu, Ming

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes a method of human guidance for autonomous cruise of indoor robot. A low-cost robot follows a person in a room and notes the path for autonomous cruise using its monocular vision. A method of video-based object detection and tracking is taken to detect the target by the video received from the robot's camera. The validity of the human guidance method is proved by the experiment.

  11. Shelf Edge Exchange Processes, II: SEEP2-08, R/V ENDEAVOR cruise 188

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Behrens, W.J.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1989-12-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. Phase I of SEEP consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984 (Behrens and Flagg, 1986). Phase II focused specifically on the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic bight off the Delmarva Peninsula. This project consisted of a series of ten cruises, a mooring array, and a series of over-flights by NASA aircraft. Hydrographic data were collected on eight of the cruises, six of which were primarily mooring deployment or recovery cruises. The cruises were consecutively designated SEEP2-01 to SEEP2-10. Two cruises (SEEP2-04 and SEEP2-07) were dedicated to investigating benthic processes and hydrographic data were not collected.

  12. Laser rangefinders for autonomous intelligent cruise control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journet, Bernard A.; Bazin, Gaelle

    1998-01-01

    THe purpose of this paper is to show to what kind of application laser range-finders can be used inside Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control systems. Even if laser systems present good performances the safety and technical considerations are very restrictive. As the system is used in the outside, the emitted average output power must respect the rather low level of 1A class. Obstacle detection or collision avoidance require a 200 meters range. Moreover bad weather conditions, like rain or fog, ar disastrous. We have conducted measurements on laser rangefinder using different targets and at different distances. We can infer that except for cooperative targets low power laser rangefinder are not powerful enough for long distance measurement. Radars, like 77 GHz systems, are better adapted to such cases. But in case of short distances measurement, range around 10 meters, with a minimum distance around twenty centimeters, laser rangefinders are really useful with good resolution and rather low cost. Applications can have the following of white lines on the road, the target being easily cooperative, detection of vehicles in the vicinity, that means car convoy traffic control or parking assistance, the target surface being indifferent at short distances.

  13. Using Research Cruise Data to Improve Group Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    Group activities can be used to create an interactive classroom learning environment. POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) is a pedagogical approach that uses group activities to teach content and process skills. In these group activities an initial model and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to new content. These activities have primarily been developed for chemistry courses, using general information in the model. New activities have been developed for an environmental chemistry course using real-world data as the model. The data used for one of these activities were collected during a research cruise in the Pacific Ocean. Halocarbons were measured in surface seawater and the overlying atmosphere as part of a research study on the natural cycling of compounds involved in ozone depletion. The coupled air and water measurements are used to help students learn about the solubility of gases in water. Students are first given a graph of atmospheric mixing ratios as a function of latitude for several halocarbons and then asked to predict what the corresponding graph of seawater concentrations will look like. The students are then guided through the interpretation of the seawater concentration graph. Plotting the data as a function of latitude enables the discussion of the temperature dependence of the solubility. This activity will be presented as an example of how research data can be incorporated into a classroom module. The effectiveness of this approach will be discussed.

  14. Strategy alternatives for homeland air and cruise missile defense.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eric M; Payne, Michael D; Vanderwoude, Glenn W

    2010-10-01

    Air and cruise missile defense of the U.S. homeland is characterized by a requirement to protect a large number of critical assets nonuniformly dispersed over a vast area with relatively few defensive systems. In this article, we explore strategy alternatives to make the best use of existing defense resources and suggest this approach as a means of reducing risk while mitigating the cost of developing and acquiring new systems. We frame the issue as an attacker-defender problem with simultaneous moves. First, we outline and examine the relatively simple problem of defending comparatively few locations with two surveillance systems. Second, we present our analysis and findings for a more realistic scenario that includes a representative list of U.S. critical assets. Third, we investigate sensitivity to defensive strategic choices in the more realistic scenario. As part of this investigation, we describe two complementary computational methods that, under certain circumstances, allow one to reduce large computational problems to a more manageable size. Finally, we demonstrate that strategic choices can be an important supplement to material solutions and can, in some cases, be a more cost-effective alternative. PMID:20626693

  15. Research combines with public outreach on a cruise ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Prager, Ellen; Wilson, Doug

    An innovative partnership among academia, government, and private industry has created a unique opportunity for oceanographic and meteorological research on a cruise ship. The University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Royal Caribbean International, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Office of Naval Research have collaborated to establish two modern laboratories for oceanic and atmospheric research on the 142,000-ton Royal Caribbean ship Explorer of the Seas.The Explorer of the Seas combines extensive research capabilities with public outreach. Hundreds of passengers experience the planet's atmosphere-ocean systems through laboratory tours and presentations given by experienced guest scientists and graduate students. In addition to weekly public lectures, guided tours of the ocean and atmospheric laboratories are available, and ocean-related films are shown during selected afternoons. Two interactive eco-learning areas onboard are equipped with a series of interactive displays and large informational touch screens that illustrate marine and atmospheric concepts as well as the onboard research program.

  16. CO2 fluxes in the Tropical Atlantic during FOCAL cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrié, Chantal; Oudot, Claude; Genthon, Christophe; Merlivat, Liliane

    1986-10-01

    CO2 partial pressures in the atmosphere and in surface seawater have been measured in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean during Programme Français Océan-Climat en Atlantique Equatorial cruises extending from July 1982 to August 1984 along the 4°W, 22°W, and 35°W meridians. Gas transfer coefficients based on recently reported field data combined with information deduced from wind tunnel experiments are used to compute the CO2 fluxes. The global mean net flux between 5°N and 5°S is equal to 1.05 mmol m-2 d-1 and is from the ocean to the atmosphere. The escape of CO2 increases strongly from the east to the west and is always lower in the north than in the south. The importance of wind speed, pCO2 in atmosphere, PCO2 in surface seawater, and temperature on the flux variability is discussed. The relative influence of the equatorial upwelling on one hand and of the advection and warming of surface waters on the other hand is studied in order to explain high partial pressure in seawater.

  17. Control integration concept for hypersonic cruise-turn maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Lallman, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    Piloting difficulties associated with conducting aircraft maneuvers in hypersonic flight are caused in part by the nonintuitive nature of the aircraft response and the stringent constraints anticipated on allowable angle of attack and dynamic pressure variations. An approach is documented that provides precise, coordinated maneuver control during excursions from a hypersonic cruise flight path and the necessary flight condition constraints. The approach is to achieve specified guidance commands by resolving altitude and cross range errors into a load factor and bank angle command by using a coordinate transformation that acts as an interface between outer and inner loop flight controls. This interface, referred to as a 'resolver', applies constraints on angle of attack and dynamic pressure perturbations while prioritizing altitude regulation over cross range. An unpiloted test simulation, in which the resolver was used to drive inner loop flight controls, produced time histories of responses to guidance commands and atmospheric disturbances at Mach numbers of 6, 10, 15, and 20. Angle of attack and throttle perturbation constraints, combined with high speed flight effects and the desire to maintain constant dynamic pressure, significantly impact the maneuver envelope for a hypersonic vehicle.

  18. Rapid Deployment of a RESTful Service for Oceanographic Research Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Linyun; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries, by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. R2R publishes information online as Linked Open Data, making it widely available using Semantic Web standards. Each vessel, sensor, cruise, dataset, person, organization, funding award, log, report, etc, has a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). Complex queries that federate results from other data providers are supported, using the SPARQL query language. To facilitate interoperability, R2R uses controlled vocabularies developed collaboratively by the science community (eg. SeaDataNet device categories) and published online by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). In response to user feedback, we are developing a standard programming interface (API) and Web portal for R2R's Linked Open Data. The API provides a set of simple REST-type URLs that are translated on-the-fly into SPARQL queries, and supports common output formats (eg. JSON). We will demonstrate an implementation based on the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA) open-source Java package. Our experience shows that constructing a simple portal with limited schema elements in this way can significantly reduce development time and maintenance complexity.

  19. Investigation of a supersonic cruise fighter model flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, D. E.; Bare, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to survey the flow field around a model of a supersonic cruise fighter configuration. Local values of angle of attack, side flow, Mach number, and total pressure ratio were measured with a single multi-holed probe in three survey areas on a model previously used for nacelle/nozzle integration investigations. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2, and at angles of attack from 0 deg to 10 deg. The purpose of the investigation was to provide a base of experimental data with which theoretically determined data can be compared. To that end the data are presented in tables as well as graphically, and a complete description of the model geometry is included as fuselage cross sections and wing span stations. Measured local angles of attack were generally greater than free stream angle of attack above the wing and generally smaller below. There were large spanwise local angle-of-attack and side flow gradients above the wing at the higher free stream angles of attack.

  20. Sensitivity of planetary cruise navigation to earth orientation calibration errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.; Folkner, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed analysis was conducted to determine the sensitivity of spacecraft navigation errors to the accuracy and timeliness of Earth orientation calibrations. Analyses based on simulated X-band (8.4-GHz) Doppler and ranging measurements acquired during the interplanetary cruise segment of the Mars Pathfinder heliocentric trajectory were completed for the nominal trajectory design and for an alternative trajectory with a longer transit time. Several error models were developed to characterize the effect of Earth orientation on navigational accuracy based on current and anticipated Deep Space Network calibration strategies. The navigational sensitivity of Mars Pathfinder to calibration errors in Earth orientation was computed for each candidate calibration strategy with the Earth orientation parameters included as estimated parameters in the navigation solution. In these cases, the calibration errors contributed 23 to 58% of the total navigation error budget, depending on the calibration strategy being assessed. Navigation sensitivity calculations were also performed for cases in which Earth orientation calibration errors were not adjusted in the navigation solution. In these cases, Earth orientation calibration errors contributed from 26 to as much as 227% of the total navigation error budget. The final analysis suggests that, not only is the method used to calibrate Earth orientation vitally important for precision navigation of Mars Pathfinder, but perhaps equally important is the method for inclusion of the calibration errors in the navigation solutions.

  1. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Waverider-Derived Hypersonic Cruise Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; Finley, Dennis B.

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation was made on the effects of integrating the required aircraft components with hypersonic high-lift configurations known as waveriders to create hypersonic cruise vehicles. Previous studies suggest that waveriders offer advantages in aerodynamic performance and propulsion/airframe integration (PAI) characteristics over conventional non-waverider hypersonic shapes. A wind-tunnel model was developed that integrates vehicle components, including canopies, engine components, and control surfaces, with two pure waverider shapes, both conical-flow-derived waveriders for a design Mach number of 4.0. Experimental data and limited computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions were obtained over a Mach number range of 1.6 to 4.63. The experimental data show the component build-up effects and the aerodynamic characteristics of the fully integrated configurations, including control surface effectiveness. The aerodynamic performance of the fully integrated configurations is not comparable to that of the pure waverider shapes, but is comparable to previously tested hypersonic models. Both configurations exhibit good lateral-directional stability characteristics.

  2. An autonomous rendezvous and docking system using cruise missile technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ruel Edwin

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 the Autonomous Rendezvous & Docking (AR&D) system was first demonstrated for members of NASA's Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group. This simulation utilized prototype hardware from the Cruise Missile and Advanced Centaur Avionics systems. The object was to show that all the accuracy, reliability and operational requirements established for a space craft to dock with Space Station Freedom could be met by the proposed system. The rapid prototyping capabilities of the Advanced Avionics Systems Development Laboratory were used to evaluate the proposed system in a real time, hardware in the loop simulation of the rendezvous and docking reference mission. The simulation permits manual, supervised automatic and fully autonomous operations to be evaluated. It is also being upgraded to be able to test an Autonomous Approach and Landing (AA&L) system. The AA&L and AR&D systems are very similar. Both use inertial guidance and control systems supplemented by GPS. Both use an Image Processing System (IPS), for target recognition and tracking. The IPS includes a general purpose multiprocessor computer and a selected suite of sensors that will provide the required relative position and orientation data. Graphic displays can also be generated by the computer, providing the astronaut / operator with real-time guidance and navigation data with enhanced video or sensor imagery.

  3. Cruise noise measurements of a scale model advanced ducted propulsor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Bock, Lawrence A.; Hall, David G.

    1993-01-01

    A scale model Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) was tested in NASA Lewis Research Center's 8- by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel to obtain acoustic data at cruise conditions. The model, designed and manufactured by Pratt & Whitney Division of United Technologies, was tested with three inlet lengths. The model has 16 rotor blades and 22 stator vanes, which results in a cut-on condition with respect to rotor-stator interaction noise. Comparisons of the noise directivity of the ADP with that of a previously tested high-speed, unducted propeller showed that the ADP peak blade passing tone was about 30 dB below that of the propeller, and therefore, should not present a cabin or enroute noise problem. The maximum blade passing tone first increased with increasing helical tip Mach number, peaked, and then decreased at a higher Mach number. The ADP tests with the shortest inlet showed more noise in the inlet arc than did tests with either of the other two inlet lengths.

  4. Cruise report RV Inland Surveyer Cruise IS-98; the bathymetry of Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, August 2 through August 17, 1998, Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Mayer, Larry A.; Hughes-Clarke, John

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of cruise IS-98 was to map the bathymetry of Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada (Fig. 1) to fulfill a commitment made during the Lake Tahoe Presidential Forum in 1997. The only existing bathymetry of Lake Tahoe, collected in 1923, was recently compiled by Rowe and Stone (1997), but the data density is inadequate for the level of scientific studies ongoing and anticipated in the near future for Lake Tahoe. Recent advances in marine multibeam-sonar capabilities now permit a cost-effective way, to precisely map the bathymetry of large areas of the ocean floor with 100% coverage. Cruise IS-98 applied this state-of-the-art ocean technology to Lake Tahoe. The newest of these high-resolution multibeam mapping systems also simultaneously collects backscatter (similar to sidescan sonar) imagery that results in a complimentary and co-registered data set that is related to the distribution of lake-floor materials and textures. The two types of maps that resulted from this cruise provide the multidisiplinary Lake Tahoe research community an unprecedented set of base maps upon which to build their studies. This report describes the high-resolution multibeam mapping system used at Lake Tahoe, outlines the data-processing steps used to produce the maps, and includes the daily log of the cruise.

  5. Interpopulation study of medical attendance aboard a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard; Nahorski, Wacław Leszek

    2008-01-01

    The study carried out aboard a cruise ship in the years 1993-1998 involved ship passengers of various nationalities including 3872 Germans aged 23-94 years and 1281 Americans aged 25-94 years. Both nationality groups were divided into two age subgroups: till 64, and 65-94 years. The German younger age subgroup (mean age 53.2 years) consisted of 59% of the passengers, whereas the 65-94 years subgroup (mean age 72 years) was made up of 41% of the ships passengers. On the other hand, 73% of the Americans belonged to the 65-94 years subgroup (mean age 73,4 years), whereas 27% to the younger one (mean age 52.8 years). The number of onboard consultations and their causes were determined. The occurrence of chronic illnesses in both 65-94 years subgroups was assessed by means of a questionnaire. A higher frequency of consultations was found in the Germans (24.38%) than in the Americans (14.05%) (p=0.001). The difference was particularly striking in the people over 65 years of age (30.87% of the Germans as compared with 14.22% of the Americans, p=0.001). The Germans were nearly 4-times more frequently seen than the Americans for cardio-vascular diseases and almost 3-times more often because of gastrointestinal disorders. The discrepancies in the consultation rates were mainly caused by the different insurance systems of both nations. Chronic illnesses as estimated by means of the questionnaire prevailed in the German passengers. The statistically significant differences (13.3% versus 20%, p=0.01 and 0.001) regarded the locomotor system, urinary tract diseases and a group of illnesses including neurological, ophthalmological, ear, skin, malignant diseases and diabetes. PMID:19227739

  6. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Research Cruise Event Logger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Stolp, L.; Dubois, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific event logs, used by the science party to record scientific sampling events that occur during a research cruise, have been used in various ways for decades. An event log is very important for documenting the occurrence of a sampling event and its location, time, relative sequence, and related details. Event logging, done well, can provide important documentation about scientific data collected during a cruise, and enable more efficient use of those data by cruise participants and future researchers. When the resultant event log is a digital data file, with content generated programmatically and controlled by term vocabularies, it becomes an even more valuable addition to the full complement of data sets generated during the cruise. However, such a tool is only effective if it is used. Through field testing, several key factors were identified that encourage the use of such a tool: the ability to customize the tool to represent the science implementation plan, proposed sampling scheme, cruise personnel and instrumentation; the ability to retrieve date, time and location data automatically from the shipboard network and the ability to enter events quickly and from any location on the ship. This presentation provides an overview of both the current version 1 and soon to be released version 2 of the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) research cruise Event Logger system. The R2R Event Logger application is built upon a pre-existing, open-source, weblog product called ELOG (ELOG URL: http://midas.psi.ch/elog/). We provide an oceanographer's view of the full process by which: 1) the R2R Event Logger application is configured and tested to meet the unique needs of a research cruise; 2) the R2R project works with the ship operator to install the Event Logger on the ship designated for the cruise, 3) the Event Logger is configured to automatically retrieve location, time, and other pertinent information from the shipboard network; 4) a copy of the event log file is

  7. The Acid Horizon Cruise: Expanding scientific outreach by crowd-funding a film project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    During a cruise in April - May, 2014 on the R/V Atlantis with the DSV Alvin to study ocean acidification in the Gulf of Mexico, we carried out a number of outreach efforts, the most significant of which was filming a documentary. The documentary is about the impact of ocean acidification, but is told as a personal story and extends well beyond the cruise itself. This documentary was an independent effort supported entirely by a Kickstarter crowd-funding campaign that ran from Nov - Dec, 2013. The campaign attracted over 200 donors and was ultimately successful in raising the funds necessary to bring the film crew on board. By involving so many people in the funding of the project, we attracted a core audience for the outreach efforts during the cruise. These efforts included daily posts on various social media sites, both personal and scientific, as well as exclusive "sneak peeks" of the film for the Kickstarter backers. In addition, live interactions from the cruise included an interview with public radio from the submersible, and a public seminar from the back deck of the ship. All of these efforts resulted in the development of an audience that remains engaged in the progress of the science and the film, long after the cruise has concluded.

  8. Preliminary design of a supersonic cruise aircraft high-pressure turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aceto, L. D.; Calderbank, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Development of the supersonic cruise aircraft engine continued in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored Pratt and Whitney program for the Preliminary Design of an Advanced High-Pressure Turbine. Airfoil cooling concepts and the technology required to implement these concepts received particular emphasis. Previous supersonic cruise aircraft mission studies were reviewed and the Variable Stream Control Engine (VSCE) was chosen as the candidate or the preliminary turbine design. The design was evaluated for the supersonic cruise mission. The advanced technology to be generated from these designs showed benefits in the supersonic cruise application and subsonic cruise application. The preliminary design incorporates advanced single crystal materials, thermal barrier coatings, and oxidation resistant coatings for both the vane and blade. The 1990 technology vane and blade designs have cooled turbine efficiency of 92.3 percent, 8.05 percent Wae cooling and a 10,000 hour life. An alternate design with 1986 technology has 91.9 percent efficiency and 12.43 percent Wae cooling at the same life. To achieve these performance and life results, technology programs must be pursued to provide the 1990's technology assumed for this study.

  9. Subduction experiment. Cruise report, R/V oceanus, cruise number 250 legs 1 and 2. Subduction 2 mooring deployment and recovery cruise, 25 January-26 February 1992. Technical report, 25 January-26 February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Trask, R.P.; Brink, N.J.; Regier, L.; McPhee, N.

    1993-03-01

    Subduction is the mechanism by which water masses formed in the mixed layer and near the surface of the ocean find their way into the upper thermocline. The subduction process and its underlying mechanisms were studied through a combination of Eulerian and Langrangian measurements of velocity, measurements of tracer distributions and hydrographic properties and modeling. An array of five surface moorings carrying meteorological and oceanographic instrumentation were deployed for a period of two years beginning in June 1991 as part of an Office of Naval Research (ONR) funded Subduction experiment. Three eight month deployments were planned. The initial deployment of five surface moorings took place during the third leg of R/V Oceanus cruise number 240. The moorings were deployed at 18 deg N 34 deg W, 18 deg N 22 deg W, 25.5 deg N 29 deg W, 33 deg N 22 deg W and 33 deg N 34 deg W. A Vector Averaging Wind Recorder (VAWR) and an Improved Meteorological Recorder (IMET) collected wind speed and wind direction, sea surface temperature, air temperature, short wave radiation, barometric pressure and relative humidity. The IMET also measured precipitation. The moorings were heavily instrumented below the surface with Vector Measuring Current Meters (VMCM) and single point temperature recorders. Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data were collected and meteorological observations were made while transitting between mooring locations. This report describes the work that took place during R/V Oceanus cruise 250 which was the second scheduled Subduction mooring cruise. During this cruise the first setting of the moorings were recovered and redeployed for a second eight month period.

  10. The significance of dilution in evaluating possible impacts of wastewater discharges from large cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Loehr, Lincoln C; Beegle-Krause, C-J; George, Kenwyn; McGee, Charles D; Mearns, Alan J; Atkinson, Marlin J

    2006-06-01

    In response to public concerns about discharges from large cruise ships, Alaska's Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) sampled numerous effluents in the summer of 2000. The data showed that basic marine sanitation device (MSD) technology for black water (sewage) was not performing as expected. Untreated gray water had high levels of conventional pollutants and surprisingly high levels of bacteria. Both black water and gray water discharges sometimes exceeded state water quality standards for toxicants. The state convened a Science Advisory Panel (the Panel) to evaluate impacts associated with cruise ship wastewater discharges. The effluent data received wide media coverage and increased public concerns. Consequently, legislative decisions were made at the State and Federal level, and regulations were imposed before the Panel completed its evaluation. The Panel demonstrated that following the rapid dilution from moving cruise ships, the effluent data from the Summer of 2000 would not have exceeded water quality standards, and environmental effects were not expected. PMID:16406006

  11. Cruise report for A1-00-SC southern California earthquake hazards project, part A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutmacher, Christina E.; Normark, William R.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Edwards, Brian D.; Sliter, Ray; Hart, Patrick; Cooper, Becky; Childs, Jon; Reid, Jane A.

    2000-01-01

    A three-week cruise to obtain high-resolution boomer and multichannel seismic-reflection profiles supported two project activities of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) Program: (1) evaluating the earthquake and related geologic hazards posed by faults in the near offshore area of southern California and (2) determining the pathways through which sea-water is intruding into aquifers of Los Angeles County in the area of the Long Beach and Los Angeles harbors. The 2000 cruise, A1-00-SC, is the third major data-collection effort in support of the first objective (Normark et al., 1999a, b); one more cruise is planned for 2002. This report deals primarily with the shipboard operations related to the earthquake-hazard activity. The sea-water intrusion survey is confined to shallow water and the techniques used are somewhat different from that of the hazards survey (see Edwards et al., in preparation).

  12. Cruising for truckers on highways and the internet: sexual networks and infection risk.

    PubMed

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Sönmez, Sevil; Shattell, Mona; Kronenfeld, Jennie; Stanton, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    Empirical evidence on the heterosexual partnerships of long-haul truckers suggests connections among occupational stressors, substance misuse, structural factors, and risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Yet the potential risks associated with same-sex partnerships of truckers and truckchasers (men who specifically cruise for truckers) remain largely unknown. Drawing from diverse sources as well as primary and secondary data from 173 truckers and "truckchasers," we discuss how trucking and cruising contexts, in conjunction with Internet fora, jointly create a risk-enabling environment for truckers and their sex contacts. Findings point toward an elusive but extensive sexual network that spans across the Internet and highways and takes advantage of truckers' mobility as it bridges disparate epidemiological spaces and populations. The delineation of cruising within the hypermasculine occupational sector of trucking adds new insights to the study of sexual health, which is particularly important considering the riskladen sex contacts of truckers and truckchasers and potential for infection spread. PMID:21696243

  13. Fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions induced by cooperative adaptive cruise control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2015-04-01

    Many cooperative adaptive cruise control strategies have been presented to improve traffic efficiency as well as road traffic safety, but scholars have rarely explored the impacts of these strategies on cars' fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions. In this paper, we respectively select two-velocity difference model, multiple velocity difference model and the car-following model considering multiple preceding cars' accelerations to investigate each car's fuel consumptions, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions and carry out comparative analysis. The comparisons of fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions in three different cruise control strategies show that cooperative cars simulated by the car-following model considering multiple preceding cars' accelerations can run with the minimal fuel consumptions, CO, HC and NOX emissions, thus, taking the car-following model considering multiple preceding cars' accelerations as the cooperative adaptive cruise control strategy can significantly improve cars' fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions.

  14. Preliminary study of optimum ductburning turbofan engine cycle design parameters for supersonic cruising

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of turbofan engine overall pressure ratio, fan pressure ratio, and ductburner temperature rise on the engine weight and cruise fuel consumption for a mach 2.4 supersonic transport was investigated. Design point engines, optimized purely for the supersonic cruising portion of the flight where the bulk of the fuel is consumed, are considered. Based on constant thrust requirements at cruise, fuel consumption considerations would favor medium by pass ratio engines (1.5 to 1.8) of overall pressure ratio of about 16. Engine weight considerations favor low bypass ratio (0.6 or less) and low wverall pressure ratio (8). Combination of both effects results in bypass ratios of 0.6 to 0.8 and overall pressure ratio of 12 being the overall optimum.

  15. Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman

    2014-05-01

    We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).

  16. Volume 35, AMT-1 Cruise Report and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Robins, David B.; Bale, Anthony J.; Moore, Gerald F.; Rees, Nigel W.; Gallienne, Christopher P.; Westbrooke, Anthony G.; Maranon, Emilio; Spooner, William H.; Laney, Samuel R.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities on board the Royal Research Ship (RRS) 'James Clark Ross' during the irst Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT-1), 21 September to 24 October 1995. The ship sailed from Grimsby (England) for Montevideo (Uruguay) and then continued on to Stanley (Falkland Islands). The primary objective of the AMT program is to investigate basic biological processes in the open Atlantic Ocean over very broad spatial scales. For AMT-1, the meridional range covered was approximately 50 deg N to 50 deg S or nearly 8,000 nmi. The measurements to be taken during the AMT cruises are fundamental for the calibration, validation, and continuing understanding of remotely sensed observations of biological oceanography. They are also important for understanding plankton community structure over latitudinal scales and the role of the world ocean in global carbon cycles. During AMT-1 a variety of instruments were used to map the physical, chemical, and biological structure of the upper 200 m of the water column. Ocean color measurements were made using state-of-the-art sensors, whose calibration was traceable to the highest international standards. New advances in fluorometry were used to measure photosynthetic activity, which was then used to further interpret primary productivity. A unique set of samples and data were collected for the planktonic assemblages that vary throughout the range of the transect. These data will yield new interpretations on community composition and their role in carbon cycling. While the various provinces of the Atlantic Ocean were being crossed, the partial pressure of CO2 was related to biological productivity. This comparison revealed the areas of drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and how these areas relate to the surrounding biological productivity. These data, plus the measurements of light attenuation and phytoplankton optical properties, will be used as a primary input for basin-scale biological productivity models to help

  17. 77 FR 29254 - Safety Zones, Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... when the safety zone is in place. The pilot onboard the large cruise ship will be authorized to allow... arrangements with the pilot onboard the large cruise ship may enter into this safety zone in accordance...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Tankers and High Interest Vessels, San Francisco Bay and Delta...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for only short periods of time on frequent schedules. High Interest Vessel or HIV means any vessel... either side of any cruise ship, tanker or HIV that is underway, anchored, or moored within the San... ahead, astern and extending 100 yards along either side of any cruise ship, tanker or HIV that...

  19. 77 FR 65816 - Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River... the Lower Mississippi River between the Port of New Orleans Cruise Ship Terminal, mile marker 96.0... Mississippi River. DATES: This rule is effective December 5, 2012. ADDRESSES: Documents mentioned in...

  20. 78 FR 10172 - Lisa Anne Cornell and G. Ware Cornell, Jr. v. Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd. (Corp), Carnival PLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Lisa Anne Cornell and G. Ware Cornell, Jr. v. Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd. (Corp), Carnival PLC, and..., Jr., hereinafter ``Complainants,'' against Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd (Corp), Carnival plc, and... common carrier for hire of passengers from ports in the United States;'' Respondent Carnival plc ``is...

  1. Bryozoans from RV Sonne deep-sea cruises SO 167 'Louisville' and SO 205 'Mangan'.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Kei; Janssen, Annika; Arbizu, Pedro Martínez; Martha, Silviu O; Freiwald, André

    2014-01-01

    The German research vessel Sonne is operating in the Pacific, Southern and Indian Oceans. In the current stage of development in Pacific deep-sea mining projects, prior understanding of biodiversity patterns in the affected regions is one of the major research goals of the RV Sonne cruises. In the present study, nine bryozoan species are reported from the Equatorial East Pacific and the Kermadec-Tonga Ridge, collected during RV Sonne cruises SO 167 "Louisville" and SO 205 "Mangan", from 356-4007 m. Two new species, Raxifabia oligopora n. sp. and Opaeophora triangula n. sp., are described. PMID:25284647

  2. Shelf edge exchange processes-II SEEP2-06, R/V Endeavor cruise 186

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Behrens, W.J.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1989-12-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. Phase I of SEEP consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984. Phase II focused specifically on the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic bight off the Delmarva Peninsula. Hydrographic data were collected on eight of the six cruises.

  3. An analysis of life expectancy of airplane wings in normal cruising flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Abbott A

    1945-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for judging the relative importance of wing failure by fatigue and by single intense gusts, an analysis of wing life for normal cruising flight was made based on data on the frequency of atmospheric gusts. The independent variables considered in the analysis included stress-concentration factor, stress-load relation, wing loading, design and cruising speeds, design gust velocity, and airplane size. Several methods for estimating fatigue life from gust frequencies are discussed. The procedure selected for the analysis is believed to be simple and reasonably accurate, though slightly conservative.

  4. User's manual for total-tree multiproduct cruise program. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; Burgan, T.M.; Field, R.C.; Dress, P.E.

    1985-03-07

    This interactive computer program uses standard tree-cruise data to estimate the weight and volume of the total tree, saw logs, plylogs, chipping logs, pulpwood, crown firewood, and logging residue in timber stands. Input is cumulative cruise data for tree counts by d.b.h. and height. Output is in tables: board-foot volume by d.b.h.; total-tree and tree-component biomass by tons, cords, and cunits; a summary table; and projected annual growth by stand component and species. This manual describes the FORTRAN V mainframe and the PASCAL microcomputer programs and how to enter data to obtain the desired output.

  5. Advanced structures technology applied to a supersonic cruise arrow-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    The application of advanced technology to a promising aerodynamic configuration was explored to investigate the improved payload range characteristics over the configuration postulated during the National SST Program. The results of an analytical study performed to determine the best structural approach for design of a Mach number 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft are highlighted. The data conducted under the auspices of the Structures Directorate of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center, established firm technical bases from which further trend studies were conducted to quantitatively assess the benefits and feasibility of using advanced structures technology to arrive at a viable advanced supersonic cruise aircraft.

  6. Unsteady features of jets in lift and cruise modes for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibens, V.; Saripalli, K. R.; Wlezien, R. W.; Kegelman, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were performed to simulate jet plume effects associated with VTOL aircraft in takeoff and cruise modes. A water facility was used to investigate the influence of inclination angle and separation distance on the three-dimensional fountain flowfield generated by two impinging jets operating at a jet Reynolds number of 250,000. Substantial differences in the flow features were observed for different spacings between the jets. Plume effects in cruise mode were simulated by a supersonic unheated jet parallel to a wall. Variation of the distance between the wall and the edge of the plume is shown to have a major controlling effect on the supersonic screech instability.

  7. Structural dynamic testing of composite propfan blades for a cruise missile wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elgin, Stephen D.; Sutliff, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    The Naval Weapons Center at China Lake, California is currently evaluating a counter rotating propfan system as a means of propulsion for the next generation of cruise missiles. The details and results of a structural dynamic test program are presented for scale model graphite-epoxy composite propfan blades. These blades are intended for use on a cruise missile wind tunnel model. Both dynamic characteristics and strain operating limits of the blades are presented. Complications associated with high strain level fatigue testing methods are also discussed.

  8. Monitoring bombers and cruise missiles for the purposes of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, D.A.

    1985-02-20

    This paper discusses the extent to which bomber/cruise missile characteristics and activities can be monitored by national technical means (NTM). Particular attention is paid to those characteristics and activities relevant to arms control. National technical means--which refers to various technical means by which monitoring data can be gathered, usually involving satellite reconnaissance--are not the sole means for monitoring, though they may be the most dependable. This paper discusses the confidence one might have in monitoring bombers and cruise missiles.

  9. A review of several propulsion integration features applicable to supersonic-cruise fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, B. L.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review has been made of the propulsion integration features which may impact the design of a supersonic cruise fighter type aircraft. The data used for this study were obtained from several investigations conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic and 4 by 4 foot supersonic pressure wind tunnels. Results of this study show: (1) that for conventional nozzle installations, contradictory design guidelines exist between subsonic and supersonic flight condition, (2) that substantial drag penalties can be incurred by use of dry power nozzles during supersonic cruise; and (3) that a new and unique concept, the nonaxisymmetric nozzle, offers the potential for solving many of the current propulsion installation problems.

  10. 3-D Navier-Stokes Analysis of Blade Root Aerodynamics for a Tiltrotor Aircraft In Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romander, Ethan

    2006-01-01

    The blade root area of a tiltrotor aircraft's rotor is constrained by a great many factors, not the least of which is aerodynamic performance in cruise. For this study, Navier-Stokes CFD techniques are used to study the aerodynamic performance in cruise of a rotor design as a function of airfoil thickness along the blade and spinner shape. Reducing airfoil thickness along the entire blade will be shown to have the greatest effect followed by smaller but still significant improvements achieved by reducing the thickness of root airfoils only. Furthermore, altering the shape of the spinner will be illustrated as a tool to tune the aerodynamic performance very near the blade root.

  11. Study of the impact of cruise speed on scheduling and productivity of commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, E. Q.; Carroll, E. A.; Flume, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison is made between airplane productivity and utilization levels derived from commercial airline type schedules which were developed for two subsonic and four supersonic cruise speed aircraft. The cruise speed component is the only difference between the schedules which are based on 1995 passenger demand forecasts. Productivity-to-speed relationships were determined for the three discrete route systems: North Atlantic, Trans-Pacific, and North-South America. Selected combinations of these route systems were also studied. Other areas affecting the productivity-to-speed relationship such as aircraft design range and scheduled turn time were examined.

  12. Analytic development of improved supersonic cruise aircraft based on wind tunnel data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roensch, R. L.; Page, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Data obtained from the MDC/NASA cooperative wing tunnel program were used to develop empirical corrections to theory. These methods were then used to develop a 2.2M supersonic cruise aircraft configuration with a cruise trimmed maximum L/D of 10.2. The empirical corrections to the theory are reviewed, and the configuration alternatives examined in the development of the configuration are presented. The benefits of designing for optimum trimmed performance, including the effects of the nacelles, are discussed.

  13. Model aerodynamic test results for a refined actuated inlet ejector nozzle at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    Wind tunnel model tests were conducted to demonstrate the aerodynamic performance improvements of a refined actuated inlet ejector nozzle. Models of approximately one-tenth scale were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise and supersonic cruise. Variations of model components provided a performance evaluation of ejector inlet and exit area, forebody boattail angle and ejector inlet operation in the open and closed mode. Approximately 700 data points were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, 1.2, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle flow conditions. Results show that relative to two ejector nozzles previously tested performance was improved significantly at takeoff and subsonic cruise performance, a C sub f of 0.982, was attained equal to the high performance of the previous tests. The established advanced supersonic transport propulsion study performance goals were met or closely approached at takeoff and supersonic cruise.

  14. Cruise report for a seismic investigation of gas hydrates in the Mississippi Canyon region, northern Gulf of Mexico; cruise M1-98-GM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Alan K.; Hart, Patrick E.; Pecher, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    During the cruise about 850 km of multichannel and single-channel seismic data were recorded. Seismic measurements at nine ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) stations were recorded for several of the multichannel tracklines (see Fig. 3 in report). The following report describes the field operations and equipment systems employed, gives two examples of ship-board seismic records, and outlines a few preliminary results.

  15. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  16. 76 FR 4833 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. You may submit.... 165.1108 (b)(2) through June 20, 2011, while this rulemaking is conducted. See 75 FR 82243, December...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Cruise Ships,...

  17. Using a Macroalgal δ15N Bioassay to Detect Cruise Ship Waste Water Effluent Inputs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking sources of N to marine ecosystems. I used green macroalgae as a bioassay organism to evaluate if the δ15N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in Skagway Harbor, AK. Opportunistic green...

  18. 14 CFR 91.159 - VFR cruising altitude or flight level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR cruising altitude or flight level. 91.159 Section 91.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules...

  19. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014.

    PubMed

    Filia, Antonietta; Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures. PMID:26196266

  20. 14 CFR 91.159 - VFR cruising altitude or flight level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false VFR cruising altitude or flight level. 91.159 Section 91.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules...

  1. A collision model for safety evaluation of autonomous intelligent cruise control.

    PubMed

    Touran, A; Brackstone, M A; McDonald, M

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes a general framework for safety evaluation of autonomous intelligent cruise control in rear-end collisions. Using data and specifications from prototype devices, two collision models are developed. One model considers a train of four cars, one of which is equipped with autonomous intelligent cruise control. This model considers the car in front and two cars following the equipped car. In the second model, none of the cars is equipped with the device. Each model can predict the possibility of rear-end collision between cars under various conditions by calculating the remaining distance between cars after the front car brakes. Comparing the two collision models allows one to evaluate the effectiveness of autonomous intelligent cruise control in preventing collisions. The models are then subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the probability of collision. Based on crash probabilities, an expected value is calculated for the number of cars involved in any collision. It is found that given the model assumptions, while equipping a car with autonomous intelligent cruise control can significantly reduce the probability of the collision with the car ahead, it may adversely affect the situation for the following cars. PMID:10440554

  2. Automotive speed control and cruise controls. (Bibliography from the Global Mobility database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning speed controls and cruise controls for automobiles, trucks, and industrial forklifts. Topics include stability analysis, H-infinity control theory, Proportional Integrative Derivative (PID) control, and idle speed control. The use and effect of controls in various highway situations are reviewed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. 77 FR 36955 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara Harbor, Santa Barbara, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... zones would encompass all navigable waters from the surface to the sea floor within a 100-yard radius of..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... sea floor within a 100-yard radius of any cruise ship which is located within 3 nautical miles...

  4. The Effect of "Career Cruising" on the Self-Efficacy of Students Deciding on Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Karen; Smothers, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of a self-assessment instrument on the self-efficacy of those deciding on majors in a university setting. Using a pre- and post-test methodology, we employed "Career Cruising" to measure career decision-making self-efficacy. Participants completed the "Career Decision Self-Efficacy-Short Form" (CDSE-SF)…

  5. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures. PMID:26196266

  6. Measuring surface salinity in the N. Atlantic subtropical gyre. The SPURS-MIDAS cruise, spring 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Jordi; Ward, Brian; Emelianov, Mikhail; Morisset, Simon; Salvador, Joaquin; Busecke, Julius

    2014-05-01

    SPURS-MIDAS (March-April 2013) on board the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa was a contribution to SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper ocean Regional Study) focused on the processes responsible for the formation and maintenance of the salinity maximum associated to the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Scientists from Spain, Ireland, France and US sampled the mesoscale and submesoscale structures in the surface layer (fixed points and towed undulating CTD, underway near surface TSG) and deployed operational and experimental drifters and vertical profilers, plus additional ocean and atmospheric data collection. Validation of salinity maps obtained from the SMOS satellite was one of the objectives of the cruise. The cruise included a joint workplan and coordinated sampling with the US R/V Endeavor, with contribution from SPURS teams on land in real time data and analysis exchange. We present here an overview of the different kinds of measurements made during the cruise, as well as a first comparison between SMOS-derived sea surface salinity products and salinity maps obtained from near-surface sampling in the SPURS-MIDAS area and from surface drifters released during the cruise.

  7. Noise reduction for model counterrotation propeller at cruise by reducing aft-propeller diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Stang, David B.

    1987-01-01

    The forward propeller of a model counterrotation propeller was tested with its original aft propeller and with a reduced diameter aft propeller. Noise reductions with the reduced diameter aft propeller were measured at simulated cruise conditions. Reductions were as large as 7.5 dB for the aft-propeller passing tone and 15 dB in the harmonics at specific angles. The interaction tones, mostly the first, were reduced probably because the reduced-diameter aft-propeller blades no longer interacted with the forward propeller tip vortex. The total noise (sum of primary and interaction noise) at each harmonic was significantly reduced. The chief noise reduction at each harmonic came from reduced aft-propeller-alone noise, with the interaction tones contributing little to the totals at cruise. Total cruise noise reductions were as much as 3 dB at given angles for the blade passing tone and 10 dB for some of the harmonics. These reductions would measurably improve the fuselage interior noise levels and represent a definite cruise noise benefit from using a reduced diameter aft propeller.

