Keldysh functional renormalization group for electronic properties of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fräßdorf, Christian; Mosig, Johannes E. M.
2017-03-01
We construct a nonperturbative nonequilibrium theory for graphene electrons interacting via the instantaneous Coulomb interaction by combining the functional renormalization group method with the nonequilibrium Keldysh formalism. The Coulomb interaction is partially bosonized in the forward scattering channel resulting in a coupled Fermi-Bose theory. Quantum kinetic equations for the Dirac fermions and the Hubbard-Stratonovich boson are derived in Keldysh basis, together with the exact flow equation for the effective action and the hierarchy of one-particle irreducible vertex functions, taking into account a possible nonzero expectation value of the bosonic field. Eventually, the system of equations is solved approximately under thermal equilibrium conditions at finite temperature, providing results for the renormalized Fermi velocity and the static dielectric function, which extends the zero-temperature results of Bauer et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 121409 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.121409.
Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucchini, M.; Sato, S. A.; Ludwig, A.; Herrmann, J.; Volkov, M.; Kasmi, L.; Shinohara, Y.; Yabana, K.; Gallmann, L.; Keller, U.
2016-08-01
Short, intense laser pulses can be used to access the transition regime between classical and quantum optical responses in dielectrics. In this regime, the relative roles of inter- and intraband light-driven electronic transitions remain uncertain. We applied attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interaction between polycrystalline diamond and a few-femtosecond infrared pulse with intensity below the critical intensity of optical breakdown. Ab initio time-dependent density functional theory calculations, in tandem with a two-band parabolic model, accounted for the experimental results in the framework of the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect and identified infrared induction of intraband currents as the main physical mechanism responsible for the observations.
Schwinger-Keldysh canonical formalism for electronic Raman scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Yuehua
2016-03-01
Inelastic low-energy Raman and high-energy X-ray scatterings have made great progress in instrumentation to investigate the strong electronic correlations in matter. However, theoretical study of the relevant scattering spectrum is still a challenge. In this paper, we present a Schwinger-Keldysh canonical perturbation formalism for the electronic Raman scattering, where all the resonant, non-resonant and mixed responses are considered uniformly. We show how to use this formalism to evaluate the cross section of the electronic Raman scattering off an one-band superconductor. All the two-photon scattering processes from electrons, the non-resonant charge density response, the elastic Rayleigh scattering, the fluorescence, the intrinsic energy-shift Raman scattering and the mixed response, are included. In the mean-field superconducting state, Cooper pairs contribute only to the non-resonant response. All the other responses are dominated by the single-particle excitations and are strongly suppressed due to the opening of the superconducting gap. Our formalism for the electronic Raman scattering can be easily extended to study the high-energy resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.
Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems.
Sieberer, L M; Buchhold, M; Diehl, S
2016-09-01
Recent experimental developments in diverse areas-ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays-move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven-dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems.
Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sieberer, L. M.; Buchhold, M.; Diehl, S.
2016-09-01
Recent experimental developments in diverse areas—ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays—move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven-dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems.
Hydrochemical characteristics of the waters in the western part of the Kara Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makkaveev, P. N.; Melnikova, Z. G.; Polukhin, A. A.; Stepanova, S. V.; Khlebopashev, P. V.; Chultsova, A. L.
2015-07-01
Hydrochemical study in the Kara Sea was part of the program of the integrated expedition of the 59th cruise of the RV Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. Primary hydrochemical surveys were performed on the sections in the Yenisei Gulf, along the eastern and western branches of the St. Anna Trough, and across the Novozemel'skii Trough. Moreover, a flow-through system throughout, in which pH values of the surface waters were measured and samples for hydrochemical analyses were collected, was operated during vessel movement. A wide set of hydrochemical analyses was carried out, including tests for key nutrients (silicon and different forms of nitrogen and phosphorus), dissolved oxygen, and values of pH and total alkalinity. The report describes the hydrochemical conditions in the southwestern part of the Kara Sea. The basic results are presented and compared to those of the preceding integrated expeditions (49th cruise of the RV Dmitrii Mendeleev in 1993 and 54th cruise of the RV Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 2007).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bednov, Sergey M.; Vezhnevets, Petr D.; Desyatov, Andrey V.; Tsikhotsky, Yury M.; Prokhorov, Yury. M.; Kopiatkevich, R.; Gorbenko, Gennady; Diev, M.
1997-01-01
This Paper presents a brief description of the experimental facility which was developed in the Keldysh Research Center (KeRC) for studying and working out the thermal control system (TCS) for the Russian segment of the International space station ``Alpha'' (ISSA). The list of scientific and design problems which will be studied during ground testing is given.
Studies of Keldysh Scaled Systems with Ultrafast Strong-Field Sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szafruga, Urszula; Blaga, Cosmin; Xu, Junliang; Dichiara, Anthony; Link, Emily; Agostini, Pierre; Dimauro, Louis
2015-05-01
Keldysh theory suggests that we can control the multiphoton/tunneling ionization mechanism by choosing appropriate laser parameters and target atoms. The Keldysh parameter values for the noble gases at near-infrared wavelengths (0.8 micron) are similar to those of the alkali metal atoms in strong mid-infrared (3-4 micron) laser fields. By studying atomic species with similar Keldysh parameters and different electronic structures (noble gases vs alkali metals) we aim to expand our understanding of the global, Keldysh invariant, and atom specific ionization features. Further, since alkali metal atoms have a single valence electron they may provide a more appropriate test of theories based off of the single-active-electron approximation. In this work we measured photoelectron spectra and ion yields of Sodium, Potassium and Cesium spanning the range of multiphoton and tunneling ionization regimes. Our findings are discussed in relation to previous results in noble gas/800nm experiments and compared to ADK, SFA and TDSE calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Topcu, Turker; Robicheaux, Francis
2012-06-01
It is common practice in strong-laser physics community that dynamical regime of atomic ionization is described by the Keldysh parameter, γ. Two distinct cases where γ1 and γ1 are associated with ionization mechanisms that are predominantly in tunneling and in multi-photon regimes, respectively. We report on our fully three-dimensional ab initio quantum simulations of ionization of hydrogen atoms in laser fields described in terms of the Keldysh parameter by solving the corresponding time-dependent Schr"odinger equation. We find that the Keldysh parameter is useful in inferring the dynamical ionization regime only when coupled with the scaled laser frequency, φ, when a large range of laser frequencies and peak intensities are considered. The additional parameter φ relates the laser frequency φ to the classical Kepler frequency φK of the electron, and together with the Keldysh parameter, they can be used to refer to an ionization regime.
Hydrogen atom in a strong laser field: Numerical simulation versus Keldysh-type theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, A. M.; Tikhonov, M. A.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Volkova, E. A.
2008-05-01
The dynamics of a 3D hydrogen atom in an intense laser pulse is investigated using the direct numerical integration of the nonstationary Schrödinger equation in the multiphoton regime of ionization. The results obtained are compared with the theoretical data of the strong-field approximation (SFA) method and the validity of the SFA and other Keldysh-type theories in the problem of the strong-field ionization of atoms is analyzed in a wide range of laser frequencies and intensities. The Reiss approximation (SFA) provides qualitative agreement with the numerical simulation for moderate laser intensities and reveals the channel closing phenomena during the multiphoton ionization. However, this approach is found to be inappropriate in the presence of strong fields where we numerically demonstrate the suppression of atomic ionization. The reason for the stabilization lies in the formation of a new system (dressed atom), which is not taken into account in the SFA and other Keldysh-type theories.
Giraldi, Filippo
2015-09-15
The Schwinger-Keldysh nonequilibrium theory allows the description of various transport phenomena involving bosons (fermions) embedded in bosonic (fermionic) environments. The retarded Green’s function obeys the Dyson equation and determines via its non-vanishing asymptotic behavior the dissipationless open dynamics. The appearance of this regime is conditioned by the existence of the solution of a general class of transcendental equations in complex domain that we study. Particular cases consist in transcendental equations containing exponential, hyperbolic, power law, logarithmic, and special functions. The present analysis provides an analytical description of the thermal and temporal correlation function of two general observables of a quantum system in terms of the corresponding spectral function. Special integral properties of the spectral function guarantee non-vanishing asymptotic behavior of the correlation function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giraldi, Filippo
2015-09-01
The Schwinger-Keldysh nonequilibrium theory allows the description of various transport phenomena involving bosons (fermions) embedded in bosonic (fermionic) environments. The retarded Green's function obeys the Dyson equation and determines via its non-vanishing asymptotic behavior the dissipationless open dynamics. The appearance of this regime is conditioned by the existence of the solution of a general class of transcendental equations in complex domain that we study. Particular cases consist in transcendental equations containing exponential, hyperbolic, power law, logarithmic, and special functions. The present analysis provides an analytical description of the thermal and temporal correlation function of two general observables of a quantum system in terms of the corresponding spectral function. Special integral properties of the spectral function guarantee non-vanishing asymptotic behavior of the correlation function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Roland
2013-04-01
In our many earlier simulations of the response of materials and molecules to laser pulses, one-electron states were determined by the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation with an instantaneous one-electron Hamiltonian. These states were then used with Ehrenfest's theorem in a semiclassical treatment of the coupled dynamics of electrons and nuclear coordinates. For strongly-correlated materials, however, true nonequilibrium self-energies are required. Here we describe a practical numerical procedure for employing the Kadanoff-Baym/Keldysh equationsfootnotetextSee e.g. A. Stan, N. E. Dahlen, and R. van Leeuwen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 224101 (2009) and T. Kita, Prog. Theor. Phys. 123, 581 (2010). together with Ehrenfest's theorem, and with conserving self-energies appropriate to correlated materials.
Thermal and thermoelectric response from Keldysh formalism with application to gapped Dirac fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Guo-Bao; Yang, Hui-Min; Yang, Sheng-Yuan
2015-04-01
Based on the Keldysh Green’s functions theory, we present a general formula of the thermal and thermoelectric transport. In the clean limit, our formula recovers the previous results obtained from the semiclassical transport theory. In our approach, we propose an appropriate energy current operator and electric current operator, and the unphysical divergence from the direct application of the Kubo formula is eliminated. As an application, we study the thermal and the thermoelectric Hall conductivities of a gapped Dirac fermion model in the presence of impurity scattering. Project supported by the Special Funds of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11447145) and the Doctoral Program of Heze University, Shandong Province, China (Grant No. XY14B002).
Optical Detection of Organic Chemical Biosignatures at Hydrothermal Vents
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conrad, P. G.; Lane, A. L.; Bhartia, R.; Hug, W. H.
2004-01-01
We have developed a non-contact, optical life detection instrument that can detect organic chemical biosignatures in a number of different environments, including dry land, shallow aqueous, deep marine or in ice. Hence, the instrument is appropriate as a biosignature survey tool both for Mars exploration or in situ experiments in an ice-covered ocean such as one might wish to explore on Europa. Here, we report the results we obtained on an expedition aboard the Russian oceanographic vessel Akademik Mstislav Keldysh to hydrothermal vent sites in the Pacific Ocean using our life detection instrument MCDUVE, a multichannel, deep ultraviolet excitation fluorescence detector. MCDUVE detected organic material distribution on rocks near the vent, as well as direct detection of organisms, both microbial and microscopic. We also were able to detect organic material issuing directly from vent chimneys, measure the organic signature of the water column as we ascended, and passively observe the emission of light directly from some vents.
Nannofossils in upper quaternary bottom sediments of back-arc basins in the southwestern Pacific
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitrenko, O. B.
2015-05-01
The analysis of calcareous nannoplankton assemblages in bottom sediments sampled during Cruise 21 of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in three areas located in back-arc basins of the southwestern Pacific (western Woodlark in the Solomon Sea, Manus in the Bismarck Sea, Central Lau) reveal that they belong to the Emiliania huxleyi Acme Zone, the most detailed one in the Gartner's scale of 1977. The content of coccoliths and their taxonomic composition indicate warm subtropical-tropical conditions. Long cores demonstrate a decrease in species diversity reflecting the transition from the cold late Pleistocene to the Holocene. The changes in species diversity and presence/absence of thermophilic representatives indicate transformation of depositional environments with unstable conditions in the water column and bottom layer, seismic activity, and widely developed processes of sediment redistribution and reworking.
Mineralogical-geochemical features of sulfide ores from the Broken Spur hydrothermal vent field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanov, Yu. A.; Lein, A. Yu.; Maslennikov, V. V.; Li, Syaoli; Ul'Yanov, A. A.
2008-10-01
A representative collection of hydrothermal sediments was sampled practically from all the hydrothermal mounds of the Broken Spur hydrothermal vent field from the Mir manned submersibles during three cruises of R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. Mineral associations characteristic of different morphological types of sulfide ores from hydrothermal pipes, plates, and diffusers are assessed. Particular attention is paid to the distribution of minor elements and their distribution patterns determined by the mineralogical zonation. The measured isotopic value of the sulfur in the sulfide minerals appeared to vary from 0.4 to 5.2‰, which indicates their similarity with the ores from the Snake Pit vent field and is related to the dilution of hot ore-bearing solutions by seawater and reduction of the water sulfate ions to H2S with a heavy isotopic composition.
Mineral composition of soils and bottom sediments in bays of Novaya Zemlya
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krupskaya, V. V.; Miroshnikov, A. Yu.; Dorzhieva, O. V.; Zakusin, S. V.; Semenkov, I. N.; Usacheva, A. A.
2017-01-01
We have analyzed the specific features of the mineralogical composition of bottom sediments of Blagopoluchiya, Tsivol'ki, and Abrosimov bays and soils on Cape Zhelaniya and the coasts of Abrosimov and Stepovoi bays. The data were obtained during two scientific expeditions of the R/V Professor Shtokman in 2014 (cruise 128) and R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 2015 (cruise 63). These investigations revealed patterns in the transportation of terrigenous material in the coastal zone of the bays: a decrease in the share of nonclay minerals and an increase in that of clay minerals with distance from shore. The increase in kaolinite and smectite content in soil horizons is related to biochemical weathering, while illite is mainly formed as a result of physical weathering.
Hydrochemical features of the Kara Sea aquatic area in summer 2015
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makkaveev, P. N.; Polukhin, A. A.; Kostyleva, A. V.; Protsenko, E. A.; Stepanova, S. V.; Yakubov, Sh. Kh.
2017-01-01
During cruise 65 of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in the Kara Sea, three transects were executed: one eastwards from the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago and two in the St. Anna and Voronin troughs. It was noted that the continental runoff affected the entire surveyed aquatic area, even at the northern extremity of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago. The transect along the St. Anna Trough showed the presence of a slope frontal zone overlaid at the surface by a desalinated layer. The Voronin Trough was characterized by sliding of slope waters. The hydrochemical parameters show that the surveys were carried out during a recession of biological activity of the waters and that the peak bloom was over by that time. The hydrochemical structure of waters conformed to early autumn conditions, but before the beginning of intense cooling of surface waters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitrenko, O. B.
2012-02-01
The nannofosssil assemblages have been analyzed in five cores taken from the Titanic area of the northwestern Atlantic (˜41°-42° N, ˜47°-50° W, water depths >3500 m) during cruises 41 and 43 of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 1998 and 2000. They correlate the host sediments with the upper Pleistocene-Holocene Emiliania huxleyi zone. The changes in the structure of the nannofossil assemblages and the lithological characteristics such as the content of biogenic CaCO3, the abundance of ice-rafted debris, and the grain-size composition were used for the high-resolution stratigraphy of sections with defining marine isotopic stages 1-3 of the last 24 kyr. A characteristic feature of the nannofossil assemblages from this area is their enrichment with the cold-resistant species Coccolthus pelagicus during the warm climatic stages and the lack of allochthonous coccolitophorid remains.
[Radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in the benthos near the nuclear submarine "Komsomolets"].
Kuznetsov, A P; Shmelev, I P; Demidov, A M; Efimov, B V; Shubko, V M
1999-01-01
We have analyzed the content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in the benthofauna and deposits near the nuclear submarine "Komsomolets." Analysis was performed on the basis of the materials of the 31st (1993) and 36th (1995) voyages of R/V "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" in correspondence with the system of monitoring the state of the abiotic and biotic situation near the nuclear submarine "Komsomolets" (Norwegian Sea). Whereas during the 33rd voyage of this vessel (1994) the content of these elements in the benthic animals at stations located close to the submarine somewhat exceeded the background level of radioactivity (Kuznetsov et al., 1996), no such excess was found during the 31st and 36th voyages. Meanwhile, radioactive cobalt (60Co) was found in representatives of three groups of animals during the 31st voyage at two stations located near the submarine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelevin, V. V.; Zavjalov, P. O.; Belyaev, N. A.; Konovalov, B. V.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Mosharov, S. A.
2017-01-01
The article presents results of underway remote laser sensing of the surface water layer in continuous automatic mode using the UFL-9 fluorescent lidar onboard the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh during cruise 59 in the Kara Sea in 2011. The description of the lidar, the approach to interpreting seawater fluorescence data, and certain methodical aspects of instrument calibration and measurement are presented. Calibration of the lidar is based on laboratory analysis of water samples taken from the sea surface during the cruise. Spatial distribution of chlorophyll a, total organic carbon and suspended matter concentrations in the upper quasi-homogeneous layer are mapped and the characteristic scales of the variability are estimated. Some dependencies between the patchiness of the upper water layer and the atmospheric forcing and freshwater runoff are shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vereshchaka, A. L.; Vinogradov, G. M.
1999-09-01
Visual observations were made in September 1997 during the 39 cruise of R/V "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" with 2 deep-sea manned submersibles "Mir" aboard. During 4 dives the following plankton countings were made: 3 vertical throughout the water column during the day, 2 vertical in the upper 1000 m at night, and 1 oblique in the plume area during the day. Biomass profiles are represented for each dive for all abundant animal groups: copepods, euphausiids+decapods+mysids, chaetognaths, medusae, ctenophores, siphonophores, cyclothones, myctophides, radiolarians, and the total zooplankton. Plankton distribution shows 2 aggregations, one within the main pycnocline and the other near the plume; Gelatinous animals and radiolarians dominate in both aggregations by biomass and make a significant contribution to the plankton biomass throughout the water column. Oblique counting indicates the presence of aggregations of animals near the upper and lower borders of the plume and biomass depletion within the plume core.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Clemens; Stace, Thomas M.
2017-01-01
Motivated by correlated decay processes producing gain, loss, and lasing in driven semiconductor quantum dots [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 036801 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.036801; Science 347, 285 (2015), 10.1126/science.aaa2501; Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 196802 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.196802], we develop a theoretical technique by using Keldysh diagrammatic perturbation theory to derive a Lindblad master equation that goes beyond the usual second-order perturbation theory. We demonstrate the method on the driven dissipative Rabi model, including terms up to fourth order in the interaction between the qubit and both the resonator and environment. This results in a large class of Lindblad dissipators and associated rates which go beyond the terms that have previously been proposed to describe similar systems. All of the additional terms contribute to the system behavior at the same order of perturbation theory. We then apply these results to analyze the phonon-assisted steady-state gain of a microwave field driving a double quantum dot in a resonator. We show that resonator gain and loss are substantially affected by dephasing-assisted dissipative processes in the quantum-dot system. These additional processes, which go beyond recently proposed polaronic theories, are in good quantitative agreement with experimental observations.
Keldysh effective action theory for universal physics in spin-(1)/(2) Kondo dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, Sergey; Grifoni, Milena
2013-03-01
We present a theory for the Kondo spin-(1)/(2) effect in strongly correlated quantum dots. The theory is applicable at any temperature and voltage. It is based on a quadratic Keldysh effective action parametrized by a universal function. We provide a general analytical form for the tunneling density of states through this universal function for which we propose a simple microscopic model. We apply our theory to the highly asymmetric Anderson model with U=∞ and describe its strong-coupling limit, weak-coupling limit, and crossover region within a single analytical expression. We compare our results with a numerical renormalization group in equilibrium and with a real-time renormalization group out of equilibrium and show that the universal shapes of the linear and differential conductance obtained in our theory and in these theories are very close to each other in a wide range of temperatures and voltages. In particular, as in the real-time renormalization group, we predict that at the Kondo voltage the differential conductance is equal to 2/3 of its maximum.
Role of quantum trajectory in high-order harmonic generation in the Keldysh multiphoton regime.
Li, Peng-Cheng; Jiao, Yuan-Xiang; Zhou, Xiao-Xin; Chu, Shih-I
2016-06-27
We present a systematic study of spectral and temporal structure of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by solving accurately the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a hydrogen atom in the multiphoton regime where the Keldysh parameter is greater unity. Combining with a time-frequency transform and an extended semiclassical analysis, we explore the role of quantum trajectory in HHG. We find that the time-frequency spectra of the HHG plateau near cutoff exhibit a decrease in intensity associated with the short- and long-trajectories when the ionization process is pushed from the multiphoton regime into the tunneling regime. This implies that the harmonic emission spectra in the region of the HHG plateau near and before the cutoff are suppressed. To see the generality of this prediction, we also present a time-dependent density-functional theoretical study of the effect of correlated multi-electron responses on the spectral and temporal structure of the HHG plateau of the Ar atom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oennegren, Jan; Svedin, Jan; Sahlen, Olof; Jansson, Mats; Alping, Arne G.
1995-10-01
Electroabsorption modulators (EA) are attractive components for very high speed digital links (up to 40 Gbit/s). The objective of the present work has been to evaluate the analog performance and use of a Franz Keldysh modulator (FK) monolithically integrated with a DFB laser (DFB/FK-modulator) operating at 1550 nm. This DFB/FK-modulator is a combination of a directly modulated laser diode and an external modulator in one chip. The analog performance is therefore depending on both the modulator bias voltage and DFB-laser bias current. The normal optical output characteristic from an EA-modulator has a strongly nonlinear behavior. The modulator described in this paper shows for low bias voltage and/or high laser current a linear bahavior. This linear behavior is mainly due to the hole pile-up effect at the p/i-interface of the modulator. In digital transmission system this hole pile-up effect is a disadvantage, but in an analog transmission system it can be used to achieve better analog performance. Measurements (and simulations) on the DFB/FK-modulator show that its analog performance competes well with direct modulated FP and DFB lasers, especially if the modulator is biased for optimum analog performance.
Plimak, L.I.; Stenholm, S.
2012-11-15
The connection between real-time quantum field theory (RTQFT) [see, e.g., A. Kamenev and A. Levchenko, Adv. Phys. 58 (2009) 197] and phase-space techniques [E. Wolf and L. Mandel, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge, 1995)] is investigated. The Keldysh rotation that forms the basis of RTQFT is shown to be a phase-space mapping of the quantum system based on the symmetric (Weyl) ordering. Following this observation, we define generalised Keldysh rotations based on the class of operator orderings introduced by Cahill and Glauber [K.E. Cahill, R.J. Glauber, Phys. Rev. 177 (1969) 1882]. Each rotation is a phase-space mapping, generalising the corresponding ordering from free to interacting fields. In particular, response transformation [L.I. Plimak, S. Stenholm, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 323 (2008) 1989] extends the normal ordering of free-field operators to the time-normal ordering of Heisenberg operators. Structural properties of the response transformation, such as its association with the nonlinear quantum response problem and the related causality properties, hold for all generalised Keldysh rotations. Furthermore, we argue that response transformation is especially suited for RTQFT formulation of spatial, in particular, relativistic, problems, because it extends cancellation of zero-point fluctuations, characteristic of the normal ordering, to interacting fields. As an example, we consider quantised electromagnetic field in the Dirac sea. In the time-normally-ordered representation, dynamics of the field looks essentially classical (fields radiated by currents), without any contribution from zero-point fluctuations. For comparison, we calculate zero-point fluctuations of the interacting electromagnetic field under orderings other than time-normal. The resulting expression is physically inconsistent: it does not obey the Lorentz condition, nor Maxwell's equations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Keldysh rotation is a phase-space mapping based on
Tunneling time in attosecond experiments, intrinsic-type of time. Keldysh, and Mandelstam-Tamm time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kullie, Ossama
2016-05-01
Tunneling time in attosecond and strong-field experiments is one of the most controversial issues in current research, because of its importance to the theory of time, the time operator and the time-energy uncertainty relation in quantum mechanics. In Kullie (2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 052118) we derived an estimation of the (real) tunneling time, which shows an excellent agreement with the time measured in attosecond experiments, our derivation is found by utilizing the time-energy uncertainty relation, and it represents a quantum clock. In this work, we show different aspects of the tunneling time in attosecond experiments, we discuss and compare the different views and approaches, which are used to calculate the tunneling time, i.e. Keldysh time (as a real or imaginary quantity), Mandelstam-Tamm time, the classical view of the time measurement and our tunneling time relation(s). We draw some conclusions concerning the validity and the relation between the different types of the tunneling time with the hope that they will help to answer the question put forward by Orlando et al (2014 J. Phys. B 47 204002, 2014 Phys. Rev. A 89 014102): tunneling time, what does it mean? However, as we will see, the important question is a more general one: how to understand the time and the measurement of the time of a quantum system? In respect to our result, the time in quantum mechanics can be, in more general fashion, classified in two types, intrinsic dynamically connected, and external dynamically not connected to the system, and consequently (perhaps only) classical Newtonian time remains as a parametric type of time.
The role of optoelectronic feedback on Franz-Keldysh voltage modulation of transistor lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chi-Hsiang; Chang, Shu-Wei; Wu, Chao-Hsin
2016-03-01
Possessing both the high-speed characteristics of heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and enhanced radiative recombination of quantum wells (QWs), the light-emitting transistor (LET) which operates in the regime of spontaneous emissions has achieved up to 4.3 GHz modulation bandwidth. A 40 Gbit/s transmission rate can be even achieved using transistor laser (TL). The transistor laser provides not only the current modulation but also direct voltage-controlled modulation scheme of optical signals via Franz-Keldysh (FK) photon-assisted tunneling effect. In this work, the effect of FK absorption on the voltage modulation of TLs is investigated. In order to analyze the dynamics and optical responses of voltage modulation in TLs, the conventional rate equations relevant to diode lasers (DLs) are first modified to include the FK effect intuitively. The theoretical results of direct-current (DC) and small-signal alternating-current (AC) characteristics of optical responses are both investigated. While the DC characteristics look physical, the intrinsic optical response of TLs under the FK voltage modulation shows an AC enhancement with a 20 dB peak, which however is not observed in experiment. A complete model composed of the intrinsic optical transfer function and an electrical transfer function fed back by optical responses is proposed to explain the behaviors of voltage modulation in TLs. The abnormal AC peak disappears through this optoelectronic feedback. With the electrical response along with FK-included photon-carrier rate equations taken into account, the complete voltage-controlled optical modulation response of TLs is demonstrated.
Wang, Rui; Jacobs, Paul; Smirl, Arthur L.; Zhao, Hui
2013-06-24
The Dynamic Franz Keldysh Effect (DFKE) is produced and controlled in bulk gallium arsenide by quantum interference without the aid of externally applied fields and is spatially and temporally resolved using ellipsometric pump-probe techniques. The {approx}3 THz internal driving field for the DFKE is a transient space-charge field that is associated with a critically damped coherent plasma oscillation produced by oppositely traveling ballistic electron and hole currents that are injected by two-color quantum interference techniques. The relative phase and polarization of the two pump pulses can be used to control the DFKE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Dong E.; Levchenko, Alex; Lutchyn, Roman M.
2017-03-01
We study properties of a periodically driven system coupled to a thermal bath. As a nontrivial example, we consider a periodically driven metallic system coupled to a superconducting bath. The effect of the superconductor on the driven system is twofold: it (a) modifies density of states in the metal via the proximity effect and (b) acts as a thermal bath for light-excited quasiparticles. Using Keldysh formalism, we calculate, nonperturbatively in the system-bath coupling, the steady-state properties of the system and obtain nonequilibrium distribution function. The latter allows one to calculate observable quantities which can be spectroscopically measured in tunneling experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruzdev, Vitaly
2014-12-01
Laser-induced ionization is a major process that initiates and drives the initial stages of laser-induced damage (LID) of high-quality transparent solids. The ionization and its contribution to LID are characterized in terms of the time-dependent ionization rate and conduction-band electron density. Considering femtosecond pulses of various durations (from 35 to 706 fs) and variable peak irradiances (from 0.01 to 60 TW/cm2), we use a single-rate equation to simulate time variations of conduction-band electron density and rates of the photoionization and impact ionization. The photoionization rate is evaluated with the Keldysh equation. At low irradiance, the electron density and total ionization rate demonstrate power scaling characteristic of multiphoton ionization. With the increase of irradiance, there is observed a saturation of the photoionization rate due to photoionization suppression by the Keldysh-type singularity during the increase in the number of simultaneously absorbed photons by 1. A striking result is that the saturation is followed by a stepwise transition from the ionization regime which is completely dominated by the photoionization to a regime totally dominated by the impact ionization. The transition results in the increase of the electron density by a few orders of magnitude induced by a variation of peak laser irradiance by about 15% to 20%. The physical effects that are involved are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, M. V.
2016-03-01
Basic premises, approximations, and results of L.V. Keldysh's 1964 work on multiphoton ionization of atoms are discussed, as well as its influence on the modern science of the interaction of atomic-molecular systems with a strong laser field.
Vovchenko, V; Anchishkin, D; Azema, J; Lombardo, P; Hayn, R; Daré, A-M
2014-01-08
The time-dependent transport through a nanoscale device consisting of a single spin-degenerate orbital with on-site Coulomb interaction, coupled to two leads, is investigated. Various gate and bias voltage time dependences are considered. The key and new point lies in the proposed way to avoid the difficulties of the usual heavy computation when dealing with two-time Green's functions within the Keldysh formalism. The time-dependent retarded dot Green's functions are evaluated, in an efficient manner within a non-canonical Hubbard I approximation. Calculations of the time-dependent current are then presented in the wide-band limit for different parameter sets. A comparison between the method and the Hartree-Fock approximation is performed as well. It is shown that the latter cannot account reliably for dynamical aspects of transport phenomena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonabi, Farzad; Pedersen, Thomas G.
2017-04-01
The dipole moment formalism for the optical response of finite electronic structures breaks down in infinite ones, for which a momentum-based method is better suited. Focusing on simple chain structures, we compare the linear and nonlinear optical response of finite and infinite one-dimensional semiconductors. This comparison is then extended to cases including strong electro-static fields breaking translational invariance. For large electro-static fields, highly non-perturbative Franz–Keldysh (FK) features are observed in both linear and nonlinear spectra. It is demonstrated that dipole and momentum formalisms agree in the limit of large structures provided the intraband momentum contributions are carefully treated. This convergence is established even in the presence of non-perturbative electro-static fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odashima, Mariana M.; Lewenkopf, Caio H.
2017-03-01
Here we address two nonequilibrium Green's-function approaches for a resonant tunneling structure under a sudden switch of a bias. Our aim is to stress that the time-dependent Keldysh formulation of Jauho, Wingreen, and Meir and the partition-free scheme of Stefanucci and Almbladh are formally equivalent in the ubiquitous case of wide-band limit and noninteracting electrons, if leads and dot are in equilibrium before the time-dependent perturbation. We develop explicit closed formulas of the lesser Green's function and time-dependent current, reminding that the different integration limits preclude a face-to-face comparison of two approaches. This study sheds light on both practices, which are of great interest to the mesoscopic transport community.
Lithological and geochemical typification of surface bottom sediments in the Kara Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rusakov, V. Yu.; Kuzhmina, T. G.; Levitan, M. A.; Toropchenova, E. S.; Zhylkina, A. V.
2017-01-01
The Kara Sea is part of the Western Arctic shelf of Eurasia. The deposition of sediments in this shallow sea is largely determined by solid runoff from two great Siberian rivers (the Yenisei and Ob) and the glacial periods when the sea area repeatedly (during the Quaternary) dried up and was covered by continental glaciers. The rise of the World Ocean due to Holocene warming resulted in a significant expansion of the sea area to the south and complete degradation of the ice sheet. In this article, new data on the geochemical composition of the surface (0- to 2-cm) layer of sea-bottom sediments are considered, which reflects the spatial distribution of marine sediments during the maximum sea level. Cluster analysis of the variance for 24 chemical elements reveals sediment chemotypes, and critical analysis of their relationship with lithotypes is performed. The presented data have been collected on cruises of the R/V Akademik Boris Petrov in 2000, 2001, and 2003 and the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 2015.
Kennett, Malcolm P.; Dalidovich, Denis
2011-09-15
We study the real-time dynamics of the Bose-Hubbard model in the presence of time-dependent hopping, allowing for a finite-temperature initial state. We use the Schwinger-Keldysh technique to find the real-time strong coupling action for the problem at both zero and finite temperature. This action allows for the description of both the superfluid and Mott-insulating phases. We use this action to obtain dynamical equations for the superfluid order parameter as hopping is tuned in real time so that the system crosses the superfluid phase boundary. We find that under a quench in the hopping, the system generically enters a metastable state in which the superfluid order parameter has an oscillatory time dependence with a finite magnitude, but disappears when averaged over a period. We relate our results to recent cold-atom experiments.
Macrobenthos of the Novaya Zemlya Trough
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galkin, S. V.; Savilova, T. A.; Moskalev, L. I.; Kucheruk, N. V.
2010-12-01
During the 54th cruise of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh the macrobenthos of the Novaya Zemlya Trough was studied using a Sigsby trawl along the submeridional transect near 75°30'N latitude at a depth range from 68 to 362 m. In total, 140 species of bottom animals were found. The relative role of the taxons was assessed using three indices: the number, biomass, and energy flow. Similarity indices were used for the comparison of the samples. The new material greatly contributes to the data on the composition of the fauna and the structure of the communities of the studied region. It was revealed that small scyphozoid polyps and sipunculoids play an important role in the trough's community. The presence of the community dominated by Ophiocten sericeum (with the important role of small bivalves) was revealed for the first time not only at the eastern by also at the western slope of the Novaya Zemlya Trough. The sharpest changes in the composition and structure of the bottom community were confined to the zone of the transition from the trough floor to the slope. These changes are determined by the specificity of the macrorelief (of the floor and slope), the composition of the ground (soft brown silts abound in rhizopods and dense gray silts with an admixture of pebbles), and possibly by the hydrodynamic processes near the bottom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drozdova, A. N.; Patsaeva, S. V.; Khundzhua, D. A.
2017-01-01
The optical properties and distribution of dissolved organic matter in the surface waters of the Kara Sea and bays of Novaya Zemlya archipelago were studied during the 63th cruise of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. The fluorescence of dissolved organic matter has been studied over wide excitation (230-550 nm) and emission (240-650 nm) wavelength ranges. Based on the results of fluorescence measurements, we propose a simple technique for estimating the relative content of humic compounds entering the Kara Sea shelf region with Ob and Yenisei river runoff. We have found that the blue shift parameters of the DOM fluorescence are Δ270-310 = 28 ± 2 nm and Δ355-310 = 29 ± 2 nm. The highest contents of humic compounds in surface waters were measured on the transect across the desalinated layer of the Kara Sea, near the continental slope on the transect along the St. Anna Trough, and in the area of Sedova, Oga and Tsivol'ki bays. Traces of labile terrigenous organic matter were found in the region of the Voronin Trough, in the bays of the Severny Island of Novaya Zemlya, as well as in some freshwater reservoirs and ice samples of the archipelago. We established a conservative distribution of dissolved organic matter, whose content in water varied from 1.25 to 8.55 mg/L.
Radioecological investigations on the Northern Novaya Zemlya Archipelago
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miroshnikov, A. Yu.; Laverov, N. P.; Chernov, R. A.; Kudikov, A. V.; Ysacheva, A. A.; Semenkov, I. N.; Aliev, R. A.; Asadulin, E. E.; Gavrilo, M. V.
2017-01-01
Multidisciplinary investigations carried out in the Cape Zhelaniya area and on the Severny ice dome of Severny Island in the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago during cruise 63 of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in September 2015 included a study of the environmental radiation level. The landscape‒geochemical and radiation‒glaciological data show that the Severny ice dome serves as a secondary source of radionuclides on the surface of the ice sheet; this source originated from past nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere over the Severnaya Zemlya test site. Some samples taken from the periglacial zone near the edge of the Severny ice dome yielded specific activity levels of radioactive cesium of 450-650 Bq/kg. The study of ice cores obtained by shallow (up to 5.4 m) drilling of three boreholes revealed no significant activity values. At the same time, glaciological investigations made it possible to obtain the first data on the previously unexamined glacier, which indicate that the radioactively contaminated layer is located at a depth of 15‒20 m at the boundary of the glacier alimentation zone. No similar investigations had been conducted earlier either by Russian or international scientific teams.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Kopeikin, Vladimir M.; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Novigatsky, Alexander N.; Pankratova, Natalia V.; Starodymova, Dina P.; Stohl, Andreas; Thompson, Rona
2016-04-01
Black carbon (BC) particles are highly efficient at absorbing visible light, which has a large potential impact on Arctic climate. However, measurement data on the distribution of BC in the atmosphere over the North Atlantic and the Russian Arctic Seas are scarce. We present measurement data on the distribution of atmospheric BC in the marine boundary layer of the North Atlantic and Baltic, North, Norwegian, Barents, White, Kara and Laptev Seas from research cruises during July 23 to October 6, 2015. During the 62nd and 63rd cruises of the RV "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" air was filtered through Hahnemuhle fineart quarz-microfibre filters. The mass of BC on the filter was determined by measurement of the attenuation of a beam of light transmitted through the filter. Source areas were estimated by backwards trajectories of air masses calculated using NOAA's HYSPLIT model (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready.html) and FLEXPART model (http://www.flexpart.eu). During some parts of the cruises, air masses arrived from background areas of high latitudes, and the measured BC concentrations were low. During other parts of the cruise, air masses arrived from industrially developed areas with strong BC sources, and this led to substantially enhanced measured BC concentrations. Model-supported analyses are currently performed to use the measurement data for constraining the emission strength in these areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paropkari, Anil L.; Ray, Durbar; Balaram, V.; Surya Prakash, L.; Mirza, Imran H.; Satyanarayana, M.; Gnaneshwar Rao, T.; Kaisary, Sujata
2010-04-01
An inactive hydrothermal field was discovered near Kings Triple Junction (KTJ) in northern Lau back-arc basin during 19th cruise of R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 1990. The field consisted of a large elongated basal platform 'the pedestal' with several 'small' chimneys on its periphery and one 'main mound' superposed over it. The surrounding region is carpeted with lava pillows having ferromanganese 'precipitate' as infillings. The adjoining second field consisted of small chimney like growths termed as 'Christmas Tree' Field. The basal pedestal, the peripheral chimneys and small 'Christmas Tree' like growths (samples collected by MIR submersibles), though parts of the same hydrothermal field, differ significantly in their mineralogy and elemental composition indicating different history of formation. The pedestal slab consisting of chalcopyrite and pyrite as major minerals and rich in Cu is likely to have formed at higher temperatures than sphalerite dominated peripheral chimney. Extremely low concentration of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta) and enrichment of light REE in these sulfides indicate prominent influence of aqueous arc-magma, rich in subduction components. The oxide growths in the 'Christmas Tree' Field have two distinct layers, Fe rich orange-red basal part which seems to have formed at very low temperature as precipitates from diffused hydrothermal flows from the seafloor whereas Mn rich black surface coating is formed from hydrothermal fluids emanated from the seafloor during another episode of hydrothermal activity. Perhaps this is for the first time such unique hydrothermal oxide growths are being reported in association with hydrothermal system. Here, we discuss the possible processes responsible for the formation of these different hydrothermal deposits based on their mineralogy and geochemistry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stepanjants, Sofia D.
2013-02-01
A report is given about Hydrozoa collected at depths between 455 and 3666 m in the Sea of Japan during the Russian-German expedition on R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev. Ten species were found, with four of them being typical bathyal-abyssal and abyssal zones. A new species, Opercularella angelikae, is described, and it was the dominant hydroid in samples from 970 to 3660 m. Four eurybathic species characteristics of the Sea of Japan were sampled between 455 and 582 m. Abyssal (pseudoabyssal after Andriashev, 1979) hydroid fauna in the Sea of Japan is reported. The hypothesis that an exclusively deep-water fauna is lacking in abyssal regions of the Sea of Japan is disputed. The author's personal opinion considered concerning the borders of 1000 m between shallow and deep hydrozoan species in the Sea of Japan.
Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Rubin, S.; Sutherland, S.C.; Koshlyakov, M.H.; Kozyr, A. |
1997-07-01
This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples during the Research Vessel (R/V) Akademik Ioffe Expedition in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on February 14, 1992, and ended in Wellington, New Zealand, on April 6, 1992. WOCE Section S4P, located along {approximately}67{degree}S between 73{degree}W and 172{degree}E, was completed during the 51-day expedition. One hundred and thirteen hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section S4P included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor; bottle salinity; bottle oxygen, phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate, TCO{sub 2}; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 C.
A tribute to Peter A. Rona: A Russian Perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagalevich, Anatoly; Lutz, Richard A.
2015-11-01
In July 1985 Peter Rona led a cruise of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship Researcher as part of the NOAA Vents Program and discovered, for the first time, black smokers, massive sulfide deposits and vent biota in the Atlantic Ocean. The site of the venting phenomena was the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) Hydrothermal Field on the east wall of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26°08‧N; 44°50‧W (Rona, 1985; Rona et al., 1986). In 1986, Peter and an international research team carried out multidisciplnary investigations of both active and inactive hydrothermal zones of the TAG field using the R/V Atlantis and DSV Alvin, discovering two new species of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata and Chorocaris chacei) (Williams and Rona, 1986) and a hexagonal-shaped form (Paleodictyon nodosum) thought to be extinct (Rona et al., 2009). In 1991 a Russian crew aboard the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh, with two deep-diving, human-occupied submersibles (Mir-1 and Mir-2) (Fig. 1), had the honor of having Peter Rona and a Canadian IMAX film crew from the Stephen Low Company on board to visit the TAG hydrothermal vent field. This was the first of many deep-sea interactions between Russian deep-sea scientists and their colleagues from both the U.S. and Canada. This expedition to the TAG site was part of a major Russian undersea program aimed at exploring extreme deep-sea environments; between 1988 and 2005, the Mir submersibles visited hydrothermal vents and cold seep areas in 20 deep-sea regions throughout the world's oceans (Sagalevich, 2002). Images of several of these areas (the TAG, Snake Pit, Lost City and 9°50‧N vent fields) were obtained using an IMAX camera system emplaced for the first time within the spheres of the Mir submersibles and DSV Alvin in conjunction with the filming of science documentaries (e.g., "Volcanoes of the Deep Sea") produced by the Stephen Low Company in conjunction with Emory Kristof of National Geographic and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skorokhod, Andrey; Belikov, Igor; Pankratova, Natalia; Novigatsky, Alexander; Thompson, Rona
2016-04-01
Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important long-lived greenhouse gas. The Arctic has significant sources of CH4, such as from wetlands and possibly also from methane hydrates, which may act as a positive feedback on the climate system. Despite significant efforts in establishing a network of ground-based CH4 observations in the Arctic zone, there is still a lack of measurements over the Arctic Ocean and sub-polar seas. From 21 July to 9 October 2015, concentrations of CH4 and CO2, as well as of the 13C:12C isotopic ratio in CH4, i.e., δ13C, were measured in the marine boundary layer from aboard the Research Vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" by the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology. Measurements were made using a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instrument from Picarro™ (model G2132-i). The cruises covered a vast area including the North Atlantic up to 70°N, the Baltic, North, Norwegian, Greenland, Barents, White, Kara and Laptev Seas. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first measurements of their type made in these regions. Concentrations of CH4 typically had low variations (in the range of a few ppb) in the open sea but relatively large variations (of the order of 100 ppb) were recorded near and during stops in ports. High variability of atmospheric CH4 was also registered near the delta of the Lena River in the Laptev Sea, which has been suggested to be a large CH4 reservoir and where bubbles rising through the water column have been observed. The obtained set of δ13CCH4 is characterized by significant range of the measured values varying from open Atlantic to polluted regions near large sea ports. The Keeling plot analyses were implemented to study possible CH4 sources according to its isotopic signature. Footprint analyses are presented for the shipboard observations, as well as comparisons to simulated CH4 concentrations and δ13C using the Lagrangian transport model, FLEXPART. This work has been carried-out with the financial support of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pimenov, Nikolay; Kanapatskiy, Timur; Sivkov, Vadim; Toshchakov, Stepan; Korzhenkov, Aleksei; Ulyanova, Marina
2016-04-01
Comparison of the biogeochemical and microbial features was done for the gas-bearing and background sediments as well as near-bottom water of the Gdansk Deep, The Baltic Sea. Data were received in October, 2015 during 64th cruise of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. Gas-bearing sediments were sampled within the known pockmark (Gas-Point, depth 94 m). Background sediments area (BG-Point, depth 86 m) was located several km off the pockmark area. The sulphate concentration in the pore water of the surface sediment layer (0-5 cm) of Gas-Point was 9,7 mmol/l, and sharply decreased with depth (did not exceed 1 mmol/l deeper than 50 cm). The sulphate concentration decrease at BG-Point also took place but was not so considerable. Sulphate concentration decrease is typical for the organic rich sediments of the high productive areas, both as for the methane seep areas. Fast sulphate depletion occurs due to active processes of its microbial reduction by consortium of the sulphate-reduction bacteria, which may use low-molecular organic compounds or hydrogen, formed at the different stages of the organic matter destruction; as well as within the process of the anaerobic methane oxidation by consortium of the methane-trophic archaea and sulphate-reduction bacteria. Together with sulphate concentration decrease the methane content increase, typical for the marine sediments, occurred. At the Gas-Point the methane concentration varied within 10 μmol/dm3 in the surface layer till its maximum at sediment horizon of 65 cm (5 mmol/dm3), and decreased to 1.5 mmol/dm3 at depth of 300 cm. The BG-Point maximum values were defined at sediment horizon 6 cm (2,6 μmol/dm3). Methane sulfate transition zone at the Gas-Point sediments was at 25-35 cm depth; whereas it was not defined at the BG-Point mud. High methane concentration in the gas-bearing sediments results in the formation of the methane seep from the sediments to the near-bottom water. So the Gas-Point near-bottom waters were
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sushkevich, T. A.