  8. Experiencing Work: Supporting the Undergraduate Hospitality, Tourism and Cruise Management Student on an Overseas Work Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Philip; Busby, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a funded research project into the experiences of tourism, hospitality and cruise management students on internship outside the UK as part of their British university degree between 2007 and 2009. The research reflected on the perceptions of students, course managers, placement officers and members of university placement…

  9. Cosmic Rays with Portable Geiger Counters: From Sea Level to Airplane Cruise Altitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic ray count rates with a set of portable Geiger counters were measured at different altitudes on the way to a mountain top and aboard an aircraft, between sea level and cruise altitude. Basic measurements may constitute an educational activity even with high school teams. For the understanding of the results obtained, simulations of extensive…

  10. Repeat hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Meteor cruise 84/3 in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhua, T.; Hainbucher, D.; Cardin, V.; Álvarez, M.; Civitarese, G.

    2013-03-01

    Here we report on data from an oceanographic cruise on the German research vessel Meteor covering large parts of the Mediterranean Sea during spring of 2011. The main objectives of this cruise was to conduct measurements of physical, chemical and biological variables on a section across the Mediterranean Sea with the goal of producing a synoptic picture of the distribution of relevant physical and biogeochemical properties, in order to compare those to historic data sets. During the cruise, a comprehensive data set of relevant variables following the guide lines for repeat hydrography outlined by the GO-SHIP group (http://www.go-ship.org/) was collected. The measurements include; salinity and temperature (CTD), an over-determined carbonate system, inorganic nutrients, oxygen, transient tracers (CFC-12, SF6), Helium isotopes and tritium, and carbon isotopes. The cruise sampled all major basins of the Mediterranean Sea following roughly an east-to-west section from the coast of Lebanon to through the Strait of Gibraltar, and to the coast of Portugal. Also a south-to-north section from the Ionian Sea to the Adriatic Sea was carried out. Additionally, sampling in the Aegean, Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas were carried out. The sections roughly followed lines and positions that have been sampled previously during other programs, thus providing the opportunity for comparative investigations of the temporal development of various parameters.

  11. Repeat hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Meteor cruise 84/3 in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhua, T.; Hainbucher, D.; Cardin, V.; Álvarez, M.; Civitarese, G.; McNichol, A. P.; Key, R. M.

    2013-07-01

    Here we report on data from an oceanographic cruise on the German research vessel Meteor covering large parts of the Mediterranean Sea during spring of 2011. The main objective of this cruise was to conduct measurements of physical, chemical and biological variables on a section across the Mediterranean Sea with the goal of producing a synoptic picture of the distribution of relevant physical and biogeochemical properties, in order to compare those to historic data sets. During the cruise, a comprehensive data set of relevant variables following the guide lines for repeat hydrography outlined by the GO-SHIP group (http://www.go-ship.org/) was collected. The measurements include salinity and temperature (CTD), an over-determined carbonate system, inorganic nutrients, oxygen, transient tracers (CFC-12, SF6), helium isotopes and tritium, and carbon isotopes. The cruise sampled all major basins of the Mediterranean Sea following roughly an east-to-west section from the coast of Lebanon through to the Strait of Gibraltar, and to the coast of Portugal. Also a south-to-north section from the Ionian Sea to the Adriatic Sea was carried out. Additionally, sampling in the Aegean, Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas were carried out. The sections roughly followed lines and positions that have been sampled previously during other programs, thus providing the opportunity for comparative investigations of the temporal development of various parameters.

  12. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Aircraft design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobe, T.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross sections and structural members on the performance of hypersonic cruise aircraft are evaluated. Representative fuselage/tank area structure was analyzed for strength, stability, fatigue and fracture mechanics. Various thermodynamic and structural tradeoffs were conducted to refine the conceptual designs with the primary objective of minimizing weight and maximizing aircraft range.

  13. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  14. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  15. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  16. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  17. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  18. Radiation Measurements in Cruise and on Mars by the MSL Radiation Assessment Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlin, C. J.; Hassler, D.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Appel, J. K.; Boehm, E.; Boettcher, S.; Brinza, D.; Burmeister, S.; Cucinotta, F.; Ehresmann, B.; Guo, J.; Kohler, J.; Lohf, H.; Martin, C.; Posner, A.; Rafkin, S. C.; Reitz, G.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is one of ten science instruments on the Curiosity rover. The RAD team's science objectives include the measurement of radiation dose (a purely physical quantity) and dose equivalent (a derived quantity that can be related to cancer risk) on the surface of Mars. In addition, RAD acquired data for most of the cruise to Mars, from Dec. 2011 through July 2012, providing a measurement of the radiation environment under conditions similar to those expected on a human trip to Mars or other deep space destinations. The dose and dose equivalent measurements made during cruise have been published, but are presented in more detail here. Rates measured in cruise are compared to similar measurements made during Curiosity's first 269 sols on the surface of Mars. In the simplest picture, one expects rates to be a factor of two lower on the surface of a large airless body compared to free space, owing to the two-pi shielding geometry. The situation on Mars is complicated by the non-negligible shielding effects of the atmosphere, particularly in Gale Crater where diurnal variations in atmospheric column depth are significant. The diurnal variations - caused by the well-known thermal tides on Mars - result in reduced shielding of the surface in the afternoon as compared to the night and early morning hours. A major challenge in analyzing the surface data is the treatment of the background radiation dose coming from Curiosity's Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). Prior to launch, RAD acquired data in the full cruise configuration so that this background could be measured with only sea-level cosmic ray muons present - that is, almost all of what was measured was due to the RTG. Those effects could therefore be subtracted from the cruise measurements in a straightforward way. However, the situation on the surface is somewhat different than in cruise, in that the mass that was present above RAD - and caused scattering of particles into

  19. Dissolved lead in the deep Southeast Pacific Ocean: results of the 2013 US GEOTRACES cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, E. A.; Lee, J. M.; Zhang, J.; Echegoyen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Lead (Pb) in the modern ocean is dominated by anthropogenic Pb, which has been evidenced by highly elevated seawater Pb concentrations and Pb stable isotope ratios (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) altered from pre-anthropogenic values. A number of studies have shown the human impact on oceanic Pb in many parts of the world ocean, but little Pb data has been available for the Southeast Pacific Ocean. In this presentation, we will show the dissolved Pb (<0.2µm) results from the US GEOTRACES cruise in October - December 2013, which sailed from Manta, Ecuador, to Tahiti along around 12 degrees south. Dissolved Pb concentrations from all 36 surface stations and deep (>1000m) Pb profiles from 18 stations will be presented, and the results will be also compared to our unpublished data from the BiG RAPA cruise in 2010, whose cruise track from Arica, Peru, to Easter Island is slightly south of the US GEOTRACES cruise. The BiG RAPA data showed that dissolved Pb concentrations of the southeast Pacific Ocean are relatively low, varying in the range of 8-20 pmol/kg at the surface with a slight maximum (14-22 pmol/kg) at around 400m depth, and 2-10 pmol/kg in deep waters below 1000m depth. The Pb concentrations were found to be higher at a marginal station off Peru, reaching 45 pmol/kg at the surface and 65 pmol/kg in the subsurface maximum at 150m depth, and varying between 17 and 23 pmol/kg in deep waters. Our dataset, along with the results from the BiG RAPA cruise, will provide the first overview on the dissolved Pb distribution of the southeast Pacific Ocean, which will further our understanding on the human impact on the global ocean.

  20. Radiation Measurements during the Cruise to and on the Surface of Mars with MSL/RAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehresmann, Bent

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) Curiosity rover is the first ever instrument to measure the energetic particle radiation on the surface of Mars. The main scientific goal of the RAD instrument is to characterize the radiation environment on the surface of Mars by making detailed measurements of the radiation dose, linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, and charged and neutral particle spectra. In addition to the surface measurements, RAD was also operating for large parts of the 253-day cruise to Mars. Combined, these measurements give unique insight to the expected radiation exposure for a potential manned mission to the red planet. The average absorbed tissue-equivalent dose rate during the cruise was found to be 0.48 ± 0.08 mGy/day, while for the first 300 days of surface operations the measured dose was 0.21 ± 0.04 mGy/day. By measuring the LET spectrum the absorbed dose can be converted into the biologically-relevant dose equivalent, resulting in values of 1.84 ± 0.30 mSv/day during cruise and 0.64 ± 0.12 mSv/day on the surface of Mars. RAD further encountered several solar energetic particle (SEP) events during cruise and surface operations. SEP events can create significant enhancements of the radiation exposure on short time scales, depending on the magnitude of such an event. For example, the five SEP events encountered during cruise contributed about five percent to the total measured dose equivalent in 253 days. The occurrence rate of SEP events strongly depends on the state of the solar activity, emphasizing the importance of continued radiation measurements throughout the solar cycle.

  1. Concentrations and composition of aerosols and particulate matter in surface waters along the transatlantic section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Redzhepova, Z. U.; Dara, O. M.

    2016-07-01

    Along the transatlantic section from Ushuaia to Gdańsk (March 26-May 7, 2015; cruise 47 of R/V Akademik Ioffe), data were obtained on the concentrations of aerosols in the near-water layer of the atmosphere and of particulate matter in surface waters, as well as of organic compounds within the considered matter (Corg, chlorophyll a, lipids, and hydrocarbons). The concentrations of aerosols amounted to 1237-111 739 particles/L for the fraction of 0.3-1 μm and to 0.02-34.4 μg/m2/day for the matter collected by means of the network procedure. The distribution of aerosols is affected by circumcontinental zoning and by the fluxes from arid areas of African deserts. The maximum concentration of the treated compounds were found in the river-sea frontal area (the runoff of the Colorado River, Argentina), as well as when nearing the coasts, especially in the English Channel.

  2. Comparison of Hygroscopicity, Volatility, and Mixing State of Submicrometer Particles between Cruises over the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gibaek; Cho, Hee-Joo; Seo, Arom; Kim, Dohyung; Gim, Yeontae; Lee, Bang Yong; Yoon, Young Jun; Park, Kihong

    2015-10-20

    Ship-borne measurements of ambient aerosols were conducted during an 11 937 km cruise over the Arctic Ocean (cruise 1) and the Pacific Ocean (cruise 2). A frequent nucleation event was observed during cruise 1 under marine influence, and the abundant organic matter resulting from the strong biological activity in the ocean could contribute to the formation of new particles and their growth to a detectable size. Concentrations of particle mass and black carbon increased with increasing continental influence from polluted areas. During cruise 1, multiple peaks of hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of 1.1-1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 were found, and higher amounts of volatile organic species existed in the particles compared to that during cruise 2, which is consistent with the greater availability of volatile organic species caused by the strong oceanic biological activity (cruise 1). Internal mixtures of volatile and nonhygroscopic organic species, nonvolatile and less-hygroscopic organic species, and nonvolatile and hygroscopic nss-sulfate with varying fractions can be assumed to constitute the submicrometer particles. On the basis of elemental composition and morphology, the submicrometer particles were classified into C-rich mixture, S-rich mixture, C/S-rich mixture, Na-rich mixture, C/P-rich mixture, and mineral-rich mixture. Consistently, the fraction of biological particles (i.e., P-containing particles) increased when the ship traveled along a strongly biologically active area. PMID:26389581

  3. Self-Reported Stomach Upset in Travellers on Cruise-Based and Land-Based Package Holidays

    PubMed Central

    Launders, Naomi J.; Nichols, Gordon L.; Cartwright, Rodney; Lawrence, Joanne; Jones, Jane; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Background International travellers are at a risk of infectious diseases not seen in their home country. Stomach upsets are common in travellers, including on cruise ships. This study compares the incidence of stomach upsets on land- and cruise-based holidays. Methods A major British tour operator has administered a Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) to UK resident travellers aged 16 or more on return flights from their holiday abroad over many years. Data extracted from the CSQ was used to measure self-reported stomach upset in returning travellers. Results From summer 2000 through winter 2008, 6,863,092 questionnaires were completed; 6.6% were from cruise passengers. A higher percentage of land-based holiday-makers (7.2%) reported stomach upset in comparison to 4.8% of cruise passengers (RR = 1.5, p<0.0005). Reported stomach upset on cruises declined over the study period (7.1% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2008, p<0.0005). Over 25% of travellers on land-based holidays to Egypt and the Dominican Republic reported stomach upset. In comparison, the highest proportion of stomach upset in cruise ship travellers were reported following cruises departing from Egypt (14.8%) and Turkey (8.8%). Conclusions In this large study of self-reported illness both demographic and holiday choice factors were shown to play a part in determining the likelihood of developing stomach upset while abroad. There is a lower cumulative incidence and declining rates of stomach upset in cruise passengers which suggest that the cruise industry has adopted operations (e.g. hygiene standards) that have reduced illness over recent years. PMID:24427271

  4. Atlantic Coastal experiment III, FRV Delaware II cruise, 17-27 May 1977 and R/V ONRUST cruise, 28-30, June 1977. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, S.; Stoddard, A.; von Bock, K.

    1980-09-01

    The DELAWARE II and ONRUST cruises, continuations of Atlantic Coastal Experiment III, were made during May and late June, 1977, to compare seasonal changes in chlorophyll a, nitrogen nutrient, dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton composition within the mid-Atlantic and New York Bights. Data from 106 stations and 3300 km of surface mapping are reported as classical hydrographic listings, areal and/or vertical contours of chlorophyll a, inorganic nitrogen and salinity, and listings of phytoplankton species abun- dance. Temperature profiles from 100 stations are included, as well as res- piration experiments [ETS assay] for the dinoflagellate, Ceratium tripos.

  5. A fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, R. C. H.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel-efficient cruise performance model which facilitates maximizing the specific range of General Aviation airplanes powered by spark-ignition piston engines and propellers is presented. Airplanes of fixed design only are considered. The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its implicity and low volume data storge requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  6. Cruise ships as a source of avian mortality during fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bocetti, C.I.

    2011-01-01

    Avian mortality during fall migration has been studied at many anthropogenic structures, most of which share the common feature of bright lighting. An additional, unstudied source of avian mortality during fall migration is recreational cruise ships that are brightly lit throughout the night. I documented a single mortality event of eight Common Yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) on one ship during part of one night in fall 2003, but suggest this is a more wide-spread phenomenon. The advertised number of ship-nights for 50 cruise ships in the Caribbean Sea during fall migration in 2003 was 2,981. This may pose a significant, additional, anthropogenic source of mortality that warrants further investigation, particularly because impacts could be minimized if this source of avian mortality is recognized. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  7. Evaluation of structural design concepts for an arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to determine the best structural approach for design of primary wing and fuselage structure of a Mach 2.7 arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft. Concepts were evaluated considering near term start of design. Emphasis was placed on the complex interactions between thermal stress, static aeroelasticity, flutter, fatigue and fail safe design, static and dynamic loads, and the effects of variations in structural arrangements, concepts and materials on these interactions. Results indicate that a hybrid wing structure incorporating low profile convex beaded and honeycomb sandwich surface panels of titanium alloy 6Al-4V were the most efficient. The substructure includes titanium alloy spar caps reinforced with boron polyimide composites. The fuselage shell consists of hat stiffened skin and frame construction of titanium alloy 6Al-4V. A summary of the study effort is presented, and a discussion of the overall logic, design philosophy and interaction between the analytical methods for supersonic cruise aircraft design are included.

  8. A review of supersonic cruise flight path control experience with the YF-12 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, D. T.; Gilyard, G. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flight research with the YF-12 aircraft indicates that solutions to many handling qualities problems of supersonic cruise are at hand. Airframe/propulsion system interactions in the Dutch roll mode can be alleviated by the use of passive filters or additional feedback loops in the propulsion and flight control systems. Mach and altitude excursions due to atmospheric temperature fluctuations can be minimized by the use of a cruise autothrottle. Autopilot instabilities in the altitude hold mode have been traced to angle of attack-sensitive static ports on the compensated nose boom. For the YF-12, the feedback of high-passed pitch rate to the autopilot resolves this problem. Manual flight path control is significantly improved by the use of an inertial rate of climb display in the cockpit.

  9. Robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu-Kai; Yang, Li-Xing; Li, Ke-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters is investigated. The dynamic of a high-speed train is modeled by a cascade of cars connected by flexible couplers, which is subject to rolling mechanical resistance, aerodynamic drag and wind gust. Based on Lyapunov’s stability theory, the sufficient condition for the existence of the robust output feedback cruise control law is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), under which the high-speed train tracks the desired speed, the relative spring displacement between the two neighboring cars is stable at the equilibrium state, and meanwhile a small prescribed H∞ disturbance attenuation level is guaranteed. One numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No.2014JBM150).

  10. Cruise observation and numerical modeling of turbulent mixing in the Pearl River estuary in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jiayi; Gu, Yanzhen

    2016-06-01

    The turbulent mixing in the Pearl River estuary and plume area is analyzed by using cruise data and simulation results of the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). The cruise observations reveal that strong mixing appeared in the bottom layer on larger ebb in the estuary. Modeling simulations are consistent with the observation results, and suggest that inside the estuary and in the near-shore water, the mixing is stronger on ebb than on flood. The mixing generation mechanism analysis based on modeling data reveals that bottom stress is responsible for the generation of turbulence in the estuary, for the re-circulating plume area, internal shear instability plays an important role in the mixing, and wind may induce the surface mixing in the plume far-field. The estuary mixing is controlled by the tidal strength, and in the re-circulating plume bulge, the wind stirring may reinforce the internal shear instability mixing.

  11. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Research Cruise Event Logging System Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Stolp, L.

    2010-12-01

    Data gathered aboard research vessels coordinated by the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) represent an important component of the overall oceanographic data collection. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project aims to improve access to basic shipboard data and ultimately reduce the work required to provide that access. The ultimate vision of R2R is to assist in transforming the academic fleet into an integrated global observing system. One of the coordinated subprojects within the R2R project is the development of a shipboard scientific event logging system that incorporates best practice guidelines, controlled vocabularies, a cruise metadata schema, and a scientific event log. The event log application will use new and existing components to generate a digital text file with a fleet-wide agreed upon format. A cruise event logging system enables researchers to record digitally all scientific sampling events and assign a unique event identifier to each entry. Decades of work conducted within large coordinated ocean research programs (JGOFS, GLOBEC, WOCE and RIDGE) have shown that creation of a shipboard sampling event log can facilitate greatly the ingestion of these data into oceanographic repositories and subsequent integration of data sets from individual investigators. An event logger application, based on ELOG, has been developed and is being tested by scientists at sea. An important aspect of this project is the development of a controlled vocabulary and ontology for documenting the scientific sampling events that occur during a research cruise. The controlled vocabulary development is being influenced by similar efforts in other communities. In addition, a Web application is being developed for oceanographers to use to pre-configure the R2R event logger application with vocabulary terms and entry forms appropriate to the specific needs of their upcoming research cruise. Results and lessons learned from the R2R event logger

  12. Evolution of Fuel-Air and Contaminant Clouds Resulting from a Cruise Missile Explosion Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, A S; Kul, A L

    2005-06-22

    A low-mach-number hydrodynamics model has been used to simulate the evolution of a fuel-air mixture and contaminant cloud resulting from the detonation of a cruise missile. The detonation has been assumed to be non-nuclear. The cloud evolution has been carried out to a time of 5.5 seconds. At this time the contaminant has completely permeated the initial fuel-air mixture cloud.

  13. Nearfield Unsteady Pressures at Cruise Mach Numbers for a Model Scale Counter-Rotation Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David B.

    2012-01-01

    An open rotor experiment was conducted at cruise Mach numbers and the unsteady pressure in the nearfield was measured. The system included extensive performance measurements, which can help provide insight into the noise generating mechanisms in the absence of flow measurements. A set of data acquired at a constant blade pitch angle but various rotor speeds was examined. The tone levels generated by the front and rear rotor were found to be nearly equal when the thrust was evenly balanced between rotors.

  14. Aero acoustic analysis and community noise. HSCT climb to cruise noise assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortlock, Alan K.

    1992-01-01

    The widely accepted industry High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) design goal for exterior noise is to achieve Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 36 Stage 3 noise limits currently required for new subsonic aircraft. The three phases of the concern are as follows: (1) airport noise abatement at communities close to the airport, (2) climb power opening-up procedures, and (3) the climb to cruise phase affecting communities far from the airport.

  15. Best-range flight conditions for cruise-climb flight of a jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Breguet range equation was developed for cruise climb flight of a jet aircraft to include the climb angle and is then maximized with respect to the no wind true airspeed. The expression for the best range airspeed is a function of the specific fuel consumption and minimum drag airspeed and indicates that an operational airspeed equal to the fourth root of three times the minimum-drag airspeed introduces range penalties of the order of one percent.

  16. Measles outbreak on a cruise ship in the western Mediterranean, February 2014, preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Lanini, S; Capobianchi, M R; Puro, V; Filia, A; Del Manso, M; Karki, T; Nicoletti, L; Magurano, F; Derrough, T; Severi, E; Bonfigli, S; Lauria, Fn; Ippolito, G; Vellucci, L; Pompa, M G

    2014-01-01

    A measles outbreak occurred in February 2014 on a ship cruising the western Mediterranean Sea. Overall 27 cases were reported: 21 crew members, four passengers.For two cases the status crew or passenger was unknown. Genotype B3 was identified. Because of different nationalities of cases and persons on board,the event qualified as a cross-border health threat. The Italian Ministry of Health coordinated rapid response.Alerts were posted through the Early Warning and Response System. PMID:24650863

  17. Cosmic rays with portable Geiger counters: from sea level to airplane cruise altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    Cosmic ray count rates with a set of portable Geiger counters were measured at different altitudes on the way to a mountain top and aboard an aircraft, between sea level and cruise altitude. Basic measurements may constitute an educational activity even with high school teams. For the understanding of the results obtained, simulations of extensive air showers induced by high-energy primary protons in the atmosphere were also carried out, involving undergraduate and graduate teaching levels.

  18. Aero acoustic analysis and community noise. HSCT climb to cruise noise assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortlock, Alan K.

    1992-04-01

    The widely accepted industry High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) design goal for exterior noise is to achieve Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 36 Stage 3 noise limits currently required for new subsonic aircraft. The three phases of the concern are as follows: (1) airport noise abatement at communities close to the airport, (2) climb power opening-up procedures, and (3) the climb to cruise phase affecting communities far from the airport.

  19. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program from 1972 to Mid-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography documents publications of the supersonic cruise aircraft research (SCAR) program that were generated during the first 5 years of effort. The reports are arranged according to systems studies and five SCAR disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emissions impact, structures and materials, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. The specific objectives of each discipline are summarized. Annotation is included for all NASA inhouse and low-number contractor reports. There are 444 papers and articles included.

  20. Supersonic Cruise Research 1979, part 2. [airframe structures and materials, systems integration, economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Advances in airframe structure and materials technology for supersonic cruise aircraft are reported with emphasis on titanium and composite structures. The operation of the Concorde is examined as a baseline for projections into the future. A market survey of U.S. passenger attitudes and preferences, the impact of advanced air transport technology and the integration of systems for the advanced SST and for a smaller research/business jet vehicle are also discussed.

  1. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL airplane: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabinsky, J. M.; Higgins, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    A two-engine three-fan V/STOL airplane was designed to fulfill naval operational requirements. A multimission airplane was developed from study of specific point designs. Based on the multimission concept, airplanes were designed to demonstrate and develop the technology and operational procedures for this class of aircraft. Use of interconnected variable pitch fans led to a good balance between high thrust with responsive control and efficient thrust at cruise speeds. The airplanes and their characteristics are presented.

  2. Shelf Edge Exchange Processes, II: SEEP2-08, R/V ENDEAVOR cruise 188. Hydrographic data report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Behrens, W.J.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1989-12-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. Phase I of SEEP consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984 (Behrens and Flagg, 1986). Phase II focused specifically on the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic bight off the Delmarva Peninsula. This project consisted of a series of ten cruises, a mooring array, and a series of over-flights by NASA aircraft. Hydrographic data were collected on eight of the cruises, six of which were primarily mooring deployment or recovery cruises. The cruises were consecutively designated SEEP2-01 to SEEP2-10. Two cruises (SEEP2-04 and SEEP2-07) were dedicated to investigating benthic processes and hydrographic data were not collected.

  3. Low-speed cruise aerodynamics of the stopped rotor/disk rotorcraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Stephen M.; Stroub, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    A low-speed wind tunnel test was completed in support of ongoing conceptual design studies of the Stopped Rotor/Disk rotorcraft concept. A one-fifth scale model was tested in the NASA Ames Low-Speed 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel #1 to evaluate the low-speed cruise performance. The primary test objective was to compare performance characteristics for three possible conceptual designs of the Stopped Rotor/Disk cruise configuration: the large hub fairing (disk) alone, the disk/extended blades configuration, and the disk/conventional wing configuration. Results showed that the disk/extended blades configuration was the most efficient in low-speed cruise. Other test objecives included making parametric changes by varying the geometry of the disk and by varying the extended blade incidence angles. Studies were also conducted to examine the aerodynamic interaction between the disk and a conventional wing. An examination was made into the effects of the disk on static longitudinal stability. The wake generated by the disk impinged on a T-tail of the model and thus degraded longitudinal stability. Alternative tail geometries are required in order to improve the concept's static stability.

  4. A two element laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steen, Gregory Glen

    1994-01-01

    Numerical and experimental results are presented for a new two-element, fixed-geometry natural laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise Reynolds numbers on the order of three million. The airfoil design consists of a primary element and an independent secondary element with a primary to secondary chord ratio of three to one. The airfoil was designed to improve the cruise lift-to-drag ratio while maintaining an appropriate landing capability when compared to conventional airfoils. The airfoil was numerically developed utilizing the NASA Langley Multi-Component Airfoil Analysis computer code running on a personal computer. Numerical results show a nearly 11.75 percent decrease in overall wing drag with no increase in stall speed at sailplane cruise conditions when compared to a wing based on an efficient single element airfoil. Section surface pressure, wake survey, transition location, and flow visualization results were obtained in the Texas A&M University Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between the numerical and experimental data, the effects of the relative position and angle of the two elements, and Reynolds number variations from 8 x 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 6) for the optimum geometry case are presented.

  5. North Atlantic air traffic within the lower stratosphere: Cruising times and corresponding emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoinka, K.P.; Reinhardt, M.E.; Metz, W. |

    1993-12-01

    This study estimates cruising times and related pollutant emissions (NO(x), CO, HC) and H2O of today`s aircraft fleet within the troposphere and stratosphere performed for the North Atlantic region in between 45 deg N, 65 deg N, 10 deg W, and 50 deg W for the years 1989, 1990, and 1991. The tropopause surface distribution is determined through analysis of assimilated data. Both conventional lapse rate and potential vorticity criteria are employed to determine the location of the tropopause surface. These data combined with air traffic statistics are used to evaluate cruising times within the troposphere and stratosphere separately. The study shows an average of about 44% of the cruising time of the aircraft above the North Atlantic flown within the stratosphere. Based on emission indices of aircraft engines, the emission rates of NO(x) (in mass units of NO2) into the stratosphere and troposphere in the given region result in 0.26 and 0.33 x 10(exp -12) kg/sq m/s, respectively.

  6. Simulation test results for lift/cruise fan research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, M. P.; Konsewicz, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    A flight simulation program was conducted on the flight simulator for advanced aircraft (FSAA). The flight simulation was a part of a contracted effort to provide a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft mathematical model for flight simulation. The simulated aircraft is a configuration of the Lift/Cruise Fan V/STOL research technology aircraft (RTA). The aircraft was powered by three gas generators driving three fans. One lift fan was installed in the nose of the aircraft, and two lift/cruise fans at the wing root. The thrust of these fans was modulated to provide pitch and roll control, and vectored to provide yaw, side force control, and longitudinal translation. Two versions of the RTA were defined. One was powered by the GE J97/LF460 propulsion system which was gas-coupled for power transfer between fans for control. The other version was powered by DDA XT701 gas generators driving 62 inch variable pitch fans. The flight control system in both versions of the RTA was the same.

  7. 15 Years of Oceanography in the Azores: From Oceanographic Cruises to an Integrated Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliano, M. F.; Alves, M.; Simões, A.; Rodeia, J.

    2006-07-01

    Oceanographic research in the Azores has only started 15 years ago. Nevertheless, it has been possible to evolve from the typical "research cruise approach" to a more versatile and integrated approach, that has proofed to be further rewarding and adequate for the size and resources of the group. The Azorean Oceanographers have participated and conducted several research cruises since 1990, and anticipating the importance of correlating in situ data with satellite data has lead us to plan the last of these, so that there was a coincidence of transects, moorings and satellite ground tracks. On the other hand, the group has invested in data processing and merging hydrological historical data with the results from the above mentioned oceanographic cruises, creating a hydrological database for the whole Atlantic Ocean. Also, through the application of a novel methodology and approach, the group has contributed to a new vision of the currents systems in the South Atlantic Ocean, namely with the newly found St. Helena Current, the congener of the Azores Current. As a result of this continued shift in methodology, the group is now using an integrated approach where field data, model output and processed altimeter data are merged to produce operational oceanography products, such as sea state charts and daily oceanic current charts.

  8. Low Noise Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing Transport Vehicle Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Jones, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    The saturation of the airspace around current airports combined with increasingly stringent community noise limits represents a serious impediment to growth in world aviation travel. Breakthrough concepts that both increase throughput and reduce noise impacts are required to enable growth in aviation markets. Concepts with a 25 year horizon must facilitate a 4x increase in air travel while simultaneously meeting community noise constraints. Attacking these horizon issues holistically is the concept study of a Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) high subsonic transport under the NASA's Revolutionary Systems Concepts for Aeronautics (RSCA) project. The concept is a high-lift capable airframe with a partially embedded distributed propulsion system that takes a synergistic approach in propulsion-airframe-integration (PAI) by fully integrating the airframe and propulsion systems to achieve the benefits of both low-noise short take-off and landing (STOL) operations and efficient high speed cruise. This paper presents a summary of the recent study of a distributed propulsion/airframe configuration that provides low-noise STOL operation to enable 24-hour use of the untapped regional and city center airports to increase the capacity of the overall airspace while still maintaining efficient high subsonic cruise flight capability.

  9. Hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea during a cruise with RV Poseidon in April 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainbucher, D.; Cardin, V.; Siena, G.; Hübner, U.; Moritz, M.; Drübbisch, U.; Basan, F.

    2015-09-01

    We report on data from an oceanographic cruise in the Mediterranean Sea on the German research vessel Poseidon in April 2014. Data were taken on a west-east section, starting at the Strait of Gibraltar and ending south-east of Crete, as well on sections in the Ionian and Adriatic Sea. The objectives of the cruise were threefold: to contribute to the investigation of the spatial evolution of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) properties and of the deep water masses in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, and to investigate the mesoscale variability of the upper water column. The measurements include salinity, temperature, oxygen and currents and were conducted with a conductivity, temperature and depth(CTD)/rosette system, an underway CTD and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The sections are on tracks which have been sampled during several other cruises, thus supporting the opportunity to investigate the long-term temporal development of the different variables. The use of an underway CTD made it possible to conduct measurements of temperature and salinity with a high horizontal spacing of 6 nm between stations and a vertical spacing of 1 dbar for the upper 800 m of the water column.

  10. Shared Semantics for Oceanographic Research: Development of Standard ``Cruise-Level'' Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Milan, A.; Chandler, C. L.; Miller, S. P.; Ferrini, V.; Mesick, S.; Mize, J.; Paver, C.; Sullivan, B.; Sweeney, A.

    2010-12-01

    There is a general need in the ocean science community for a widely accepted standards-based “cruise-level” metadata profile that describes the basic elements of a seagoing expedition (e.g. cruise identifier, vessel name, operating institution, dates/ports, navigation track, survey targets, science party, funding sources, scientific instruments, daughter platforms, and data sets). The need for such a profile is increasingly urgent as seagoing programs become more complex and interdisciplinary; funding agencies mandate public dissemination of the resulting data; and data centers link post-field/derived products to original field data sets. We are developing a standard implementation for cruise-level metadata that serves the needs of multiple U.S. programs, in an effort to promote interoperability and facilitate collaboration. Testbed development has focused on the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) programs - both tasked with routinely documenting and archiving large volumes of data from a wide array of U.S. research vessels - and draws from the cruise-level metadata profile published by the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) Data Management Best Practices Committee in 2008. Our XML implementation is based on the ISO 19115-2:2009 standard for geospatial metadata, with controlled vocabulary terms directly embedded as Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) references that can be validated in e.g. ISO Schematron. Our choice of the ISO standard reflects ANSI's adoption of the ISO 19115 North American Profile in 2009, and the adoption of ISO 19115 by related programs including the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) and the SeaDataNet program in Europe. We envision a hierarchical framework where a single “cruise-level” record is linked to multiple “dataset-level” records that may be published independently. Our results published online will include a best practices guide for authoring records

  11. Structural peculiarities of the sedimentary cover of the MAR crest depressions (5°-8°N) in the Equatorial Atlantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolotnev, S. G.; Tsukanov, N. V.; Turko, N. N.; Peyve, A. A.

    2003-04-01

    The analysis of the bottom relief structure investigated with multibeam SIMRAD 12S and sedimentary cover of depressions investigeted with PARASAUND in the MAR crest zone near Sierra-Leone Fault (22 Cruise of the RV "Akademik Nikolay Strachov", and 10 Cruise of the RV "Akademik Ioffe") point on the complicated character of the tectonic activity distribution in this region. The left-lateral displacements of the rift velley and the absence of transform faults are typical for this region. Two extremely deep rift depressions (up to 5000 m) are located in the rift valley: one on 5°54'N latitude (Markov depression) and the other on 5°46'N latitude. About 40 m sediments cover their bottom. On contary, in the depression located parallel to the rift valley directly to the west from the two mentioned rift depressions the sedimentary cover is absent and bottom has very dissected, apparently volcanic, relief. In the MAR crest zone in 20 miles to the south-west from the Markov and 5°46'N depressions one can see a system of depressions oriented both parallel and oblique to the rift valley. There are filled by the sediments of different thickness. The sedimentary cover of these depressions often is tired and deformed by diapir and horst uplifts. Dredging data show, that basalts, which represent, according to their petro-geo-chemical characteristics the enriched MORB basalts and alkaline basalts compose these uplifts. Irregular distribution and character of composition of the sediments in the depressions of crest zone of the MAR segment under consideration along with high volcanic activity outside the axial spreding zone show that tectonic and volcanic activity in this area are distributed all over the crest zone. The complicated character of this activity is obviosly caused by two reasons. From one hand it may be a deep mantle plum, as inferred from basalt composition and from the other hand it may be the lithosphere blocks displacements along the left-lateral strike slips.

  12. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

  13. Effect of emerging technology on a convertible, business/interceptor, supersonic-cruise jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Robins, A. W.; Swanson, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    This study was initiated to assess the feasibility of an eight-passenger, supersonic-cruise long range business jet aircraft that could be converted into a military missile carrying interceptor. The baseline passenger version has a flight crew of two with cabin space for four rows of two passenger seats plus baggage and lavatory room in the aft cabin. The ramp weight is 61,600 pounds with an internal fuel capacity of 30,904 pounds. Utilizing an improved version of a current technology low-bypass ratio turbofan engine, range is 3,622 nautical miles at Mach 2.0 cruise and standard day operating conditions. Balanced field takeoff distance is 6,600 feet and landing distance is 5,170 feet at 44,737 pounds. The passenger section from aft of the flight crew station to the aft pressure bulkhead in the cabin was modified for the interceptor version. Bomb bay type doors were added and volume is sufficient for four advanced air-to-air missiles mounted on a rotary launcher. Missile volume was based on a Phoenix type missile with a weight of 910 pounds per missile for a total payload weight of 3,640 pounds. Structural and equipment weights were adjusted and result in a ramp weight of 63,246 pounds with a fuel load of 30,938 pounds. Based on a typical intercept mission flight profile, the resulting radius is 1,609 nautical miles at a cruise Mach number of 2.0.

  14. The real-time complex cruise scene motion detection system based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-guo; Wang, Ming-jia

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic target recognition is an important issue in the field of image processing research. It is widely used in photoelectric detection, target tracking, video surveillance areas. Complex cruise scene of target detection, compared to the static background, since the target and background objects together and both are in motion, greatly increases the complexity of moving target detection and recognition. Based on the practical engineering applications, combining an embedded systems and real-time image detection technology, this paper proposes a real-time movement detection method on an embedded system based on the FPGA + DSP system architecture on an embedded system. The DSP digital image processing system takes high speed digital signal processor DSP TMS320C6416T as the main computing components. And we take large capacity FPGA as coprocessor. It is designed and developed a high-performance image processing card. The FPGA is responsible for the data receiving and dispatching, DSP is responsible for data processing. The FPGA collects image data and controls SDRAM according to the digital image sequence. The SDRAM realizes multiport image buffer. DSP reads real-time image through SDRAM and performs scene motion detection algorithm. Then we implement the data reception and data processing parallelization. This system designs and realizes complex cruise scene motion detection for engineering application. The image edge information has the anti-light change and the strong anti-interference ability. First of all, the adjacent frame and current frame image are processed by convolution operation, extract the edge images. Then we compute correlation strength and the value of movement offset. We can complete scene motion parameters estimation by the result, in order to achieve real-time accurate motion detection. We use images in resolution of 768 * 576 and 25Hz frame rate to do the real-time cruise experiment. The results show that the proposed system achieves real

  15. Intercomparison of carbonate chemistry measurements on a cruise in northwestern European shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas-Ribas, M.; Rérolle, V. M. C.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Kitidis, V.; Lee, G. A.; Brown, I.; Achterberg, E. P.; Hardman-Mountford, N. J.; Tyrrell, T.

    2014-08-01

    Four carbonate system variables were measured in surface waters during a cruise aimed at investigating ocean acidification impacts traversing northwestern European shelf seas in the summer of 2011. High-resolution surface water data were collected for partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2; using two independent instruments) and pH using the total pH scale (pHT), in addition to discrete measurements of total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon. We thus overdetermined the carbonate system (four measured variables, two degrees of freedom), which allowed us to evaluate the level of agreement between the variables on a cruise whose main aim was not intercomparison, and thus where conditions were more representative of normal working conditions. Calculations of carbonate system variables from other measurements generally compared well with direct observations of the same variables (Pearson's correlation coefficient always greater than or equal to 0.94; mean residuals were similar to the respective accuracies of the measurements). We therefore conclude that four of the independent data sets of carbonate chemistry variables were of high quality. A diurnal cycle with a maximum amplitude of 41 μatm was observed in the difference between the pCO2 values obtained by the two independent analytical pCO2 systems, and this was partly attributed to irregular seawater flows to the equilibrator and partly to biological activity inside the seawater supply and one of the equilibrators. We discuss how these issues can be addressed to improve carbonate chemistry data quality on future research cruises.

  16. Calabrian Arc Hazards in Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas: First results from the CHIANTI cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranero, Cesar R.; Sallares, Valenti; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Zitellini, Nevio; Scientific Parties, Chianti

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of the CHIANTI cruise was to collect geophysical marine data to determine the deep crustal structure and plate geometry across the subduction system of the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas, from the frontal wedge to the arc and back-arc. The goal is to study the processes that operated during the subduction of the Ionian slab of oceanic crust under Calabria, which lead to the development of the Aeolian volcanic arc, and the subsequent opening of the Tyrrhenian basin, and are responsible of the geological hazards that threaten the region. The CHIANTI cruise onboard the Spanish R/V BO Sarmiento de Gamboa started in Barcelona (Spain) on July 12, and finished in Catania (Italy), on August 28, 2015. It consisted of four legs devoted to acquisition of data with different seismic/acoustic techniques in the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas. Leg 1 and 2 were focused on the acquisition of deep penetrating Wide-Angle Reflection and Refraction Seismic (WAS) data, Leg 3 on Multichannel Seismic (MCS) Reflection data and finally Leg 4 was devoted to sidescan imaging, coring and single channel seismic acquisition. During the entire cruise, complementary acoustic data (i.e. multibeam bathymetry and sub-bottom profiler) were acquired simultaneously. In this presentation we focus on the seafloor mapping and processed multichannel seismic reflection grid collected on the IONIAN prism. The data show abundant evidence of ongoing widespread deformation across the entire region from the deformation front to the uppermost slope and extending into the Calabrian emerged region. The seafloor mapping shows numerous mud volcanoes associated to fault activity. The seismic images display deformational features active across the entire prims at different locations extending the definition of structures described in previous works of the region with fewer areal coverage. The data show a prism tectonic structure that is distinct from the structure of prism in other subduction systems

  17. Optimal energy-utilization ratio for long-distance cruising of a model fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Geng; Yu, Yong-Liang; Tong, Bing-Gang

    2012-07-01

    The efficiency of total energy utilization and its optimization for long-distance migration of fish have attracted much attention in the past. This paper presents theoretical and computational research, clarifying the above well-known classic questions. Here, we specify the energy-utilization ratio (fη) as a scale of cruising efficiency, which consists of the swimming speed over the sum of the standard metabolic rate and the energy consumption rate of muscle activities per unit mass. Theoretical formulation of the function fη is made and it is shown that based on a basic dimensional analysis, the main dimensionless parameters for our simplified model are the Reynolds number (Re) and the dimensionless quantity of the standard metabolic rate per unit mass (Rpm). The swimming speed and the hydrodynamic power output in various conditions can be computed by solving the coupled Navier-Stokes equations and the fish locomotion dynamic equations. Again, the energy consumption rate of muscle activities can be estimated by the quotient of dividing the hydrodynamic power by the muscle efficiency studied by previous researchers. The present results show the following: (1) When the value of fη attains a maximum, the dimensionless parameter Rpm keeps almost constant for the same fish species in different sizes. (2) In the above cases, the tail beat period is an exponential function of the fish body length when cruising is optimal, e.g., the optimal tail beat period of Sockeye salmon is approximately proportional to the body length to the power of 0.78. Again, the larger fish's ability of long-distance cruising is more excellent than that of smaller fish. (3) The optimal swimming speed we obtained is consistent with previous researchers’ estimations.

  18. Cruise report: RV Ocean Alert Cruise A2-98-SC: mapping the southern California continental margin; March 26 through April 11, 1998; San Diego to Long Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of cruise A2-98 was to map portions of the southern California continental margin, including mapping in detail US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ocean dumping sites. Mapping was accomplished using a high-resolution multibeam mapping system. The cruise was a jointly funded project between the USEPA and the US Geological Survey (USGS). The USEPA is specifically interested in a series of ocean dump sites off San Diego, Newport Beach, and Long Beach (see Fig. 1 in report) that require high-resolution base maps for site monitoring purposes. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has several on-going projects off southern California that lack high-precision base maps for a variety of ongoing geological studies. The cruise was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement between the USGS and the Ocean Mapping Group, University of New Brunswick, Canada.

  19. High speed transport cruise drag. [scaling laws using Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This report provides scaling laws for the cruise aerodynamics of high speed transport wings based on the results of Navier-Stokes computations. Expressions for the various drag components are found, together with the corresponding values (L/D)(sub m) for various values of the geometric parameter s/l which allow for simple optimization of the wing configurations with respect to the span. It is found that linear theory expressions can be used for this purpose provided the coefficients of these experiments for C(sub D) and (L/D)(sub m) are available using Navier-Stokes results.

  20. Propulsion system mathematical model for a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, G. L.; Sellers, J. F.; Tinling, B. E.

    1980-01-01

    A propulsion system mathematical model is documented that allows calculation of internal engine parameters during transient operation. A non-realtime digital computer simulation of the model is presented. It is used to investigate thrust response and modulation requirements as well as the impact of duty cycle on engine life and design criteria. Comparison of simulation results with steady-state cycle deck calculations showed good agreement. The model was developed for a specific 3-fan subsonic V/STOL aircraft application, but it can be adapted for use with any similar lift/cruise V/STOL configuration.

  1. Charts for determining potential minimum sonic-boom overpressures for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Charts which give an estimation of minimum achievable sonic-boom levels for supersonic cruise aircraft are presented. A minimization method based on modified linear theory was analyzed. Results show several combinations of Mach number, altitude, and aircraft length and weight. Overpressure and impulse values are given for two types of sonic boom signatures for each of these conditions: (1) a flat top or minimum overpressure signature which has a pressure plateau behind the initial shock, and (2) a minimum shock signature which allows a pressure rise after the initial shock. Results are given for the effects of nose shape.

  2. Engaging Middle School Students in Authentic Research based on a summer research cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manley, J.; Ellins, K. K.; Conte, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    In summer 2010, as a participant in the TXESS Revolution, a National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored professional development program for teachers in support of Earth and Space Science, I participated in a scientific research cruise led by Dr. Maureen Conte of the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS). The primary purpose of the cruise was to collect water samples from different ocean depths, make temperature and conductivity measurements, and retrieve biologic particle debris collection equipment deployed as part of the NSF-sponsored Oceanic Flux Program to measure particle fluxes in the deep Sargasso Sea. A secondary objective involved the collection of plastic debris floating within the sargassum grass trapped in the North Atlantic gyre in order to investigate plastic pollution. As a member of the science team I worked alongside of Dr. Conte, scientists and graduate students, giving me a personal experience to inspire my students' interest in the marine ecosystem. In the classroom, I used a Project Based Learning (PBL) approach to translate my experience and knowledge gained into productive learning for my students. With Project Based Learning, teams of students solve a real world, open-ended challenge problem through research and experimentation. In this Problem, the challenge was to design a virtual product to motivate ordinary people to change their habits regarding their use and improper disposal of plastics. Team products included websites, social network pages, and in-school announcements to create awareness about plastic pollution in the ocean. Fulfilling one of the basic principles of the PBL approach to provide student access to experts, cruise participant and University of North Carolina graduate student Bonnie Monteleone dedicated an entire day to speak with each of my classes about her experiences studying ocean plastics and answer their questions via SKYPE. In addition, Ms. Monteleone used her extensive contacts to post the best of my

  3. Effects of nacelle shape on drag and weight of a supersonic cruising aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.; Mairs, R. Y.; Tyson, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The quantitive relationship of cruise drag and nacelle shape was investigated for a representative advanced supersonic transport configuration. Nacelle shape parameters were systematically varied, and the effects of these variations on wave and friction drag were determined. The effects of changes in vehicle drag, propulsion weight, and specific fuel consumption on vehicle takeoff gross weight were computed. Generally, it was found that nacelle shapes such that the maximum cross-sectional area occurred at or near the nozzle exit resulted in the lowest wave drag. In fact, nacelle shapes were found that produce favorable interference effects (drag reduction) of such magnitude as to nearly offset the friction drag of the nacelle.

  4. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 1: Sections 1 through 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The structural approach best suited for the design of a Mach 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft was investigated. Results, procedures, and principal justification of results are presented. Detailed substantiation data are given. In general, each major analysis is presented sequentially in separate sections to provide continuity in the flow of the design concepts analysis effort. In addition to the design concepts evaluation and the detailed engineering design analyses, supporting tasks encompassing: (1) the controls system development; (2) the propulsion-airframe integration study; and (3) the advanced technology assessment are presented.

  5. Computer-aided methods for analysis and synthesis of supersonic cruise aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Computer-aided methods are reviewed which are being developed by Langley Research Center in-house work and by related grants and contracts. Synthesis methods to size structural members to meet strength and stiffness (flutter) requirements are emphasized and described. Because of the strong interaction among the aerodynamic loads, structural stiffness, and member sizes of supersonic cruise aircraft structures, these methods are combined into systems of computer programs to perform design studies. The approaches used in organizing these systems to provide efficiency, flexibility of use in an iterative process, and ease of system modification are discussed.

  6. Thermal management for a Mach 5 cruise aircraft using endothermic fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.

    1990-01-01

    The present thermal management system for a carrier-based Mach 5 cruise-capable aircraft whose propulsion system does not entail cryogenic fuels is predicated on the use of the catalytic endothermic reaction of a petroleum-derived hydrocarbon fuel as the heat sink for engine cooling. The insulation of engine flowpath surfaces reduces cooling requirements. The primary elements of this closed-cycle cooling system are a fuel preheater, a catalytic fuel reactor, and engine wall-cooling panels; a silicone-based liquid polymer is used as the coolant. Structural, weight, and thermal analysis results are presented for each of the primary components.

  7. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross-section (circular and elliptical) and structural arrangement (integral and nonintegral tanks) on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles was evaluated. It was found that integrally machined stiffening of the tank walls, while providing the most weight-efficient use of materials, results in higher production costs. Fatigue and fracture mechanics appeared to have little effect on the weight of the three study aircraft. The need for thermal strain relief through insulation is discussed. Aircraft size and magnitude of the internal pressure are seen to be significant factors in tank design.

  8. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, L.

    1982-01-01

    Conceptual designs and analyses were conducted on two V/STOL supersonic fighter/attack aircraft. These aircraft feature low footprint temperature and pressure thrust augmenting ejectors in the wings for vertical lift, combined with a low wing loading, low wave drag airframe for outstanding cruise and supersonic performance. Aerodynamic, propulsion, performance, and mass properties were determined and are presented for each aircraft. Aerodynamic and Aero/Propulsion characteristics having the most significant effect on the success of the up and away flight mode were identified, and the certainty with which they could be predicted was defined. A wind tunnel model and test program are recommended to resolve the identified uncertainties.

  9. Fatigue of titanium alloys in a supersonic-cruise airplane environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imig, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    The test programs conducted by several aerospace companies and NASA, summarized in this paper, studied several titanium materials previously identified as having high potential for application to supersonic cruise airplane structures. These studies demonstrate that the temperature (560 K) by itself produced no significant degradation of the materials. However, the fatigue resistance of titanium-alloy structures, in which thermal and loading effects are combined, has been studied insufficiently. The predominant topic for future study of fatigue problems in Mach 3 structures should be the influences of thermal stress particularly, the effects of thermal stress on failure location.

  10. Calibration of Seismic Sources during a Test Cruise with the new RV SONNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, M.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2015-12-01

    During autumn 2014, several test cruises of the brand new German research vessel SONNE were carried out before the first official scientific cruise started in December. In September 2014, BGR conducted a seismic test cruise in the British North Sea. RV SONNE is a multipurpose research vessel and was also designed for the mobile BGR 3D seismic equipment, which was tested successfully during the cruise. We spend two days for calibration of the following seismic sources of BGR: G-gun array (50 l @ 150 bar) G-gun array (50 l @ 207 bar) single GI-gun (3.4 l @ 150 bar) For this experiment two hydrophones (TC4042 from Reson Teledyne) sampling up to 48 kHz were fixed below a drifting buoy at 20 m and 60 m water depth - the sea bottom was at 80 m depth. The vessel with the seismic sources sailed several up to 7 km long profiles around the buoy in order to cover many different azimuths and distances. We aimed to measure sound pressure level (SPL) and sound exposure level (SEL) under the conditions of the shallow North Sea. Total reflections and refracted waves dominate the recorded wave field, enhance the noise level and partly screen the direct wave in contrast to 'true' deep water calibration based solely on the direct wave. Presented are SPL and RMS power results in time domain, the decay with distance along profiles, and the somehow complicated 2D sound radiation pattern modulated by topography. The shading effect of the vessel's hull is significant. In frequency domain we consider 1/3 octave levels and estimate the amount of energy in frequency ranges not used for reflection seismic processing. Results are presented in comparison of the three different sources listed above. We compare the measured SPL decay with distance during this experiment with deep water modeling of seismic sources (Gundalf software) and with published results from calibrations with other marine seismic sources under different conditions: E.g. Breitzke et al. (2008, 2010) with RV Polarstern

  11. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 3: Sections 12 through 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The design of an economically viable supersonic cruise aircraft requires the lowest attainable structural-mass fraction commensurate with the selected near-term structural material technology. To achieve this goal of minimum structural-mass fraction, various combinations of promising wing and fuselage primary structure were analyzed for the load-temperature environment applicable to the arrow wing configuration. This analysis was conducted in accordance with the design criteria specified and included extensive use of computer-aided analytical methods to screen the candidate concepts and select the most promising concepts for the in-depth structural analysis.

  12. New airfoil sections for general aviation aircraft. [cruising and flap development tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A program has been undertaken to develop new airfoil sections suitable for general aviation aircraft, utilizing theoretical and experimental advanced technology developed in recent years primarily for subsonic jet transport and military aircraft. The airfoil development program is one component of the Advanced Technology Light Twin program sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center. Two-dimensional tests of a new airfoil have demonstrated high cruising performance over a fairly wide C sub 1 range, and a C sub 1 max value of 3.69 with Fowler flap and no leading-edge devices. Experimental and theoretical development of additional configurations is under way.

  13. Advanced combustion techniques for controlling NO sub x emissions of high altitude cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Reck, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    An array of experiments designed to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling the emissions of aircraft into the upper atmosphere was discussed. Of particular concern are the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  14. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 4: Sections 15 through 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The analyses performed to provide structural mass estimates for the arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft are presented. To realize the full potential for structural mass reduction, a spectrum of approaches for the wing and fuselage primary structure design were investigated. The objective was: (1) to assess the relative merits of various structural arrangements, concepts, and materials; (2) to select the structural approach best suited for the Mach 2.7 environment; and (3) to provide construction details and structural mass estimates based on in-depth structural design studies. Production costs, propulsion-airframe integration, and advanced technology assessment are included.

  15. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  16. Technology for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen from supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.; Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Various experiments are sponsored and conducted by NASA to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling aircraft engine emissions into the upper atmosphere. Of particular concern are the oxide of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  17. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 2: Sections 7 through 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The materials and advanced producibility methods that offer potential structural mass savings in the design of the primary structure for a supersonic cruise aircraft are identified and reported. A summary of the materials and fabrication techniques selected for this analytical effort is presented. Both metallic and composite material systems were selected for application to a near-term start-of-design technology aircraft. Selective reinforcement of the basic metallic structure was considered as the appropriate level of composite application for the near-term design.

  18. Thermal design study of an air-cooled plug-nozzle system for a supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. S.; Lieberman, A.

    1972-01-01

    A heat-transfer design analysis has been made of an air-cooled plug-nozzle system for a supersonic-cruise aircraft engine. The proposed 10deg half-angle conical plug is sting supported from the turbine frame. Plug cooling is accomplished by convection and film cooling. The flight profile studied includes maximum afterburning from takeoff to Mach 2.7 and supersonic cruise at Mach 2.7 with a low afterburner setting. The calculations indicate that, for maximum afterburning, about 2 percent of the engine primary flow, removed after the second stage of the nine-stage compressor, will adequately cool the plug and sting support. Ram air may be used for cooling during supersonic-cruise operations, however. Therefore, the cycle efficiency penalty paid for air cooling the plug and sting support should be low.

  19. A study of the prediction of cruise noise and laminar flow control noise criteria for subsonic air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, G.; Mungur, P.

    1979-01-01

    General procedures for the prediction of component noise levels incident upon airframe surfaces during cruise are developed. Contributing noise sources are those associated with the propulsion system, the airframe and the laminar flow control (LFC) system. Transformation procedures from the best prediction base of each noise source to the transonic cruise condition are established. Two approaches to LFC/acoustic criteria are developed. The first is a semi-empirical extension of the X-21 LFC/acoustic criteria to include sensitivity to the spectrum and directionality of the sound field. In the second, the more fundamental problem of how sound excites boundary layer disturbances is analyzed by deriving and solving an inhomogeneous Orr-Sommerfeld equation in which the source terms are proportional to the production and dissipation of sound induced fluctuating vorticity. Numerical solutions are obtained and compared with corresponding measurements. Recommendations are made to improve and validate both the cruise noise prediction methods and the LFC/acoustic criteria.

  20. Aerosol optical properties from sky radiometer measurement on board R/V Shirase during the JARE Japan Antarctica cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, M.; Yabuki, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Hara, K.; Osada, K.; Hashida, G.; Sakuraba, T.; Yamano, M.; Muraji, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Sky radiometer measurement on board the Antarctic R/V Shirase has been continued for investigating the aerosol optical properties over the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean and Antarctic Ocean during the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) Japan Antarctica annual cruises since 2000. The Prede POM-01 Mark II sky-radiometer is designed for shipboard measurements and was put on the upper deck of R/V Shirase for full-automatic operations being controlled by a PC placed in a laboratory room during cruises. In this paper, a brief summary of results from the 2000 - 2005 cruises is shown and discussed on optical properties such as the aerosol optical thickness, single scattering albedo, complex refractive index, etc. to be compared with those which have been simultaneously obtained from in-situ measurements with an optical particle counter, an integrating nephelometer and a PSAP for marine boundary layer aerosols, especially in the Asian tropical ocean area.

  1. Shelf Edge Exchange Processes: 2, SEEP2-09, R/V ENDEAVOR cruise 193: Hydrographic data report

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, W.J.; Wilson, C.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    The R/V ENDEAVOR cruise 193, SEEP2-09, took place from 17--23 March 1989 and focused primarily on biological processes in the SEEP2 area. Mooring 1 was recovered and re-deployed and a replacement for mooring 4 was deployed. A 24 hour time series was conducted at mooring 1 to study primary and secondary production. The time series involved sampling nutrients, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll {und a}, zooplankton abundance and distribution and fecal pellet production. Experiments to estimate grazing rates the fecal pellet production of the dominant copepods were also done. MOCNESS tows and box core samples were also taken during the cruise. Sediment and zooplankton data are not reported here. During this cruise 46 CTD casts were made measuring pressure, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence and light transmission. Discrete samples were taken in rosette-mounted Niskin bottles and analyzed for concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll {und a}, dissolved oxygen, and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen.

  2. A brief study of the effects of turbofan-engine bypass ratio on short and long haul cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, A. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A brief study of the effects of turbofan-engine bypass ratio on Breguet cruise range and take-off distance for subsonic cruise aircraft showed significant differences between short- and long-haul aircraft designs. Large thrust lapse rates at high bypass ratios caused severe reductions in cruise range for short-haul aircraft because of increases in propulsion system weight. Long-haul aircraft, with a higher fuel fraction (ratio of propulsion weight plus total fuel weight to gross take-off weight), are less sensitive to propulsion-system weight and, accordingly, were not significantly affected by bypass-ratio variations. Both types of aircraft have shorter take-off distances at higher bypass ratios because of higher take-off thrust-weight ratios.

  3. Cruise-based Multi-factorial Investigation of the Impact of Ocean Acidification on the Pelagic Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. R.; Tyrell, T.

    2012-12-01

    The pelagic ecosystem is a critical component of the earth's biosphere and biogeochemistry. It is also, however, a complex and in many respects poorly understood system. In consequence predicting the likely impact of ocean acidification on the pelagic realm is problematic and predicting the possible secondary biogeochemical effects of these impacts is "challenging". Nonetheless there is a major societal need to predict these impacts and outcomes. Within the UK Ocean Acidification Programme our consortium is tasked with "improving the understanding of the impact of ocean acidification on surface ocean biology, community structure, biogeochemistry and on feedbacks to the climate." To ensure complimentarity with other programmes we have adopted a cruise-based approach. Two cruises have been undertaken; Cruise D366 in summer 2011 around the north west european shelf and Cruise JR271 summer 2012 to the Arctic Ocean. A final cruise, to the Antarctic will be undertaken in January/February 2013. On each cruise we are combining extensive environmental observations, with deck-board incubation experiments. The environmental observations are being made with both continuous sampling techniques and CTD sampling. The cruise tracks have been designed to cross environmental gradients in ocean chemistry and especially in carbonate chemistry. The objective here is to produce a high quality matrix of multiple environmental parameters including fully characterised carbonate chemistry (pH, CO2, DIC and alkalinity are all measured), nutrient chemistry, trace elements, climatically active gases, and TEP, phytoplankton and zooplankton composition and biocalcification. The biocalcification studies include microfabric study of pteropods, in situ calcification rates and integrated morphometric and assemblage composition analysis of coccolithophores. The incubation experiments are being conducted using a dedicated culture facility constructed in a shipping-container lab. This allows large

  4. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 2: Propulsion transmission system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of lift/cruise fan technology aircraft were conceptually designed. One aircraft used turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators, and the other aircraft used variable pitch fans mechanically interconnected to three turboshaft engines. The components of each propulsion transmission system were analyzed and designed to the depth necessary to determine areas of risk, development methods, performance, weights and costs. The types of materials and manufacturing processes were identified to show that the designs followed a low cost approach. The lift/cruise fan thrust vectoring hoods, which are applicable to either aircraft configuration, were also evaluated to assure a low cost/low risk approach.

  5. Cold-flow performance of several variations of a ram-air-cooled plug nozzle for supersonic-cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, D. E.; Nosek, S. M.; Straight, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained with a 21.59 cm (8.5 in.) diameter cold-flow model in a static altitude facility to determine the thrust and pumping characteristics of several variations of a ram-air-cooled plug nozzle. Tests were conducted over a range of nozzle pressure ratios simulating supersonic cruise and takeoff conditions. Primary throat area was also varied to simulate afterburner on and off. Effect of plug size, outer shroud length, primary nozzle geometry, and varying amounts of secondary flow were investigated. At a supersonic cruise pressure ratio of 27, nozzle efficiencies were 99.7 percent for the best configurations.

  6. Education and Outreach in NOAA's Ocean Exploration Program: An Example From a Gulf of Alaska Alvin Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, C.; Keller, R.; Keener-Chavis, P.; Doenges, S.; Fisk, M.; Duncan, R.; Guilderson, T.; Shirley, T.

    2002-12-01

    The report of the President's Panel on Ocean Exploration, Discovering Earth's Final Frontier: A U.S. Strategy for Ocean Exploration, outlined a strategy for a national ocean exploration program that included a strong educational outreach component. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) new Office of Ocean Exploration (OE), now in its second year, is carrying out the recommendations of the President's Panel through exciting exploratory and educational initiatives. With the establishment of OE, NOAA now has a great opportunity to reach out in new ways to teachers, students, and the general public to share the excitement of daily discoveries while at sea and to demonstrate the science behind these exploration initiatives. In 2002, OE sponsored several major exploration initiatives involving AGU scientists in various regions of our world's oceans, such as the Arctic, the Galápagos, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Gulf of Alaska. An excellent example of the broad spectrum of opportunities that can be developed through a research cruise was the Gulf of Alaska Seamount Exploration Expedition (GOASEX). This Alvin submersible cruise included geologists studying how the seamounts formed, biologists studying crab distribution and reproductive strategies, and oceanographers sampling sediments and deep-sea corals for paleo-oceanographic information. Outreach and education products from this cruise were updated frequently on the Ocean Explorer web site, and included detailed lesson plans, logs, images, video clips, maps, and essays from the field so that students and the general public could follow the expedition. This cruise was also used as an educational platform for fisheries observer trainers from the North Pacific Fisheries Observer Training Center, a 5th grade teacher from Illinois, and several undergraduate and graduate students from various institutions. Cruise participants have already shared their experiences with K-12 students and educators, and

  7. Shelf edge exchange processes-II SEEP2-06, R/V Endeavor cruise 186. Hydrographic data report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Behrens, W.J.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1989-12-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. Phase I of SEEP consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984. Phase II focused specifically on the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic bight off the Delmarva Peninsula. Hydrographic data were collected on eight of the six cruises.

  8. Measurement of EM Field Inside a Cruising Aircraft: Potential Problems for the Use of Mobile Phones on Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohmura, A.; Picard, J.; Yonemoto, N.; Yamamoto, K.

    Electromagnetic (EM) emissions from portable electronic devices (PEDs) carried onboard aircraft can interfere with avionic systems. Several onboard systems using EM waves have been planned, such as mobile communications and UWB (ultra-wideband) entertainment services distribution. Manufacturers of this system develop schemes to avoid electromagnetic interference by the transmissions (emissions) of mobile phones with avionic systems; some local-specific problems still remain. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate to what extent non-GSM transmissions from the ground base stations reach inside a cruising aircraft. The EM field at the base station frequency bands is measured in a cruising small aircraft.

  9. Evaluation of a ducted-fan power plant designed for high output and good cruise fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behun, M; Rom, F E; Hensley, R V

    1950-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of performance of a ducted-fan power plant designed both for high-output, high-altitude operation at low supersonic Mach numbers and for good fuel economy at lower fight speeds is presented. Performance of ducted fan is compared with performance (with and without tail-pipe burner) of two hypothetical turbojet engines. At maximum power, the ducted fan has propulsive thrust per unit of frontal area between thrusts obtained by turbojet engines with and without tail-pipe burners. At cruise, the ducted fan obtains lowest thrust specific fuel consumption. For equal maximum thrusts, the ducted fan obtains cruising flight duration and range appreciably greater than turbojet engines.

  10. Initiation of Long-Wave Instability of Vortex Pairs at Cruise Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have usually attributed the initiation of the long-wave instability of a vortex pair to turbulence in the atmosphere or in the wake of the aircraft. The purpose here is to show by use of observations and photographs of condensation trails shed by aircraft at cruise altitudes that another initiating mechanism is not only possible but is usually the mechanism that initiates the long-wave instability at cruise altitudes. The alternate initiating mechanism comes about when engine thrust is robust enough to form an array of circumferential vortices around each jet-engine-exhaust stream. In those cases, initiation begins when the vortex sheet shed by the wing has rolled up into a vortex pair and descended to the vicinity of the inside bottom of the combined shear-layer vortex arrays. It is the in-and-out (up and down) velocity field between sequential circumferential vortices near the bottom of the array that then impresses disturbance waves on the lift-generated vortex pair that initiate the long-wave instability. A time adjustment to the Crow and Bate estimate for vortex linking is then derived for cases when thrust-based linking occurs.

  11. Data report of the DOE-sponsored northwest marine sciences group, September-October 1980 cruise

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, J. R.; Peterson, W. K.; Kitchen, J. C.; Menzies, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    This cruise was part of a continuing program to collect detailed information on the processes affecting plankton productivity, abundance, and distribution off the Washington coast, and on the chemistry, distribution, and flux of particulate material in these waters. The sampling program for this cruise was designed to determine the effect of the Quinault Canyon on the biology, chemistry, hydrography, and flux of particulate material in Washington coastal waters. The field program had three major components: Leg I, concerned with the deployment of current meters and measurement of water properties in the vicinity of Quinault Canyon; Leg II, predominantly a transect or survey phase; and Leg III, intensive sampling at a smaller number of sites to investigate important processes and rates. The intensive investigations focused on rates of important processes involved in transfer of energy and biomass in pelagic ecosystems and included measures of phytoplankton productivity, zooplankton grazing rates, microbial activity, flux of organic matter and suspended particulates, and characteristics of a near-bottom nepheloid layer. (ERB)

  12. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Project Work in Supersonic Cruise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA?s Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2011) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  13. Cruise report for A1-02-SC southern California CABRILLO project, Earthquake Hazards Task

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, William R.; Fisher, Michael A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Sliter, Ray; Hibbeler, Lori; Feingold, Beth; Reid, Jane A.

    2003-01-01

    A two-week marine geophysical survey obtained sidescan-sonar images and multiple sets of high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles in the southern California offshore area between Point Arguello and Point Dume. The data were obtained to support two project activities of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) Program: (1) the evaluation of the geologic hazards posed by earthquake faults and landslides in the offshore areas of Santa Barbara Channel and western Santa Monica Basin and (2) determine the location of active hydrocarbon seeps in the vicinity of Point Conception as part of a collaborative study with the Minerals Management Service (MMS). The 2002 cruise, A1-02- SC, is the fourth major data-collection effort in support of the first objective (Normark et al., 1999a, b; Gutmacher et al., 2000). A cruise to obtain sediment cores to constrain the timing of deformation interpreted from the geophysical records is planned for the summer of 2003.

  14. Impact of Interstellar Vehicle Acceleration and Cruise Velocity on Total Mission Mass and Trip Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    Far-term interstellar missions, like their near-term solar system exploration counterparts, seek to minimize overall mission trip time and transportation system mass. Trip time is especially important in interstellar missions because of the enormous distances between stars and the finite limit of the speed of light (c). In this paper, we investigate the impact of vehicle acceleration and maximum or cruise velocity (Vcruise) on the total mission trip time. We also consider the impact that acceleration has on the transportation system mass (M) and power (P) (e.g., acceleration approx. power/mass and mass approx. power), as well as the impact that the cruise velocity has on the vehicle mass (e.g., the total mission change in velocity ((Delta)V) approx. Vcruise). For example, a Matter-Antimatter Annihilation Rocket's wet mass (Mwet) with propellant (Mp) will be a function of the dry mass of the vehicle (Mdry) and (Delta)V through the Rocket Equation. Similarly, a laser-driven LightSail's sail mass and laser power and mass will be a function of acceleration, Vcruise, and power-beaming distance (because of the need to focus the laser beam over interstellar distances).

  15. Data report of the DOE-sponsored Northwest Marine Sciences Group July-August 1979 cruise

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, J.R.; Peterson, W.K.; Kitchen, J.C.; Menzies, D.W.

    1980-11-01

    This cruise was part of a continuing program to collect detailed information on the processes affecting plankton productivity, abundance, and distribution off the Washington coast, and on the chemistry, distribution, and flux of particulate material in these waters. The sampling program for this cruise was designed to determine the effect of the Quinault Canyon on the biology, chemistry, hydrography, and flux of particulate material in Washington coastal waters. The field program had two major components: Leg I, predominantly a transect or survey phase; and Leg II, intensive sampling at a smaller number of sites to investigate important processes and rates. The transect phase provided an overview of biological and hydrographic parameters over a large region of the coastal zone. The information collected during Leg I provided the bases for selecting sites for intensive sampling on Leg II and also provided a broader geographical data base for interpreting and extrapolating the results of the intensive studies of Leg II. The intensive investigations focused on rates of important processes involved in transfer of energy and biomass in pelagic ecosystems and includes measures of phytoplankton productivity, zooplankton grazing rates, microbial activity, flux of organic matter and suspended particulates, and concentrations of trace metals and hydrocarbons.

  16. Intercomparison of carbonate chemistry measurements on a cruise in northwestern European shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas-Ribas, M.; Rérolle, V. M. C.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Kitidis, V.; Lee, G. A.; Brown, I.; Achterberg, E. P.; Tyrrell, T.

    2014-02-01

    Four carbonate system variables were measured in surface waters during a cruise traversing northwestern European shelf seas in the summer of 2011. High resolution surface water data were collected for partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2; using two independent instruments) and pHT, in addition to discrete measurements of total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon. We thus overdetermined the carbonate system (four measured variables, two degrees of freedom) which allowed us to evaluate the level of agreement between the variables. Calculations of carbonate system variables from other measurements generally compared well (Pearson's correlation coefficient always ≳ 0.94; mean residuals similar to the respective uncertainties of the calculations) with direct observations of the same variables. We therefore conclude that the four independent datasets of carbonate chemistry variables were all of high quality, and as a result that this dataset is suitable to be used for the evaluation of ocean acidification impacts and for carbon was observed in the difference between the pCO2; values obtained by the two independent analytical pCO2; systems, and this was partly attributed to irregular seawater flows to the equilibrator and partly to biological activity inside the seawater supply and one of the equilibrators. We discuss how these issues can be addressed to improve carbonate chemistry data quality on research cruises.

  17. Flying and swimming animals cruise at a Strouhal number tuned for high power efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Graham K.; Nudds, Robert L.; Thomas, Adrian L. R.

    2003-10-01

    Dimensionless numbers are important in biomechanics because their constancy can imply dynamic similarity between systems, despite possible differences in medium or scale. A dimensionless parameter that describes the tail or wing kinematics of swimming and flying animals is the Strouhal number, St = fA/U, which divides stroke frequency (f) and amplitude (A) by forward speed (U). St is known to govern a well-defined series of vortex growth and shedding regimes for airfoils undergoing pitching and heaving motions. Propulsive efficiency is high over a narrow range of St and usually peaks within the interval 0.2 < St < 0.4 (refs 3-8). Because natural selection is likely to tune animals for high propulsive efficiency, we expect it to constrain the range of St that animals use. This seems to be true for dolphins, sharks and bony fish, which swim at 0.2 < St < 0.4. Here we show that birds, bats and insects also converge on the same narrow range of St, but only when cruising. Tuning cruise kinematics to optimize St therefore seems to be a general principle of oscillatory lift-based propulsion.

  18. Heavy ion observations by MARIE in cruise phase and Mars orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. T.; Cleghorn, T.; Cucinotta, F.; Pinsky, L.; Zeitlin, C.

    2004-01-01

    The charged particle spectrum for nuclei from protons to neon, (charge Z=10) was observed during the cruise phase and orbit around Mars by the MARIE charged particle spectrometer on the Odyssey spacecraft. The cruise data were taken between April 23, 2001 and mid-August 2001. The Mars orbit data were taken March 5, 2002 through May 2002 and are scheduled to continue until August 2004. Charge peaks are clearly separated for charges up to Z=10. Especially prominent are the carbon and oxygen peaks, with boron and nitrogen also clearly visible. Although heavy ions are much less abundant than protons in the cosmic ray environment, it is important to determine their abundances because their ionization energy losses (proportional to Z2) are far more dangerous to humans and to instruments. Thus the higher charged nuclei make a significant contribution to dose and dose equivalent received in space. Results of the charged particle spectrum measurements will be reported. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Charged Particle Measurements on Mars and during Cruise with the Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehresmann, B.; Hassler, D.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Appel, J. K.; Brinza, D.; Burmeister, S.; Boehm, E.; Boettcher, S.; Guo, J.; Kohler, J.; Lohf, H.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Rafkin, S. C.; Reitz, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), has been successfully measuring the energetic particle radiation on the Martian surface since the landing of the Curiosity rover in Gale crater. Furthermore, RAD was already operating for large parts of the ~250-day cruise to Mars, measuring the radiation environment inside the spacecraft. Detailed knowledge of particle-type-dependent energy spectra is important for several reasons. E.g., for one measured differential particle fluxes can be used to validate and evaluate transport models currently used to estimate the radiation exposure on the Martian surface. Another important point of knowing the energy spectra of individual ion species is their differing biological effectiveness in terms of assessing radiation exposure risks for future manned missions to Mars. Here, we will present differential fluxes for different ion species, both for the cruise and the surface phase. As the energy range of these spectra is limited by the maximum energy with that a particle can stop in one of RAD's detectors, we will show integral fluxes for energies above these upper limits where the total energy of the detected particle is not known.

  20. Sensitivity of transport aircraft performance and economics to advanced technology and cruise Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    Sensitivity data for advanced technology transports has been systematically collected. This data has been generated in two separate studies. In the first of these, three nominal, or base point, vehicles designed to cruise at Mach numbers .85, .93, and .98, respectively, were defined. The effects on performance and economics of perturbations to basic parameters in the areas of structures, aerodynamics, and propulsion were then determined. In all cases, aircraft were sized to meet the same payload and range as the nominals. This sensitivity data may be used to assess the relative effects of technology changes. The second study was an assessment of the effect of cruise Mach number. Three families of aircraft were investigated in the Mach number range 0.70 to 0.98: straight wing aircraft from 0.70 to 0.80; sweptwing, non-area ruled aircraft from 0.80 to 0.95; and area ruled aircraft from 0.90 to 0.98. At each Mach number, the values of wing loading, aspect ratio, and bypass ratio which resulted in minimum gross takeoff weight were used. As part of the Mach number study, an assessment of the effect of increased fuel costs was made.

  1. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Propulsion Work in the Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Technical Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2012) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  2. Trace gas measurements over the northwest Pacific during the 2002 IOC cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shungo; Ui, Takeshi; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2007-06-01

    The R/V Melville cruised from Osaka (Japan) on 1 May and reached Hawaii on 5 June on a project for the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) in 2002. During this cruise, the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases (O3, CO, DMS, hydrocarbons, and halocarbons) were measured. Air at high latitudes and low latitudes exhibited starkly different characteristics regarding their chemical composition. The concentrations of anthropogenic species clearly decreased from high latitude to low latitude. On the other hand, biogenic species such as DMS and alkenes were highly abundant at lower latitudes. Backward air trajectories show that the northwestern continental air mass was dominant at higher latitudes and the eastern marine air mass was dominant at lower latitudes. However, the long-range transport of pollutants to clean regions near Hawaii was also observed. The ratios of ethane to CO decreased from high latitude to low latitude. On the basis of a VOC ratio analysis, the benzene concentration is relatively higher at low latitudes. DMS concentrations and wind speed at low latitudes have good correlation. This indicates that at low latitudes, the DMS concentration at the ocean surface is roughly uniform.

  3. Exploratory studies of the cruise performance of upper surface blown configurations. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braden, J. A.; Hancock, J. P.; Hackett, J. E.; Burdges, K. P.; Lyman, V.

    1980-01-01

    The data and major conclusions obtained from an experimental/analytical study of upper-surface blown (USB) configurations at cruise are summarized. The high-speed (subsonic) experimental work, studying the aerodynamic effects of wing-nacelle geometric variations, was conducted around semi-span model configurations composed of diversified, interchangeable components. Power simulation was provided by high pressure air ducted through closed forebody nacelles. Nozzle geometry was varied across size, exit aspect ratio, exit position and boattail angle. Both 3-D force and 2-D pressure measurements were obtained at cruise Mach numbers from 0.5 to 0.8 and at nozzle pressure ratios up to about 3.0. The experimental investigation was supported by an analytical synthesis of the system using a vortex lattice representation with first-order power effects. Results are also presented from a compatibility study in which a short-haul transport is designed on the basis of the aerodynamic findings in the experimental study as well as acoustical data obtained in a concurrent program. High-lift test data are used to substantiate the projected performance of the selected transport design.

  4. Mercury in the North Atlantic - results of the 2014 GEOTRACES GEOVIDE cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbürger, L. E.; Cossa, D.; Sonke, J.; Lacan, F.; Lherminier, P.; Sarthou, G.

    2014-12-01

    We will present results of the recent French-led GEOTRACES GEOVIDE cruise in the North Atlantic Ocean. Research vessel "Pourquoi Pas?" sailed on 15 May from Lisbon, Portugal to Greenland to arrive in Newfoundland, Canada on 30 June 2014. The North Atlantic Current carries the warm subtropical waters northward. They are progressively cooled and eventually reach the formation regions of the North Atlantic Deep Waters in the Labrador and Greenland Seas. This water mass movement drives the Meridional Ocean Circulation and Earth climate. Ongoing climate change makes this a zone of particular interest. Previous OVIDE cruises along the same transect gathered valuable data to investigate temporal changes. This zone also receives atmospheric deposition from Europe and North America where industrial Hg emissions peaked in the 1970s. Here we investigate how climate may impact mercury's marine biogeochemical cycle, how anthropogenic mercury makes its way into the ocean interior and whether the temporal evolution of mercury emissions is traceable in water masses of different ages. Total mercury was sampled using an ultra-trace clean rosette and determined on board in a class100 clean container following the US EPA 1631 method. Along the >4500km-transect we established full-depth total mercury profiles on 31 stations totaling 530 data points. Average total mercury concentrations were 0.58±0.20pM and showed a general decreasing trend westwards and increased with depth.

  5. Flying and swimming animals cruise at a Strouhal number tuned for high power efficiency.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graham K; Nudds, Robert L; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2003-10-16

    Dimensionless numbers are important in biomechanics because their constancy can imply dynamic similarity between systems, despite possible differences in medium or scale. A dimensionless parameter that describes the tail or wing kinematics of swimming and flying animals is the Strouhal number, St = fA/U, which divides stroke frequency (f) and amplitude (A) by forward speed (U). St is known to govern a well-defined series of vortex growth and shedding regimes for airfoils undergoing pitching and heaving motions. Propulsive efficiency is high over a narrow range of St and usually peaks within the interval 0.2 < St < 0.4 (refs 3-8). Because natural selection is likely to tune animals for high propulsive efficiency, we expect it to constrain the range of St that animals use. This seems to be true for dolphins, sharks and bony fish, which swim at 0.2 < St < 0.4. Here we show that birds, bats and insects also converge on the same narrow range of St, but only when cruising. Tuning cruise kinematics to optimize St therefore seems to be a general principle of oscillatory lift-based propulsion. PMID:14562101

  6. Optimum Climb to Cruise Noise Trajectories for the High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2003-01-01

    By entraining large quantities of ambient air into advanced ejector nozzles, the jet noise of the proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) is expected to be reduced to levels acceptable for airport-vicinity noise certification. Away from the airport, however, this entrained air is shut off and the engines are powered up from their cutback levels to provide better thrust for the climb to cruise altitude. Unsuppressed jet noise levels propagating to the ground far from the airport are expected to be high. Complicating this problem is the HSCT's relative noise level with respect to the subsonic commercial fleet of 2010, which is expected to be much quieter than it is today after the retirement of older, louder, domestic stage II aircraft by the year 2000. In this study, the classic energy state approximation theory is extended to calculate trajectories that minimize the climb to cruise noise of the HSCT. The optimizer dynamically chooses the optimal altitude velocity trajectory, the engine power setting, and whether the ejector should be stowed or deployed with respect to practical aircraft climb constraints and noise limits.

  7. The impact of materials technology and operational constraints on the economics of cruise speed selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, J. S., Jr.; Bruckman, F. A.; Horning, D. L.; Johnston, R. H.; Werner, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    Six material concepts at Mach 2.0 and three material concepts at Mach 2.55 were proposed. The resulting evaluations, based on projected development, production, and operating costs, indicate that aircraft designs with advanced composites as the primary material ingredient have the lowest fare premiums at both Mach 2.0 and 2.55. Designs having advanced metallics as the primary material ingredient are not economical. Advanced titanium, employing advanced manufacturing methods such as SFF/DB, requires a fare premium of about 30 percent at both Mach 2.0 and 2.55. Advanced aluminum, usable only at the lower Mach number, requires a fare premium of 20 percent. Cruise speeds in the Mach 2.0-2.3 regime are preferred because of the better economics and because of the availability of two material concepts to reduce program risk - advanced composites and advanced aluminums. This cruise speed regime also avoids the increase in risk associated with the more complex inlets and airframe systems and higher temperature composite matrices required at the higher Mach numbers typified by Mach 2.55.

  8. Design study of structural concepts for an arrow-wing supersonic-cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.; Robinson, J. C.; Yates, E. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to determine the best structural approach for design of primary wing and fuselage structure of a Mach number 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft. Concepts were evaluated considering near-term start-of-design. Emphasis was placed on the complex interactions between thermal stress, static aeroelasticity, flutter, fatigue and fail-safe design, static and dynamic loads, and the effects of variations in structural arrangements, concepts and materials on these interactions. Results indicate that a hybrid wing structure incorporating low-profile convex-beaded and honeycomb sandwich surface panels of titanium alloy 6Al-4V were the most efficient. The substructure includes titanium alloy spar caps reinforced with Boron-polyimide composites. The fuselage shell is a closed-hat stiffened skin and frame construction of titanium alloy 6Al-4V. This paper presents an executive summary of the study effort, and includes a discussion of the overall study logic, design philosophy and interaction between the analytical methods for supersonic cruise aircraft design.