2011-09-01
This review is to recall to scientists of the older generation about some historical pages of our memory and about many famous researchers, teachers and colleagues. As to the younger researchers and foreign colleagues, it will be useful for them to get to know about pioneer advancements of the Soviet scientists in the field of information and mathematical supply for cosmonautic problems on the eve of the space era. Main attention is paid down to the scientific experiments conducted on the piloted space vehicles and the research collectives who created the information and mathematical tools for the first space projects. The role of Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh, the Major Theoretician of cosmonautics, is in particular emphasized, who determined in the most degree the basic directions of development of space research and remote sensing of the Earth and planets that are shortly called as REMOTE SENSING.
Self-consistent Keldysh approach to quenches in the weakly interacting Bose-Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo Gullo, N.; Dell'Anna, L.
2016-11-01
We present a nonequilibrium Green's-functional approach to study the dynamics following a quench in weakly interacting Bose-Hubbard model (BHM). The technique is based on the self-consistent solution of a set of equations which represents a particular case of the most general set of Hedin's equations for the interacting single-particle Green's function. We use the ladder approximation as a skeleton diagram for the two-particle scattering amplitude useful, through the self-energy in the Dyson equation, for finding the interacting single-particle Green's function. This scheme is then implemented numerically by a parallelized code. We exploit this approach to study the correlation propagation after a quench in the interaction parameter, for one and two dimensions. In particular, we show how our approach is able to recover the crossover from the ballistic to the diffusive regime by increasing the boson-boson interaction. Finally we also discuss the role of a thermal initial state on the dynamics both for one- and two-dimensional BHMs, finding that, surprisingly, at high temperature a ballistic evolution is restored.
Li, Dehui; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Qing; Xiong, Qihua
2012-06-13
We report on the electric-field-dependent photoconductivity (PC) near the band-edge region of individual CdS nanowires and nanobelts. The quasi-periodic oscillations above the band edge in nanowires and nanobelts have been attributed to a Franz-Keldesh effect. The exciton peaks in PC spectra of the nanowires and thinner nanobelts show pronounced red-shifting due to the Stark effect as the electric field increases, while the exciton ionization is mainly facilitated by strong electron-longitudinal optical (LO) phonon coupling. However, the band-edge transition of thick nanobelts blue-shifts due to the field-enhanced exciton ionization, suggesting partial exciton ionization as the electron-LO phonon coupling is suppressed in the thicker belts. Large Stark shifts, up to 48 meV in the nanowire and 12 meV in the thinner nanobelts, have been achieved with a moderate electric field on the order of kV/cm, indicating a strong size and dimensionality implication due to confinement and surface depletion.
Muñoz, Enrique; Bolech, C J; Kirchner, Stefan
2013-01-04
The nonlinear conductance of semiconductor heterostructures and single molecule devices exhibiting Kondo physics has recently attracted attention. We address the observed sample dependence of the measured steady state transport coefficients by considering additional electronic contributions in the effective low-energy model underlying these experiments that are absent in particle-hole symmetric setups. A novel version of the superperturbation theory of Hafermann et al. in terms of dual fermions is developed, which correctly captures the low-temperature behavior. We compare our results with the measured transport coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pol'kin, Viktor V.; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Pol'kin, Vasily V.; Turchinovich, Ury S.; Terpugova, Swetlana A.; Tikhomirov, Aleksey B.; Radionov, Vladimir F.
2015-11-01
Latitudinal dependences of aerosol microphysical characteristics are analyzed. The data were obtained in the Russian Antarctic Expedition (RAE) onboard the expedition vessels "Akademik Fedorov" and "Akademik Treshnikov" in 2006- 2014, as well as the research vessel "Akademik Sergey Vavilov" in 2004.
Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor
2016-04-01
A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aydin, Betül; Sari, Serkan Volkan; Sahin, Mustafa
2014-01-01
In this study, examining the relationship of parental acceptance/involvement to self-esteem, hope and academic achievement besides, mediating role of hope on the relationship between perception of parental acceptance/involvement, self esteem and academic achievement were aimed. The study was carried out with 297 students from different…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yurt, Eyüp; Polat, Seyat
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of multiple intelligence applications on academic achievement in Turkey. Accordingly, findings of independent research studies aimed to find out effectiveness of multiple intelligence applications are gathered in a meta-analysis. Total of 71 studies, 66 dissertations and 7 articles were…
1986-08-21
exhibits Franz -Keldysh oscillations. The period of these oscillations can be directly related to the built-in dc electric field. Consequently, this...since it apparently exhibits Franz -Keldysh oscilla- tions. However, an accurate value for the energy uf E0 1 can be JI 9obtained from a three-point...or possibly a Franz -Keldysh oscillation of the B feature. These ?--, spectral features are under further investigation. In conclusion we have
Direct Investigation of Velocity Overshoot in the Femtosecond Regime
1990-01-25
Franz -Keldysh Effect .................................................... 26 3.2 Coherent Time-Domain Infrared Spectroscopy...DC 5conductivity, time-resolved Franz -Keldish effect, analysis of the operation of hot electron transistors, transient photoconductivity, and...subpicosecond reflectivity measurements using optical rectification. I j 3.1 Transient Franz -Keldysh Effect As will be discussed in Chapter 5, all-optical
D region depletions above the Persian Gulf
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Givishvili, G. V.; Leshchenko, L. N.
1993-01-01
The extraordinary delay of the daily variation of absorption and electron density observed in the ionospheric D region above the Persian Gulf in 1976 observed from the research vessel 'Akademik Kurchatov' may be a consequence of air pollution by oil production by-products. It is suggested that the Gulf war might also have caused a lower ozone abundance in that region.
Data on conducting the SAMEX-76 experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
The compilation of data on conducting the SAMEX-76 experiment is reported. This report includes many tables and graphs of the aircraft's flights and its measurements. Also given is the operation time of this equipment and the many observations that have been made by the Scientific Research Ship Akademik Korolev.
Wavelength Scaling of High Harmonic Generation Close to the Multiphoton Ionization Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Chien-Jen; Cirmi, Giovanni; Hong, Kyung-Han; Moses, Jeffrey; Huang, Shu-Wei; Granados, Eduardo; Keathley, Phillip; Bhardwaj, Siddharth; Kärtner, Franz X.
2013-08-01
We study the wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency with visible driver wavelengths in the transition between the tunneling and the multiphoton ionization regimes where the Keldysh parameter is around unity. Our experiment shows a less dramatic wavelength scaling of efficiency than the conventional case for near- and mid-IR driver wavelengths, and it is well explained by a generalized three-step model for increased Keldysh parameters that employs complex ionization times in addition to the nonadiabatic ionization. The complex ionization time is critical to avoid the divergence when replacing the quasistatic ionization model by the more general nonadiabatic ionization model. Together, the two modifications present a consistent description of the influence of the atomic potential on the rescattering process in the intermediate Keldysh regime.
Trion and Biexciton in Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kezerashvili, Roman Ya; Tsiklauri, Shalva M.
2017-01-01
We study the trion and biexciton in transition metal dichalcogenides monolayers within the framework of a nonrelativistic potential model using the method of hyperspherical harmonics (HH). We solve the three- and four-body Schrödinger equations with the Keldysh potential by expanding the wave functions of a trion and biexciton in terms of the antisymmetrized HH. Results of the calculations for the ground state energies are in good agreement with similar calculations for the Keldysh potential and in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements of trion and biexciton binding energies.
The fluid manifesto: emergent symmetries, hydrodynamics, and black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haehl, Felix M.; Loganayagam, R.; Rangamani, Mukund
2016-01-01
We focus on the question of how relativistic fluid dynamics should be thought of as a Wilsonian effective field theory emerging from Schwinger-Keldysh path integrals. Taking the basic principles of Schwinger-Keldysh formalism seriously, we are led to a series of remarkable statements and conjectures, which we phrase in terms of a broad programme relating relativistic fluid dynamics and topological sigma models. Apart from the intrinsic interest for these ideas from the non-equilibrium field theory viewpoint, we also emphasize its relevance to various fundamental questions in black hole physics.
Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics
1987-10-10
National Labs, and K.R. Gleason of TriQuint Semiconductor for their help with the GaAs IC’s, and J. Kafka and T. Baer of Spectra- Physics, inc. for their...where a probe beam monitors band edge absorption, an appropriate technique for voltage-biased structures in which the Franz -Keldysh effect is...performance up to a few gigahertz (Table 1). The principle of operation is based on the Franz -Keldysh effect in which the absorption edge of semiconductors
Circuit Theory for Full Counting Statistics in Multiterminal Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarov, Yu. V.; Bagrets, D. A.
2002-05-01
We propose a theory that treats the current, noise, and, generally, the full current statistics of electron transfer in a mesoscopic system in a unified, simple, and efficient way. The theory appears to be a circuit theory of 2×2 matrices associated with Keldysh Green functions. We illustrate the theory by considering the big fluctuations of currents in various three-terminal circuits.
New Techniques in Optical Communications and Signal Processing
1991-12-01
Pessot and G. Mourou, IEEE .Iourn. ()uant. Flec., vol QE-24, pp. 401-403, 1987. r20 ] J. D. Kafka and T. Baer, Opt. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 401-403, 1987...IEEE, vol. 53, no. 5, p. 522, 1965. [13] K. W. Boer, " Franz -Keldysh effect for appreciable deflection of light beams," Phyvs. Stat. Solidi B, vol. 8, no
Difference Schemes and Applications
2015-02-06
boundary conditions; - Inverse problems, mathematical theory of active control of sound; -Mathematical modeling in science and engineering...boundary conditions; Inverse problems, mathematical theory of active control of sound; Mathematical modeling in science and engineering...Keldysh Institute); he spoke about solving linear inverse problems (e.g., active control of sound) in composite domains using the method
Multidimensional Tauberian theorems for generalized functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drozhzhinov, Yu N.
2016-12-01
This is a brief survey of multidimensional Tauberian theorems for generalized functions. Included are theorems of Hardy-Littlewood type, Tauberian and Abelian comparison theorems of Keldysh type, theorems of Wiener type, and Tauberian theorems for generalized functions with values in Banach spaces. Bibliography: 58 titles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Redzhepova, Z. Yu.
2015-10-01
Particulate matter and organic compounds (chlorophyll, lipids, and hydrocarbons) were analyzed in surface waters along the routes of R/Vs Akademik Fedorov (cruise 32) and Akademik Treshnikov (cruise 2) in February-May of 2012 and 2014, respectively, in the course of the 57th and 59th Russian Antarctic expeditions. It was found that the frontal zones exert the primary influence on the concentrations of the mentioned components in the Southern Ocean and in the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. The supply of pollutants into the Eastern Atlantic Ocean on the shelf of the Iberian peninsula results in a pronounced increase in the concentrations of lipids and hydrocarbons causing local anthropogenic pollution zones.
1987-05-22
January-June 1986) (A. A. Goncharenko; ZEMLYA I VSELENNAYA, No 6, Nov-Dec 86).. 40 d - Native Gold in Serpentinized Peridotites of Owen Fault (Indian...the coast of Namibia. Figures 1. 5303/12955 CSO: 1865/163 40 UDC 549.283:552.321.6(267.3) NATIVE GOLD IN SERPENTINIZED PERIDOTITES OF OWEN...dredged on the 19th cruise of the research ship "Akademik V Vernadskiy." Fragments and chips of peridotites , serpentinized to different degrees
Rate equations for the phonon peak in resonant-tunneling structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lake, Roger; Klimeck, Gerhard; Anantram, M. P.; Datta, Supriyo
1993-11-01
The ratio of the phonon peak current to the main peak current in double-barrier resonant-tunneling structures is significantly enhanced by barrier asymmetry. Previously, using the Keldysh formalism, we derived analytical expressions, valid in the zero-temperature, high-bias regime, which explained this effect. We now provide analytical expressions valid for finite temperature and bias obtained from (i) an intuitive derivation using a rate equation approach and (ii) a more general derivation using the Keldysh formalism. The results of the two different approaches are shown to be essentially identical for the experimental device parameters. The finite temperature expressions shed light on the effect of the Pauli exclusion factors in the contacts on the current. In particular, we show that in a transmission formulation, the transmission coefficients, T(ɛ,ɛ'), are themselves functions of the Fermi factors in the contacts.
On some problems of descriptive set theory in topological spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choban, M. M.
2005-08-01
Problems concerning the structure of Borel sets, their classification, and invariance of certain properties of sets under maps of given types arose in the first half of the previous century in the works of A. Lebesgue, R. Baire, N. N. Luzin, P. S. Alexandroff, P. S. Urysohn, P. S. Novikov, L. V. Keldysh, and A. A. Lyapunov and gave rise to many investigations. In this paper some results related to questions of F. Hausdorff, Luzin, Alexandroff, Urysohn, M. Katětov, and A. H. Stone are obtained. In 1934 Hausdorff posed the problem of invariance of the property of being an absolute B-set (that is, a Borel set in some complete separable metric space) under open continuous maps. By a theorem of Keldysh, the answer to this question is negative in general. The present paper gives additional conditions under which the answer to Hausdorff's question is positive. Some general problems of the theory of operations on sets are also treated.
Interference effects in photodetachment of F{sup -} in a strong circularly polarized laser pulse
Bivona, S.; Bonanno, G.; Burlon, R.; Leone, C.
2007-08-15
A numerical simulation of photodetachment of F{sup -} by a circularly polarized laser pulse has been accomplished by using a Keldysh-type approach. The numerical results are in agreement with measurements of photoelectron energy spectra recently reported in the literature. The features exhibited by the spectra are traced back to quantum interference effects, in the same spirit as in a double-slit experiment in the time doma0008.
A theoretical analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of solar cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fang, R. C. Y.; Hauser, J. R.
1979-01-01
The following topics are discussed: (1) dark current-voltage characteristics of solar cells; (2) high efficiency silicon solar cells; (3) short circuit current density as a function of temperature and the radiation intensity; (4) Keldysh-Franz effects and silicon solar cells; (5) thin silicon solar cells; (6) optimum solar cell designs for concentrated sunlight; (7) nonuniform illumination effects of a solar cell; and (8) high-low junction emitter solar cells.
Topological sigma models & dissipative hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haehl, Felix M.; Loganayagam, R.; Rangamani, Mukund
2016-04-01
We outline a universal Schwinger-Keldysh effective theory which describes macroscopic thermal fluctuations of a relativistic field theory. The basic ingredients of our construction are three: a doubling of degrees of freedom, an emergent abelian symmetry associated with entropy, and a topological (BRST) supersymmetry imposing fluctuationdissipation theorem. We illustrate these ideas for a non-linear viscous fluid, and demonstrate that the resulting effective action obeys a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which guarantees a local form of the second law.
Korshunov instantons out of equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Titov, M.; Gutman, D. B.
2016-04-01
Zero-dimensional dissipative action possesses nontrivial minima known as Korshunov instantons. They have been known so far only for imaginary time representation that is limited to equilibrium systems. In this work we reconstruct and generalise Korshunov instantons using real-time Keldysh approach. This allows us to formulate the dissipative action theory for generic nonequilibrium conditions. Possible applications of the theory to transport in strongly biased quantum dots are discussed.
Matveev, O. P.; Shvaika, A. M.; Devereaux, T. P.; Freericks, J. K.
2015-12-08
Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) is developed for the case of the charge-density-wave ordered phase. We consider the spinless Falicov-Kimball model which can be solved exactly. This strongly correlated system is then placed in an uniform external dc electric field. We present a complete derivation for nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory Green’s functions defined on the Keldysh-Schwinger time contour. We also discuss numerical issues involved in solving the coupled equations.
Nonequilibrium functional renormalization group for interacting quantum systems.
Jakobs, Severin G; Meden, Volker; Schoeller, Herbert
2007-10-12
We propose a nonequilibrium version of functional renormalization within the Keldysh formalism by introducing a complex-valued flow parameter in the Fermi or Bose functions of each reservoir. Our cutoff scheme provides a unified approach to equilibrium and nonequilibrium situations. We apply it to nonequilibrium transport through an interacting quantum wire coupled to two reservoirs and show that the nonequilibrium occupation induces new power law exponents for the conductance.
1987-10-10
Gleason of TniQuint Semiconductor for their help with the GaAs IC’s, and J. Kafka and T. Baer of Spectra- Physics, inc. for their guidance in the...beam monitors band edge ’. absorption, an appropriate technique for voltage-biased structurcs in which the Franz -Kcldvsh. elfect is modulated as moving...recently demonstrated performance up to a few gigahertz (Table 1). The principle of operation is based on the Franz -Keldysh effect in which the absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bubanja, Vladimir; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Iwabuchi, Shuichi
2016-11-01
We consider a three-terminal Cooper-pair splitting device with a superconducting electrode tunnel coupled to two normal metal electrodes. We employ the Nambu-Gor'kov and Schwinger-Keldysh formalisms to describe the nonequilibrium transport properties of the device for arbitrary transmissions of the barriers and for a general electromagnetic environment. We derive the analytic expressions for the current and the nonlocal differential conductance, and analyze the limits of clean and dirty superconductivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitrevskiy, N. N.; Ananyev, R. A.; Libina, N. V.; Roslyakov, A. G.
2013-05-01
The paper describes a high-resolution seismoacoustic complex for studying the upper sedimentary stratum and seafloor relief. The described complex was used during the 57th cruise of the R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrent'ev in the East Siberian and Laptev seas in the autumn of 2011. The combination of an SES-2000 narrow-beam parametric subbottom profiler and a Gidra 250/500 sidescan sonar has enabled obtaining a series of unique data on the structure of the sedimentary layers and the seafloor relief.
The forearc extension in the Central Kuril Islands and the trench rollback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baranov, B. V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Dozorova, K. A.
2016-07-01
On the basis of bathymetric and seismic data, obtained during cruises 37 (2005) and 41 (2006) of R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentiev, a new structural scheme of transverse faults in the forearc of the Central Kuril Islands was compiled, the fault kinematics was studied, and a model of the extension zone in the structural pattern of the study area was proposed. According to this model, the trench rollback and development of back-arc basins resulted from the continuous supply of material into the upper mantle convection cell owing to subduction and an increase in the dynamic pressure that pushes the subducting plate, causing it to migrate toward the ocean.
Stratified flows and internal waves in the Central West Atlantic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigorenko, K. S.; Makarenko, N. I.; Morozov, E. G.; Tarakanov, R. Yu; Frey, D. I.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we study stratified flows and internal waves in the fracture zones of the Mid Atlantic Ridge. The results of measurements carried out in the 39th and 40th cruises of RV Akademik Sergey Vavilov in the autumn of 2014 and 2015 are presented. Hydrophysical properties of the near-bottom flows are studied experimentally on the basis of CTD- and LADCP profiling. Theoretical analysis involves mathematical formulation of stratified fluid flow which uses CTD-data obtained from field observation in the Vema Fracture Zone region. Spectral properties and kinematic characteristics of internal waves are calculated by finite element method.
Russian deep-sea investigations of Antarctic fauna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malyutina, Marina
2004-07-01
A review of the Russian deep-sea investigation of Antarctic fauna beginning from the first scientific collection of Soviet whaling fleet expeditions 1946-1952 is presented. The paper deals with the following expeditions, their main tasks and results. These expeditions include three cruises of research vessel (R.V.) Ob in the Indian sector of the Antarctic and in the Southern Pacific (1955-1958); 11 cruises of the R.V. Akademik Kurchatov in the southern Atlantic (November-December 1971); 16 cruises of the R.V. Dmitriy Mendeleev in the Australia-New Zealand area and adjacent water of the Antarctic (December 1975-March 1976); 43 cruises of the R.V. Akademik Kurchatov in the southern Atlantic (October 1985-February 1986); and 43 cruises of the R.V. Dmitriy Mendeleev in the Atlantic sector of the South Ocean (January-May 1989). A list of the main publications on the benthic taxa collected during these expeditions with data of their distribution is presented. The results of Russian explorations of the Antarctic fauna are presented as theoretical conclusions in the following topics: (1) Vertical zonation in the distribution of the Antarctic deep-sea fauna; (2) Biogeographic division of the abyssal and hadal zones; (3) Origin of the Antarctic deep-sea fauna; (4) Distributional pathways of the Antarctic abyssal fauna through the World Ocean.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raju, Ch. Narasimha; Chatterjee, Ashok
2016-01-01
The Anderson-Holstein model with Caldeira-Leggett coupling with environment is considered to describe the damping effect in a single molecular transistor (SMT) which comprises a molecular quantum dot (with electron-phonon interaction) mounted on a substrate (environment) and coupled to metallic electrodes. The electron-phonon interaction is first eliminated using the Lang-Firsov transformation and the spectral density function, charge current and differential conductance are then calculated using the non-equilibrium Keldysh Green function technique. The effects of damping rate, and electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions on the transport properties of SMT are studied at zero temperature.
High-Energy Laser-Target Interactions
1975-10-06
Second Workshop held at RPI, Hartford Graduate Center, t ,edited by H.J. Schwarz and H Hora , Plenum Press. 23. Keldysh, L. V. (1965) Soviet Physics JETP...insofar as the ac magnetic field contributes to the nonlinear force discussed by Hora 1 7 (22) The wave period T = 2r/u of the laser radiation is much...the laws of classical physics can be used to describe the plasma. (25) The nonlinear force term fNL " 1 [-1eIoEy12 + 1 aIHzI2] (6) discussed by Hora 1
Quantum correlation of an optically controlled open quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Ching-Kit; Sham, L. J.
2012-02-01
A precise time-dependent optical control of an open quantum system relies on an accurate account of the quantum interference among the system, the photon control and the dissipative environment. In the spirit of the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function approach, we develop a diagrammatic technique to precisely calculate this quantum correlation for a fast multimode coherent photon control against slow relaxation, valid for both Markovian and non-Markovian systems. We demonstrate how this novel formalism can lead to a better accuracy than existing approximations of the master equation. We also describe extensions to cases with controls by photon state other than the coherent Glauber state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antipov, Andrey E.; Dong, Qiaoyuan; Kleinhenz, Joseph; Cohen, Guy; Gull, Emanuel
2017-02-01
We generalize the recently developed inchworm quantum Monte Carlo method to the full Keldysh contour with forward, backward, and equilibrium branches to describe the dynamics of strongly correlated impurity problems with time-dependent parameters. We introduce a method to compute Green's functions, spectral functions, and currents for inchworm Monte Carlo and show how systematic error assessments in real time can be obtained. We then illustrate the capabilities of the algorithm with a study of the behavior of quantum impurities after an instantaneous voltage quench from a thermal equilibrium state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.
2016-07-01
Quantum phase slips (QPSs) generate voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. Employing the Keldysh technique and making use of the phase-charge duality arguments, we develop a theory of QPS-induced voltage noise in such nanowires. We demonstrate that quantum tunneling of the magnetic flux quanta across the wire yields quantum shot noise which obeys Poisson statistics and is characterized by a power-law dependence of its spectrum SΩ on the external bias. In long wires, SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T →0 . The quantum coherent nature of QPS noise yields nonmonotonous dependence of SΩ on T at small Ω .
Loop Corrections to Standard Model fields in inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xingang; Wang, Yi; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi
2016-08-01
We calculate 1-loop corrections to the Schwinger-Keldysh propagators of Standard-Model-like fields of spin-0, 1/2, and 1, with all renormalizable interactions during inflation. We pay special attention to the late-time divergences of loop corrections, and show that the divergences can be resummed into finite results in the late-time limit using dynamical renormalization group method. This is our first step toward studying both the Standard Model and new physics in the primordial universe.
4. MESOSCOPIC SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: Proximity Action theory of superconductive nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skvortsov, M. A.; Larkin, A. I.; Feigel'man, M. V.
2001-10-01
We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in disordered normal-superconducting (N-S) structures. The method is based on the multicharge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap conductance and noise in two-dimensional N-S systems in the presence of the electron-electron interaction in the Cooper channel. It is shown that singular nature of the interaction correction at large scales leads to a nonmonotonuos temperature, voltage and magnetic field dependence of the Andreev conductance.
Multiphoton ionization of atoms and ions by high-intensity X-ray lasers
Popruzhenko, S. B. Mur, V. D.; Popov, V. S.; Bauer, D.
2009-06-15
Coulomb corrections to the action function and rate of multiphoton ionization of atoms and ions in a strong linearly polarized electromagnetic field are calculated for high values of the Keldysh adiabaticity parameter. The Coulomb corrections significantly increase the ionization rate for atoms (by several orders of magnitude). An interpolation formula proposed for ionization rate is valid for arbitrary values of the adiabaticity parameter. The high accuracy of the formula is confirmed by comparison with the results of numerical calculations. The general case of elliptic polarization of laser radiation is also considered.
Enhanced thermopower under a time-dependent gate voltage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crépieux, Adeline; Šimkovic, Fedor; Cambon, Benjamin; Michelini, Fabienne
2011-04-01
We derive formal expressions of time-dependent energy and heat currents through a nanoscopic device using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function technique. Numerical results are reported for a metal-dot-metal junction where the dot level energy is abruptly changed by a step-shaped voltage pulse. Analytical linear responses are obtained for the time-dependent thermoelectric coefficients. We show that in the transient regime the Seebeck coefficient can be enhanced by an amount (as much as 40%) controlled by both the dot energy and the height of the voltage step.
Quantum theory of electroabsorption in semiconductor nanocrystals.
Tepliakov, Nikita V; Leonov, Mikhail Yu; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Rukhlenko, Ivan D
2016-01-25
We develop a simple quantum-mechanical theory of interband absorption by semiconductor nanocrystals exposed to a dc electric field. The theory is based on the model of noninteracting electrons and holes in an infinitely deep quantum well and describes all the major features of electroabsorption, including the Stark effect, the Franz-Keldysh effect, and the field-induced spectral broadening. It is applicable to nanocrystals of different shapes and dimensions (quantum dots, nanorods, and nanoplatelets), and will prove useful in modeling and design of electrooptical devices based on ensembles of semiconductor nanocrystals.
Gkortsas, Vasileios-Marios; Bhardwaj, Siddharth; Lai, Chien-Jen; Hong, Kyung-Han; Falcao-Filho, Edilson L.; Kaertner, Franz X.
2011-07-15
High-order harmonic generation efficiency is theoretically modeled and compared with experiments using 400 and 800 nm driver pulses. It is shown that, for a short drive wavelength and a Keldysh parameter larger than 1, the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (ADK) ionization model does not give a good agreement between theory and experiment. Since the ADK ionization model only accounts for tunnel ionization, it underestimates the yield of low-order harmonics from the wings of the driver pulse. In contrast, the Yudin-Ivanov ionization model [Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001)], which accounts for both tunnel and multiphoton ionization, gives much better agreement with the experimental results.
Full quantum theory of the chiral anomaly transport in a Weyl semimetal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Kwon; KIAS Team
In relativistic field theory, the chiral anomaly means a violation of the number conservation of chiral fermions. In condensed matter physics, the chiral anomaly can be manifested in a Weyl semimetal as a negative magnetoresistance in the presence of parallel electric and magnetic fields. In this work, we use the Keldysh-Floquet Green's function formalism to develop a full quantum theory of the chiral anomaly transport, which can be valid in a broad range of both electric and magnetic field strengths. The authors thank KIAS Center for Advanced Computation (CAC) for providing computing resources.
Highly efficient spin polarizer based on individual heterometallic cubane single-molecule magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Damin
2015-09-01
The spin-polarized transport across a single-molecule magnet [Mn3Zn(hmp)3O(N3)3(C3H5O2)3].2CHCl3 has been investigated using a density functional theory combined with Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. It is shown that this single-molecule magnet has perfect spin filter behaviour. By adsorbing Ni3 cluster onto non-magnetic Au electrode, a large magnetoresistance exceeding 172% is found displaying molecular spin valve feature. Due to the tunneling via discrete quantum-mechanical states, the I-V curve has a stepwise character and negative differential resistance behaviour.
Raju, Ch. Narasimha; Chatterjee, Ashok
2016-01-01
The Anderson-Holstein model with Caldeira-Leggett coupling with environment is considered to describe the damping effect in a single molecular transistor (SMT) which comprises a molecular quantum dot (with electron-phonon interaction) mounted on a substrate (environment) and coupled to metallic electrodes. The electron-phonon interaction is first eliminated using the Lang-Firsov transformation and the spectral density function, charge current and differential conductance are then calculated using the non-equilibrium Keldysh Green function technique. The effects of damping rate, and electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions on the transport properties of SMT are studied at zero temperature. PMID:26732725
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Hui; Jiang, Chongyun; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Chen, Yonghai
2013-06-01
We investigate the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) excited by sub-bandgap radiation in a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As two dimensional electron gas and tune its amplitude by synchronously imposing an above-bandgap unpolarized light at normal incidence. With this photo-modulation technique, we identify two microscopic mechanisms of CPGE according to the dramatic change of apparent Rashba and Dresselhaus effects. We suggest the optical transitions to be Franz-Keldysh and intraband regime, respectively. Both regimes coexist in conventional CPGE and the intraband regime dominates at sufficient modulation power.
Modeling of cavitation-bubble compression in benzene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dnestrovskii, A. Yu.; Voropaev, S. A.; Zabrodina, E. A.
2016-08-01
In this study a two-dimensional model for calculating cavitation-bubble compression in benzene using a wide range of equations of state for ultrahigh pressures and temperatures is constructed. The calculations are carried out on the supercomputer of the Keldysh IAM. With the help of this model, the possibility of hits in the diamond-formation mode depending on the parameters of the external pressure and the initial bubble radius are analyzed. The dependence of the duration of the presence in the diamond-formation mode on these parameters is investigated.
Time-dependent thermoelectric transport for nanoscale thermal machines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daré, A.-M.; Lombardo, P.
2016-01-01
We analyze an electronic nanoscale thermal machine driven by time-dependent environment: besides bias and gate voltage variations, we consider also the less prevailing time modulation of the couplings between leads and dot. We provide energy and heat current expressions in such situations, as well as expressions for the power exchanged between the dot+leads system and its outside. Calculations are made in the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function framework. We apply these results to design a cyclic refrigerator, circumventing the ambiguity of defining energy flows between subsystems in the case of strong coupling. For fast lead-dot coupling modulation, we observe transient currents which cannot be ascribed to charge tunneling.
Failure Rates for Fiber Optic Assemblies
1980-10-01
Observatorio Nacional de Fisica Cosmica, Dept. de Semiconductores, San Miguel, Argentina). FRANZ-KELDYSH EFFECT AND PHOTOVOLTAGE EDGE OF PbSe IR DETECTORS...H.B., C.K. Walker , C.K. Kim, et al. (Hughes Aircraft Co., Torrance Res. Center, Torrance, CA). MANUFACTURING METHODS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM FOR GaAs...1976. DNA-O01-76- C-0201. AD/A048 563. Walker , L.G., and G.W., Pratt, Jr. (MIT, Cambridge, MA). LOW-VOLTAGE TUNNEL-INJECTION BLUE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maksimov, A. I.
2011-06-01
Development of cosmonautics and preparation to the first manned space flights are briefly observed. Details of the development of the first Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile R-7, which served as a basis for creating Sputnik, Vostok, Voskhod, Molniya, and Soyuz launchers, are given. The contributions of the outstanding designers of space engineering, W. von Braun, S.P. Korolev, V.P. Glushko, and academician M.V. Keldysh, to the development of astronautics and first manned space missions are demonstrated. A list of test launches and manned flights of Vostok and Mercury spacecrafts and the basic characteristics of Vostok, Redstone, Atlas-D, Voskhod, and Soyuz launchers are presented.
Under-the-barrier dynamics in laser-induced relativistic tunneling.
Klaiber, Michael; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Bauke, Heiko; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Keitel, Christoph H
2013-04-12
The tunneling dynamics in relativistic strong-field ionization is investigated with the aim to develop an intuitive picture for the relativistic tunneling regime. We demonstrate that the tunneling picture applies also in the relativistic regime by introducing position dependent energy levels. The quantum dynamics in the classically forbidden region features two time scales, the typical time that characterizes the probability density's decay of the ionizing electron under the barrier (Keldysh time) and the time interval which the electron spends inside the barrier (Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith tunneling time). In the relativistic regime, an electron momentum shift as well as a spatial shift along the laser propagation direction arise during the under-the-barrier motion which are caused by the laser magnetic field induced Lorentz force. The momentum shift is proportional to the Keldysh time, while the wave-packet's spatial drift is proportional to the Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith time. The signature of the momentum shift is shown to be present in the ionization spectrum at the detector and, therefore, observable experimentally. In contrast, the signature of the Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith time delay disappears at far distances for pure quasistatic tunneling dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Kulkarni, Manas; Mukamel, Shaul; Segal, Dvira
2016-07-01
We investigate gain in microwave photonic cavities coupled to voltage-biased double quantum dot systems with an arbitrarily strong dot-lead coupling and with a Holstein-like light-matter interaction, by employing the diagrammatic Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function approach. We compute out-of-equilibrium properties of the cavity: its transmission, phase response, mean photon number, power spectrum, and spectral function. We show that by the careful engineering of these hybrid light-matter systems, one can achieve a significant amplification of the optical signal with the voltage-biased electronic system serving as a gain medium. We also study the steady-state current across the device, identifying elastic and inelastic tunneling processes which involve the cavity mode. Our results show how recent advances in quantum electronics can be exploited to build hybrid light-matter systems that behave as microwave amplifiers and photon source devices. The diagrammatic Keldysh approach is primarily discussed for a cavity-coupled double quantum dot architecture, but it is generalizable to other hybrid light-matter systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dadić, I.
2001-01-01
We study out of equilibrium thermal field theories with switching on the interaction occurring at finite time using the Wigner transforms of two-point functions. For two-point functions we define the concept of a projected function: it is zero if any of the times refers to the time before switching on the interaction; otherwise it depends only on the relative coordinates. This definition includes bare propagators, one-loop self-energies, etc. For the infinite-average-time limit of the Wigner transforms of projected functions we define the analyticity assumptions: (1) The function of energy is analytic above (below) the real axis. (2) The function goes to zero as the absolute value of energy approaches infinity in the upper (lower) semiplane. Without use of the gradient expansion, we obtain the convolution product of projected functions. We sum the Schwinger-Dyson series in closed form. In the calculation of the Keldysh component (both resummed and single self-energy insertion approximation) contributions appear which are not the Fourier transforms of projected functions, signaling the limitations of the method. In the Feynman diagrams there is no explicit energy conservation at vertices; there is an overall energy-smearing factor taking care of the uncertainty relations. The relation between the theories with the Keldysh time path and with the finite time path enables one to rederive the results, such as the cancellation of pinching, collinear, and infrared singularities, hard thermal loop resummation, etc.
Measurements of carbon dioxide in the Southern Ocean along the WOCE S-4 section
Chipman, D.W.; Rubin, S.I.; Takahashi, T.
1992-08-01
During the fist year of this two-year grant, we have completed the data acquisition phase at sea along the WOCE-S4 section located along 67{degree}S between 73{degree}W and 172{degree}E in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The expedition was carried out aboard the Russian Research Ship Akademik IOFFE'' in the period February 14 through April 6, 1992. The total CO{sub 2} concentration and pCO{sub 2} in a total of about 1290 water samples were determined using a coulometer for total CO{sub 2} and an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system for pCO{sub 2}. Surface water samples were analyzed at all the 112 hydrographic stations occupied. Complete or partial profiles were obtained at 58 stations. In addition, a total of 172 determinations were made at sea for 62 bottles of the Standard Reference Solution.
Postmiocene geodynamic evolution of the drake passage, Western Antarctic Region, southern ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teterin, D. E.
2011-08-01
In 1994-2006, the German research vessel, Polarstern, and the Russian research vessel, Akademik Boris Petrov, carried out marine geologic and geophysical explorations in the Western Antarctic Region within the Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Scotia marginal Seas and the Drake Passage. In these expeditions, new unique data on submarine topography have been collected by a multibeam echosounder, gravity and magnetic measurements have been carried out, multichannel seismic profiling has been performed, and the collections of rock samples have been acquired. The analysis and interpretation of new evidence together with previous geologic and geophysical data for the Drake Passage region have shown that end of spreading in the Aluk Ridge three million years ago resulted in the redistribution of stresses associated with the relative motion of the Antarctic, Scotia, and Phoenix Plates, which, in turn, caused significant tectonic reconstruction of the entire transition zone of the Drake Passage.
Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman
2014-05-01
We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).
Wavelength Dependent Strong Field Interactions with Atoms and Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szafruga, Urszula Bozena
In the regime of strong-field physics the electric field of a laser begins to strongly rival the binding potential of an atomic or molecular species. During these interactions an ionized electron can be driven away and then back towards its parent ion by the strong laser field and undergo rescattering before being detected. The amount of energy an electron can acquire during propagation is proportional to the laser intensity and the square of the wavelength. Recent improvements in laser technology have allowed us to push strong-field studies from visible/near-infrared wavelengths to the mid-infrared regime and thereby greatly increase the electron's maximum recollision energy. These high energy scattering events imprint target dependent structural information on the electron angular distribution from which we can extract atomic and molecular specific properties. Further, Keldysh invariance suggests that we can control the dominant ionization mechanism (multiphoton absorption versus tunneling through the field modified potential) by choosing an appropriate laser wavelength, laser intensity and target atom. Exploratory investigations in strong-field physics have produced many fascinating results which have led to production of attosecond duration laser pulses and atomic/molecular imaging techniques. As technological improvements continue we are able to gain further insights into these interesting physical phenomena. In this work we examine photoelectron spectra and ion yields in order to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental processes that underlie atomic and molecular strong field interactions. Alkali metal atoms at mid-infrared wavelengths possess similar Keldysh parameter values as noble gas atoms at near-infrared wavelengths, which have received much more investigative attention. Therefore, by examining alkali metal atoms at longer wavelengths we hope to expand on our understanding of the global, Keldysh invariant, and atom specific ionization features
Pulkovo cooperation of optical observers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molotov, I.; Abalakin, V. K.; Titenko, V.; , Pozanenko A.; Dorokhova, T. N.; Guseva, I.; Ibragimov, M.; Sukhov, P. P.; Rozales, R.; Mukhamednazarov, S.; Gulyamov, M.; Lupishko, D.; Kiladze, R.; Sochilina, A.; Marshalkina, A.; Khutorovskiy, Z.; Arkharov, A. A.; Korniyenko, G.; Yerofeyeva, A.
2005-01-01
Under the new organization is the cooperation of optical observatory space debris, asteroids and gamma-ray bursts. Currently, with the cooperation of the Pulkovo optical observers (PulKON) collaborate 14 points in Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Italy, Spain and Bolivia. Regular observations are in Pulkovo, Ussuriisk, Nauchnom, Mayaki and Chuguev. Test observations commenced or will commence in 2005 in Campo Imperatore, Tarija, Maidanak Abastumani Dushak, Kislovodsk and Hissar. For two grants (Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and INTAS) in step 8 is planned to purchase modern CCDs for re telescopes operating at target indications PulKON and the Centre for collecting and processing information on Space Debris at IPM of Keldysh RAS.
Spin diffusion and torques in disordered antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manchon, Aurelien
2017-03-01
We have developed a drift-diffusion equation of spin transport in collinear bipartite metallic antiferromagnets. Starting from a model tight-binding Hamiltonian, we obtain the quantum kinetic equation within Keldysh formalism and expand it to the lowest order in spatial gradient using Wigner expansion method. In the diffusive limit, these equations track the spatio-temporal evolution of the spin accumulations and spin currents on each sublattice of the antiferromagnet. We use these equations to address the nature of the spin transfer torque in (i) a spin-valve composed of a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet, (ii) a metallic bilayer consisting of an antiferromagnet adjacent to a heavy metal possessing spin Hall effect, and in (iii) a single antiferromagnet possessing spin Hall effect. We show that the latter can experience a self-torque thanks to the non-vanishing spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnet.
Time-dependent density functional theory quantum transport simulation in non-orthogonal basis.
Kwok, Yan Ho; Xie, Hang; Yam, Chi Yung; Zheng, Xiao; Chen, Guan Hua
2013-12-14
Basing on the earlier works on the hierarchical equations of motion for quantum transport, we present in this paper a first principles scheme for time-dependent quantum transport by combining time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and Keldysh's non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. This scheme is beyond the wide band limit approximation and is directly applicable to the case of non-orthogonal basis without the need of basis transformation. The overlap between the basis in the lead and the device region is treated properly by including it in the self-energy and it can be shown that this approach is equivalent to a lead-device orthogonalization. This scheme has been implemented at both TDDFT and density functional tight-binding level. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate our method and comparison with wide band limit approximation is made. Finally, the sparsity of the matrices and computational complexity of this method are analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, W. Y.; Chien, J. Y.; Wang, D. P.; Huang, K. F.; Huang, T. C.
2002-04-01
Photoreflectance (PR) of surface-intrinsic-n+ type doped GaAs has been measured for various power densities of pump laser. The spectra exhibited many Franz-Keldysh oscillations, whereby the strength of electric field F in the undoped layer can be determined. The thus obtained Fs are subject to photovoltaic effect and are less than built-in field Fbi. In the previous work we have obtained the relation F≈Fbi-δF/2 when δF≪Fbi by using electroreflectance to simulate PR, where δF is the modulating field of the pump beam. In this work a method was devised to evaluate δF by using photoinduced voltages Vs and, hence, the relation can be verified by PR itself. The δFs obtained by Vs are also consistent with those of using imaginary part of fast Fourier transform of PR spectra.