  9. The Teachers at Sea program during the CIRCEA cruise of the R/V Marion Dufresne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Sanchez Morante, Ana; Kissel, Catherine; Leau, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    With the support of the French Polar Institute (IPEV) and EGU, two teachers from Spain and France were able to participate to the CIRCEA (CIRCulation in East Asian seas) cruise of the R/V Marion Dufresne in the South China Sea, departing and arriving in Singapore. On board, the two teachers participated to all the scientific activities, including together with the scientists and technicians, to two 4-hours shifts per day (8h total per day). During these shifts, they were involved in every step of the process of obtaining the cores, cutting, opening and labelling them, archiving, and measuring some of the physical parameters, and finally sediment description. It was possible to establish almost daily reports of the scientific progress of the cruise and to send regular logs to the participating land-based teachers in different schools mainly in Europe and in the USA, taking advantage of a list of addresses of teachers having participated to the Geosciences Information for teachers (GIFT) workshops of the European Geosciences Union. This should bring authentic science in the classroom, and indeed we received enthusiastic responses from many teachers. Also, a video report of the different aspects of the life on board was realized by Ana Morante (the teacher from Spain) and Carlo Laj (Chair of the Committee on Education of EGU) which will be shown during the GIFT workshop and during the General Assembly of EGU at the IPEV booth.

  10. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 2; AMT-5 Cruise Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Aiken, James; Cummings, Denise G.; Gibb, Stuart W.; Rees, Nigel W.; Woodd-Walker, Rachel; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Woolfenden, James; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Dempsey, Cyril D.; Suggett, David J.; Wood, Peter; Donlon, Craig; Gonzalez-Benitez, Natalia; Huskin, Ignacio; Quevedo, Mario; Barciela-Fernandez, Rosa; deVargas, Colomban; McKee, Connor

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities on board the Royal Research Ship (RRS) James Clark Ross (JCR) during the fifth Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT-5), 14 September to 17 October 1997. There are three objectives of the AMT Program. The first is to derive an improved understanding of the links between biogeochemical processes, biogenic gas exchange, air-sea interactions, and the effects on, and responses of, oceanic ecosystems to climate change. The second is to investigate the functional roles of biological particles and processes that influence ocean color in ecosystem dynamics. The Program relates directly to algorithm development and the validation of remotely-sensed observations of ocean color. Because the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) instrument achieved operational status during the cruise (on 18 September), AMT-5 was designated the SeaWiFS Atlantic Characterization Experiment (SeaACE) and was the only major research cruise involved in the validation of SeaWiFS data during the first 100 days of operations. The third objective involved the near-real time reporting of in situ light and pigment observations to the SeaWiFS Project, so the performance of the satellite sensor could be determined.

  11. Hydrocarbon gases in Baikal bottom sediments: preliminary results of the Second international Class@Baikal cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidischeva, Olesya; Akhmanov, Grigorii; Khlystov, Oleg; Giliazetdinova, Dina

    2016-04-01

    In July 2015 the research cruise in the waters of Lake Baikal was carried out onboard RV "G.Yu. Vereshchagin". The expedition was organized by Lomonosov Moscow State University and Limnological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. The main purpose of the expedition was to study the modern sedimentation and natural geological processes on the bottom of Lake Baikal. One of the tasks of the cruise was to conduct gas-geochemical survey of bottom sediments. The samples of hydrocarbon gases were collected during the cruise. Subsequent study of the composition and origin of the sampled gas was carried out in the laboratories of Moscow State University. 708 samples from 61 bottom sampling stations were studied. Analyzed samples are from seven different areas located in the southern and central depressions of the lake: (1) "Goloustnoe" seepage area; (2) Bolshoy mud volcano; (3) Elovskiy Area; (4) "Krasny Yar" Seep; (5) "St. Petersburg" Seep; (6) Khuray deep-water depositional system; and (7) Kukuy Griva (Ridge) area. The results of molecular composition analysis indicate that hydrocarbon gases in bottom sediments from almost all sampling stations are represented mostly by pure methane. Ethane was detected only in some places within "Krasny Yar", "Goloustnoe" and "St. Petersburg" seepage areas. The highest concentrations of methane were registered in the sediments from the "Krasny Yar" area - 14 457 μl/l (station TTR-BL15-146G) - and from the "St. Petersburg" area - 13 684 μl/l (station TTR-BL15-125G). The sediments with high concentrations of gases were sampled from active fluid discharge areas, which also can be well distinguished on the seismic profiles. Gas hydrates were obtained in the areas of "Krasny Yar", "Goloustnoe", and "St. Petersburg" seeps and in the area of the Bolshoy mud volcano. Isotopic composition δ13C(CH4) was studied for 100 samples of hydrocarbon gases collected in areas with high methane concentration in bottom sediments. The average value is

  12. An Update on the RV Knorr Long Coring System after Seven Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, W. B.; Broda, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Following sea trials in 2007, the long core system on RV Knorr began scientific operations in 2009 with two cruises to the equatorial Pacific and followed in 2010 with four cruises in the equatorial and North Atlantic. KNR195-3 (D’Hondt Chief Scientist) followed an equatorial Pacific track line from Costa Rica to Hawaii and recovered nineteen piston cores ranging in length from 18 to 41 m. KNR195-5 (Herbert Chief Scientist) cored near the Galapagos, on the Peru margin and near the Carnegie Ridge, recovering nine piston cores ranging in length from 8 to nearly 43 m. KNR197-3 (Oppo/Curry Co-chief Scientists) cored along the northern slope of Demerara Rise in water depths ranging from 550 m to 3100 m and recovered twelve piston cores in lengths from 25 to 32 m. KNR197-4 (Baker Chief Scientist) recovered nine cores in lengths ranging from 24 to 32 m from the Amazon Fan and nearby equatorial Atlantic. KNR197-10 and KNR198-1 (Keigwin Chief Scientist for both) operated near the Mid Atlantic Ridge east of the Azores, the Grand Banks and along the slope SE of New England. Seventeen piston cores were recovered ranging in length from 24 to 39 m. In total (including the sea trials cruise) sixty seven piston cores have been recovered. Of these, three were greater than 40 m in length, fifteen were between 35 and 40 m, thirteen were between 30 and 35 m, twenty eight were between 25 and 30 m, and eight were shorter than 25 m. The longest cores recovered were in Pacific Ocean oozes far from the continents and in sedimentary drift deposits at the Bermuda Rise and Corner Rise in the Atlantic Ocean. Nearer to the continents, core lengths were 25 to 32 m, limited for the most part by poorer core penetration into the coarse-grained continental margin sediments. One long core was lost during operations because of a water column trip which parted a pendant connecting the release system with the core. The core recoveries are comparable to core lengths of the original Giant Piston Core on

  13. MSL-RAD Dosimetry Measurements in Cruise and on Mars: Calibration and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlin, C. J.; Hassler, D. M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) was the first MSL science instrument to start collecting data, with data acquisition commencing 10 days after launch and continuing until the final three weeks of the cruise phase. RAD resumed data-taking on the first sol on Mars, returning the first-ever detailed measurements of cosmic radiation from the surface of another planet. Coincidentally, but appropriately, RAD's first measurements on Mars were taken on the 100th anniversary of the balloon flight experiment by Victor Hess, from which the existence of cosmic rays was deduced. RAD is an advanced and unique flight instrument. It combines charged- and neutral-particle measurement capabilities in an extremely compact, low-mass package. RAD contains six detectors, three of which (A, B, and C) are silicon diodes arranged as a telescope, with the other three (D, E, and F) being scintillators. Two of the scintillators, E and F, are made of Bicron BC-432m plastic; the other, D, is made of CsI for efficient gamma-ray detection. To minimize RAD's telemetry requirements, the instrument processes its data in real time and populates a number of histograms, sorting events into broad categories of penetrating charged particles, stopping charged particles, and neutral particles. There is also a group of histograms referred to as the "dosimetry" histograms. These include minute-by-minute totals of energy deposition in the B and E detectors, as well as LET spectra for charged particles in the telescope field of view. In this presentation, we will describe the methodology used to turn the onboard histograms into properly normalized dosimetric quantities, and show results expressed as time series of dose rates in silicon and tissue, and dose-equivalent rates in tissue. Interpretation of the dosimetry data depends on understanding the effects of the shielding around RAD, which is substantial, both in cruise (spacecraft mass) and on the surface of Mars (atmosphere). This shielding

  14. Using macroalgal δ15N bioassay to detect cruise ship waste water effluent inputs in Skagway, AK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking sources of N to marine ecosystems. I used green macroalgae as a bioassay organism to evaluate if the δ15N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in Skagway Harbor, AK. Opportunistic green...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  19. Experimental and analytical investigations to improve low-speed performance and stability and control characteristics of supersonic cruise fighter vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, A. B.

    1977-01-01

    Small- and large-scale models of supersonic cruise fighter vehicles were used to determine the effectiveness of airframe/propulsion integration concepts for improved low-speed performance and stability and control characteristics. Computer programs were used for engine/airframe sizing studies to yield optimum vehicle performance.

  20. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  5. Spatial Pattern Analysis of Cruise Ship-Humpback Whale Interactions in and Near Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Karin; Gende, Scott M.; Logsdon, Miles G.; Klinger, Terrie

    2012-01-01

    Understanding interactions between large ships and large whales is important to estimate risks posed to whales by ships. The coastal waters of Alaska are a summer feeding area for humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae) as well as a prominent destination for large cruise ships. Lethal collisions between cruise ships and humpback whales have occurred throughout Alaska, including in Glacier Bay National Park (GBNP). Although the National Park Service (NPS) establishes quotas and operating requirements for cruise ships within GBNP in part to minimize ship-whale collisions, no study has quantified ship-whale interactions in the park or in state waters where ship traffic is unregulated. In 2008 and 2009, an observer was placed on ships during 49 different cruises that included entry into GBNP to record distance and bearing of whales that surfaced within 1 km of the ship's bow. A relative coordinate system was developed in ArcGIS to model the frequency of whale surface events using kernel density. A total of 514 whale surface events were recorded. Although ship-whale interactions were common within GBNP, whales frequently surfaced in front of the bow in waters immediately adjacent to the park (west Icy Strait) where cruise ship traffic is not regulated by the NPS. When ships transited at speeds >13 knots, whales frequently surfaced closer to the ship's midline and ship's bow in contrast to speeds slower than 13 knots. Our findings confirm that ship speed is an effective mitigation measure for protecting whales and should be applied to other areas where ship-whale interactions are common.

  6. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in Gliding Postures at Their Cruise Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Sagong, Woong; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2013-01-01

    The sailfish and swordfish are known as the fastest sea animals, reaching their maximum speeds of around 100 km/h. In the present study, we investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of these fishes in their cruise speeds of about 1 body length per second. We install a taxidermy specimen of each fish in a wind tunnel, and measure the drag on its body and boundary-layer velocity above its body surface at the Reynolds number corresponding to its cruising condition. The drag coefficients of the sailfish and swordfish based on the free-stream velocity and their wetted areas are measured to be 0.0075 and 0.0091, respectively, at their cruising conditions. These drag coefficients are very low and comparable to those of tuna and pike and smaller than those of dogfish and small-size trout. On the other hand, the long bill is one of the most distinguished features of these fishes from other fishes, and we study its role on the ability of drag modification. The drag on the fish without the bill or with an artificially-made shorter one is slightly smaller than that with the original bill, indicating that the bill itself does not contribute to any drag reduction at its cruise speed. From the velocity measurement near the body surface, we find that at the cruise speed flow separation does not occur over the whole body even without the bill, and the boundary layer flow is affected only at the anterior part of the body by the bill. PMID:24312547

  7. Study of metallic structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    A structural design study was made, to assess the relative merits of various metallic structural concepts and materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. Preliminary studies were made to ensure compliance of the configuration with general design criteria, integrate the propulsion system with the airframe, select structural concepts and materials, and define an efficient structural arrangement. An advanced computerized structural design system was used, in conjunction with a relatively large, complex finite element model, for detailed analysis and sizing of structural members to satisfy strength and flutter criteria. A baseline aircraft design was developed for assessment of current technology. Criteria, analysis methods, and results are presented. The effect on design methods of using the computerized structural design system was appraised, and recommendations are presented concerning further development of design tools, development of materials and structural concepts, and research on basic technology.

  8. Mathematical model for lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft simulator programming data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, M. P.; Fajfar, B.; Konsewicz, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    Simulation data are reported for the purpose of programming the flight simulator for advanced aircraft for tests of the lift/cruise fan V/STOL Research Technology Aircraft. These simulation tests are to provide insight into problem areas which are encountered in operational use of the aircraft. A mathematical model is defined in sufficient detail to represent all the necessary pertinent aircraft and system characteristics. The model includes the capability to simulate two basic versions of an aircraft propulsion system: (1) the gas coupled configuration which uses insulated air ducts to transmit power between gas generators and fans in the form of high energy engine exhaust and (2) the mechanically coupled power system which uses shafts, clutches, and gearboxes for power transmittal. Both configurations are modeled such that the simulation can include vertical as well as rolling takeoff and landing, hover, powered lift flight, aerodynamic flight, and the transition between powered lift and aerodynamic flight.

  9. Preliminary design-lift/cruise fan research and technology airplane flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotlieb, P.; Lewis, G. E.; Little, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of a stability augmentation system for a NASA V/STOL research and technology airplane. This stability augmentation system is postulated as the simplest system that meets handling qualities levels for research and technology missions flown by NASA test pilots. The airplane studied in this report is a T-39 fitted with tilting lift/cruise fan nacelles and a nose fan. The propulsion system features a shaft interconnecting the three variable pitch fans and three power plants. The mathematical modeling is based on pre-wind tunnel test estimated data. The selected stability augmentation system uses variable gains scheduled with airspeed. Failure analysis of the system illustrates the benign effect of engine failure. Airplane rate sensor failure must be solved with redundancy.

  10. Noise and performance calibration study of a Mach 2.2 supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.; Maglieri, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The baseline configuration of a Mach 2.2 supersonic cruise concept employing a 1980 - 1985 technology level, dry turbojet, mechanically suppressed engine, was calibrated to identify differences in noise levels and performance as determined by the methodology and ground rules used. In addition, economic and noise information is provided consistent with a previous study based on an advanced technology Mach 2.7 configuration, reported separately. Results indicate that the difference between NASA and manufacturer performance methodology is small. Resizing the aircraft to NASA groundrules results in negligible changes in takeoff noise levels (less than 1 EPNdB) but approach noise is reduced by 5.3 EPNdB as a result of increasing approach speed. For the power setting chosen, engine oversizing resulted in no reduction in traded noise. In terms of summated noise level, a 6 EPNdB reduction is realized for a 5% increase in total operating costs.

  11. Fabrication methods for YF-12 wing panels for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. L.; Payne, L.; Carter, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    Advanced fabrication and joining processes for titanium and composite materials are being investigated by NASA to develop technology for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program. With Lockheed-ADP as the prime contractor, full-scale structural panels are being designed and fabricated to replace an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 aircraft. The program involves ground testing and Mach 3 flight testing of full-scale structural panels and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Fabrication methods and test results for weldbrazed and Rohrbond titanium panels are discussed. The fabrication methods being developed for boron/aluminum, Borsic/aluminum, and graphite/polyimide panels are also presented.

  12. Fabrication and evaluation of advanced titanium structural panels for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, L.

    1977-01-01

    Flightworthy primary structural panels were designed, fabricated, and tested to investigate two advanced fabrication methods for titanium alloys. Skin-stringer panels fabricated using the weldbraze process, and honeycomb-core sandwich panels fabricated using a diffusion bonding process, were designed to replace an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 research aircraft. The investigation included ground testing and Mach 3 flight testing of full-scale panels, and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Test results obtained on full-scale panels and structural element specimens indicate that both of the fabrication methods investigated are suitable for primary structural applications on future civil and military supersonic cruise aircraft.

  13. Evaluation of a Guideline by Formal Modelling of Cruise Control System in Event-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeganefard, Sanaz; Butler, Michael; Rezazadeh, Abdolbaghi

    2010-01-01

    Recently a set of guidelines, or cookbook, has been developed for modelling and refinement of control problems in Event-B. The Event-B formal method is used for system-level modelling by defining states of a system and events which act on these states. It also supports refinement of models. This cookbook is intended to systematize the process of modelling and refining a control problem system by distinguishing environment, controller and command phenomena. Our main objective in this paper is to investigate and evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of this cookbook by following it throughout the formal modelling of cruise control system found in cars. The outcomes are identifying the benefits of the cookbook and also giving guidance to its future users.

  14. Meteorological observations from ship cruises during summer to the central Arctic: A comparison with reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüpkes, C.; Vihma, T.; Jakobson, E.; König-Langlo, G.; Tetzlaff, A.

    2010-05-01

    Near-surface meteorological observations and rawinsonde soundings from Arctic cruises with the German icebreaker RV Polarstern during August 1996, 2001, and 2007 are compared with each other and with ERA-Interim reanalyses. Although the observations are usually applied in the reanalysis, they differ considerably from ERA data. ERA overestimates the relative humidity and temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer and the base height of the capping inversion. Warm biases of ERA near-surface temperatures amount up to 2 K. The melting point of snow is the most frequent near-surface temperature in ERA, while the observed value is the sea water freezing temperature. Both observations and ERA show that above 400 m, in the North Atlantic sector 0-90 E, the warmest August occurred in 2001, and August 2007 had the highest humidity. In the Eastern Siberian and Beaufort Sea region ERA temperatures along 80 and 85 N were highest in 2007.

  15. Design of an adaptive backstepping controller for auto-berthing a cruise ship under wind loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Yong; Kim, Nakwan

    2014-06-01

    The auto-berthing of a ship requires excellent control for safe accomplishment. Crabbing, which is the pure sway motion of a ship without surge velocity, can be used for this purpose. Crabbing is induced by a peculiar operation procedure known as the push-pull mode. When a ship is in the push-pull mode, an interacting force is induced by complex turbulent flow around the ship generated by the propellers and side thrusters. In this paper, three degrees of freedom equations of the motions of crabbing are derived. The equations are used to apply the adaptive backstepping control method to the auto-berthing controller of a cruise ship. The controller is capable of handling the system nonlinearity and uncertainty of the berthing process. A control allocation algorithm for a ship equipped with two propellers and two side thrusters is also developed, the performance of which is validated by simulation of auto-berthing.

  16. An analytical comparison of two wing structures for Mach 5 cruise airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Cerro, J. A.; Scotti, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Mach 5 cruise research conducted by NASA is related to aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures. The study of structures includes the propulsion system, fuselage, and wings. Various studies have shown that the achievement of adequate range is largely dependent on a low structural mass fraction. The present investigation is concerned with a study of two wing structure configurations for Mach 5 aircraft. An uprated version (Ti-6242 replacing B-120 titanium) of the YF-12/SR-71 wing structure is considered. The B-120 titanium structure represents the current art of high speed aircraft wing structures. The YF-12 wing structure was designed about 20 years ago when the analytical methods for calculating thermal stresses were limited. The second wing structural configuration studied in the present investigation also used Ti-6242 materials but replaced the corrugated-beaded panels with diffusion bonded honeycomb-core sandwich panels, and replaced the z-stiffened shear webs with sine-wave stiffened shear webs.

  17. Titanium and advanced composite structures for a supersonic cruise arrow wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. J.; Hoy, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Structural design studies were made, based on current technology and on an estimate of technology to be available in the mid 1980's, to assess the relative merits of structural concepts and materials for an advanced arrow wing configuration cruising at Mach 2.7. Preliminary studies were made to insure compliance of the configuration with general design criteria, integrate the propulsion system with the airframe, and define an efficient structural arrangement. Material and concept selection, detailed structural analysis, structural design and airplane mass analysis were completed based on current technology. Based on estimated future technology, structural sizing for strength and a preliminary assessment of the flutter of a strength designed composite structure were completed. An advanced computerized structural design system was used, in conjunction with a relatively complex finite element model, for detailed analysis and sizing of structural members.

  18. Supercritical wing design using numerical optimization and comparisons with experiment. [to improve C-141 cruise performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lores, M. E.; Smith, P. R.; Hicks, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical minimization scheme is used in conjunction with two-dimensional and three-dimensional inviscid transonic flow analysis codes to provide procedures for wing leading edge aerodynamic design. The procedures are demonstrated in the design of a new leading edge to improve C-141 cruise performance. For the high aspect ratio moderately swept C-141 wing, the 2-D procedure is shown to yield results which are in close agreement with those obtained using the 3-D technique. Although the 2-D approach uses much less computation time than the 3-D technique, the latter requires fewer manhours than the former. Comparisons of predicted and wind tunnel measured performance improvements are presented which verify the design procedures.

  19. Holographic testing of composite propfans for a cruise missile wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J.

    1994-01-01

    Each of the approximately 90 composite propfan blades constructed for a 55 percent scale cruise missile wind tunnel model were holographically tested to obtain natural frequencies and mode shapes. These data were used not only for quality assurance, but also to select sets of similar blades for each blade row. Presented along with the natural frequency data is a description of a computer-based image processing system developed to supplement the photographic based system for holographic image analysis and storage. The new system is quicker and cheaper, the holograms are indexed better, and several engineers can access the data simultaneously. The only negative effect is a slight reduction in image resolution, which does not influence the end use.

  20. Average-passage simulation of counter-rotating propfan propulsion systems as applied to cruise missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulac, Richard A.; Schneider, Jon C.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Counter-rotating propfan (CRP) propulsion technologies are currently being evaluated as cruise missile propulsion systems. The aerodynamic integration concerns associated with this application are being addressed through the computational modeling of the missile body-propfan flowfield interactions. The work described in this paper consists of a detailed analysis of the aerodynamic interactions between the control surfaces and the propfan blades through the solution of the average-passage equation system. Two baseline configurations were studied, the control fins mounted forward of the counter-rotating propeller and the control fins mounted aft of the counter-rotating propeller. In both cases, control fin-propfan separation distance and control fin deflection angle were varied.

  1. Low-speed wind tunnel investigation of an advanced supersonic cruise arrow-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Smith, P. M.; Parlett, L. P.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of possible means for improving the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of advanced supersonic cruise arrow wing configurations and to extend the existing data base of such configurations has been made. Principle configuration variables included wing-leading and trailing-edge flap deflection, fuselage nose strakes, and engine exhaust nozzle deflection. Results showed that deflecting the wing leading edge apex flaps downward provided improved longitudinal stability but resulted in reduced directional stability. The model exhibited relatively low values of directional stability over the operational angle of attack range and experienced large asymmetric yawing moments at high angles of attack. The use of nose strakes was found to be effective in increasing the directional stability and eliminating the asymmetric yawing moment.

  2. The Radiation Environment on the Martian Surface and during MSL's Cruise to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, D. M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    An important part of assessing present and past habitability of Mars is to understand and characterize "life limiting factors" on the surface, such as the radiation environment. Radiation exposure is also a major concern for future human missions and characterizing the radiation environment, both on the surface of Mars and inside the spacecraft during the cruise to Mars, provides critical information to aid in the planning for future human exploration of Mars. RAD was the first MSL instrument to start collecting data, beginning its science investigation during cruise (10 days after launch) and making the first ever measurements of the radiation environment on another planet. RAD is an energetic particle analyzer designed to characterize a broad spectrum of energetic particle radiation including galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and secondary neutrons created both in the Mars atmosphere and regolith. RAD observations consist of a time series of periodic (typically hourly) measurements of charged particles from protons (Z=1) up to iron (Z=26) for energies above >10 MeV/nucleon, as well as neutrons from 10 to ~ 100 MeV. These synoptic observations are designed to characterize both the short term variability associated with the onset of solar energetic particle events as well as the long term variability of galactic cosmic rays over the solar cycle. RAD measurements will also be used to quantify the flux of biologically hazardous radiation at the surface of Mars today, and determine how these fluxes vary on diurnal, seasonal, solar cycle and episodic (flare, storm) timescales. These measurements will allow calculations of the depth in rock or soil to which this flux, when integrated over long timescales, provides a lethal dose for known terrestrial organisms. Through such measurements, we can learn how deep below the surface life would have to be, or have been in the past, to be protected. This talk will discuss the results obtained during the ~7 months

  3. The Radiation Environment on the Martian Surface and during MSL's Cruise to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Martin, Cesar; Boettcher, Stephan; Koehler, Jan; Guo, Jingnan; Brinza, David E.; Reitz, Guenther; Posner, Arik; the MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    An important part of assessing present and past habitability of Mars is to understand and characterize "life limiting factors" on the surface, such as the radiation environment. Radiation exposure is also a major concern for future human missions and characterizing the radiation environment, both on the surface of Mars and inside the spacecraft during the cruise to Mars, provides critical information to aid in the planning for future human exploration of Mars. RAD was the first MSL instrument to start collecting data, beginning its science investigation during cruise (10 days after launch) and making the first ever measurements of the radiation environment on another planet. RAD is an energetic particle analyzer designed to characterize a broad spectrum of energetic particle radiation including galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and secondary neutrons created both in the Mars atmosphere and regolith. RAD observations consist of a time series of periodic (typically hourly) measurements of charged particles from protons (Z=1) up to iron (Z=26) for energies above >10 MeV/nucleon, as well as neutrons from 10 to ~ 100 MeV. These synoptic observations are designed to characterize both the short term variability associated with the onset of solar energetic particle events as well as the long term variability of galactic cosmic rays over the solar cycle. RAD measurements will also be used to quantify the flux of biologically hazardous radiation at the surface of Mars today, and determine how these fluxes vary on diurnal, seasonal, solar cycle and episodic (flare, storm) timescales. These measurements will allow calculations of the depth in rock or soil to which this flux, when integrated over long timescales, provides a lethal dose for known terrestrial organisms. Through such measurements, we can learn how deep below the surface life would have to be, or have been in the past, to be protected. This talk will discuss the results obtained during the ~7 months

  4. Feasibility and benefits of laminar flow control on supersonic cruise airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, A. G.; Agrawal, S.; Lacey, T. R.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the applicability and benefits of laminar flow control (LFC) technology to supersonic cruise airplanes. Ancillary objectives were to identify the technical issues critical to supersonic LFC application, and to determine how those issues can be addressed through flight and wind-tunnel testing. Vehicle types studied include a Mach 2.2 supersonic transport configuration, a Mach 4.0 transport, and two Mach 2-class fighter concepts. Laminar flow control methodologies developed for subsonic and transonic wing laminarization were extended and applied. No intractible aerodynamic problems were found in applying LFC to airplanes of the Mach 2 class, even ones of large size. Improvements of 12 to 17 percent in lift-drag ratios were found. Several key technical issues, such as contamination avoidance and excresence criteria were identified. Recommendations are made for their resolution. A need for an inverse supersonic wing design methodology is indicated.

  5. A Free-Return Earth-Moon Cycler Orbit for an Interplanetary Cruise Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Aldrin, Buzz

    2015-01-01

    A periodic circumlunar orbit is presented that can be used by an interplanetary cruise ship for regular travel between Earth and the Moon. This Earth-Moon cycler orbit was revealed by introducing solar gravity and modest phasing maneuvers (average of 39 m/s per month) which yields close-Earth encounters every 7 or 10 days. Lunar encounters occur every 26 days and offer the chance for a smaller craft to depart the cycler and enter lunar orbit, or head for a Lagrange point (e.g., EM-L2 halo orbit), distant retrograde orbit (DRO), or interplanetary destination such as a near-Earth object (NEO) or Mars. Additionally, return-to-Earth abort options are available from many points along the cycling trajectory.

  6. Accounting for Laminar Run & Trip Drag in Supersonic Cruise Performance Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodsell, Aga M.; Kennelly, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    An improved laminar run and trip drag correction methodology for supersonic cruise performance testing was derived. This method required more careful analysis of the flow visualization images which revealed delayed transition particularly on the inboard upper surface, even for the largest trip disks. In addition, a new code was developed to estimate the laminar run correction. Once the data were corrected for laminar run, the correct approach to the analysis of the trip drag became evident. Although the data originally appeared confusing, the corrected data are consistent with previous results. Furthermore, the modified approach, which was described in this presentation, extends prior historical work by taking into account the delayed transition caused by the blunt leading edges.

  7. Insulation systems for liquid methane fuel tanks for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, H. F.; Delduca, D.

    1972-01-01

    Two insulation systems for tanks containing liquid methane in supersonic cruise-type aircraft were designed and tested after an extensive materials investigation. One system is an external insulation and the other is an internal wet-type insulation system. Tank volume was maximized by making the tank shape approach a rectangular parallelopiped. One tank was designed to use the external insulation and the other tank to use the internal insulation. Performance of the external insulation system was evaluated on a full-scale tank under the temperature environment of -320 F to 700 F and ambient pressures of ground-level atmospheric to 1 psia. Problems with installing the internal insulation on the test tank prevented full-scale evaluation of performance; however, small-scale testing verified thermal conductivity, temperature capability, and installed density.

  8. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program from 1977 to mid-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1980-01-01

    The supersonic cruise research (SCR) program, initiated in July 1972, includes system studies and the following disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emission impact, structures and materials, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. In a coordinated effort to provide a sound basis for any future consideration that may be given by the United States to the development of an acceptable commercial supersonic transport, integration of the technical disciplines was undertaken, analytical tools were developed, and wind tunnel, flight, and laboratory investigations were conducted. The present bibliography covers the time period from 1977 to mid-1980. It is arranged according to system studies and the above five SCR disciplines. There are 306 NASA reports and 135 articles, meeting papers, and company reports cited.

  9. Nacelle Integration to Reduce the Sonic Boom of Aircraft Designed to Cruise at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    An empirical method for integrating the engine nacelles on a wing-fuselage-fin(s) configuration has been described. This method is based on Whitham theory and Seebass and George sonic-boom minimization theory, With it, both reduced sonic-boom as well as high aerodynamic efficiency methods can be applied to the conceptual design of a supersonic-cruise aircraft. Two high-speed civil transport concepts were used as examples to illustrate the application of this engine-nacelle integration methodology: (1) a concept with engine nacelles mounted on the aft-fuselage, the HSCT-1OB; and (2) a concept with engine nacelles mounted under an extended-wing center section, the HSCT-11E. In both cases, the key to a significant reduction in the sonic-boom contribution from the engine nacelles was to use the F-function shape of the concept as a guide to move the nacelles further aft on the configuration.

  10. Preliminary noise tradeoff study of a Mach 2.7 cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.; Maglieri, D. J. (Editor); Raney, J. P. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    NASA computer codes in the areas of preliminary sizing and enroute performance, takeoff and landing performance, aircraft noise prediction, and economics were used in a preliminary noise tradeoff study for a Mach 2.7 design supersonic cruise concept. Aerodynamic configuration data were based on wind-tunnel model tests and related analyses. Aircraft structural characteristics and weight were based on advanced structural design methodologies, assuming conventional titanium technology. The most advanced noise prediction techniques available were used, and aircraft operating costs were estimated using accepted industry methods. The 4-engines cycles included in the study were based on assumed 1985 technology levels. Propulsion data was provided by aircraft manufacturers. Additional empirical data is needed to define both noise reduction features and other operating characteristics of all engine cycles under study. Data on VCE design parameters, coannular nozzle inverted flow noise reduction and advanced mechanical suppressors are urgently needed to reduce the present uncertainties in studies of this type.

  11. Millimeter-wave radar sensor for automotive intelligent cruise control (ICC)

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.E.; Crain, A.; Curran, A.; Campbell, R.A.; Drubin, C.A.; Miccioli, W.F.

    1997-12-01

    If automotive intelligent cruise-control (ICC) systems are to be successful in the marketplace, they must provide robust performance in a complex roadway environment. Inconveniences caused by reduced performance during inclement weather, interrupted performance due to dropped tracks, and annoying nuisance alarms will not be tolerated by the consumer, and would likely result in the rejection of this technology in the marketplace. An all-weather automotive millimeter-wave (MMW) radar sensor is described that uses a frequency-modulation coplanar-wave (FMCW) radar design capable of acquiring and tracking all obstacles in its field of view. Design tradeoffs are discussed and radar-sensor test results are presented along with the applicability of the radar to collision-warning systems.

  12. Advanced technology payoffs for future rotorcraft, commuter aircraft, cruise missile, and APU propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turk, M. A.; Zeiner, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    In connection with the significant advances made regarding the performance of larger gas turbines, challenges arise concerning the improvement of small gas turbine engines in the 250 to 1000 horsepower range. In response to these challenges, the NASA/Army-sponsored Small Engine Component Technology (SECT) study was undertaken with the objective to identify the engine cycle, configuration, and component technology requirements for the substantial performance improvements desired in year-2000 small gas turbine engines. In the context of this objective, an American turbine engine company evaluated engines for four year-2000 applications, including a rotorcraft, a commuter aircraft, a supersonic cruise missile, and an auxiliary power unit (APU). Attention is given to reference missions, reference engines, reference aircraft, year-2000 technology projections, cycle studies, advanced engine selections, and a technology evaluation.

  13. Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS-2) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the emission performance of gas-turbine engines burning renewable aviation fuels have been thoroughly documented in recent ground-based studies, there is still great uncertainty regarding how the fuels effect aircraft exhaust composition and contrail formation at cruise altitudes. To fill this information gap, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate sponsored the ACCESS flight series to make detailed measurements of trace gases, aerosols and ice particles in the near-field behind the NASA DC-8 aircraft as it burned either standard petroleum-based fuel of varying sulfur content or a 50:50 blend of standard fuel and a hydro-treated esters and fatty acid (HEFA) jet fuel produced from camelina plant oil. ACCESS 1, conducted in spring 2013 near Palmdale CA, focused on refining flight plans and sampling techniques and used the instrumented NASA Langley HU-25 aircraft to document DC-8 emissions and contrails on five separate flights of approx.2 hour duration. ACCESS 2, conducted from Palmdale in May 2014, engaged partners from the Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and National Research Council-Canada to provide additional scientific expertise and sampling aircraft (Falcon 20 and CT-133, respectively) with more extensive trace gas, particle, or air motion measurement capability. Eight, muliti-aircraft research flights of 2 to 4 hour duration were conducted to document the emissions and contrail properties of the DC-8 as it 1) burned low sulfur Jet A, high sulfur Jet A or low sulfur Jet A/HEFA blend, 2) flew at altitudes between 6 and 11 km, and 3) operated its engines at three different fuel flow rates. This presentation further describes the ACCESS flight experiments, examines fuel type and thrust setting impacts on engine emissions, and compares cruise-altitude observations with similar data acquired in ground tests.

  14. NASA Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Flight Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Moore, R.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D. L.; Brown, A.; Beaton, B.; Schlager, H.

    2014-12-01

    Although the emission performance of gas-turbine engines burning renewable aviation fuels have been thoroughly documented in recent ground-based studies, there is still great uncertainty regarding how the fuels effect aircraft exhaust composition and contrail formation at cruise altitudes. To fill this information gap, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate sponsored the ACCESS flight series to make detailed measurements of trace gases, aerosols and ice particles in the near-field behind the NASA DC-8 aircraft as it burned either standard petroleum-based fuel of varying sulfur content or a 50:50 blend of standard fuel and a hydro-treated esters and fatty acid (HEFA) jet fuel produced from camelina plant oil. ACCESS 1, conducted in spring 2013 near Palmdale CA, focused on refining flight plans and sampling techniques and used the instrumented NASA Langley HU-25 aircraft to document DC-8 emissions and contrails on five separate flights of ~2 hour duration. ACCESS 2, conducted from Palmdale in May 2014, engaged partners from the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and National Research Council-Canada to provide additional scientific expertise and sampling aircraft (Falcon 20 and CT-133, respectively) with more extensive trace gas, particle, or air motion measurement capability. Eight, muliti-aircraft research flights of 2 to 4 hour duration were conducted to document the emissions and contrail properties of the DC-8 as it 1) burned low sulfur Jet A, high sulfur Jet A or low sulfur Jet A/HEFA blend, 2) flew at altitudes between 6 and 11 km, and 3) operated its engines at three different fuel flow rates. This presentation further describes the ACCESS flight experiments, examines fuel type and thrust setting impacts on engine emissions, and compares cruise-altitude observations with similar data acquired in ground-test venues.

  15. Biofuel Blending Impacts on Aircraft Engine Particle Emissions at Cruise Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present measurements of aerosol emissions indices and microphysical properties measured in-situ behind the CFM56-2-C1 engines of the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the 2014 Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) project. Aircraft engine emissions can have a disproportionately large climatic impact since they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. This has motivated numerous past ground-based studies focused on quantifying the emissions indices of non-volatile and semi-volatile aerosol species, however, it is unclear the extent to which emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions. In addition, the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to nucleate ice crystals and form linear contrails or contrail cirrus clouds remains poorly understood. To better understand these effects, two chase plane experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014. Three different fuel types are discussed: a low-sulfur JP-8 fuel, a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based HEFA fuel, and the JP-8 fuel doped with sulfur. Emissions were sampled using a large number of aerosol and gas instruments integrated on HU-25 and Falcon 20 jets that were positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 50-500 m distance behind the engines. It was found that the biojet fuel blend substantially decreases the aerosol number and mass emissions indices, while the gas phase emission indices were similar across fuels. The magnitude of the effects of these fuel-induced changes of aerosol emissions and implications for future aviation biofuel blending impacts will be discussed.

  16. Mantle exhumation at the Southwest Indian Ridge; preliminary results of the SMOOTHSEAFLOOR cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, D.; Cannat, M.; Andreani, M.; Birot, D.; Bronner, A.; Brunelli, D.; Carlut, J. H.; Delacour, A.; Guyader, V.; Mendel, V.; Ménez, B.; MacLeod, C. J.; Pasini, V.; Rouméjon, S.; Ruellan, E.; Searle, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    The eastern Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is among the deepest part of the oceanic ridge system, and it is thus inferred to represent a melt-poor end-member for this system. It displays the widest expanses known to date of seafloor with no evidence for a volcanic upper crustal layer. This nonvolcanic ocean floor has no equivalent at faster spreading ridges and has been called "smooth seafloor" because it occurs in the form of broad ridges up to 2000 m high with a smooth, rounded topography with no resolvable volcanic cones on bathymetric data (Cannat et al., 2006). On R/V Marion Dufresne cruise "SMOOTHSEAFLOOR" in October 2010, we conducted a detailed geological-geophysical survey of such smooth seafloor areas, determining the rock types exposed at these ridges, searching for hydrothermal activity and mapping the volcanic, tectonic and sedimentary structures. 35 dredges and 15 CTDs have been realized and more than 1000 km long TOBI sidescan sonar images and deep towed magnetometer profiles have been collected over two contrasting survey areas up to magnetic anomaly C5n (10 Ma). The main result of our cruise is that serpentinized mantle-derived peridotites were dredged widely throughout the smooth seafloor areas while gabbros and basalts were rare. Mantle rocks were found on moderate slopes (20-35°), facing toward and away from the axial valley, at ridges with symmetric shape, as well as on gentle slopes (<15°) facing the axis at asymmetric ridges whose outward facing steeper slopes may be covered with volcanics. TOBI sidescan sonar images show that these hillsides are ancient large low angle normal faults which were covered locally by small amount of volcanics and dismembered by landslide activity. These results show that mantle exhumation has been the main process which shaped the smooth seafloor areas of the eastern SWIR for the last 10 Myrs.

  17. Deep-sea sampling on CMarZ cruises in the Atlantic Ocean - an Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Peter H.; Bucklin, Ann; Madin, Laurence; Angel, Martin V.; Sutton, Tracey; Pagés, Francesc; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Lindsay, Dhugal

    2010-12-01

    The deep-sea zooplankton assemblage is hypothesized to have high species diversity, with low abundances of each species. However, even rare species may have huge population sizes and play a critical role in the dynamics of deep-sea environments. The Census of Marine Zooplankton (CMarZ) study sought to accurately assess zooplankton diversity in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones of the subtropical/tropical of the northwest and eastern sections of the Atlantic Ocean using integrated morphological and molecular analysis of large-volume samples to depths of 5,000 m. The field surveys in April 2006 and November 2007 included scientists and students associated with the CMarZ. The cruise field work entailed at-sea analysis of samples and identification of specimens by expert taxonomists, with at-sea DNA sequencing to determine a barcode (i.e., a short DNA sequence for species recognition) for selected species. Environmental data and zooplankton samples were collected with 1-m 2 and 10-m 2 opening/closing MOCNESS (0-1000 m and 1000-5000 m, respectively), and with either a 0.25-m 2 MOCNESS or a 0.5-m 2 Multi-net above 1000 m. More than 500 species were identified and more than 1000 specimens placed in a queue for barcoding on each cruise; several hundred species were barcoded at sea. For several taxonomic groups, a significant fraction of the region's known species were collected and identified. For example, in the northwest Atlantic 93 of 140 known ostracod species for the Atlantic Ocean were collected, 6 undescribed species were found, and the first DNA barcode for a planktonic ostracod was obtained. The deployment of trawls with fine-mesh nets to sample large volumes at great depths for small zooplankton confirmed that there is considerable species diversity at depth, with more species yet to be discovered.