Coherent transport in disordered metals out of equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwab, P.; Raimondi, R.
2001-12-01
We derive a formula for the quantum corrections to the electrical current for a metal out of equilibrium. In the limit of linear current-voltage characteristics our formula reproduces the well known Altshuler-Aronov correction to the conductivity of a disordered metal. The current formula is obtained by a direct diagrammatic approach, and is shown to agree with what is obtained within the Keldysh formulation of the non-linear sigma model. As an application we calculate the current of a mesoscopic wire. We find a current-voltage characteristics that scales with eV/kT, and calculate the different scaling curves for a wire in the hot-electron regime and in the regime of full non-equilibrium.
Dissipative quantum transport in macromolecules: Effective field theory approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, E.; a Beccara, S.; Faccioli, P.
2013-08-01
We introduce an atomistic approach to the dissipative quantum dynamics of charged or neutral excitations propagating through macromolecular systems. Using the Feynman-Vernon path integral formalism, we analytically trace out from the density matrix the atomic coordinates and the heat bath degrees of freedom. This way we obtain an effective field theory which describes the real-time evolution of the quantum excitation and is fully consistent with the fluctuation-dissipation relation. The main advantage of the field-theoretic approach is that it allows us to avoid using the Keldysh contour formulation. This simplification makes it straightforward to derive Feynman diagrams to analytically compute the effects of the interaction of the propagating quantum excitation with the heat bath and with the molecular atomic vibrations. For illustration purposes, we apply this formalism to investigate the loss of quantum coherence of holes propagating through a poly(3-alkylthiophene) polymer.
Finite difference time domain method for simulation of damage initiation in thin film coatings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smalakys, Linas; Momgaudis, Balys; Grigutis, Robertas; Melninkaitis, Andrius
2016-12-01
Time resolved digital holography (TRDH) is a versatile tool that provides valuable insights into the dynamics of femtosecond damage initiation by providing spatiotemporal information of excited material. However, interpreting of TRDH data in thin film dielectric coatings is rather complicated without appropriate theoretical models that are able to correctly describe underlying nature of damage formation. Therefore, a model based on finite difference time domain (FDTD) method with complete Keldysh theory for nonlinear ionization of atoms and multiple rate equation (MRE) method for conduction band electrons was developed. The model was used to reproduce both temporal and spatial characteristics of TRDH experiment performed on Ta2O5 dielectric coating. Fitted material parameters were then applied to indirectly estimate LIDT of the coating.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aleiner, Igor L.; Faoro, Lara; Ioffe, Lev B.
2016-12-01
We extend the Keldysh technique to enable the computation of out-of-time order correlators such as < O(t) O ˜ (0) O(t) O ˜ (0) > . We show that the behavior of these correlators is described by equations that display initially an exponential instability which is followed by a linear propagation of the decoherence between two initially identically copies of the quantum many body systems with interactions. At large times the decoherence propagation (quantum butterfly effect) is described by a diffusion equation with non-linear dissipation known in the theory of combustion waves. The solution of this equation is a propagating non-linear wave moving with constant velocity despite the diffusive character of the underlying dynamics. Our general conclusions are illustrated by the detailed computations for the specific models describing the electrons interacting with bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons, two-level-systems etc.) or with each other.
Monte Carlo Study of Real Time Dynamics on the Lattice.
Alexandru, Andrei; Başar, Gökçe; Bedaque, Paulo F; Vartak, Sohan; Warrington, Neill C
2016-08-19
Monte Carlo studies involving real time dynamics are severely restricted by the sign problem that emerges from a highly oscillatory phase of the path integral. In this Letter, we present a new method to compute real time quantities on the lattice using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism via Monte Carlo simulations. The key idea is to deform the path integration domain to a complex manifold where the phase oscillations are mild and the sign problem is manageable. We use the previously introduced "contraction algorithm" to create a Markov chain on this alternative manifold. We substantiate our approach by analyzing the quantum mechanical anharmonic oscillator. Our results are in agreement with the exact ones obtained by diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The method we introduce is generic and, in principle, applicable to quantum field theory albeit very slow. We discuss some possible improvements that should speed up the algorithm.
Wave propagation in non-Gaussian random media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Mariano; Calzetta, Esteban
2015-01-01
We develop a compact perturbative series for acoustic wave propagation in a medium with a non-Gaussian stochastic speed of sound. We use Martin-Siggia and Rose auxiliary field techniques to render the classical wave propagation problem into a ‘quantum’ field theory one, and then frame this problem within the so-called Schwinger-Keldysh of closed time-path (CTP) formalism. Variation of the so-called two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action (EA), whose arguments are both the mean fields and the irreducible two point correlations, yields the Schwinger-Dyson and the Bethe-Salpeter equations. We work out the loop expansion of the 2PI CTP EA and show that, in the paradigmatic problem of overlapping spherical intrusions in an otherwise homogeneous medium, non-Gaussian corrections might be much larger than Gaussian ones at the same order of loops.
Deriving covariant holographic entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Xi; Lewkowycz, Aitor; Rangamani, Mukund
2016-11-01
We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Rényi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.
Continuous third harmonic generation in a terahertz driven modulated nanowire
Hamilton, Kathleen E. De, Amrit; Pryadko, Leonid P.; Kovalev, Alexey A.
2015-06-07
We consider the possibility of observing continuous third-harmonic generation using a strongly driven, single-band one-dimensional metal. In the absence of scattering, the quantum efficiency of frequency tripling for such a system can be as high as 93%. Combining the Floquet quasi-energy spectrum with the Keldysh Green's function technique, we derive a semiclassical master equation for a one-dimensional band of strongly and rapidly driven electrons in the presence of weak scattering by phonons. The power absorbed from the driving field is continuously dissipated by phonon modes, leading to a quasi-equilibrium in the electron distribution. We use the Kronig-Penney model with varying effective mass to establish the growth parameters of an InAs/InP nanowire near optimal for third harmonic generation at terahertz frequency range.
Inflationary Quasiparticle Creation and Thermalization Dynamics in Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Posazhennikova, Anna; Trujillo-Martinez, Mauricio; Kroha, Johann
2016-06-01
A Bose gas in a double-well potential, exhibiting a true Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) amplitude and initially performing Josephson oscillations, is a prototype of an isolated, nonequilibrium many-body system. We investigate the quasiparticle (QP) creation and thermalization dynamics of this system by solving the time-dependent Keldysh-Bogoliubov equations. We find avalanchelike QP creation due to a parametric resonance between BEC and QP oscillations, followed by slow, exponential relaxation to a thermal state at an elevated temperature, controlled by the initial excitation energy of the oscillating BEC above its ground state. The crossover between the two regimes occurs because of an effective decoupling of the QP and BEC oscillations. This dynamics is analogous to elementary particle creation in models of the early universe. The thermalization in our setup occurs because the BEC acts as a grand canonical reservoir for the quasiparticle system.
Lee, See Kei; Yamada, Ryo; Tanaka, Shoji; Chang, Gap Soo; Asai, Yoshihiro; Tada, Hirokazu
2012-06-26
We have observed and analyzed a universal temperature crossover behavior of electrical conductance in a single oligothiophene molecular wire. The crossover between the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence at high temperature and the temperature-invariant behavior at low temperature is found at a critical molecular wire length of 5.6 nm, where we found a change from the exponential length dependence to the length-invariant behavior. We have derived a scaling function analysis for the origin of the crossover behavior. After assuring that the analysis fits the explanation of the Keldysh Green's function calculation for the temperature dependence, we have applied it to our experimental results and found successfully that our scaling function gives a universal description of the temperature dependence for all over the temperature range.
Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene
Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo
2016-08-25
We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S-matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition, self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. As a result, we present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.
Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene
Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo
2016-08-25
We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S-matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition,more » self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. As a result, we present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.« less
Out-of-equilibrium catalysis of chemical reactions by electronic tunnel currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzhioev, Alan A.; Kosov, Daniel S.; von Oppen, Felix
2013-04-01
We present an escape rate theory for current-induced chemical reactions. We use Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's functions to derive a Langevin equation for the reaction coordinate. Due to the out of equilibrium electronic degrees of freedom, the friction, noise, and effective temperature in the Langevin equation depend locally on the reaction coordinate. As an example, we consider the dissociation of diatomic molecules induced by the electronic current from a scanning tunnelling microscope tip. In the resonant tunnelling regime, the molecular dissociation involves two processes which are intricately interconnected: a modification of the potential energy barrier and heating of the molecule. The decrease of the molecular barrier (i.e., the current induced catalytic reduction of the barrier) accompanied by the appearance of the effective, reaction-coordinate-dependent temperature is an alternative mechanism for current-induced chemical reactions, which is distinctly different from the usual paradigm of pumping vibrational degrees of freedom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Chun-Yeol; Song, Seung-Ho; Kim, Hyungsuk
2011-08-01
We investigate temperature dependences of the spin transfer torque (STT) and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) in the magnetic metallic junction (MMJ) and magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ). The temperature dependences of the in-plane and out-of-plane STTs are calculated with the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function method. We find that the temperature dependences of the in-plane and out-of-plane STTs for MTJ are strikingly deviated from the previous prediction [P. Bruno, Phys. Rev. B 52, 411 (1995)] for the interlayer exchange coupling, while ones for MMJ are well agreed with the prediction. Furthermore, the temperature dependences of the in-plane and out-of-plane STTs are varied with the bias voltage in different ways.
Posazhennikova, Anna; Trujillo-Martinez, Mauricio; Kroha, Johann
2016-06-03
A Bose gas in a double-well potential, exhibiting a true Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) amplitude and initially performing Josephson oscillations, is a prototype of an isolated, nonequilibrium many-body system. We investigate the quasiparticle (QP) creation and thermalization dynamics of this system by solving the time-dependent Keldysh-Bogoliubov equations. We find avalanchelike QP creation due to a parametric resonance between BEC and QP oscillations, followed by slow, exponential relaxation to a thermal state at an elevated temperature, controlled by the initial excitation energy of the oscillating BEC above its ground state. The crossover between the two regimes occurs because of an effective decoupling of the QP and BEC oscillations. This dynamics is analogous to elementary particle creation in models of the early universe. The thermalization in our setup occurs because the BEC acts as a grand canonical reservoir for the quasiparticle system.
Spin diffusion and torques in disordered antiferromagnets.
Manchon, Aurelien
2017-03-15
We have developed a drift-diffusion equation of spin transport in collinear bipartite metallic antiferromagnets. Starting from a model tight-binding Hamiltonian, we obtain the quantum kinetic equation within Keldysh formalism and expand it to the lowest order in spatial gradient using Wigner expansion method. In the diffusive limit, these equations track the spatio-temporal evolution of the spin accumulations and spin currents on each sublattice of the antiferromagnet. We use these equations to address the nature of the spin transfer torque in (i) a spin-valve composed of a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet, (ii) a metallic bilayer consisting of an antiferromagnet adjacent to a heavy metal possessing spin Hall effect, and in (iii) a single antiferromagnet possessing spin Hall effect. We show that the latter can experience a self-torque thanks to the non-vanishing spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Jinyou; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Xu, Chao
2016-11-01
This paper focuses on the development and engineering applications of a new resolvent sampling based Rayleigh-Ritz method (RSRR) for solving large-scale nonlinear eigenvalue problems (NEPs) in finite element analysis. There are three contributions. First, to generate reliable eigenspaces the resolvent sampling scheme is derived from Keldysh's theorem for holomorphic matrix functions following a more concise and insightful algebraic framework. Second, based on the new derivation a two-stage solution strategy is proposed for solving large-scale NEPs, which can greatly enhance the computational cost and accuracy of the RSRR. The effects of the user-defined parameters are studied, which provides a useful guide for real applications. Finally, the RSRR and the two-stage scheme is applied to solve two NEPs in the FE analysis of viscoelastic damping structures with up to 1 million degrees of freedom. The method is versatile, robust and suitable for parallelization, and can be easily implemented into other packages.
Field Effect Optoelectronic Modulation of Quantum-Confined Carriers in Black Phosphorus.
Whitney, William S; Sherrott, Michelle C; Jariwala, Deep; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Bechtel, Hans A; Rossman, George R; Atwater, Harry A
2017-01-11
We report measurements of the infrared optical response of thin black phosphorus under field-effect modulation. We interpret the observed spectral changes as a combination of an ambipolar Burstein-Moss (BM) shift of the absorption edge due to band-filling under gate control, and a quantum confined Franz-Keldysh (QCFK) effect, phenomena that have been proposed theoretically to occur for black phosphorus under an applied electric field. Distinct optical responses are observed depending on the flake thickness and starting carrier concentration. Transmission extinction modulation amplitudes of more than two percent are observed, suggesting the potential for use of black phosphorus as an active material in mid-infrared optoelectronic modulator applications.
Field Effect Optoelectronic Modulation of Quantum-Confined Carriers in Black Phosphorus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitney, William S.; Sherrott, Michelle C.; Jariwala, Deep; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Bechtel, Hans A.; Rossman, George R.; Atwater, Harry A.
2017-01-01
We report measurements of the infrared optical response of thin black phosphorus under field-effect modulation. We interpret the observed spectral changes as a combination of an ambipolar Burstein-Moss (BM) shift of the absorption edge due to band-filling under gate control, and a quantum confined Franz-Keldysh (QCFK) effect, phenomena which have been proposed theoretically to occur for black phosphorus under an applied electric field. Distinct optical responses are observed depending on the flake thickness and starting carrier concentration. Transmission extinction modulation amplitudes of more than two percent are observed, suggesting the potential for use of black phosphorus as an active material in mid-infrared optoelectronic modulator applications.
Monte Carlo Study of Real Time Dynamics on the Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexandru, Andrei; Başar, Gökçe; Bedaque, Paulo F.; Vartak, Sohan; Warrington, Neill C.
2016-08-01
Monte Carlo studies involving real time dynamics are severely restricted by the sign problem that emerges from a highly oscillatory phase of the path integral. In this Letter, we present a new method to compute real time quantities on the lattice using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism via Monte Carlo simulations. The key idea is to deform the path integration domain to a complex manifold where the phase oscillations are mild and the sign problem is manageable. We use the previously introduced "contraction algorithm" to create a Markov chain on this alternative manifold. We substantiate our approach by analyzing the quantum mechanical anharmonic oscillator. Our results are in agreement with the exact ones obtained by diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The method we introduce is generic and, in principle, applicable to quantum field theory albeit very slow. We discuss some possible improvements that should speed up the algorithm.
Large thermoelectric effect in ballistic Andreev interferometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalenkov, Mikhail S.; Zaikin, Andrei D.
2017-01-01
Employing quasiclassical theory of superconductivity combined with Keldysh technique we investigate large thermoelectric effect in multiterminal ballistic normal-superconducting hybrid structures. We argue that this effect is caused by electron-hole asymmetry generated by coherent Andreev reflection of quasiparticles at interfaces of two different superconductors with nonzero phase difference. Within our model we derive a general expression for thermoelectric voltages VT 1 ,2 induced in two different normal terminals exposed to a thermal gradient. Our results apply at any temperature difference in the subgap regime and allow us to explicitly analyze both temperature and phase dependencies of VT 1 ,2, demonstrating that in general there exists no fundamental relation between these voltages and the equilibrium Josephson current in superconducting-normal-superconducting junction.
Effective action theory of Andreev level spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galaktionov, Artem V.; Zaikin, Andrei D.
2015-12-01
With the aid of the Keldysh effective action technique we develop a microscopic theory describing Andreev level spectroscopy experiments in nontunnel superconducting contacts. We derive an effective impedance of such contacts which accounts for the presence of Andreev levels in the system. At subgap bias voltages and low temperatures, inelastic Cooper pair tunneling is accompanied by transitions between these levels resulting in a set of sharp current peaks. We evaluate the intensities of such peaks, establish their dependence on the external magnetic flux piercing the structure and estimate the thermal broadening of these peaks. We also specifically address the effect of capacitance renormalization in a nontunnel superconducting contact and its impact on both the positions and heights of the current peaks. At overgap bias voltages, the I -V curve is determined by quasiparticle tunneling and contains current steps related to the presence of discrete Andreev states in our system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Jinyou; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Xu, Chao
2017-02-01
This paper focuses on the development and engineering applications of a new resolvent sampling based Rayleigh-Ritz method (RSRR) for solving large-scale nonlinear eigenvalue problems (NEPs) in finite element analysis. There are three contributions. First, to generate reliable eigenspaces the resolvent sampling scheme is derived from Keldysh's theorem for holomorphic matrix functions following a more concise and insightful algebraic framework. Second, based on the new derivation a two-stage solution strategy is proposed for solving large-scale NEPs, which can greatly enhance the computational cost and accuracy of the RSRR. The effects of the user-defined parameters are studied, which provides a useful guide for real applications. Finally, the RSRR and the two-stage scheme is applied to solve two NEPs in the FE analysis of viscoelastic damping structures with up to 1 million degrees of freedom. The method is versatile, robust and suitable for parallelization, and can be easily implemented into other packages.
Approximate hydrodynamic design of a finite span hydrofoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vladimirov, A N
1955-01-01
Previous work on the motion of various bodies under the surface of a heavy fluid is discussed. The solution of the motion of a flat plate by Keldysh and Lavrentiev is applied to the motion of a hydrofoil, making possible the presentation of charts for determining the lift and resistance of an infinite span hydrofoil operating in a heavy frictionless fluid having infinite depth below the free water surface. Consideration is given to the effects of viscosity and a method is suggested to correct for the finite span. The effect of the water surface on the downwash behind the foil is also discussed. A comparison of theoretical results obtained from this work with experimental data indicates that a basis for the approximate hydrodynamic design of a finite span hydrofoil has been achieved.
Out of equilibrium spatio-temporal correlations in the Bose-Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennett, Malcolm; Fitzpatrick, Matthew
2016-05-01
The Bose-Hubbard model (BHM) provides a model system to study quench dynamics across a quantum phase transition. Theoretically, it has proven challenging to study spatio-temporal correlations in the BHM in dimensions higher than one. We use the Schwinger-Keldysh technique and a strong-coupling expansion to develop a two-particle irreducible formalism to allow us to study spatio-temporal correlations in both the superfluid (SF) and Mott-insulating (MI) regimes during a quantum quench for dimensions higher than one. We obtain equations of motion for both the superfluid order parameter and two-point correlation functions and present numerical results for the evolution of two-time correlation functions. We relate our results to experiments on cold atoms in optical lattices. Supported by NSERC.
Current profiles in gated graphene ribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cresti, Alessandro; Grosso, Giuseppe; Pastori Parravicini, Giuseppe
2008-03-01
We simulate stationary current distribution in graphene ribbons in the presence of top gate potentials, by means of the nonequilibrium Keldysh-Green's function formalism within a tight-binding model. In the absence of magnetic fields and in the presence of a model potential barrier, we observe the Klein paradox, where electrons turn into holes in the gated region and again into electrons beyond it. We establish a connection between the band structure at the corner points of the Brillouin zone and Klein paradox, and give a pictorial description of conductive channels. In the presence of high magnetic fields, transport currents are chiral and flow along the edges of the ribbon. The intensity and sign of the potential barrier with respect to the Fermi energy influence the nature (electron/hole) of the carriers inside the gated region and determine the edge involved in the transport process. We demonstrate that manipulation of currents in the ribbon can be obtained by external gates.
Long-lived nonequilibrium states in the Hubbard model with an electric field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joura, Alexander V.; Freericks, J. K.; Lichtenstein, Alexander I.
2015-06-01
We study the single-band Hubbard model in the presence of a large spatially uniform electric field out of equilibrium. Using the Keldysh nonequilibrium formalism, we solve the problem using perturbation theory in the Coulomb interaction U . We present numerical results for the charge current, the total energy of the system, and the double occupancy on an infinite-dimensional hypercubic lattice with nearest-neighbor hopping. The system is isolated from an external bath and is in the paramagnetic state. We show that an electric field pulse can drive the system to a steady nonequilibrium state, which does not evolve into a thermal state. We compare results obtained within second-order perturbation theory (SOPT), self-consistent SOPT, and iterated perturbation theory (IPT). We also discuss the importance of initial conditions for a system which is not coupled to an external bath.
Zhu, Lin; Li, Ruimin; Yao, Kailun
2017-02-01
Thermal spin transport properties of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbon heterojunctions have been investigated using density functional theory calculations combined with the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function approach. The results showed that the perfect spin Seebeck effect and analogy negative differential thermoelectric resistance occurred in the device under a temperature difference without a gate or bias voltage. An intriguing thermally induced colossal magnetoresistance without gate regulation was also observed, which can be switched between a positive and negative value with temperature control. It was also found that the unit number of zigzag graphene nanoribbons and boron nitride nanoribbons can tune the electronic band structure and the energy gap of the heterostructure, and then modulate the thermal spin transport properties. The results suggest that graphene and hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbon heterostructures may have potential applications in graphene-based nanodevices.
Quantum path analysis of high-order above-threshold ionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopold, R.; Becker, W.; Kleber, M.
2000-05-01
High-order above-threshold ionization spectra are calculated via an improved Keldysh approximation that takes rescattering into account. An approximate method of evaluating the crucial multidimensional integral proceeds via the saddle point method. The saddle points define complex orbits in position space that depart from the ion and return to it to rescatter. The real parts of these orbits are very closely related to the trajectories of the simple-man model. The spectra are analyzed in terms of these quantum orbits whose constructive and destructive interferences generate the spectrum's intricate structures. In most spectral regions, the six trajectories having the shortest travel times between start and return already provide an excellent approximation to the exact calculation. In exceptional cases, more orbits are required. The quantum orbits provide an illuminating illustration of the quantum mechanical path integral.
Transport signatures in topological systems coupled to ac fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruocco, Leonard; Gómez-León, Álvaro
2017-02-01
We study the transport properties of a topological system coupled to an ac electric field by means of Floquet-Keldysh formalism. We consider a semi-infinite chain of dimers coupled to a semi-infinite metallic lead and obtain the density of states and current when the system is out of equilibrium. Our formalism is nonperturbative and allows us to explore, in the thermodynamic limit, a wide range of regimes for the ac field, arbitrary values of the coupling strength to the metallic contact and corrections to the wide-band limit (WBL). We find that hybridization with the contact can change the dimerization phase, and that the current dependence on the field amplitude can be used to discriminate between them. We also show the appearance of side bands and nonequilibrium zero-energy modes, characteristic of the Floquet systems. Our results directly apply to the stability of nonequilibrium topological phases, when transport measurements are used for their detection.
Kudrawiec, R.; Janicki, L.; Gladysiewicz, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Cywinski, G.; Boćkowski, M.; Muzioł, G.
2013-07-29
Two series of N- and Ga-face GaN Van Hoof structures were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy to study the surface potential barrier by contactless electroreflectance (CER). A clear CER resonance followed by strong Franz-Keldysh oscillation of period varying with the thickness of undoped GaN layer was observed for these structures. This period was much shorter for N-polar structures that means smaller surface potential barrier in these structures than in Ga-polar structures. From the analysis of built-in electric field it was determined that the Fermi-level is located 0.27 ± 0.05 and 0.60 ± 0.05 eV below the conduction band for N- and Ga-face GaN surface, respectively.
Surface potential barrier in m-plane GaN studied by contactless electroreflectance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janicki, Lukasz; Misiewicz, Jan; Cywiński, Grzegorz; Sawicka, Marta; Skierbiszewski, Czeslaw; Kudrawiec, Robert
2016-02-01
Contactless electroreflectance (CER) is used to study the surface potential barrier in m-plane GaN UN+ [GaN (d = 20,30,50,70 nm)/GaN:Si] structures grown by using molecular beam epitaxy. Clear bandgap-related transitions followed by Franz-Keldysh oscillations (FKO) have been observed in the CER spectra of all samples at room temperature. The built-in electric fields in the undoped cap layers have been determined from the FKO period. From the built-in electric field and the undoped GaN layer thickness, the Fermi level location at the air-exposed m-plane GaN surface has been estimated as 0.42 ± 0.05 eV below the conduction band.
Heat transport in nonuniform superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richard, Caroline; Vorontsov, Anton B.
2016-08-01
We calculate electronic energy transport in inhomogeneous superconductors using a fully self-consistent nonequilibrium quasiclassical Keldysh approach. We develop a general theory and apply it to a superconductor with an order parameter that forms domain walls of the type encountered in the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state. The heat transport in the presence of a domain wall is inherently anisotropic and nonlocal. The bound states in the nonuniform region play a crucial role and control heat transport in several ways: (i) they modify the spectrum of quasiparticle states and result in Andreev reflection processes and (ii) they hybridize with the impurity band and produce a local transport environment with properties very different from those in a uniform superconductor. As a result of this interplay, heat transport becomes highly sensitive to temperature, magnetic field, and disorder. For strongly scattering impurities, we find that the transport across domain walls at low temperatures is considerably more efficient than in the uniform superconducting state.
Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo
2016-08-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S -matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition, self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. We also present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.
Out-of-equilibrium catalysis of chemical reactions by electronic tunnel currents.
Dzhioev, Alan A; Kosov, Daniel S; von Oppen, Felix
2013-04-07
We present an escape rate theory for current-induced chemical reactions. We use Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's functions to derive a Langevin equation for the reaction coordinate. Due to the out of equilibrium electronic degrees of freedom, the friction, noise, and effective temperature in the Langevin equation depend locally on the reaction coordinate. As an example, we consider the dissociation of diatomic molecules induced by the electronic current from a scanning tunnelling microscope tip. In the resonant tunnelling regime, the molecular dissociation involves two processes which are intricately interconnected: a modification of the potential energy barrier and heating of the molecule. The decrease of the molecular barrier (i.e., the current induced catalytic reduction of the barrier) accompanied by the appearance of the effective, reaction-coordinate-dependent temperature is an alternative mechanism for current-induced chemical reactions, which is distinctly different from the usual paradigm of pumping vibrational degrees of freedom.
Theory of orbital magnetization in disordered systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Guobao; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Fang, Cheng; Liu, W. M.; Yao, Yugui
2012-12-01
We present a general formula of the orbital magnetization of disordered systems based on the Keldysh Green's function theory in the gauge-covariant Wigner space. In our approach, the gauge invariance of physical quantities is ensured from the very beginning, and the vertex corrections are easily included. Our formula applies not only for insulators but also for metallic systems where the quasiparticle behavior is usually strongly modified by the disorder scattering. In the absence of disorders, our formula recovers the previous results obtained from the semiclassical theory and the perturbation theory. As an application, we calculate the orbital magnetization of a weakly disordered two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We find that for the short-range disorder scattering, its major effect is to the shifting of the distribution of orbital magnetization corresponding to the quasiparticle energy renormalization.
Mukamel, Shaul
2003-08-01
Computing response functions by following the time evolution of superoperators in Liouville space (whose vectors are ordinary Hilbert space operators) offers an attractive alternative to the diagrammatic perturbative expansion of many-body equilibrium and nonequilibrium Green's functions. The bookkeeping of time ordering is naturally maintained in real (physical) time, allowing the formulation of Wick's theorem for superoperators, giving a factorization of higher order response functions in terms of two fundamental Green's functions. Backward propagations and analytic continuations using artificial times (Keldysh loops and Matsubara contours) are avoided. A generating functional for nonlinear response functions unifies quantum field theory and the classical mode coupling formalism of nonlinear hydrodynamics and may be used for semiclassical expansions. Classical response functions are obtained without the explicit computation of stability matrices.
Thermoelectric effect in an Aharonov-Bohm ring with an embedded quantum dot.
Zheng, Jun; Chi, Feng; Lu, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Kai-Cheng
2012-02-28
Thermoelectric effect is studied in an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with an embedded quantum dot (QD) in the Coulomb blockade regime. The electrical conductance, electron thermal conductance, thermopower, and thermoelectric figure-of-merit are calculated by using the Keldysh Green's function method. It is found that the figure-of-merit ZT of the QD ring may be quite high due to the Fano effect originated from the quantum interference effect. Moreover, the thermoelectric efficiency is sensitive to the magnitude of the dot-lead and inter-lead coupling strengthes. The effect of intradot Coulomb repulsion on ZT is significant in the weak-coupling regime, and then large ZT values can be obtained at rather high temperature.
Chen, Xi; Zheng, Qing-Rong; Su, Gang
2010-05-12
The spin transfer effect in a ferromagnet-quantum dot (insulator)-ferromagnet Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring system with Rashba spin-orbit (SO) interactions is investigated by means of the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function method. It is found that both the magnitude and direction of the spin transfer torque (STT) acting on the right ferromagnet electrode can be effectively controlled by changing the magnetic flux threading the AB ring or the gate voltage on the quantum dot. The STT can be greatly augmented by matching a proper magnetic flux and an SO interaction at a cost of low electrical current. The STT, electrical current and spin current are uncovered to oscillate with the magnetic flux. The present results are expected to be useful for information storage in nanospintronics.
Unconventional superconductors under a rotating magnetic field. II. Thermal transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorontsov, A. B.; Vekhter, I.
2007-06-01
We present a microscopic approach to the calculations of thermal conductivity in unconventional superconductors for a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. Our work employs the nonequilibrium Keldysh formulation of the quasiclassical theory. We solve the transport equations using a variation of the Brandt-Pesch-Tewordt method that accounts for the quasiparticle scattering on vortices. We focus on the dependence of the thermal conductivity on the direction of the field with the respect to the nodes of the order parameter, and discuss it in the context of experiments aiming to determine the shape of the gap from such anisotropy measurements. We consider quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surfaces with vertical line nodes and use our analysis to establish the location of gap nodes in heavy-fermion CeCoIn5 and the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2 .
Relationship between population dynamics and the self-energy in driven non-equilibrium systems
Kemper, Alexander F.; Freericks, James K.
2016-05-13
We compare the decay rates of excited populations directly calculated within a Keldysh formalism to the equation of motion of the population itself for a Hubbard-Holstein model in two dimensions. While it is true that these two approaches must give the same answer, it is common to make a number of simplifying assumptions, within the differential equation for the populations, that allows one to interpret the decay in terms of hot electrons interacting with a phonon bath. Furthermore, we show how care must be taken to ensure an accurate treatment of the equation of motion for the populations due to the fact that there are identities that require cancellations of terms that naively look like they contribute to the decay rates. In particular, the average time dependence of the Green's functions and self-energies plays a pivotal role in determining these decay rates.
Error threshold for the surface code in a superohmic environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez-Delgado, Daniel A.; Novais, E.; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Caldeira, Amir O.
Using the Keldysh formalism, we study the fidelity of a quantum memory over multiple quantum error correction cycles when the physical qubits interact with a bosonic bath at zero temperature. For encoding, we employ the surface code, which has one of the highest error thresholds in the case of stochastic and uncorrelated errors. The time evolution of the fidelity of the resulting two-dimensional system is cast into a statistical mechanics phase transition problem on a three-dimensional spin lattice, and the error threshold is determined by the critical temperature of the spin model. For superohmic baths, we find that time does not affect the error threshold: its value is the same for one or an arbitrary number of quantum error correction cycles. Financial support Fapesp, and CNPq (Brazil).
Fowler-Nordheim emission modified by laser pulses in the adiabatic regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rokhlenko, A.; Lebowitz, J. L.
2016-06-01
We investigate enhanced field emission due to a continuous or pulsed oscillating field added to a constant electric field E at the emitter surface. When the frequency of oscillation, field strength, and property of the emitter material satisfy the Keldysh condition γ<1 /2 , one can use the adiabatic approximation for treating the oscillating field, i.e., consider the tunneling through the instantaneous Fowler-Nordheim barrier created by both fields. Due to the great sensitivity of the emission to the field strength, the average tunneling current can be much larger than the current produced by only the constant field. We carry out the computations for arbitrary strong constant electric fields, beyond the commonly used Fowler-Nordheim approximation which exhibit, in particular, an important property of the wave function inside the potential barrier where it is found to be monotonically decreasing without oscillations.
Lifting the Franck-Condon blockade in driven quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haughian, Patrick; Walter, Stefan; Nunnenkamp, Andreas; Schmidt, Thomas L.
2016-11-01
Electron-vibron coupling in quantum dots can lead to a strong suppression of the average current in the sequential tunneling regime. This effect is known as Franck-Condon blockade and can be traced back to an overlap integral between vibron states with different electron numbers which becomes exponentially small for large electron-vibron coupling strength. Here, we investigate the effect of a time-dependent drive on this phenomenon, in particular the effect of an oscillatory gate voltage acting on the electronic dot level. We employ two different approaches: perturbation theory based on nonequilibrium Keldysh Green's functions and a master equation in Born-Markov approximation. In both cases, we find that the drive can lift the blockade by exciting vibrons. As a consequence, the relative change in average current grows exponentially with the drive strength.
Augmenting Molecular Junctions with Different Transition Metal Contacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaur, Rupan Preet; Sawhney, Ravinder Singh; Engles, Derick
2013-11-01
In this research paper, the effect of the material of electrodes at the nanometer scale was elucidated towards measuring the electron transport properties of a single molecular junction comprising of anthracenedithiol molecule (ADT) stringed to two semi-infinite metallic electrodes using Extended Huckle Theory (EHT)-based semi-empirical modelling approach. The electron transport parameters i.e., I-V curves, Conductance-Voltage curves and transmission spectrum were investigated through ADT molecule by buffering it between different electrodes composed of rhodium, palladium, nickel and copper, all from transition metals series, under finite bias voltages within Keldysh's non equilibrium green function formulism (NEGF). The simulated results revealed that the copper electrodes showed maximum conduction whereas palladium showed least. The maximum conductance of 0.82 G0 and 43 μA current was exhibited by copper and thus affirmed to be the most effective electrode at nanometre scale when compared with other electrodes viz. nickel, rhodium and palladium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanai, R.; Littlewood, P. B.; Ohashi, Y.
2016-05-01
We theoretically investigate a Bose-condensed exciton gas out of equilibrium. Within the framework of the combined BCS-Leggett strong-coupling theory with the non-equilibrium Keldysh formalism, we show how the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of excitons is suppressed to eventually disappear, when the system is in the non-equilibrium steady state. The supply of electrons and holes from the bath is shown to induce quasi-particle excitations, leading to the partial occupation of the upper branch of Bogoliubov single-particle excitation spectrum. We also discuss how this quasi-particle induction is related to the suppression of exciton BEC, as well as the stability of the steady state.
Wave-packet analysis of strong-field ionization of sodium in the quasistatic regime*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunjac, Andrej; Popović, Duška B.; Simonović, Nenad S.
2016-05-01
Strong field ionization of the sodium atom in the tunnelling and over-the-barrier regimes is studied by examining the valence electron wave-packet dynamics in the static electric field. The lowest state energy and the ionization rate determined by this method for different strengths of the applied field agree well with the results obtained using other methods. The initial period of the nonstationary decay after switching the field on is analyzed and discussed. It is demonstrated that, if the Keldysh parameter is significantly lower than one (quasistatic regime), the probability of ionization by a laser pulse can be obtained from the static rates. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.
Relationship between population dynamics and the self-energy in driven non-equilibrium systems
Kemper, Alexander F.; Freericks, James K.
2016-05-13
We compare the decay rates of excited populations directly calculated within a Keldysh formalism to the equation of motion of the population itself for a Hubbard-Holstein model in two dimensions. While it is true that these two approaches must give the same answer, it is common to make a number of simplifying assumptions, within the differential equation for the populations, that allows one to interpret the decay in terms of hot electrons interacting with a phonon bath. Furthermore, we show how care must be taken to ensure an accurate treatment of the equation of motion for the populations due tomore » the fact that there are identities that require cancellations of terms that naively look like they contribute to the decay rates. In particular, the average time dependence of the Green's functions and self-energies plays a pivotal role in determining these decay rates.« less
Anomalous magnetization of a carbon nanotube as an excitonic insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rontani, Massimo
2014-11-01
We show theoretically that an undoped carbon nanotube might be an excitonic insulator—the long-sought phase of matter proposed by Keldysh, Kohn, and others fifty years ago. We predict that the condensation of triplet excitons, driven by intervalley exchange interaction, spontaneously occurs at equilibrium if the tube radius is sufficiently small. The signatures of exciton condensation are its sizable contributions to both the energy gap and the magnetic moment per electron. The increase of the gap might have already been measured, albeit with a different explanation [V. V. Deshpande, B. Chandra, R. Caldwell, D. S. Novikov, J. Hone, and M. Bockrath, Science 323, 106 (2009), 10.1126/science.1165799]. The enhancement of the quasiparticle magnetic moment is a pair-breaking effect that counteracts the weak paramagnetism of the ground-state condensate of excitons. This property could rationalize the anomalous magnitude of magnetic moments recently observed in different devices close to charge neutrality.
Anomalous conductance of a strongly interacting Fermi gas through a quantum point contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Boyang; Zhai, Hui; Zhang, Shizhong
2017-01-01
In this work we study the particle conductance of a strongly interacting Fermi gas through a quantum point contact. With an atom-molecule two-channel model, we compute the contribution to particle conductance by both the fermionic atoms and the bosonic molecules using the Keldysh formalism. Focusing on the regime above the Fermi superfluid transition temperature, we find that the fermionic contribution to the conductance is reduced by interaction compared with the quantized value for the noninteracting case; while the bosonic contribution to the conductance exhibits a plateau with nonuniversal values that is larger than the quantized conductance. This feature is particularly profound at temperature close to the superfluid transition. We emphasize that the enhanced conductance arises because of the bosonic nature of closed channel molecules and the low dimensionality of the quantum point contact.
Wu, Cheng-Han; Wu, Chao-Hsin
2014-10-27
The electrical and optical characteristics of tunnel junction light-emitting transistors (TJLETs) with different indium mole fractions (x = 5% and 2.5%) of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As base-collector tunnel junctions have been investigated. Two electron tunneling mechanisms (photon-assisted or direct tunneling) provide additional currents to electrical output and resupply holes back to the base region, resulting in the upward slope of I-V curves and enhanced optical output under forward-active operation. The larger direct tunneling probability and stronger Franz-Keldysh absorption for 5% TJLET lead to higher collector current slope and less optical intensity enhancement when base-collector junction is under reverse-biased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qiancheng; Guclu, Caner; Huang, Yuwang; Campione, Salvatore; Capolino, Filippo; Boyraz, Ozdal
2015-02-01
Directive optical leaky wave antennas (OLWAs) with tunable radiation pattern are promising integrated optical modulation and scanning devices. OLWAs fabricated using CMOS-compatible semiconductor planar waveguide technology have the potential of providing high directivity with electrical tunability for modulation and switching capabilities. We experimentally demonstrate directive radiation from a silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguide-based OLWA. The OLWA design comprises 50 crystalline Si perturbations buried inside the waveguide, with a period of 1 μm, each with a length of 260 nm and a height of 150 nm, leading to a directive radiation pattern at telecom wavelengths. The measured far-field radiation pattern at the wavelength of 1540 nm is very directive, with the maximum intensity at the angle of 84.4° relative to the waveguide axis and a half-power beam width around 6.2°, which is consistent with our theoretical predictions. The use of semiconductor perturbations facilitates electronic radiation control thanks to the refractive index variation induced by a carrier density change in the perturbations. To assess the electrical modulation capability, we study carrier injection and depletion in Si perturbations, and investigate the Franz-Keldysh effect in germanium as an alternative way. We theoretically show that the silicon wire modulator has a -3 dB modulation bandwidth of 75 GHz with refractive index change of 3×10-4 in depletion mode, and 350 MHz bandwidth with refractive index change of 1.5×10-2 in injection mode. The Franz-Keldysh effect has the potential to generate very fast modulation in radiation control at telecom wavelengths.
Ultrafast polychromatic ionization of dielectric solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jürgens, P.; Jupé, M.; Gyamfi, M.; Ristau, D.
2016-12-01
The modeling of the laser-induced damage processes can be divided into thermal and electronic processes. Especially, electronic damage seems to be well understood. In corresponding models, the damage threshold is linked to the excitation of valence electrons into the conduction band, and often the damage is obtained if a critical density of free electrons is exceeded. For the modeling of the electronic excitation, rate equation models are applied which can vary in the different terms representing different excitation channels. According to the current state of the art, photoionization and avalanche ionization contribute the major part to the ionization process, and consequently the determination of laser-induced damage thresholds is based on the calculation of the respective terms. For the theoretical description of both, well established models are available. For the quantitative calculation of the photoionization, the Keldysh theory is used most frequently, and for the avalanche processes the Drude theory is often applied. Both, Drude and Keldysh theory calculations depend on the laser frequency and use a monochromatic approach. For most applications the monochromatic description matches very well with the experimental findings, but in the range of few-cycle pulses the necessary broadening of the laser emission spectrum leads to high uncertainty for the calculation. In this paper, a novel polychromatic approach is presented including photo- and avalanche ionization as well as the critical electron density. The simulation combines different ionization channels in a Monte-Carlo procedure according to the frequency distribution of the spectrum. The resulting influence on the wavelength and material dependency is discussed in detail for various pulse shapes and pulse durations. The main focus of the investigation is concentrated on the specific characteristics in the dispersion and material dependency of the laser-induced damage threshold respecting the polychromatic
Burning Plastics Investigated in Space for Unique US/Russian Cooperative Project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedman, Robert
2000-01-01
It is well known that fires in the low-gravity environment of Earth-orbiting spacecraft are different from fires on Earth. The flames lack the familiar upward plume, which is the result of gravitational buoyancy. These flames, however, are strongly influenced by minor airflow currents. A recent study conducted in low gravity (microgravity) on the Russian orbital station Mir used burning plastic rods mounted in a small chamber with a controllable fan to expose the flame to airflows of different velocities. In this unique project, a Russian scientific agency, the Keldysh Research Center, furnished the apparatus and directed the Mir tests, while the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field provided the test materials and the project management. Reference testing and calibrations in ground laboratories were conducted jointly by researchers at Keldysh and at the NASA Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility. Multiple samples of three different plastics were burned in the tests: Delrin, a common material for valve bodies; PMMA, a plastic "glass"; and polyethylene, a familiar material for containers and films. Each burned with a unique spherical or egg-shaped flame that spread over the rod. The effect of varying the airflow was dramatic. At the highest airflow attainable in the combustion chamber, nearly 10 cm/sec (a typical ventilation breeze), the flames were bright and strong. As airflow velocity decreased, the flames became shorter but wider. In addition, the flames became less bright, and for PMMA and polyethylene, they showed two colors, a bright part decreasing in volume and a nearly invisible remainder (see the photographs). Finally, at a very low velocity, the flames extinguished. For the plastics tested, this minimum velocity was very low, around 0.3 to 0.5 cm/sec. This finding confirms that at least a slight airflow is required to maintain a flame in microgravity for these types of materials.
Quantum-classical correspondence principles for locally nonequilibrium driven systems.
Smith, Eric
2008-02-01
Many of the core concepts and (especially field-theoretic) tools of statistical mechanics have developed within the context of thermodynamic equilibrium, where state variables are all taken to be charges, meaning that their values are inherently preserved under reversal of the direction of time. A principle concern of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is to understand the emergence and stability of currents, quantities whose values change sign under time reversal. Whereas the correspondence between classical charge-valued state variables and their underlying statistical or quantum ensembles is quite well understood, the study of currents away from equilibrium has been more fragmentary, with classical descriptions relying on the asymmetric auxiliary-field formalism of Martin, Siggia, and Rose (and often restricted to the Markovian assumption of Doi and Peliti), while quantum descriptions employ a symmetric two-field formalism introduced by Schwinger and further clarified by Keldysh. In this paper we demonstrate that for quantum ensembles in which superposition is not violated by very strong conditions of decoherence, there is a large natural generalization of the principles and tools of equilibrium, which not only admits but requires the introduction of current-valued state variables. For these systems, not only do Martin-Siggia-Rose (MSR) and Schwinger-Keldysh (SK) field methods both exist, in some cases they provide inequivalent classical and quantum descriptions of identical ensembles. With these systems for examples, we can both study the correspondence between classical and quantum descriptions of currents, and also clarify the nature of the mapping between the structurally homologous but interpretationally different MSR and SK formalisms.
Arctic summer school onboard an icebreaker
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Repina, Irina A.
2014-05-01
The International Arctic Research Center (IARC) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks conducted a summer school for PhD students, post-docs and early career scientists in August-September 2013, jointly with an arctic expedition as a part of NABOS project (Nansen and Amundsen Basin Observational System) onboard the Russian research vessel "Akademik Fedorov". Both the summer school and NABOS expedition were funded by the National Science Foundation. The one-month long summer school brought together graduate students and young scientists with specialists in arctic oceanography and climate to convey to a new generation of scientists the opportunities and challenges of arctic climate observations and modeling. Young scientists gained hands-on experience during the field campaign and learned about key issues in arctic climate from observational, diagnostic, and modeling perspectives. The summer school consisted of background lectures, participation in fieldwork and mini-projects. The mini-projects were performed in collaboration with summer school instructors and members of the expedition. Key topics covered in the lectures included: - arctic climate: key characteristics and processes; - physical processes in the Arctic Ocean; - sea ice and the Arctic Ocean; - trace gases, aerosols, and chemistry: importance for climate changes; - feedbacks in the arctic system (e.g., surface albedo, clouds, water vapor, circulation); - arctic climate variations: past, ongoing, and projected; - global climate models: an overview. An outreach specialist from the Miami Science Museum was writing a blog from the icebreaker with some very impressive statistics (results as of January 1, 2014): Total number of blog posts: 176 Blog posts written/contributed by scientists: 42 Blog views: 22,684 Comments: 1,215 Number of countries who viewed the blog: 89 (on 6 continents) The 33-day long NABOS expedition started on August 22, 2013 from Kirkenes, Norway. The vessel ("Akademik Fedorov") returned to
Heat flow through the sea bottom around the Yucatan Peninsula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khutorskoy, M. D.; Fernandez, R.; Kononov, V. I.; Polyak, B. G.; Matveev, V. G.; Rot, A. A.
1990-02-01
Heat flow studies were conducted in January-February 1987, off the Atlantic Coast of Mexico on board the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. Two areas were surveyed, one transecting the Salt Dome Province and the Campeche Canyon, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the other, on the eastern flank of the Yucatan Peninsula. Conductive heat flow through the bottom sediments was determined as the product of vertical temperature gradient and in situ thermal conductivity, measured with a thermal probe using a multithermistor array and real-time processing capabilities. Forward two-dimensional modeling allows us to estimate heat flow variations at both sites from local disturbances and to obtain average heat flow values of 51 mW/m2 for the transect within the Gulf of Mexico and 38 and 69 mW/m2 for two basins within the Yucatan area. Sea bottom relief has a predominant effect over other environmental factors in the scatter of heat flow determination in the Gulf of Mexico.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morozov, E. G.; Tarakanov, R. Yu.; Makarenko, N. I.
2015-11-01
We study the flows of bottom waters of the Antarctic origin in deep fracture zones of the southern part of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In the autumn of 2014, an expedition onboard the RV Akademik Sergey Vavilov carried out measurements of current velocities and thermohaline properties of bottom water in several quasi-zonal fractures in the southern part of the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which connect the deep basins of the West and East Atlantic, the Vema Fracture Zone (FZ) (10°50' N) and a group of sub-equatorial fractures: Doldrums (8°15' N), Vernadsky (7°40' N), and a nameless fracture at 7°30' N. The estimates of bottom water (θ < 2.0°C) transport through this group based on measurements from 2014 are approximately 0.28 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3/s), which is close to 25% of the transport estimate through the Vema FZ (1.20 Sv) obtained in the same expedition. The coldest bottom water temperatures among the investigated fractures were recorded in the Vema FZ.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skolotnev, S. G.; Kolodyazhny, S. Yu.; Tsukanov, N. V.; Chamov, N. P.; Sokolov, S. Yu.
2009-01-01
Acoustic profiling carried out with an Edgetech 3300 prophilograph in the junction zone of the Cape Verde Rise, Cape Verde Abyssal Plain, and Grimaldi and Bathymetrists seamounts in the Central Atlantic during Cruise 23 of the R/V Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov allowed us to obtain new data on neotectonic deformations in the ocean and to propose their interpretation. It has been established that neotectonic movements occurred in the discrete manner: blocks of undeformed rocks alternate with linear zones of intense deformation spatially related to paleotransform fracture zones, where anticlines, horsts, diapir-like morphostructures, and grabens were formed. The Cape Verde Ridge is a large horst. Its sedimentary cover is disturbed by thrust (?), reverse, and normal faults, steeply dipping fracture zones, and folds. Three stages of tectonic movements—Oligocene-early Miocene, pre-Quaternary, and Holocene—are recognized. The tectonic deformations occurred largely under near-meridional compression. Extension setting was characteristic of the Cape Verde Ridge and the Carter Rise in the Holocene.
Heat flow through the sea bottom around the Yucatan Peninsula
Khutorskoy, M.D.; Kononov, V.I.; Polyak, B.G. ); Fernandez, R. ); Matveev, V.G.; Rot, A.A. )
1990-02-10
Heat flow studies were conducted in January-February 1987, off the Atlantic Coast of Mexico on board the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. Two areas were surveyed, one transecting the Salt Dome Province and the Campeche Canyon, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the other, on the eastern flank of the Yucatan Peninsula. Conductive heat flow through the bottom sediments was determined as the product of vertical temperature gradient and in situ thermal conductivity, measured with a thermal probe using a multithermistor array and real-time processing capabilities. Forward two-dimensional modeling allows one to estimate heat flow variations at both sites from local disturbances and to obtain average heat flow values of 51 mW/m{sup 2} for the transect within the Gulf of Mexico and 38 and 69 mW/m{sup 2} for two basins within the Yucatan area. Sea bottom relief has a predominant effect over other environmental factors in the scatter of heat flow determination in the Gulf of Mexico.
Paleomagnetic data on the sedimentation rate near the Mendeleev Rise (Arctic Ocean)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piskarev, A. L.; Andreeva, I. A.; Gus'kova, E. G.
2013-09-01
Seven cores of bottom sediments were collected during the cruise of R/V Akademik Fedorov in 2000 along the latitudinal profile crossing the Mendeleev Rise near 82° N, and then studied. The length of cores varies from 240 to 334 cm. In all cores, the boundary of the changing remanent magnetization vector corresponding to the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary was established reliably. In five cores, this boundary is at a depth of 86-102 cm; in two cores, collected to the west of the Mendeleev Rise, at depth levels of 188 and 208 cm. The correlation of paleomagnetic and lithological data demonstrates that the upper boundary of a bench of speckled pelites, overlapped by a bench of variegated pelites, is confined to the Olduvai episode or horizons lying slightly below. The average sedimentation rate of sediments from the Mendeleev Rise during the last 2-2.5 Ma have not exceeded 1-1.3 mm/ka, increasing towards the shelf seas of northeast Russia.
Ship-based Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements Near Antarctica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakerin, S. M.; Smirnov, A.; Kabanov, D. M.; Turchinovich, Y. S.; Holben, B. N.; Radionov, V. F.; Slutsker, I.
2006-12-01
Aerosol optical properties over the oceans were studied in November 2005 January 2006 onboard the R/V Akademik Fedorov within the framework of the 51st Russian Antarctic Expedition. Measurements were made with the handheld sunphotometer Microtops II. The sunphotometer was calibrated against the AERONET reference CIMEL radiometer. The direct sun measurements were acquired in five spectral channels at 340, 440, 675, 870 and 936 nm. Aerosol optical depth was retrieved by applying the AERONET processing algorithm (Version 2). The paper presents results of measurements along the Atlantic transect and in the Antarctic region, where the main data volume was obtained (spanning 20 days). During the measurement period near Antarctica aerosol optical depth was low (daily averages varied within 0.02-0.04 at a wavelength 440 nm). Average spectral dependence of aerosol optical depth showed usual monotonic behavior, decreasing from 0.037 at 440 nm to 0.022 at 870 nm. Daily averaged Angstrom parameter was 0.84. Spatial and temporal variations in the Antarctic region were less or about 0.02 which is comparable with the measurement uncertainty. For a few days Microtops was collocated with the stationary sunphotometer ABAS-3 from the coastal Antarctic station Myrnyi and took simultaneous measurements. Presented results are compared with the long-term observations in Antarctica.
Recent measurements of middle atmospheric electric fields and related parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zadorozhny, A. M.; Tyutin, A. A.; Bragin, O. A.; Kikhtenko, V. N.
1994-03-01
In 1989, two series of rocket measurements were carried out to investigate middle atmosphere electric fields. The measurements were taken both in the Northern Hemisphere on Heiss Island (80 deg 37 N and 58 deg 03 min E) and in the Southern Hemisphere in the Indian Ocean (40-60 deg S and approx. 45 deg E) on board the research vessel 'Akademik Shirshov'. Along with the vertical electric fields, aerosol content and positive ion density were also measured. Some of the rocket launches were made during the extremely strong solar proton events (SPE) of October 1989. The experiments showed the strong variability of the electric fields in the middle atmosphere at polar and high middle latitudes. In all the measurements the maximum of the vertical electric field height profile in the lower mesosphere was observed to be more than approx. 1 V/m. The electric field strength and the field direction at maximum varied considerably among the launches. A maximum value of +12 V/m was detected at a height of about 58 km at 58 deg 30 mins on 21 October 1989 during the SPE. The simultaneous measurements of the electric field strength, positive ion density and aerosols point out both an ion-aerosol interaction and a connection between the mesospheric electric fields and aerosol content.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.; Sakerin, S. M.; Kabanov, D. M.; Slutsker, I.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T. L.; Remer, L. A.; Kahn, R.; Ignatov, A.; Liu, L.; Mishchenko, M.; Eck, T. F.; Kucsera, T. L.; Giles, D.; Kopelevich, O. V.
2006-07-01
Aerosol optical depth measurements were made in October-December 2004 onboard the R/V Akademik Sergey Vavilov. The cruise area included an Atlantic transect from North Sea to Cape Town and then a crossing in the South Atlantic to Argentina. In the open oceanic areas not influenced by continental sources aerosol optical depth values were close to background oceanic conditions (τa ~ 0.06-0.08). Spectral dependence, especially in the high latitude Southern Atlantic, can be considered as quasi-neutral (Angstrom parameter α was less than 0.4). Back-trajectory analysis allowed statistical division of the aerosol optical parameters and showed similar properties for the North Atlantic polar marine, South Atlantic subtropical marine and South Atlantic polar marine air. Ship-borne aerosol optical depth comparisons to GOCART model and satellite retrievals revealed systematic biases. Satellite retrieved optical depths are generally higher by 0.02-0.07 (depending on the sensor), especially in low τa conditions. GOCART model simulated optical depths correlate well with the ship measurements and, despite overall bias and a notable disparity with the observations in a number of cases, about 30% agree within +/-0.01.
Drag coefficients for winter Antarctic pack ice
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wamser, Christian; Martinson, Douglas G.
1993-01-01
Air-ice and ice-water drag coefficients referenced to 10-m-height winds for winter Antarctic pack ice based on measurements made from R/V Polarstern during the Winter Weddell Sea Project, 1986 (WWSP-86), and from R/V Akademik Fedorov during the Winter Weddell Gyre Study, 1989 (WWGS-89), are presented. The optimal values of the air-ice drag coefficients, made from turbulent flux measurements, are (1.79 +/- 0.06) x 10 exp -3 for WWSP-86 and (1.45 +/- 0.09) x 10 exp -3 for WWGS-89. A single ice-water drag coefficient for both WWSP-86 and WWGS-89, estimated from periods of ice drift throught to represent free-drift conditions, is (1.13 +/- 0.26) x 10 exp -3, and the ice-water turning angle is 18 +/- 18 deg. It is suggested that for a typical Antarctic winter pack ice cover, the ice cover reduces the momentum flux from the atmosphere to the ocean by about 33 percent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baranov, B. V.; Ivashchenko, A. I.; Dozorova, K. A.
2015-12-01
We present a structural study of the Central Kuril Islands forearc region, where the great megathrust tsunamigenic earthquake ( M w 8.3) occurred on November 15, 2006. Based on new bathymetry and seismic profiles obtained during two research cruises of R/V Akademik Lavrentiev in 2005 and 2006, ten crustal segments with along-arc length ranging from 30 to 100 km, separated by NS- and NW-trending transcurrent faults were identified within the forearc region. The transcurrent faults may serve as barriers impeding stress transfer between the neighboring segments, so that stress accumulated within separate forearc segments is usually released by earthquakes of moderate-to-strong magnitudes. However, the great November 15, 2006 earthquake ruptured seven of the crustal segments probably following a 226-year gap since the last great earthquake in 1780. The geographic extent of earthquake rupture zones, aftershock areas and earthquake clusters correlate well with forearc crustal segments identified using the geophysical data. Based on segmented structure of the Central Kuril Islands forearc region, we consider and discuss three scenarios of a great earthquake occurrence within this area. Although the margin is segmented, we suggest that a rupture could occupy the entire seismic gap with a total length of about 500 km. In such a case, the earthquake magnitude M w might exceed 8.5, and such an event might generate tsunami waves significantly exceeding in height to those produced by the great 2006-2007 Kuril earthquakes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Redzhepova, Z. U.; Dara, O. M.
2016-07-01
Along the transatlantic section from Ushuaia to Gdańsk (March 26-May 7, 2015; cruise 47 of R/V Akademik Ioffe), data were obtained on the concentrations of aerosols in the near-water layer of the atmosphere and of particulate matter in surface waters, as well as of organic compounds within the considered matter (Corg, chlorophyll a, lipids, and hydrocarbons). The concentrations of aerosols amounted to 1237-111 739 particles/L for the fraction of 0.3-1 μm and to 0.02-34.4 μg/m2/day for the matter collected by means of the network procedure. The distribution of aerosols is affected by circumcontinental zoning and by the fluxes from arid areas of African deserts. The maximum concentration of the treated compounds were found in the river-sea frontal area (the runoff of the Colorado River, Argentina), as well as when nearing the coasts, especially in the English Channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.; Sakerin, S.; Kabanov, D.; Slutsker, I.; Remer, L. A.; Kahn, R.; Ignatov, A.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T. L.; Mishchenko, M.; Liu, L.; Kucsera, T. L.; Giles, D.; Eck, T. F.; Torres, O.; Kopelevich, O.
2005-12-01
Aerosol optical depth measurements were made in October -December 2004 aboard of R/V Akademik Sergey Vavilov. The cruise area included the Atlantic transect from North Sea to Cape Town and then a crossing in the South Atlantic to Ushuaia, Argentina. The hand-held Microtops II sunphotometer was used to acquire 314 series of measurements spanning 38 days. The sunphotometer was pre-calibrated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center against a master sun/sky radiometer instrument of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The direct sun measurements were acquired in five spectral channels: 340, 440, 675, 870 and 940 nm. To retrieve aerosol optical depths we applied AERONET processing algorithm (Version 2) to the raw data. Aerosol optical depth values were close to background oceanic conditions (0.04-0.08) in the open oceanic areas not influenced by continental sources. Spectral dependence can be described as almost neutral (Angstrom parameter was less than 0.6), especially in the Southern Atlantic. A notable latitudinal variability of optical depth was observed between 15N and 21S, which was associated with the aerosol transport from Africa. Correlations between optical depth and meteorological parameters were considered and comparison between ship-based measurements and AERONET sites along the cruise track was made. Aerosol optical depths were compared to the global transport model (GOCART) simulations and satellite retrievals from MODIS, MISR, and AVHRR.
Multipoint observations of Ionospheric Alfvén Resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baru, N. A.; Koloskov, A. V.; Yampolsky, Y. M.; Rakhmatulin, R. A.
2016-09-01
Among the processes that form properties of the geospace in the circumterrestrial plasma the electromagnetic resonances of the Earth, such as Schummann Resonance (SR) and Ionospheric Alfvén Resonance (IAR) are of great importance. IAR is more localized in space than SR and its properties largely depend on the characteristics of the propagation medium. In contrast to the SR, which has global nature and which is continuously observable at any time of the day, IAR signals are registered mostly during the nighttime and demonstrate more variability of the parameters than SR signals. At the Earth surface IAR is registered as Spectral Resonance Structure of the natural electromagnetic noise at frequency range 0.1-40 Hz. In this work we studied an influence of the environment characteristics on IAR parameters by the means of multipoint observations. Annual data series recorded at Ukrainian Antarctic Station "Akademik Vernadsky", Low Frequency Observatory of the Institute of Radio Astronomy near Kharkov (Ukraine) and magnetic station of Sayan Solar Observatory Mondy near Irkutsk (Russia) were used for the analysis. We investigated the behaviour of IAR parameters, such as probability of resonance lines registration and frequency spacing Δ F, for annual and diurnal intervals. These parameters were compared with characteristics of the ionosphere above all of the observation points and geomagnetic activity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolnik, Jan; Wang, Yang; Oguzman, Ismail H.; Brennan, Kevin F.
1994-01-01
The electron interband impact-ionization rate for both silicon and gallium arsenide is calculated using an ensemble Monte Carlo simulation with the expressed purpose of comparing different formulations of the interband ionization transition rate. Specifically, three different treatments of the transition rate are examined: the traditional Keldysh formula, a new k-dependent analytical formulation first derived by W. Quade, E. Scholl, and M. Rudan (1993), and a more exact, numerical method of Y. Wang and K. F. Brennan (1994). Although the completely numerical formulation contains no adjustable parameters and as such provides a very reliable result, it is highly computationally intensive. Alternatively, the Keldysh formular, although inherently simple and computationally efficient, fails to include the k dependence as well as the details of the energy band structure. The k-dependent analytical formulation of Quade and co-workers overcomes the limitations of both of these models but at the expense of some new parameterization. It is found that the k-dependent analytical method of Quade and co-workers produces very similar results to those obtained with the completely numerical model for some quantities. Specifically, both models predict that the effective threshold for impact ionization in GaAs and silicon is quite soft, that the majority of ionization events originate from the second conduction band in both materials, and that the transition rate is k dependent. Therefore, it is concluded that the k-dependent analytical model can qualitatively reproduce results similar to those obtained with the numerical model yet with far greater computational efficiency. Nevertheless, there exist some important drawbacks to the k-dependent analytical model of Quade and co-workers: These are that it does not accurately reproduce the quantum yield data for bulk silicon, it requires determination of a new parameter, related physically to the overlap intergrals of the Bloch state which
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolnik, Jan; Wang, Yang; Oguzman, Ismail H.; Brennan, Kevin F.
1994-01-01
The electron interband impact-ionization rate for both silicon and gallium arsenide is calculated using an ensemble Monte Carlo simulation with the expressed purpose of comparing different formulations of the interband ionization transition rate. Specifically, three different treatments of the transition rate are examined: the traditional Keldysh formula, a new k-dependent analytical formulation first derived by W. Quade, E Scholl, and M. Rudan, and a more exact, numerical method of Y. Wang and K. F. Brennan. Although the completely numerical formulation contains no adjustable parameters and as such provides a very reliable result, it is highly computationally intensive. Alternatively, the Keldysh formula, although inherently simple and computationally efficient, fails to include the k dependence as well as the details of the energy band structure. The k-dependent analytical formulation of Quade and co-workers overcomes the limitations of both of these models but at the expense of some new parameterization. It is found that the k-dependent analytical method of Quade and co-workers produces very similar results to those obtained with (he completely numerical model for some quantities. Specifically, both models predict that the effective threshold for impact ionization in GaAs and silicon is quite soft, that the majority of ionization events originate from the second conduction band in both materials, and that the transition rate is k dependent. Therefore, it is concluded that the k-dependent analytical model can qualitatively reproduce results similar to those obtained with the numerical model yet with far greater computational efficiency. Nevertheless, there exist some important drawbacks to the k-dependent analytical model of Quade and co-workers: These are that it does not accurately reproduce the quantum yield data for bulk silicon, it requires determination of a new parameter, related physically to (he overlap integrals of the Bloch state which can only be
Nichols, T.D.
1991-04-01
Measured rates of multiphoton ionization (MPI) from the ground state of atomic hydrogen by a linearly polarized, subpicosecond KrF laser pulse at 248 nm wavelength are compared to predictions of lowest-order perturbation theory, Floquet theory, and Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss (KFR) theory with and without Coulomb correction for peak irradiance of 3 {times} 10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14}W/cm{sup 2}. The Coulomb-corrected Keldysh model falls closest to the measured rates, the others being much higher or much lower. At 5 {times} 10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2}, the number of ATI electrons decreased by a factor of approximately 40 with each additional photon absorbed. ATI of the molecular hydrogen background and of atoms from photodissociation of the molecules were also observed. The experiment employed a crossed-beam technique at ultrahigh vacuum with an rf-discharge atomic hydrogen source and a magnetic-bottle type electron time-of-flight spectrometer to count the electrons in the different ATI channels separately. The apparatus was calibrated to allow comparison of absolute as well as relative ionization rates to the theoretical predictions. This calibration involved measuring the distribution of irradiance in a focal volume that moved randomly and changed its size from time to time. A data collection system under computer control divided the time-of-flight spectra into bins according to the energy of each laser pulse. This is the first measurement of absolute rates of ATI in atomic hydrogen, and the first measurement of absolute test of MPI in atomic hydrogen without a large factor to account for multiple modes in the laser field. As such, the results of this work are important to the development of ATI theories, which presently differ by orders of magnitude in their prediction of the ionization rates. They are also important to recent calculations of temperatures in laser-heated plasmas, many of which incorporate KFR theory.
Transport et bruit quantique dans les fils mésoscopiques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrès, J.
2002-01-01
Un conducteur quantique est bien caractérisé par sa conductance donnée par la formule de Landauer. Mais le bruit contient davantage d'informations que la conductance : il mesure les fluctuations temporelles du courant autour de sa valeur moyenne. De plus, le signe des corrélations de bruit est lié à la statistique des porteurs de charge. Dans une jonction entre un métal normal et un supraconducteur, le bruit présente une singularité à la fréquence Josephson, signature de la charge 2e des paires de Cooper impliquées dans le transport. Lorsque la tension appliquée est supérieure au gap du supraconducteur, la courbe du bruit exhibe des singularités à plusieurs fréquences auxquelles on peut associer un processus de réflexion ou de transmission. L'analogue fermionique de l'expérience d'Hanbury-Brown et Twiss avec un supraconducteur permet d'observer à la fois des corrélations positives et négatives dans un même système. Maintenir une différence de potentiel entre les deux extrémités d'un fil crée une situation relevant de la thermodynamique hors de l'équilibre. Formellement, on peut se ramener à un calcul à l'équilibre et écrire une théorie des perturbations grâce à la méthode de Keldysh. La théorie des liquides de Luttinger décrit les systèmes unidimensionnels d'électrons en interaction. Le hamiltonien peut se mettre sous forme quadratique grâce à la bosonisation. D'autre part, un liquide de Luttinger chiral constitue un bon modèle des états de bord de l'effet Hall quantique fractionnaire. Grâce au formalisme de Keldysh, on peut retrouver une formule de type Schottky et identifier la charge des quasiparticules de Laughlin.
Weidinger, Simon A.; Knap, Michael
2017-01-01
We study the regimes of heating in the periodically driven O(N)-model, which is a well established model for interacting quantum many-body systems. By computing the absorbed energy with a non-equilibrium Keldysh Green’s function approach, we establish three dynamical regimes: at short times a single-particle dominated regime, at intermediate times a stable Floquet prethermal regime in which the system ceases to absorb, and at parametrically late times a thermalizing regime. Our simulations suggest that in the thermalizing regime the absorbed energy grows algebraically in time with an exponent that approaches the universal value of 1/2, and is thus significantly slower than linear Joule heating. Our results demonstrate the parametric stability of prethermal states in a many-body system driven at frequencies that are comparable to its microscopic scales. This paves the way for realizing exotic quantum phases, such as time crystals or interacting topological phases, in the prethermal regime of interacting Floquet systems. PMID:28368025
Ionization of a multilevel atom by ultrashort laser pulses
Andreev, A. V.; Stremoukhov, S. Yu.; Shutova, O. A.
2010-01-15
Specific features of ionization of single atoms by laser fields of a near-atomic strength are investigated. Calculations are performed for silver atoms interacting with femtosecond laser pulses with wavelengths {lambda} = 800 nm (Ti:Sapphire) and {lambda} = 1.064 {mu}m (Nd:YAG). The dependences of the probability of ionization and of the form of the photoelectron energy spectra on the field of laser pulses for various values of their duration are considered. It is shown that the behavior of the probability of ionization in the range of subatomic laser pulse fields is in good agreement with the Keldysh formula. However, when the field strength attains values close to the atomic field strength, the discrepancies in these dependences manifested in a decrease in the ionization rate (ionization stabilization effect) or in its increase (accelerated ionization) are observed. These discrepancies are associated with the dependence of the population dynamics of excited discrete energy levels of the atom on the laser pulse field amplitude.
Dual wavelength laser damage mechanisms in the ultra-short pulse regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyamfi, Mark; Costella, Marion; Willemsen, Thomas; Jürgens, Peter; Mende, Mathias; Jensen, Lars; Ristau, Detlev
2016-12-01
New ultrashort pulse laser systems exhibit an ever increasing performance which includes shorter pulses and higher pulse energies. Optical components used in these systems are facing increasing requirements regarding their durability, and therefore understanding of the damage mechanism is crucial. In the ultra-short pulse regime electron ionization processes control the damage mechanisms. For the single wavelength, single pulse regime the Keldysh [1] and the Drude model [2] allow a quantitative description of these ionization processes. However, in this model, the electrical field is restricted to a single wavelength, and therefore it cannot be applied in the case of irradiation with two pulses at different wavelengths. As frequency conversion is becoming more common in ultra-short pulse applications, further research is needed in this field to predict the damage resistance of optical components. We investigate the damage behavior of high reflective mirrors made of different metal oxide materials under simultaneous exposure to ultra-short pulses at the wavelengths 387.5 nm and 775 nm, respectively.
Adiabatic and non-adiabatic charge pumping in a single-level molecular motor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Napitu, B. D.; Thijssen, J. M.
2015-07-01
We propose a design for realizing quantum charge pump based on a recent proposal for a molecular motor (Seldenthuis J S et al 2010 ACS Nano 4 6681). Our design is based on the presence of a moiety with a permanent dipole moment which can rotate, thereby modulating the couplings to metallic contacts at both ends of the molecule. Using the non-equilibrium Keldysh Green’s function formalism (NEGF), we show that our design indeed generates a pump current. In the non-interacting pump, the variation of frequency from adiabatic to non-adiabatic regime, can be used to control the direction as well as the amplitude of the average current. The effect of Coulomb interaction is considered within the first- and the second- order perturbation. The numerical implementation of the scheme is quite demanding, and we develop an analytical approximation to obtain a speed-up giving results within a reasonable time. We find that the amplitude of the average pumped current can be controlled by both the driving frequency and the Coulomb interaction. The direction of of pumped current is shown to be determined by the phase difference between left and right anchoring groups.
Dong, B; Ding, G H; Lei, X L
2015-05-27
A general theoretical formulation for the effect of a strong on-site Coulomb interaction on the time-dependent electron transport through a quantum dot under the influence of arbitrary time-varying bias voltages and/or external fields is presented, based on slave bosons and the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function (GF) techniques. To avoid the difficulties of computing double-time GFs, we generalize the propagation scheme recently developed by Croy and Saalmann to combine the auxiliary-mode expansion with the celebrated Lacroix's decoupling approximation in dealing with the second-order correlated GFs and then establish a closed set of coupled equations of motion, called second-order quantum rate equations (SOQREs), for an exact description of transient dynamics of electron correlated tunneling. We verify that the stationary solution of our SOQREs is able to correctly describe the Kondo effect on a qualitative level. Moreover, a comparison with other methods, such as the second-order von Neumann approach and Hubbard-I approximation, is performed. As illustrations, we investigate the transient current behaviors in response to a step voltage pulse and a harmonic driving voltage, and linear admittance as well, in the cotunneling regime.
Yu, Zhizhou; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jian
2013-12-11
We report an investigation of Coulomb blockade transport through an endohedral N@C60 weakly coupled with aluminum leads, employing the first-principles method combined with the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function derived from the equation of motion beyond the Hartree-Fock approximation. The differential conductance characteristics of the molecular device are calculated within the Coulomb blockade regime, which shows the Coulomb diamond as observed experimentally. When the gate voltage is less than that of the degeneracy point, there are two peaks in the differential conductance with an excited state induced by the change of the exchange interaction between the spin of C60 and the encapsulated nitrogen atom due to the transition from N@C(1-)(60) to N@C(2-)(60), while for a gate voltage larger than that of the degeneracy point, no excited state is available due to the quenching of exchange energy. As a result, there is only one Coulomb blockade peak in the differential conductance from the electron tunneling through the highest energy level below the Fermi level. Our first-principles results are in good agreement with experimental data obtained by an endohedral N@C60 molecular device.
Feng, Zimin; Sun, Qing-feng; Wan, Langhui; Guo, Hong
2011-10-19
We report the development and an application of a symbolic tool, called SymGF, for analytical derivations of quantum transport properties using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The inputs to SymGF are the device Hamiltonian in the second quantized form, the commutation relation of the operators and the truncation rules of the correlators. The outputs of SymGF are the desired NEGF that appear in the transport formula, in terms of the unperturbed Green's function of the device scattering region and its coupling to the device electrodes. For complicated transport analysis involving strong interactions and correlations, SymGF provides significant assistance in analytical derivations. Using this tool, we investigate coherent quantum transport in a double quantum dot system where strong on-site interaction exists in the side-coupled quantum dot. Results obtained by the higher-order approximation and Hartree-Fock approximation are compared. The higher-order approximation reveals Kondo resonance features in the density of states and conductances. Results are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively to the experimental data reported in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiocchetta, Alessio; Tavora, Marco; Gambassi, Andrea; Mitra, Aditi
2016-10-01
We investigate the effects of fluctuations on the dynamics of an isolated quantum system represented by a (ϕ2)2 field theory with O (N ) symmetry after a quench in d >2 spatial dimensions. A perturbative renormalization-group approach involving a dimensional expansion in ɛ =4 -d is employed in order to study the evolution within a prethermal regime controlled by elastic dephasing. In particular, we focus on a quench from a disordered initial state to the critical point, which introduces an effective temporal boundary in the evolution. At this boundary, the relevant fields acquire an anomalous scaling dimension, while the evolution of both the order parameter and its correlation and response functions display universal aging. Since the relevant excitations propagate ballistically, a light cone in real space emerges. At longer times, the onset of inelastic scattering appears as secularly growing self-generated dissipation in the effective Keldysh field theory, with the strength of the dissipative vertices providing an estimate for the time needed to leave the prethermal regime.
Ultrafast relaxation and transfer of charge carriers in type-II heterodoping (n-i-p-i) superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moritz, N.; Hauenstein, H. M.; Seilmeier, A.
1995-12-01
In all-optical experiments, transient nonlinear absorption changes due to band filling and the Franz-Keldysh effect are used to study the ultrafast dynamics of charge carriers in AlxGa1-xAs type-II-hetero-n-i-p-i structures containing a single 20-nm-wide GaAs quantum well in each Ultrafast relaxation and transfer of charge carriers in type-II heterodoping superlattices intrinsic region. Pump pulses of 0.6 ps duration inject electron-hole pairs exclusively in the quantum wells located in the region with high electric field. We observe carrier cooling and thermionic transfer of the thermalized carriers perpendicular to the layers. The measured transfer times between ~50 and ~500 ps are found to increase with excitation power. The transfer process is followed by lateral carrier diffusion and, finally, by interband recombination which proceeds on a time scale from 100 μs to several seconds depending on the density of photoexcited carriers. The experimental results are compared with model calculations on Thomas-Fermi approximation.
Effect of modulating field on photoreflectance simulated by electroreflectance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiou, S. J.; Sung, Y. G.; Wang, D. P.; Huang, K. F.; Huang, T. C.; Chu, A. K.
1999-04-01
Photoreflectance (PR) of surface-intrinsic-n+ (s-i-n+) type doped GaAs has been simulated by electroreflectance (ER). The simulated spectra of the s-i-n+ sample have exhibited many Franz-Keldysh oscillations, which enable the electric field (F) to be determined. It is known that F's determined from PR are subjected to photovoltaic effect and the measured F is close to Fbi-δF/2 when the modulating field, δF≪Fbi, where Fbi is the built-in field of the sample and δF is the modulating field. In this work, we have investigated the relation between the measured F and δF not only for the region where δF≪Fbi holds, but also for a whole range of δF. In order to determine the magnitude of δF, we have used ER to simulate PR, that is, the measurements of ER under a forward bias, which is set to be equal to δF/2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, D. P.; Huang, K. M.; Shen, T. L.; Huang, K. F.; Huang, T. C.
1998-01-01
The electroreflectance (ER) spectra of an undoped-n+ type doped GaAs has been measured at various amplitudes of modulating fields (δF). Many Franz-Keldysh oscillations were observed above the band gap energy, thus enabling the electric field (F) in the undoped layer to be determined. The F is obtained by applying fast Fourier transformation to the ER spectra. When δF is small, the power spectrum can be clearly resolved into two peaks, which corresponds to heavy- and light-hole transitions. When δF is less than ˜1/8 of the built-in field (Fbi˜77 420 V/cm), the F deduced from the ER is almost independent of δF. However, when larger than this, F is increased with δF. Also, when δF is increased to larger than ˜1/8 of Fbi, a shoulder appears on the right side of the heavy-hole peak of the power spectrum. The separation between the main peak and the shoulder of the heavy-hole peak becomes wider as δF becomes larger.
One-step theory of two-photon photoemission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, J.; Rausch, R.; Potthoff, M.; Ebert, H.
2016-09-01
A theoretical frame for two-photon photoemission is derived from the general theory of pump-probe photoemission, assuming that not only the probe but also the pump pulse is sufficiently weak. This allows us to use a perturbative approach to compute the lesser Green function within the Keldysh formalism. Two-photon photoemission spectroscopy is a widely used analytical tool to study nonequilibrium phenomena in solid materials. Our theoretical approach aims at a material-specific, realistic, and quantitative description of the time-dependent spectrum based on a picture of effectively independent electrons as described by the local-density approximation in band-structure theory. To this end we follow Pendry's one-step theory of the photoemission process as close as possible and heavily make use of concepts of relativistic multiple-scattering theory, such as the representation of the final state by a time-reversed low-energy electron diffraction state. The formalism allows for a quantitative calculation of the time-dependent photocurrent for moderately correlated systems like simple metals or more complex compounds like topological insulators. An application to the Ag(100) surface is discussed in detail.
Fermi level and bands offsets determination in insulating (Ga,Mn)N/GaN structures
Janicki, L.; Kunert, G.; Sawicki, M.; Piskorska-Hommel, E.; Gas, K.; Jakiela, R.; Hommel, D.; Kudrawiec, R.
2017-01-01
The Fermi level position in (Ga,Mn)N has been determined from the period-analysis of GaN-related Franz-Keldysh oscillation obtained by contactless electroreflectance in a series of carefully prepared by molecular beam epitaxy GaN/Ga1−xMnxN/GaN(template) bilayers of various Mn concentration x. It is shown that the Fermi level in (Ga,Mn)N is strongly pinned in the middle of the band gap and the thickness of the depletion layer is negligibly small. For x > 0.1% the Fermi level is located about 1.25–1.55 eV above the valence band, that is very close to, but visibly below the Mn-related Mn2+/Mn3+ impurity band. The accumulated data allows us to estimate the Mn-related band offsets at the (Ga,Mn)N/GaN interface. It is found that most of the band gap change in (Ga,Mn)N takes place in the valence band on the absolute scale and amounts to −0.028 ± 0.008 eV/% Mn. The strong Fermi level pinning in the middle of the band gap, no carrier conductivity within the Mn-related impurity band, and a good homogeneity enable a novel functionality of (Ga,Mn)N as a semi-insulating buffer layers for applications in GaN-based heterostuctures. PMID:28150798
Medium corrections to the CP-violating parameter in leptogenesis
Garny, M.; Hohenegger, A.; Kartavtsev, A.
2010-04-15
In two recent papers, it has been demonstrated that one can obtain quantum-corrected Boltzmann kinetic equations for leptogenesis using a top-down approach based on the Schwinger-Keldysh/Kadanoff-Baym formalism. These 'Boltzmann-like' equations are similar to the ones obtained in the conventional bottom-up approach but differ in important details. In particular there is a discrepancy between the CP-violating parameter obtained in the first-principle derivation and in the framework of thermal field theory. Here we demonstrate that the two approaches can be reconciled if causal n-point functions are used in the thermal field theory approach. The new result for the medium correction to the CP-violating parameter is qualitatively different from the conventional one. The analogy to a toy model considered earlier enables us to write down consistent quantum-corrected Boltzmann equations, for thermal leptogenesis in the standard model extended by three right-handed neutrinos, which include quantum statistical terms and medium-corrected expressions for the CP-violating parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudryashov, Sergey I.
2004-09-01
Analysis of processes affecting transient optical absorption and photogeneration of electron-hole plasma in silicon pumped by an intense NIR or visible femtosecond laser pulse has been performed taking into account the most important electron-photon, electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions and, as a result, two main regimes of such laser-matter interaction have been revealed. The first regime is concerned with indirect interband optical absorption in Si, enhanced by a coherent shrinkage of its smallest indirect bandgap due to dynamic Franz-Keldysh effect (DFKE). The second regime takes place due to the critical renormalization of the Si direct bandgap along Λ-axis of its first Brillouin zone because of DFKE and the deformation potential electron-phonon interaction and occurs as intense direct single-photon excitation of electrons into one of the quadruplet of equivalent Λ-valleys in the lowest conduction band, which is split down due to the electron-phonon interaction.
Laser-induced torques in metallic ferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy
2016-10-01
We study laser-induced torques in bcc Fe, hcp Co, and L 10 FePt based on first-principles electronic structure calculations and the Keldysh nonequilibrium formalism. We find that the torques have two contributions, one from the inverse Faraday effect (IFE) and one from the optical spin-transfer torque (OSTT). Depending on the ferromagnet at hand and on the quasiparticle broadening the two contributions may be of similar magnitude, or one contribution may dominate over the other. Additionally, we determine the nonequilibrium spin polarization in order to investigate its relation to the torque. We find the torques and the perpendicular component of the nonequilibrium spin polarization to be odd in the helicity of the laser light, while the spin polarization that is induced parallel to the magnetization is helicity independent. The parallel component of the nonequilibrium spin polarization is orders of magnitude larger than the perpendicular component. In the case of hcp Co we find good agreement between the calculated laser-induced torque and a recent experiment.
Fermi level and bands offsets determination in insulating (Ga,Mn)N/GaN structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janicki, L.; Kunert, G.; Sawicki, M.; Piskorska-Hommel, E.; Gas, K.; Jakiela, R.; Hommel, D.; Kudrawiec, R.
2017-02-01
The Fermi level position in (Ga,Mn)N has been determined from the period-analysis of GaN-related Franz-Keldysh oscillation obtained by contactless electroreflectance in a series of carefully prepared by molecular beam epitaxy GaN/Ga1‑xMnxN/GaN(template) bilayers of various Mn concentration x. It is shown that the Fermi level in (Ga,Mn)N is strongly pinned in the middle of the band gap and the thickness of the depletion layer is negligibly small. For x > 0.1% the Fermi level is located about 1.25–1.55 eV above the valence band, that is very close to, but visibly below the Mn-related Mn2+/Mn3+ impurity band. The accumulated data allows us to estimate the Mn-related band offsets at the (Ga,Mn)N/GaN interface. It is found that most of the band gap change in (Ga,Mn)N takes place in the valence band on the absolute scale and amounts to ‑0.028 ± 0.008 eV/% Mn. The strong Fermi level pinning in the middle of the band gap, no carrier conductivity within the Mn-related impurity band, and a good homogeneity enable a novel functionality of (Ga,Mn)N as a semi-insulating buffer layers for applications in GaN-based heterostuctures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Dyke, John S.; Morr, Dirk K.
2017-01-01
Using the nonequilibrium Keldysh Green's function formalism, we investigate the effect of defects on the electronic structure and transport properties of two-dimensional topological insulators (TI). We demonstrate how the spatial flow of charge changes between the topologically protected edge and bulk states and show that elastically and inelastically scattering defects that preserve the time-reversal symmetry of the TI lead to qualitatively different effects on the TI's local electronic structure and its transport properties. Moreover, we show that the recently predicted ability to create highly spin-polarized currents by breaking the time-reversal symmetry of the TI via magnetic defects [J. S. Van Dyke and D. K. Morr, Phys. Rev. B 93, 081401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.081401] is robust against the inclusion of a Rashba spin-orbit interaction and the effects of dephasing, and remains unaffected by changes over a wide range of the TI's parameters. We discuss how the sign of the induced spin currents changes under symmetry operations, such as reversal of bias and gate voltages, or spatial reflections. Finally, we show that the insight into the interplay between topology and symmetry of the magnetic defects can be employed for the creation of intriguing quantum phenomena, such as highly localized magnetic fields inside the TI.
Sabzyan, Hassan; Vafaee, Mohsen
2005-06-15
Ionization rates of the hydrogen molecular ion H{sub 2}{sup +} under linearly polarized pulse of intense laser fields are simulated by direct solution of the fixed-nuclei time-dependent Schroedinger equation for the Ti:sapphire laser lines {lambda}=790 and 800 nm at high intensities starting from just above the Coulomb explosion threshold (i.e., 6.0x10{sup 13}, 1.0x10{sup 14}, 3.2x10{sup 14}, and 1.4x10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}). Results obtained in this research exhibit a high degree of complexity for the R-dependent enhanced ionization rates for the H{sub 2}{sup +} system in these intense laser fields. The R-dependent ionization peaks move towards small internuclear distances and their structure becomes simpler and smoother with the increase in the intensity of the laser pulse, i.e., with the decrease in the Keldysh parameter. Results obtained in this research are comparable to and even more reliable than the results of other theoretical calculations reported recently and successfully simulate the experimental ionization data.
Diagrammatic description of a system coupled strongly to a bosonic bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marthaler, Michael; Leppäkangas, Juha
2016-10-01
We study a system-bath description in the strong-coupling regime where it is not possible to derive a master equation for the reduced density matrix by a direct expansion in the system-bath coupling. A particular example is a bath with significant spectral weight at low frequencies. Through a unitary transformation, it can be possible to find a more suitable small expansion parameter. Within such an approach, we construct a formally exact expansion of the master equation on the Keldysh contour. We consider a system diagonally coupled to a bosonic bath and expansion in terms of a nondiagonal hopping term. The lowest-order expansion is equivalent to the so-called P (E ) theory or noninteracting blip approximation. The analysis of the higher-order contributions shows that there are two different classes of higher-order diagrams. We study how the convergence of this expansion depends on the form of the spectral function with significant weight at zero frequency.
Reprint of : Block-determinant formalism for an action of a multi-terminal scatterer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarov, Yuli V.