  18. Seamounts and ferromanganese crusts within and near the U.S. EEZ off California - Data for RV Farnella cruise F7-87-SC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Reid, Jane A.; Conrad, Tracey A.; Dunham, Rachel E.; Clague, David A.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Davis, Alice S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present and briefly describe ship-board and laboratory data for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research cruise aboard the RV Farnella that took place December 3-21, 1987 (cruise F7-87-SC). The purpose of the cruise was to survey seamounts and ferromanganese crusts within and near the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off California. Eight seamounts were studied - Rodriguez, San Marcos, Adam, Hoss, Little Joe, Ben, Flint, and Jasper. A geophysical survey of Jasper Seamount took place, but that seamount was not sampled; whereas Adam and Hoss Seamounts were sampled, but not surveyed with geophysics lines.

  19. Atlantic Coastal Experiment III: R/V KNORR cruise 68, 4-30 August 1977; FRV ALBATROSS IV cruise 77-07, 1-4, 16-31 August 1977. Data report, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, D.C.; von Bock, K.

    1983-03-01

    Data are reported from KNORR cruise 68, the major investigation of the third Atlantic Coastal Experiment (ACE), conducted during a period of pro-nounced water-column stratification. One hundred fifty-five stations, including 6 time-series sitings, were occupied within the shelf and shelf- break regimes of New York Bight. Measurements were made to assess water-mass characterization, nutrient cycling, carbon/nitrogen assimilation, bio-mass distribution and diel dynamics and benthic/water-column interfacial exchange. Data are also included from the cruise of ALBATROSS IV carried out contemporaneously with the KNORR investigations, in an area ranging from Nantucket Shoals to the upper reaches of the Gulf of Maine. 20 hydrographic stations were used to augment underway mapping in order to elucidate surface-layer chlorophyll and nutrient distributions occurring at an impor-tant boundary of the New York Bight.

  20. Cruise report; RV Coastal Surveyor Cruise C1-99; multibeam mapping of the Long Beach, California continental shelf; April 12 through May 19, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1999-01-01

    The greater Los Angeles area of California is home to more than 10 million people. This large population puts increased pressure on the adjacent offshore continental shelf and margin with activities such as ocean disposal for dredged spoils, explosive disposal, waste-water outfall, and commercial fishing. The increased utilization of the shelf and margin in this area has generated accelerated multi-disciplinary research efforts in all aspects of the environment of the coastal zone. Prior to 1996 there were no highly accurate base maps of the continental shelf and slope upon which the research activities could be located and monitored. In 1996, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project began to address this problem by mapping the Santa Monica shelf and margin (Fig. 1) using a state-of-the-art, high-resolution multibeam sonar system (Gardner, et al., 1996; 1999). Additional seafloor mapping in 1998 provided coverage of the continental margin from south of Newport to the proximal San Pedro Basin northwest of Palos Verdes Peninsula (Gardner, et al., 1998) (Fig. 1). The mapping of the seafloor in the greater Los Angeles continental shelf and margin was completed with a 30-day mapping of the Long Beach shelf in April and May 1999, the subject of this report. The objective of Cruise C-1-99-SC was to completely map the broad continental shelf from the eastern end of the Palos Verdes Peninsula to the narrow shelf south of Newport Beach, from the break in slope at about 120-m isobath to the inner shelf at about the 10-m isobath. Mapping the Long Beach shelf was jointly funded by the U.S. Geological Survey and the County of Orange (CA) Sanitation District and was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the Ocean Mapping Group from the University of New Brunswick (OMG/UNB). The OMG/UNB contracted with C&C Technologies, Inc. of Lafayette, LA for use of the RV Coastal Surveyor and the latest evolution of high-resolution multibeam sonars, a

  1. Cruise-Efficient Short Takeoff and Landing (CESTOL): Potential Impact on Air Traffic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couluris, G. J.; Signor, D.; Phillips, J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating technological and operational concepts for introducing Cruise-Efficient Short Takeoff and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft into a future US National Airspace System (NAS) civil aviation environment. CESTOL is an aircraft design concept for future use to increase capacity and reduce emissions. CESTOL provides very flexible takeoff, climb, descent and landing performance capabilities and a high-speed cruise capability. In support of NASA, this study is a preliminary examination of the potential operational impact of CESTOL on airport and airspace capacity and delay. The study examines operational impacts at a subject site, Newark Liberty Intemational Airport (KEWR), New Jersey. The study extends these KEWR results to estimate potential impacts on NAS-wide network traffic operations due to the introduction of CESTOL at selected major airports. These are the 34 domestic airports identified in the Federal Aviation Administration's Operational Evolution Plan (OEP). The analysis process uses two fast-time simulation tools to separately model local and NAS-wide air traffic operations using predicted flight schedules for a 24-hour study period in 2016. These tools are the Sen sis AvTerminal model and NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). We use both to simulate conventional-aircraft-only and CESTOL-mixed-with-conventional-aircraft operations. Both tools apply 4-dimension trajectory modeling to simulate individual flight movement. The study applies AvTerminal to model traffic operations and procedures for en route and terminal arrival and departures to and from KEWR. These AvTerminal applications model existing arrival and departure routes and profiles and runway use configurations, with the assumption jet-powered, large-sized civil CESTOL aircraft use a short runway and standard turboprop arrival and departure procedures. With these rules, the conventional jet and CESTOL aircraft are procedurally

  2. Project PROBE Leg I - Report and archive of multibeam bathymetry and acoustic backscatter , CTD/XBT and GPS navigation data collected during USGS Cruise 02051 (NOAA Cruise RB0208) Puerto Rico Trench September 24, 2002 to September 30, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Worley, Charles R.; Smith, Shep; Stepka, Thomas; Williams, Glynn F.

    2006-01-01

    On September 24-30, 2002, six days of scientific surveying to map a section of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT) took place aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship Ron Brown. The cruise was funded by NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration. Multibeam bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data were collected over an area of about 25,000 sq. km of the Puerto Rico trench and its vicinity at water depths of 4000-8400 m. Weather conditions during the entire survey were good; there were light to moderate winds and 1-2 foot swells experiencing minor chop. The roll and pitch of the ship's interaction with the ocean were not conspicuous. Cruise participants included personnel from USGS, NOAA, and University of New Hampshire Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center. The cruise resulted in the discovery of a major active strike-slip fault system close to the trench, submarine slides on the descending North American tectonic plate, and an extinct mud volcano, which was cut by the strike-slip fault system. Another strike-slip fault system closer to Puerto Rico that was previously considered to accommodate much of the relative plate motion appears to be inactive. The seaward continuation of the Mona Rift, a zone of extension between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic that generated a devastating tsunami in 1918, was mapped for the first time.

  3. The Holocene History of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Reynisson, Njáll; Juncker Hansen, Mette; Zilmer Christensen, Eva; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2013-04-01

    Marine sediments analyzed from cores taken in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, located in the Labrador Sea, captured oceanographic and climatic changes from the end of the Younger Dryas through the Holocene. Placentia Bay is an ideal site to capture changes in both the south-flowing Labrador Current and the north-flowing Gulf Stream, currents which are closely tied to the strength of the North Atlantic sub-polar gyre and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Changes in the atmospheric and oceanographic circulation patterns in the North Atlantic after the last glacial period are inferred from faunal assemblages, mineralogy and dinoflagellate analyses. During the 2007 Akademik Ioffe cruise, three cores were taken from Placentia Bay: AI07-14G, representing the time period 12.7 to 9.8 cal kyr BP, AI07-10G, covering the period ca. 10.4 cal kya BP to the present, and AI07-12G, representing the last 5.7 cal kya. These cores have been analyzed using several climate proxies, including benthic foraminifera, diatoms, IP25, dinoflagellate cysts and XRF. Together, these cores provide high-resolution records of the changes in climatic conditions over the last ca. 13,000 years in the southern Labrador Sea. After the Younger Dryas ended, the beginning of the warmer early Holocene was recorded by an increase in productivity-linked foraminiferal and diatom assemblages, as well as a drop in the presence of the sea-ice indicator IP25 in core 14G (Pearce et al., 2012). Variability in atmospheric circulation during the Holocene was analyzed in core 12G and used to reconstruct changes in the mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the late Holocene by analysis of exotic pollen grains. Sea-surface conditions during the late Holocene in Placentia Bay reflect a decrease in the strength of the Labrador Current, based on warmer sea-surface temperatures and a simultaneous decline in Arctic water export, from ~4000 cal years to ~3000 cal years BP, which falls into the overall large-scale trend of

  4. Lift cruise fan V/STOL aircraft conceptual design study T-39 modification. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The conversion of two T-39 aircraft into lift cruise fan research and technology vehicles is discussed. The concept is based upon modifying the T-39A (NA265-40) Sabreliner airframe into a V/STOL configuration by incorporating two LCF-459 lift cruise fans and three YJ-97 gas generators. The propulsion concept provides the thrust for horizontal flight or lift for vertical flight by deflection of bifurcated nozzles while maintaining engine out safety throughout the flight envelope. The configuration meets all the study requirements specified for the design with control powers in VTOL and conversion in excess of the requirement making it an excellent vehicle for research and development. The study report consists of two volumes; Volume 1 (Reference a) contains background data detailed description and technical substantiation of the aircraft. Volume 2 includes cost data, scheduling and program planning not addressed in Volume 1.

  5. Use of potential flow theory to evaluate subsonic inlet data from a simulator-powered nacelle at cruise conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bober, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Incompressible potential flow theory corrected for compressibility effects, using the Lieblein-Stockman compressibility correction, was used to predict surface and flow field static pressures for a subsonic inlet at cruise conditions. The calculated internal and external surface static pressures were in good agreement with data at most conditions. The analysis was used to determine the capture stream-tube location and static-pressure distribution. Additive drag coefficients obtained from these results were consistently higher than those obtained using one-dimensional compressible flow theory. Increasing the distance between the inlet and boattail increased the cowl drag force. The effect of the boundary layer on internal and external surface static-pressure distributions was small at the design cruise condition. The analytical results may be used as an aid to data reduction and for predicting inlet mass flow, stagnation point location, and inlet additive drag.

  6. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine, C.L.; Key, R.M.; Hall, M.; Kozyr, A.

    1999-08-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and radiocarbon (delta 14C), at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) during the R/V Thomas G. Thompson oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Suva, Fiji, on October 5, 1993, and ended in Yokohama, Japan, on November 10, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section P10 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by conductivity temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO2, TALK, delta 14C, and underway pCO2.

  7. Use of adaptive cruise control functions on motorways and urban roads: Changes over time in an on-road study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marta; Beggiato, Matthias; Petzoldt, Tibor

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed at investigating how drivers use Adaptive Cruise Control and its functions in distinct road environments and to verify if changes occur over time. Fifteen participants were invited to drive a vehicle equipped with a Stop & Go Adaptive Cruise Control system on nine occasions. The course remained the same for each test run and included roads on urban and motorway environments. Results showed significant effect of experience for ACC usage percentage, and selection of the shortest time headway value in the urban road environment. This indicates that getting to know a system is not a homogenous process, as mastering the use of all the system's functions can take differing lengths of time in distinct road environments. Results can be used not only for the development of the new generation of systems that integrate ACC functionalities but also for determining the length of training required to operate an ACC system. PMID:25959324

  8. Mercury in the Black Sea - results of the 2013 GEOTRACES MEDBlack cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbürger, L. E.; Sonke, J.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Gerringa, L. J.; De Baar, H. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Inorganic mercury (Hg), whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, can be converted into the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg). Today we believe this conversion occurs during the bacterial remineralization of sinking organic matter in the oceanic water column. The Black Sea with its high organic matter inputs and anoxic deep waters is an excellent study site to investigate in more detail the processes yielding MeHg. To date only one vertical profile of Hg species near the Western shelf and one vertical profile in the Western Gyre are published (Lamborg et al. 2008). We will present new results of the 2013 Dutch-led GEOTRACES MEDBlack cruise in the Black Sea. Research vessel "Pelagia" occupied 12 full depth stations along an east-west transect from 13 to 25 July 2013. High resolution vertical profiles were sampled using a titanium ultraclean CTD frame (de Baar et al., 2008) equipped with 24 x 24L PVDF samplers. Samples were filtered (0.2µm, Sartobran 300), drawn into pre-cleaned 250mL Savillex PFA bottles and acidified to 0.4% (v:v) with double-distilled HCl. Dissolved MeHg, as the sum of monomethylHg and dimethylHg, was analyzed via isotope dilution gas chromatography sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Total dissolved Hg was determined following the US EPA 1631 method. We will present high resolution vertical Hg species profiles, including one ultra-high resolution profile (1 sample every 5m-depth) to understand the dynamics along the chemocline (Luther et al., 1991). We will also present the results of the GEOTRACES international intercalibration exercise for dissolved MeHg and dissolved total Hg in surface seawater that we organized during the same cruise. References De Baar HJW, Timmermans KR, Laan P, De Porto HH, Ober S, Blom JJ, Bakker MC, Schilling J, Sarthou G, Smit MG, Klunder M. Titan: A new facility for ultraclean sampling of trace elements and isotopes in the deep oceans in the international Geotraces program. Mar. Chem. 2008, 111

  9. In situ observations and model calculations of black carbon emission by aircraft at cruise altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; DöPelheuer, A.; Brock, C. A.; Schröder, F.

    1999-09-01

    The exhaust aerosol of two aircraft at cruise was extensively characterized in the size range from 0.003 to 2 μm for plume ages ≤2 s. The black carbon (BC) exhaust aerosol of an older technology engine (Rolls-Royce/Snecma M45H Mk501) consisted of a primary BC mode with a modal diameter of 0.035 μm and a mode of coagulated BC particles with a peak near 0.15-0.16 μm in diameter. The total number density at the nozzle exit plane was 3×107 cm-3. In contrast, a modern technology engine (CFM International CFM56-3B1) emitted far smaller BC particles with a primary mode at 0.025 μm and a coagulated mode at 0.15 μm, as well as fewer particles by number with a concentration of 9×106 cm-3. The single-scattering albedo of the jet exhaust aerosol was 0.035 ± 0.02 inside the plume, indicating a dominant contribution of ultrafine (D<0.1 μm) BC particles to light extinction. Black carbon number emission indices EI(N) varied from 3.5×1014 (CFM56-3B1) to 1.7×1015 kg-1 (M45H Mk501) with corresponding mass emission indices EI(BC) of 0.011 and 0.1 g kg-1. Previously reported corresponding values for a CF6-80C2A2 engine were 6×1014 kg-1 and 0.023 g kg-1, respectively. A comparison between EI(BC) values calculated by a new correlation method and measured data shows an excellent agreement, with deviations <10% at cruise conditions. By extending the EI(BC) calculation method to a globally operating aircraft fleet, a fleet-averaged emission index EI(BC) = 0.038 g kg-1 is calculated.

  10. Nitrous oxide in the tropical Atlantic Ocean: first results from the german SOLAS cruise M55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S.; Bange, H.; Wallace, D.

    2003-04-01

    NITROUS OXIDE IN THE TROPICAL ATLANTIC: FIRST RESULTS FROM THE GERMAN SOLAS CRUISE M55 S. Walter, H.W. Bange, D.W.R. Wallace Marine Biogeochemistry Division, Institute for Marine Research, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany swalter@ifm.uni-kiel.de Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an atmospheric trace gas which received increased attention in recent years because of its relevance for the Earth's climate and stratospheric chemistry. N2O is formed during microbial processes such as nitrification and denitrification in considerable amounts in the subsurface layer of the ocean. Thus, oceanic emissions of N2O play a major role for its atmospheric budget. However, measurements of N2O in the tropical Atlantic are sparse. The spatial distribution of N2O in the tropical Atlantic Ocean was determined during the first German SOLAS (Surface Ocean - Lower Atmosphere Study) cruise Meteor 55 from Willemstad (Curacao, Netherlands Antilles) to Douala (Cameroon) from 12 October to 17 November 2002. At 21 selected stations about 1200 N2O concentrations measurements were performed with a GC/ECD headspace technique. The mean relative error of the measurements was about 2%. Four general features are visible from the N2O depth profiles: (i) N2O is supersaturated throughout the water column. (ii) There is a considerable accumulation of N2O below the euphotic zone with maximum values at 250-400m water depth associated with lower oxygen concentrations. (iii) An increasing trend in the maximum N2O concentrations from the western to the eastern Atlantic which is inversely correlated with dissolved oxygen values in the oxygen minimum zone. (iv) An increasing trend in the N2O concentrations from the western to the eastern Atlantic basin in depths below 2000m which seems to be correlated with the age of the water masses. The inverse correlation with oxygen suggests that N2O in the tropical Atlantic is formed mainly by nitrification. Our results will be discussed in view of global-change induced

  11. The ESASSI-08 cruise in the South Scotia Ridge region: Water masses, currents, and the ASF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, M.; Gomis, D.; Flexas, M. M.; Jordà, G.; Orsi, A. H.

    2009-04-01

    The ESASSI-08 oceanographic cruise carried out in January 2008 was the major milestone of ESASSI, the Spanish component of SASSI (a core project of the International Polar Year devoted to study the shelf-slope exchanges in different locations of Antarctica). The specific objectives of ESASSI, the sampling strategy and the overall distribution of the main variables across the 11 sections covered by the cruise are presented in a poster. Here we focus on three specific issues: i) the observation of strong tidal currents over some of the sampled slopes; ii) the path of the Antarctic Slope Front (ASF) over the SSR; and iii) the outflow of dense, ventilated water from the Weddell Sea into the South Scotia Sea. The main results are: i) Strong tidal currents with a significant diurnal component were observed over the southern slope of the SSR. Three tidal models are compared with the observations and used to de-tide ADCP currents. ii) The signature of the ASF is clearly detected on the southern slopes of the SSR (on the Weddell Sea flank). Over the northern slopes (the Scotia Sea flank), however, only weak signatures of frontal structures are observed; an in-depth biochemical analysis will be required to link the structures observed over the two flanks of the SSR. What seems clear is that the ASF does not extend further than Elephant Island, since southwestward of that island the shelf and the slope are fully occupied by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. iii) The shallower component of Weddell Sea Deep Water (Upper WSDW) flows over the SSR and pours into the Scotia Sea except to the east of Elephant Island, where the channels are less than 1500 m deep. The densest component of WSDW (Lower WSDW) is observed at both flanks of the SSR, but again a more detailed analysis of biochemical data will be required to prove a direct flux of this water mass across the SSR. Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW) is not observed in any of the sampled sections.

  12. Russia's views on cruise missiles in the context of START III

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D Y

    2000-10-30

    The abysmal state of Russia's conventional forces has caused Russia to rely on nuclear weapons to ensure its security. This reliance was formalized in Russia's military doctrine which states that nuclear weapons can be used ''in situations critical to the national security of the RF and its allies.'' In fact, most Russian security analysts believe that this dependence on nuclear weapons will remain for the foreseeable future because the economy will have to improve significantly before a conventional force build up can be contemplated. Yet, despite Russia's need to rely on nuclear weapons, even this may be problematic because its economic plight may create difficulties in maintaining its current level of nuclear forces. Thus, Russia has a keen interest in negotiating a treaty to reduce Strategic Nuclear Forces below START II levels and would prefer to go even beyond the 2,000-2,500 numbers agreed to by Presidents Yeltsin and Clinton in Helsinki in 1997. Sergei Rogov, an influential defense analyst, believes that Russia's strategic nuclear forces will fall below 1,000 warheads by 2010 irrespective of arms control agreements. Accordingly, Russia is keen to ensure rough parity with the US. To retain a credible deterrent posture at these lower levels, Russia believes that it is important to restrain US sea-launched cruise missiles (SLCM)--forces that have heretofore not been captured as strategic weapons in the START treaties. Russian officials reason that once strategic nuclear forces go to very low levels, SLCM capabilities become strategically significant. In fact, according to two well-known Russian security analysts, Anatoli Diakov and Pavel Podvig, Russia's current START III negotiating position calls for the complete elimination of all SLCMs, both nuclear and conventional. Prior to assessing Russia's position regarding cruise missiles and START III, I will examine Russia's overall view of its security position vis-a-vis the US in order to provide background for

  13. The Nile Cone and Its Channel System : New Results From The Fanil Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaiche, G.; Loncke, L.; Gaullier, V.; Mascle, J.; Courp, T.; Moreau, A.; Radan, S.; Sardou, O.

    The FANIL cruise (R/V Le Suroit, 2000) completed the knowledge of the Nile Cone, by extending the previous studied areas (PRISMED II cruise, 1998) to the West and to the East. The used method was swath-bathymetry, acoustic imagery, multichannel seismic profiling and coring. Four domains can be clearly identified: A) A western domain shows, upslope, numerous normal growth faults resulting from the spreading of the Plio-Pleistocene sediments on the messinian salt. Beyond, very numerous mud volcanoes are recognized. The Nile deep-sea fan morphology displays a network of meanderous leveed channels showing clear evidence of avulsions and migrations. The westernmost channel is the well marked, and therefore the most recent. But the sam- pled cores show that none of the western channels is still active, since the turbidites are always covered by a thin layer of pelagic sediments. The fan sedimentary structure shows a series of acoustic lense-shaped units interbedded with transparent layers cor- responding to slump deposits. B) A central domain is characterized upslope by 1) very huge debris flow deposits associated with pock-marks to the west and 2) large growth faults to the east. Downslope, salt ridges, approximately oriented N-S, individualize small basins that trap sediments of probably hemipelagic origin. C) An eastern domain comprises a long (> 200 km) NW-SE corridor, bounded by narrow fault zones. Along dip, the corridor exhibits structures typical of salt-bearing passive margins undergoing gravity spreading (distal buckle folds, mid-slope minibasins surrounded by salt ridges, and proximal growth faults). The presence of a passive subsalt relief and/or of a but- tress (the Eratosthenes seamount) has probably caused the peculiar narrow NW-SE fault zones. Upslope, the eastern domain is marked by mud volcanoes and gas seeping tightly associated with faulting. In both central and eastern areas, the Nile meanderous deep-sea channels are still present but highly

  14. Dissolved Zinc Measurements Using Shipboard FIA During the 2008 GEOTRACES Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosnell, K. J.; Landing, W. M.; Milne, A.

    2008-12-01

    Zinc concentrations in the open ocean have been measured accurately by only a few investigators due to the extreme difficulties of collecting and processing seawater samples without introducing Zn contamination. Accurate measurements of dissolved Zn are important for understanding the biogeochemical behavior of this important biochemically required element in the open ocean. Historically, reliable samples for dissolved Zn were collected using Teflon-coated GO-FLO bottles individually hung on Kevlar line. To speed up sample collection, two "Trace Metal" rosette systems were tested during Leg 1 of the GEOTRACES 2008 intercalibration cruise: a large GEOTRACES 24-bottle rosette and the smaller Measures and Landing "CLIVAR" 12-bottle rosette. Both rosettes use 12-liter, Teflon-coated GO- FLO bottles equipped with Teflon spigots and modified air-relief fittings, allowing for pressure filtration. Contamination for dissolved Zn was eliminated in the 12-liter Teflon-lined GO-FLO bottles by repeated deployments ("flushing") on both rosette systems. A Flow Injection (FIA) technique for shipboard determination of total dissolved Zn was utilized to test rosette sampling methods for Zn contamination. Samples were acidified to 0.024M HCl (pH 2) for 16 hours. Samples were buffered to pH 5.5 using ammonium acetate buffer. Dissolved Zn was pre-concentrated using a small- volume column of 8-HQ cation exchange resin. After column rinsing, Zn was eluted into the flowing stream of organic reagent p-Tosyl-8-aminoquinoline (pTAQ), which forms fluorescent complexes with Zn. A flow- through fluorometer was used to record peak heights. Calibration was performed via standard additions. Accuracy of this method was established by measuring standard SAFe D2 and S1 samples, as well as multiple samples collected and analyzed throughout Leg 1 of the GEOTRACES 2008 cruise. Dissolved Cadmium (Cd) can additionally form fluorescent complexes with pTAQ. Thus, when necessary, a small, positive, Cd

  15. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

  16. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested state at the bottleneck. The nature of the congested state, when it occurs, appears to be similar under a variety of conditions. Typically 80-100 vehicles are approximately equally distributed between the lanes in the 500 m region prior to the end of the terminated lane. Without the adaptive cruise control capability, connected vehicles can delay the onset of congestion but do not increase the asymptotic flow past the bottleneck. Calculations are done using the Kerner-Klenov three-phase theory, stochastic discrete-time model for manual vehicles. The dynamics of the connected vehicles is given by a conventional adaptive cruise control algorithm plus commanded deceleration. Because time in the model for manual vehicles is discrete (one-second intervals), it is assumed that the acceleration of any vehicle immediately in front of a connected vehicle is constant during the time interval, thereby preserving the computational simplicity and speed of a discrete-time model.

  17. 33 CFR 165.123 - Cruise Ships, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in 46 CFR 2.10-25 that are authorized to carry more than 400 passengers and are 200 feet or more in... support of the Coast Guard. Southeastern New England COTP Zone is as defined in 33 CFR 3.05-20. (c... cruise ship into the navigable waters of the United States (see 33 CFR 2.36(a) to include the 12...

  18. 33 CFR 165.123 - Cruise Ships, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 46 CFR 2.10-25 that are authorized to carry more than 400 passengers and are 200 feet or more in... support of the Coast Guard. Southeastern New England COTP Zone is as defined in 33 CFR 3.05-20. (c... cruise ship into the navigable waters of the United States (see 33 CFR 2.36(a) to include the 12...

  19. Burn Care on Cruise Ships-Epidemiology, international regulations, risk situation, disaster management and qualification of the ship's doctor.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, C; Hartmann, B; Antonic, V

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing numbers of passengers and crew on board vessels that are becoming larger and larger, the demand for ship's doctors who can adequately treat burns on board has also increased. In the cruise ship industry it is usually those doctor's with internal and general medical training who are recruited from an epidemiological point of view. Training content or recommendations for the treatment of thermal lesions with the limited options available in ship's hospitals and where doctors with no surgical training operate do not yet exist. The guidelines recommended by the Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) regarding medical staff have only included physicians with minor surgical skills until now. With the introduction of the ATLS(®) course developed by the American College of Surgeons, the requirements for the qualification of the ship's doctor on board cruise ships shall change from January 2017. The article discusses the question of whether having completed the ATLS(®) course, the ship's doctor is trained to adequately treat thermal lesions or severe burns persons on-board, and presents the current discussion on the training content for ship's doctors within the International Maritime Health Association (IMHA). It also provides an overview of existing international regulatory frameworks, the risks presented by a fire on board, the problem of treating burns victims out of reach of coastal rescue services, and alternative training concepts for ship's doctors regarding the therapy of thermal lesions on-board. PMID:27344547

  20. Shipshape: sanitation inspections on cruise ships, 1990-2005, Vessel Sanitation Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Elaine H; Blanton, Curtis J; Otto, Charles

    2008-03-01

    In the course of a successful collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the cruise ship industry on reducing common-source outbreaks, CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP) has expanded its training, education, and cruise ship inspection programs. The study reported here evaluated 15 years of ship sanitation inspection data from the National Center for Environmental Health and assessed performance in specific sanitation categories from 1996 to 2005. During the period 1990-2005, scores from cruise ship environmental sanitation inspections steadily improved. The percentage of inspections with violations decreased among five of nine categories. Those five categories were Washing Facilities, Contact Surfaces, Facility Maintenance, Food Handling, and Communicable Disease Practices. Inspection violations increased proportionally in the categories of Swimming Pools and Water System Protection/Chart Recording. Overall continued good performance in most sanitation categories is likely attributable to on-site training during inspections, improvements in ship construction, and a switch from hot-holding temperatures to time limits as a public health control for foods on display. PMID:18348387

  1. Effect of adaptive cruise control systems on mixed traffic flow near an on-ramp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2007-06-01

    Mixed traffic flow consisting of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and manually driven vehicles is analyzed using car-following simulations. Simulations of merging from an on-ramp onto a freeway reported in the literature have not thus far demonstrated a substantial positive impact of ACC. In this paper cooperative merging for ACC vehicles is proposed to improve throughput and increase distance traveled in a fixed time. In such a system an ACC vehicle senses not only the preceding vehicle in the same lane but also the vehicle immediately in front in the other lane. Prior to reaching the merge region, the ACC vehicle adjusts its velocity to ensure that a safe gap for merging is obtained. If on-ramp demand is moderate, cooperative merging produces significant improvement in throughput (20%) and increases up to 3.6 km in distance traveled in 600 s for 50% ACC mixed flow relative to the flow of all-manual vehicles. For large demand, it is shown that autonomous merging with cooperation in the flow of all ACC vehicles leads to throughput limited only by the downstream capacity, which is determined by speed limit and headway time.

  2. Noise levels in cockpits of aircraft during normal cruise and considerations of auditory risk.

    PubMed

    Gasaway, D C

    1986-02-01

    Noise data, including A-levels and C-minus-A values, are summarized for exposures associated with normal cruise flight in 13 groups of 593 aircraft; means and standard deviations are reported; degrees of auditory risk using OSHA-1983 criterion are presented; and at-the-ear protected and unprotected exposures are revealed. Mean A-levels were 95.0 for 528 fixed-wing; 100.9 for 65 rotary-wing; and 95.7 for all 593 aircraft. Of 13 sub-groups, the lowest mean A-level (85.5) was exhibited in the cockpits of tail-mounted turbojet/fan-powered aircraft, and the highest (105.0) was found in both reciprocating and turbine-powered twin-rotor helicopters. All mean A-levels exceeded the OSHA damage-risk criterion for 8 h.d-1 exposures. At-the-ear exposures while wearing hearing protection are presented. Results clearly illustrate the potential for auditory damage of unprotected aircrews. Hearing protection must be considered to effectively control routinely encountered exposures. The material and illustrations resulting from this study will help health and safety monitors during indoctrination and counseling of aircrews concerning the need to protect their hearing against noise exposures during normal and routine flight operations. PMID:3954697

  3. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hwisoo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model. PMID:26076406

  4. Quiet Cruise Efficient Short Take-off and Landing Subsonic Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This NASA funded study conceived a revolutionary airplane concept to enable future traffic growth by using regional air space. This requires a very quiet airplane with STOL capability. Starting with a Blended Wing Body that is cruise efficient with inherent low noise characteristics from forward noise shielding and void of aft downward noise reflections, integration of embedded distributed propulsion enables incorporation of the revolutionary concept for jet noise shielding. Embedded distributed propulsion also enables incorporation of a fan bleed internally blown flap for quiet powered lift. The powered lift provides STOL capability for operation at regional airports with rapid take-off and descent to further reduce flyover noise. This study focused on configuring the total engine noise shielding STOL concept with a BWB airplane using the Boeing Phantom Works WingMOD multidisciplinary optimization code to define a planform that is pitch controllable. The configuration was then sized and mission data developed to enable NASA to assess the flyover and sideline noise. The foundational technologies needed are identified including military dual use benefits.

  5. The effect of swirl recovery vanes on the cruise noise of an advanced propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.

    1990-01-01

    The SR-7A propeller was acoustically tested with and without downstream swirl recovery vanes to determine if any extra noise was caused by the interaction of the propeller wakes and vortices with these vanes. No additional noise was observed at the cruise condition over the angular range tested. The presence of the swirl recovery vanes did unload the propeller and some small peak noise reductions were observed from lower propeller loading noise. The propeller was also tested alone to investigate the behavior of the peak propeller noise with helical tip Mach number. As observed before on other propellers, the peak noise first rose with helical tip Mach number and then leveled off or decreased at higher helical tip Mach numbers. Detailed pressure-time histories indicate that a portion of the primary pressure pulse is progressively cancelled by a secondary pulse as the helical tip Mach number is increased. This cancellation appears to be responsible for the peak noise behavior at high helical tip Mach numbers.

  6. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A Research Cruise Prototype Event Logging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Dorsk, A.

    2009-12-01

    Data gathered aboard research vessels coordinated by the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) represent an important component of the overall oceanographic data collection. The nascent Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project aims to improve access to basic shipboard data and ultimately reduce the work required to provide that access. The ultimate vision of R2R is to assist in transforming the academic fleet into an integrated global observing system. One of the coordinated subprojects within the R2R project is development of a shipboard, scientific event logging system that would incorporate best practice guidelines, a metadata schema and new and existing applications to generate a scientific sampling event log in the form of a digital text file. A cruise event logging system enables researchers to record digitally all scientific sampling events and assign a unique event identifier to each entry. Decades of work conducted within large coordinated ocean research programs (JGOFS, GLOBEC, WOCE and RIDGE) have shown that creation of a shipboard sampling event log can facilitate greatly the subsequent integration of data sets from individual investigators. A prototype event logger application, based on ELOG, has been developed and tested and results and lessons learned from this development effort will be shared.

  7. Feedback Control of a Morphing Chevron for Takeoff and Cruise Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Schiller, Noah H.; Mabe, James H.; Ruggeri, Robert T.; Butler, G. W.

    2004-01-01

    Noise from commercial high-bypass ratio turbofan engines is generated by turbulent mixing of the hot jet exhaust, fan stream, and ambient air. Serrated aerodynamic devices, known as chevrons, along the trailing edges of a jet engine primary and secondary exhaust nozzle have been shown to reduce jet noise at takeoff and shock-cell noise at cruise conditions. Their optimum shape is a finely tuned compromise between noise-benefit and thrust-loss. The design of a full scale Variable Geometry Chevron (VGC) fan-nozzle incorporating Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators is described in a companion paper. This paper describes the development and testing of a proportional-integral control system that regulates the heating of the SMA actuators to control the VGC s tip immersion. The VGC and control system were tested under representative flow conditions in Boeing s Nozzle Test Facility (NTF). Results from the NTF test which demonstrate controllable immersion of the VGC are described. The paper also describes the correlation between strains and temperatures on the chevron with a photogrammetric measurement of the chevron's tip immersion.

  8. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Hwisoo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model. PMID:26076406

  9. Aeroelastic stability analyses of two counter rotating propfan designs for a cruise missile model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Lucero, John M.; Mehmed, Oral; Stefko, George L.

    1992-01-01

    Aeroelastic stability analyses were performed to insure structural integrity of two counterrotating propfan blade designs for a NAVY/Air Force/NASA cruise missile model wind tunnel test. This analysis predicted if the propfan designs would be flutter free at the operating conditions of the wind tunnel test. Calculated stability results are presented for the two blade designs with rotational speed and Mach number as the parameters. A aeroelastic analysis code ASTROP2 (Aeroelastic Stability and Response of Propulsion Systems - 2 Dimensional Analysis), developed at LeRC, was used in this project. The aeroelastic analysis is a modal method and uses the combination of a finite element structural model and two dimensional steady and unsteady cascade aerodynamic models. This code was developed to analyze single rotation propfans but was modified and applied to counterrotating propfans for the present work. Modifications were made to transform the geometry and rotation of the aft rotor to the same reference frame as the forward rotor, to input a non-uniform inflow into the rotor being analyzed, and to automatically converge to the least stable aeroelastic mode.

  10. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A structural design study was conducted to assess the relative merits of structural concepts using advanced composite materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. The configuration and structural arrangement developed during Task I and II of the study, was used as the baseline configuration. Allowable stresses and strains were established for boron and advanced graphite fibers based on projected fiber properties available in the next decade. Structural concepts were designed and analyzed using graphite polyimide and boron polyimide, applied to stiffened panels and conventional sandwich panels. The conventional sandwich panels were selected as the structural concept to be used on the wing structure. The upper and lower surface panels of the Task I arrow wing were redesigned using high-strength graphite polyimide sandwich panels over the titanium spars and ribs. The ATLAS computer system was used as the basis for stress analysis and resizing the surface panels using the loads from the Task II study, without adjustment for change in aeroelastic deformation. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium wing, with a weight penalty less than that of the metallic airplane.

  11. Altair Navigation During Trans-Lunar Cruise, Lunar Orbit, Descent and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Heyne, Martin; Riedel, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    The Altair lunar lander navigation system is driven by a set of requirements that not only specify a need to land within 100 m of a designated spot on the Moon, but also be capable of a safe return to an orbiting Orion capsule in the event of loss of Earth ground support. These requirements lead to the need for a robust and capable on-board navigation system that works in conjunction with an Earth ground navigation system that uses primarily ground-based radiometric tracking. The resulting system relies heavily on combining a multiplicity of data types including navigation state updates from the ground based navigation system, passive optical imaging from a gimbaled camera, a stable inertial measurement unit, and a capable radar altimeter and velocimeter. The focus of this paper is on navigation performance during the trans-lunar cruise, lunar orbit, and descent/landing mission phases with the goal of characterizing knowledge and delivery errors to key mission events, bound the statistical delta V costs for executing the mission, as well as the determine the landing dispersions due to navigation. This study examines the nominal performance that can be obtained using the current best estimate of the vehicle, sensor, and environment models. Performance of the system under a variety sensor outages and parametric trades is also examined.

  12. Estimating Traveler Populations at Airport and Cruise Terminals for Population Distribution and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jochem, Warren C; Sims, Kelly M; Bright, Eddie A; Urban, Marie L; Rose, Amy N; Coleman, Phil R; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, uses of high-resolution population distribution databases are increasing steadily for environmental, socioeconomic, public health, and disaster-related research and operations. With the development of daytime population distribution, temporal resolution of such databases has been improved. However, the lack of incorporation of transitional population, namely business and leisure travelers, leaves a significant population unaccounted for within the critical infrastructure networks, such as at transportation hubs. This paper presents two general methodologies for estimating passenger populations in airport and cruise port terminals at a high temporal resolution which can be incorporated into existing population distribution models. The methodologies are geographically scalable and are based on, and demonstrate how, two different transportation hubs with disparate temporal population dynamics can be modeled utilizing publicly available databases including novel data sources of flight activity from the Internet which are updated in near-real time. The airport population estimation model shows great potential for rapid implementation for a large collection of airports on a national scale, and the results suggest reasonable accuracy in the estimated passenger traffic. By incorporating population dynamics at high temporal resolutions into population distribution models, we hope to improve the estimates of populations exposed to or at risk to disasters, thereby improving emergency planning and response, and leading to more informed policy decisions.

  13. Molecular characterization of influenza B virus outbreak on a cruise ship in Brazil 2012.

    PubMed

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Silva, Daniela Bernardes Borges da; Silva, Kátia Corrêa Oliveira; Pinho, Margarete Aparecida Benega; Curti, Suely Pires; Paiva, Terezinha Maria de; Santos, Cecília Luiza Simões

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, an outbreak of respiratory illness occurred on the cruise ship MSC Armonia in Brazil. A 31-year-old female crew member was hospitalized with respiratory failure and subsequently died. To study the etiology of the respiratory illness, tissue taken at necropsy from the deceased woman and respiratory specimens from thirteen passengers and crew members with respiratory symptoms were analyzed. Influenza real-time RT-PCR assays were performed, and the full-length hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza-positive samples was sequenced. Influenza B virus was detected in samples from seven of the individuals, suggesting that it was the cause of this respiratory illness outbreak. The sequence analysis of the HA gene indicated that the virus was closely related to the B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus, Victoria lineage, a virus contained in the 2011-12 influenza vaccine for the Southern Hemisphere. Since the recommended composition of the influenza vaccine for use during the 2013 season changed, an intensive surveillance of viruses circulating worldwide is crucial. Molecular analysis is an important tool to characterize the pathogen responsible for an outbreak such as this. In addition, laboratory disease surveillance contributes to the control measures for vaccine-preventable influenza. PMID:24878994

  14. Cruise ships flow rate emission evaluated by means of a passive DOAS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masieri, S.; Premuda, M.; Bortoli, D.; Kostadinov, I.; Petritoli, A.; Ravegnani, F.; Giovanelli, G.

    2009-09-01

    The emissions of the cruise ships, in terms of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), are evaluated with the DOAS scanning spectrometer TropoGAS (Tropospheric Gas Analyser Spectrometer) developed at ISAC CNR in close collaboration with the CGE-UE. The slant columns amounts of the above mentioned compounds are obtained with the application of the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique to the spectral measurements carried out with the TropoGAS instrument. This last is linked with an optical fibre to a simple scanning optical system allowing for measurements in multiple axis configurations. The measurements are carried out across the Giudecca Channel in Venice, during two field campaigns performed in July and in October 2007. The instrumental setup, the DOAS method and the technique for the evaluation of the ships emissions, are described. The results of flow rate emissions for NO2 and SO2 are presented and discussed. Their mean values are about 12g/s and 4 g/s for NO2 and SO2 respectively.

  15. Experimental Sonic Boom Measurements on a Mach 1.6 Cruise Low-Boom Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Elmiligui, Alaa, A.; Wayman, Thomas R.; Waithe, Kenrick A.; Howe, Donald C.; Bangert, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    A wind tunnel test has been conducted by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) to measure the sonic boom pressure signature of a low boom Mach 1.6 cruise business jet in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers 1.60 and 1.80. Through a cooperative agreement between GAC and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), GAC provided NASA access to some of the experimental data and NASA is publishing these data for the sonic boom research community. On-track and off-track near field sonic boom pressure signatures were acquired at three separation distances (0.5, 1.2, and 1.7 reference body lengths) and three angles of attack (-0.26deg, 0.26deg, and 0.68deg). The model was blade mounted to minimize the sting effects on the sonic boom signatures. Although no extensive data analysis is provided, selected data are plotted to illustrate salient features of the data. All of the experimental sonic boom pressure data are tabulated. Schlieren images of the configuration are also included.