2016-08-01
The scattering theory of electron transport allows for a compact and powerful description in terms of gˇ2 = 1 Green functions, the so-called circuit theory of quantum transport. A scatterer in the theory is characterized by an action, most generally a Keldysh one, that can be further used as a building bock of theories describing statistics of electron transport, superconducting correlations, time-dependent and interaction effects. The action is usually used in the form suitable for a two-terminal scatterer. Here we provide a comprehensive derivation of a more general form of the action that is especially suitable and convenient for general multi-terminal scatterers. The action is expressed as a determinant of a block of the scattering matrix obtained by projection on the positive eigenvalues of the Green functions characterizing the reservoirs. We start with traditional Green function formalism introducing gˇ2 = 1 matrices and give a first example of multi-terminal counting statistics. Further we consider one-dimensional channels and discuss chiral anomaly arising in this context. Generalizing on many channels and superconducting situation, we arrive at the block-determinant relation. We give the necessary elaborative examples reproducing basic results of counting statistics and super-currents in multi-terminal junctions.
Block-determinant formalism for an action of a multi-terminal scatterer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarov, Yuli V.
2015-11-01
The scattering theory of electron transport allows for a compact and powerful description in terms of gˇ2 = 1 Green functions, the so-called circuit theory of quantum transport. A scatterer in the theory is characterized by an action, most generally a Keldysh one, that can be further used as a building bock of theories describing statistics of electron transport, superconducting correlations, time-dependent and interaction effects. The action is usually used in the form suitable for a two-terminal scatterer. Here we provide a comprehensive derivation of a more general form of the action that is especially suitable and convenient for general multi-terminal scatterers. The action is expressed as a determinant of a block of the scattering matrix obtained by projection on the positive eigenvalues of the Green functions characterizing the reservoirs. We start with traditional Green function formalism introducing gˇ2 = 1 matrices and give a first example of multi-terminal counting statistics. Further we consider one-dimensional channels and discuss chiral anomaly arising in this context. Generalizing on many channels and superconducting situation, we arrive at the block-determinant relation. We give the necessary elaborative examples reproducing basic results of counting statistics and super-currents in multi-terminal junctions.
Ferromagnetic STM tip operating as a Spin-diode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penteado, Poliana H.; Souza, Fabricio M.; Seridonio, Antônio C.; Coutinho, Renato M.; Vernek, Edson; Egues, J. Carlos
2011-03-01
We study spin-dependent transport in a system composed of a ferromagnetic STM tip coupled to an adsorbed atom (adatom) and to a host metallic (non-magnetic) surface. Electrons can tunnel directly from the tip to the surface or through the adatom. Our calculation is based on the nonequilibrium Green functions technique (Keldysh formalism). We self-consistently calculate the adatom spin occupation and its magnetization as a function of the tip position. We find that the adatom becomes magnetized when the tip approaches it; this magnetization switches sign as the voltage changes from forward to reverse bias. We also calculate the spin-resolved currents. If the tip is near the adatom, we obtain the spin-diode effect [PRB 75, 165303 (2007)] - i. e., unpolarized current for positive bias and polarized current for reverse bias - when the adatom is singly occupied. We also observe Friedel oscillations in the current as the tip-adatom distance increases [F. M. Souza, P. H. Penteado, et al. - to be submitted]. This work was supported by the funding agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPEMIG and FAPESP.
Wang, Xiaodong; Pan, Ming; Hou, Liwei; Xie, Wei; Hu, Weida Xu, Jintong; Li, Xiangyang; Chen, Xiaoshuang Lu, Wei
2014-01-07
The gain and photoresponse characteristics have been numerically studied for back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) GaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The parameters of fundamental models are calibrated by simultaneously comparing the simulated dark and light current characteristics with the experimental results. Effects of environmental temperatures and device dimensions on gain characteristics have been investigated, and a method to achieve the optimum thickness of charge layer is obtained. The dependence of gain characteristics and breakdown voltage on the doping concentration of the charge layer is also studied in detail to get the optimal charge layer. The bias-dependent spectral responsivity and quantum efficiency are then presented to study the photoresponse mechanisms inside SAM GaN APDs. It is found the responsivity peak red-shifts at first due to the Franz-Keldysh effect and then blue-shifts due to the reach-through effect of the absorption layer. Finally, a new SAM GaN/AlGaN heterojunction APD structure is proposed for optimizing SAM GaN APDs.
The dynamics of small molecules in intense laser fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Posthumus, J. H.
2004-05-01
In the past decade, the understanding of the dynamics of small molecules in intense laser fields has advanced enormously. At the same time, the technology of ultra-short pulsed lasers has equally progressed to such an extent that femtosecond lasers are now widely available. This review is written from an experimentalist's point of view and begins by discussing the value of this research and defining the meaning of the word 'intense'. It continues with describing the Ti : sapphire laser, including topics such as pulse compression, chirped pulse amplification, optical parametric amplification, laser-pulse diagnostics and the absolute phase. Further aspects include focusing, the focal volume effect and space charge. The discussion of physics begins with the Keldysh parameter and the three regimes of ionization, i.e. multi-photon, tunnelling and over-the-barrier. Direct-double ionization (non-sequential ionization), high-harmonic generation, above-threshold ionization and attosecond pulses are briefly mentioned. Subsequently, a theoretical calculation, which solves the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, is compared with an experimental result. The dynamics of H_{2}^{ + } in an intense laser field is interpreted in terms of bond-softening, vibrational trapping (bond-hardening), below-threshold dissociation and laser-induced alignment of the molecular axis. The final section discusses the modified Franck-Condon principle, enhanced ionization at critical distances and Coulomb explosion of diatomic and triatomic molecules.
Developing the OEIC solutions using two section light-emitting transistor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Shan-Fong; Hsu, Yuan-Fu; Cheng, Gong-Sheng; Wu, Chao-Hsin
2016-02-01
An integrated on-chip optical device composed of a multiple quantum-well light-emitter and photodetector in the lightemitting transistor (LET) platform is fabricated. The two devices are 400 μm in length and electrically isolated by dry etching with 4.9 μm gap. The two facets are formed by cleaving for optical output. In this report, we discuss the characteristics of the two-section device and demonstrate the optical detection by the heterojunction phototransistor (HPT) under different operation points (IB and VCE) and injected optical powers. The collector current of the HPT is 74.88 mA without illumination and 83.87 mA under illumination of 7.46μW at VCE = 3 V and IB = 12 mA, which exhibits 12% increment. The responsivity of the InGaP/GaAs HPT can reach to 711.74 A/W. At the electrical modulation bandwidth of phototransistor fT is enhanced from 1.4 GHz to 1.51 GHz under illumination. This is attributed to the Franz-Keldysh photon-assisted absorption at base-collector junction of light-emitting transistor, which produces additional holes and electrons to enhance the current gain. Through the analysis of small-signal equivalent circuit models, we can show the transit time by de-embedding the circuit parasitic effect. Extracting those parameters can clearly know the thermionic emission lifetime in the quantum well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, S. A.; Yabana, K.; Shinohara, Y.; Otobe, T.; Lee, K.-M.; Bertsch, G. F.
2015-11-01
We calculate the energy deposition by very short laser pulses in SiO2 (α -quartz) with a view to establishing systematics for predicting damage and nanoparticle production. The theoretical framework is time-dependent density functional theory, implemented by the real-time method in a multiscale representation. For the most realistic simulations we employ a meta-GGA Kohn-Sham potential similar to that of Becke and Johnson. We find that the deposited energy in the medium can be accurately modeled as a function of the local electromagnetic pulse fluence. The energy-deposition function can in turn be quite well fitted to the strong-field Keldysh formula for a range of intensities from below the melting threshold to well beyond the ablation threshold. We find reasonable agreement between the damage threshold and the energy required to melt the substrate. Also, the depth of the ablated crater at higher energies is fairly well reproduced assuming that the material ablated with the energy exceeds that required to convert it to an atomic fluid. However, the calculated ablation threshold is higher than experiment, suggesting a nonthermal mechanism for the surface ablation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misawa, Tetsuro; Yokoyama, Takehito; Murakami, Shuichi
2012-02-01
Recent photoelectron spectroscopy experiments have revealed the presence of the Dirac cone on the surface of the topological insulator and its spin-splitting due to the spin-orbit interaction. In general, on spin-orbit coupled systems, electric fields induce spin polarizations as linear and nonlinear responses. Here we investigate the inverse Faraday effect on the surface of the topological insulator. The inverse Faraday effect is a non-linear optical effect where a circularly polarized light induces a dc spin polarization. We employ the Keldysh Green's function method to calculate the induced spin polarization and discuss its frequency dependence. In particular, in the low frequency limit, our analytical result gives the spin polarization proportional to the frequency and the square of the lifetime. As for the finite frequency regime, we employ numerical methods to discuss the resonance due to interband transitions. We also discuss the photogalvanic effect, where an illumination of a circular polarized light generates the dc charge current. Lastly, we evaluate those quantities with realistic parameters.[4pt] [1] T. Misawa, T. Yokoyama, S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. B84, 165407 (2011).
Viscosity and dissipative hydrodynamics from effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grozdanov, Sašo; Polonyi, Janos
2015-05-01
With the goal of deriving dissipative hydrodynamics from an action, we study classical actions for open systems, which follow from the generic structure of effective actions in the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time-path (CTP) formalism with two time axes and a doubling of degrees of freedom. The central structural feature of such effective actions is the coupling between degrees of freedom on the two time axes. This reflects the fact that from an effective field theory point of view, dissipation is the loss of energy of the low-energy hydrodynamical degrees of freedom to the integrated-out, UV degrees of freedom of the environment. The dynamics of only the hydrodynamical modes may therefore not possess a conserved stress-energy tensor. After a general discussion of the CTP effective actions, we use the variational principle to derive the energy-momentum balance equation for a dissipative fluid from an effective Goldstone action of the long-range hydrodynamical modes. Despite the absence of conserved energy and momentum, we show that we can construct the first-order dissipative stress-energy tensor and derive the Navier-Stokes equations near hydrodynamical equilibrium. The shear viscosity is shown to vanish in the classical theory under consideration, while the bulk viscosity is determined by the form of the effective action. We also discuss the thermodynamics of the system and analyze the entropy production.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amundsen, Morten; Linder, Jacob
2016-03-01
An extension of quasiclassical Keldysh-Usadel theory to higher spatial dimensions than one is crucial in order to describe physical phenomena like charge/spin Hall effects and topological excitations like vortices and skyrmions, none of which are captured in one-dimensional models. We here present a numerical finite element method which solves the non-linearized 2D and 3D quasiclassical Usadel equation relevant for the diffusive regime. We show the application of this on three model systems with non-trivial geometries: (i) a bottlenecked Josephson junction with external flux, (ii) a nanodisk ferromagnet deposited on top of a superconductor and (iii) superconducting islands in contact with a ferromagnet. In case (i), we demonstrate that one may control externally not only the geometrical array in which superconducting vortices arrange themselves, but also to cause coalescence and tune the number of vortices. In case (iii), we show that the supercurrent path can be tailored by incorporating magnetic elements in planar Josephson junctions which also lead to a strong modulation of the density of states. The finite element method presented herein paves the way for gaining insight in physical phenomena which have remained largely unexplored due to the complexity of solving the full quasiclassical equations in higher dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jing-Jing; Liang, Feng; Yang, Yong-Hong; Wang, Jun
2009-12-01
We report a theoretic study on the inverse spin-Hall effect (ISHE) in a two-terminal nano-device that consists of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) and two ideal leads. Based on a two-site toy model and Keldysh Green's function method, we derive an analytic result of ISHE, which shows clearly that a nonzero transverse charge current stems from the combined effect of the RSOC, the spin bias, and its spin polarization direction in spin space. Our further numerical calculations in a larger system other than two-site lattice model demonstrate that the transverse charge current, dependent on the strength of the RSOC, the Fermi energy of the system, as well as the system size, can exhibit oscillating behavior and even reverse its sign due to Rashba spin precession. These properties may be helpful for efficient detection of the spin current (spin bias) by measuring the transverse charge current in a spin-orbital coupling system.
Physics at the Moscow State University in 70-th. Photographs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaina, Alex B.
The Internet proceeding contains various photographs and autographs of scientists from the Moscow State University, made during 70-th and 80-th years of XX-th Century. While no the album refers to Physics in totality, the main part of the album does refer. It includes photographs and autographs of the Members of the Academy of Sciences of U.S.S.R. Il'ya M. Lifshitz, Alexander I. Ishlinskii, Leonid V. Keldysh, Nobel Prize Winners Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Andrej D. Sakharov, Professors: I.M. Ternov, M.I. Kaganov, V.I. Grigor'ev, V.R. Khalilov, V.Ch. Zhukovskij, V.G. Bagrov (Tomsk State University) and other. Another part of peoples on the photographs became later University professors and Members of Academies. A photo concerns the graduated from the Moscow University, astronomer Vladimir A. Albitzky (1892-1952) made in Odessa during the First World War, while another concerns the School "Quantum Particles in intense fields" held in Chisinau in May 1985.
Adiabatic and non-adiabatic charge pumping in a single-level molecular motor.
Napitu, B D; Thijssen, J M
2015-07-15
We propose a design for realizing quantum charge pump based on a recent proposal for a molecular motor (Seldenthuis J S et al 2010 ACS Nano 4 6681). Our design is based on the presence of a moiety with a permanent dipole moment which can rotate, thereby modulating the couplings to metallic contacts at both ends of the molecule. Using the non-equilibrium Keldysh Green's function formalism (NEGF), we show that our design indeed generates a pump current. In the non-interacting pump, the variation of frequency from adiabatic to non-adiabatic regime, can be used to control the direction as well as the amplitude of the average current. The effect of Coulomb interaction is considered within the first- and the second- order perturbation. The numerical implementation of the scheme is quite demanding, and we develop an analytical approximation to obtain a speed-up giving results within a reasonable time. We find that the amplitude of the average pumped current can be controlled by both the driving frequency and the Coulomb interaction. The direction of of pumped current is shown to be determined by the phase difference between left and right anchoring groups.
High Response in a Tellurium-Supersaturated Silicon Photodiode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xi-Yuan; Huang, Yong-Guang; Liu, De-Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Zhu, Hong-Liang
2013-03-01
Single crystalline silicon supersaturated with tellurium are formed by ion implantation followed by excimer nanosecond pulsed laser melting (PLM). The lattice damaged by ion implantation is restored during the PLM process, and dopants are effectively activated. The hyperdoped layer exhibits high and broad optical absorption from 400 to 2500nm. The n+ p photodiodes fabricated from these materials show high response (6.9A/W at 1000nm) with reverse bias 12 V at room temperature. The corresponding cut-off wavelength is 1258nm. The amount of gain and extended cut-off wavelength both increase with increasing reverse bias voltage; above 100% external quantum efficiency is observed even at a reverse bias of 1 V. The cut-off wavelength with 0 V bias is shorter than the commercial silicon detector. This implies that the Burstein-Moss shift is due to hyperdoping. The amount of the extended cut-off wavelength increases with increasing reverse bias voltage, suggesting existence of the Franz—Keldysh effect.
Electron transport in ultra-thin films and ballistic electron emission microscopy.
Claveau, Y; Di Matteo, S; de Andres, P L; Flores, F
2017-03-22
We have developed a calculation scheme for the elastic electron current in ultra-thin epitaxial heterostructures. Our model uses a Keldysh's non-equilibrium Green's function formalism and a layer-by-layer construction of the epitaxial film. Such an approach is appropriate to describe the current in a ballistic electron emission microscope (BEEM) where the metal base layer is ultra-thin and generalizes a previous one based on a decimation technique appropriated for thick slabs. This formalism allows a full quantum mechanical description of the transmission across the epitaxial heterostructure interface, including multiple scattering via the Dyson equation, which is deemed a crucial ingredient to describe interfaces of ultra-thin layers properly in the future. We introduce a theoretical formulation needed for ultra-thin layers and we compare with results obtained for thick Au(1 1 1) metal layers. An interesting effect takes place for a width of about ten layers: a BEEM current can propagate via the center of the reciprocal space ([Formula: see text]) along the Au(1 1 1) direction. We associate this current to a coherent interference finite-width effect that cannot be found using a decimation technique. Finally, we have tested the validity of the handy semiclassical formalism to describe the BEEM current.
Peralta-Ramos, J; Calzetta, E
2009-05-27
Using closed-time-path two-particle irreducible coarse-grained effective action (CTP 2PI CGEA) techniques, we study the response of an open interacting electronic system to time-dependent external electromagnetic fields. We show that the CTP 2PI CGEA is invariant under a simultaneous gauge transformation of the external field and the full Schwinger-Keldysh propagator, and that this property holds even when the loop expansion of the CTP 2PI CGEA is truncated at arbitrary order. The effective action approach provides a systematic way of calculating the propagator and response functions of the system, via the Schwinger-Dyson equation and the Bethe-Salpeter equations, respectively. We show that, due to the invariance of the CTP 2PI CGEA under external gauge transformations, the response functions calculated from it satisfy the Ward-Takahashi hierarchy, thus warranting the conservation of the electronic current beyond the expectation value level. We also clarify the connection between nonlinear response theory and the WT hierarchy, and discuss an example of an ad hoc approximation that violates it. These findings may be useful in the study of current fluctuations in correlated electronic pumping devices.
Colloidal Quantum Dot Red-Shifting on Textured Metal Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferri, Christopher; Grimes, Anthony; Ghosh, Sayantani
2011-03-01
We have studied the influence of textured metal surfaces on the emission of an ensemble of colloidal CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs). The texture was generated by sputter coating a thin film of Gold Paladium (AuPd) on a thermoplastic Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheet. We used two separate protocols to generate two types of surfaces. We constrained some substrates such that they shrunk along only one planar dimension (uniaxial) while some were allowed to shrink along both planar directions (biaxial). The uniaxial substrates forced the metal to buckle along one dimension and the biaxial substrates buckled into a pseudorandom texture. We found that the QDs deposited on the biaxial substrates had a general red shift in the emission wavelength compared to their emission in solution, which also corresponded to a change in the temporal dynamics of the emission. The QDs on the uniaxial substrates showed a change in their temporal dynamics corresponding to plasmonic coupling, but no spectral shift. We hypothesize that the effects observed on the biaxial substrates are caused by the Franz-Keldysh effect. National Science Foundation.
The influence of femtosecond laser wavelength on waveguide fabrication inside glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernandez Rueda, Javier; Clarijs, Jasper; van Oosten, Dries; Krol, Denise M.
2016-03-01
We have investigated the permanent refractive index changes inside fused silica glass after laser inscription of waveguides using ultrashort laser pulses at different wavelengths. To this end the laser frequency was detuned using an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) combined with a confocal arrangement (for cleaning the laser Gaussian spatial profile). The suitability for waveguiding and the refractive index changes were inspected by measuring the near- and farfield output profiles of the laser-machined lines using a continuous wave laser at 660 nm. Raman spectroscopy was performed both for tracks of damage and for good optical waveguides. The structural changes were inferred from peak shifts and relative intensity fluctuations associated with representative Raman bands. In fused silica, changes in the 605 cm-1 peak, which is due to 3-membered Si-O ring structures, were monitored. Since the laser photon energy rules the order, k, of the multiphoton absorption in dielectrics, the role of the laser wavelength for waveguide fabrication will be discussed in terms of different powers of the laser intensity (I(r,z)k(λ)) and the Keldysh formalism for strong field ionization (WSFI(λ)).
Nonequilibrium functional bosonization of quantum wire networks
Ngo Dinh, Stephane; Bagrets, Dmitry A.; Mirlin, Alexander D.
2012-11-15
We develop a general approach to nonequilibrium nanostructures formed by one-dimensional channels coupled by tunnel junctions and/or by impurity scattering. The formalism is based on nonequilibrium version of functional bosonization. A central role in this approach is played by the Keldysh action that has a form reminiscent of the theory of full counting statistics. To proceed with evaluation of physical observables, we assume the weak-tunneling regime and develop a real-time instanton method. A detailed exposition of the formalism is supplemented by two important applications: (i) tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity, and (ii) quantum Hall Fabry-Perot interferometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonequilibrium functional bosonization framework for quantum wire networks is developed Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the study of observables in the weak tunneling regime a real-time instanton method is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze electronic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the integer quantum Hall regime.
Large Tunable Thermophase in Superconductor – Quantum Dot – Superconductor Josephson Junctions
Kleeorin, Yaakov; Meir, Yigal; Giazotto, Francesco; Dubi, Yonatan
2016-01-01
In spite of extended efforts, detecting thermoelectric effects in superconductors has proven to be a challenging task, due to the inherent superconducting particle-hole symmetry. Here we present a theoretical study of an experimentally attainable Superconductor – Quantum Dot – Superconductor (SC-QD-SC) Josephson Junction. Using Keldysh Green’s functions we derive the exact thermo-phase and thermal response of the junction, and demonstrate that such a junction has highly tunable thermoelectric properties and a significant thermal response. The origin of these effects is the QD energy level placed between the SCs, which breaks particle-hole symmetry in a gradual manner, allowing, in the presence of a temperature gradient, for gate controlled appearance of a superconducting thermo-phase. This thermo-phase increases up to a maximal value of ±π/2 after which thermovoltage is expected to develop. Our calculations are performed in realistic parameter regimes, and we suggest an experimental setup which could be used to verify our predictions. PMID:27734919
Spin Hall effect and spin swapping in diffusive superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espedal, Camilla; Lange, Peter; Sadjina, Severin; Mal'shukov, A. G.; Brataas, Arne
2017-02-01
We consider the spin-orbit-induced spin Hall effect and spin swapping in diffusive superconductors. By employing the nonequilibrium Keldysh Green's function technique in the quasiclassical approximation, we derive coupled transport equations for the spectral spin and particle distributions and for the energy density in the elastic scattering regime. We compute four contributions to the spin Hall conductivity, namely, skew scattering, side jump, anomalous velocity, and the Yafet contribution. The reduced density of states in the superconductor causes a renormalization of the spin Hall angle. We demonstrate that all four of these contributions to the spin Hall conductivity are renormalized in the same way in the superconducting state. In its simplest manifestation, spin swapping transforms a primary spin current into a secondary spin current with swapped current and polarization directions. We find that the spin-swapping coefficient is not explicitly but only implicitly affected by the superconducting gap through the renormalized diffusion coefficients. We discuss experimental consequences for measurements of the (inverse) spin Hall effect and spin swapping in four-terminal geometries. In our geometry, below the superconducting transition temperature, the spin-swapping signal is increased an order of magnitude while changes in the (inverse) spin Hall signal are moderate.
Analytical description of ballistic spin currents and torques in magnetic tunnel junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chshiev, M.; Manchon, A.; Kalitsov, A.; Ryzhanova, N.; Vedyayev, A.; Strelkov, N.; Butler, W. H.; Dieny, B.
2015-09-01
In this work we demonstrate explicit analytical expressions for both charge and spin currents which constitute the 2 ×2 spinor in magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations under applied voltage. The calculations have been performed within the free electron model in the framework of the Keldysh formalism and WKB approximation. We demonstrate that spin/charge currents and spin transfer torques are all explicitly expressed through only three irreducible quantities, without further approximations. The conditions and mechanisms of deviation from the conventional sine angular dependence of both spin currents and torques are shown and discussed. It is shown in the thick barrier approximation that all tunneling transport quantities can be expressed in an extremely simplified form via Slonczewski spin polarizations and our effective spin averaged interfacial transmission probabilities and effective out-of-plane polarizations at both interfaces. It is proven that the latter plays a key role in the emergence of perpendicular spin torque as well as in the angular dependence character of all spin and charge transport considered. It is demonstrated directly also that for any applied voltage, the parallel component of spin current at the FM/I interface is expressed via collinear longitudinal spin current components. Finally, spin transfer torque behavior is analyzed in a view of transverse characteristic length scales for spin transport.
Monitoring DNA polymerase with nanotube-based nanocircuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan; Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry; Collins, Philip
DNA polymerases play an important role in the process of life by accurately and efficiently replicating our genetic information. They use a single-stranded DNA as a template and incorporate nucleotides to create the full, double-stranded DNA. Recent experiments have successfully monitored this process by attaching a Klenow fragment of polymerase I to a carbon nanotube and measuring the current along the tube. Follow-up experiments have shown promise for distinguishing between DNA base pairs when nucleotide analogs are used, thus opening a new avenue for DNA sequencing. In this talk, we present results from computational studies on DNA polymerase I nanocircuits. The enzyme was first equilibrated in molecular dynamics and then density functional theory and Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function methods were used to calculate the ballistic transmission coefficients and currents for different enzymatic states. Our results show significant change in current when the enzyme alternates between open (idle) and closed (synthesizing) states. We can also differentiate between some template bases when modified nucleotides and gate scanning are used.
Non-equilibrium STLS approach to transport properties of single impurity Anderson model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezai, Raheleh; Ebrahimi, Farshad
2014-04-01
In this work, using the non-equilibrium Keldysh formalism, we study the effects of the electron-electron interaction and the electron-spin correlation on the non-equilibrium Kondo effect and the transport properties of the symmetric single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) at zero temperature by generalizing the self-consistent method of Singwi, Tosi, Land, and Sjolander (STLS) for a single-band tight-binding model with Hubbard type interaction to out of equilibrium steady-states. We at first determine in a self-consistent manner the non-equilibrium spin correlation function, the effective Hubbard interaction, and the double-occupancy at the impurity site. Then, using the non-equilibrium STLS spin polarization function in the non-equilibrium formalism of the iterative perturbation theory (IPT) of Yosida and Yamada, and Horvatic and Zlatic, we compute the spectral density, the current-voltage characteristics and the differential conductance as functions of the applied bias and the strength of on-site Hubbard interaction. We compare our spectral densities at zero bias with the results of numerical renormalization group (NRG) and depict the effects of the electron-electron interaction and electron-spin correlation at the impurity site on the aforementioned properties by comparing our numerical result with the order U2 IPT. Finally, we show that the obtained numerical results on the differential conductance have a quadratic universal scaling behavior and the resulting Kondo temperature shows an exponential behavior.
Photon-assisted tunneling through a topological superconductor with Majorana bound states
Tang, Han-Zhao; Zhang, Ying-Tao; Liu, Jian-Jun
2015-12-15
Employing the Keldysh Nonequilibrium Green’s function method, we investigate time-dependent transport through a topological superconductor with Majorana bound states in the presence of a high frequency microwave field. It is found that Majorana bound states driven by photon-assisted tunneling can absorb(emit) photons and the resulting photon-assisted tunneling side band peaks can split the Majorana bound state that then appears at non-zero bias. This splitting breaks from the current opinion that Majorana bound states appear only at zero bias and thus provides a new experimental method for detecting Majorana bound states in the Non-zero-energy mode. We not only demonstrate that the photon-assisted tunneling side band peaks are due to Non-zero-energy Majorana bound states, but also that the height of the photon-assisted tunneling side band peaks is related to the intensity of the microwave field. It is further shown that the time-varying conductance induced by the Majorana bound states shows negative values for a certain period of time, which corresponds to a manifestation of the phase coherent time-varying behavior in mesoscopic systems.
Quantum optimal control theory in the linear response formalism
Castro, Alberto; Tokatly, I. V.
2011-09-15
Quantum optimal control theory (QOCT) aims at finding an external field that drives a quantum system in such a way that optimally achieves some predefined target. In practice, this normally means optimizing the value of some observable, a so-called merit function. In consequence, a key part of the theory is a set of equations, which provides the gradient of the merit function with respect to parameters that control the shape of the driving field. We show that these equations can be straightforwardly derived using the standard linear response theory, only requiring a minor generalization: the unperturbed Hamiltonian is allowed to be time dependent. As a result, the aforementioned gradients are identified with certain response functions. This identification leads to a natural reformulation of QOCT in terms of the Keldysh contour formalism of the quantum many-body theory. In particular, the gradients of the merit function can be calculated using the diagrammatic technique for nonequilibrium Green's functions, which should be helpful in the application of QOCT to computationally difficult many-electron problems.
Nonequilibrium Kondo transport through a quantum dot in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, Sergey; Grifoni, Milena
2013-07-01
We analyze the universal transport properties of a strongly interacting quantum dot in the Kondo regime when the quantum dot is placed in an external magnetic field. The quantum dot is described by the asymmetric Anderson model with the spin degeneracy removed by the magnetic field resulting in Zeeman splitting. Using an analytical expression for the tunneling density of states found from a Keldysh effective field theory, we obtain in the whole energy range the universal differential conductance and analytically demonstrate its Fermi-liquid and logarithmic behavior at low and high energies, respectively, as a function of the magnetic field. We also show results on the zero-temperature differential conductance as a function of the bias voltage at different magnetic fields as well as results on finite-temperature effects out of equilibrium and at a finite magnetic field. The modern nonequilibrium experimental issues of the critical magnetic field, at which the zero bias maximum of the differential conductance starts to split into two maxima, as well as the distance between these maxima as a function of the magnetic field, are also addressed.
Non-equilibrium dynamics of O( N) nonlinear sigma models: a large- N approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Sumit R.; Sengupta, Krishnendu
2012-09-01
We study the time evolution of the mass gap of the O( N) non-linear sigma model in 2 + 1 dimensions due to a time-dependent coupling in the large- N limit. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh approach, we derive a set of equations at large N which determine the time-dependent gap in terms of the coupling. These equations lead to a criterion for the breakdown of adiabaticity for slow variation of the coupling leading to a Kibble-Zurek scaling law. We describe a self-consistent numerical procedure to solve these large- N equations and provide explicit numerical solutions for a coupling which asymptotes to constant values in the gapped phase and approaches the zero temperature equilibrium critical point in a linear fashion. We demonstrate that for such a protocol there is a value of the coupling g = g_c^{{dyn}} > {g_c} where the gap function vanishes, possibly indicating a dynamical instability. We study the dependence of g_c^{{dyn}} on both the rate of change of the coupling and the initial temperature. We also verify, by studying the evolution of the mass gap subsequent to a sudden change in g, that the model does not display thermalization within a finite time interval t 0 and discuss the implications of this observation for its conjectured gravitational dual as a higher spin theory in AdS 4.
Spatial interferences in the electron transport of heavy-fermion materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shu-feng; Liu, Yu; Song, Hai-Feng; Yang, Yi-feng
2016-08-01
The scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and the point contact spectroscopy represent major progress in recent heavy-fermion research. Both have revealed important information on the composite nature of the emergent heavy-electron quasiparticles. However, a detailed and thorough microscopic understanding of the similarities and differences in the underlying physical processes of these techniques is still lacking. Here we study the electron transport in the normal state of the periodic Anderson lattice by using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function technique. In addition to the well-known Fano interference between the conduction and f -electron channels, our results further reveal the effect of spatial interference between different spatial paths at the interface on the differential conductance and their interesting interplay with the band features such as the hybridization gap and the Van Hove singularity. We find that the spatial interference leads to a weighted average in the momentum space for the electron transport and could cause suppression of the electronic band features under certain circumstances. In particular, it reduces the capability of probing the f -electron spectral weight near the edges of the hybridization gap for large interface depending on the Fermi surface of the lead. Our results indicate an intrinsic inefficiency of the point contact spectroscopy in probing the f electrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janicki, Łukasz; Ramírez-López, Manolo; Misiewicz, Jan; Cywiński, Grzegorz; Boćkowski, Michał; Muzioł, Grzegorz; Chèze, Caroline; Sawicka, Marta; Skierbiszewski, Czesław; Kudrawiec, Robert
2016-05-01
Ga-polar, N-polar, and nonpolar m-plane GaN UN+ structures have been examined in air and vacuum ambient by contactless electroreflectance (CER). This technique is very sensitive to the surface electric field that varies with the Fermi level position at the surface. For UN+ GaN structures [i.e., GaN (undoped)/GaN (n-type)/substrate], a homogeneous built-in electric field is expected in the undoped GaN layer that is manifested by Franz-Keldysh oscillation (FKO) in CER spectra. A clear change in FKO has been observed in CER spectra for N-polar and nonpolar m-plane structures when changing from air to vacuum ambient. This means that those surfaces are very sensitive to ambient atmosphere. In contrast to that, only a small change in FKO can be seen in the Ga-polar structure. This clearly shows that the ambient sensitivity of the Fermi level position at the GaN surface varies with the crystallographic orientation and is very high for N-polar and nonpolar m-plane surfaces. This feature of the N-polar and nonpolar m-plane surfaces can be very important for GaN-based devices grown on these crystallographic orientations and can be utilized in some of the devices, e.g., sensors.
Back-reaction beyond the mean field approximation
Kluger, Y.
1993-12-01
A method for solving an initial value problem of a closed system consisting of an electromagnetic mean field and its quantum fluctuations coupled to fermions is presented. By tailoring the large N{sub f} expansion method to the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path (CTP) formulation of the quantum effective action, causality of the resulting equations of motion is ensured, and a systematic energy conserving and gauge invariant expansion about the electromagnetic mean field in powers of 1/N{sub f} is developed. The resulting equations may be used to study the quantum nonequilibrium effects of pair creation in strong electric fields and the scattering and transport processes of a relativistic e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} plasma. Using the Bjorken ansatz of boost invariance initial conditions in which the initial electric mean field depends on the proper time only, we show numerical results for the case in which the N{sub f} expansion is truncated in the lowest order, and compare them with those of a phenomenological transport equation.
a Unified Formalism of Thermal Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, H.; Umezawa, H.
We present a comprehensive review of the most fundamental and practical aspects of thermo-field dynamics (TFD), including some of the most recent developments in the field. To make TFD fully consistent, some suitable changes in the structure of the thermal doublets and the Bogoliubov transformation matrices have been made. A close comparison between TFD and the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path formalism (SKF) is presented. We find that TFD and SKF are in many ways the same in form; in particular, the two approaches are identical in stationary situations. However, TFD and SKF are quite different in time-dependent nonequilibrium situations. The main source of this difference is that the time evolution of the density matrix itself is ignored in SKF while in TFD it is replaced by a time-dependent Bogoliubov transformation. In this sense TFD is a better candidate for time-dependent quantum field theory. Even in equilibrium situations, TFD has some remarkable advantages over the Matsubara approach and SKF, the most notable being the Feynman diagram recipes, which we will present. We will show that the calculations of two-point functions are simplified, instead of being complicated, by the matrix nature of the formalism. We will present some explicit calculations using TFD, including space-time inhomogeneous situations and the vacuum polarization in equilibrium relativistic QED.
Dual-channel current valve in a three terminal zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, L.
2017-02-01
We theoretically propose a dual-channel current valve based on a three terminal zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) junction driven by three asymmetric time-dependent pumping potentials. By means of the Keldysh Green’s function method, we show that two asymmetric charge currents can be pumped in the different left-right terminals of the device at a zero bias, which mainly stems from the single photon-assisted pumping approximation and the valley valve effect in a ZGNR p-n junction. The ON and OFF states of pumped charge currents are crucially dependent on the even-odd chain widths of the three electrodes, the pumping frequency, the lattice potential and the Fermi level. Two-tunneling spin valves are also considered to spatially separate and detect 100% polarized spin currents owing to the combined spin pump effect and the valley selective transport in a three terminal ZGNR ferromagnetic junction. Our investigations might be helpful to control the spatial and spin degrees of freedom of electrons in graphene pumping devices.
Li, Zhimin; Huang, Huisheng; Zhang, Tonglai; Zhang, Shengtao; Zhang, Jianguo; Yang, Li
2014-01-01
The electric field effects on the structure, decomposition mechanism, and stability of crystalline lead styphnate have been studied using density functional theory. The results indicate that the influence of external electric field on the crystal structure is anisotropic. The electric field effects on the distance of the Pb-O ionic interactions are stronger than those on the covalent interactions. However, the changes of most structural parameters are not monotonically dependent on the increased electric field. This reveals that lead styphnate can undergo a phase transition upon the external electric field. When the applied field is increased to 0.003 a.u., the effective band gap and total density of states vary evidently. And the Franz-Keldysh effect yields larger influence on the band gap than the structural change induced by external electric field. Furthermore, lead styphnate has different initial decomposition reactions in the presence and absence of the electric field. Finally, we find that its sensitivity becomes more and more sensitive with the increasing electric field.
Transport properties of an Aharonov-Bohm ring with strong interdot Coulomb interaction.
Liu, Yu-Shen; Chen, Hao; Yang, Xi-Feng
2007-06-20
Based on the Keldysh Green's function technique and the equation-of-motion method, we investigate theoretically the electronic transport properties of an Aharonov-Bohm ring with embedded coupled double quantum dots connected to two electrodes in a symmetrical parallel configuration in the presence of strong interdot Coulomb interaction. Special attention is paid to the effects of the interdot Coulomb interaction on the transport properties. It has been shown numerically that the interdot Coulomb interaction gives rise to four electronic states in the ring. The quantum interferences between two strongly coupled electronic states and two weakly coupled ones lead to two Breit-Wigner and two Fano resonances in the linear conductance spectrum with the magnetic flux switched on or the imbalance between the energy levels of two quantum dots. The positions and shapes of the four resonances can be controlled by adjusting the magnetic flux through the device or energy levels of the two quantum dots. When the Fermi energy levels in the leads sweep across the weakly coupled electronic states, the negative differential conductance (NDC) is developed in the current-voltage characteristics for the non-equilibrium case.
Investigation of GaAs photoconductive switches triggered by 900nm semiconductor lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Deming; Shi, Wei; Ma, Xiangrong; Wang, Xinmei; Pei, Tao
2008-12-01
Experiment of a lateral semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (SI-GaAs PCSS) with different electrode gaps triggered by 900nm semiconductor laser is reported. With the biased voltage of 0.2KV~3.0KV, the linear electrical pulse is outputted by SI-GaAs PCSS. When laser energy is very low, the semi-insulating GaAs PCSS with 1.5mm electrode gap is triggered by laser pulse, the output electrical pulse samples is instable. When the energy of the laser increases, the amplitude and the width of the electrical pulse also increase. It indicates that a stable electrical pulse is obtained while laser energy is high. With the biased voltage of 2.8kV, the SI-GaAs PCSS with 3mm electrode gap is triggered by laser pulse about 10nJ in 200ns at 900nm. The SI-GaAs PCSS switches a electrical pulse with a voltage up to 80V. The absorption mechanism by Franz-Keldysh effect under high-intensity electric field and EL2 deep level defects is discussed.
Quantum kinetics of ultracold fermions coupled to an optical resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piazza, Francesco; Strack, Philipp
2014-10-01
We study the far-from-equilibrium statistical mechanics of periodically driven fermionic atoms in a lossy optical resonator. We show that the interplay of the Fermi surface with cavity losses leads to subnatural cavity linewidth narrowing, squeezed light, and nonthermal quantum statistics of the atoms. Adapting the Keldysh approach, we set up and solve a quantum kinetic Boltzmann equation in a systematic 1/N expansion with N the number of atoms. In the strict thermodynamic limit N ,V→∞,N/V=const. we find that the atoms (fermions or bosons) remain immune against cavity-induced heating or cooling. At next-to-leading order in 1/N, we find a "one-way thermalization" of the atoms determined by cavity decay. In absence of an equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation, the long-time limit Δt →∞ does not commute with the thermodynamic limit N →∞, such that for the physically relevant case of large but finite N, the dynamics ultimately becomes strongly coupled, especially close to the superradiance phase transition.
Non-Markovian Quantum Friction of Bright Solitons in Superfluids.
Efimkin, Dmitry K; Hofmann, Johannes; Galitski, Victor
2016-06-03
We explore the quantum dynamics of a bright matter-wave soliton in a quasi-one-dimensional bosonic superfluid with attractive interactions. Specifically, we focus on the dissipative forces experienced by the soliton due to its interaction with Bogoliubov excitations. Using the collective coordinate approach and the Keldysh formalism, a Langevin equation of motion for the soliton is derived from first principles. The equation contains a stochastic Langevin force (associated with quantum noise) and a nonlocal in time dissipative force, which appears due to inelastic scattering of Bogoliubov quasiparticles off of the moving soliton. It is shown that Ohmic friction (i.e., a term proportional to the soliton's velocity) is absent in the integrable setup. However, the Markovian approximation gives rise to the Abraham-Lorentz force (i.e., a term proportional to the derivative of the soliton's acceleration), which is known from classical electrodynamics of a charged particle interacting with its own radiation. These Abraham-Lorentz equations famously contain a fundamental causality paradox, where the soliton (particle) interacts with excitations (radiation) originating from future events. We show, however, that the causality paradox is an artifact of the Markovian approximation, and our exact non-Markovian dissipative equations give rise to physical trajectories. We argue that the quantum friction discussed here should be observable in current quantum gas experiments.
Understanding Quantum Transport and the Kondo Effect in 2D Carbon Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McIntosh, Ross; Churochkin, Dmitry; Bhattacharyya, Somnath
2013-03-01
The rich physics surrounding correlations between conduction electrons and local spins in quantum dot systems is of significant interest towards the development of spintronic quantum information devices. In this study we establish the Kondo effect in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films through a metal-insulator transition in resistance versus temperature interpreted within the Fermi liquid description of the Kondo effect and negative magnetoresistance which scales with a Kondo characteristic temperature. With a microstructure consisting of intact graphene nano-islands embedded within residual functionalized regions where local magnetic moments may form, RGO is effectively a disordered quantum dot system. This work is augmented with a theoretical study of transport through nano-scale multiple quantum dot devices. Solving within a Keldysh formalism we scrutinize quasi-bound state formation in a range of geometrical quantum dot configurations in order to interpret coherent quantum interference effects. We demonstrate negative differential conductance and control over device parameters such as the characteristic time. This tandem approach illustrates the promise of innovative low dimensional carbon spintronic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aeberhard, U.
2014-03-01
The generation of photocurrents due to coupling of electrons to both classical and quantized electromagnetic fields in thin semiconductor films is described within the framework of the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. For the coherent coupling to classical fields corresponding to single field operator averages, an effective two-time intraband self-energy is derived from a band decoupling procedure. The evaluation of coherent photogeneration is performed self-consistently with the propagation of the fields by using for the latter a transfer matrix formalism with an extinction coefficient derived from the electronic Green's functions. For the "incoherent" coupling to fluctuations of the quantized fields, which need to be considered for the inclusion of spontaneous emission, the first self-consistent Born self-energy is used, with full spatial resolution in the photon Green's functions. These are obtained from the numerical solution of Dyson and Keldysh equations including a nonlocal photon self-energy based on the same interband polarization function as used for the coherent case. A comparison of the spectral and integral photocurrent generation pattern reveals a close agreement between coherent and incoherent coupling for the case of an ultrathin, selectively contacted absorber layer at short circuit conditions.
Transient carrier dynamics in a Mott insulator with antiferromagnetic order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyoda, Eiki; Ishihara, Sumio
2014-03-01
We study transient dynamics of hole carriers injected into a Mott insulator with antiferromagnetic long-range order. This "dynamical hole doping" contrasts with chemical hole doping. The theoretical framework for the transient carrier dynamics is presented based on the two-dimensional t-J model. The time dependencies of the optical conductivity spectra, as well as the one-particle excitation spectra, are calculated based on the Keldysh Green's function formalism at zero temperature combined with the self-consistent Born approximation. In the early stage after dynamical hole doping, the Drude component appears, and then incoherent components originating from hole-magnon scattering start to grow. Fast oscillatory behavior owing to coherent magnon and slow relaxation dynamics are confirmed in the spectra. The time profiles are interpreted as doped bare holes being dressed by magnon clouds and relaxed into spin polaron quasiparticle states. The characteristic relaxation times for Drude and incoherent peaks strongly depend on the momentum of the dynamically doped hole and the exchange constant. Implications for recent pump-probe experiments are discussed.
Dual-channel current valve in a three terminal zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction.
Zhang, L
2017-02-08
We theoretically propose a dual-channel current valve based on a three terminal zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) junction driven by three asymmetric time-dependent pumping potentials. By means of the Keldysh Green's function method, we show that two asymmetric charge currents can be pumped in the different left-right terminals of the device at a zero bias, which mainly stems from the single photon-assisted pumping approximation and the valley valve effect in a ZGNR p-n junction. The ON and OFF states of pumped charge currents are crucially dependent on the even-odd chain widths of the three electrodes, the pumping frequency, the lattice potential and the Fermi level. Two-tunneling spin valves are also considered to spatially separate and detect 100% polarized spin currents owing to the combined spin pump effect and the valley selective transport in a three terminal ZGNR ferromagnetic junction. Our investigations might be helpful to control the spatial and spin degrees of freedom of electrons in graphene pumping devices.
Contemplating Transport Characteristics by Augmenting the Length of Molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaur, Milanpreet; Sawhney, Ravinder Singh; Engles, Derick
2013-11-01
In this paper, we contemplated the transport characteristics of a single molecular device junction by augmenting the length of the molecule in the scattering region. The molecules considered here belongs to class of alkanedithiols (CnH2n+2S2). Specifically, we used a tight binding semi-empirical model to compute the transport characteristics of butanedithiol, pentanedithiol, hexanedithiol and heptanedithiol connected to semi-infinite gold electrodes through thiol anchoring elements. The exploration of transport properties of considered alkanes was completed for different bias voltages within the sphere of Keldysh's Non Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) and Extended Hückel Theory (EHT), for studying the self-consistent steady-state solution, analyzing the out-of-equilibrium electron distribution, and the behavior of the self-consistent potential. We perceived that the current and conductance retrenches with aggravation with the increase in length of the molecule with exhibition of single electron tunneling. We observed that the coupling regime shifts from strong coupling to weak for higher order alkanedithiols and the transmission is function of evenness or oddness of the carbon atoms forming an alkane.
Photoreflectance of indium antimonide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komkov, O. S.; Firsov, D. D.; Lvova, T. V.; Sedova, I. V.; Semenov, A. N.; Solov'ev, V. A.; Ivanov, S. V.
2016-12-01
The photoreflectance spectra of n-InSb layers were measured using photomodulation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The samples were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on heavily doped n +-InSb(001) substrates annealed under different conditions. The strength of the near-surface electric field was determined from the period of the Franz-Keldysh oscillations observed in the photoreflectance spectra. It was noted that the strength of the electric field increases during a long-term storage of the samples in air. The treatment of n-InSb layers in a 1M aqueous solution of Na2S led to an increase in the measured field. Previously, it was shown that, after this treatment, the surface Fermi level is shifted deep into the conduction band and, probably, does not depend on the conditions and time of the preliminary storage of the samples. With the use of passivation in Na2S, the optical method developed in this study allows for the contactless measurement of the concentration of electrons in n-InSb homoepitaxial layers.
Optical piezoelectric transducer for nano-ultrasonics.
Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Chern, Gia-Wei; Yu, Cheng-Ta; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Pan, Chang-Chi; Chen, Guan-Ting; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Li, Pai-Chi; Sun, Chi-Kuang
2005-08-01
Piezoelectric semiconductor strained layers can be treated as piezoelectric transducers to generate nanometer-wavelength and THz-frequency acoustic waves. The mechanism of nano-acoustic wave (NAW) generation in strained piezoelectric layers, induced by femtosecond optical pulses, can be modeled by a macroscopic elastic continuum theory. The optical absorption change of the strained layers modulated by NAW through quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh (QCFK) effects allows optical detection of the propagating NAW. Based on these piezoelectric-based optical principles, we have designed an optical piezoelectric transducer (OPT) to generate NAW. The optically generated NAW is then applied to one-dimensional (1-D) ultrasonic scan for thickness measurement, which is the first step toward multidimensional nano-ultrasonic imaging. By launching a NAW pulse and resolving the returned acoustic echo signal with femtosecond optical pulses, the thickness of the studied layer can be measured with <1 nm resolution. This nano-structured OPT technique will provide the key toward the realization of nano-ultrasonics, which is analogous to the typical ultrasonic techniques but in a nanometer scale.
Stopping dynamics of ions passing through correlated honeycomb clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balzer, Karsten; Schlünzen, Niclas; Bonitz, Michael
2016-12-01
A combined nonequilibrium Green functions-Ehrenfest dynamics approach is developed that allows for a time-dependent study of the energy loss of a charged particle penetrating a strongly correlated system at zero and finite temperatures. Numerical results are presented for finite inhomogeneous two-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard models, where the many-electron dynamics in the target are treated fully quantum mechanically and the motion of the projectile is treated classically. The simulations are based on the solution of the two-time Dyson (Keldysh-Kadanoff-Baym) equations using the second-order Born, third-order, and T -matrix approximations of the self-energy. As application, we consider protons and helium nuclei with a kinetic energy between 1 and 500 keV/u passing through planar fragments of the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice and, in particular, examine the influence of electron-electron correlations on the energy exchange between projectile and electron system. We investigate the time dependence of the projectile's kinetic energy (stopping power), the electron density, the double occupancy, and the photoemission spectrum. Finally, we show that, for a suitable choice of the Hubbard model parameters, the results for the stopping power are in fair agreement with ab initio simulations for particle irradiation of single-layer graphene.
The effect of n- and p-type doping on coherent phonons in GaN.
Ishioka, Kunie; Kato, Keiko; Ohashi, Naoki; Haneda, Hajime; Kitajima, Masahiro; Petek, Hrvoje
2013-05-22
The effect of doping on the carrier-phonon interaction in wurtzite GaN is investigated by pump-probe reflectivity measurements using 3.1 eV light in near resonance with the fundamental band gap of 3.39 eV. Coherent modulations of the reflectivity due to the E2 and A1(LO) modes, as well as the 2A1(LO) overtone are observed. Doping of acceptor and donor atoms enhances the dephasing of the polar A1(LO) phonon via coupling with plasmons, with the effect of donors being stronger. Doping also enhances the relative amplitude of the coherent A1(LO) phonon with respect to that of the high-frequency E2 phonon, though it does not affect the relative intensity in Raman spectroscopic measurements. We attribute this enhanced coherent amplitude to the transient depletion field screening (TDFS) excitation mechanism, which, in addition to impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS), contributes to the generation of coherent polar phonons even for sub-band gap excitation. Because the TDFS mechanism requires photoexcitation of carriers, we argue that the interband transition is made possible at a surface with photon energies below the bulk band gap through the Franz-Keldysh effect.
Amundsen, Morten; Linder, Jacob
2016-01-01
An extension of quasiclassical Keldysh-Usadel theory to higher spatial dimensions than one is crucial in order to describe physical phenomena like charge/spin Hall effects and topological excitations like vortices and skyrmions, none of which are captured in one-dimensional models. We here present a numerical finite element method which solves the non-linearized 2D and 3D quasiclassical Usadel equation relevant for the diffusive regime. We show the application of this on three model systems with non-trivial geometries: (i) a bottlenecked Josephson junction with external flux, (ii) a nanodisk ferromagnet deposited on top of a superconductor and (iii) superconducting islands in contact with a ferromagnet. In case (i), we demonstrate that one may control externally not only the geometrical array in which superconducting vortices arrange themselves, but also to cause coalescence and tune the number of vortices. In case (iii), we show that the supercurrent path can be tailored by incorporating magnetic elements in planar Josephson junctions which also lead to a strong modulation of the density of states. The finite element method presented herein paves the way for gaining insight in physical phenomena which have remained largely unexplored due to the complexity of solving the full quasiclassical equations in higher dimensions. PMID:26961921
Computational investigation of CNT-based DNA polymerase nanocircuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan; Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry; Collins, Philip
2015-03-01
DNA polymerases are important enzymes that replicate DNA molecules with very low error rates - about one error in 105 bases. Recently, it was found that the replication process can be electrically monitored by attaching a Klenow fragment of polymerase I to the surface of a carbon nanotube and monitoring the current along the tube [1]. In this talk, we report results from computational studies on DNA polymerase nanocircuits. We have first performed classical molecular dynamics (MD) calculations to get snapshots of different enzymatic stages, particularly the open state (no DNA binding) and the closed state (DNA double helix binding). We then used density functional theory (DFT) and Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism to calculate transmission coefficients and currents for each enzymatic state. Our results show that the transmission spectrum and the currents change significantly when the enzyme moves from the open to the closed state. While the initial experiments did not show signal differences between dissimilar bases, the theoretical work in progress is investigating conditions where bases might have distinct signatures, which would allow for DNA sequencing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Díaz-Reyes, J.; Avendaño, M. A.; Galván-Arellano, M.; Peña-Sierra, R.
2006-03-01
This work presents the characterization of GaAs layers grown in a metallic-arsenic-based-MOCVD system. The gallium precursor was the compound trimethylgallium (TMG) and elemental arsenic as precursor of arsenic. The most important parameters of the growth process include the substrate temperature and the composition of the carrier gas; an N2+H2 gas mixture. The influence of carbon doping on the optical and electrical properties of GaAs layers have been studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Photoreflectance (PR) and Hall Effect measurements. To carry out doping with carbon in the range of around 1016 to 1020 cm-3, it was necessary to modifying the hydrogen activity in the reacting atmosphere with the control of the N{2}+H{2}, mixture which was used as carrier gas. The PL response of the samples is strongly dependent on the growth temperature and showed mainly two radiative transitions, band-to-band and band-to C-acceptor. PR spectra present transitions associated to GaAs. Besides, short period oscillations near the GaAs band-gap energy are observed, interpreted as Franz-Keldysh oscillations associated to the hole-ionized acceptor (h-A-) pair modulations. For investigating the chemical bonds of impurity-related species in the GaAs layers optical absorption was measured using a FT-IR spectrometer. Device quality GaAs layers have been grown in a broad range of growth temperatures.
Electron-phonon mediated heat flow in disordered graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wei; Clerk, Aashish A.
2012-09-01
We calculate the heat flux and electron-phonon thermal conductance in a disordered graphene sheet, going beyond a Fermi’s golden rule approach to fully account for the modification of the electron-phonon interaction by disorder. Using the Keldysh technique combined with standard impurity averaging methods in the regime kFl≫1 (where kF is the Fermi wave vector and l is the mean free path), we consider both scalar potential (i.e., deformation potential) and vector-potential couplings between electrons and phonons. We also consider the effects of electronic screening at the Thomas-Fermi level. We find that the temperature dependence of the heat flux and thermal conductance is sensitive to the presence of disorder and screening, and reflects the underlying chiral nature of electrons in graphene and the corresponding modification of their diffusive behavior. In the case of weak screening, disorder enhances the low-temperature heat flux over the clean system (changing the associated power law from T4 to T3), and the deformation potential dominates. For strong screening, both the deformation potential and vector-potential couplings make comparable contributions, and the low-temperature heat flux obeys a T5 power law.
Theory of thermal conductivity in the disordered electron liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwiete, G.; Finkel'stein, A. M.
2016-03-01
We study thermal conductivity in the disordered two-dimensional electron liquid in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. We describe a microscopic analysis of the problem using the partition function defined on the Keldysh contour as a starting point. We extend the renormalization group (RG) analysis developed for thermal transport in the disordered Fermi liquid and include scattering processes induced by the long-range Coulomb interaction in the sub-temperature energy range. For the thermal conductivity, unlike for the electrical conductivity, these scattering processes yield a logarithmic correction that may compete with the RG corrections. The interest in this correction arises from the fact that it violates the Wiedemann-Franz law. We checked that the sub-temperature correction to the thermal conductivity is not modified either by the inclusion of Fermi liquid interaction amplitudes or as a result of the RG flow. We therefore expect that the answer obtained for this correction is final. We use the theory to describe thermal transport on the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition in Si MOSFETs.
Ionization in an intense field considering Coulomb correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian; Huo, Yi-Ning; Tang, Zeng-Hua; Ma, Feng-Cai
2017-01-01
We derive a simple ionization rate formula for the ground state of a hydrogen atom in the velocity gauge under the conditions: ω \\ll 1 a.u. (a.u. is short for atomic unit) and γ \\ll 1 (ω is the laser frequency and γ is the Keldysh parameter). Comparisons are made among the different versions of the Keldysh–Faisal–Reiss (KFR) theory. The numerical study shows that with considering the quasi-classical (WKB) Coulomb correction in the final state of the ionized electron, the photoionization rate is enhanced compared with without considering the Coulomb correction, and the Reiss theory with the WKB Coulomb correction gives the correct result in the tunneling regime. Our concise formula of the ionization rate may provide an insight into the ionization mechanism for the ground state of a hydrogen atom. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274149 and 11304185) and the Program of Shenyang Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, China (Grant No. F12-254-1-00).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janicki, Łukasz; Gładysiewicz, Marta; Misiewicz, Jan; Klosek, Kamil; Sobanska, Marta; Kempisty, Paweł; Zytkiewicz, Zbigniew R.; Kudrawiec, Robert
2017-02-01
In this paper we show that the surface Fermi level of Ga-polar GaN exhibits a bistable behavior allowing it to be located at two distinct energetic positions at the air/GaN interface which is unusual for other III-V semiconductors such as GaAs or GaSb. To determine the Fermi level position at the air/GaN interface we perform contactless electroreflectance measurements on specially designed UD+ structures [GaN(undoped)/GaN(highly doped)/substrate] doped by Si and Mg. Analyzing the period of Franz-Keldysh oscillation we determine the built-in electric field in the undoped (U) layer. These studies coupled with numerical solutions of the Poisson equation allowed us to determine the position of the Fermi level at the air/GaN interface. We observe a change in the band bending correlated to different Fermi level positions in the doped (D+) layer. We show that depending on the doping type in the D+ layer the Fermi level at the air/GaN interface is located in the upper or lower singularity of surface density of states (SDOS) for Si or Mg doping of D+ layer, respectively. We support our findings with the density functional theory calculations of the SDOS and the dependence of the Fermi level position on the doping concentration in the bulk of a GaN slab.
Photon assisted tunneling through three quantum dots with spin-orbit-coupling
Tang, Han-Zhao; An, Xing-Tao; Wang, Ai-Kun; Liu, Jian-Jun
2014-08-14
The effect of an ac electric field on quantum transport properties in a system of three quantum dots, two of which are connected in parallel, while the third is coupled to one of the other two, is investigated theoretically. Based on the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function method, the spin-dependent current, occupation number, and spin accumulation can be obtained in our model. An external magnetic flux, Rashba spin-orbit-coupling (SOC), and intradot Coulomb interactions are considered. The magnitude of the spin-dependent average current and the positions of the photon assisted tunneling (PAT) peaks can be accurately controlled and manipulated by simply varying the strength of the coupling and the frequency of the ac field. A particularly interesting result is the observation of a new kind of PAT peak and a multiple-PAT effect that can be generated and controlled by the coupling between the quantum dots. In addition, the spin occupation number and spin accumulation can be well controlled by the Rashba SOC and the magnetic flux.
Kinetic theory for interacting Luttinger liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchhold, Michael; Diehl, Sebastian
2015-10-01
We derive a closed set of equations for the kinetics and non-equilibrium dynamics of interacting Luttinger Liquids with cubic resonant interactions. In the presence of these interactions, the Luttinger phonons become dressed but still well defined quasi-particles, characterized by a life-time much larger then the inverse energy. This enables the separation of forward time dynamics and relative time dynamics into slow and fast dynamics and justifies the so-called Wigner approximation, which can be seen as a "local-time approximation" for the relative dynamics. Applying field theoretical methods in the Keldysh framework, i.e. kinetic and Dyson-Schwinger equations, we derive a closed set of dynamic equations, describing the kinetics of normal and anomalous phonon densities, the phonon self-energy and vertex corrections for a Gaussian non-equilibrium initial state. In the limit of low phonon densities, the results from self-consistent Born approximation are recaptured, including Andreev's scaling solution for the quasi-particle life-time in a thermal state. As an application, we compute the relaxation of an excited state to its thermal equilibrium. While the intermediate time dynamics displays exponentially fast relaxation, the last stages of thermalization are governed by algebraic laws. This can be traced back to the importance of energy and momentum conservation at the longest times, which gives rise to dynamical slow modes.
High-temperature carrier density and mobility enhancements in AlGaN/GaN HEMT using AlN spacer layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Tsung-Shine; Lin, Der-Yuh; Lin, Chia-Feng; Chang, Che-Wei; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Tu, Shang-Ju
2017-04-01
In this paper, we experimentally studied the effect of AlN spacer layer on optical and electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN high electric mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition method. For AlGaN layer in HEMT structure, the Al composition of the sample was determined using x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence. Electrolyte electro-reflectance (EER) measurement not only confirmed the aluminum composition of AlGaN layer, but also determined the electric field strength on the AlGaN layer through the Franz-Keldysh oscillation phenomenon. This result indicated that the electric field on the AlGaN layer could be improved from 430 to 621 kV/cm when AlN spacer layer was inserted in HEMT structure, which increased the concentration of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and improve the mobility. The temperature dependent Hall results show that both the mobility and the carrier concentration of 2DEG would decrease abruptly causing HEMT loss of function due to phonon scattering and carrier thermal escape when temperature increases above a specific value. Meanwhile, our study also demonstrates using AlN spacer layer could be beneficial to allow the mobility and carrier density of 2DEG sustaining at high temperature region.
The photo-assisted heat current and its Peltier coefficient in a metal/dot/metal junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crépieux, A.
2012-11-01
The photo-assisted heat current through a metal/dot/metal junction and its associated Peltier coefficient are computed in the framework of the time-dependent out-of-equilibrium Keldysh formalism in the presence of a dot energy modulation. When the frequency of the modulation is much larger than the amplitude of the modulation, the heat current follows the sinusoidal time evolution of the dot energy. This is no longer the case when the modulation frequency becomes of the order of or smaller than the amplitude of the modulation. To characterize this non-sinusoidal behavior, we have calculated the harmonics of the photo-assisted heat current. The zero-order harmonic can be expressed as an infinite sum of dc heat currents associated with a dot with shifted energies. It exhibits a devil's staircase profile with non-horizontal steps, whereas it is established that the steps are horizontal for the zero-order harmonic of the photo-assisted electric current. This particularity is related to the fact that the dot heat is not a conserved quantity due to energy dissipation within the tunnel barriers.
Post-deployment evaluation of T-S data measured by Argo floats in the Black Sea: Regional approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palazov, A.; Slabakova, V.; Marinova, V.
2012-04-01
During the R/V "Akademik" cruise on 17-19 March 2011, a set of 3 autonomous profiling floats was successfully deployed in the Black Sea. This activity is part of the pilot BulArgo program funded by the Bulgarian National Science Fund of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Science. By BulArgo and upcoming Black Sea ARGO initiatives, a large number of T-S profiles will be collected. However, once an Argo float is launched in the sea, it is very difficult to recalibrate its sensors and to assess its drift due to the technical (moving) nature of the profilers, so Argo dataset is generally cheeked in an indirect way. Over the last years, several methods have been used for validation of Argo data, including comparison with nearby measurements of different random ARGO floats, comparison of ARGO measurement with nearby shipboard CTD data, comparison with reference climatology etc. Due to the specific hydrological regime in the Black Sea, the standard delay mode quality control procedures of Argo data has been adapted to the Black Sea regional peculiarities. The BulArgo dataset has been validated using comparison with SeaDataNet climatology and reference CTD data. The method allows detection of significant errors and deviations in the Argo dataset that can not be recognized by standard Real-Time Quality Control procedures. The BulArgo profiles has been processed in delay mode as approximately 97% of it is assessed as good data (QF 1) and less than 3% of whole dataset are flgged as suspicious or bad (QF 3 and 4). The quality controlled data have been integrated in the Bulgarian National Oceanographic Database.
Precipitation Ground Validation over the Oceans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klepp, C.; Bakan, S.
2012-04-01
State-of-the-art satellite derived and reanalysis based precipitation climatologies show remarkably large differences in detection, amount, variability and temporal behavior of precipitation over the oceans. The uncertainties are largest for light precipitation within the ITCZ and for cold season high-latitude precipitation including snowfall. Our HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite data, www.hoaps.org) precipitation retrieval exhibits fairly high accuracy in such regions compared to our ground validation data. However, the statistical basis for a conclusive validation has to be significantly improved with comprehensive ground validation efforts. However, existing in-situ instruments are not designed for precipitation measurements under high wind speeds on moving ships. To largely improve the ground validation data basis of precipitation over the oceans, especially for snow, the systematic data collection effort of the Initiative Pro Klima funded project at the KlimaCampus Hamburg uses automated shipboard optical disdrometers, called ODM470 that are capable of measuring liquid and solid precipitation on moving ships with high accuracy. The main goal of this project is to constrain the precipitation retrievals for HOAPS and the new Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite constellation. Currently, three instruments are long-term mounted on the German research icebreaker R/V Polarstern (Alfred Wegner Institut) since June 2010, on R/V Akademik Ioffe (P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, Moscow, Russia) since September 2010 and on R/V Maria S. Merian (Brise Research, University of Hamburg) since December 2011. Three more instruments will follow shortly on further ships. The core regions for these long-term precipitation measurements comprise the Arctic Ocean, the Nordic Seas, the Labrador Sea, the subtropical Atlantic trade wind regions, the Caribbean, the ITCZ, and the Southern Oceans as far south to Antarctica. This
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lizunov, G.; Yampolski, Yu.; Korepanov, V.; Lytvynenko, L.; Zalizovsky, A.
The impact of meteorological processes upon the ionosphere cannot be ignored in conceptual space weather models. The giant energy stored in motion of tropospheric air masses (weather fronts, cyclones, stream jets, penetrating convection, etc) serves as a powerful source of upward energy fluxes propagating from the lower to upper atmosphere. The prospective energy carrier might be associated with the middle-scale atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) traveling upwards to the ionospheric heights and producing the effects known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID's). We present the results of detailed experimental and theoretical study of these phenomena. The original data had been provided by experiments in the region of high meteorological activity, namely Antarctic coast of the Drake Passage, where the Ukrainian Antarctic station " Akademik Vernadsky" is located (UK's "Michael Faraday" till 1996). The permanent data sets were collected over the seven years from 1996 till 2002. The passing atmospheric fronts were in most cases accompanied by excitation of middle-scale AGW's and quasiperiodic variations of magnetic field components, showing the same time periods as the atmospheric pressure. As follows from the cross-correlation analysis of the magnetic field and pressure variations, the magnetic field normally lagged behind the pressure by few tens minutes. On this base we elaborate a quantitative model describing the AGW excitation by weather fronts, AGW propagation to the upper atmosphere and generation of geomagnetic pulsation in the ionospheric dynamo-region. We expect to carry out further experiments onboard Ukrainian remote sensing satellite "Sich-1M" (launch in 2004), which payload contains optical and radar equipment allowing to detect weather systems as well as a set of electromagnetic sensors ("Variant" experiment" for registration of the fine structure of fields and currents in the ionosphere. We are going to compare a ground based meteorological and
[Resistance of chemoorganotrophic bacteria isolated from Antarctic cliffs to toxic metals].
Tashirev, A B; Rokitko, P V; Levishko, A S; Romanovskaia, V A; Tashireva, A A
2012-01-01
Resistance to toxic metals ( Hg2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Cr(VI)) of bacteria isolated from rock lichen samples of vertical cliffs located on the biogeographic polygon of Ukrainian Antarctic Station Akademik Vernadsky (island Galindez) is studied. Among the Antarctic rock microorganisms isolated on nonselective medium (without toxic metals), bacteria able to grow at toxic metal concentrations lethal for the majority of microorganisms (Hg2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Cr(VI)) are found out. The studied bacteria are most resistant to Cr(VI) possessing oxidative properties in concentration range 1.25-20.0 g/l depending on the strain. Maximal metal concentrations, at which the growth of bacteria was possible, was: Ni2+ to toxic metals - 2.0 g/l, Co(2+) - 0.1 g/l. In the presence of metal ions possessing both replacing and oxidative properties the strains grew in a concentration range: Hg(2+) - 0.005-0.05 g/l, Cu(2+) - 0.1-1.25 g/l. The highest toxic effect was shown for mercury ions. One of the isolated Antarctic strains which was superresistant to high toxic metal concentrations (g/l): Cr(VI) - 20.0, Ni(2+) - 2.0, Cu(2+) - 1.25, Co(2+) - 0.1, Hg(2+) - 0.05. Thus, for the Antarctic bacteria isolated from rock damaging or bactericidal toxic metal concentrations are by 2-3 orders higher than for the majority of microorganisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shtraikhert, E. A.; Zakharkov, S. P.
2016-12-01
Chlorophyll- a concentration ( C chl) variations in the cross section within and outside the Peter the Great Bay shelf during different stages of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in 2003-2005 has been considered based on a ship (obtained during the R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrent'ev voyage of February 26 to March 9, 2003) and MODIS-Aqua spectroradiometer and the SeaWiFS color-scanner satellite data. A comparison of the C chl variability obtained from the ship and satellite data indicates that these data are inconsistent. According to satellite data obtained at the MUMM atmospheric correction, the C chl variability is distorted less than the NIR-correction data. Studying the variations in the coefficients of light absorption by the detritus and yellow substance ( a dg) and light backscattering by suspended particles ( b bp), C chl, chlorophyll- a fluorescence ( F chl) according to the satellite data allow us to state that the variations in the discrepancy between the satellite and ship C chl values are mainly caused by the variations in the content of the detritus and yellow substance in water. Based on the satellite data, it has been revealed that the a dg values increase with increasing wind mixing after the phytoplankton bloom (about 2-5 km areas where the a dg, C chl, F chl, and bbp values abruptly increased in 2005, apparently due to eddy formation). It has been indicated that the F chl characteristic, which is close to C chl, increases when the favorable conditions for the phytoplankton bloom deteriorate. Therefore, this characteristic cannot be used to identify C chl under the indicated conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, A.; Elsner, N.; Brenke, N.; Golovan, O.; Malyutina, M. V.; Riehl, T.; Schwabe, E.; Würzberg, L.
2013-02-01
Faunistic data from a newly designed camera-epibenthic sledge (C-EBS) are presented. These were collected during the joint Russian-German expedition SoJaBio (Sea of Japan Biodiversity Studies) on board the R.V. Akademik Lavrentyev from four transects (A-D) between 460 and 3660 m depth. In total, 244,531 macro- and megafaunal individuals were sampled with the classes Malacostraca (80,851 individuals), Polychaeta (36,253 ind.) and Ophiuroidea (34,004 ind.) being most abundant. Within the Malacostraca, Peracarida (75,716 ind.) were most abundant and within these, the Isopoda were the dominant taxon (27,931 ind.), followed by Amphipoda (21,403 ind.), Cumacea (13,971 ind.) and Tanaidacea (10,830 ind.). Mysidacea (1581 ind.) were least frequent. Bivalvia, Amphipoda, Cumacea and Mysidacea as well as inbenthic meiofaunal Nematoda occurred in higher numbers at the shallower stations and their numbers decreased with increasing depth. Polychaeta, Isopoda, and Tanaidacea, on the contrary, increased in abundance with increasing depth. Only one isopod species was sampled at abyssal depths in the Sea of Japan but at very high abundance: Eurycope spinifrons Gurjanova, 1933 (Asellota: Munnopsidae). Echinoderms occurred frequently at the shallower slope stations. Ophiuroids were dominating, followed by holothurians, and echinoids and asteroids which occurred in lower numbers and primarily at the shallower stations of transects A and B. Only 2163 individual anthozoans were recorded and these were mostly confined to the lower slope. The technical design of a new C-EBS is described. Next to temperature-insulated epi- and suprabenthic samplers, it is equipped with still and video cameras, which deliver information on seabed topography and megafaunal occurrence. Furthermore, Aanderaa CTD and SEAGUARD RCM allow for collection of physical parameters, such as near bottom oxygen composition, temperature and conductivity.
The Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014: Practicing 'Citizen-Science' in a Changing World
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fogwill, C. J.; Turney, C. S.
2014-12-01
Government funding is the cornerstone of modern science. But with declining investment in science across most of the Western World, a major challenge for society is where best to place what little resource we have. Which research questions should have the greatest priority? Nowhere are these issues more pressing than in the Antarctic, where bases have and continue to play host to 'big-science', multi-year programmes of research, locking up logistical support and costs. But in a warming world, the areas with the greatest effects of climate change aren't always near government research stations. With this in mind, in 2012 a plan was formed to visit Commonwealth Bay, a remote area off the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where in 2010, an iceberg the size of Rhode Island, known as B09B, dramatically knocked a 60-mile long tongue of ice off the Mertz Glacier into the Southern Ocean, setting off a cascade of change. Inspired by the expeditions of the past, we advertised berths for sale to take citizen scientists south with us, harnessing their interest, experience and investment. People responded far and wide. We were oversubscribed, and the Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 was born. With the Russian-owned MV Akademik Shokalskiy as the expedition vessel, we set out south from the New Zealand port of Bluff in late November 2013. During our journey south and on the ice we undertook a number of scientific firsts for the region actively engaging the volunteer scientists on board in projects ranging from oceanography, biology, ecology, geology and glaciaology. The expedition demostrated how private funding could support targeted programmes of research and communicate it to the wider world. Small-science research can capture the public's imagination and also reap real scientific outputs. Although it is a funding model developed in the Antarctic a hundred years ago, the beauty is it can applied anywhere in the world.
11-year solar cycle in Schumann resonance data as observed in Antarctica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nickolaenko, A. P.; Koloskov, A. V.; Hayakawa, M.; Yampolski, Yu. M.; Budanov, O. V.; Korepanov, V. E.
2015-03-01
Studies of Schumann resonance allows obtaining characteristics of the lower ionosphere and the dynamics of global thunderstorms based on the data recorded at a single or a few ground-based observatories. We use the simple model of a point source. The vertical profile of air conductivity is described by the "knee" model. We used continuous Schumann resonance record from the "Akademik Vernadsky" Ukrainian Antarctic station (geographic coordinates: 65.25S and 64.25W, L=2.6). A data processing show that the north-south seasonal drift of global thunderstorms was about 20°, and the intensity of global lightning activity changed annually by the factor 1.5-2. Unequal duration of the "electromagnetic" seasons was confirmed ("summer" ~ 120 days, "winter" ~ 60 days; duration of the "spring" is shorter than the "fall"). A possible explanation of inter-annual variations of Schumann resonance parameter follows from changes in the effective height of the lower ionosphere. In this case, we used the spatial thunderstorm distribution following from the annual data of the Optical Transient Detector satellite. We show that recorded inter-annual variations of resonance frequencies and intensities might be attributed to 1-2 km alterations in the knee height of ionosphere. The most realistic mechanism of changes should include both the height variations and the drift of global thunderstorms. Both the processes are governed by solar activity. We also estimated the feasible trend in the equatorial soil surface temperature by 1.6° C corresponding to the inter-annual change of Schumann resonance intensity.
Quasi-Fermi level splitting and sub-bandgap absorptivity from semiconductor photoluminescence
Katahara, John K.; Hillhouse, Hugh W.
2014-11-07
A unified model for the direct gap absorption coefficient (band-edge and sub-bandgap) is developed that encompasses the functional forms of the Urbach, Thomas-Fermi, screened Thomas-Fermi, and Franz-Keldysh models of sub-bandgap absorption as specific cases. We combine this model of absorption with an occupation-corrected non-equilibrium Planck law for the spontaneous emission of photons to yield a model of photoluminescence (PL) with broad applicability to band-band photoluminescence from intrinsic, heavily doped, and strongly compensated semiconductors. The utility of the model is that it is amenable to full-spectrum fitting of absolute intensity PL data and yields: (1) the quasi-Fermi level splitting, (2) the local lattice temperature, (3) the direct bandgap, (4) the functional form of the sub-bandgap absorption, and (5) the energy broadening parameter (Urbach energy, magnitude of potential fluctuations, etc.). The accuracy of the model is demonstrated by fitting the room temperature PL spectrum of GaAs. It is then applied to Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} (CIGSSe) and Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} (CZTSSe) to reveal the nature of their tail states. For GaAs, the model fit is excellent, and fitted parameters match literature values for the bandgap (1.42 eV), functional form of the sub-bandgap states (purely Urbach in nature), and energy broadening parameter (Urbach energy of 9.4 meV). For CIGSSe and CZTSSe, the model fits yield quasi-Fermi leveling splittings that match well with the open circuit voltages measured on devices made from the same materials and bandgaps that match well with those extracted from EQE measurements on the devices. The power of the exponential decay of the absorption coefficient into the bandgap is found to be in the range of 1.2 to 1.6, suggesting that tunneling in the presence of local electrostatic potential fluctuations is a dominant factor contributing to the sub-bandgap absorption by either purely electrostatic (screened Thomas-Fermi) or
Energy relaxation and the quasiequation of state of a dense two-temperature nonequilibrium plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dharma-Wardana, M. W. C.; Perrot, François
1998-09-01
A first principles approach to the equation of state (EOS) and the transport properties of an interacting mixture of electrons, ions, and neutrals in thermodynamic equilibrium was presented recently in Phys. Rev. E 52, 5352 (1995). However, many dynamically produced plasmas have an electron temperature Te different from the ion temperature Ti. The study of these nonequilibrium (non-eq.) systems involves (i) calculation of a quasiequation of state (quasi-EOS) and the needed non-eq. correlation functions, e.g., the dynamic structure factors Sss'(k,ω), where s is the species index; and (ii) a calculation of relaxation processes. The energy and momentum relaxations are usually described in terms of coupling constants determining the rates of equilibriation. Simple Spitzer-type calculations of such coupling constants often use formulas obtained by averaging the damping of a single energetic particle by the medium. However, a different result is obtained for the energy-loss rate
Photoionization and photofragmentation of gaseous toluene using 80-fs, 800-nm laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, A. M.; Uiterwaal, C. J. G. J.; Witzel, B.; Wanner, J.; Kompa, K.-L.
2000-06-01
This paper presents ion yields resulting from multiphoton ionization and fragmentation of gaseous toluene (C7H8) in the focus of an 80 fs Ti:sapphire laser beam (λ=800 nm) with a sufficiently small B-integral [Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1986)]. The peak intensity was varied between 1.9×1013 and 2.8×1014W cm-2, and both linear and circular polarization were used. Over the whole range of intensities studied, only the singly charged parent ion and its fragment, C7H7+, are found. Although the Keldysh adiabaticity parameter equals 0.86 for the saturation intensity of ˜1×1014W cm-2, there is no indication of tunneling. The parent ion yield is found to be effectively proportional to the sixth power of the peak intensity. This is shown to be in good agreement with a multiple lowest-order perturbation multiphoton ionization model which takes into account successive channel closing for increasing peak intensities and orders up to 11 inclusive. On the assumption that the excess energy acquired by the toluene cation as a result of the interaction with the electromagnetic field is of the order of the ponderomotive energy for the intensity prevailing at the moment of the ionization, the internal energy distribution of the toluene cations created that is brought about by this multiple-order multiphoton ionization model is calculated. This internal energy distribution is in perfect agreement with the measured C7H7+ yield, if the rate-energy curve for the fragmentation of excited toluene cations as given by Golovin et al. [Sov. J. Chem. Phys. 2, 632 (1985)] is moderately reduced by a factor of 4.5.
Many-body theory of electric and thermal transport in single-molecule heterojunctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergfield, Justin
2010-03-01
Electron transport in single-molecule junctions (SMJ) is a key example of a strongly-correlated system far from equilibrium, with myriad potential applications in nanotechnology. When macroscopic leads are attached to a single molecule, a SMJ is formed, transforming the ``few-body'' molecular problem into a true ``many-body'' problem. Until recently, a theory of transport that properly accounts for both the particle and wave character of the electron has been lacking, so that the Coulomb blockade and coherent transport regimes were considered ``complementary.'' We have developed a nonequilibrium many-body theoryfootnotetextJ. P. Bergfield and C. A. Stafford, Phys. Rev. B 79, 245125 (2009). that reproduces the key features of both the Coulomb blockade and coherent transport regimes simultaneously. Our approach is based on nonequilibrium Green's functions, enabling physically motivated approximations that sum terms to all orders. The junction Green's functions are calculated exactly in the sequential-tunneling limit, and the corrections to the electron self-energy due to finite tunneling width are included via Dyson-Keldysh equations. In this talk, I will present a brief overview of our many-body theory of SMJ and discuss the simulated linear and nonlinear response of a benzenedithiol-gold junction. I will also outline our derivation of an exact expression for the heat current in an interacting nanostructure, highlighting our predictionfootnotetextJ. P. Bergfield and C. A. Stafford, Nano Letters 9, 3072 (2009). of a dramatic quantum-induced enhancement of thermoelectric effects in the vicinity of a transmission node. Finally, I will provide several striking examples where the predictions of our many-body theory differ drastically from those of mean-field (density functional) theory.
Scaling theory for anomalous semiclassical quantum transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sena-Junior, M. I.; Macêdo, A. M. S.
2016-01-01
Quantum transport through devices coupled to electron reservoirs can be described in terms of the full counting statistics (FCS) of charge transfer. Transport observables, such as conductance and shot-noise power are just cumulants of FCS and can be obtained from the sample's average density of transmission eigenvalues, which in turn can be obtained from a finite element representation of the saddle-point equation of the Keldysh (or supersymmetric) nonlinear sigma model, known as quantum circuit theory. Normal universal metallic behavior in the semiclassical regime is controlled by the presence of a Fabry-Pérot singularity in the average density of transmission eigenvalues. We present general conditions for the suppression of Fabry-Pérot modes in the semiclassical regime in a sample of arbitrary shape, a disordered conductor or a network of ballistic quantum dots, which leads to an anomalous metallic phase. Through a double-scaling limit, we derive a scaling equation for anomalous metallic transport, in the form of a nonlinear differential equation, which generalizes the ballistic-diffusive scaling equation of a normal metal. The two-parameter stationary solution of our scaling equation generalizes Dorokhov's universal single-parameter distribution of transmission eigenvalues. We provide a simple interpretation of the stationary solution using a thermodynamic analogy with a spin-glass system. As an application, we consider a system formed by a diffusive wire coupled via a barrier to normal-superconductor reservoirs. We observe anomalous reflectionless tunneling, when all perfectly transmitting channels are suppressed, which cannot be explained by the usual mechanism of disorder-induced opening of tunneling channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogloblya, O. V.; Kuznietsova, H. M.; Strzhemechny, Y. M.
2017-01-01
We performed numerical studies for the conductance of a heterojunction carbon nanotube quantum dot (QD) with an extra spin orbital quantum number and a conventional QD in which the electron state is determined only by the spin quantum number. Our computational approach took into account the spin-orbit interaction and the Coulomb repulsion both between electrons on a QD as well as between the QD electron and the contacts. We utilized an approach based on the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function formalism as well as the equation of motion technique. We focused on the case of a finite Coulombic on-site repulsion and considered two possible cases of applied voltage: spin bias and conventional bias. For the system of interest we obtained bias spectroscopy diagrams, i.e. contour charts showing dependence of conductivity on two variables - voltage and the energy level position in a QD - which can be controlled by the plunger gate voltage. The finite Coulombic repulsion splits the density of states into two distinct maxima with the energy separation between them controlled by that parameter. It was also shown that an increase of either the value of the on-site Coulomb repulsion in a QD or the parameter of the Coulomb repulsion between the electrons in the QD and the contacts leads to an overall shift of the density of electronic states dependence toward higher energy values. Presence of the QD-lead interaction yields formation of a new pair of peaks in the differential conductance dependence. We also show that existence of four quantum states in a QD leads to abrupt changes in the density of states. These results could be beneficial for potential applications in nanotube-based amperometric sensors.
Large-time evolution of an electron in photon bath
Kazakov, Kirill A.; Nikitin, Vladimir V.
2012-12-15
The problem of infrared divergence of the effective electromagnetic field produced by elementary charges is revisited using the model of an electron freely evolving in a photon bath. It is shown that for any finite travel time, the effective field of the electron is infrared-finite, and that at each order of perturbation theory the radiative contributions grow unboundedly with time. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, factorization of divergent contributions in multi-loop diagrams is proved, and summation of the resulting infinite series is performed. It is found that despite the unbounded growth of individual contributions to the effective field, their sum is bounded, tending to zero in the limit of infinite travel time. It is concluded that the physical meaning of infrared singularity in the effective field is the existence of a peculiar irreversible spreading of electric charges, caused by their interaction with the electromagnetic field. This spreading originates from the quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, rather than the electron-photon scattering, and exists in vacuum as well as at finite temperatures. It shows itself in a damping of the off-diagonal elements of the momentum-space density matrix of electron, but does not affect its momentum probability distribution. This effect is discussed in terms of thermalization of the electron state, and the asymptotic growth of its quantum entropy is determined. Relationship of the obtained results to the Bloch-Nordsieck theorem is established and considered from the standpoint of measurability of the electromagnetic field. The effect of irreversible spreading on the electron diffraction in the classic two-slit experiment is determined, and is shown to be detectable in principle by modern devices already at room temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared finiteness of the effective electromagnetic field of a free electron is proved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum radiative effects
Study of optical properties of GaAsN layers prepared by molecular beam epitaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pulzara-Mora, A.; Cruz-Hernández, E.; Rojas-Ramirez, J.; Contreras-Guerrero, R.; Meléndez-Lira, M.; Falcony-Guajardo, C.; Aguilar-Frutis, M. A.; López-López, M.
2007-04-01
We have grown GaAsN layers (with nitrogen concentration between 1.2% and 3.2%) on GaAs(1 0 0) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using a radio frequency (RF) plasma nitrogen source, and solid sources for Ga and As. The growth temperature was varied from 420 to 600 °C, and the GaAsN growth mode was in situ monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The optical properties of the layers were studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy (PR) and phase modulated ellipsometry (PME). For the growth temperature of 420 °C the films grew in a three-dimensional (3D) mode as indicated by the appearance of transmission spots in the RHEED patterns. In contrast, GaAsN layers grown at higher temperatures presented a two-dimensional (2D) growth mode. These GaAsN layers are pseudomorphic according to high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The PR spectra of all samples exhibited Franz-Keldysh oscillations (FKO) above of the GaAs band gap energy. From these oscillations we obtained the built-in internal electric field intensity ( Fint) at the GaAsN/GaAs interface. In the low-energy region of the PR spectra we observed the transitions associated to fundamental band gap of the GaAsN layers. The variation of the GaAsN fundamental band gap obtained by PR as a function of the N content was explained according the band anti-crossing model (BAC). On the other hand, the E1 and E1+Δ E1 critical points were obtained from the analysis of spectra of the imaginary part of the dielectric function obtained by PME. We observed a shift of these critical points to higher energies with the increase of N content, which was explained by a combination of strain and alloying effects.
Earthquake Monitoring at 9° 50'N on the East Pacific Rise RIDGE 2000 Integrated Studies Site
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolstoy, M.; Waldhauser, F.; Kim, W.
2004-12-01
In the fall of 2003 nine ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) were deployed from the R/V Keldysh within the `bull's-eye' region of the R2K ISS at 9° 49'N - 9° 51'N on the East Pacific Rise as part of the Ridge 2000 Integrated Studies Site. These instruments were recovered using the R/V Atlantis in April 2004, and twelve more were deployed to take their place for a second year of monitoring (with three years total planned). During the turn-around cruise, two short temporary deployments (~4-8 days), of an additional 3 OBSs each, were accomplished to provide very dense instrument spacing (a few 100 m) around specific vents where in situ chemical monitoring was taking place (Luther et al.). Good data were collected on seven of the nine long deployment and six short deployment OBSs. We will present early results from analysis of these data including an estimate of the level of activity observed through-out the seven month period of the first deployment, and preliminary epicenters. Data will also be shown from the short temporary deployments. Early analysis of these data indicates an event rate of ~8 events per day for events where arrivals are apparent on at least three instruments, and may therefore expect to be located. Also notable in these data are pulses and prolonged periods of what appear to be tremor. This tremor is not generally coherent or synchronous from station to station and is therefore likely a very localized phenomena associated with hydrothermal fluid flow. The exceptionally well characterized and monitored seafloor at this site will allow for unprecedented correlation of observed seismic activity with local biology, geology, geochemical and hydrothermal monitoring. In addition, past and future detailed geophysical imaging of this area will provide an excellent context for observed faulting and fracturing.