  16. Orbit-determination performance of Doppler data for interplanetary cruise trajectories. Part 1: Error analysis methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulvestad, J. S.; Thurman, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    An error covariance analysis methodology is used to investigate different weighting schemes for two-way (coherent) Doppler data in the presence of transmission-media and observing-platform calibration errors. The analysis focuses on orbit-determination performance in the interplanetary cruise phase of deep-space missions. Analytical models for the Doppler observable and for transmission-media and observing-platform calibration errors are presented, drawn primarily from previous work. Previously published analytical models were improved upon by the following: (1) considering the effects of errors in the calibration of radio signal propagation through the troposphere and ionosphere as well as station-location errors; (2) modelling the spacecraft state transition matrix using a more accurate piecewise-linear approximation to represent the evolution of the spacecraft trajectory; and (3) incorporating Doppler data weighting functions that are functions of elevation angle, which reduce the sensitivity of the estimated spacecraft trajectory to troposphere and ionosphere calibration errors. The analysis is motivated by the need to develop suitable weighting functions for two-way Doppler data acquired at 8.4 GHz (X-band) and 32 GHz (Ka-band). This weighting is likely to be different from that in the weighting functions currently in use; the current functions were constructed originally for use with 2.3 GHz (S-band) Doppler data, which are affected much more strongly by the ionosphere than are the higher frequency data.

  17. Theoretical and experimental flow fields for a supersonic cruise fighter forebody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaros, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    The capability of two numerical methods to predict the flow field about a representative supersonic cruise aircraft was examined. The two codes were a small-disturbance transonic program of Boppe and a conservative form full-potential transonic program of Shankar and Szema. For the former code, comparisons were made with wind-tunnel data at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 and angles of attack of 0 deg, 5 deg, and 10 deg (7.5 deg instead of 10 deg at a Mach number of 1.2). Predictions from the two codes were compared at a Mach number of 1.2 and an angle of attack of 7.5 deg. The comparison criteria were contours of local angle of attack, local angle of sideslip, and local Mach number. The comparisons indicated that both codes may be considered useful for design applications, depending on the degree of accuracy required by the user's solution. Both solutions show an inaccuracy in their predictions, particularly as Mach number and/or angle of attack increases, because of their lack of viscous effects and any mechanisms to predict vortex development.

  18. Aerodynamic Performance and Flow-Field Characteristics of Two Waverider-Derived Hypersonic Cruise Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; Finley, Dennis B.

    1995-01-01

    The component integration of a class of hypersonic high-lift configurations known as waveriders into hypersonic cruise vehicles was evaluated. A wind-tunnel model was developed which integrates realistic vehicle components with two waverider shapes, referred to as the straight-wing and cranked-wing shapes. Both shapes were conical-flow-derived waveriders for a design Mach number of 4.0. Experimental data and limited computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions were obtained over a Mach number range of 1.6 to 4.63 at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The CFD predictions and flow visualization data confirmed the shock attachment characteristics of the baseline waverider shapes and illustrated the waverider flow-field properties. Experimental data showed that no significant performance degradations, in terms of maximum lift-to-drag ratios, occur at off-design Mach numbers for the waverider shapes and the integrated configurations. A comparison of the fully-integrated waverider vehicles to the baseline shapes showed that the performance was significantly degraded when all of the components were added to the waveriders, with the most significant degradation resulting from aftbody closure and the addition of control surfaces. Both fully-integrated configurations were longitudinally unstable over the Mach number range studied with the selected center of gravity location and for unpowered conditions. The cranked-wing configuration provided better lateral-directional stability characteristics than the straight-wing configuration.

  19. Hydrothermal activity in the Lau Basin: First results from the NAUTILAU Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NAUTILAU Group

    The Lau Basin, a back arc spreading center, is one of the most active hydrothermal areas in the ocean. A scientific team from France, Germany, and Tonga investigated the southern Lau Basin near Tonga in 1989 to study the processes of seafloor ore-mineral formation associated with hydrothermal circulation along the volcanic Valu Fa ridge (Ride de Valu Fa in Figure 1), which lies in back of the Tonga-Kermadec trench.Between April 17 and May 10 scientists on the R/V Nadir used the submersible Nautile to make 22 dives in the southern Lau Basin. The cruise was called NAUTILAU, for Nautile in Lau Basin. In addition to the standard equipment of the submersible (video and photo cameras, and temperature probe), a CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) instrument was integrated with a “mini rosette” water sampling device used for the first time on the Nautile to obtain correlations between the geological observations and the physical and chemical anomalies measured in the seawater.

  20. Computational Analysis of the Effect of Porosity on Shock Cell Strength at Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, Steven J.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Hunter, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    A computational flow field analysis is presented of the effect of core cowl porosity on shock cell strength for a modern separate flow nozzle at cruise conditions. The goal of this study was to identify the primary physical mechanisms by which the application of porosity can reduce shock cell strength and hence the broadband shock associated noise. The flow is simulated by solving the asymptotically steady, compressible, Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes equations on a structured grid using an implicit, up-wind, flux-difference splitting finite volume scheme. The standard two-equation k - epsilon turbulence model with a linear stress representation is used with the addition of a eddy viscosity dependence on total temperature gradient normalized by local turbulence length scale. Specific issues addressed in this study were the optimal area required to weaken a shock impinging on the core cowl surface and the optimal level of porosity and placement of porous areas for reduction of the overall shock cell strength downstream. Two configurations of porosity were found to reduce downstream shock strength by approximately 50%.

  1. Measurements of the boundary layer and near wake of a supercritical airfoil at cruise conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. A.; Spaid, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    The flow behavior within the upper-surface boundary layer and near wake of a supercritical airfoil operating at cruise conditions is discussed. Experimental results obtained from wind-tunnel tests are presented which provide a more detailed description of the flow in these regions than was previously available. Mean streamwise velocity profiles measured by pitot-pressure-probe and laser-velocimeter techniques were found to be in excellent agreement. Other mean-flow properties obtained by the laser-velocimeter technique were the local flow angles in the viscous layers and the static pressures at the edges of the boundary layer and wake. The data set also includes measurements of the turbulence intensity and turbulent Reynolds-stress distributions as obtained by the laser-velocimeter technique. To assess the effects of the shock wave, a less extensive set of measurements was realized at a subcritical test condition. The two test conditions (Mach number at free-stream conditions = 0.72, airfoil section lift coefficient = 0.76 and Mach number of free-stream conditions = 0.5, airfoil section lift coefficient = 0.75) provide a good test for state-of-the-art prediction methods because the upper-surface-boundary layer is separated just upstream of the trailing edge in both cases.

  2. Penetration of nonlinear Rossby eddies into South China Sea evidenced by cruise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianyu; Zheng, Quanan; Sun, Zhenyu; Tai, Chang-Kuo

    2012-03-01

    From the analyses of the cruise conductivity-temperature-depth profiler and acoustic Doppler current profiler data combined with simultaneous satellite altimeter data and Argo float profiling data, this paper provides evidence for the nonlinear Rossby eddies (NREs) penetrating through the Kuroshio and the Luzon Strait and entering the South China Sea (SCS). A high-salinity water prism in the subsurface layer west of the Luzon Strait was observed in January 2010. The salty prism centered at around 21°N and 118°E has a salinity higher than 34.8 and co-locates with an anticyclonic eddy with a diameter of about 150 km. The water properties of the salty prism are close to those of the Northwest Pacific (NWP) water. The time series of altimeter data and Argo float profiling data indicate that the anticyclonic eddy originates from an NRE that propagates westward from the NWP. The eddy penetrates the Luzon Strait at a speed of about 0.6 m s-1 because of the effects of the narrow strait and the Kuroshio-eddy interaction and carries the high-salinity subsurface water from the NWP into the northern SCS.

  3. Exhaust Nozzles for Propulsion Systems with Emphasis on Supersonic Cruise Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stitt, Leonard E.

    1990-01-01

    This compendium summarizes the contributions of the NASA-Lewis and its contractors to supersonic exhaust nozzle research from 1963 to 1985. Two major research and technology efforts sponsored this nozzle research work; the U.S. Supersonic Transport (SST) Program and the follow-on Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program. They account for two generations of nozzle technology: the first from 1963 to 1971, and the second from 1971 to 1985. First, the equations used to calculate nozzle thrust are introduced. Then the general types of nozzles are presented, followed by a discussion of those types proposed for supersonic aircraft. Next, the first-generation nozzles designed specifically for the Boeing SST and the second-generation nozzles designed under the SCR program are separately reviewed and then compared. A chapter on throttle-dependent afterbody drag is included, since drag has a major effect on the off-design performance of supersonic nozzles. A chapter on the performance of supersonic dash nozzles follows, since these nozzles have similar design problems, Finally, the nozzle test facilities used at NASA-Lewis during this nozzle research effort are identified and discussed. These facilities include static test stands, a transonic wind tunnel, and a flying testbed aircraft. A concluding section points to the future: a third generation of nozzles designed for a new era of high speed civil transports to produce even greater advances in performance, to meet new noise rules, and to ensure the continuity of over two decades of NASA research.

  4. Transonic Investigation of Two-Dimensional Nozzles Designed for Supersonic Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Deere, Karen A.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation has been conducted to determine the off-design uninstalled drag characteristics a of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle designed for a supersonic cruise civil transport. The main objective of this investigation was to determine the effects of varying nozzle external flap curvature and sidewall boattail angle and curvature on nozzle drag The experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.20 at nozzle pressure ratios up to nine. Three-dimensional simulations of nozzle performance were obtained with the computational fluid dynamics code PAB using turbulence closure and nonlinear Reynolds stress modeling. The results of this investigation indicate that excellent correlation between experimental and predicted results was obtained for the nozzle with a moderate amount of boattail curvature. The nozzle with an external flap having a sharp shoulder (no curvature) had the lowest nozzle pressure drag. At a Mach number of 1.2, sidewall pressure drag doubled as sidewall boattail angle was increased from 4 to 8 deg. Reducing the height of the sidewall caused large decreases in both the sidewall and flap pressure drags.

  5. Transonic Investigation of Two-Dimensional Nozzles Designed for Supersonic Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Deere, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation has been conducted to determine the off-design uninstalled drag characteristics of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle designed for a supersonic cruise civil transport. The overall objectives were to: (1) determine the effects of nozzle external flap curvature and sidewall boattail variations on boattail drag; (2) develop an experimental data base for 2D nozzles with long divergent flaps and small boattail angles and (3) provide data for correlating computational fluid dynamic predictions of nozzle boattail drag. The experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.20 at nozzle pressure ratios up to 9. Three-dimensional simulations of nozzle performance were obtained with the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D using turbulence closure and nonlinear Reynolds stress modeling. The results of this investigation indicate that excellent correlation between experimental and predicted results was obtained for the nozzle with a moderate amount of boattail curvature. The nozzle with an external flap having a sharp shoulder (no curvature) had the lowest nozzle pressure drag. At a Mach number of 1.2, sidewall pressure drag doubled as sidewall boattail angle was increased from 4deg to 8deg. Reducing the height of the sidewall caused large decreases in both the sidewall and flap pressure drags. Summary

  6. Mechatronic design and locomotion control of a robotic thunniform swimmer for fast cruising.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yonghui; Liang, Jianhong; Wang, Tianmiao

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents mechatronic design and locomotion control of a biomimetic robotic fish that swims using thunniform kinematics for fast cruising. Propulsion of the robotic fish is realized with a parallel four-bar propulsive mechanism that delivers combined translational and rotational motion to a lunate caudal fin. A central pattern generator controller, composed of two unidirectionally coupled Hopf oscillators, is employed to generate robust, smooth and coordinated oscillatory control signals for the tail joints. In order to maintain correct phase relation between joints during fast tail beating, a novel phase adjusting mechanism is proposed and incorporated into the controller. The attitude of the robotic fish in fast swimming is stabilized using an attitude and heading reference system unit and a pair of pitching pectoral fins. The maximum speed of the robotic fish can reach 2.0 m s(-1), which is the fastest speed that robotic fishes have achieved. Its outstanding swimming performance presents possibilities for deployment to real-world exploration, probe and survey missions. PMID:25822708

  7. Wind tunnel performance of four energy efficient propellers designed for Mach 0.8 cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeracki, R. J.; Mikkelson, D. C.; Blaha, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    For the advanced turboprop to be competitive with proposed advanced turbofan-powered aircraft, it must have high propulsive efficiency at Mach 0.8 cruise above 9.144-km altitude with an acceptable cabin noise environment. Four 8-bladed propeller models are designed employing various concepts to reduce compressibility losses. Wind tunnel tests are conducted at zero model incidence to the free-stream flow. Aerodynamic and acoustic test results are presented and discussed. It is shown that the aeroacoustically designed configuration (SR-3) with 45 deg of tip sweep and an area-ruled spinner yields the highest propulsive efficiency (78.7% at Mach 0.8, 3.06 advance ratio, and 1.7 power coefficient), with an improvement of about 3% over the straight bladed configuration (SR-2, with zero-degree sweep). The phase-interference concept for noise reduction used in SR-3 yields about 5-6 dB reduction as compared to SR-2.

  8. Gaseous exhaust emissions from a JT8D-109 turbofan engine at simulated cruise flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from a JT8D-109 turbofan engine were measured in an altitude facility at four simulated cruise flight conditions: Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 9.1, 10, 7, and 12.2 km and Mach 0.9 at 10.7 km. Engine inlet air temperature was held constant at 283 K for all tests. Emissions measurements were made at nominally 6 cm intervals across the horizontal diameter of the engine exhaust nozzle with a single-point traversing gas sample probe. Measured emissions of decreased with increasing altitude from an emission index of 10.4 to one of 8.3, while carbon monoxide increased with increasing altitude from an emission index of 1.6 to one of 4.4. Unburned hydrocarbon emissions were essentially negligible for all flight conditions. Since the engine inlet air temperatures were not correctly simulated, the NOx emission indices were corrected to true altitude conditions by using correlating parameters for changes in combustor inlet temperature, pressure, and temperature rise. The correction was small at the lowest altitude. At the 10.7 and 12.2 km, Mach 0.8 test conditions the correction decreased the measured values by 1 emission index.

  9. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  10. Message Mode Operations for Spacecraft: A Proposal for Operating Spacecraft During Cruise and Mitigating the Network Loading Crunch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Ed; MacMedan, Marv; Kazz, Greg; Kallemeyn, Pieter

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is a world-class spacecraft tracking facility with stations located in Spain, Australia and USA, servicing Deep Space Missions of many space agencies. The current system of scheduling spacecraft during cruise for multiple 8 hour tracking sessions per week currently leads to an overcommitted DSN. Studies indicate that future projected mission demands upon the Network will only make the loading problem worse. Therefore, a more efficient scheduling of DSN resources is necessary in order to support the additional network loading envisioned in the next few years: The number of missions is projected to increase from 25 in 1998 to 34 by 2001. In fact given the challenge of the NASA administrator, Dan Goldin, of launching 12 spacecraft per year, the DSN would be tracking approximately 90 spacecraft by 2010. Currently a large amount of antenna time and network resources are subscribed by a project in order to have their mission supported during the cruise phase. The recently completed Mars Pathfinder mission was tracked 3 times a week (8 hours/day) during the majority of its cruise to Mars. This paper proposes an innovative approach called Message Mode Operations (MMO) for mitigating the Network loading problem while continuing to meet the tracking, reporting, time management, and scheduling requirements of these missions during Cruise while occupying very short tracking times. MMO satisfies these requirements by providing the following services: Spacecraft Health and Welfare Monitoring Service Command Delivery Service Adaptive Spacecraft Scheduling Service Orbit Determination Service Time Calibration Service Utilizing more efficient engineering telemetry summarization and filtering techniques on-board the spacecraft and collapsing the navigation requirements for Doppler and Range into shorter tracks, we believe spacecraft can be adequately serviced using short 10 to 30 minute tracking sessions. This claim assumes that certain changes would

  11. Wind-tunnel investigation at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.01 of a transport configuration designed to cruise at near-sonic speeds. [conducted in langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhans, R. A.; Flechner, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the investigation showed that the configuration exhibits a sufficiently high drag divergence Mach number to cruise at near sonic speeds. The configuration is longitudinally stable through the cruise Mach number and lift coefficient range, but at higher lift coefficients displays pitchup and becomes unstable. The configuration was directionally stable at all test conditions and laterally stable in the angle of attack range required for cruise.

  12. Summer Sea ice in the Pacific Arctic sector from the CHINARE-2010 cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, S. F.; Xie, H.; Lei, R.; Huang, W.; Chinare 2010 Arctic Sea Ice Group

    2010-12-01

    N (from August 21 to August 24). In this area, the ice concentration varied from 70-100%, melt pond varied from 20-50% of ice, ridged ice varied from 10-30% of ice, and floe size was dominated by 10’s km to several km’s in one or two dimensions. The overall ice thickness decreased southward from 1.8-2m to 0.6-1m. The ice type of the area is multiyear ice dominated, with small portion of first year ice. In the area from ~85°N to 83.5°N, we see dirty ice (brownish, rich hills and valleys, mostly multiyear ice), varying from 10-20% of ice. Similar dirty ice was only seen from 72°N-75°N in the northward leg (July 24-29), then not seen until the northern region. The ice situation in this cruise will be compared with that from the CHINARE-2008 cruise, in a similar area and season, so change of the two years for this sector of Arctic Ocean during the middle-later summer can be deduced.

  13. Indian Ocean radiocarbon: Data from the INDIGO 1, 2, and 3 cruises

    SciTech Connect

    Sepanski, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This document presents {sup 14}C activities (expressed in the internationally adopted {Delta}{sup 14}C scale) from water samples taken at various locations and depths in the Indian and Southern oceans through the Indien Gaz Ocean (INDIGO) project. These data were collected as part of the INDIGO 1, INDIGO 2, and INDIGO 3 cruises, which took place during the years 1985, 1986, and 1987, respectively. These data have been used to estimate the penetration of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the Indian and Southern oceans. The document also presents supporting data for potential temperature, salinity, density (sigma-theta), {delta}{sup 13}C, and total CO{sub 2}. All radiocarbon measurements have been examined statistically for quality of sample counts and stability of counting efficiency and background. In addition, all data have been reviewed by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and assessed for gross accuracy and consistency (absence of obvious outliers and other anomalous values). These data are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of this document and a magnetic tape containing machine-readable files. This document provides sample listing of the Indian Ocean radiocarbon data as they appear on the magnetic tape, as well as a complete listing of these data in tabular form. This document also offers retrieval program listings, furnishes information on sampling methods and data selection, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and provides reprints of pertinent literature. 13 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Southern Ocean circulation changes across the last deglaciation: contribution from Marion-Dufresne cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Elisabeth; Siani, Giuseppe; Mazaud, Alain; Paterne, Martine; deVries, Tim; Jaccard, Samuel; Waelbroeck, Claire; Crosta, Xavier; Isguder, Gulay; Dewilde, Fabien; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Skinner, Luke; Kissel, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    The last deglaciation is marked by rapid climatic events linked to large reorganizations of the deep ocean circulation. To decipher the role of the Southern Ocean in these deep circulation changes requires reconstructing the evolution of its stratification and its zonal behavior during the last deglaciation from high resolution, well dated records. Furthermore, nowadays the connection between atmosphere and the deep ocean occurs through the Southern Ocean, and it might had a leading role in the evolution of atmospheric CO2 concentrations across the deglaciation. However, establishing a precise chronology for marine sediment records in high latitudes is a difficult task, as it requires the determination of radiocarbon surface water age changes. It has been possible to retrieve high sedimentation rate cores during Indian and Pacific oceanographic cruises, particularly PACHIDERME and INDIEN SUD expeditions. We pre. We aim at tying these marine records to terrestrial records, using tephra deposited in marine and terrestrial region in the different sector of the Southern Ocean when it is possible. This work is in progress within a French-Swedish project. We will present results at different depth from South West Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean and from the Indian sector. A precise chronology in the Indian sector requires to first establish the tephrochronology of Kerguelen Islands that is under progress. We compare these new records with previously published records of the Atlantic and Pacific sectors. It indicates that upwelling events drive radiocarbon changes in waters above 2500 m depth and increases in atmospheric CO2. Oceanic circulation changes are not synchroneous at deeper depth between 2500 and 4000 m depth. Southern Ocean temperature and vertical mixing increases occurs synchroneously with temperature increase above the Antarctic and atmospheric CO2 increases within error of marine and Ice chronologies, while the ACC current intensity decrease (or

  15. Rosetta Lander—After seven years of cruise, prepared for hibernation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    the Philae Team; Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Fantinati, Cinzia; Fronton, Jean-François; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Krause, Christian; Küchemann, Oliver; Maibaum, Michael; Pätz, Brigitte; Roll, Reinhard; Willnecker, Rainer

    2012-12-01

    Rosetta is a Cornerstone Mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 programme. It is going to rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after a 10 year cruise and will study both its nucleus and coma with an orbiting spacecraft and a landed platform. The latter, named Philae, has been designed to land softly on the comet nucleus and is equipped with 10 scientific instruments to perform in-situ studies of the cometary material. Philae has been provided by a large international consortium.Rosetta was successfully launched on March 2, 2004 from Kourou in French Guyana. Philae is operated by the Lander Control Centre (LCC) at DLR, Cologne and the Science Operations and Navigation Centre (SONC) at CNES, Toulouse via the European Spacecraft Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt. The scientific lead is at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Science (Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany) and the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (Paris).Since launch, the Lander has been operational during commissioning, several checkouts, two planetary swing-bys at the Earth and one at Mars, fly-bys at asteroids Šteins and Lutetia as well as some additional activities for calibration and failure investigation. Payload checkout PC13 was the last Lander activation prior to a deep space hibernation phase of Rosetta, which started in June 2011 and will last until approaching the comet in 2014.The paper describes the various Lander activities over the past seven years and gives an outlook of near- and on-comet operations. Landing is foreseen in November 2014 at a heliocentric distance of 3 AU. Prior to that, detailed characterization of the comet nucleus has to be performed with the Rosetta Orbiter instruments.

  16. Rosetta Lander—After seven years of cruise, prepared for hibernation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Fantinati, Cinzia; Fronton, Jean-François; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Krause, Christian; Küchemann, Oliver; Maibaum, Michael; Pätz, Brigitte; Roll, Reinhard; Willnecker, Rainer; Philae Team

    2012-12-01

    Rosetta is a Cornerstone Mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 programme. It is going to rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after a 10 year cruise and will study both its nucleus and coma with an orbiting spacecraft and a landed platform. The latter, named Philae, has been designed to land softly on the comet nucleus and is equipped with 10 scientific instruments to perform in-situ studies of the cometary material. Philae has been provided by a large international consortium. Rosetta was successfully launched on March 2, 2004 from Kourou in French Guyana. Philae is operated by the Lander Control Centre (LCC) at DLR, Cologne and the Science Operations and Navigation Centre (SONC) at CNES, Toulouse via the European Spacecraft Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt. The scientific lead is at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Science (Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany) and the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (Paris). Since launch, the Lander has been operational during commissioning, several checkouts, two planetary swing-bys at the Earth and one at Mars, fly-bys at asteroids Šteins and Lutetia as well as some additional activities for calibration and failure investigation. Payload checkout PC13 was the last Lander activation prior to a deep space hibernation phase of Rosetta, which started in June 2011 and will last until approaching the comet in 2014. The paper describes the various Lander activities over the past seven years and gives an outlook of near- and on-comet operations. Landing is foreseen in November 2014 at a heliocentric distance of 3 AU. Prior to that, detailed characterization of the comet nucleus has to be performed with the Rosetta Orbiter instruments.

  17. Broadband vehicle-to-vehicle communication using an extended autonomous cruise control sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heddebaut, M.; Rioult, J.; Ghys, J. P.; Gransart, Ch; Ambellouis, S.

    2005-06-01

    For several years road vehicle autonomous cruise control (ACC) systems as well as anti-collision radar have been developed. Several manufacturers currently sell this equipment. The current generation of ACC sensors only track the first preceding vehicle to deduce its speed and position. These data are then used to compute, manage and optimize a safety distance between vehicles, thus providing some assistance to car drivers. However, in real conditions, to elaborate and update a real time driving solution, car drivers use information about speed and position of preceding and following vehicles. This information is essentially perceived using the driver's eyes, binocular stereoscopic vision performed through the windscreens and rear-view mirrors. Furthermore, within a line of vehicles, the frontal road perception of the first vehicle is very particular and highly significant. Currently, all these available data remain strictly on-board the vehicle that has captured the perception information and performed these measurements. To get the maximum effectiveness of all these approaches, we propose that this information be shared in real time with the following vehicles, within the convoy. On the basis of these considerations, this paper technically explores a cost-effective solution to extend the basic ACC sensor function in order to simultaneously provide a vehicle-to-vehicle radio link. This millimetre wave radio link transmits relevant broadband perception data (video, localization...) to following vehicles, along the line of vehicles. The propagation path between the vehicles uses essentially grazing angles of incidence of signals over the road surface including millimetre wave paths beneath the cars.

  18. Measurements of HONO, NO, NOy and SO2 in aircraft exhaust plumes at cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, T.; Voigt, C.; Arnold, F.; Schlager, H.; Kleffmann, J.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schäuble, D.; Schaefer, M.; Schumann, U.

    2011-05-01

    Measurements of gaseous nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions in young aircraft exhaust plumes give insight into chemical oxidation processes inside aircraft engines. Particularly, the OH-induced formation of nitrous acid (HONO) from nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) from sulfur dioxide (SO2) inside the turbine which is highly uncertain, need detailed analysis to address the climate impact of aviation. We report on airborne in situ measurements at cruise altitudes of HONO, NO, NOy, and SO2 in 9 wakes of 8 different types of modern jet airliners, including for the first time also an A380. Measurements of HONO and SO2 were made with an ITCIMS (Ion Trap Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer) using a new ion-reaction scheme involving SF5- reagent ions. The measured molar ratios HONO/NO and HONO/NOy with averages of 0.038 ± 0.010 and 0.027 ± 0.005 were found to decrease systematically with increasing NOx emission-index (EI NOx). We calculate an average EI HONO of 0.31 ± 0.12 g NO2 kg-1. Using reliable measurements of HONO and NOy, which are less adhesive than H2SO4 to the inlet walls, we derive the OH-induced conversion fraction of fuel sulfur to sulfuric acid $\\varepsilon$ with an average of 2.2 ± 0.5 %. $\\varepsilon$ also tends to decrease with increasing EI NOx, consistent with earlier model simulations. The lowest HONO/NO, HONO/NOy and $\\varepsilon$ was observed for the largest passenger aircraft A380.

  19. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a 1/10-scale model of an advanced arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration designed for cruise at Mach 2.2. [Langley Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.

    1979-01-01

    The low-speed longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics of a scale model of an advanced arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration were investigated in tests conducted at a Reynolds number of 4.19 x 10 to the 6th power based on the mean aerodynamic chord, with an angle of attack range from - 6 deg to 23 deg and sideslip angle range from -15 deg to 20 deg. The effects of segmented leading-edge flaps, slotted trailing-edge flaps, horizontal and vertical tails, and ailerons and spoilers were determined. Extensive pressure data and flow visualization pictures with non-intrusive fluorescent mini-tufts were obtained.

  20. The eroticism of Internet cruising as a self-contained behaviour: a multivariate analysis of men seeking men demographics and getting off online.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Brandon Andrew; Moskowitz, David A

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on men seeking men and who use the Internet for sexual purposes have focused on the epidemiological outcomes of Internet cruising. Other research has only focused on online sexual behaviours such as cybersex. The present study examines men who find the acts of Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic as self-contained behaviours. We surveyed 499 men who used craigslist.org for sexually-oriented purposes, and ran an ordinary least squares multiple regression model to determine the demographic characteristics of men seeking men who found Internet cruising erotic. Our results showed that younger compared to older men seeking men found the acts erotic. Likewise, men seeking men from mid-sized cities and large cities compared to men from smaller cities found Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic. Most notably, bisexual- and heterosexual-identifying men seeking men compared to gay-identifying men found these acts to be more erotic. Our results suggested that self-contained Internet cruising might provide dual functions. For some men (e.g., heterosexual-identifying men), the behaviour provides a sexual outlet in which fantasy and experimentation may be explored without risking stigmatization. For other men (e.g., those from large cities), the behaviour may be an alternative to offset sexual risk while still being able to 'get off'. PMID:23565985

  1. The eroticism of Internet cruising as a self-contained behaviour: a multivariate analysis of men seeking men demographics and getting off online

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Brandon Andrew; Moskowitz, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on men seeking men and who use the Internet for sexual purposes have focused on the epidemiological outcomes of Internet cruising. Other research has only focused on online sexual behaviours such as cybersex. The present study examines men who find the acts of Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic as self-contained behaviours. We surveyed 499 men who used craigslist.org for sexually-oriented purposes, and ran an ordinary least squares multiple regression model to determine the demographic characteristics of men seeking men who found Internet cruising erotic. Our results showed that younger compared to older men seeking men found the acts erotic. Likewise, men seeking men from mid-sized cities and large cities compared to men from smaller cities found Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic. Most notably, bisexual- and heterosexual-identifying men seeking men compared to gay-identifying men found these acts to be more erotic. Our results suggested that self-contained Internet cruising might provide dual functions. For some men (e.g., heterosexual-identifying men), the behaviour provides a sexual outlet in which fantasy and experimentation may be explored without risking stigmatization. For other men (e.g., those from large cities), the behaviour may be an alternative to offset sexual risk while still being able to ‘get off’. PMID:23565985

  2. Real-time testing of titanium sheet and extrusion coupon specimens subjected to Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise aircraft wing stresses and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, T.

    1977-01-01

    The accuracy of three accelerated flight-by-flight test methods for material selection, and fatigue substantiation of supersonic cruise aircraft structure was studied. The real time stresses and temperatures applied to the specimens were representative of the service conditions in the lower surface of a Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise aircraft wing root structure. Each real time flight lasted about 65 minutes, including about one hour at (500 F) in the cruise condition. Center notched coupon specimens from six titanium materials were tested: mill-annealed, duplex-annealed, and triplex-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V sheets; mill-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V extrusion; mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V sheet; and solution-treated and aged Ti-6Al-4V extrusion. For duplex-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V sheet, specimens with single spotweld were also tested. The test results were studied in conjunction with other related data from the literature for: material selection, structural fabrication, fatigue resistance of supersonic cruise aircraft structure, and fatigue test acceleration procedures for supersonic cruise aircraft.

  3. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Millero, F.J.

    2000-06-09

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Hesperides oceanographic cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (Section A5). Conducted as part of the Work Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Cadiz, Spain, on July 14, 1992, and ended in Miami, Florida, on August 15, 1992. Measurements made along WOCE Section A5 included CTD pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen; and bottle salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, TCO{sub 2}, TALK, and pH. The TALK, TCO{sub 2}, and pH were determined from titrations of seawater collected at 33 stations. The titration systems for measuring TALK and TCO{sub 2} were calibrated in the laboratory with certified reference materials (CRMs) before the cruise to ensure traceable results. Standard reference seawater provided by Andrew Dickson of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) was used at sea to monitor the performance of the titration systems. The results agree with the laboratory results to {+-} 2 {micro}mol/kg for TALK and {+-} 1 {micro}mol/kg for TCO{sub 2}. The titration systems used to measure pH were calibrated with TRIS seawater buffers prepared in the laboratory and measured with an H{sub 2}, Pt/AgCl, Ag electrode. The initial electromotive force (emf) of the titrations was used to determine the pH. The values of pH are thought to be reliable to {+-} 0.01 and are internally consistent with the measured values of TALK and TCO{sub 2} to {+-} 7 {micro}mol/kg. The measured carbon dioxide system parameters have been used to calculate the in situ values of the fugacity of CO{sub 2} (fCO{sub 2}) for the surface water. The surface results are briefly discussed.

  4. Observation of surface ozone in the marine boundary layer along a cruise through the Arctic Ocean: From offshore to remote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Pengzhen; Bian, Lingen; Zheng, Xiangdong; Yu, Juan; Sun, Chen; Ye, Peipei; Xie, Zhouqing

    2016-03-01

    Ozone is an important reactive gas in the troposphere; it has been frequently used to estimate atmospheric oxidation capacity. However, there are few data of surface ozone over the Arctic Ocean, especially the central Arctic Ocean. Here, surface ozone in the marine boundary layer along the cruise path during the 5th Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (June to September, 2012) was investigated. The latitudes and longitudes covered in the cruise were 31.1°N-87.7°N and 9.3°E-90°E-168.4°W. The 1-h-averaged ozone varied from 9.4 ppbv to 124.5 ppbv along the cruise. The highest mixing ratios appeared in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan while the lowest in the Chukchi Sea. The relatively high ozone levels over the East China Sea, the Sea of Japan, and offshore Iceland were caused by transport of precursors and/or ozone from the nearby continent. Ozone mixing ratio decreasing by ~ 2 ppbv/° with increasing latitude was observed during 31-45°N covering the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan, and during 62-69°N covering offshore Iceland. Over the entire Arctic Ocean, ozone levels were relatively low, varying from 9.4 ppbv to 36.1 ppbv with an average of 23.8 ± 4.6 (mean ± standard deviation) ppbv, which was not statistically different with data observed at Barrow observatory during the same period. Unlike ozone over contaminated areas, a slight increasing trend of ozone in 69-87°N was observed. This phenomenon may be ascribed to the role of both vertical transport and chemical processes due to solar radiation.

  5. In-flight Operation of the Dawn Ion Propulsion System Through Year One of Cruise to Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Charles E.; Rayman, Marc D.; Brophy, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The Dawn mission, part of NASA's Discovery Program, has as its goal the scientific exploration of the two most massive main-belt asteroids, 4 Vesta, and the dwarf planet 1 Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 27, 2007 on a Delta-II 7925H-9.5 rocket that placed the 1218-kg spacecraft into an Earth-escape trajectory. On-board the spacecraft is an ion propulsion system (IPS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which will provide an additional delta- V of approximately 11 km/s for the heliocentric transfers to each body and for all orbit transfers including orbit capture/escape and transition to the various science orbits. Deterministic thrusting to Vesta began in December 2007 and concluded with orbit capture at Vesta in July 2011. The transfer to Vesta included a Mars gravity assist flyby in February 2009 that provided an additional delta-V of 2.6 km/s and was the only postlaunch mission delta-V not provided by IPS. During the mission at Vesta the IPS was used for all orbit transfers which included six different near-polar science mapping orbits. Thrusting for departure from Vesta and the start of cruise to Ceres began on July 25, 2012 with escape from Vesta occurring on September 5, 2012. To date the IPS has been operated for approximately 31,000 hours, consumed approximately 300 kg of xenon, and provided a delta-V of approximately 8.3 km/s. IPS performance characteristics are very close to the expected performance based on analysis and testing performed prelaunch. Thrusting for cruise to Ceres will continue until the spring of 2015, with a planned arrival date at Ceres in April 2015. This paper provides an overview of Dawn's mission objectives and the results of Dawn IPS mission operations from Vesta departure through the first year of cruise to Ceres.

  6. Legionella species colonization of water distribution systems, pools and air conditioning systems in cruise ships and ferries

    PubMed Central

    Goutziana, Georgia; Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Karanika, Maria; Kavagias, Antonios; Stathakis, Nikolaos E; Gourgoulianis, Kostantinos; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Background Legionnaires' disease continues to be a public health concern in passenger ships. This study was scheduled in order to investigate Legionella spp. colonization of water distribution systems (WDS), recreational pools, and air-conditioning systems on board ferries and cruise ships in an attempt to identify risk factors for Legionella spp. colonization associated with ship water systems and water characteristics. Methods Water systems of 21 ferries and 10 cruise ships including WDS, air conditioning systems and pools were investigated for the presence of Legionella spp. Results The 133 samples collected from the 10 cruise ships WDS, air conditioning systems and pools were negative for Legionella spp. Of the 21 ferries WDS examined, 14 (66.7%) were legionellae-positive. A total of 276 samples were collected from WDS and air conditioning systems. Legionella spp. was isolated from 37.8% of the hot water samples and 17.5% of the cold water samples. Of the total 96 positive isolates, 87 (90.6%) were L. pneumophila. Legionella spp. colonization was positively associated with ship age. The temperature of the hot water samples was negatively associated with colonization of L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 and that of L. pneumophila sg 2 to 14. Increases in pH ≥7.8 and total plate count ≥400 CFU/L, correlated positively with the counts of L. pneumophila sg 2 to 14 and Legionella spp. respectively. Free chlorine of ≥0.2 mg/L inhibited colonization of Legionella spp. Conclusion WDS of ferries can be heavily colonized by Legionella spp. and may present a risk of Legionnaires' disease for passengers and crew members. Guidelines and advising of Legionnaires' disease prevention regarding ferries are needed, in particular for operators and crew members. PMID:19025638

  7. Impacts of alternative fuels in aviation on microphysical aerosol properties and predicted ice nuclei concentration at aircraft cruise altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, B.; D'Ascoli, E.; Sauer, D. N.; Kim, J.; Scheibe, M.; Schlager, H.; Moore, R.; Anderson, B. E.; Ullrich, R.; Mohler, O.; Hoose, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decades air traffic has been substantially growing affecting air quality and climate. According to the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), in the next few years world passenger and freight traffic is expected to increase annually by 6-7% and 4-5%, respectively. One possibility to reduce aviation impacts on the atmosphere and climate might be the replacement of fossil fuels by alternative fuels. However, so far the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions from aircraft engines and their ability to form contrails remain uncertain. To study the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions and the formation of contrails, the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) field experiment was conducted in California. In May 2014, the DLR Falcon 20 and the NASA HU-25 jet aircraft were instrumented with an extended aerosol and trace gas payload probing different types of fuels including JP-8 and JP-8 blended with HEFA (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids) while the NASA DC8 aircraft acted as the source aircraft for ACCESS-2. Emission measurements were taken in the DC8 exhaust plumes at aircraft cruise level between 9-12 km altitude and at distances between 50 m and 20 km behind the DC8 engines. Here, we will present results from the ACCESS-2 aerosol measurements which show a 30-60% reduction of the non-volatile (mainly black carbon) particle number concentration in the aircraft exhaust for the HEFA-blend compared to conventional JP-8 fuel. Size-resolved particle emission indices show the largest reductions for larger particle sizes suggesting that the HEFA blend contains fewer and smaller black carbon particles. We will combine the airborne measurements with a parameterization of deposition nucleation developed during a number of ice nucleation experiments at the AIDA chamber in Karlsruhe and discuss the impact of alternative fuels on the abundance of potential ice nuclei at cruise conditions.

  8. A Contingency in the Rosetta Reaction Control System: Alternative Cruise Trajectory Strategies to Cope with Degraded Delta-V Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauske, Rainer; Companys, Vincente

    2007-01-01

    Since August 2006 a pressure transducer of the Rosetta Reaction Control System (RCS) shows anomalous telemetries indicating a possible leak in a pressurant line. The future operation mode of the RCS may be affected by this problem, resulting in performance degradation. The current propellant budget and its future evolution are evaluated to show the possible states w.r.t. the required mission delta-V. Alternative cruise trajectory strategies are analyzed, providing delta-V savings, to compensate for the expected performance loss of the RCS.

  9. Additional F-Functions Useful for Preliminary Design of Shaped-Signature, Low-Boom, Supersonic-Cruise Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Two additional low-boom F-functions have been described for use in designing low-boom, shaped-pressure-signature, supersonic-cruise aircraft. Based on the minimization studies of Seebass and George, the drag-nose shock strength trade-off modification of Darden, and the practical modification of Haglund, their use can aid in the design of conceptual low-boom aircraft, provide additional flexibility in the shaping of the low-boom aircraft nose section, and extend the applicability of shaped-pressure-signature methodology.

  10. Effect of fuel properties on performance of single aircraft turbojet combustor at simulated idle, cruise, and takeoff conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butze, H. F.; Smith, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of a single-can JT8D combustor was investigated with a number of fuels exhibiting wide variations in chemical composition and volatility. Performance parameters investigated were combustion efficiency, emissions of CO, unburned hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, as well as liner temperatures and smoke. The most pronounced effects of changes in fuel composition were observed at simulated cruise and takeoff conditions where smoke and liner temperatures increased significantly as the hydrogen content of the fuel decreased. At the simulated idle condition, emissions of CO and unburned hydrocarbons increased slightly and, accordingly, combustion efficiencies decreased slightly as the hydrogen content of the fuels decreased.

  11. Checklist of recent brachiopod species collected during the Terrasses and Exbodi cruises in the New Caledonian region, SW Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Bitner, Maria Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Twenty species belonging to 16 genera, i.e. Neoancistrocrania, Novocrania, Basiliola, Basiliolella, Ebiscothyris, Stenosarina, Kanakythyris, Xenobrochus, Terebratulina, Eucalathis, Fallax, Frenulina, Septicollarina, Campages, Annuloplatidia, and Thecidellina have been identified in the material collected during the Terrasses and Exbodi cruises in the New Caledonian region, SW Pacific. The species Basiliolella grayi (Woodward, 1855) and Fallax neocaledonensis Laurin, 1997 are the most common in the studied collection, while Eucalathis murrayi (Davidson, 1878) is reported for the first time from the New Caledonian region. PMID:26798235

  12. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 1: Navy operational aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft were designed and sized to meet Navy mission requirements. Five missions were established for evaluation: anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surface attack (SA), combat search and rescue (CSAR), surveillance (SURV), and vertical on-board delivery (VOD). All missions were performed with a short takeoff and a vertical landing. The aircraft were defined using existing J97-GE gas generators or reasonable growth derivatives in conjunction with turbotip fans reflecting LF460 type technology. The multipurpose aircraft configuration established for U.S. Navy missions utilizes the turbotip driven lift/cruise fan concept for V/STOL aircraft.