Quantum biology: Elucidating design principles from photosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelzer, Kenley March Barrett
Light-harvesting complexes in photosynthetic organisms are known to transfer excitonic energy with extremely high efficiency, but the mechanisms behind this high efficiency are not fully understood. Spectroscopic data on the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex, a light-harvesting complex in green sulfur bacteria, suggests that quantum mechanical effects may play an important role in the energy transfer process. In recent years a large body of research has supported the argument that quantum mechanical effects can and do play a role in photosynthetic energy transfer, but both experimental and theoretical work faces the challenge of understanding the role of FMO's noisy biological environment in quantum transport. It is certain that excitons in FMO are frequently perturbed by phonons in the environment, but much remains to be understood about the role of these perturbations in the transport process. This thesis aims to contribute to this discussion in two ways. First, we present work in which we apply theoretical models to address questions regarding the interpretation of spectroscopic results. The accuracy of spectroscopy in measuring timescales relevant to quantum transport and the relevance of spectroscopic results to excitation by incoherent light are addressed. Second, we present work in which we simulate exciton transport using various representations of the phonon bath. We explore the effect of spatial correlations in the phonon bath, and test a variety of possible bath models in a Keldysh Green's function model of transport under incoherent light. We demonstrate in many ways that environmental noise plays a crucial role in shaping the process of excitonic energy transfer.
Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials
Gallais, L. Douti, D.-B.; Commandré, M.; Batavičiūtė, G.; Pupka, E.; Ščiuka, M.; Smalakys, L.; Sirutkaitis, V.; Melninkaitis, A.
2015-06-14
An experimental and numerical study of the laser-induced damage of the surface of optical material in the femtosecond regime is presented. The objective of this work is to investigate the different processes involved as a function of the ratio of photon to bandgap energies and compare the results to models based on nonlinear ionization processes. Experimentally, the laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials has been studied in a range of wavelengths from 1030 nm (1.2 eV) to 310 nm (4 eV) with pulse durations of 100 fs with the use of an optical parametric amplifier system. Semi-conductors and dielectrics materials, in bulk or thin film forms, in a range of bandgap from 1 to 10 eV have been tested in order to investigate the scaling of the femtosecond laser damage threshold with the bandgap and photon energy. A model based on the Keldysh photo-ionization theory and the description of impact ionization by a multiple-rate-equation system is used to explain the dependence of laser-breakdown with the photon energy. The calculated damage fluence threshold is found to be consistent with experimental results. From these results, the relative importance of the ionization processes can be derived depending on material properties and irradiation conditions. Moreover, the observed damage morphologies can be described within the framework of the model by taking into account the dynamics of energy deposition with one dimensional propagation simulations in the excited material and thermodynamical considerations.
Faint High Orbit Debris Observations with ISON Optical Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molotov, I.; Agapov, V.
New cooperation for global monitoring of space objects at high orbits, International Scientific Optical Network (ISON), is appeared under auspices of the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. ISON provides the observations of faint deep space debris in cooperation with team of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) since 2004. It is jointly discovered already about 500 faint space debris fragments at high orbits and almost 200 of them are continuously tracked with ISON. Presence of space debris clouds created in earlier suspected fragmentations of GEO objects is proved by long deterministic observations of individual members of the clouds. For the first time, a large amount of data on long time intervals is obtained for objects with high area-to-mass ratio (AMR). Till present, the uncatalogued faint deep debris are discovering mainly with Teide ESA OGS telescope and Crimean observatory in Nauchny, while object tracking is providing by cooperation of the 0.5-2.6-m class telescopes including Zimmerwald, Gissar, Mondy, Abastumany, Arkhyz, Mayaki, Andrushivka and Terskol. During 2009 it is planned to join several telescopes with large field of view (1.3 - 2.3 degree) in Ussuriysk, Krasnojarsk, Mondy, Nauchniy, Andrushivka, Abastumani, Mayaki and Kitab into semi-automatic network in order to try to establish the faint debris quasi continuous orbit maintenance. It is planned to use survey mode for this purpose as it is adjusted now for brighter GEO objects with ISON survey subsystem of 22-cm telescopes. Along with sensors development, it is elaborated and tested a few survey modes and algorithm permitting to find correlation between short arc tracks of non-correlated objects in order to discovery of new objects and to establish their orbits.
Ultrafast laser-induced modifications of energy bands of non-metal crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruzdev, Vitaly
2009-10-01
Ultrafast laser-induced variations of electron energy bands of transparent solids significantly influence ionization and conduction-band electron absorption driving the initial stage of laser-induced damage (LID). The mechanisms of the variations are attributed to changing electron functions from bonding to anti-bonding configuration via laser-induced ionization; laser-driven electron oscillations in quasi-momentum space; and direct distortion of the inter-atomic potential by electric field of laser radiation. The ionization results in the band-structure modification via accumulation of broken chemical bonds between atoms and provides significant contribution to the overall modification only when enough excited electrons are accumulated in the conduction band. The oscillations are associated with modification of electron energy by pondermotive potential of the oscillations. The direct action of radiation's electric field leads to specific high-frequency Franz-Keldysh effect (FKE) spreading the allowed electron states into the bands of forbidden energy. Those processes determine the effective band gap that is a laser-driven energy gap between the modified electron energy bands. Among those mechanisms, the latter two provide reversible band-structure modification that takes place from the beginning of the ionization and are, therefore, of special interest due to their strong influence on the initial stage of the ionization. The pondermotive potential results either in monotonous increase or oscillatory variations of the effective band gap that has been taken into account in some ionization models. The classical FKE provides decrease of the band gap. We analyzing the competition between those two opposite trends of the effective-band-gap variations and discuss applications of those effects for considerations of the laser-induced damage and its threshold in transparent solids.
Electron-positron pair production from vacuum in the field of high-intensity laser radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, V. S.; Mur, V. D.; Narozhnyi, N. B.; Popruzhenko, S. V.
2016-03-01
The works dealing with the theory of e + e - pair production from vacuum under the action of highintensity laser radiation are reviewed. The following problems are discussed: pair production in a constant electric field E and time-variable homogeneous field E( t); the dependence of the number of produced pairs {N_{{e^ + }{e^ - }}} on the shape of a laser pulse (dynamic Schwinger effect); and a realistic three-dimensional model of a focused laser pulse, which is based on exact solution of Maxwell's equations and contains parameters such as focal spot radius R, diffraction length L, focusing parameter Δ, pulse duration τ, and pulse shape. This model is used to calculate {N_{{e^ + }{e^ - }}} for both a single laser pulse ( n = 1) and several ( n ≥ 2) coherent pulses with a fixed total energy that simultaneously "collide" in a laser focus. It is shown that, at n ≫ 1, the number of pairs increases by several orders of magnitude as compared to the case of a single pulse. The screening of a laser field by the vapors that are generated in vacuum, its "depletion," and the limiting fields to be achieved in laser experiments are considered. The relation between pair production, the problem of a quantum frequency-variable oscillator, and the theory of groups SU(1, 1) and SU(2) is discussed. The relativistic version of the imaginary time method is used in calculations. In terms of this version, a relativistic theory of tunneling is developed and the Keldysh theory is generalized to the case of ionization of relativistic bound systems, namely, atoms and ions. The ionization rate of a hydrogen-like ion with a charge 1 ≤ Z ≤ 92 is calculated as a function of laser radiation intensity ( F and ellipticity ρ.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanova, E. V.; Borisov, D.; Murdmaa, I.; Levchenko, O. V.; Dmitrenko, O.; Emelyanov, E.
2014-12-01
The high-resolution seismic profiling during cruise 32 of the RV "Akademik Ioffe" (2010) discovered a large elongated contourite drift on the ridge of the Rio Grande fracture zone (Brazil Basin, western South Atlantic). This sedimentary body with a thickness up to 300 m, named Ioffe drift, is traced at water depth range from 3790 to 3980 m. Five seismic units are distinguished within the upper drift structure recorded to a depth of 60 mbsf. The seismic units are separated by angular discontinuities. The sediment core AI-2436 (25°51.6'S, 34°01.40'W, water depth 3800 m) retrieved near the drift top recovers about 6 m of nanno-foraminiferal ooze intercalated with foraminiferal sand interbeds. According to the planktonic foraminiferal and nannofossil stratigraphy, the sediment record embraces about 3 My of the Ioffe drift history, from the Late Pliocene to present. Absence of several foraminiferal and nannofossil zones in the core section indicates long-term hiatuses. Some zones are thicker here while others are reduced as compared to those on the nearby Rio Grande Rise. This suggests reworking of the biogenic material in the drift. The Ioffe drift was formed as a result of transport and deposition of biogenic calcareous material by the eastern branch of the Antarctic bottom water (AABW) flow. The biogenic calcareous material is mainly derived from the Rio Grande Rise where planktonic foraminiferal and nannofossil assemblages identical to those in core AI-2436 are studied at the DSDP site 516 (Barash et al., 1983). We suggest that the grain-size distribution of the calcareous sediments roughly corresponding to the foraminiferal/nannofossil ratio reflects the bottom currents velocity variations. Very high current velocities result in erosion and stratigraphic hiatuses. Angular unconformities in seismic profiles indicate episodes of intensified AABW flow velocity which led to the drift migration. The study was supported by RFBR, research projects 14-05-31357-mol_a, 14
Oceanic Precipitation Measurement - Surface Validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klepp, Christian
2013-04-01
State-of-the-art satellite derived and reanalysis based precipitation climatologies still show remarkably large differences in frequency, amount, intensity, variability and temporal behavior of precipitation over the oceans. Additionally so far appropriate in-situ validation instruments were not available for shipboard use. The uncertainties are largest for light precipitation within the ITCZ and subtropics and for cold season high-latitude precipitation including mix-phase and snowfall. Hence, a long-term issue on which IPWG and GPM-GV is urging more attention is the provision of high quality surface validation data in oceanic areas using innovative ship-based instruments. Precipitation studies would greatly benefit from systematic dataset collection and analysis as such data could also be used to constrain precipitation retrievals. To achieve this goal, the KlimaCampus and Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany funded this project that uses automated shipboard optical disdrometers, called Eigenbrodt ODM470, that are capable of measuring liquid and solid precipitation using drop size distributions in minute intervals on moving ships with high accuracy even under high wind speeds and rough sea states. Since the project start in 2009 the statistical basis for a conclusive validation has significantly improved with comprehensive data collection of more than 3 million minutes of precipitation measurements onboard six ships. Currently, six ODM470 instrument systems are available of which three are long-term mounted onboard the German research icebreaker R/V Polarstern (Alfred Wegner Institut) since June 2010, on R/V Akademik Ioffe (P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia) since September 2010 and on R/V Maria S. Merian (Brise Research, University of Hamburg) since December 2011. Three instruments are used for additional short-term shipboard campaigns and intercomparison projects. The core regions for these
Basic tectonic features of the Knipovich Ridge (North Atlantic) and its neotectonic evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peive, A. A.; Chamov, N. P.
2008-01-01
The geological and geophysical data primarily on the structure of the upper sedimentary sequence of the northern Knipovich Ridge (Norwegian-Greenland Basin) that were obtained during Cruise 24 of the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov are considered. These data indicate that the recent kinematics of the northern Knipovich Ridge is determined by dextral strike-slip displacements along the Molloy Fracture Zone (315° NW). This stress field is superimposed by a system related to rifting and latitudinal opening of rifts belonging to the ridge proper. Thus, the structural elements formed under the effect of two stress fields are combined in this district. Several stages of tectonic movements are definable. The first stage (prior to 500 ka ago) is marked by the dominant normal faults, which are overlain by the lower and upper sedimentary sequences. The second stage (prior to 120-100 ka ago) is characterized by development of normal and reverse faults, which displace the lower sequence and are overlain by the upper sequence. Both younger and older structural features reveal peaks of tectonic activity separated by intermediate quiet periods 50-60 ka long. The stress field of the regional strike-slip faulting is realized in numerous oblique NE-trending normal and normal-strike-slip faults that divide the rift valley and its walls into the segments of different sizes. Their strike (20°-30° NE) is consistent with a system of secondary antithetic sinistral strike-slip faults. The system of depressions located 40 km west of the rift valley axis may be considered a paleorift zone that is conjugated at 78°07' N and 5°20' W with the NW-trending fault marked by the main dextral offset. The stress field that existed at this stage was identical to the recent one. The rift valley axis migrated eastward to its present-day position approximately 2 Ma ago (if the spreading rate of ˜0.7 cm/yr is accepted). The obtained data substantially refine the understanding of the initial breakup of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fokina, A.; Akhmanov, G.; Andreassen, K.; Yurchenko, A.
2014-12-01
In 2011-2013 four research cruises in the Barents Sea were organized by UNESCO-MSU Centre for Marine Geology and Geophysics (Russia) and University of Tromso (Norway) and were carried out onboard the RV "Akademik N. Strakhov" and RV "Helmer Hanssen". The cruises were devoted to finding and studying hydrocarbon seeps (e.g. pockmarks, crater-like structures), evaluating neo-tectonic activity and focusing on some problems in the field of modern geological and geochemical processes in the Arctic region. This topic is focused on identification of the gas anomalies related to the possible cold seep structures, study of the molecular and isotopic composition and origin of the hydrocarbon gases from the bottom sediments. During this research the interpretation of geochemical survey data was carried out within the different structures of the Barents region: 1) The area of distribution of craters, 2) Storfjordrenna and Storfiordbanken, 3) Nordkap and Tiddly basins, Fedynskii high, North-Kildinsk field. 1) In the Central Barents Sea in the area of distribution of craters residual discharge of gas from the Triassic sandstones has occurred and manifested through the activity of gas flares and elevated concentrations of methane. Values of gas coefficients indicate the possible existence of thermogenic gas in the sample. The active unloading of gas and formation of craters associated with the disintegration of gas hydrates. 2) Discovered gas flares, pockmarks and abnormal high concentrations of methane are the first statement about the presence of active gas discharge in the NW Barents Sea. HC gases are formed as a result of microbial processing of thermogenic gas. In the area there is an increased microbial activity resulting in authigenic carbonate formation. Unloading of gas is observed in the edges parts of the large glacial moraine along the base of which the lateral migration of gas occurs. Reservoirs can be Lower-Middle and Lower-Middle Triassic sandstones. 3) In the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yampolski, Y.; Zalizovski, A.; Lizunov, G.; Korepanov, V.
2003-04-01
The existence of ionospheric precursors of earthquakes is widely discussed nowadays in numerous papers and monographs. It is a general opinion that for the reliable identification of ionospheric precursors of seismic hazards a problem oriented satellite project is necessary. A couple of such projects DEMETER in France and VARIANT in Ukraine are expected to be launched next year. In order to be more sure with their results a physically valid model of lithospheric-ionospheric interaction should be proposed and its reliability estimated. One of the most supported mechanisms of such interaction is acoustic gravity waves (AGW) generation near the earth surface during the period just preceding the earthquake and their penetration into the ionospheric plasma and interaction with it. Every stage of this mechanism AGW generation, AGW propagation through the atmosphere and AGW interaction with ionospheric plasma still needs clear physical explanation. This paper discusses experimental results obtained in Antarctica at electromagnetic polygon of the Ukrainian station “Akademik Vernadsky”. Recenly a set of super sensitive magnetometers covering frequency band from DC to ~300 Hz was installed there and continuous magnetic field monitoring was organized. Together with extremely low level of electromagnetic disturbances there it allowed to collect statistically significant data set giving new light on the possible model of the third stage of the mentioned interaction mechanism. The main model output is that the AGWs modulate mostly not the electronic concentration as it was accepted early, but the transversal conductivities of the lower ionosphere. The following hypothetical interactions chain of events was proposed and numerically confirmed: AGW excitation ® atmospheric neutral component modulation ® collision frequency variation in E-layer ® Pedersen and Hall conductivities modulation ® dynamo current modulation ® magnetic field variations. This interaction mechanism
Ozone observations and a model of marine boundary layer photochemistry during SAGA 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, A. M.; Johnson, J. E.; Torres, A. L.; Bates, T. S.; Kelly, K. C.; Atlas, E.; Greenberg, J. P.; Donahue, N. M.; Yvon, S. A.; Saltzman, E. S.; Heikes, B. G.; Mosher, B. W.; Shashkov, A. A.; Yegorov, V. I.
1993-01-01
A major purpose of the third joint Soviet-American Gases and Aerosols (SAGA 3) oceanographic cruise was to examine remote tropical marine O3 and photochemical cycles in detail. On leg 1, which took place between Hilo, Hawaii, and Pago-Pago, American Samoa, in February and March 1990, shipboard measurements were made of O3, CO, CH4, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), NO, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), H2S, H2O2, organic peroxides, and total column O3. Postcruise analysis was performed for alkyl nitrates and a second set of nonmethane hydrocarbons. A latitudinal gradient in O3 was observed on SAGA 3, with O3 north of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) at 15-20 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and less than 12 ppbv south of the ITCZ but never ≤3 ppbv as observed on some previous equatorial Pacific cruises (Piotrowicz et al., 1986; Johnson et al., 1990). Total column O3 (230-250 Dobson units (DU)) measured from the Akademik Korolev was within 8% of the corresponding total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite observations and confirmed the equatorial Pacific as a low O3 region. In terms of number of constituents measured, SAGA 3 may be the most photochemically complete at-sea experiment to date. A one-dimensional photochemical model gives a self-consistent picture of O3-NO-CO-hydrocarbon interactions taking place during SAGA 3. At typical equatorial conditions, mean O3 is 10 ppbv with a 10-15% diurnal variation and maximum near sunrise. Measurements of O3, CO, CH4, NMHC, and H2O constrain model-calculated OH to 9 × 105 cm-3 for 10 ppbv O3 at the equator. For DMS (300-400 parts per trillion by volume (pptv)) this OH abundance requires a sea-to-air flux of 6-8 × 109 cm-2 s-1, which is within the uncertainty range of the flux deduced from SAGA 3 measurements of DMS in seawater (Bates et al., this issue). The concentrations of alkyl nitrates on SAGA 3 (5-15 pptv total alkyl nitrates) were up to 6 times higher than expected from currently accepted kinetics
Ozone observations and a model of marine boundary layer photochemistry during SAGA 3
Thompson, A.M.; Johnson, J.E.; Bates, T.S.; Kelly, K.C.; Torres, A.L.; Atlas, E.; Greenberg, J.P.; Donahue, N.M.; Yvon, S.A.; Saltzman, E.S.
1993-09-20
A major purpose of the third joint Soviet-American Gases and Aerosols (SAGA 3) oceanographic cruise was to examine remote tropical marine O{sub 3} and photochemical cycles in detail. On leg 1, which took place between Hilo, Hawaii, and Pago-Pago, American Samoa, in February and March 1990, shipboard measurements were made of O{sub 3}, CO, CH{sub 4}, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), NO, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, organic peroxides, and total column O{sub 3}. Postcruise analysis was performed for alkyl nitrates and a set of nonmethane hydrocarbons. A latitudinal gradient in O{sub 3} was observed on SAGA 3, with O{sub 3} north of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) at 15-20 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and less than 12 ppbv south of the ITCZ but never {le} 3 ppbv as observed on some previous equatorial Pacific cruises. Total column O{sub 3} (230--250 Dobson units (DU)) measured from the Akademik Korolev was within 8% of the corresponding total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite observations and confirmed the equatorial Pacific as a low O{sub 3} region. A one-dimensional photochemical model gives a self-consistent picture of O{sub 3}-NO-CO-hydrocarbon interactions taking place during SAGA 3. At typical equatorial conditions, mean O{sub 3} is 10 ppbv with a 10-15% diurnal variation and maximum near sunrise. Measurements of O{sub 3}, CO, CH{sub 4}, NMHC, and H{sub 2}O constrain model-calculated OH to 9 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup {minus}3} for 10 ppbv O{sub 3} at the equator. The concentrations of alkyl nitrates on SAGA 3 (5-15 pptv total alkyl nitrates) were up to 6 times higher than expected from currently accepted kinetics, suggesting a largely continental source for these species. However, maxima in isopropyl nitrate and bromoform near the equator as well as for nitric oxide may signify photochemical and biological sources of these species. 43 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duliu, O. G.; Alexe, V. E.; Moutte, J.; Szobotca, S. A.
2009-04-01
The concentrations of seven major components (Ti, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, K and P as oxides) and 15 trace elements (Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Yb and Th) were determined by ICP-AE spectrometry in 27 samples of manganese nodules, micronodules and abyssal clay collected by dredging during the 1984 cruise of the R/V Akademik Alexandr Karpinski in the Clarion-Clipperton Province of the North Pacific (12° N-12° 40' N and 137° 40' W-138° 50' W) at a depth of about 4,500 m. Cluster analysis was used to compare among individual as well as pooled datasets, in addition to different indicators such as La/Th, Ni/Cu and LREE/HREE ratios for the Clarion-Clipperton samples, as well as between these and corresponding values for the upper continental crust (UCC), North America Shale Composite (NASC), and igneous Indian and Pacific Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts (MORBs). The results evidenced the existence of significant positive correlations between major components in the Clarion-Clipperton samples and Pacific Ocean MORB, whereas trace elements (excepting Ni and Cu) correlate better with the UCC and NASC. There was also evidenced a depletion in LREEs which, together with a Ce negative anomaly for all Clarion-Clipperton samples, pointed towards a hydrothermal origin of the all REE, this fact being sustained by a La/Th ratio between 5 and 7, different from UCC (2.80) and NASC (2.50), but closer to Pacific (8.8) and Indian (11.25) Oceans MORBs. On the other hand, on a Sc-La-Th ternary diagram, all Clarion-Clipperton samples grouped together closer UCC and NASC and far away from both Pacific and Indian Oceans MORBs. At the same time, all investigated samples showed more significant clusters such as phosphorous pentoxide and all REE excepting Ce, or Ni and Cu. Compared to abyssal clay, the nodule as well as micronodules show significant enrichment in Ni and Cu while a constant Ni/Cu ratio indicated that all samples come from the sediment surface. In this way, the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkisyan, A.; Levitus, S.
As a main chain for synthesizing a WOCE "synoptic" hydrographic section with the neighbouring climatic data serves a modern high resolution 3DPEM. The calculation procedure is as follows: 1.Replacing climatic T,S data by observed unfiltered hydro- logic section; 2.Making a short model time diagnostic-prognostic investigation by a special freezing-defreezing method. As a result we obtain mutually adjusted synoptic fields of all physical characteristics at narrow strip embracing the WOCE section.This method, after some preliminary test, was validated by using the observed data of the R/V "AKADEMIK Sergei Vavilov" in her 11th cruise to the Barents Sea on Sept. 1997 (Sarkisyan and Sidorova, 1998). More comprehensive calculations were made by using the WOCE A05 section data, 24.5N in the North Atlantic (S.Levitus and Sarkisyan, 2001) The main results of this work are as follows. (1) A clearly defined asymmetry occurs in the spatial distribution of the effect of inlaying syn-optic data. Namely, (a) the effect of synoptic information decays in the meridional direction at a distance of a few degrees from the section, and it is obvious that this effect also decays with depth because of baroclinicity; (b) in the zonal direction, the effect is propagated westward under the action of Rossby waves and other factors, and, in the continental slope (east of 80W), this effect enhances through die JEBAR and is propagated north- ward by the Antilles Current and further by the Gulf Stream. This western intensifi- cation is clearly reflected in the mass and heat transport values. (2) Due to eddies and other-type spatial variability, as well as to the action of the JEBAR, meridional trans- port processes in the region of the section are an order of magnitude stronger than those in the case of computations based on climatic data, which is confirmed by direct observations in the Bahamas region. From computations, it is inferred that the western intensification and a high degree of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium
2011-12-01
Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, J. E.; Koropalov, V. M.; Pickering, K. E.; Thompson, A. M.; Bond, N.; Elkins, J. W.
1993-01-01
The primary goal of the third joint Soviet-American Gases and Aerosols (SAGA 3) experiment was to study trace gases and aerosols in the remote marine boundary layer. SAGA 3/leg 1 took place from February 13 to March 13, 1990, aboard the former Soviet R/V Akademik Korolev and consisted of five equatorial transects (designated transects 1 through 5) between 15°N and 10°S on a cruise track from Hilo, Hawaii, to Pago-Pago, American Samoa. Specific objectives were to study (1) the oceanic distribution and air-sea exchange of biogenic trace gases; (2) photochemical cycles of C-, S-, and N-containing gases in the marine boundary layer; (3) the distribution of aerosol particles in the marine boundary layer and their physical and chemical properties; (4) interhemispheric gradients and latitudinal mixing of trace gases and aerosols; and (5) stratospheric aerosol layers. SAGA 3/leg 2 continued from March 17 to April 7, 1990, with one more equatorial transect between American Samoa and the northern coast of the Philippines (transect 6) followed by a final transect to Singapore (transect 7). During leg 2, most former Soviet measurements continued, but with the exception of measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) and selected halocarbons in the air and surface waters all American measurements ceased. This paper briefly summarizes the chemical measurements made by SAGA 3 investigators and presents in some detail the meteorological and hydrological characteristics encountered during SAGA 3. The meteorological analysis is based on atmospheric soundings of temperature, humidity, winds, sea surface temperature, postcruise back trajectories of winds, and satellite imagery. In general, the meteorology during SAGA 3 was typical of the location and time of year. Exceptions to this include an incipient El Niño that never developed fully, a poorly defined ITCZ on 4 of 6 equator crossings, wind speeds that were 20% greater than the decadal mean, a convective event that brought
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gritsenko, Alexander; Tarakanov, Roman
2016-04-01
Fine jet structure of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in the Drake Passage is investigated on the basis of the daily satellite data of the absolute dynamic topography (ADT) provided by the French CLS Agency (DT-Global-MADT-Upd product, http://aviso.oceanobs.com) and sea surface temperature (SST) provided by the GAMSSA Project (Global Australian Multi-Sensor SST Analysis, http://data.nodc.noaa.gov/las/getUI.do?dsid=id-c80878d11f&varid=analysed_sst-id-c80878d11f&auto=true) of the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research. The investigation was executed on 01.09.2011-31.12.2011 using the methods of the probability-statistical analysis. Mesoscale eddies were eliminated from the analysis of fine jet structure of the ACC in the Drake Passage. As a result the amplitude of the ADT and SST gradients increased. This allowed us to distinguish more precisely the limits and cores of the jets. The jet limits were chosen as the isopleths of the ADT (isohypses) matching with the local minima of the ADT and SST gradients (averaged in time) along ADT axis in ADT-gradient-ADT and SST-gradient-ADT spaces, while the cores of the jets coincided with the local maxima of the SST and ADT gradients at the corresponding isohypses. The main feature of the studied region is merging of the separated jets into a powerful "superjet" as the ACC passes through the passage. It is possible to separate and identify these separated jets if we have auxiliary (e.g. sub-satellite) information. With this in mind we used the CTD- and SADCP-measurements over the section carried out on 28.10.2011-04.11.2011 onboard R/V "Akademik Ioffe" across the Drake Passage. The analyses of the satellite data revealed 8-9 individual jets characterized by the local horizontal maxima of the ADT and SST gradients. These jets were actually various combinations of the twelve ACC jets, which we found earlier south of Africa. In September-October 2011, we found 6 jets of the Subantarctic Current, 4 jets of the
Ecological state of North -Western Black Sea macrobenthos on offshore bottoms deeper than 50 m
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomoiu, M.-T.; Begun, T.; Teaca, A.
2009-04-01
In the last 10-15 years researches concerning benthos in the north-western Black Sea were focused mainly on inshore bottoms, usually less than 50 m deep, where important ecological changed occurred. The offshore bottoms, deeper than 50 m, and especially the periazoic level at the edge of the continental shelf have been less known, the information being scarce. The present study gathers the results of the researches carried out in the past 12 years on the Modiolus phaseolinus community, including the periazoic level, and allows a comparison to be drawn with the situation of the so-called "ecological stability" period at the beginning of the 1960s, before the ecosystemic disturbances began in the Black Sea. In 1995-2007, a number of 133 quantitative macro-benthos samples were collected at depths of 50 - 213 m by means of the van Veen-type grab and box corer; these samples were taken during several cruises (R/V "Prof.Vodyanitskyi" EROS 1995, 1997, R/V „Akademik" 2003, R/V „Parshin" 2005, R/V „Akademik" 2006 R/V „Mare Nigrum" 2006 and 2007), the researches aiming at the assessment of the benthic ecosystem state. The analyses of the 133 samples helped identify 191 taxa (Vermes - 88, Mollusca - 24, Crustacea - 32 and Varia - 47), approximately 60% of the total number of species recorded in the north-western Black Sea during the period of "ecological prosperity". The mean abundance of the benthic populations was 4,836.2 indvs.m-2 for density and 189.9 g.m-2 for biomass. Most macrobenthic taxa occurred in the samples accidentally; out of the 191 taxa recorded, 60 taxa had a frequency of 1-2%, 37 taxa 2-5%, 28 taxa 5-10%, 32 taxa 10-20%, 26 taxa 20-50% and only eight species had a frequency over 50% (Modiolus phaseolinus, Terebelides stroemi, Capitella capitata, Nephtys hombergi, Amphiura stepanovi, Sphaerosyllis bulbosa, Apseudes ostroumovi and Phyllodoce lineata). Numerical abundances were dominated by worms (2,606.9 indvs.m-2) and molluscs (1,398.7 indvs.m-2
Braly, Ian L.; Hillhouse, Hugh W.
2015-12-22
The development of stable high-bandgap hybrid perovskites (HPs) with high optoelectronic quality may enable tandem solar cells with power conversion efficiencies approaching 30%. The halide composition of HPs has been observed to effect bandgap, carrier lifetime, and material stability. Here we report optoelectronic quality and stability under illumination of thousands of compositions ranging from the pure iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) to the diiodomonobromide (CH3NH3PbI2Br). Hyperspectral maps of steady-state absolute intensity photoluminescence (AIPL) are used to determine the quasi-Fermi level splitting (QFLS) at each point after synthesis. The QFLS upon first illumination increases with bandgap and reaches a maximum of 1.27 eV undermore » 1 sun illumination intensity for a bandgap of 1.75 eV. However, the optoelectronic quality (χ), defined as the ratio of the QFLS to the maximum theoretical QFLS for bandgap, decreases with bandgap from around 88% for 1.60 eV bandgap down to 82% for 1.84 eV bandgap. Further, we show that a reversible light induced defect forms that reduces the optoelectronic quality, particularly for high-bandgap materials. Composition analysis shows that the halide to lead ratio, (I + Br)/Pb, decreases from 3 for the pure iodide to 2.5 for the diiodomonobromide, suggesting a role of halide vacancies or halide substitution defects in the light-induced instability for this synthesis route. Even with the light-induced defect, a stable QFLS of about 1.17 eV is possible. Comparing our QFLS to Voc values from HP devices reported in the literature indicates that higher open circuit voltages are possible but may require optimization of band alignment. Further, the spectral shape of the PL emission is found to be more commensurate with Franz–Keldysh broadening from local electric fields or from a screened Thomas–Fermi density of states (as opposed to a joint density of states due to Urbach disorder).« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onuma, Takeyoshi; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.; Aoyama, Toyomi; Nakajima, Kiyomi; Ahmet, Parhat; Azuhata, Takashi; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Sota, Takayuki; Nagahama, Shin-ichi; Mukai, Takashi
2003-12-01
Optical and structural properties of an InGaN double-quantum-well (DQW) laser diode (LD) wafer that lased at 450 nm were investigated to discuss an enormous impact of a polarization-induced electric field on the recombination dynamics in InGaN quantum structures. The quantum-well (QW) structure was shown to have the well thickness as thin as approximately 1 nm and InN molar fraction x of approximately 14%. The gross effective electric field in the QW (FQW) was estimated to be 490 kV/cm from the Franz-Keldysh oscillation (FKO) period in the electroreflectance (ER) spectrum, implying that an internal piezoelectric field (Fpiz) of approximately 1.4 MV/cm was cancelled by the pn junction built-in field (Fbi) and Coulomb screening due to carriers in the DQW. The magnitude of FQW can be further weakened by applying reverse bias (VR) on the junction; the decrease in the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime at low temperature measured under VR was explained to be due to a recovery of electron-hole wavefunction overlap for small VR (|VR|<4 V), and due mainly to the tunneling escape of carriers through the barriers for larger VR. By applying an appropriate VR smaller than 4 V, electron-hole wavefunction overlap, which had been separated vertically along the c-axis due to quantum-confined Stark effect, could be partially recovered, and then the time-resolved PL signals exhibited a less-pronounced stretched exponential decay, giving a scaling parameter (β) of 0.85 and effective in-plane localization depth (E0) of 40-50 meV for the spontaneous emission. These values were closer to those of much homogeneous QWs compared to those reported previously for InGaN QWs having similar InN molar fractions. The use of very thin QWs is considered to bring easier Coulomb screening of FQW and population inversion under high excitation conditions.
Increase in the energy density of the pinch plasma in 3D implosion of quasi-spherical wire arrays
Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gasilov, V. A.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N. Laukhin, Ya. N.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Ol’khovskaya, O. G.; Sasorov, P. V.; Smirnov, V. P.; Frolov, I. N.; Shevel’ko, A. P.
2014-12-15
Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences.
Optical and vibrational properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennedy, W. Joshua
This work is a study of the optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using continuous wave (CW) modulation spectroscopy and resonant Raman scattering. SWNTs comprise a nanoscale, quasi-1D system in which the electrons are strongly interacting, resulting in the photo-generation of excitons. Our optical studies have revealed the behavior of these excitons under a number of different perturbations to the system. We have used absorption, reflectance, electro-absorption (EA), photo-induced absorption (PA), charge-induced absorption (CIA), and resonant Raman scattering (RRS) on films of SWNTs. Our EA results provide strong evidence for the dominance of excitons in the optical absorption spectra of SWNT films. The absence of Franz-Keldysh oscillations and the presence of a derivative-like structure of the EA spectra indicate that the oscillator strength goes to the generation of excitons and not to interband electronic transitions. Furthermore, some of the photo-generated excitons are long-lived due to charge trapping in individual tubes within bundles, and this leads to a PA spectrum that is extraordinarily similar to the EA signal. When SWNTs are electrochemically doped we see that the exciton absorption is bleached due to k-space filling and screening of the excitons by the modified local dielectric, while there is very little shift in the exciton transition energies due to band-gap renormalization. Simultaneously the infrared absorption, which is due to Drude free-carriers absorption, is enhanced. A similar behavior is observed in the case of direct charge injection. The RRS of doped SWNT samples shows a frequency shift of many of the Raman-active modes that is commensurate with the macroscopic actuation observed in nanotube-based electrochemical devices. This indicates that doping-induced changes in the lattice are connected with softening and stiffening of the vibrational modes. Our results impact many proposed technologies that exploit the unique
Mongolian-Russian cooperation at the Khureltogoot observatory in the ISON project framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tungalag, Namkhai; Rentsenmyagmar, Buyankhishig; Turmunkh, Bayarbat; Tsogt-Ochir, Shijirbayar; Molotov, Igor; Voropaev, Viktor; Kouprianov, Vladimir; Krugly, Yury; Schmalz, Sergey; Pozanenko, Aleksey
2014-09-01
Since autumn 2012, the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of Mongolia, in collaboration with the International Scientific Optical Network (ISON) coordinated by the Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics (KIAM), Russian Academy of Sciences, have conducted a large number of astronomical observations of space debris, asteroids, and the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at the new facility of the Khureltogoot observatory near Ulaanbaatar. To the date, ISON joins 35 observation facilities with 80 telescopes of apertures from 12.5 cm to 2.6 m in 15 countries and carries out research on space debris, asteroids, and GRBs. 8.4 million measurements in 1.21 million tracklets of about 4000 Earth-orbiting objects were collected by the ISON network in 2013. It is planned that a part of the orbital data will be accessible via a UN-hosted web page in 2014. A new pavilion was built at Khureltogoot during 2012 to initiate collaboration with ISON. Since November 2012, observations began with the VT-78a 19.2 cm telescopes, with a field of view of 7×7 degrees on a robotic WS-180 mount. The telescope is controlled by the CHAOS TCS software; CCD image processing is done using the APEX II software platform developed within the ISON project. This telescope provides extended surveys of a visible part of the geostationary ring from 0 to 20 degrees inclination, with up to 15 thousand measurements of 500 to 700 objects per night. The limiting magnitude is 14 mag for 10 s exposure time, while the time span of individual tracklets is up to several hours. These surveys help KIAM to increase the accuracy of geostationary Earth-orbit (GEO) object orbits for conjunction analysis, to detect maneuvers of active satellites, and to assist in maintaining the orbits of GEO objects in clusters. Moreover, many HEO objects are detected as a by-product. Since November 2013, a new 40 cm telescope, ORI-40 with the field of view of 2.3×2.3 degrees on a robotic WS
Efficient Sub-Bandgap Light Absorption and Signal Amplification in Silicon Photodetectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yu-Hsin
This thesis focuses on two areas in silicon photodetectors, the first being enhancing the sub-bandgap light absorption of IR wavelenghts in silicon, and the second being intrinsic signal amplification in silicon photodetectors. Both of these are achieved using heavily doped p-n junction devices which create localized states that relax the k-selection rule of indirect bandgap material. The probability of transitions between impurity band and the conduction/valence band would be much more efficient than the one between band-to-band transition. The waveguide-coupled epitaxial p-n photodetector was demonstrated for 1310 nm wavelength detection. Incorporated with the Franz-Keldysh effect and the quasi-confined epitaxial layer design, an absorption coefficient around 10 cm-1 has been measured and internal quantum efficiency nearly 100% at -2.5V. The absorption coefficient is calculated from the wave function of the electron and hole in p-n diode. The heavily doped impurity wave function can be formulated as a delta function, and the quasi-confined conduction band energy states, and the wave function on each level can be obtained from the Silvaco software. The calculated theoretical absorption coefficient increases with the increasing applied bias and the doping concentration, which matches the experimental results. To solve the issues of large excess noise and high operation bias for avalanche photodiodes based on impact ionization, I presented a detector using the Cycling Excitation Process (CEP) for signal amplification. This can be realized in a heavily doped and highly compensated Si p-n junction, showing ultra high gain about 3000 at very low bias (<4 V), and possessing an intrinsic, phonon-mediated regulation process to keep the device stable without any quenching device required in today's Geiger-mode avalanche detectors. The CEP can be formulated with the rate equations in conduction bands and impurity states. The gain expression, which is a function of the
Russian Internet: Graduated from the Moscow State University
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaina, Alex B.
2005-09-01
The purpose of the internet proceeding is 1) To give a complete list of publications of the Astronomer V.A.Albitzky (V.A.Albitzkij, b. 1892, Kishinev- d. 1952, Simeiz), graduated from the Moscow State University in 1916. Two photo of the astronomer are placed: http://upmsu.phys.msu.ru/1977/gaina/Albitzky.jpg and http://upmsu.phys.msu.ru/1977/gaina/Albitzky1.jpg 2) to make a review of the problem of Bound States in Black Holes evaporation. 3) A report on the works of the school "Quantum Particles in intensive fields" (Chisinau (Kishinev), 5-9 May, 1985), with photographs (see: http://upmsu.phys.msu.ru/1977/gaina/Out2.jpg) is added. In 1987 at the Shtiintsa eds. (Kishinev) a book: "Quantum processes in intensive fields" (Russian title: "Kvantovyie processy v intensivnyh polyah"), Kishinev Izdatel Shtiintsa, 1987 was published with lectures of the school held by the followuing scientists: Keldysh, L.V., Vaitkus, Yu.Yu., Khadzhi, P.I. et al., Mazets, T.F. et al., Bogolyubov, N.N. Jr. et al., Laptinskaya T.V. et al., Aktsipetrov, O.A., et al., Bobrysheva, A.I. et al., Buzdin, A.I., Golant K.M. et al., Bagrov, V.G. et al., Oleinik, V.P., Borisov, A.V. et al., Rodionov, V.N. et al., Teryeaev, O.V., Gal'tsov, D.V., Buchbinder, I.L. et al., Odintsov, S.D., Zhuk, A.I. The abstracts of the Lectures book can be found at ADS NASA 4) A report on a glory, observed by author in 1988 in the airship, around the umbra of the airship on clouds, flying above Crimea from Yerevan to Chisinau on October 1988, after the finish of the All Union Gravitational Conference held in this city is given. A Photo of the City of Yerevan during the Conference is placed: http://upmsu.phys.msu.ru/1977/gaina/Yerevan_88.jpg
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rylyuk, V. M.
2016-05-01
Within the framework of the quasistationary quasienergy state (QQES) formalism, the tunneling and multiphoton ionization of atoms and ions subjected to a perturbation by a high intense laser radiation field of an arbitrary polarization and a constant magnetic field are considered. On the basis of the exact solution of the Schrödinger equation and the Green's function for the electron moving in an arbitrary laser field and crossed constant electric and magnetic fields, the integral equation for the complex quasienergy and the energy spectrum of the ejected electron are derived. Using the "imaginary-time" method, the extremal subbarrier trajectory of the photoelectron moving in a nonstationary laser field and a constant magnetic field are considered. Within the framework of the QQES formalism and the quasiclassical perturbation theory, ionization rates when the Coulomb interaction of the photoelectron with the parent ion is taken into account at arbitrary values of the Keldysh parameter are derived. The high accuracy of rates is confirmed by comparison with the results of numerical calculations. Simple analytical expressions for the ionization rate with the Coulomb correction in the tunneling and multiphoton regimes in the case of an elliptically polarized laser beam propagating at an arbitrary angle to the constant magnetic field are derived and discussed. The limits of small and large magnetic fields and low and high frequency of a laser field are considered in details. It is shown that in the presence of a nonstationary laser field perturbation, the constant magnetic field may either decrease or increase the ionization rate. The analytical consideration and numerical calculations also showed that the difference between the ionization rates for an s electron in the case of right- and left-elliptically polarized laser fields is especially significant in the multiphoton regime for not-too-high magnetic fields and decreases as the magnetic field increases. The paper
GEO Population Estimates using Optical Survey Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barker, Edwin S.; Matney, Mark J.
2007-01-01
/CTIO, Astronomical Institute University of Bern, Boeing LTS / AMOS, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics) at different longitudes. Complete observational coverage over periods of days to months will provide a better understanding of the properties, such as solar radiation pressure effects on orbital elements, size, shape, attitude, color variations, and spectral characteristics. Results from recent observational programs will be summarized, and includes a description of the orbit elements prediction processes, a summary of the metric tracking performance, and some photometric characteristics of this class of debris.
Electron Dynamics in Finite Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, Christopher R.
investigate a wide variety of problems that cannot be currently treated by any other method. Finally, the time it takes for an electron to tunnel from a bound state is investigated; a definition of the tunnel time is established and the Keldysh time is connected to the wavefunction dynamics.
Strong correlations in gravity and biophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krotov, Dmitry
The unifying theme of this dissertation is the use of correlations. In the first part (chapter 2), we investigate correlations in quantum field theories in de Sitter space. In the second part (chapters 3,4,5), we use correlations to investigate a theoretical proposal that real (observed in nature) transcriptional networks of biological organisms are operating at a critical point in their phase diagram. In chapter 2 we study the infrared dependence of correlators in various external backgrounds. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism we calculate loop corrections to the correlators in the case of the Poincare patch and the complete de Sitter space. In the case of the Poincare patch, the loop correction modifies the behavior of the correlator at large distances. In the case of the complete de Sitter space, the loop correction has a strong dependence on the infrared cutoff in the past. It grows linearly with time, suggesting that at some point the correlations become strong and break the symmetry of the classical background. In chapter 3 we derive the signatures of critical behavior in a model organism, the embryo of Drosophila melanogaster. They are: strong correlations in the fluctuations of different genes, a slowing of dynamics, long range correlations in space, and departures from a Gaussian distribution of these fluctuations. We argue that these signatures are observed experimentally. In chapter 4 we construct an effective theory for the zero mode in this system. This theory is different from the standard Landau-Ginsburg description. It contains gauge fields (the result of the broken translational symmetry inside the cell), which produce observable contributions to the two-point function of the order parameter. We show that the behavior of the two-point function for the network of N genes is described by the action of a relativistic particle moving on the surface of the N - 1 dimensional sphere. We derive a theoretical bound on the decay of the correlations and
Kink-effect-related noise in InAlAs/InGaAs short-channel HEMTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasallo, Beatriz G.; Mateos, Javier; Pardo, Daniel; Gonzalez, Tomas
2003-05-01
InAlAs/InGaAs HEMTs have demonstrated exceptional performance for low-noise high-frequency applications. However they have still some drawbacks to be removed, like the kink effect, which limits their applications by leading to a decrease in the gain and an enhancement in the noise level for high-enough values of the drain-to-source voltage. This effect is typically associated with the pile up of holes (generated by impact ionization) in the source-gate portion of the channel. In this work we investigate the noise properties of a 100 nm T-gate recessed In0.52Al0.48As/In0.53Ga0.47As HEMT in the presence of kink effect. For the calculations we make use of a 2D ensemble Monte Carlo (MC) simulator that incorporates all the microscopic processes at the basis of this effect. Impact ionization, which leads to the appearance of holes responsible for the kink, is included using the Keldysh approach with parameters adjusted to reproduce the impact ionization coefficients in bulk materials. Hole recombination is also considered, with a characteristic time τ ranging between 0.01 and 1 ns. The accumulation of holes in the source-gate region leads to a decrease of the potential barrier controlling the current through the channel, which is further opened and, as a consequence, the drain current increases. This phenomenon appears accompanied by a significant raise of the noise in the device that spoils its performance. The aim of this work is to analyze this excess noise and explain its physical origin by means of MC simulations. Impact ionization and hole trapping mechanisms lead to fluctuations of the hole concentration in the channel. Since these fluctuations are strongly coupled to the drain-current fluctuations by the high transconductance of the transistor, with the onset of the kink effect an important increase of the noise takes place, with a characteristic cutoff frequency related to the impact ionization rate and the hole recombination time. This is clearly observed in
Bulk Laser Material Modification: Towards a Kerfless Laser Wafering Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LeBeau, James
Due to the ever increasing relevance of finer machining control as well as necessary reduction in material waste by large area semiconductor device manufacturers, a novel bulk laser machining method was investigated. Because the cost of silicon and sapphire substrates are limiting to the reduction in cost of devices in both the light emitting diode (LED) and solar industries, and the present substrate wafering process results in >50% waste, the need for an improved ingot wafering technique exists. The focus of this work is the design and understanding of a novel semiconductor wafering technique that utilizes the nonlinear absorption properties of band-gapped materials to achieve bulk (subsurface) morphological changes in matter using highly focused laser light. A method and tool was designed and developed to form controlled damage regions in the bulk of a crystalline sapphire wafer leaving the surfaces unaltered. The controllability of the subsurface damage geometry was investigated, and the effect of numerical aperture of the focusing optic, energy per pulse, wavelength, and number of pulses was characterized for a nanosecond pulse length variable wavelength Nd:YAG OPO laser. A novel model was developed to describe the geometry of laser induced morphological changes in the bulk of semiconducting materials for nanosecond pulse lengths. The beam propagation aspect of the model was based on ray-optics, and the full Keldysh multiphoton photoionization theory in conjuncture with Thornber's and Drude's models for impact ionization were used to describe high fluence laser light absorption and carrier generation ultimately resulting in permanent material modification though strong electron-plasma absorption and plasma melting. Although the electron-plasma description of laser damage formation is usually reserved for extremely short laser pulses (<20 ps), this work shows that it can be adapted for longer pulses of up to tens of nanoseconds. In addition to a model
Strong-field and attosecond physics in solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghimire, Shambhu; Ndabashimiye, Georges; DiChiara, Anthony D.; Sistrunk, Emily; Stockman, Mark I.; Agostini, Pierre; DiMauro, Louis F.; Reis, David A.
2014-10-01
We review the status of strong-field and attosecond processes in bulk transparent solids near the Keldysh tunneling limit. For high enough fields and low-frequency excitations, the optical and electronic properties of dielectrics can be transiently and reversibly modified within the applied pulse. In Ghimire et al (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 167407) non-parabolic band effects were seen in photon-assisted tunneling experiments in ZnO crystals in a strong mid-infrared field. Using the same ZnO crystals, Ghimire et al (2011 Nat. Phys. 7 138-41) reported the first observation of non-pertubative high harmonics, extending well above the bandgap into the vacuum ultraviolet. Recent experiments by Schubert et al (2014 Nat. Photonics 8 119-23) showed a carrier envelope phase dependence in the harmonic spectrum in strong-field 30 THz driven GaSe crystals which is the most direct evidence yet of the role of sub-cycle electron dynamics in solid-state harmonic generation. The harmonic generation mechanism is different from the gas phase owing to the high density and periodicity of the crystal. For example, this results in a linear dependence of the high-energy cutoff with the applied field in contrast to the quadratic dependence in the gas phase. Sub-100 attosecond pulses could become possible if the harmonic spectrum can be extended into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). Here we report harmonics generated in bulk MgO crystals, extending to ˜ 26 eV when driven by ˜35 fs, 800 nm pulses focused to a ˜1 VÅ-1 peak field. The fundamental strong-field and attosecond response also leads to Wannier-Stark localization and reversible semimetallization as seen in the sub-optical cycle behavior of XUV absorption and photocurrent experiments on fused silica by Schiffrin et al (2013 Nature 493 70-4) and Schultze et al (2013 Nature 493 75-8). These studies are advancing our understanding of fundamental strong-field and attosecond physics in solids with potential applications for compact
Non-equilibrium STLS approach to transport properties of single impurity Anderson model
Rezai, Raheleh Ebrahimi, Farshad
2014-04-15
In this work, using the non-equilibrium Keldysh formalism, we study the effects of the electron–electron interaction and the electron-spin correlation on the non-equilibrium Kondo effect and the transport properties of the symmetric single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) at zero temperature by generalizing the self-consistent method of Singwi, Tosi, Land, and Sjolander (STLS) for a single-band tight-binding model with Hubbard type interaction to out of equilibrium steady-states. We at first determine in a self-consistent manner the non-equilibrium spin correlation function, the effective Hubbard interaction, and the double-occupancy at the impurity site. Then, using the non-equilibrium STLS spin polarization function in the non-equilibrium formalism of the iterative perturbation theory (IPT) of Yosida and Yamada, and Horvatic and Zlatic, we compute the spectral density, the current–voltage characteristics and the differential conductance as functions of the applied bias and the strength of on-site Hubbard interaction. We compare our spectral densities at zero bias with the results of numerical renormalization group (NRG) and depict the effects of the electron–electron interaction and electron-spin correlation at the impurity site on the aforementioned properties by comparing our numerical result with the order U{sup 2} IPT. Finally, we show that the obtained numerical results on the differential conductance have a quadratic universal scaling behavior and the resulting Kondo temperature shows an exponential behavior. -- Highlights: •We introduce for the first time the non-equilibrium method of STLS for Hubbard type models. •We determine the transport properties of SIAM using the non-equilibrium STLS method. •We compare our results with order-U2 IPT and NRG. •We show that non-equilibrium STLS, contrary to the GW and self-consistent RPA, produces the two Hubbard peaks in DOS. •We show that the method keeps the universal scaling behavior and correct
Control of noisy quantum systems: Field-theory approach to error mitigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hipolito, Rafael; Goldbart, Paul M.
2016-04-01
We consider the basic quantum-control task of obtaining a target unitary operation (i.e., a quantum gate) via control fields that couple to the quantum system and are chosen to best mitigate errors resulting from time-dependent noise, which frustrate this task. We allow for two sources of noise: fluctuations in the control fields and fluctuations arising from the environment. We address the issue of control-error mitigation by means of a formulation rooted in the Martin-Siggia-Rose (MSR) approach to noisy, classical statistical-mechanical systems. To do this, we express the noisy control problem in terms of a path integral, and integrate out the noise to arrive at an effective, noise-free description. We characterize the degree of success in error mitigation via a fidelity metric, which characterizes the proximity of the sought-after evolution to ones that are achievable in the presence of noise. Error mitigation is then best accomplished by applying the optimal control fields, i.e., those that maximize the fidelity subject to any constraints obeyed by the control fields. To make connection with MSR, we reformulate the fidelity in terms of a Schwinger-Keldysh (SK) path integral, with the added twist that the "forward" and "backward" branches of the time contour are inequivalent with respect to the noise. The present approach naturally and readily allows the incorporation of constraints on the control fields—a useful feature in practice, given that constraints feature in all real experiments. In addition to addressing the noise average of the fidelity, we consider its full probability distribution. The information content present in this distribution allows one to address more complex questions regarding error mitigation, including, in principle, questions of extreme value statistics, i.e., the likelihood and impact of rare instances of the fidelity and how to harness or cope with their influence. We illustrate this MSR-SK reformulation by considering a model
Recent progress of probing correlated electron states by point contact spectroscopy.
Lee, Wei-Cheng; Greene, Laura H
2016-09-01
We review recent progress in point contact spectroscopy (PCS) to extract spectroscopic information out of correlated electron materials, with the emphasis on non-superconducting states. PCS has been used to detect bosonic excitations in normal metals, where signatures (e.g. phonons) are usually less than 1% of the measured conductance. In the superconducting state, point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) has been widely used to study properties of the superconducting gap in various superconductors. It has been well-recognized that the corresponding conductance can be accurately fitted by the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) theory in which the AR occurring near the point contact junction is modeled by three parameters; the superconducting gap, the quasiparticle scattering rate, and a dimensionless parameter, Z, describing the strength of the potential barrier at the junction. AR can be as large as 100% of the background conductance, and only arises in the case of superconductors. In the last decade, there have been more and more experimental results suggesting that the point contact conductance could reveal new features associated with the unusual single electron dynamics in non-superconducting states, shedding a new light on exploring the nature of the competing phases in correlated materials. To correctly interpret these new features, it is crucial to re-examine the modeling of the point contact junctions, the formalism used to describe the single electron dynamics particularly in point contact spectroscopy, and the physical quantity that should be computed to understand the conductance. We will summarize the theories for point contact spectroscopy developed from different approaches and highlight these conceptual differences distinguishing point contact spectroscopy from tunneling-based probes. Moreover, we will show how the Schwinger-Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh (SKBK) formalism together with the appropriate modeling of the nano-scale point contacts randomly distributed
Braly, Ian L.; Hillhouse, Hugh W.
2015-12-22
The development of stable high-bandgap hybrid perovskites (HPs) with high optoelectronic quality may enable tandem solar cells with power conversion efficiencies approaching 30%. The halide composition of HPs has been observed to effect bandgap, carrier lifetime, and material stability. Here we report optoelectronic quality and stability under illumination of thousands of compositions ranging from the pure iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) to the diiodomonobromide (CH3NH3PbI2Br). Hyperspectral maps of steady-state absolute intensity photoluminescence (AIPL) are used to determine the quasi-Fermi level splitting (QFLS) at each point after synthesis. The QFLS upon first illumination increases with bandgap and reaches a maximum of 1.27 eV under 1 sun illumination intensity for a bandgap of 1.75 eV. However, the optoelectronic quality (χ), defined as the ratio of the QFLS to the maximum theoretical QFLS for bandgap, decreases with bandgap from around 88% for 1.60 eV bandgap down to 82% for 1.84 eV bandgap. Further, we show that a reversible light induced defect forms that reduces the optoelectronic quality, particularly for high-bandgap materials. Composition analysis shows that the halide to lead ratio, (I + Br)/Pb, decreases from 3 for the pure iodide to 2.5 for the diiodomonobromide, suggesting a role of halide vacancies or halide substitution defects in the light-induced instability for this synthesis route. Even with the light-induced defect, a stable QFLS of about 1.17 eV is possible. Comparing our QFLS to Voc values from HP devices reported in the literature indicates that higher open circuit voltages are possible but may require optimization of band alignment. Further, the spectral shape of the PL emission is found to be more commensurate with Franz–Keldysh broadening from local electric fields or from a screened Thomas–Fermi density of states (as opposed to a joint density of states due to Urbach disorder).
Recent progress of probing correlated electron states by point contact spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wei-Cheng; Greene, Laura H.
2016-09-01
We review recent progress in point contact spectroscopy (PCS) to extract spectroscopic information out of correlated electron materials, with the emphasis on non-superconducting states. PCS has been used to detect bosonic excitations in normal metals, where signatures (e.g. phonons) are usually less than 1% of the measured conductance. In the superconducting state, point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) has been widely used to study properties of the superconducting gap in various superconductors. It has been well-recognized that the corresponding conductance can be accurately fitted by the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) theory in which the AR occurring near the point contact junction is modeled by three parameters; the superconducting gap, the quasiparticle scattering rate, and a dimensionless parameter, Z, describing the strength of the potential barrier at the junction. AR can be as large as 100% of the background conductance, and only arises in the case of superconductors. In the last decade, there have been more and more experimental results suggesting that the point contact conductance could reveal new features associated with the unusual single electron dynamics in non-superconducting states, shedding a new light on exploring the nature of the competing phases in correlated materials. To correctly interpret these new features, it is crucial to re-examine the modeling of the point contact junctions, the formalism used to describe the single electron dynamics particularly in point contact spectroscopy, and the physical quantity that should be computed to understand the conductance. We will summarize the theories for point contact spectroscopy developed from different approaches and highlight these conceptual differences distinguishing point contact spectroscopy from tunneling-based probes. Moreover, we will show how the Schwinger-Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh (SKBK) formalism together with the appropriate modeling of the nano-scale point contacts randomly distributed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahfouzi, Farzad
ferromagnet (FM). I show that this could be due to the existence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) at the interface of the FM and insulator. Assuming that the measured signals are quantum mechanical effect where a solution to the time dependent Schrodinger equation is required, I use Keldysh Green function formalism to introduce a "multi-photon" approach which takes into account the effects of time-dependent term exactly up to scatterings from a finite number of photons. We then proceed to find the corresponding Green function numerically using a recursive method which allows us to increase the size of the system significantly. We also implement other approximations such as adiabatic and rotating frame approaches and compared them with our approach. In Chapter 4, I investigate the spin and charge pumping from a precessing magnetization attached to the edge of a 2-dimensional topological insulator (2DTI). We show that, in this system a huge spin current (or voltage signal if the FM covers only one edge) can be pumped for very small cone angles of the precessing FM (proportional to the intensity of the applied microwave). In Chapter 5 I present the third project in this field of research, where, I investigated the pumping from FM attached to a 3-dimensional TI. Spin-transfer torque: Presented in Chapter 6, in this work I investigate the torque induced by a flow of spin-polarized current into a FM and check the condition in which it can cause the magnetization to flip. Motivated by recent experimental developments in the field, here I consider systems with strong SOC such as TIs within a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) heterostructure. In the theoretical part I show the correct way (as opposed to the conventional approach used in some theoretical works which suffers from violation of the gauge invariance) to calculate linear-response torque to the external applied voltage and for the numerical calculation I adopted a parallelized adaptive integration algorithm in order to take
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharkov, E. V.
2010-12-01
Fragment of variolitic lavas was dredged in axial part of the MAR at 6oN during 10th cruise of R/V “Akademik Ioffe” (2001-2002). It is rock where rounded globules of andesite (icelandite) with light trachyandesite rims are enclosed in Fe-Ti picrobasalt matrix. The sample can be subdivided in two different structural parts or “layers”. One of them densely saturated by globules, which closely adjoin to each other, merge in clumpy congregations; in another part matrix predominates. Boundary between both parts, even if irregular due to rounded shape of closed globules, nevertheless is well-defined and has small bays of the matrix material. So, globules were moved in picrobasaltic melt and floated up to the surface of the lava flow. It is shown that formation of the leucocratic rims was evidently linked with thermal diffusion phenomenon (Soret principle) in cooling heterogeneous melt. According to this principle, components in solutions and melts, placed in thermal gradient, are redistributed for leveling of internal energy in that way, when light elements migrate to hot parts and heavy ones to cold. Experimental studies of thermal diffusion in samples of MORB showed enlarge of Si, Al, Na and K concentration to side of hot area of melt and Fe, Mg, Ca, etc. to cold one; resulting melts were andesites and Ne-normative picrite (Walker, DeLong, 1982). The same picture we saw in our sample: enrichment of external zone of globules by Si, Al, and, especially, by high-mobile Na, which diffusion rate in silicate melts in some order higher than speed of remaining elements (Watson, 1982; Borisov, 2008). Simultaneously, this zone impoverished by Fe, Ca and Mg, which were concentrated in rear of rims, forming internal zoning of globules with careless boundaries. Effect of thermal diffusion in more important for Fe; as a result #mg in trachyandesite rims higher than in andesite cores of globules. It suggests that origin of variolites was linked with intersection by ascended
Origin of variolitic lavas: Evidence for variolites in axial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 6oN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharkov, Evgenii; Krssivskaya, Irina; Chistyakov, Alexei
2010-05-01
Fragment of variolitic lavas was dredged in axial part of the MAR at 6oN during 10th cruise of R/V "Akademik Ioffe" (2001-2002). It is rock where rounded globules of andesite (icelandite) with light trachyandesite rims are enclosed in high-Ti picrobasalt matrix. The sample can be subdivided in two different structural parts, or "layers". One of them densely saturated by globules, which closely adjoin to each other, merge in clumpy congregations with small quantity of matrix material in interstices. In the other part of the sample matrix predominates. Isolated, sometimes sticked together globules "swim" in the matrix and their quantity and size quickly decrease to the sample edge, where only small rare globules occur. Boundary between both parts, even if irregular due to rounded shape of closed globules, nevertheless is well-defined and has small bays of the matrix material. So, globules were moved in picrobasalt melt and floated up to the surface of the lava flow. It is shown that formation of the leucocratic rims was evidently linked with thermal diffusion phenomenon (Soret principle) in cooling heterogeneous melt. According to this principle, components in solutions and melts, placed in thermal gradient, are redistributed for leveling of internal energy in that way, when light elements migrate to hot parts and heavy ones to cold. Experimental studies of thermal diffusion in samples of MORB showed enlarge of Si, Al, Na and K concentration to side of hot area of melt and Fe, Mg, Ca, etc. to cold one; resulting melts were Qtz-normative andesites and Ne-normative picrite (Walker, DeLong, 1982). The same picture we saw in our sample: enrichment of external zone of globules by Si, Al, and, especially, by high-mobile Na, which diffusion rate in silicate melts in some order higher than speed of remaining elements (Watson, 1982; Borisov, 2008). Simultaneously, this zone impoverished by Fe, Ca and Mg, which were concentrated in rear of rims, forming internal zoning of
Ramzaev, V; Nikitin, A; Sevastyanov, A; Artemiev, G; Bruk, G; Ivanov, S
2014-09-01
A total of 88 seawater samples were collected during two Russian research expeditions (April-May 2011 and August-September 2012) to the Sea of Japan, the Oyashio Current region near Kuril Islands and the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition area in the western North Pacific Ocean. The observations were made aboard the R/V Pavel Gordienko and Akademik Shokalsky in order to study the impact of the Fukushima accident on radioactive contamination of the marine environment. On the board of a ship, the water samples were passed through filters to retain particles with the size of >1 micron. Cesium was extracted from the large volumes (100-3000 L) of the filtrated water using a selective fiber chemisorbent impregnated with copper ferrocyanide. Measurements of (134)Cs and (137)Cs activities in 83 samples of sorbents and 21 samples of filters were performed in the ship-based laboratory with a semiconductor HP-Ge detector. The quantified activity concentrations of dissolved radiocesium ranged from 1 Bq m(-3) to 34 Bq m(-3) for (137)Cs and from 0.2 Bq m(-3) to 29 Bq m(-3) for (134)Cs. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs were strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.993, n = 59). The (137)Cs/(134)Cs activities ratio in the Fukushima-derived radiocesium inventory for the study areas was deduced to be 0.99 ± 0.03 (on 15 March 2011) and the pre-Fukushima background level of (137)Cs in seawater was estimated as 1.3 ± 0.3 Bq m(-3). The lowest activities of both isotopes were determined in the western part of the Sea of Japan near the Russian coast, while the maximal levels were observed in the open Pacific Ocean, some 500-800 km offshore the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Contamination with (134)Cs at a level of 0.3-2.6 Bq m(-3) was registered in seawater samples collected in 2011 near the Kuril Islands and Kamchatka in the Oyashio Current region. During the period from April-May 2011 to August-September 2012, activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs in surface
Giant mudwaves in the Northern Argentine Basin: born and buried by bottom currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borisov, Dmitrii; Murdmaa, Ivar; Ivanova, Elena; Levchenko, Oleg
2014-05-01
New sedimentary records and very high resolution seismic profiles collected during four cruises of the RV "Akademik Ioffe" (2011-2013) were correlated with seismic, multibeam and coring data obtained during cruises of the RV "Robert Conrad", "Knorr", "Meteor". A complex analysis of the geological-geophysical data revealed an extensive field of giant mudwaves (48 000 km2) in the northwestern Argentine Basin, South Atlantic. The symmetric waves up to 60 m in height and 4000 m in wavelength are oriented roughly parallel to contours. They partly cover the Santa Catarina Plateau and extend through the Santos Basin to the Sao Paulo Plateau. The mudwaves field is traced at the depth range from 3400 to 4000 m and divided into buried (northern) and non-buried (southern) parts. The non-buried sediment waves cover the surface of the huge drift in the Santa Catarina Plateau. The wave height increases from the drift summit to its flanks and decreases at the foot. Two cores retrieved from the drift top and its northern flank recovered muddy contourites with a greater amount of silt-size material in the core from the drift flank. The age of the recovered sediments is at least 130 ka. In the northern Santos basin, the sediment waves are buried under a large lens-like sediment body (drift?) inclined at the margins. Cores obtained from the buried part of the mudwaves field recovered an intercalation of hemipelagic clay and silty-clay contourite. The age of recovered sediments does not exceed 150 ka (Bleil et al., 1993). Contourites deposition in the study area is related to the activity of the Antarctic bottom water (AABW) contour current. The AABW flow is considered to be divided into two branches by the Santa Catarina Plateau. We suggest that this topographic obstacle causes a flow velocity increase. Wave height and grain-size variations indicate higher bottom current velocities at the plateau flanks and relative tranquil conditions at the flat summit of the plateau. The symmetric
PREFACE: Ultrafast and nonlinear optics in carbon nanomaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kono, Junichiro
2013-02-01
Carbon-based nanomaterials—single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene, in particular—have emerged in the last decade as novel low-dimensional systems with extraordinary properties. Because they are direct-bandgap systems, SWCNTs are one of the leading candidates to unify electronic and optical functions in nanoscale circuitry; their diameter-dependent bandgaps can be utilized for multi-wavelength devices. Graphene's ultrahigh carrier mobilities are promising for high-frequency electronic devices, while, at the same time, it is predicted to have ideal properties for terahertz generation and detection due to its unique zero-gap, zero-mass band structure. There have been a large number of basic optical studies on these materials, but most of them were performed in the weak-excitation, quasi-equilibrium regime. In order to probe and assess their performance characteristics as optoelectronic materials under device-operating conditions, it is crucial to strongly drive them and examine their optical properties in highly non-equilibrium situations and with ultrashot time resolution. In this section, the reader will find the latest results in this rapidly growing field of research. We have assembled contributions from some of the leading experts in ultrafast and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of carbon-based nanomaterials. Specific topics featured include: thermalization, cooling, and recombination dynamics of photo-generated carriers; stimulated emission, gain, and amplification; ultrafast photoluminescence; coherent phonon dynamics; exciton-phonon and exciton-plasmon interactions; exciton-exciton annihilation and Auger processes; spontaneous and stimulated emission of terahertz radiation; four-wave mixing and harmonic generation; ultrafast photocurrents; the AC Stark and Franz-Keldysh effects; and non-perturbative light-mater coupling. We would like to express our sincere thanks to those who contributed their latest results to this special section, and the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haug, Hartmut
The 1984 review in this journal wrapped up the quasi-equilibrium many-body theory which was used quite successfully to describe the optical properties of bulk semiconductors at that time. The starting point was to express the optical dielectric function in terms of the photon self-energy, also called the polarization bubble, which could be calculated e.g. by thermal equilibrium electron Green functions. By these means one was able to calculate optical spectra of a probe beam as a function of the density of the electronic excitations generated by a preceeding pump beam. The underlying assumption was that the electronic excitations had enough time to relax into a thermal equilibrium, before they would eventually recombine. The ever shorter getting laser pulses and the simultaneous emergence of the coherent time-resolved nonlinear spectroscopy of semiconductors necessitated the use of a true nonequilibrium many-body theory which could either be formulated in terms of time-dependent equations for reduced density matrices or for Keldysh Green functions. With both methods one calculates at the end the reduced single-particle density matrix. The off-diagonal elements in the band index representation yield the optical polarization as a function of time and as a function of the delay time between two applied pulses. The formalism allows to calculate the induced polarization selectively either in the direction of a refracted beam for four-wave mixing (FWM) or in the direction of the test beam for differential transmission spectroscopy (DTS). The kinetics of the excited electron-hole pairs determines the results of the time-resolved two-beam spectroscopy. If the time resolution of corresponding experiments is shorter than characteristic periods of the scattered bosons, e.g., plasmons or phonons, the semiclassical Boltzmann kinetics fails for the description of the relaxation and dephasing of femtosecond-pulse excited electron-hole pairs. In this ultra-short-time regime which
Catalogue of space objects and events as a powerful tool for scientific researches on space debris
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agapov, V.; Stepanyants, V.; Tuchin, A.; Khutorovsky, Z.
Wide work on developing and maintenance of the Catalogue of scientific information on space objects and events is continuing at the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics. The work is making in cooperation with Russian company "Space information analytical systems" (KIA Systems). Powerful software tool is developed by now including:- informational core (relational database in RDBMS Oracle 8i environment)with special tools for automatic initial processing and systematization ofdata- software complex for orbital modeling and space objects and eventsdynamical catalogue maintenance- special information - analytical software Informational core covers wide spectrum of data needed for following purposes:- full-scale and high quality modeling of object's motion in near-Earth space(orbital and measurement data, solar flux and geomagnetic indices, Earthrotation parameters etc.)- determination of various events parameters (launches, manoeuvres,fragmentations etc.)- analysis of space debris sources- studying long-term orbital evolution (over several years or tens of years)- other The database is storing huge volume of data including:- optical measurements- TLEs- information about all space launches took place since 1957- information about space missions and programs- manoeuvres- fragmentations- launch sequences for typical orbital insertions- various characteristics for orbital objects (payloads, stages, fragments)- officially released UN and ITU registration data- other By now there are records storing in informational core for more than 28000 orbital objects (both catalogued and not), about all orbital launch attempts since 04.10.1957 (including failed ones), more than 30millions records of orbital information (TLEs, state vectors, polynomial data), more than 200000 optical measurements (normal places) for GEO region objects, calculated data on more than 14 millions of close approaches had taken place during last five years and other data. Software complex for orbital
Strongly correlated quantum transport out-of-equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutt, Prasenjit
The revolutionary advances in nanotechnology and nanofabrication have facilitated the precise control and manipulation of mesoscopic systems where quantum effects are pronounced. Quantum devices with tunable gates have made it possible to access regimes far beyond the purview of linear response theory. In particular, the influence of strong voltage and thermal biases has led to the observation of novel phenomena where the non-equilibrium characteristics of the system are of paramount importance. We study transport through quantum-impurity systems in the regime of strong correlations and determine the effects of large temperature and potential gradients on its many-body physics. In Part I of this thesis we focus on the steady-state dynamics of the system, a commonly encountered experimental scenario. For a system consisting of several leads composed of non-interacting electrons, each individually coupled to a quantum impurity with interactions and maintained at different chemical potentials, we reformulate the system in terms of an effective-equilibrium density matrix. This density matrix has a simple Boltzmann-like form in terms of the system's Lippmann-Schwinger (scattering) operators. We elaborate the conditions for this description to be valid based on the microscopic Hamiltonian of the system. We then prove the equivalence of physical observables computed using this formulation with corresponding expressions in the Schwinger-Keldysh approach and provide a dictionary between Green's functions in either scheme. An imaginary-time functional integral framework to compute finite temperature Green's functions is proposed and used to develop a novel perturbative expansion in the interaction strength which is exact in all other system parameters. We use these tools to study the fate of the Abrikosov-Suhl regime on the Kondo-correlated quantum dot due to the effects of bias and external magnetic fields. Next, we expand the domain of this formalism to additionally
The behaviour of cloud and clear sky brightness in the vicinity of the cloud edge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bass, L.; Nikolaeva, O.; Kuznetsov, V.; Kokhanovsky, A.
2007-12-01
L.P. Bass1, O.V. Nikolaeva1, V.S.Kuznetsov2, A. A. Kokhanovsky3,4 1Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science Miusskaya Sq. 4,125047 Moscow, Russia 2Research Scientific Center "Kurchatov Institute", Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow, Russia 3Institute of Remote Sensing, Bremen University, Otto Hahn Allee 1 28334 Bremen, Germany 4Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Nezaleznasti Pr. 70 220072 Minsk, Belarus In the solution of remote sensing problems in the framework of the Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA) the horizontal transport of radiation is not taken into account. Therefore, the large errors in the retrieved optical parameters of a medium under study can occur in retrievals for regions, where 3-D radiative transfer effects are of importance (Wen et al, 2007, Titov, 1998). In the present work we analyze the brightness at the edge of a cubic cloud. The energy balance equations within the clear sky-cloud boundary layer are studied. The boundary layer is the domain that includes the vertical boundary of the adjacent pixels with different optical properties. Balance equation connects the radiation fluxes entering into the boundary layer and outgoing from it, and also the amount of energy absorbed in the layer. It is demonstrated that horizontal transport of radiation generates several observable phenomena such as "shadowing" and "brightening" (depending on the Sun position with respect to the cloud and also the area studied). All calculations are performed with the code Raduga-5.1 (Nikolaeva et al., 2005) developed for the computer with the parallel architecture for 1-D, 2-D, 3-D radiative transfer. The code is based on the numerical solution of the integro - differential radiative transfer equation (RTE) with correspondent boundary conditions and prescribed properties of a light scattering medium. Grids with respect to spatial and angular variables are introduced and RTE reduced to the system of the grid
First Principles Quantitative Modeling of Molecular Devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ning, Zhanyu
In this thesis, we report theoretical investigations of nonlinear and nonequilibrium quantum electronic transport properties of molecular transport junctions from atomistic first principles. The aim is to seek not only qualitative but also quantitative understanding of the corresponding experimental data. At present, the challenges to quantitative theoretical work in molecular electronics include two most important questions: (i) what is the proper atomic model for the experimental devices? (ii) how to accurately determine quantum transport properties without any phenomenological parameters? Our research is centered on these questions. We have systematically calculated atomic structures of the molecular transport junctions by performing total energy structural relaxation using density functional theory (DFT). Our quantum transport calculations were carried out by implementing DFT within the framework of Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF). The calculated data are directly compared with the corresponding experimental measurements. Our general conclusion is that quantitative comparison with experimental data can be made if the device contacts are correctly determined. We calculated properties of nonequilibrium spin injection from Ni contacts to octane-thiolate films which form a molecular spintronic system. The first principles results allow us to establish a clear physical picture of how spins are injected from the Ni contacts through the Ni-molecule linkage to the molecule, why tunnel magnetoresistance is rapidly reduced by the applied bias in an asymmetric manner, and to what extent ab initio transport theory can make quantitative comparisons to the corresponding experimental data. We found that extremely careful sampling of the two-dimensional Brillouin zone of the Ni surface is crucial for accurate results in such a spintronic system. We investigated the role of contact formation and its resulting structures to quantum transport in several molecular
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alidoust, Mohammad; Halterman, Klaus
2015-03-01
Using a spin-parameterized quasiclassical Keldysh-Usadel technique, we theoretically study supercurrent transport in several types of diffusive ferromagnetic (F)/superconducting (S) configurations with differing magnetization textures. We separate out the even- and odd-frequency components of the supercurrent within the low proximity limit and identify the relative contributions from the singlet and triplet channels. We first consider inhomogeneous one-dimensional Josephson structures consisting of a uniform bilayer magnetic S/F/F/S structure and a trilayer S/F/F/F/S configuration, in which case the outer F layers can have either a uniform or conical texture relative to the central uniform F layer. Our results demonstrate that for supercurrents flowing perpendicular to the F/F interfaces, incorporating a conical texture yields the most effective way to observe the signatures of long-ranged spin-triplet supercurrents. We also consider three different types of finite-sized two-dimensional magnetic structures subjected to an applied magnetic field normal to the junction plane: a S/F/S junction with uniform magnetization texture and two S/F/F/S configurations with differing F/F bilayer arrangements. In one case, the F/F interface is parallel with the S/F junction interfaces while in the other case, the F/F junction is oriented perpendicular to the S/F interfaces. We then discuss the proximity vortices and corresponding spatial maps of currents inside the junctions. For the uniform S/F/S junction, we analytically calculate the magnetic field induced supercurrent and pair potential in both the narrow and wide junction regimes, thus providing insight into the variations in the Fraunhofer diffraction patterns and proximity vortices when transitioning from a wide junction to a narrow one. Our extensive computations demonstrate that the induced long-range spin-triplet supercurrents can deeply penetrate uniform F/F bilayers when spin-singlet supercurrents flow parallel to the
Alidoust, Mohammad; Halterman, Klaus
2015-03-28
Using a spin-parameterized quasiclassical Keldysh-Usadel technique, we theoretically study supercurrent transport in several types of diffusive ferromagnetic (F)/superconducting (S) configurations with differing magnetization textures. We separate out the even- and odd-frequency components of the supercurrent within the low proximity limit and identify the relative contributions from the singlet and triplet channels. We first consider inhomogeneous one-dimensional Josephson structures consisting of a uniform bilayer magnetic S/F/F/S structure and a trilayer S/F/F/F/S configuration, in which case the outer F layers can have either a uniform or conical texture relative to the central uniform F layer. Our results demonstrate that for supercurrents flowing perpendicular to the F/F interfaces, incorporating a conical texture yields the most effective way to observe the signatures of long-ranged spin-triplet supercurrents. We also consider three different types of finite-sized two-dimensional magnetic structures subjected to an applied magnetic field normal to the junction plane: a S/F/S junction with uniform magnetization texture and two S/F/F/S configurations with differing F/F bilayer arrangements. In one case, the F/F interface is parallel with the S/F junction interfaces while in the other case, the F/F junction is oriented perpendicular to the S/F interfaces. We then discuss the proximity vortices and corresponding spatial maps of currents inside the junctions. For the uniform S/F/S junction, we analytically calculate the magnetic field induced supercurrent and pair potential in both the narrow and wide junction regimes, thus providing insight into the variations in the Fraunhofer diffraction patterns and proximity vortices when transitioning from a wide junction to a narrow one. Our extensive computations demonstrate that the induced long-range spin-triplet supercurrents can deeply penetrate uniform F/F bilayers when spin-singlet supercurrents flow parallel to the
Fluidodynamic Processes in Different Regimes of Dilotansy and Compaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitrievsky, A. N.; Balanyuk, I. E.; Karakin, A. V.; Poveschenko, Yu. A.; Dongaryan, L. Sh.
2003-04-01
FLUIDODYNAMIC PROCESS IN DIFFERENT REGIMES OF DILOTANSY AND COMPACTION A. N. Dmitrievsky(1), I. E. Balanyuk(2), A. V.Karakin, (3), Yu. A. Poveschenko(4), L.Sh. Dongaryan(2) (1) Institute of Oil and Gas Problems, (2) P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, balanyuk@sio.rssi.ru, (3)VNIIGeosystem, Moscow, Russia, (4) Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. The proposed crust waveguide model features versatility and enables to clarify the weakest elements in presently accepted visions of migration mechanisms and hydrocarbon fluid accumulations. The model of the crust waveguide is based on the following considerations. Horizontal tectonic stress is always present in the crust, causing shifts of layers relative to each other. When shear strains develop in a fractured layer, dilatant expansion occurs and is accompanied by increases in pore volume in the layer. This leads to pore pressure drops and suction of fluids into the expanding volume. In particular, those fluids are sucked which are present in the surface layers. They move through faulted and fractured zones downward, and reach the middle crust depths. This effect is basically known and is identified in geophysical literature as "tectonic pumping". At a certain moment, dilatant expansion is replaced by compression, and this process can be described by socalled compaction equations. Cyclic alteration of these regimes in the crust waveguide will finally ensure its dynamic equilibrium. The unbalanced processes in the middle crust leads to important geophysical implications. The crust waveguide located at 10 - 15 km depths acts as a pump. Water flows, which rush downward, are "washing up" the upper crust layers, dissolving and entraining mineral and organic materials. During the squeezing of fluids from the crust waveguide, these dissolved materials are concentrating and forming corresponding ore and hydrocarbon deposits in the upper
Some Unknown Pages of the Living Organisms' First Orbital Flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malashenkov, D. C.
2002-01-01
The successful creation of ballistic rockets in USSR has allowed at the end of 1953 to make a real task of delivery of a payload into the Earth's orbit. In March 1954 during the meeting in the Academy of Sciences of USSR, the basic research problems conducted by means of artificial satellites of the Earth were determined. In May, 1954 S. Korolev has sent to Government of the USSR the report with the offer of creation the space satellites on the basis of intercontinental ballistic rocket -7 developed by him. It was the first time when the idea about possibility of interplanetary flights was stated in the official document. In August 1954 Council of Ministers of the USSR had ratified the submitted offers and have entrusted to work over scientific and theoretical problems of space flight. In the beginning of 1956 the Korolev's United Design Bureau was officially entrusted the creation and launch of undirected research satellite named "Object D" weighing 1.000-1.400 kg in 1957-1958. The main scientific management and development of scientific equipment was assigned to a commission of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR under the direction of . Keldysh. The measurement of parameters of the atmosphere, corpuscular radiation of the Sun, magnetic fields, space radiation etc. was planned during the "Object D" flight. The successful performance in the middle of 1956 of the second series of launches of geophysical rockets has allowed to gain a large volume of the information about parameters of physiological functions and behavior of animals in conditions of flight. For enlargement of these works the laboratory of V. Yazdovsky in the Institute of aviation medicine was extended to a department, the large group of the new employees, including V. Antipov, . Baevsky, I. Balakhovsky, B. Buylov, . Genin, O. Gazenko, A. Gurdjian, I. Kasyan, A. Kotovskaya, E..Yuganov, . Shepelev and others came to the department. But, owing to the delay of development of the scientific equipment for
INTRODUCTION: Surface Dynamics, Phonons, Adsorbate Vibrations and Diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruch, L. W.
2004-07-01
components within the dilute nitrides. Electro-absorption and electro-refractive effects—Franz-Keldysh (FK) and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) need to be studied theoretically in view of their importance for optical modulators. The aim of this special issue is to review the recent progress in theory, growth, characterization and device applications of dilute nitrides, and to collate what is known and what is not known in the field and address important fundamental physical properties and key material and device issues. The issue brings together a wide selection of papers from over 27 prominent research groups that have made key contributions to the field in the areas of research including growth, characterization and physical properties, devices and device integration, and theory and modelling. The editor is very grateful to all the invited authors for their contribution to this issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. I am grateful to Professors M J Adams, X Marie and Dr H Riechert for their help and contributions to the preparation of the editorial.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fulling, S. A.
2006-05-01
classes of systems: quantum mechanics, linear (free) fields, and interacting fields. DeWitt's characteristic tools of effective actions, heat kernels, and ghost fields are developed. Chapters 26 and 31 outline new approaches developed in collaboration with DeWitt's recent students C Molina-Paris and C Y Wang, respectively. The first of these is a ghost-free formulation of gauge theory built on ideas of G A Vilkovisky. The second is a systematic attempt (following J Schwinger, L V Keldysh, and others) to replace the in-out matrix elements by expectation values in a single (initial) state. Most of parts VI and VII consist of special topics, such as anomalies, particle creation by external fields, Unruh acceleration temperature, black holes, and Euclideanization. Chapter 30, on black holes and Hawking radiation, will be very familiar to readers of DeWitt's influential review article [4]. Chapter 28, on anomalies, makes a careful distinction (missing from many treatments) between 'critical' anomalies, which render equations of motion inconsistent in the (would-be) quantum theory, and harmless anomalies that merely invalidate predictions that would classically follow from certain symmetries. The trace anomalies in the stress tensor of matter and the axial-current anomaly in quantum electrodynamics are harmless. Examples of critical anomalies are the chiral anomaly of a spinor field coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field and the anomaly in the conservation law of the stress tensor of certain pathological theories [5]. DeWitt's chapter calculates the trace and chiral anomalies in detail. The axial anomaly is mentioned only in a one-line summary (and not defined or indexed—generally speaking, I found the book's long index surprisingly unhelpful), and the Alvarez Witten anomaly is not mentioned at all. The last two chapters of part VII treat the most important particular quantum field theories. Chapter 34 develops many of the textbook predictions of quantum eletrodynamics from De
HISTORICAL MEMOIR: The play of light in crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharchenya, Boris Petrovitch
2008-11-01
and experimentalists were taking part in the development of the concept of so-called polaritons in semiconductors, i.e. mixed states, when the 'mechanical' particle exciton mixes with the light wave. Pekar and Rashba of Kiev, Ginzburg and Agranovich of Moscow, Kaplyansky, Razbirin and Uraltsev of Leningrad, and also the above-mentioned American researchers, made the greatest contribution to the development of this sophisticated problem. Recalling the exciton physics of crystals of the 1950s and 1960s, I should call that time, after Schiller and Goethe, a period of Sturm und Drang. But even later on, the stormy waves of exciton spectroscopy did not calm down. There appeared lasers, which permitted Yaroslav Pokrovsky of the Institute of Electronics in Moscow to observe the hyperfine structure of exciton impurity complexes. The intense sources of light were also used for observation of the electron--hole condensate in semiconductors. But the initial idea of these investigations was stimulated by the existence of excitons: Bose particles and the attempt to observe their condensation. Veniamin Keldysh, Alexander Rogachev and a number of other Russian and foreign physicists contributed greatly to the solution of that problem. My friend, Carson Jeffries of Berkeley, a physicist and a painter, observed a gigantic (about a millimeter in size) electron--hole droplet in a crystal of germanium, and the results of his experiments were even mentioned in the New York Times. The 'exciton wave' rolled around the world, but its birthplace was Gross' small laboratory at the Physico-Technical Institute. It is most vexatious to read in a great many foreign textbooks on solid state physics that the Strasbourg professor S Nikitin was first to observe the exciton in cuprous oxide. That is not true at all! Nikitin bears no relation whatever to the discovery of the exciton. Gross first discovered a hydrogen-like series in a semiconductor in 1951 and published his findings in the Russian