  13. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 4 January - 21 March 1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, Alex

    2005-06-30

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Maurice Ewing cruise in the South Atlantic Ocean on the A17 WOCE section. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), this cruise was also a part of the French WOCE program consisting of three expeditions (CITHER 1, 2, and 3) focused on the South Atlantic Ocean. The A17 section was occupied during the CITHER 2 expedition, which began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 4, 1994 and finished in Cayenne, French Guyana, on March 21, 1994. During this period the ship stopped in Salvador de Bahia and Recife, Brazil, to take on supplies and exchange personnel. Upon completion of the cruise the ship transited to Fort de France, Martinique. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  14. Wind tunnel and ground static tests of a .094 scale powered model of a modified T-39 lift/cruise fan V/STOL research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, D.; Clinglan, J.; Salemann, V.; Omar, E.

    1977-01-01

    Ground static and wind tunnel test of a scale model modified T-39 airplane are reported. The configuration in the nose and replacement of the existing nacelles with tilting lift/cruise fans. The model was powered with three 14 cm diameter tip driven turbopowered simulators. Forces and moments were measured by an internal strain guage balance. Engine simulator thrust and mass flow were measured by calibrated pressure and temperature instrumentation mounted downstream of the fans. The low speed handling qualities and general aerodynamic characteristics of the modified T-39 were defined. Test variables include thrust level and thrust balance, forward speed, model pitch and sideslip angle at forward speeds, model pitch, roll, and ground height during static tests, lift/cruise fan tilt angle, flap and aileron deflection angle, and horizonal stabilizer angle. The effects of removing the landing gear, the lift/cruise fans, and the tail surfaces were also investigated.

  15. The effects on cruise drag of installing long-duct refan-engine nacelles on the McDonnell Douglas DC-8-50 and -61

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, J. T.; Donelson, J. E.; Morelli, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A high-speed wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the effect on cruise performance of installing long-duct refan-engine nacelles on the DC-8-50 and -61 models. Drag data and wing/pylon/nacelle channel pressure data are presented. At a typical cruise condition there exists a very small interference drag penalty of less than one-percent of total cruise data for the Refan installation. Pressure data indicate that some supersonic flow is present in the inboard channel of the inboard refan nacelle installation, but it is not sufficient to cause any wave drag on boundary layer separation. One pylon modification, which takes the form of pylon bumps, was tested. It resulted in a drag penalty, because its design goal of eliminating shock-related interference drag was not required and the bump thus became a source of additional parasite drag.

  16. Volatile organic compound production and consumption by microbial plankton communities on the NOAA WACS cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannoni, S. J.; Halsey, K.; Thrash, J. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Graus, M.

    2013-12-01

    Information about biological sources and sinks of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ocean surface could result in a better understanding of the underlying causes of variation in air/sea VOC fluxes, and potentially could alter predictions about the impact of climate change on ocean surface ecology and air/sea interactions. The goal of this work was to measure rates of biological production, oxidation and assimilation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by microbial plankton communities along the WACS cruise transect from Boston to Bermuda in August 2013. Tangential flow filtration was used to concentrate microbial plankton communities for incubation in environmentally controlled dynamic stripping chambers under simulated ocean surface layer conditions. Gas streams exiting the chambers were monitored in real time with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). In separate experiments aliquots of plankton suspensions were incubated with 14C-methanol, 14C-TMAO, and 14C-pyruvate, and the assimilation of 14C into biomass and the production of 14C-CO2 were measured. Results showed that the highly productive George's Bank plankton community has a high capacity for methanol and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) oxidation. Biomass was estimated by counting cells. The rate of incorporation of methanol-carbon into biomass was only 21% of the rate of methanol oxidation to CO2. Similar results were observed for TMAO. These experiments also allowed estimates of kinetic constants for both compounds. The half-saturation constants (Ks) for methanol oxidation were similar in natural populations collected at George's Bank and the Sargasso Sea (12.8 and 9.9 μM, respectively). Interestingly, the Ks values for TMAO oxidation were an order of magnitude lower than for methanol in plankton communities sampled from both sites (0.5 and 0.3 μM, respectively). These results provide additional evidence that microbial plankton have a high capacity for oxidation of these low

  17. Vertical Distribution of Heterotrophic Bacteria and Their Culturability In The Northeastern Atlantic (pomme 0 Cruise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, M.; Moumas, M.; Bianchi, M.

    In the frame of POMME (Programme Océanographie Multidisciplinaire Méso- Echelle) a French oceanographic programme in the Northeastern Atlantic (39-45N and 15-21W), the vertical distribution of heterotrophic bacteria and their culturability were investigated by combining different independent approaches during the POMME 0 cruise in fall 2000. Bacterial abundances and biomasses were determined by flow cytometric analysis of seawater samples, fixed, frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen un- til their analysis in the laboratory. Cells were stained with the green fluorescent probe SYBR Green IIZ´ (Molecular Probes), a specific probe for nucleic acids. The enumer- ated bacteria were pooled into two fractions according to their DNA content. Bacteria with the higher DNA content (HDNA) are considered as the fraction potentially able of undergoing division, whereas cells with the lower DNA content (LDNA) constitute an inactive fraction (Gasol et al., 1999). The viability of the collected bacteria was determined by using the method of Bianchi &Giuliano (1996) based on the formation of micro-colonies. The percentages of dividing bacteria were calculated with respect to the numbers of HDNA bacteria instead of the total counts which contained the irrel- evant LDNA cells. The percentage of dividing bacteria was larger when the bacteria population was dominated by HDNA bacteria. This result suggests that a bacterial population composed mainly of HDNA cells will have a larger capacity to divide than otherwise. The distribution of the bacterial activity at the sampled stations showed that conditions for the heterotrophic bacteria development were more favorable in the south western zone of the study area. The observed bacterial abundances were in the range 3.7 104 - 5.3 105 cells cm-3. The percentages of the LDNA fractions were in the range 40 - 90%, suggesting the occurrence of a declining ecosystem. The installa- tion of an oligotrophic system was supported by the observation of

  18. Seismic evidence for Neogene and active shortening offshore of Lebanon (Shalimar cruise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, H.; Singh, S. C.; Tapponnier, P.; Elias, A.; Briais, A.; Sursock, A.; Jomaa, R.; King, G. C. P.; DaëRon, M.; Jacques, E.; Barrier, L.

    2009-07-01

    Lebanon, located on a 160-km-long transpressional bend of the left-lateral Levant (Dead Sea) fault system (LFS), has been the site of infrequent but large earthquakes, including one submarine, tsunamigenic event. The main objective of the Shalimar marine survey was to characterize and map active deformation offshore of Lebanon using a range of geophysical techniques, particularly seismic reflection profiling. The cruise results clearly establish the presence of young submarine thrust faults and folds and clarify the structure of this part of the Levant margin. A submarine fold belt, bounded by thrusts and lateral ramps and extending up to 30 km from the shoreline, is interpreted as the foreland thrust system of the actively growing Mount Lebanon range. There is no large fault extending into the Levant basin toward Cyprus, which indicates that thrusting only absorbs local transpression resulting from the Lebanese restraining bend. Both the Miocene and Plio-Quaternary sedimentary sequences are affected by shortening, with landward dipping blind thrusts and associated growth strata. The presence of the Messinian evaporites creates complex deformation patterns, including normal faults due both to folding accommodation and to gravity spreading, all well imaged in the seismic reflection profiles. Because the evaporite layer acts as a décollement level, shortening extends farther out seaward through a series of thrust imbricates or duplexes. The strongest shortening, observed between Beirut and Batroun, decreases toward the south between Saida and Tyre. North of Tripoli, the passive margin is not affected by Neogene deformation and is well preserved. We propose that since the Miocene, the northward propagating LFS interacted with margin structures inherited from the Mesozoic rifting phase and was deviated along the more rigid oceanic crust flooring the Levant basin, a process which led to the formation of the Lebanese restraining bend of the LFS and consequently to the

  19. Molecular Characterization of Marine Organic Aerosols Collected during a Round-the-World Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, P.; Kawamura, K.; Miura, K.

    2010-12-01

    Total suspended particles (TSP) were collected on board the R/V Hakuho Maru during a round-the-world cruise (KH89-2) and were characterized for organic molecular compositions using solvent extraction/derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. More than 140 organic species were detected in the marine aerosols and were grouped into 11 organic compound classes, including aliphatic lipids, anhydrosugars and sugar alcohols, lignin/resin acids, sterols, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hydroxy-/polyacids, aromatic acids, as well as secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers from the photooxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of total quantified organics ranged from 0.94 to 98 ng m-3 (average 31 ng m-3) with higher concentrations in coastal regions (California Coast, South China Sea, and Western North Pacific) than in open marine areas (North Pacific and North Atlantic), suggesting that long-range atmospheric transport from the continents is the main source of marine organic aerosols. Isoprene SOA tracers, i.e., 2-methylglyceric acid, C5-alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols, were detected in all the samples (0.11-22 ng m-3, average 3.6 ng m-3) with higher concentrations in the tropical regions. They accounted for 0.48-29% of the total identified organics. Organic compounds were further categorized into several groups to clarify their sources. In the North Pacific and North Atlantic, secondary oxidation products (30-31%), fossil fuel combustion products (27-28%), as well as marine natural emissions (22-34%) were found as major contributors to the marine aerosols. In California Coast, North Indian Ocean and South China Sea, secondary oxidation products can contribute 44-55% of the total identified organics, followed by terrestrial natural emissions (12-27%), while biomass burning emissions were found to contribute only 1-2%. However, in the western North Pacific near the Asian continent, fossil fuel combustion (27%) and

  20. Flight Test Results: CTAS Cruise/Descent Trajectory Prediction Accuracy for En route ATC Advisories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.; Grace, M.; Williams, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), under development at NASA Ames Research Center, is designed to assist controllers with the management and control of air traffic transitioning to/from congested airspace. This paper focuses on the transition from the en route environment, to high-density terminal airspace, under a time-based arrival-metering constraint. Two flight tests were conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) to study trajectory-prediction accuracy, the key to accurate Decision Support Tool advisories such as conflict detection/resolution and fuel-efficient metering conformance. In collaboration with NASA Langley Research Center, these test were part of an overall effort to research systems and procedures for the integration of CTAS and flight management systems (FMS). The Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle Boeing 737 airplane flew a combined total of 58 cruise-arrival trajectory runs while following CTAS clearance advisories. Actual trajectories of the airplane were compared to CTAS and FMS predictions to measure trajectory-prediction accuracy and identify the primary sources of error for both. The research airplane was used to evaluate several levels of cockpit automation ranging from conventional avionics to a performance-based vertical navigation (VNAV) FMS. Trajectory prediction accuracy was analyzed with respect to both ARTCC radar tracking and GPS-based aircraft measurements. This paper presents detailed results describing the trajectory accuracy and error sources. Although differences were found in both accuracy and error sources, CTAS accuracy was comparable to the FMS in terms of both meter-fix arrival-time performance (in support of metering) and 4D-trajectory prediction (key to conflict prediction). Overall arrival time errors (mean plus standard deviation) were measured to be approximately 24 seconds during the first flight test (23 runs) and 15 seconds during the second flight test (25 runs). The major

  1. Elastically Shaped Wing Optimization and Aircraft Concept for Improved Cruise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh; Reynolds, Kevin; Kless, James; Aftosmis, Michael; Urnes, James, Sr.; Ippolito, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted tn 2010 by the NASA Innovation Fund Award project entitled "Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept". The study presents three themes in support of meeting national and global aviation challenges of reducing fuel burn for present and future aviation systems. The first theme addresses the drag reduction goal through innovative vehicle configurations via non-planar wing optimization. Two wing candidate concepts have been identified from the wing optimization: a drooped wing shape and an inflected wing shape. The drooped wing shape is a truly biologically inspired wing concept that mimics a seagull wing and could achieve about 5% to 6% drag reduction, which is aerodynamically significant. From a practical perspective, this concept would require new radical changes to the current aircraft development capabilities for new vehicles with futuristic-looking wings such as this concept. The inflected wing concepts could achieve between 3% to 4% drag reduction. While the drag reduction benefit may be less, the inflected-wing concept could have a near-term impact since this concept could be developed within the current aircraft development capabilities. The second theme addresses the drag reduction goal through a new concept of elastic wing shaping control. By aeroelastically tailoring the wing shape with active control to maintain optimal aerodynamics, a significant drag reduction benefit could be realized. A significant reduction in fuel burn for long-range cruise from elastic wing shaping control could be realized. To realize the potential of the elastic wing shaping control concept, the third theme emerges that addresses the drag reduction goal through a new aerodynamic control effector called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap. Conventional aerodynamic control surfaces are discrete independent surfaces that cause geometric discontinuities at the trailing edge region. These discontinuities promote

  2. Morphotectonics of Hess Deep: Preliminary Results of RRS James Cook Cruise JC21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. J.; Teagle, D. A.; Gillis, K. M.; Shillington, D. J.; Scientific Party, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Hess Deep (2° 15'N, 101° 30'W), a rifted depression formed by the westward propagation of the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary towards the East Pacific Rise, provides unique exposures of the deeper levels of ocean crust formed at a fast spreading mid-ocean ridge. In January-February 2008, during RRS James Cook cruise JC21, we conducted a site survey of Hess Deep in support of proposed Integrated Ocean Drilling Program operations there. Using the Isis remotely-operated vehicle we acquired microbathymetry and collected 145 samples from an 11 sq km area from the nadir of the Deep (5400m water depth) up and onto the intra-rift ridge (3000m), a horst block within the broader rift valley that had previously been drilled at ODP Sites 894 and 895. From previous investigations it was considered that a continuous section through the lower crust down to the Moho transition zone existed in this region, tilted northwards as a result of extension during opening of the rift. Detachment faulting, perhaps assisted by serpentinite diapirism, had been invoked to explain uplift of the intra-rift ridge (Francheteau et al., 1990; MacLeod et al., 1996). However, our detailed mapping and sampling indicates a significantly more complex distribution of rock types across Hess Deep than previously supposed, and that a re-examination of the existing models for the structure and tectonic evolution of the rift is required. We here present our new geological constraints and propose a revised model for the opening of Hess Deep and uplift of the intra-rift ridge, emphasising the role of previously unsuspected neotectonics in controlling the structure of the rift valley. Francheteau, J. et al., 1990. 1 Ma East Pacific Rise oceanic crust and uppermost mantle exposed by rifting in Hess Deep (equatorial Pacific Ocean). EPSL 101, 281-295. MacLeod, C.J. et al., 1996. Tectonics of Hess Deep: A synthesis of drilling results from Leg 147. Proc. ODP, Sci. Res. 147, College Station TX, 461-475.

  3. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Ka-band (32 GHz) Demonstration: Cruise Phase Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Morabito, David; Border, James S.; Davarian, Faramaz; Lee, Dennis; Mendoza, Ricardo; Britcliffe, Michael; Weinreb, Sander

    2006-01-01

    The X-band (8.41 GHz) frequency currently used for deep space telecommunications is too narrow (50 MHz) to support future high rate missions. Because of this NASA has decided to transition to Ka-band (32 GHz) frequencies. As weather effects cause much larger fluctuations on Ka-band than on X-band, the traditional method of using a few dBs of margin to cover these fluctuations is wasteful of power for Ka-band; therefore, a different operations concept is needed for Ka-band links. As part of the development of the operations concept for Ka-band, NASA has implemented a fully functioning Ka-band communications suite on its Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). This suite will be used during the primary science phase to develop and refine the Ka-band operations concept for deep space missions. In order to test the functional readiness of the spacecraft and the Deep Space Network's (DSN) readiness to support the demonstration activities a series of passes over DSN 34-m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas were scheduled during the cruise phase of the mission. MRO was launched on August 12, 2005 from Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA and went into Mars Orbit on March 10, 2006. A total of ten telemetry demonstration and one high gain antenna (HGA) calibration passes were allocated to the Ka-band demonstration. Furthermore, a number of "shadow" passes were also scheduled where, during a regular MRO track over a Ka-band capable antenna, Ka-band was identically configured as the X-band and tracked by the station. In addition, nine Ka-band delta differential one way ranging ((delta)DOR) passes were scheduled. During these passes, the spacecraft and the ground system were put through their respective paces. Among the highlights of these was setting a single day record for data return from a deep space spacecraft (133 Gbits) achieved during one 10-hour pass; achieving the highest data rate ever from a planetary mission (6 Mbps) and successfully demonstrating Ka-band DDOR

  4. A preliminary assessment of the impact of 2-D exhaust-nozzle geometry on the cruise range of a hypersonic aircraft with top-mounted ramjet propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vahl, W. A.; Weidner, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical study of full length and shortened, two dimensional, isentropic, exhaust nozzles integrated with top mounted ramjet propulsion nacelles were conducted. Both symmetric and asymmetric contoured nozzles with a range of angular orientations were considered. Performance comparisons to determine optimum installations for a representative hypersonic vehicle at Mach 5 cruise conditions are presented on the basis of cruise range, propulsive specific impulse, inlet area requirements, and overall lift drag ratio. The effect of approximating the nozzle internal contours with planar surfaces and the determination of viscous and frozen flow effects are also presented.

  5. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 3: Graphical data book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    A graphical presentation of the aerodynamic data acquired during coannular nozzle performance wind tunnel tests is given. The graphical data consist of plots of nozzle gross thrust coefficient, fan nozzle discharge coefficient, and primary nozzle discharge coefficient. Normalized model component static pressure distributions are presented as a function of primary total pressure, fan total pressure, and ambient static pressure for selected operating conditions. In addition, the supersonic cruise configuration data include plots of nozzle efficiency and secondary-to-fan total pressure pumping characteristics. Supersonic and subsonic cruise data are given.

  6. EU legislation on food and potable water safety which could be potentially applied on board ferries and cruise ships: a comparison with US legislation.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Kremastinou, Jenny; Nichols, Gordon

    2010-06-01

    The high number of people moving around by ferries and cruise ships in conjunction with great amounts of food and potable water transported (occasionally overloaded) and consumed by passengers constitute a possible risk for communicable diseases. Another issue of equally great importance is the food handlers who come from diverse origin and have a different mentality, habits, and background. In this paper an attempt is made to present comparatively EU and US legislation that could be potentially applicable to passenger ships food premises and potable water supplies. Moreover, food and water related hazards, not currently covered by EU legislation, were assessed together with US legislation and other guidelines for cruise ships. PMID:20544443

  7. Atmosphere-ocean ozone fluxes during the TexAQS 2006, STRATUS 2006, GOMECC 2007, GasEx 2008, and AMMA 2008 cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmig, D.; Lang, E. K.; Bariteau, L.; Boylan, P.; Fairall, C. W.; Ganzeveld, L.; Hare, J. E.; Hueber, J.; Pallandt, M.

    2012-02-01

    A ship-based eddy covariance ozone flux system was deployed to investigate the magnitude and variability of ozone surface fluxes over the open ocean. The flux experiments were conducted on five cruises on board the NOAA research vesselRonald Brownduring 2006-2008. The cruises covered the Gulf of Mexico, the southern as well as northern Atlantic, the Southern Ocean, and the persistent stratus cloud region off Chile in the eastern Pacific Ocean. These experiments resulted in the first ship-borne open-ocean ozone flux measurement records. The median of 10 min oceanic ozone deposition velocity (vd) results from a combined ˜ 1700 h of observations ranged from 0.009 to 0.034 cm s-1. For the Gulf of Mexico cruise (Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS)) the median vd (interquartile range) was 0.034 (0.009-0.065) cm s-1 (total number of 10 min measurement intervals, Nf = 1953). For the STRATUS cruise off the Chilean coast, the median vd was 0.009 (0.004-0.037) cm s-1 (Nf = 1336). For the cruise from the Gulf of Mexico and up the eastern U.S. coast (Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon cruise (GOMECC)) a combined value of 0.018 (0.006-0.045) cm s-1 (Nf = 1784) was obtained (from 0.019 (-0.014-0.043) cm s-1, Nf = 663 in the Gulf of Mexico, and 0.018 (-0.004-0.045) cm s-1, Nf = 1121 in the North Atlantic region). The Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment (GasEx) and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA), the Southern Ocean and northeastern Atlantic cruises, respectively, resulted in median ozone vd of 0.009 (-0.005-0.026) cm s-1 (Nf = 2745) and 0.020 (-0.003-0.044) cms-1 (Nf = 1147). These directly measured ozone deposition values are at the lower end of previously reported data in the literature (0.01-0.12 cm s-1) for ocean water. Data illustrate a positive correlation (increase) of the oceanic ozone uptake rate with wind speed, albeit the behavior of the relationship appears to differ during these cruises. The encountered wide range of meteorological and ocean

  8. Improvement of the cruise performances of a wing by means of aerodynamic optimization. Validation with a Far-Field method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Varona, J.; Ponsin Roca, J.

    2015-06-01

    Under a contract with AIRBUS MILITARY (AI-M), an exercise to analyze the potential of optimization techniques to improve the wing performances at cruise conditions has been carried out by using an in-house design code. The original wing was provided by AI-M and several constraints were posed for the redesign. To maximize the aerodynamic efficiency at cruise, optimizations were performed using the design techniques developed internally at INTA under a research program (Programa de Termofluidodinámica). The code is a gradient-based optimizaa tion code, which uses classical finite differences approach for gradient computations. Several techniques for search direction computation are implemented for unconstrained and constrained problems. Techniques for geometry modifications are based on different approaches which include perturbation functions for the thickness and/or mean line distributions and others by Bézier curves fitting of certain degree. It is very e important to afford a real design which involves several constraints that reduce significantly the feasible design space. And the assessment of the code is needed in order to check the capabilities and the possible drawbacks. Lessons learnt will help in the development of future enhancements. In addition, the validation of the results was done using also the well-known TAU flow solver and a far-field drag method in order to determine accurately the improvement in terms of drag counts.

  9. Effect of advanced technology and fuel efficient engine on a supersonic-cruise executive jet with a small cabin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Robins, A. W.; Swanson, E. E.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical study of a supersonic-cruise, executive, jet aircraft indicated the effects of using advanced technology. The twin-engine, arrow-wing vehicle was configured with a cabin of minimum practical size to hold one pilot, eight passengers, and their baggage. The primary differences between this configuration that of a previous report were the reduction in cabin size and the use of engines that are more fuel-efficient. Both conceptual vehicles are capable of forming the same mission. The current vehicle has a range of 3,350 nautical miles at Mach 2.3 cruise and 2,700 nautical miles at Mach 0.9. The concept description includes configuration definition, aerodynamic and propulsion-system characteristics, and mass properties. Performance analyses are documented for intercontinental and transcontinental flight profiles. In the latter case, a reduction in sonic-boom overpressure from 1.3 to 1.0 pounds per square foot was achieved by varying the flight profile slightly from that for optimum performance.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide in the marine boundary layer over the South Atlantic during the OOMPH cruise in March 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H.; Pozzer, A.; Schmitt, T.; Jöckel, P.; Klippel, T.; Taraborrelli, D.; Lelieveld, J.

    2015-06-01

    In the OOMPH (Ocean Organics Modifying Particles in both Hemispheres) project a ship measurement cruise took place in the late austral summer from 01 to 23 March 2007. The French research vessel Marion Dufresne sailed from Punta Arenas, Chile (70.85° W, 53.12° S), to Réunion island (55.36° E, 21.06° S) across the South Atlantic Ocean. In situ measurements of hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide and ozone were performed and are compared to simulations with the atmospheric chemistry global circulation model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry). The model generally reproduces the measured trace gas levels, but it underestimates hydrogen peroxide mixing ratios at high wind speeds, indicating too-strong dry deposition to the ocean surface. An interesting feature during the cruise is a strong increase of hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide and ozone shortly after midnight off the west coast of Africa due to an increase in the boundary layer height, leading to downward transport from the free troposphere, which is qualitatively reproduced by the model.

  11. Messinian seismic Markers in the Western Tyrrhenian Sea: preliminary results from the "METYSS" Cruise (June 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, Johanna; Gaullier, Virginie; Sage, Françoise; Chanier, Franck; Deverchere, Jacques; Gorini, Christian; Maillard, Agnès.; Pascucci, Vincenzo; Sellier, Nicolas; Thinon, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    This work has been undertaken in the framework of an integrated study of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, Hsu et al., 1973) seismic makers at the scale of the Mediterranean basin. This new approach is based on multi-site comparative studies and on a unified nomenclature for Messinian sedimentary units and surfaces (Lofi et al., accepted). The objectives are to establish the impact of the MSC event on margins and basins that are characterized by various geodynamical, structural and sedimentary settings. In this scientific context, the Tyrrhenian Sea and especially its western part, constitutes a major target because of its geodynamical evolution. This area is a Neogene back-arc basin opened by continental rifting and oceanic spreading related to the eastward migrating Apennine subduction system (Jolivet et al., 2006). Rifting of the Tyrrhenian Sea started first on the Eastern Sardinian margin during the Tortonian-Messinian times, thus including Messinian deposits potentially syn-rift in some places. For these reasons, the western part of the Tyrrhenian basin is a key-area to document relationships between Messinian deposits and tectonic activity. In addition, this geodynamical evolution rises the question of the paleogeography and paleo-connections with the East Corsica basin, that may have worked as an independent lacustrine basin during the MSC, a topic that is questioned (Thinon et al., 2004). The dataset used in this study consists of 15 seismic high-resolution reflection profiles (±1200 km). They have been acquired during the "METYSS" cruise (June 2009) along the Eastern Sardinian and South-Eastern Corsican margins on the R/V "Téthys II" (INSU-CNRS/CIRMED) (Gaullier et al., 2009). These profiles penetrate up to 1 second TWT below the sea-floor, allowing to clearly image the Plio-Quaternary sequence, Messinian Salinity Crisis deposits and erosion surfaces, down to the basement top. Here, we describe the characteristics (seismic facies, geometry

  12. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, August 4 - October 21, 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, A.

    2001-01-11

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations during the R/V John V. Vickers oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P13). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate and Global Change Program, the cruise began in Los Angeles, California, on August 4, 1992, with a transit line (Leg 0) to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. On August 16, the ship departed Dutch Harbor on Leg 1 of WOCE section P13. On September 15, the R/V John V. Vickers arrived in Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, for emergency repairs, and after 11 days in port departed for Leg 2 of Section P13 on September 26. The cruise ended on October 21 in Noumea, New Caledonia. Measurements made along WOCE Section P13 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2} , and TALK. The TCO{sub 2} was measured by coulometry using a Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzer (SOMMA). The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. The CO{sub 2} -related measurements aboard the R/V John V. Vickers were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The WOCE Section P13 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 90 data-retrieval routine files, a documentation file, and this printed report, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data. Instructions on how to access the data are provided.

  13. Developments in Stochastic Fuel Efficient Cruise Control and Constrained Control with Applications to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, Kevin K.

    The dissertation presents contributions to fuel-efficient control of vehicle speed and constrained control with applications to aircraft. In the first part of this dissertation a stochastic approach to fuel-efficient vehicle speed control is developed. This approach encompasses stochastic modeling of road grade and traffic speed, modeling of fuel consumption through the use of a neural network, and the application of stochastic dynamic programming to generate vehicle speed control policies that are optimized for the trade-off between fuel consumption and travel time. The fuel economy improvements with the proposed policies are quantified through simulations and vehicle experiments. It is shown that the policies lead to the emergence of time-varying vehicle speed patterns that are referred to as time-varying cruise. Through simulations and experiments it is confirmed that these time-varying vehicle speed profiles are more fuel-efficient than driving at a comparable constant speed. Motivated by these results, a simpler implementation strategy that is more appealing for practical implementation is also developed. This strategy relies on a finite state machine and state transition threshold optimization, and its benefits are quantified through model-based simulations and vehicle experiments. Several additional contributions are made to approaches for stochastic modeling of road grade and vehicle speed that include the use of Kullback-Liebler divergence and divergence rate and a stochastic jump-like model for the behavior of the road grade. In the second part of the dissertation, contributions to constrained control with applications to aircraft are described. Recoverable sets and integral safe sets of initial states of constrained closed-loop systems are introduced first and computational procedures of such sets based on linear discrete-time models are given. The use of linear discrete-time models is emphasized as they lead to fast computational procedures. Examples of

  14. 26th December 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake: first insights from the summer 2005 Marion Dufresne cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuet, J.

    2005-12-01

    The 26th December 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake is the second biggest earthquake (Mw=9.3) recorded during the past century. It initiated at a depth of 20-30 km, close to an indentation of the Indonesian fore-arc. The rupture propagated about 1200 km northward and terminated north of Andaman Islands. The "Sumatra Aftershocks" cruise performed on the French R/V Marion Dufresne started July 15 in Jakarta and ended August 9, 2005 in Colombo. We carried out a complete swath-bathymetric survey in a 370*75 km stripe located between northern Sumatra and the Indonesia/India boundary and from the trench to northeast of the Sumatra fault. 20 OBSs were deployed in the area and recorded about 2000 earthquakes during that period. Coring, heat-flow and piezometer measurements were also carried out. Offshore northern Sumatra, the Australia/Sundaland motion is 5 cm/yr in the N008° direction (Bock et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2003), which means that both strike-slip and normal components might occur along features parallel to the trench direction. However, focal mechanisms of the 26th December 2004 earthquake as well as co-seismic motions and 5-days post-seismic displacement field determined from GPS sites are essentially perpendicular to the trench direction (Vigny et al., Nature, 2005). There is consequently an apparent mismatch between deformations derived from plate motions and from co-seismic and immediate after-slip motions. This might suggest that long-term post-seismic motions might have also a significant component of strike-slip motion along features parallel to the trench direction. Between the trench and the backstop located southwest of the Aceh forearc basin, numerous trench parallel piggy back basins were mapped, suggesting the existence of numerous thrust faults. On the basis of morphology, coring and heat flow measurements, a major active thrust fault, which might correspond to an active splay fault, was identified southwest of the Aceh forearc basin. The

  15. Direct observations of the ACC transport across the Kerguelen Plateau from the 2009-2010 TRACK cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyang Park, Young; Vivier, Frédéric; Roquet, Fabien; Kestenare, Elodie; Sekma, Hela; Durand, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    The Kerguelen Plateau is considered as a major barrier to the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), diverting about 2/3 of its transport to the north of the plateau and the remaining transport across the vast plateau developed between the Kerguelen Islands and Antarctica. However, due to the lack of systematic high-quality observations especially across the Fawn Trough, our knowledge of ACC branches and associated transports across the Kerguelen Plateau has been largely indirect and debated, with previous transport estimates ranging from 30 to 100 Sv. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we undertook full-depth CTD and LADCP measurements in the Fawn Trough area and moored three lines of a total of 9 current-meters across the Fawn Trough in February-March 2009 during the TRACK-1 cruise. The TRACK-1 data have permitted us to document for the first time a detailed vertical current structure especially across the Fawn Trough as well as the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) on the eastern flank of the Kerguelen Plateau at 58°S. The Fawn Trough Current appears as a principal across-plateau jet associated with the Southern ACC Front, concentrating the majority (43 Sv) of the eastward transport passing to the south of the Kerguelen Islands (58 Sv), compared to ~92 Sv at the Subantarctic Front as estimated previously to the north of the islands. This yields a total transport of ~150 Sv for the ACC transiting through the Kerguelen longitude, consistent with other independent estimates in the other sectors of the Southern Ocean, but with an up-to-date partition of ~60% of the transport passing to the north of the Kerguelen Plateau and ~40% across the plateau. The DWBC transport at 58°S is estimated as 43 Sv, of which 36 Sv come from the northward turning of the westward flowing Antarctic Slope Current and the rest (7 Sv) originates from the southernmost branch of the ACC passing through the northern Princess Elizabeth Trough. Two other transport branches

  16. The FRUELA cruises.. A carbon flux study in productive areas of the Antarctic Peninsula (December 1995-February 1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anadón, Ricardo; Estrada, Marta

    The FRUELA (name of an 8th century king of Asturias) project, part of the Spanish contribution to the study of biogeochemical carbon fluxes in the Southern Ocean, was based on two consecutive cruises of the B.I.O.; Hespérides which took place in the Bransfield and Gerlache Straits and Belligshausen Sea between early December and early February of Austral summer 1995-1996. In addition to the cruises, data were obtained from an array of sediment traps deployed for one year in the Western Bransfield Strait Basin. The basic objectives of FRUELA were the quantification of carbon standing stocks and fluxes through the main components of the "biological pump" and the determination of carbon fluxes across different water column boundaries, including the transfer of CO 2 between the atmosphere and the ocean, the export of particulate carbon (PC) out of the euphotic zone, the vertical flux of PC in deep waters and the accumulation of carbon in sediments. The main hydrographical features found in the study region were the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Currrent (SbyACC) and the Bransfield Front. Three major zones, with contrasting physico-chemical and biological characteristics were considered: Bellingshausen, including the Northwest Bellingshausen Sea and comprising the SbyACC, Bransfield, including the Western Bransfield Strait and the northeastern part of the Gerlache Strait, and Gerlache, with the rest of the Gerlache Strait. This paper summarizes the distribution of different properties and rate processes in these zones and discusses the major findings of the cruise concerning carbon fluxes. Our results indicate that, during the summer period, the studied area could be considered as a sink for atmospheric carbon. The amount of PC exported out of the photic layer was a moderate fraction of primary production and a low fraction of the suspended PC; high chlorophyll a systems dominated by microphytoplankton showed higher PC export fluxes than low

  17. Biogeochemical linkage between atmosphere and ocean in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: Results from the EqPOS research cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furutani, H.; Inai, Y.; Aoki, S.; Honda, H.; Omori, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Iwata, T.; Ueda, S.; Miura, K.; Uematsu, M.

    2012-12-01

    Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean is a unique oceanic region from several biogeochemical points of view. It is a remote open ocean with relatively high marine biological activity, which would result in limited influence of human activity but enhanced effect of marine natural processes on atmospheric composition. It is also characterized as high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) ocean, in which availability of trace metals such as iron and zinc limits marine primary production and thus atmospheric deposition of these trace elements to the ocean surface is expected to play an important role in regulating marine primary production and defining unique microbial community. High sea surface temperature in the region generates strong vertical air convection which efficiently brings tropospheric atmospheric composition into stratosphere. In this unique eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, EqPOS (Equatorial Pacific Ocean and Stratospheric/Tropospheric Atmospheric Study) research cruise was organized as a part of SOLAS Japan activity to understand biogeochemical ocean-atmospheric interaction in the region. Coordinated atmospheric, oceanic, and marine biological observations including sampling/characterization of thin air-sea interfacial layer (sea surface microlayer: SML) and launching large stratospheric air sampling balloons were carried out on-board R/V Hakuho Maru starting from 29 January for 39 days. Biogeochemically important trace/long-lived gases such as CO2, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and some volatile organic carbons (VOCs) both in the atmosphere and seawater were continuously monitored and their air-sea fluxes were also observed using gradient and eddy-covariance techniques. Atmospheric gas measurement of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO, H2, Ar and isotopic composition of selected gases were further extended to stratospheric air by balloon-born sampling in addition to a vertical profiling of O3, CO2, and H2O with sounding sondes. Physical and chemical properties of marine

  18. The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard - a harbinger of a more polluted Arctic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, S.; Hermansen, O.; Grythe, H.; Fiebig, M.; Stebel, K.; Cassiani, M.; Baecklund, A.; Stohl, A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study we have analyzed whether tourist cruise ships have an influence on measured sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), Aitken mode particle and equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at Ny Ålesund and Zeppelin Mountain on Svalbard in the Norwegian Arctic during summer. We separated the measurement data set into periods when ships were present and periods when ships were not present in the Kongsfjord area, according to a long-term record of the number of passengers visiting Ny Ålesund. We show that when ships with more than 50 passengers cruise in the Kongsfjord, measured daytime mean concentrations of 60 nm particles and EBC in summer show enhancements of 72 and 45%, respectively, relative to values when ships are not present. Even larger enhancements of 81 and 72% were found for stagnant conditions. In contrast, O3 concentrations were 5% lower on average and 7% lower under stagnant conditions, due to titration of O3 with the emitted nitric oxide (NO). The differences between the two data subsets are largest for the highest measured percentiles, while relatively small differences were found for the median concentrations, indicating that ship plumes are sampled relatively infrequently even when ships are present although they carry high pollutant concentrations. We estimate that the ships increased the total summer mean concentrations of SO2, 60 nm particles and EBC by 15, 18 and 11%, respectively. Our findings have two important implications. Firstly, even at such a remote Arctic observatory as Zeppelin, the measurements can be influenced by tourist ship emissions. Careful data screening is recommended before summertime Zeppelin data is used for data analysis or for comparison with global chemistry transport models. However, Zeppelin remains as one of the most valuable Arctic observatories, as most other Arctic observatories face even larger local pollution problems. Secondly, given landing statistics of tourist ships on Svalbard, it is suspected that

  19. A burn mass casualty event due to boiler room explosion on a cruise ship: preparedness and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Akin; Namias, Nicholas; O'Keeffe, Terence; Pizano, Louis; Lynn, Mauricio; Prater-Varas, Robin; Quintana, Olga Delia; Borges, Leda; Ishii, Mary; Lee, Seong; Lopez, Peter; Lessner-Eisenberg, Sharon; Alvarez, Angel; Ellison, Tom; Sapnas, Katherine; Lefton, Jennifer; Ward, Charles Gillon

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to review our experience with a mass casualty incident resulting from a boiler room steam explosion aboard a cruise ship. Experience with major, moderate, and minor burns, steam inhalation, mass casualty response systems, and psychological sequelae will be discussed. Fifteen cruise ship employees were brought to the burn center after a boiler room explosion on a cruise ship. Eleven were triaged to the trauma resuscitation area and four to the surgical emergency room. Seven patients were intubated for respiratory distress or airway protection. Six patients had >80 per cent burns with steam inhalation, and all of these died. One of the 6 patients had 99 per cent burns with steam inhalation and died after withdrawal of support within the first several hours. All patients with major burns required escharotomy on arrival to trauma resuscitation. One patient died in the operating room, despite decompression by laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome and pericardiotomy via thoracotomy for cardiac tamponade. Four patients required crystalloid, 20,000 mls/m2-27,000 ml/m2 body surface area (BSA) in the first 48 hours to maintain blood pressure and urine output. Three of these four patients subsequently developed abdominal compartment syndrome and died in the first few days. The fourth patient of this group died after 26 days due to sepsis. Five patients had 13-20 per cent bums and four patients had less than 10 per cent burns. Two of the patients with 20 per cent burns developed edema of the vocal cords with mild hoarseness. They improved and recovered without intubation. The facility was prepared for the mass casualty event; having just completed a mass casualty drill several days earlier. Twenty-six beds were made available in 50 minutes for anticipated casualties. Fifteen physicians reported immediately to the trauma resuscitation area to assist in initial stabilization. The event occurred at shift change; thus, adequate support

  20. Stable isotopes of water vapor during the Strasse cruise in the sub-tropical North Atlantic; atmospheric boundary layer composition in relation to local evaporation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, Benetti; Gilles, Reverdin; Catherine, Pierre; Jerome, Demange; Camille, Risi

    2013-04-01

    During the Strasse cruise, a PICARRO L2130-i equipment was installed on the top deck of RV Thalassa with air pumped at an altitude of 20m above the sea surface. With this installation, the isotopic composition of water vapor was continuously measured from mid-August 2012 to mid-Septembre 2012 in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, mostly around 26°N/36°W. The sea surface water was also regularly collected as well as rain water during a few showers during the cruise. The isotopic composition of these water samples was measured after the cruise at LOCEAN. Two weather packages were continuously measuring relative humidity, air temperature, strength and direction of wind, which provide data close to where the air was pumped, and allow to estimate net evaporation. Radiosondes were also launched during part of the survey in the morning and evening to get information on the lower atmosphere vertical structure. These measurements allow a better understanding of the budget of the atmospheric mixed layer during the cruise in this region of high excess evaporation. In particular, we will comment a two-day event of large deviation in water vapor isotopic composition. We will also discuss to which extent the atmospheric boundary layer acquires its isotopic composition during exchanges with the surface ocean.

  1. Wind tunnel and ground static investigation of a large scale model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a 40 foot by 80 foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic/propulsion characteristics of a large scale powered model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft. The model was equipped with three 36 inch diameter turbotip X376B fans powered by three T58 gas generators. The lift fan was located forward of the cockpit area and the two lift/cruise fans were located on top of the wing adjacent to the fuselage. The three fans with associated thrust vectoring systems were used to provide vertical, and short, takeoff and landing capability. For conventional cruise mode operation, only the lift/cruise fans were utilized. The data that were obtained include lift, drag, longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics, and control effectiveness. Data were obtained up to speeds of 120 knots at one model height of 20 feet for the conventional aerodynamic lift configuration and at several thrust vector angles for the powered lift configuration.

  2. Meteor 55 Exchanges between the Surface Ocean and the Lower Atmosphere in the Tropical Atlantic: Results from the 1st German SOLAS cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, D.; M55 Participants

    2003-04-01

    Meteor 55 (Oct 12-Nov 17, 2002: Curacao to Douala) was a single-leg expedition which completed a trans-Atlantic section from west to east along 10º together with a short, mid ocean North-South transect to the equatorial upwelling. Underway measurements of air, atmospheric particles and surface seawater were performed continuously throughout the cruise. At discrete stations along the cruise track, vertical profiles were obtained from mostly shallow (< 500 m) CTD casts, but also 10 deep stations to the bottom, for a suite of biological and chemical parameters. Shipboard incubations were also conducted to examine the response of phytoplankton to the effects of various nutrients and physical conditions. The overall objective of the cruise was to examine ways in which surface ocean biology and chemistry affect the atmosphere and how atmospheric chemistry, in particular the deposition of particles, affects surface ocean biology and chemistry. This poster will present an overview of the measurements performed during this cruise and some preliminary results.

  3. A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control System to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag Ratios of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap system that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system offers a lighter-weight lift control system having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control system during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control system is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.

  4. Preliminary data report for the INDIVAT 1 and INDIGO 1/INDIVAT 3 cruises in the Indian Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.A.; Poisson, A.; Goyet, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives are to quantify the oceanic penetration of excess CO2 by using carbonate data directly and thereby to understand more fully the oceanic carbon cycle. This investigation of the carbonate chemistry of the Indian Ocean has the following specific goals: (1) to obtain the first winter carbonate data in the South Indian Ocean, which is near the major point of origin for the bottom waters in the world oceans; (2) to evaluate seasonal and cross-frontal (Subtropical and Antarctic Front) variations of carbonate chemistry; (3) to estimate the penetration depth of the excess, anthropogenic CO2 in the Indian Ocean based on both carbonate and transient tracer data; and (4) to compare the results with data reported in the literature. This report presents the experimental data and a limited preliminary analysis from the first two of a series of cruises scheduled in the Indian Ocean between 1984 and 1987. 19 refs., 25 figs.

  5. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 1: Technology flight vehicle definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Concept design is presented for two types of lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft, turbotip fans and the other using mechanically driven fans. The turbotip research technology aircraft reflects maximum usage of existing airframe components. The propulsion system consists of three turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators. Thrust modulation is accomplished by use of energy transfer and control system and thrust reduction modulation. This system can also be operated in the two engine/three fan mode. The mechanical RTA is virtually identical to the turbotip RTA with the exceptions that a different propulsion system and aft fuselage/tail are used. Both aircraft meet or exceed all of the mission performance guidelines and reflect a low cost, low risk approach.

  6. Near-field noise prediction for aircraft in cruising flight: Methods manual. [laminar flow control noise effects analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbetts, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for predicting noise at any point on an aircraft while the aircraft is in a cruise flight regime are presented. Developed for use in laminar flow control (LFC) noise effects analyses, they can be used in any case where aircraft generated noise needs to be evaluated at a location on an aircraft while under high altitude, high speed conditions. For each noise source applicable to the LFC problem, a noise computational procedure is given in algorithm format, suitable for computerization. Three categories of noise sources are covered: (1) propulsion system, (2) airframe, and (3) LFC suction system. In addition, procedures are given for noise modifications due to source soundproofing and the shielding effects of the aircraft structure wherever needed. Sample cases, for each of the individual noise source procedures, are provided to familiarize the user with typical input and computed data.

  7. Jets in the Coral Sea: observation between New Caledonia, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands during the SECALIS cruises.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganachaud, A.; Gourdeau, L.; Kestenare, E.

    2006-12-01

    The CLIVAR program and many recent publications underline the importance of the oceanic connection between the south subtropical Pacific, where mode waters acquire their properties from the contact with the atmosphere, and the equator, where those same waters emerge after a 10 to 15-year travel-time below the surface. Recent field work and modeling studies have revealed a complex pathway taken by those waters as they cross the Southwest Pacific region. Planetary dynamics and numerous topographic obstacles create oceanic jets, strong zonal currents that cross the Coral Sea before reaching the Australian coast western boundary current system and splitting with an important amount of water heading north towards the Equatorial Undercurrent and finally reaching the equatorial upwelling region. The observations made during SECALIS cruises (2003-2006) between New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, are presented. The CTD- ADCP sections revealed the existence of narrow jets at the northern and southern tips of Vanuatu and New Caledonia.

  8. Definition of an ISO 19115 metadata profile for SeaDataNet II Cruise Summary Reports and its XML encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrini, Enrico; Schaap, Dick M. A.; Nativi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    SeaDataNet implements a distributed pan-European infrastructure for Ocean and Marine Data Management whose nodes are maintained by 40 national oceanographic and marine data centers from 35 countries riparian to all European seas. A unique portal makes possible distributed discovery, visualization and access of the available sea data across all the member nodes. Geographic metadata play an important role in such an infrastructure, enabling an efficient documentation and discovery of the resources of interest. In particular: - Common Data Index (CDI) metadata describe the sea datasets, including identification information (e.g. product title, interested area), evaluation information (e.g. data resolution, constraints) and distribution information (e.g. download endpoint, download protocol); - Cruise Summary Reports (CSR) metadata describe cruises and field experiments at sea, including identification information (e.g. cruise title, name of the ship), acquisition information (e.g. utilized instruments, number of samples taken) In the context of the second phase of SeaDataNet (SeaDataNet 2 EU FP7 project, grant agreement 283607, started on October 1st, 2011 for a duration of 4 years) a major target is the setting, adoption and promotion of common international standards, to the benefit of outreach and interoperability with the international initiatives and communities (e.g. OGC, INSPIRE, GEOSS, …). A standardization effort conducted by CNR with the support of MARIS, IFREMER, STFC, BODC and ENEA has led to the creation of a ISO 19115 metadata profile of CDI and its XML encoding based on ISO 19139. The CDI profile is now in its stable version and it's being implemented and adopted by the SeaDataNet community tools and software. The effort has then continued to produce an ISO based metadata model and its XML encoding also for CSR. The metadata elements included in the CSR profile belong to different models: - ISO 19115: E.g. cruise identification information, including

  9. Transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise aircraft research model with the engines suspended above the wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, C. E.; Carson, G. T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of upper-surface nacelle exhaust flow on the aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise aircraft research configuration was investigated in a 16 foot transonic tunnel over a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20. The arrow-wing transport configuration with engines suspended over the wing was tested at angles of attack from -4 deg to 6 deg and jet total pressure ratios from 1 to approximately 13. Wing-tip leading edge flap deflections of -10 deg to 10 deg were tested with the wing-body configuration. Various nacelle locations (chordwise, spanwise, and vertical) were tested over the ranges of Mach numbers, angles of attack, and jet total-pressure ratios. The results show that reflecting the wing-tip leading edge flap from 0 deg to -10 deg increased the maximum lift-drag ratio by 1.0 at subsonic speeds. Jet exhaust interference effects were negligible.

  10. NEAR cruise and mathilde flyby mission operations — report from the front lines of low cost missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, P. D.; Kowal, C. T.; Mulich, T. J.; Whittenburg, K.; Wishnefsky, B.; Posner, A. S.

    1999-11-01

    NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission was launched in February 1996 on a mission to rendezvous with the asteroid 433 Eros in 1999. NEAR, with its five science instruments, is controlled from the NEAR Mission Operations Center at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab in Laurel, Maryland by a team of 5-8 sequence planners and flight controllers, with the support of a small engineering group. We examine lessons learned in planning, verifying and executing NEAR cruise and flyby activities. We find that the NEAR prerendezvous phase — so long as science objectives remain tightly focused — has been and can be successfully executed by a small, broadly experienced, highly skilled, closely cooperating team. However, sequence design for the year-long Eros-orbiting phase with multiple, potentially conflicting science activities will require a more robust and tightly integrated structure.

  11. A computer program for the prediction of near field noise of aircraft in cruising flight: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbetts, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed instructions for using the near field cruise noise prediction program, a program listing, and a sample case with output are presented. The total noise for free field lossless conditions at selected observer locations is obtained by summing the contributions from up to nine acoustic sources. These noise sources, selected at the user's option, include the fan/compressor, turbine, core (combustion), jet, shock, and airframe (trailing edge and turbulent boundary layers). The effects of acoustic suppression materials such as engine inlet treatment may also be included in the noise prediction. The program is available for use on the NASA/Langley Research Center CDC computer. Comparisons of the program predictions with measured data are also given, and some possible reasons for their lack of agreement presented.

  12. Cruising and e-dates: a new context for sexual encounters among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Grau-Muñoz, Arantxa; Pla-Ernst, Eduardo; Belda-Ibáñez, Josefina; Juan-Corrons, Amparo; Fernández-García, Elisa; Doménech-Alonso, Elena; Galán-Rubio, Enrique; Lloria-Paes, Fernando; Zafra-Espinosa, Trinidad; Tasa-Zapater, Teresa; Santos-Rubio, Concepción; Alastrue-Loscos, Ignacio

    2015-11-01

    This article addresses the rapidly growing use of information and communication technologies in mediating new settings for sexual relations. The specific focus is on cruising among young men who have sex with men via e-dating. The study used a qualitative methodology with peer group discussions on sexuality, health, and risk. The new framework provided by technology is marked by (a) increased access to these practices, (b) greater dissemination of them, (c) greater immediacy of encounters, (d) anticipation of what will be offered during dates, (e) anonymous access, allowing bolder proposals, and (f) openness to a wider range of users. These elements converge in a framework that indicates a new social organization of sexual practice. PMID:26840811

  13. Influence of CDOM and particle composition on ocean color of the Eastern New Caledonia Lagoon during the CALIOPE cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupouy, Cécile; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Tedetti, Marc; Martias, Chloe; Murakami, Hiroshi; Doxaran, David; Lantoine, Francois; Rodier, Martine; Favareto, Luciane; Kampel, Milton; Goutx, Madeleine; Frouin, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Ocean color of tropical lagoons is dependent on bathymetry and bottom type, as well as input of coastal living and mineral particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The New Caledonia lagoon lies in the Southwestern Tropical Pacific around 21° 30'S and 166° 30'E, with a great marine biodiversity in UNESCO Heritage coral reefs, benthic sea grass, and benthic communities. They are largely connected to the open ocean in the southern and eastern parts, but only by narrow passes in the southwest part. The trophic state is linked to spatial variations in flushing times. High run offs due to rain carrying abundant chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particle loads may greatly impact the functioning of ecosystems while rivers and sewage effluents may induce localized impacts. Two oceanographic cruises (CALIOPE 1 in 2011 and CALIOPE 2 in 2014) were carried out off the Eastern Coast of New Caledonia during a calm dry period and during high winds, respectively. Multi- and hyper-spectral marine reflectance was measured with a SIMBADA instrument and a TRIOS radiometer system, together with inherent optical properties (total and CDOM absorption coefficients with a PSICAM, in situ absorption and scattering with an AC9, backscattering with a Hydroscat-6). Fluorescence of CDOM (EEM/PARAFAC) was measured on collected 0.2 μm filtered samples. In 2014, Satlantic and FieldSpec hyper-spectral radiometers were available for in-water profiling of upwelling radiance and downwelling irradiance and above-water reflectance measurements, respectively. Inherent and apparent optical data from the two cruises are compared and used to estimate ocean color algorithms performance and evaluate a Linear Matrix Inversion method, providing tools for remote sensing on this highly under-sampled coastal region of New Caledonia.

  14. Geological framework of an active hydrothermal site in the North Fiji Basin: Starmer cruise of the submersible Nautile

    SciTech Connect

    Auzende, J. )

    1990-06-01

    During the summer of 1989 the French submersible Nautile carried out a diving cruise on the North Fiji Basin ridge axis in the frame of the Starmer French-Japanese joint project. The diving sites were selected using the Seapso 3, Kaiyo 87, and Kaiyo 88 cruises Seabeam surveys. They are located around 17{degree}S in the axial graben at the northern end of the N15 ridge. The axis consists of an 18 km wide, N15 elongated dome cut by a 2 km wide axial graben. The elevation of the dome with respect to adjacent oceanic floor is 500-600 m. It culminates at less than 1,900 m, which is higher than a normal oceanic ridge. The axial graben width (2 km) is also unusual compared to oceanic ridge with intermediate spreading rates such as the EPR at 21{degree}N. Six Nautile dives have been devoted to the detailed exploration of the axial graben between 16{degree}58'S and 17{degree}00'S in order to locate the hydrothermal vents in the inferred most active part of the axial graben. A structural map has been established on the basis of dive observation. Between 17{degree}S and 16{degree}58'S, the axis shows a succession of N15-trending horsts and grabens paralleling the main orientation of the ridge. Two main lateral grabens and a central graben can be recognized. The central graben shows remarkably constant width (200 m) and depth (2,000 m). It is bounded by two small horsts, few tens of meters wide. Observed tectonic features include N15 normal fault scarps and abundant open fissures with the same direction. The whole area is dusted with sediments indicating that volcanism was not active recently. Evidence of recent hydrothermal activity such as oxide staining, dead munch, dead chimney is abundant all along the central graben.

  15. Surface water and atmospheric underway carbon data obtained during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean survey cruises (R/V Knorr, December 1998--January 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, A.; Allison, L.

    1997-11-01

    This data documentation presents the results of the surface water and atmospheric underway measurements of mole fraction of carbon dioxide (xCO{sub 2}), sea surface salinity, and sea surface temperature, obtained during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Indian Ocean survey cruises (December 1994--January 1996). Discrete and underway carbon measurements were made by members of the CO{sub 2} survey team. The survey team is a part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study supported by the US Department of Energy to make carbon-related measurements on the WOCE global survey cruises. Approximately 200,000 surface seawater and 50,000 marine air xCO{sub 2} measurements were recorded.

  16. The MIRROR cruise (2011): Deep crustal structure of the Moroccan Atlantic Margin from wide-angle and reflection seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Aslanian, D.; Sahabi, M.; Moulin, M.; Schnurle, P.; Berglar, K.; Biari, Y.; Feld, A.; Graindorge, D.; Corela, C.; Mehdi, K.; Zourarah, B.; Perrot, J.; Alves Ribeiro, J.; Reichert, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    The study of conjugate margins is important to test different hypotheses of rifting and initial opening of an ocean. In this scope, seven wide-angle seismic profiles were acquired on the Moroccan Atlantic margin (at the latitudes between 32° and 33° N) together with coincident deep frequency reflection seismic data during the MIRROR cruise in May and June 2011. The main seismic profile is conjugate to an existing wide-angle seismic profile off Nova Scotia (SMART 2). Further objectives of the cruise were to image ocean-continent transition zone, to detect and eventually quantify exhumed upper mantle material present in this zone and to determine the origin of the high amplitude West African Magnetic Anomaly, which is conjugate to the north American East Coast Magnetic Anomaly and can be linked to the opening of the Atlantic. Two of the newly acquired profiles are located perpendicular and five parallel to the Moroccan margin. The seismic profiles are between 130 and 260 km in length and between 28 and 13 ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed on each one. One profile was extended on land by 15 landstations in order to better image the zone of continental thinning. A 4.5 km digital streamer and a 7200 cu inch tuned airgun array were used for the acquisition of the seismic data. Additionally magnetic, bathymetric and high resolution seismic data were acquired in the study region. Preliminary results from tomographic inversion of the first arrivals from the ocean-bottom seismometer data image the zone of crustal thinning from about 25 km to 6 km in the basin along about 70 kilometers of the profiles which are located perpendicular to the margin. The oceanic crust can be divided into 2 regions, based on the lower crustal velocities. Upper mantle velocities are about 8.0 km/s. The coincident reflection seismic data show the fine basement and sedimentary structures including salt tectonics in the basin. The comparative study of the two conjugate profiles on the

  17. Distribution and structure of pranktonic Archaea in the Arctic Ocean using 2008 - 2010 R/V Mirai cruise samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano (Sato), C.; Akiyama, S.; Uchida, M.; Utsumi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Recent molecular biological techniques indicate that there is widely spreading marine planktonic Archaea in the world's ocean under euphotic zone, and those microbial metabolisms are now recognized the drive forces of the world ocean geochemical cycling. In addition, after the discovery of large amount of marine Archaea, it is pointed out to an accurate calculation of the ocean carbon cycling that the grasp of the Archaea quantitive distribution and their methabolism are indispensable. Remarkably, part of marine Archaea (Crenarchaeota) certainly has carbon fixing ability, thus there is currently great interest in the marine Archaea for getting to understand the carbon cycling. In this study, we evaluated the Archaeal spatial distribution and their biomass in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, where is the Archaeal quantitative data was less and strongly needed to reveal the marine bacterial carbon cycling due to resent changing the Arctic region such as extensive melting ice. The Arctic Ocean cruise by R/V MIRAI was done from August to October in 2008 - 2010 in the Chukchi Sea, Canada Basin and East Siberian Sea. In these cruises, vertical seawater samples were collected with 12 L Niskin bottles with CTD system at total 30 stations to investigate the distributions of bacterial population density. The Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) technique targeting Crenarchaeal, Euryarchaeal and Eubacterial rRNA was used for identifying and enumerating marine microbial cells under florescent microscope. These cells were counted and measured the size, and calculated the biomass. From the results, in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, it was determined that the fraction of Archaea was abundant under euphotic zone like as other oceans, and the vertical distribution of planktonic Archaea were obviously different by each sea area. Especially in East Siberian Sea, the fraction of Crenarchaeota was relatively high near bottom

  18. Investigation of High-Performance Fuels in Multicylinder and in Single-Cylinder Engines at High and Cruising Engine Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Arthur H.; Nelson, R. Lee; Richard, Paul H.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to compare the knock-limited performance of a 20-percent triptane blend in 28-K fuel with that of 28-R and 33-R fuels at high engine speeds, cruising speeds, and two compression ratios in an K-1830-94 multicylinder engine, Data were obtained with the standard compression ratio of 6.7 and with a compression ratio of 3.0, The three fuels were investigated at engine speeds of 1800, 2250, 2600, and 2800 rpm at high and low blower ratios. A carburetor-air temperature of approximate1y 100 deg F was maintained for the multicylinder-engine runs, Data were obtained on a single R-1830-94 cylinder engine as a means of checking the multicylinder data at the higher speeds. A satisfactory correlation between average mixture temperature and knock-limited manifold pressure was obtained by plotting knock-limited manifold pressure against average mixture temperature for the whole range of engine speeds at constant carburetor air temperature and cylinder-head temperature. The single-cylinder knock-limited performance based on charge-air flow matched that of the multicylinder engine within 6 percent under all the conditions except for 28-R fuel at 2800 rpm; these curves differed from each other by 11 percent in the rich region. The knock rating of 33-R fuel was found to be a little higher than that of the 20-percent triptane blend and 26-R fuel at high mixture temperatures (above 210 deg F) and lean mixtures. The 33-R fuel exhibited rich knock limits appreciably lower than the 20-percent triptane blend, Increasing the compression ratio from 6.7 to 8.0 lowered the knock-limited manifold pressure for all fuels approximately 15 to 18 inches of mercury absolute in the cruising range and 20 to 28 inches of mercury absolute at higher engine speeds. Brake specific fuel consumption was reduced 7 to 9 percent by the increase in compression ratio from 6.7 to 8,0,

  19. Distributions of the carbonate system properties, anthropogenic CO2, and acidification during the 2008 BOUM cruise (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touratier, F.; Guglielmi, V.; Goyet, C.; Prieur, L.; Pujo-Pay, M.; Conan, P.; Falco, C.

    2012-03-01

    We relate here the distributions of two carbonate system key properties (total alkalinity, AT; and total dissolved inorganic carbon, CT) measured along a section in the Mediterranean Sea, going from Marseille (France) to the south of the Cyprus Island, during the 2008 BOUM cruise. The three main objectives of the present study are (1) to draw and comment on the distributions of AT and CT in the light of others properties like salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen, (2) to estimate the distribution of the anthropogenic CO2 (CANT) in the intermediate and the deep waters, and (3) to calculate the resulting variation of pH (acidification) since the beginning of the industrial era. Since the calculation of CANT is always an intense subject of debate, we apply two radically different approaches to estimate CANT: the very simple method TrOCA and the MIX approach, the latter being more precise but also more difficult to apply. A clear picture for the AT and the CT distributions is obtained: the mean concentration of AT is higher in the oriental basin while that of CT is higher in the occidental basin of the Mediterranean Sea, fully coherent with the previous published works. Despite of the two very different approaches we use here (TrOCA and MIX), the estimated distributions of CANT are very similar. These distributions show that the minimum of CANT encountered during the BOUM cruise is higher than 46.3 μmol kg-1 (TrOCA) or 48.8 μmol kg-1(MIX). All Mediterranean water masses (even the deepest) appear to be highly contaminated by CANT, as a result of the very intense advective processes that characterize the recent history of the Mediterranean circulation. As a consequence, unprecedented levels of acidification are reached with an estimated decrease of pH since the pre-industrial era of -0.148 to -0.061 pH unit, which places the Mediterranean Sea as one of the most acidified world marine ecosystem.

  20. MoMAR observatory: A Geophysical, Geological and Oceanographical Approach to the Monitoring of the Lucky Strike Segment (GRAVILUCK Cruise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballu, V.; Cannat, M.; Graviluck Scientific Party, A.

    2006-12-01

    The GRAVILUCK expedition, conducted in August 2006 on the R/V ATALANTE, was mainly dedicated to the installation of a seafloor geodetic network in the framework of the MoMAR ("Monitoring the Mid-Atlantic Ridge") project, to study active mid-ocean ridge processes along a slow-spreading ridge segment. The chosen site for this integrated "observatory" effort is the Lucky Strike segment (37°N) along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, South of the Azores Archipelago; it combines both logistic and scientific interests, and has been studied in depth by geologists, geophysicists and biologists for many years. It also presents an intense hydrothermal activity and hosts an axial magma chamber under its center discovered last year during the SISMOMAR cruise. The installation of 9 permanent geodetic benchmarks and the time-zero pressure and gravity measurements were conducting during 19 Nautile dives. Pressure changes measured at a benchmark can be due to environmental variability, to a change in the elevation of the point, or to both. To quantify environmental variations, we monitored water column with full depth CTD prior to each dive, and shallow CTD yoyos down to 500 m during the dives. These oceanographic measurements will allow us to directly model and remove part of the environmental variability and thus increase our capability to detect small vertical motions over several years. Three additional Nautile dives were dedicated to geology and gravity cartography of the central volcano. In addition to the day program, 10 nights were devoted to a geological survey using the TowCam (camera, magnetometer, wax coring, CTD) to characterize tectonic and magmatic features of the Lucky Strike volcano, their relationship to the magma chamber location, and identification of areas of most recent apparent volcanic activity; 10 other nights were dedicated to studying ocean circulation and induced mixing around the Lucky Strike site. GRAVILUCK cruise Scientific Party: CNRS/IPGP: J. Ammann, V

  1. Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison

  2. Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison

  3. Cruise report for P1-13-LA, U.S. Geological Survey gas hydrates research cruise, R/V Pelican April 18 to May 3, 2013, deepwater Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Hart, Patrick E.; Ruppel, Carolyn; O'Brien, Thomas; Baldwin, Wayne; White, Jenny; Moore, Eric; Dal Ferro, Pete; Lemmond, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey led a seismic acquisition cruise in the Gulf of Mexico from April 18 to May 3, 2013, with the objectives of (1) achieving improved imaging and characterization at two established gas hydrate study sites, and (2) refining geophysical methods for gas hydrate characterization in other locations. We conducted this acquisition aboard the R/V Pelican, and used a pair of 105/105-cubic-inch generator/injector air guns to provide seismic energy that we recorded using a 450-meter 72-channel digital hydrophone streamer and 25 multicomponent ocean-bottom seismometers. In the area of lease block Green Canyon 955, we deployed 21 ocean-bottom seismometers and acquired approximately 400 kilometers of high-resolution two-dimensional streamer seismic data in a grid with line spacing as small as 50 meters and along radial lines that provide source offsets up to 10 kilometers and diverse azimuths for the ocean-bottom seismometers. In the area of lease block Walker Ridge 313, we deployed 25 ocean-bottom seismometers and acquired approximately 450 kilometers of streamer seismic data in a grid pattern with line spacing as small as 250 meters and along radial lines that provide source offsets up to 10 kilometers for the ocean-bottom seismometers. The data acquisition effort was conducted safely and met the scientific objectives.

  4. Application of an aerodynamic analysis method including attainable thrust estimates to low speed leading-edge flap design for supersonic cruise vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    A study of low speed leading-edge flap design for supersonic cruise vehicle was conducted. Wings with flaps were analyzed with the aid of a newly developed subsonic wing program which provides estimates of attainable leading-edge thrust. Results indicate that the thrust actually attainable can have a significant influence on the design and that the resultant flaps can be smaller and simpler than those resulting from more conventional approaches.

  5. Preliminary performance of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing, supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Domack, C. S.; Swanson, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    A performance study was made of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL), supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system. Those characteristics considered were aerodynamics, weight, balance, and performance. Preliminary results indicate that high levels of supersonic aerodynamic performance can be achieved. Further, with the assumption of an advanced (1985 technology readiness) low bypass ratio turbofan engine and advanced structures, excellent mission performance capability is indicated.

  6. The Effect of Rotor Cruise Tip Speed, Engine Technology and Engine/Drive System RPM on the NASA Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) Size and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robuck, Mark; Wilkerson, Joseph; Maciolek, Robert; Vonderwell, Dan

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year study was conducted under NASA NNA06BC41C Task Order 10 and NASA NNA09DA56C task orders 2, 4, and 5 to identify the most promising propulsion system concepts that enable rotor cruise tip speeds down to 54% of the hover tip speed for a civil tiltrotor aircraft. Combinations of engine RPM reduction and 2-speed drive systems were evaluated. Three levels of engine and the drive system advanced technology were assessed; 2015, 2025 and 2035. Propulsion and drive system configurations that resulted in minimum vehicle gross weight were identified. Design variables included engine speed reduction, drive system speed reduction, technology, and rotor cruise propulsion efficiency. The NASA Large Civil Tiltrotor, LCTR, aircraft served as the base vehicle concept for this study and was resized for over thirty combinations of operating cruise RPM and technology level, quantifying LCTR2 Gross Weight, size, and mission fuel. Additional studies show design sensitivity to other mission ranges and design airspeeds, with corresponding relative estimated operational cost. The lightest vehicle gross weight solution consistently came from rotor cruise tip speeds between 422 fps and 500 fps. Nearly equivalent results were achieved with operating at reduced engine RPM with a single-speed drive system or with a two-speed drive system and 100% engine RPM. Projected performance for a 2025 engine technology provided improved fuel flow over a wide range of operating speeds relative to the 2015 technology, but increased engine weight nullified the improved fuel flow resulting in increased aircraft gross weights. The 2035 engine technology provided further fuel flow reduction and 25% lower engine weight, and the 2035 drive system technology provided a 12% reduction in drive system weight. In combination, the 2035 technologies reduced aircraft takeoff gross weight by 14% relative to the 2015 technologies.

  7. USGS Arctic Ocean Carbon Cruise 2012: Field Activity L-01-12-AR to collect carbon data in the Arctic Ocean, August-September 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Wynn, Jonathan; Knorr, Paul O.; Onac, Bogdan; Lisle, John T.; McMullen, Katherine Y.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Byrne, Robert H.; Liu, Xuewu

    2014-01-01

    During the cruise, underway continuous and discrete water samples were collected, and discrete water samples were collected at stations to document the carbonate chemistry of the Arctic waters and quantify the saturation state of seawater with respect to calcium carbonate. These data are critical for providing baseline information in areas where no data have existed prior and will also be used to test existing models and predict future trends.

  8. Initial Assessment of a Variable-Camber Continuous Trailing-Edge Flap System on a Rigid Wing for Drag Reduction in Subsonic Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Nguyen, Nhan; Totah, Joe; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an initial optimization study of a Variable-Camber Continuous Trailing-Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system. The VCCTEF provides a light-weight control system for aircraft with long flexible wings, providing efficient high-lift capability for takeoff and landing, and greater efficiency with reduced drag at cruising flight by considering the effects of aeroelastic wing deformations in the control law. The VCCTEF system is comprised of a large number of distributed and individually-actuatable control surfaces that are constrained in movement relative to neighboring surfaces, and are non-trivially coupled through structural aeroelastic dynamics. Minimzation of drag results in a constrained, coupled, non-linear optimization over a high-dimension search space. In this paper, we describe the modeling, analysis, and optimization of the VCCTEF system control inputs for minimum drag in cruise. The purpose of this initial study is to quantify the expected benefits of the system concept. The scope of this analysis is limited to consideration of a rigid wing without structural flexibility in a steady-state cruise condition at various fuel weights. For analysis, we developed an optimization engine that couples geometric synthesis with vortex-lattice analysis to automate the optimization procedure. In this paper, we present and describe the VCCTEF system concept, optimization approach and tools, run-time performance, and results of the optimization at 20%, 50%, and 80% fuel load. This initial limited-scope study finds the VCCTEF system can potentially gain nearly 10% reduction in cruise drag, provides greater drag savings at lower operating weight, and efficiency is negatively impacted by the severity of relative constraints between control surfaces.

  9. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. [Lewis 8 by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a coannular exhaust nozzle for a proposed variable stream control supersonic propulsion system. Tests were conducted with two simulated configurations differing primarily in the fan duct flowpaths: a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At take off conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less.

  10. Flow analysis for the nacelle of an advanced ducted propeller at high angle-of-attack and at cruise with boundary layer control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, D. P.; Boldman, D. R.; Hughes, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    An axisymmetric panel code and a three dimensional Navier-Stokes code (used as an inviscid Euler code) were verified for low speed, high angle of attack flow conditions. A three dimensional Navier-Stokes code (used as an inviscid code), and an axisymmetric Navier-Stokes code (used as both viscous and inviscid code) were also assessed for high Mach number cruise conditions. The boundary layer calculations were made by using the results from the panel code or Euler calculation. The panel method can predict the internal surface pressure distributions very well if no shock exists. However, only Euler and Navier-Stokes calculations can provide a good prediction of the surface static pressure distribution including the pressure rise across the shock. Because of the high CPU time required for a three dimensional Navier-Stokes calculation, only the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes calculation was considered at cruise conditions. The use of suction and tangential blowing boundary layer control to eliminate the flow separation on the internal surface was demonstrated for low free stream Mach number and high angle of attack cases. The calculation also shows that transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow on the external cowl surface can be delayed by using suction boundary layer control at cruise flow conditions. The results were compared with experimental data where possible.

  11. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 2: Tabulated aeroynamic data book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tabulated data from wind tunnel tests conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of an advanced coannular exhaust nozzle for a future supersonic propulsion system are presented. Tests were conducted with two test configurations: (1) a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and (2) an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At takeoff conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less. Data are provided through test run 25.

  12. Near-Field Acoustic Power Level Analysis of F31/A31 Open Rotor Model at Simulated Cruise Conditions, Technical Report II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Near-field acoustic power level analysis of F31A31 open rotor model has been performed to determine its noise characteristics at simulated cruise flight conditions. The non-proprietary parts of the test data obtained from experiments in the 8x6 supersonic wind tunnel were provided by NASA-Glenn Research Center. The tone and broadband components of total noise have been separated from raw test data by using a new data analysis tool. Results in terms of sound pressure levels, acoustic power levels, and their variations with rotor speed, freestream Mach number, and input shaft power, with different blade-pitch setting angles at simulated cruise flight conditions, are presented and discussed. Empirical equations relating models acoustic power level and input shaft power have been developed. The near-field acoustic efficiency of the model at simulated cruise conditions is also determined. It is hoped that the results presented in this work will serve as a database for comparison and improvement of other open rotor blade designs and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes.

  13. An overview of the small engine component technology (SECT) studies. [commuter, rotorcraft, cruise missile and auxiliary power applications in year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanco, M. R.; Wintucky, W. T.; Niedwiecki, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the joint NASA/Army SECT studies were to identify high payoff technologies for year 2000 small gas turbine engine applications and to provide a technology plan for guiding future research and technology efforts applicable to rotorcraft, commuter and general aviation aircraft and cruise missiles. Competitive contracts were awarded to Allison, AVCO Lycoming, Garrett, Teledyne CAE and Williams International. This paper presents an overview of the contractors' study efforts for the commuter, rotorcraft, cruise missile, and auxiliary power (APU) applications with engines in the 250 to 1,000 horsepower size range. Reference aircraft, missions and engines were selected. Advanced engine configurations and cycles with projected year 2000 component technologies were evaluated and compared with a reference engine selected by the contractor. For typical commuter and rotorcraft applications, fuel savings of 22 percent to 42 percent can be attained. For $1/gallon and $2/gallon fuel, reductions in direct operating cost range from 6 percent to 16 percent and from 11 percent to 17 percent respectively. For subsonic strategic cruise missile applications, fuel savings of 38 percent to 54 percent can be achieved which allows 35 percent to 60 percent increase in mission range and life cycle cost reductions of 40 percent to 56 percent. High payoff technologies have been identified for all applications.

  14. Testing of lift/cruise fan exhaust deflector. [for a tip turbine lift fan in short takeoff aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlundt, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    A lift/cruise exhaust deflector system for the LF336/A tip turbine lift fan was designed, built, and tested to determine the design and performance characteristics of a large-scale, single swivel nozzle thrust vectoring system. The exhaust deflector static testing was performed at the Ames Research Center outside static test stand facilities. The test hardware was installed on a hydraulic lift platform to permit both in and out of ground effect testing. The exhaust flow of the LF336/A lift fan was vectored from 0 degrees through 130 degrees during selected fan speeds to obtain performance at different operating conditions. The system was operated with and without flow vanes installed in the small radius bends to evaluate the system performance based on a proposed method of improving the internal flow losses. The program also included testing at different ground heights, to the nozzle exhaust plane, to obtain ground effect data, and the testing of two methods of thrust spoiling using a duct bypass door system and nozzle flap system.

  15. Experimental investigation of Mach 3 cruise heating simulations on a representative wing structure for flight loads measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, R. A.; Olinger, F. V.; Momaghan, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Radiant heating experiments were performed in the laboratory on an instrumented multispar wing structure to investigate: (1) how accurately the structural temperatures of a Mach 3 cruise-flight profile could be simulated, (2) what the effects of the heating and heating inaccuracies would be on the responses of strain-gage bridges installed on the structure, and (3) how these responses would affect flight loads measurements. Test temperatures throughout the structure agreed well with temperatures calculated for a Mach 3 profile. In addition, temperatures produced by two identical tests were repeatable to less than + or -6 K deg. Thermally induced strain-gage-bridge responses were large enough to be detrimental to a high-speed flight loads program with a goal of establishing aerodynamic loads (exclusive of thermal loads). It was shown that heating simulation can be used effectively for thermal calibration (that is, to provide corrections for a high-temperature environment), and that thermal calibration may not be needed if the simulation data are used to carefully select bridges and load equations.

  16. Outbreak of respiratory illness on board a ship cruising to ports in southern Europe and northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Christenson, B; Lidin-Janson, G; Kallings, I

    1987-05-01

    A large outbreak of influenza-like and diarrhoeal illness took place over a period of 21 days in April 1984 on board a ship cruising to ports in southern Europe and northern Africa. A cohort study of the 418 passengers was made by postal questionnaire and personal interview. Of the 391 passengers who were interviewed or who returned a questionnaire, 335 (86%) were affected. Of the ill passengers, 295 (88%) had an influenza-like illness. These included 20 with signs of lower respiratory tract infection. In 24 passengers, a viral infection was diagnosed. Influenza B virus infection was identified in 14 cases; other diagnoses were influenza A, para-influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and Epstein-Barr virus infections. In two of the 81 patients tested for Legionella antibodies, a titre of 128 was found; in 16 and 44 patients, titres of 64 and 32 respectively. The outbreak was thus evidently caused by multiple pathogens mainly affecting the respiratory tract. Although most of the passengers acquired their infections on board the ship, a common source was not discovered. A steep rise in the epidemic curve the day after the air-conditioning was switched on, however, is worth noting. If and when similar instances of the 'Sick Boat Syndrome' recur, a search for environmental sources of infection is to be recommended. PMID:3585036

  17. Atmospheric mercury in the marine boundary layer along a cruise path from Shanghai, China to Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chonghuan; Xie, Zhouqing; Sun, Liguang

    2010-05-01

    The total gaseous mercury (TGM) measurements were performed using an automatic Mercury Vapor Analyze (model 2537B) aboard the Chinese research vessel (R/V) XueLong during the 24th China Antarctic Research Expedition from Shanghai, China to Prydz Bay, Antarctica in 2007. TGM ranged between 0.302 and 4.496 ng m -3 with an average of 1.536 ± 0.785 ng m -3 over the entire period. Geographically, TGM in the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere along the cruise path were 1.746 ± 0.513 and 1.471 ± 0.842 ng m -3 in average, respectively. Higher TGM concentrations were observed in the coastal regions outside the polar region due primarily to air masses transported from the adjacent mainland reflecting the contribution from anthropogenic sources. The pronounced episode was recorded when ship passed through Sunda straits, which should be ascribed to the volcano plume and/or biomass burning contamination. In the maritime Antarctic TGM level was in agreement with the values by land-based observation, presenting a diurnal cycle with the maximum around midday and minimum at night. Atmospheric mercury destruction events dominated by the oxidation of atmospheric Hg 0 were apparently observed in this region.

  18. Adaptive cruise control with stop&go function using the state-dependent nonlinear model predictive control approach.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, Payman; Ordys, Andrzej; Askari, Mohamad R

    2012-09-01

    In the design of adaptive cruise control (ACC) system two separate control loops - an outer loop to maintain the safe distance from the vehicle traveling in front and an inner loop to control the brake pedal and throttle opening position - are commonly used. In this paper a different approach is proposed in which a single control loop is utilized. The objective of the distance tracking is incorporated into the single nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) by extending the original linear time invariant (LTI) models obtained by linearizing the nonlinear dynamic model of the vehicle. This is achieved by introducing the additional states corresponding to the relative distance between leading and following vehicles, and also the velocity of the leading vehicle. Control of the brake and throttle position is implemented by taking the state-dependent approach. The model demonstrates to be more effective in tracking the speed and distance by eliminating the necessity of switching between the two controllers. It also offers smooth variation in brake and throttle controlling signal which subsequently results in a more uniform acceleration of the vehicle. The results of proposed method are compared with other ACC systems using two separate control loops. Furthermore, an ACC simulation results using a stop&go scenario are shown, demonstrating a better fulfillment of the design requirements. PMID:22704362

  19. Distribution of micro-organisms along a transect in the South-East Pacific Ocean (BIOSOPE cruise) from epifluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masquelier, S.; Vaulot, D.

    2007-08-01

    The distribution of selected groups of micro-organisms was analyzed along a South-East Pacific Ocean transect sampled during the BIOSOPE cruise in 2004. The transect could be divided into four regions of contrasted trophic status: a high Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) region (mesotrophic) near the equator, the South-East Pacific Ocean gyre (hyper-oligotrophic), the transition region between the gyre and the coast of South America (moderately oligotrophic), and the Chile upwelling (eutrophic). The abundance of phycoerythrin containing picocyanobacteria, autotrophic and heterotrophic eukaryotes in different size ranges, dinoflagellates, and ciliates was determined by epifluorescence microscopy after DAPI staining. All populations reached a maximum in the Chile upwelling and a minimum near the centre of the gyre. Picocyanobacteria reached a maximum abundance of 70×10³ cell mL-1. In the HNLC zone, up to 50% of picocyanobacteria formed colonies. Autotrophic eukaryote and dinoflagellate abundance reached 24.5×10³ and 200 cell mL-1, respectively. We observed a shift in the size distribution of autotrophic eukaryotes from 2-5 μm in eutrophic and mesotrophic regions to less than 2 μm in the central region. The contribution of autotrophic eukaryotes to total eukaryotes was the lowest in the central gyre. Maximum concentration of ciliates (18 cell ml-1) also occurred in the Chile upwelling, but, in contrast to the other groups, their abundance was very low in the HNLC zone and near the Marquesas Islands.

  20. Contracts, grants and funding summary of supersonic cruise research and variable-cycle engine technology programs, 1972 - 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.; Varholic, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    NASA-SCAR (AST) program was initiated in 1972 at the direct request of the Executive Office of the White House and Congress following termination of the U.S. SST program. The purpose of SCR was to conduct a focused research and technology program on those technology programs which contributed to the SST termination and, also, to provide an expanded data base for future civil and military supersonic transport aircraft. Funding for the Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program was initiated in fiscal year 1973 and terminated in fiscal year 1981. The program was implemented through contracts and grants with industry, universities, and by in-house investigations at the NASA/OAST centers. The studies included system studies and five disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emissions impact, materials and structures, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. The NASA/Lewis Variable-Cycle Engine (VCE) Component Program was initiated in 1976 to augment the SCR program in the area of propulsion. After about 2 years, the title was changed to VCE Technology program. The total number of contractors and grantees on record at the AST office in 1982 was 101 for SCR and 4 for VCE. This paper presents a compilation of all the contracts and grants as well as the funding summaries for both programs.